18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution - MESAEP

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c/o Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1. 85764 Neuherberg Germany [email protected] – http://www.mesaep.org

18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Life in the Mediterranean Region September 26-30, 2015 Crete – Greece

Book of abstracts

2015

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Table of contents

Table of contents Sustainable natural resource and waste management .................................................... 12 Satellite-based multi-temporal assessment of a dried lake: case study of Akgol wetland ............................................... 13 Investigation of morphometric and hydrological characteristics water basins using GIS based numerical models ........ 14 Determination of conservation areas and tracking sustainability with Lucis model: A case study of Istanbul ............... 15 Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater with magnetite TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles ................. 16 Water consumption of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting model ...................................................................... 17 Valorisation of incineration residues by solidification .................................................................................................... 18 A contribution from industrial ecology practices for waste as a resource in a green economy contest ........................... 19 An application on reducing the evaporation from an open water surface ....................................................................... 20 Soil amendment by means of olive pomace in a long term experiment: effects on soil enzyme activity and microbial community ...................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Long-term nutrient efficient biosolid substrate for outdoor ornamental nurseries .......................................................... 22 Nutrient rich growing media produced from sewage sludge ........................................................................................... 23 Physical characterization of organic wastes: case study in Turkey ................................................................................. 24 The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the coastal zone management .................................... 25 A new approach to extract shoreline using GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) ................................................ 26 Assessing the biomethane potential of three pickling and canning semi-solid wastes under thermophilic conditions.... 27 Exploring the biomethanation of mink farming generated wastes in Greece .................................................................. 28 Environmental and resource efficient management of End of Life tyres via pyrolysis ................................................... 29 Dynamic behavior and stability analysis of Adapazari city municipal solid waste landfill............................................. 30 Investigation of the most suitable areas for wastewater treatment plant using GIS based multi-criteria decision analysis method ............................................................................................................................................................................ 31 The use of remote sensing and GIS in spatial analysis of aquaculture in Firat Basin, (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) ......... 32 Decision support tool for urban solid waste management ............................................................................................... 33 Evaluation of water reuse in a metal finishing industry .................................................................................................. 34 Comparison of rededge texture features of RapidEye imagery for crop classification ................................................... 35 Is it possible to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge? .............................................................................................. 36 The combined chronic synergistic ecotoxicological impact (CSEI) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the hydraulic fractioning-based gas production in the off shore Mediterranean region ........................................................ 37 Effects of marble on phase formation in self-compacting type decorative cement composites ...................................... 38 Influence of high energy milling activation on application of waste chicken eggshells .................................................. 39 Investigation of thermal properties of domestic treatment plant sludges ........................................................................ 40 Comparing the use of synthetic and domestic wastewater effluents for coupling nitrogen removal and chlorella vulgaris and scenedesmus dimorphus production ......................................................................................................................... 41 Geotechnical monitoring of encapsulated tailings storage "Blue Lagoon" ..................................................................... 42 Assessment of K-struvite precipitation as a means of nutrient removal and recovery .................................................... 43 Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes .................................................. 44 Air pollutant emissions and landfill gas composition in a MSW landfill in Greece ........................................................ 45 The port waste management system: a case study for Çanakkale port ............................................................................ 46

Environmental health and well-being............................................................................... 47 Applying epidemiological methodology in prioritizing environmental interventions ..................................................... 48 Development of environmental public health indicators in Europe ................................................................................ 49 Primary and secondary PM2.5 impact on human health from industrial plants .............................................................. 50

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Crop protection and preservation of environment: evaluation in vivo of bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid mimics (RH-5849 and RH-5992) on pupae of Ephestia kuehniella .............................................................................................................. 51 Screening and prioritization of chemicals for REACH: the cumulative PBT index model in QSARINS ....................... 52 Alteration of some physiological parameters among lead exposed workers ................................................................... 53 Ecological and human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban and rural surface soils: the Novi Sad city and the surrounding settlements, Serbia ...................................................................................................................................... 54 Estimating individual exposure by human monitoring.................................................................................................... 55 Beta-sitostero up-regulated paraoxonase-1/arylesterase status via peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ in irradiated rats .................................................................................................................................................................. 56 The analysis of the effect of parameters in gas metal arc welding of structural steel with metal cored wire on welding fume using taguchi method and ANOVA ....................................................................................................................... 57 Characterization of sub-micrometer fume particles in MMA welding of shipbuilding steel with different types of electrodes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 58 Comparison of global distributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide with GIS based atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration research in ITU campus, Istanbul –Turkey ............................................................................................... 59 Risk-based management of occupational safety and health for welding in shipyards ..................................................... 60 Toxicity and health effects of ortho-chloro-benzylidene-malononitrile (CS gas) ........................................................... 61 A study to determine level of awareness about health and carbon footprint among geomatics engineers in Turkey ...... 62 Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of selenium at trace levels in cosmetic, food and environmental samples.................................................................................................................................................... 63 Influence of ballast waters on the biological components of the port aquatorium in the south-eastern Adriatic sea (port bar-Montenegro) ............................................................................................................................................................. 64 The link between residential air quality and children’s health: A review ....................................................................... 65 Occupational safety and health risk analysis model for painting, blasting and welding processes in shipyards ............. 66 The HEALS approach to health and environment-wide associations ............................................................................. 67 Improving interaction mechanism of metal mixtures (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr) in generalized Physiological Toxicokinetic Model (PBTK) ................................................................................................................................................................ 68 Health assessment of sleep deprivation ........................................................................................................................... 69 Assessment of the environmental impact of heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the ports and bays in Montenegro ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Geospatial quantification of pollutant loads in ports ....................................................................................................... 71 Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in food samples with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using QuEChERS as extraction method ................................................... 72 Sniffing out the plastic: In vitro bioaccessibility of plasticisers present in indoor dust using simulated human lung fluids ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 73 QSARs for predicting physicochemical and metabolic properties of environmental chemicals ..................................... 74 Sensor data analysis for environmental exposure assessment ......................................................................................... 75 Gene expression of hsp70 in gonads of “Mytilus galloprovincialis” as biomarker of environmental marine pollution in Campania sites ................................................................................................................................................................ 76 Analysis of the effects of Campania sea pollution on health reproductive of Mediterranean mussel ............................. 77 Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment ............. 78 Environmental health in industrially contaminated sites in Europe ................................................................................ 79 An investigation on impact of painting and operation emissions in a ship’s life cycle to the environment .................... 80 A reverse dosimetry model for environmental and consumer products chemicals: The case of bisphenol-A................. 81 The reactive oxidative potential from biomass emitted particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1) and its impact on human health .............................................................................................................................................................................. 82 WEHEAL: A personalized health smartphone application against environmental stressors and pollutants ................... 83 Assessment of health risks for vulnerable population groups posed by exposure to mercury and its compounds .......... 84 Longitudinal epidemiological study of low-level mercury exposure in susceptible population ...................................... 85

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Essential and toxic elements at Slovenian population: results of human biomonitoring ................................................. 86 Impact of environmental factors on the fate of disabilities, in the province of Béni –Mellal, Morocco ......................... 87 Recent satellite technologies for soil salinity assessment with special focus on Mediterranean countries ...................... 88 Effect of di-butylphthalate spillage scenarios on the general layout of a plant ............................................................... 89 The potential physical impacts of microplastics on Istanbul coastal area ....................................................................... 90 Experimentally investigation for environmentally blasting process of AL 5083-H116 plates ........................................ 91 Internal dosimetry metrics for risk assessment of endocrine disruptors – the case of bisphenol A ................................. 92 A methodological approach in quantifying uncertainties of air quality health impact assessments ................................ 93 A stochastic approach to spatially disaggregate pesticide usage data for health impact assessment studies ................... 94 Cancer risk of PAHs in biomass emitted particulates ..................................................................................................... 95

Climate change mitigation and adaptation ...................................................................... 96 Temporal and spatial analysis of tornado cases in Turkey .............................................................................................. 97 Temporal and spatial analysis of hail in Turkey ............................................................................................................. 98 Seasonality and persistence investigation of extreme precipitations for Eastern Black Sea region ................................ 99 Turkey’s technıcs and technologıes for combatıng desertıfıcatıon ............................................................................... 100 Tillage effects on basic properties of an calcareous soil under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions in Morocco ......... 101 Soil characterization and comparison of organic matter quality and quantity of two stands under different vegetation cover on Monte Faito (Campania, S-Italy) .................................................................................................................... 102 Impact of no-tillage systems on quality of a calcixeroll soil in Chaouia plain (western Morocco) ............................... 103 Climate change impact on photodegradation and ecotoxicity of PAHs in Mediterranean soils .................................... 104 Resilience of restored ecosystems as the basic attribute which mitigates the effects of climate change: Α review of the literature ........................................................................................................................................................................ 105 Remote sensing and GIS based prediction of the rainfall on Mosul city ....................................................................... 106 Applicatıon of terrestrial laser scanner for quantification of beach profiles .................................................................. 107 Multisite modeling and prediction of annual and monthly precipitation records in the Cheliff watershed – Algeria ... 108 Investigation of the adaptation potential of winter wheat to future climatic conditions in northwest Turkey using CERESWheat and WOFOST Models ....................................................................................................................................... 109 Public health co-benefits from traffic related greenhouse gas emission policies to the city of Thessaloniki ................ 110 Noise pollution in the city of Thessaloniki: the effect of climate change policies ........................................................ 111 The Cyprus adaptation strategy to climate change-focus on water ............................................................................... 112 Temperature persistence as a criterion of climate change ............................................................................................. 113

Indoor and outdoor air pollution .................................................................................... 114 Indoor air quality in residences at the city of Kozani, Greece: effects of the house location ........................................ 115 Exposure to volatile organic compounds in the downtown of Belgrade ....................................................................... 116 Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk..................................................................... 117 PM2.5 bound organic molecular marker speciation methods and observations from daily measurements in Ankara, Turkey ........................................................................................................................................................................... 118 Development of standardized method on automated measuring systems for particulate matter PM10, PM2.5: field validation tests .............................................................................................................................................................. 119 Vertical characteristics of the PM10 and PM2.5 profile in a real urban street canyon: concentrations, chemical composition and associated health risks ........................................................................................................................ 120 Summertime concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at background sites across the Aegean: phase partitioning and size distribution ................................................................................................................................... 121 Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental Balkan (Belgrade) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 122 VOCs, PAHs and ions measurements in an office environment in the vicinity of a small industry .............................. 123

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Similarities and differences in compositions of Eastern and Western Black Sea aerosol ............................................. 124 Temporal evolution of PM10 concentrations during 2001-2013 in the city of Volos, Greece ...................................... 125 From the smallest (10 nm) to the biggest (10 µm) particle: a complete PM characterization ....................................... 126 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 Over Marmara Region, Turkey........................................................................... 127 Hazardous fume emissions in MMA welding of AH-36 steel with different electrodes and analysis with taguchi and ANOVA ........................................................................................................................................................................ 128 Study of dissolved organic matter and its spectroscopic characteristics in rainwater of an urban area ......................... 129 Monitoring of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag technique near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley (southern Italy)............................................................................................................... 130 PM1 measurements close to an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley -southern Italy ............ 131 Human exposure and risk assessment of three PM fractions (10, 2.5 and 1) in an urban-industrial area of Barcelona. 132 Using lichens to monitor PAHs in a multi-source industrial and urban area ................................................................. 133 Buildings design and indoor air quality-experience and prospects ............................................................................... 134 Airborne nanoparticles. Recent toxicological findings and human health implications ................................................ 135 Comparison of influence of dust transport to PM10 concentrations in different cities located on Mediterranean coast of Turkey ........................................................................................................................................................................... 136 Monitoring of PM2.5 and PM10 levels in indoor places .............................................................................................. 137 Relationship between concentration of ozone, α-pinene, d-limonene and aldehydes in cold and warm seasons at office micro-environments across Europe by statistical data analysis ..................................................................................... 138 Study of in-vehicle particulate matter exposure ............................................................................................................ 139 Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge ..................................................................... 140 Reactive oxygen species associated with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Metropolitan area of Thessaloniki: chemical analysis and source apportionment ............................................................................................................................................. 141 The method of measuring radon flux density and values of other environmental factors as earthquake precursors; the application of automatic anomaly detection software ................................................................................................... 142 Public participation in air quality monitoring ............................................................................................................... 143 Indoor BTEX and carbonyls levels in Thessaloniki, Greece, emitted from building materials ..................................... 144 Cancer risk associated to combined exposure to indoor BTEX and carbonyls emitted from building materials .......... 145 Determination of 19 PAHs in air samples using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ......................................... 146 Indoor galaxolide concentration prediction from building and occupants characteristics ............................................. 147 The potential use of a particulate matter sensor for “Exposome” research. .................................................................. 148 Radon measurements in dwellings of Central Macedonia ............................................................................................ 149 Radioactivity measurements and physicomechanical properties of building materials used in Northern Greece: a combination study ......................................................................................................................................................... 150

Water and soil pollution and control .............................................................................. 151 Pressure control in district metering areas - case study Luxor ...................................................................................... 152 Investigation of coliform bacteria removal efficiency in the urban wastewater treatment plant of the city of Sakarya 153 Trace elements analyses in the liver of deep sea fauna from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) ..... 154 Magnetite nanoparticles and yeast as a new biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt .................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Challenges in selection of small – medium scale wastewater treatment alternatives in terms of water reuse ............... 156 Fractionation and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments in Serbia ............................................... 157 Biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by a Pseudomonas Spp ........................................................................................... 158 Effect of foreign ions on removing copper (II) from aqueous solutions by treated Martil sand .................................... 159 Impact of environment pollution caused by waters discharges of SOMIVER society: Recuperation Silver ................ 160 A green hydrothermal route to copper (II) recovery by reduction using D-glucose ...................................................... 161 Photocatalytic degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by sodium decatungstate ................................................. 162

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The content of heavy metal mobile forms in soils of the Rostov agglomeration .......................................................... 163 Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in river network of Serbia ....... 164 Release, toxicity and interaction with clay minerals of silver nanoparticles and ions ................................................... 165 Influence of parameters in photocatalytic degradation of chloridazon herbecide in aqueous TiO2 suspensions ........... 166 Trace metals accumulation and their translocation in "Phragmites australis" (L.) collected along the Sarno River ..... 167 Trace metals accumulation in "Fragaria ananassa" and its possible use as a bioaccumulator ....................................... 168 Soil–plant transfer of trace metals to vegetable of "Helianthus tuberosus" and "Solanum lycopersicum" plants ......... 169 Environmental monitoring of Inner Thermaikos Gulf - The ICME Project .................................................................. 170 Copper biosorption by Argan nut shell: Equilibrium study........................................................................................... 171 Sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in municipal wastewater ......................................................................................... 172 Comparation of treatability of tannerywastewater by using chemical coagulation & electrocoagulation process ........ 173 Linear musk compounds in waste water ....................................................................................................................... 174 Complexation of chrome by nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite: application in tannery of Marrakech Morocco ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Removal of glyphosate treatment aerated biofilter........................................................................................................ 176 Adsorption study of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solution on layered double hydroxides ......................... 177 Multi-wall carbon nanotubes – synthesis, characteristics and possibility of their use in the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater .................................................................................................................................................... 178 Treatment of medium density fiberboard wastewater by Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/persulfate enhanced hydrodynamic cavitation processes ...................................................................................................................................................... 179 The effects of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(ii) and Mn(ii) removal by submerged membrane system and its application of least squares method .............................................................................................................................. 180 Study of the effects of wastewater treatment technologies on the elimination of pollutants from aquatic ecosystem .. 181 Bisphenol A in waste water in the Czech Republic ...................................................................................................... 182 Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration ............. 183 Alum sludge valorisation on phosphate removal from aqueous solution ...................................................................... 184 Treatment of some metal ions in leachate in compacted and consolidated grounds and variability hydraulic conductivity ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Survey of annual for filamentous microorganisms characterization in wastewater treatment plant in South Turkey Antalya .......................................................................................................................................................................... 186 Soil and water usage as sustainable natural resources at Mediterranean region in Turkey ........................................... 187 The effect of temperature on biological foaming potential and stability in activated sludge ........................................ 188 Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate on soil microbiota: influence of soil organic matter content ................................... 189 Occurrence, distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia .......................................................................................................................................................................... 190 Removal of basic red 46 dye from aqueous solutions by untreated alfa grass .............................................................. 191 Physicochemical characterization of leachate discharge fkih ben salah from Morocco ................................................ 192 Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network ......................................................................... 193 Mercury and dichromate free determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD)........................................................ 194 Retention of PAHs in a Mediterranean soil after different amendments ....................................................................... 195 Variation of physicochemical parameters in a longline mussel culture system............................................................. 196 Trials of clay materials for discoloration and detoxification of water from the olive mill waste .................................. 197 Cadmium could affect (Mytilus galloprovincialis) health reproductive by changing sperm PLII and PLIII proteins properties and promoting DNA oxidative damage ........................................................................................................ 198 Regional distributions of geochemical properties in Mersin and Iskenderun bays ....................................................... 199 Analysis of pressures and impacts for the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir ............................................. 200 Microbial toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in soils of contrasting pH ......................................................................... 201

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Analysis of trends in the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir........................................................................ 202 Monitoring the health status of some fishes exposed to environmental heavy metals pollution ................................... 203 Lead treatment alternatives by chemical precipitation .................................................................................................. 204 Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network ......................................................................... 205 Biodegradation of 2,4 chorophenol by the acclimated activated sludge microorganisms in a tubular bioreactor ......... 206 Equilibrium and kinetics study of phosphate removal from natural seawater by adsorption on pretreated eggshell .... 207 Photocatalytic degradation of natural seawater organic matter ..................................................................................... 208 Biological, photocatalytic and ultrasound treatment of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic: ciprofloxacin ............................. 209 Pharmaceutical compounds in non-conventional water resources in Tunisia ............................................................... 210 GST induction and ultrastructural alterations in Lemna minor L. exposed in bags in a polluted river of South Italy ... 211 Atmospheric pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) in the Italian Triangle of Death .......................................................................................................................................................... 212 Heavy metals in treated wastewater resources used for irrigation: case studies from Nabeul-Tunisia.......................... 213 Elucidating the mechanism of ultrafiltration by investigating of dye-surfactant interactions in aqueous solutions ...... 214 Determining the water pollution of Kizilirmak river of Turkey by using satellite images and spectral measurement data ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 215 Equilibrium and kinetics study of nitrate removal from natural seawater by adsorption eggshell ................................ 216 Treatment of bilge water by hybrid adsorption and photocatalytic processes ............................................................... 217 The impacts of cargo wash operations in bulk carriers to the marine environments ..................................................... 218 Treatment and recovery of table olive wastewater via membrane separation technologies .......................................... 219 Multispecies algal bioassay to study the contamination of coastal waters in the estuarine mixing area ....................... 220 Impact of synthetic estrogen 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol on carbon removal kinetics .................................................... 221 The determination of bacteriological quality of Kilyos-İğneada coast and sea water ................................................... 222 Ongoing and potential oil pollution in the Adriatic Sea ................................................................................................ 223 Spectroscopic analysis of nitric-acid treated mixtures on the base of biomass and chicken litter ................................. 224 Soil contamination by heavy metals in flood plain of Qweik river, Aleppo, Syria ....................................................... 225 Sedimentology and heavy metals of the dust storms in Tikrit city/ Iraq ....................................................................... 226

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity ............................................................................................ 227 Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment ........... 228 The molecule preserve environment: effects of inhibitor of the angiotensin converting enzyme on reproductive potential and composition contents of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller............................................... 229 Toxic effects of fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress .............................................................................................................................................................. 230 Toxicity of Acaricides to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions ................................................... 231 Cyanotoxicity responses to the ecological status of the Greek lakes............................................................................. 232 Oil pollution in eastern coastline of Algeria ................................................................................................................. 233 Evaluation of the impact of heavy metals in Callista chione using glutathione reductase as a potential biomarker of stress ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 234 An insightful molecular analysis reveals foreign honeybees among Algerian honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 235 Assessment of genotoxic effects of a fungicide (propiconazole) in green frog tadpole’s Rana saharica using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet essay) ................................................................................................................ 236 Ameliorative effect of (Triticum durum) on thyroid, liver and reproductive functions of males albino rats induced with lead acetate.................................................................................................................................................................... 237 Effect of fungicides propinebe, proconazole and their mixture in the male rat ............................................................. 238 Cumulative effect of fungicides and their mixture in the male rat ................................................................................ 239

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Histological effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa after exposure to thiamethoxam ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 240 In vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles in Daphnia magna upon chronic aqueous exposure ................................. 241 Hazardous potential of gold nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay on Arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 242 Investigation of land use/cover changes of Sazlidere basin by using normalized difference impervious surface index 243 Seasonal investigation of the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contens of dominant macroalgae in the western coast of the Black Sea ...................................................................................................................................................................... 244 The effect of the temporal changes on the phytoplankton composition at the Istanbul coastal area ............................. 245 The molecular properties of nitrodibenzofurans and their mutagenic activities ............................................................ 246 Trace elements analysis along a simple food chain using feathers of Italian Sparrows in different age classes as monitors of pollution in Southern Italy ........................................................................................................................................ 247 Mixtures of contaminants and complex samples: basic challenges for microalgae-based ecotoxicological tests ......... 248 Data on macrozoobenthos of the mediolittoral of Sazani island (Albania) ................................................................... 249 Toxic effects of Fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress .............................................................................................................................................................. 250 Assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plant cleaning process using ecotoxicity tests.......................... 251 The impacts of the ship ballasting on the sea biodiversity ............................................................................................ 252 Algal ecotoxicological testing of groundwater priority contaminants using closed-system technique ......................... 253 Investigation of potential biological sensivity of sediments of Aliağa Bay .................................................................. 254 Thermal map analysis of tree trunks in urban parks with spatial statistics .................................................................... 255 Fungi: Their role in biodeterioration of historical monuments...................................................................................... 256

Energy, environment and sustainability ........................................................................ 257 Simulation and optimisation of solvent amine consumption in column absorption of natural gas treatment ................ 258 Evaluating the topographic effect on estimation of renewable energy sources potential in Sakarya basin ................... 259 Synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes ........ 260 Computational fluid dynamics approach to wind energy calculation and assessment of wind resource of Aegean region in Turkey....................................................................................................................................................................... 261 Comparison with linear and non-linear models in long-term wind energy production ................................................. 262 Change of enzyme activity of the catalase of the brown forest soil of the republic of Crimea after the influence of the alternating magnetic field and contamination by nickel ................................................................................................ 263 Change of length of roots and sprouts of the radish on the alkalinity chernozem of Crimea after the influence of the variation of magnetic field and contamination by nickel .............................................................................................. 264 Persistency of bacteria of the genus of Azotobacter of the dark-chestnut soil of the Crimea to the influence of the variation magnetic field and contamination by nickel .................................................................................................................. 265 Electrochemical behavior of lead alloys in the presence of two surfactants in 0.5 M sulfuric acid .............................. 266 The use of geoinformation technology while determining the route of the water ways: A case study of Channel Istanbul ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 267 Determining characteristics of lands effected by noise pollution of airports ................................................................ 268 Determination of the cultivated areas with landsat 8 multi-temporal images: evaluation of spectral vegetation indices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Variation of chlorophyll-α concentrations related to winter weather conditions........................................................... 270 Minimizing air pollutant emissions from cruise ships by alternative maritime power "Case ttudy: Kuşadası port" ..... 271 Environmental research on factors of comfort conditions and microclimate in urban open spaces .............................. 272 Energy: an interdisciplinary study for advanced solutions ............................................................................................ 273 Evaluation of research activities dealing with solid waste management in MENA countries ....................................... 274 Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in soil profile from the loukous valley using GC-ECD ......................................... 275 Solar energy potential of cities in Turkey; A GIS based analysis ................................................................................. 276

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Impact of hydrocarbons pollution on the physiology and the metabolism of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L): study of the mechanisms of their phytoremédiateur potential ..................................................................................................... 277 An auxiliary tool for landscape evaluation: Ecological risk analysis based on analytic hierarchy process ................... 278 Proposed certification standard for the sustainable management and development of Mediterranean beaches ............ 279 Innovative approaches in plant growth: LED and Saharan desert dust ......................................................................... 280 Investigation of wind data with different time scales by using chaotic approach ......................................................... 281 Comparison of modeled and measured CO2 exchanges over winter wheat in the Thrace part of Turkey ..................... 282 Development of typical meteorological year for representative areas of the Greek region ........................................... 283 The efficiency of artificial neural networks modelling in forecasting daily global solar irradiation one day ahead ..... 284 Small hydro power stations contribution in Greek electricity generation. Present situation and future prospects ........ 285 Drought monitoring based on soil moisture related NDVI-LST feature space in Southern East of Turkey using MODIS data................................................................................................................................................................................ 286 Renewable energy investments, historic environments, and local communities in Greece: existing policy and practice, and suggestions towards sustainability ......................................................................................................................... 287 A comparison of spatio-temporal interpolation methods to estimate speed information .............................................. 288 Techno-economic analysis for the optimal hybrid renewable energy based system planning in autonomous islands of Aegean Sea ................................................................................................................................................................... 289 Enhancing carbon footprint estimation via spatial data ................................................................................................. 290 A comparative analysis of local sustainable energy strategies among European communities ..................................... 291 Creating urban growth simulation models driven by the Bosphorus bridges ................................................................ 292 Risk management of Koprivlen landslides .................................................................................................................... 293 Migration of soaring birds over Belen windfarm in Belen pass / Antakya TURKEY ................................................... 294 Actual challenges for agriculture wastes treatment and environmental impact ............................................................. 295 A study of the uptake of heavy metals by plants alfalfa ................................................................................................ 296

Environmental aspects of nutrition ................................................................................ 297 CD36 AA-genotype is associated with decreased lipid taste perception in Tunisian obese subjects ............................ 298 Honeybee hive products and their antimicrobial activity .............................................................................................. 299 Detection of some metals in honey from Ankara, Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry ..................................... 300 Analysis of food consumption in children .................................................................................................................... 301 Effect of dredged material dumping into coastal and off-shore waters on local phytoplankton communities .............. 302 Attenuation of Spirulina Platensis on acute liver injury in rats exposed to both γ- radiation and carbon tetrachloride . 303 Environmental dimensions of nutrition and diet in public health and chronic disease. A case for Mediterranean diet?304

Environmental economics, policy and education .......................................................... 305 Impact of tourism in a small coastal resort of N.W. Greece .......................................................................................... 306 The economic values of ecosystem goods and services in Karavasta Lagoon, Albania ................................................ 307 Tendencies towards environmental criminality during the recession in Greece............................................................ 308 A new approach for quantitative measure of urban complexity by metric entropy method .......................................... 309 The procedures onboard the ships against environment pollution ................................................................................ 310 Geovisualization of time variance ................................................................................................................................. 311 What is the real cost of energy? Comparison between E.U. and Greece ....................................................................... 312 Creating motives and tools in order to enable citizens to become “Smart Citizens”: A “socially-oriented” bottom-up approach towards sustainability .................................................................................................................................... 313 Life saving kiosk for sustainable disaster crisis management ....................................................................................... 314 A novel and innovative approach in energy and environmental advanced education ................................................... 315 Strategic environmental planning in the Region of Central Macedonia: The role of Technical Chamber of Greece/Section of Central Macedonia.................................................................................................................................................... 316

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Exposome Workshop ....................................................................................................... 317 Multiscale connectivity - a high dimension biology approach to unravel the exposome .............................................. 318 Using a physical activity monitor and smartphone app to determine time-use and location information for exposure studies ........................................................................................................................................................................... 319 Environmental origin of neurodevelopmental disorders: in vivo models to unraveling complex etiologies ................. 320

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Sustainable natural resource and waste management

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Satellite-based multi-temporal assessment of a dried lake: case study of Akgol wetland Musaoglu Nebiye, Dervisoglu Adalet, Tanik Aysegul, Seker Dursun Zafer, Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University

Wetlands are well-known with their rich biological diversity and economic value beyond their significant functions like serving nesting and breeding areas for the migrating birds, maintaining partial treatment of wastewater, etc. Turkey, as a signatory of the Ramsar Convention, has committed to protect her valuable and numerous wetlands and to utilize them more rationally. Akgol Wetland, addressed as part of the Eregli Reeds, is located within the borders of Konya Watershed of Turkey at the southern end of Inner Anatolia region of Turkey (Figure 1). Due to its semi-arid climatic prevalence, the adverse effects of global climate change have started to be experienced. According to Ramsar Wetland Type Classification, Akgol is declared as Class A- Permanent shallow marine waters. The entire system consists of shallow wetlands, reeds, saline steps and of 5 freshwater lakes connected to each other. Prior to being dried, the area had been hosting to 250 different type birds among which the well-known ones were cormorants, pelicans, herns, flamingos, ducks, swallows, lapwings, hirundos, etc. Wetlands are well-known with their rich biological diversity and economic value beyond their significant functions like serving nesting and breeding areas for the migrating birds, maintaining partial treatment of wastewater, etc. Turkey, as a signatory of the Ramsar Convention, has committed to protect her valuable and numerous wetlands and to utilize them more rationally. Akgol Wetland, addressed as part of the Eregli Reeds, is located within the borders of Konya Watershed of Turkey at the southern end of Inner Anatolia region of Turkey (Figure 1). Due to its semi-arid climatic prevalence, the adverse effects of global climate change have started to be experienced. According to Ramsar Wetland Type Classification, Akgol is declared as Class A- Permanent shallow marine waters. The entire system consists of shallow wetlands, reeds, saline steps and of 5 freshwater lakes connected to each other. Prior to being dried, the area had been hosting to 250 different type birds among which the well-known ones were cormorants, pelicans, herns, flamingos, ducks, swallows, lapwings, hirundos, etc. The objective of the study is to set an ‘Information Database’ of the watershed by determining the temporal changes in land-use activities with time, the effective processes that were dominating and the percent distribution of the prevailing activities. As such, this study aims to aid decision makers and planners in the rehabilitation of vulnerable natural water bodies by providing valuable historical data and conducting data analyses on the land and water resources.

Keywords: remote sensing, Geographic Information System, wetland, akgol, change detection

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Investigation of morphometric and hydrological characteristics water basins using GIS based numerical models Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics, Istanbul, Turkey

Various models are being used in determination of the water basins similarity. Widely used methods assess the general characteristics of the basins with the aid of morphometric parameters. Studies might be the form of comparing the whole basin area with itssubbasins in order to find similarities and to compare basins with each other. Hydrologic and morphologic analyses are done to find out the main characteristics of the basins. In this study, Buyuk Menderes basin which extends across a long walley and flow into the Aegean Sea is chosen as the field of study. Buyuk Menderes Basin houses the Buyuk Menderes River which is the longest river in Western Anatolia and forms an important source of water supply in the region. In the basin, there is a characteristic of meander, towards the river mouth. Rivers bed ends with a productive plain formed by alluvium which has a significant importance especially for farming activities in the region. In this study, the morphologic structure of Buyuk Menderes Basin and Subbasins forming this basin are compared. The main interest of assessments is hydrologic reactions of these subbasins. ArcGIS 9.3 software and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are used in the study, which provides a big convenience in calculating parameters especially like drainage density, bifurcation ratio and sinusoidal index. Along with Morphometric parameters, land areas giving same hydrological response (HRU) were determined by use of ArcSWAT interface. For these computations, 10 m spatial resolution Digital Elevation Model(DEM) data, basin’s soil maps, 2012 dated Corine land cover data and hour interval weather predictions by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction of the U.S. National Weather Service, (in form of data sets Climate Forecast System Reanalysis-CFSR) were used as inputs to the model. The effects of morphologic structures of the basins and the hydraulic characteristic of basin having similarities were computed by using morphometric parameters of basins in numeric methods and in the ArcSWAT interface by determining areas which have similar hydrologicaly response units. According to these analyses, Morphologic and hydrologic structure similarities of basins were assessed. The morphologic parameter values obtained in the study, defined ranges of these values and the other morphometric parameters were put into relationship to acquired a general opinion about the basin. The relationship between the Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) generated from the model and the results of morphologic analysis have provided an opinion to be given to the overall basin. Results of the realized study will be useful on the better definition of basin characteristics and watershed management.

Keywords: basin morphology, drainage density, bifurcation ratio, sinusoidal index

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Determination of conservation areas and tracking sustainability with Lucis model: A case study of Istanbul Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics, Istanbul, Turkey

Since 20st century, rapid developments in technology and science have caused dramatic change in human life and these changes have resulted in irreversible environmental damage and pollution. At first, relatively low population and abundant natural resources brought wastefulness easily. However, increasing population, from 1.5 billion at the beginning of century to over 3 billion at middle of century, caused decrease of natural resources and rising environmental pollution. This phenomena lead people to search for new development and planning methods. Protection of environment and natural resources has been accepted as one of the planned development’s priorities due to devastating effects of chemical weapons on environment and human health caused by First and Second World Wars. As a global metropolis, Istanbul also experienced these processes and by 1950s, it has faced distorted and uncontrolled urbanization due to mass immigration. Bosporus bridges, built in 1973 and 1988, has directed growth of urbanization to north of the city. Istanbul already hosts the 20% of Turkish population and it continues to growth with macro projects. However, this population growth has been threatening the city’s forests that are located especially at north parts, protected water basins, agricultural lands, and protected areas for natural lives or historical heritages. In this study, LUCIS (Land Use Conflict Identification Strategy) model is used to find best suitable conservation areas with regards to land use conflicts. LUCIS model has been used to identify most suitable lands for conservation especially in developing countries to find solution for land use conflicts. LUCIS model enable new tools for Land-use suitability analysis and produces a spatial representation of probable conflicts of future land use. The model uses Model Builder interface of ArcGIS, which is software related to Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Through this model, strategies and targets are created, best suitable conservation areas are determined in terms of physical and economic aspects and results are compared with current conservation areas. According to the results of this study, natural resources, water basins, forests, and green areas and parks in city has been under pressure by urbanization at Istanbul. It shows that development plans should give more priority on environmental and natural resource protection instead of economic reasons. Moreover, model for future conservation land areas are produced with LUCIS for environment and natural resource protection.

Keywords: sustainability, resource usage, lucis, land use, GIS, development, planning, suitability analysis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater with magnetite TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles Enayati Ahangar Laleh1, Movassaghi Karim1, Emadi Masoomeh2 1

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran, Chemistry Department, Azad Islamic University Marvdasht Branch 72711-13119, Iran

2

In this study Magnetite TiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles ([email protected]) was used for photocatalic threatment of cephalosprines antibiotics from the pharmaceutical wastewater. Magnetic-nanoparticles were prepared according to Massart’s method. Briefly, adding an aliquot of tetraethylammonium hydroxide was to the iron (II) sulfate solution and an iron (III) chloride solution (2:1 mol ratio) were mixed under vigorous mechanical stirring. Immediately a black solution of magnetite formed. TiO2 layer was produced by a solvothermal method by adding titanium tetrabutoxide solution to Fe2O3 suspension in ethanol. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and FT-IR and UV-Vis Persistence of pharmaceutical residues was demonstrated for common treatments applied for pharmaceutical wastewaters, such as sand filtration, chemical, chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation, advanced oxidation processes and activated carbon TiO2 photocatalysis is an emerging wastewater treatment technology with key advantages including the lack of mass transfer limitations. For determination the kinetic of treatment with [email protected] in presence of UV irradiation different times were used. Decreasing of UV-Vis absorption of wastewater after treatment relative to different time was monitored by UV-Vis spectrum of wastewater samples. Immobilizing TiO2 on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles is a good strategy that enables the scientists to recover the photocatalysis for several treatment processes. TiO2-MNP could be easily separated from wastewater by applying a magnetic field. In this research for achieving a good performance in treatment process several parameters were optimized as will be mentioned in below such as UV irradiation, pH, amount of TiO2-MNP and time. The efficiency of this method is 100% for low concentration and for high concentration of cephalosporin antibiotics needs two steps of the treatment. References 1. Frauke Luddeke, Stefanie Heb, Claudia Gallert, Josef Winter, Hans Gude, Herbert Leoffler, water research, Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques, 69 (2015) 243-251. 2. Klaus Kümmerer, Chemosphere, Antibiotics in the aquatic environment– A review– Part I 75 (2009) 417–434. 3. Adriana Ledezma Estrada, Yu-You Li, Aimin Wang, Biodegradability enhancement of wastewater containing cefalexin by means of the electro-Fenton oxidation process Journal of Hazardous Materials, 227– 228 (2012) 41– 48.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, TiO2 @ Fe3O4, parmaceutical coumpound, cephalosprine antibiotics, wastewater, Photocatalic degradation.

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Water consumption of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting model Sivri Nuket1, Çilingirtürk Ahmet Mete2, Imamoğlu Mehmet Zeki3, Şeker Dursun Zafer3 1

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. Environmental Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul, TURKEY 2 Marmara University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Dept. Statistics, Bahcelievler, Istanbul, TURKEY 3 Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatics Engineering, 34469, Istanbul, TURKEY Together with changing climatic conditions, environmental pollution and the future scenarios associated with increasing population foresees the water shortage even water famine. In an established city especially in large cities municipalities should plan and expand the infrastructure investments based on the forecasting water consumption with related to population growth using prediction methods. Especially in large metropolitan cities those planning are vital. In this study, water consumption of the 39 districts of Istanbul province was investigated during the period of 2010-2014. However, for the 18 of the 39 districts of Istanbul province any statistically significant patterns were not established among the tested with a variety of mathematical models. Main reasons of failures of these modellings could be considered as the high amount of migration of the district, the restructuring of the administrative borders, re-planning of the districts as either industrial or commercial districts. In the study it is tried to determined meaningful absolute water consumption rates for the province of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting models. The results of ratio model are close to logistic model. In addition, it is studied determined the districts which are in different behavior using basic statistics of the changes in water consumption based on the years. However, due to the possible differentiations of the size and development level, similar districts were separated by cluster analysis. Four different water consumption patterns were emerged after the analysis. Thus, determination of the different and excessive behavior become more meaningful and its relationship with other parameters were defined for interpretation. When the results were analyzed, extreme changes in 8 districts were figure out. In addition, using two phase least squares method, only accepting water consumption statistics as associated sequentially; it is possible to obtain the prediction and determine units which are not suitable to the model. This application presented that 3 districts whose administrative boundaries were changed are different than the others. Statistical results were visualized using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this study it is resulted that the planning can be done using mathematical methods especially in developing cities. In this way, effective investment can be considered and supported with training about water consumption issues. In the study special water boundary maps of the districts were created using GIS.

Keywords: mathematical methods, water consumption, logistic model, Istanbul

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Valorisation of incineration residues by solidification Zineb Salem1, Hichem Boutamine1, Fatiha Salem2, Mohamed Khodja1, Khedidja Allia1 FGC, USTHB, Bâb - Ezzouar 16 111 Algiers, Algeria LSGPI.FGMGP, USTHB, Bâb - Ezzouar 16 111 Algiers, Algeria.

1 2

Incineration is so far the most reliable method to reduce the volume of waste, it remains no less an important generator of residues strongly harmful and dangerous to the environment, The aim of this work is to study the effectiveness of stabilization-solidification process, applied to incineration residues of pharmaceutical waste, to a value in the field of civil engineering. This process is also known for its efficiency in the containment of pollution. The residues used in this work were obtained from expired pharmaceutical product incineration (ECFERAL incinerator, ALGIERS). This study involves characterizing residues considered before treatment. These residues shows strong alkaline property with pH=10.24. The residues density of 2 g.cm-3 makes it a fairly light material. The main chemical components of incineration residues are sulfate and chloride, and small amount of other elements. The metals leachate pollution respects the following limiting values with: Cd <0.2 mg/L, Cr6+<0.1 mg/L, Pb <1 mg/L, Cu <2 mg/L. The mechanical resistance tests were made on specimens (8x8x16), with 10 % of residues (W/W). The stabilized samples exhibit a low resistance, the threshold of 1 MPa is reached after 14 days of solidification and 1.57 MPa is reached on the 28th day. The resistance obtained for stabilized samples is well below the reference specimens, but their resistance is not negligible after 28 days of solidification. These results of mechanical and leaching tests, gives the overall behavior of this stabilized material, the results are satisfactory from the 7th day with a compressive strength that exceeds 1 MPa, and COD removal of 90%.

Keywords: incineration, residues treatment, solidification, stabilization

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

A contribution from industrial ecology practices for waste as a resource in a green economy contest Morselli Luciano Industrial Chemistry Dept, CIRI EA - University of Bologna, Italy

A delay in adopting an integrated waste management system by most of the UE Member States still occurs. Among others, reasons of such a delay must be sought in obstacles when creating markets for secondary products, adopting criteria for minimum rates of recycled materials in production, extending lifetimes of products and producers’ responsibility, or standardizing measures in the waste management. Moreover, the EU claims countries to adopt tools and indicators to quantify and assess environmental performances of systems and strategies. In this sense, Industrial Ecology (IE) supports the seek for a development consistently based on circular flows of material and energy as much as on environment and human health protection. Specifically, a systemic approach to environmental issues is guarantee by applying methodologies as IE: Policy approaches (e.g. Integrate Product Policy); Integrated Environmental Monitoring System; Life Cycle Assessment; Material Flow Analysis; Ecodesign; Industrial Symbiosis; Risk Assessment. Indeed, these methodologies answer the necessity to face emergencies related with waste management reflecting criticalities from recovering materials embedded in waste flows and agglomerates, and they inspired part of the contemporary research to consider human conglomerates as “mines of the future” (e.g. urban mining). The awareness of environmental emergencies, technical and scientific progress together with the sense of responsibility towards the next generations do not allow to ignore or postpone over the need to answer the claim for more sustainability. IE tools allow an overall systemic approach for supporting theoretically and practically the achievement for a society based on the pillar of “waste as resource” in a Green Economy contests. Some specific IE practices and tools Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) estimates potential impacts to the environment associated with a product or a process along the whole life cycle. It is indicated by EU as appropriate approach to validate the European Waste Hierarchy in decision-making. Material Flow Analysis (MFA) aims at identifying and quantifying flows and stocks of materials and substances within a system at space and time defined. Considering waste as resource, MFA helps to define strategies for considering human societies as mines of the future (e.g. urban mining) Industrial Symbiosis (IS) aims to create a network of industry that exchange material and energy flows, in analogy with natural ecosystems where nothing is discarded Policy Approaches: Extended/Individual Producers Responsability; Environmental declaration and profile; Green Public Procurement Design for Environment (DfE): Reduction of toxicity and de-materialization; Increase in recyclability of products; Ecodesign; Increase in renewable energy sources

Keywords: waste, resources, industrial ecology

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

An application on reducing the evaporation from an open water surface Akbayır Ibrahim, Şaylan Levent, Çaldağ Barış Department of Meteorology Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

With the rapid increase in world’s population, industrialization and urbanization, a lot of problems arise on many issues as well as in water use and management. Water management is a very crucial issue for the whole world and Turkey, which is a semi-arid country. In this context, experiments on the reduction of evaporation were conducted by six applications using Octadecanol and Hexadecanol. Involved applications were carried out at the meteorological station located in the Maslak Campus of Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul between 7 and 22 May 2011. Considering different time intervals and different concentrations for each application, measurements were made by using three evaporation pans (class A). One of these pans was used to measure the reference evaporation. The results showed that octadecanol was more effective in evaporation reduction than hexadecanol and could reduce the evaporation rate for 46.25% on average, while this ratio reached only 23.6% by hexadecanol. Due to the limited number of applications including additional chemical substances and sample measurements, further future research may be needed on clarifying the advantages of octadecanol usage. Applications on large open water surfaces, such as dams would also be useful on supporting the interpretation capability of the related results.

Keywords: octadecanol; hexadecanol; evaporation reduction

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Soil amendment by means of olive pomace in a long term experiment: effects on soil enzyme activity and microbial community Innangi Michele1, D'ascoli Rosaria1, Niro Elisa1, Rispoli Pasqualina1, Leuci Fausta Patricia1, Danise Tiziana1, Nasini Luigi2, Regni Luca2, Proietti Primo2, Castaldi Simona1, Antonietta Fioretto1 1

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy 2 Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Agricultural soils are generally characterized by a low content of organic matter (SOM). SOM values less than 1.5% can alter soil structure, with negative effects on crop development, affecting also soil biota. Consequently, agricultural practices aiming to increase SOM (e.g. organic amendment) can be useful to enhance physical, chemical, biological and mechanical characteristics of soils. Among organic amendments used on agricultural lands, the olive pomace appear to offer excellent potentiality. The pomace is a nearly solid substance, as it derives from the fibrous part of the olive fruit and stone fragments Depending on the olive oil extraction procedure, pomace also contains variable amounts of vegetation waters, which come from the washing process and also contain aqueous fraction of drupes. Thus, pomace has high content of polyalcohols, polyacids, phenols and polyphenols that may have a negative effect on soil fertility. It is known, in fact, that phenols and polyphenols have strong antimicrobial and phytotoxic properties. In this view, the goal of this study – which falls into a broader project involving different expertise – was to test whether long term use of pomace might have caused an accumulation of salts and phenolic substances with consequent negative effects on the soil microbial community and enzyme activities in a ten years old olive grove. The experimental area is close to Assisi (12° 56' E, 43° 1' N, elevation 400 m) and is planted with Leccino cultivar. Since March 2006, the area has been divided into six plots, of which three received yearly on surfaces 50 Mg/ha of olive pomace and three were left untreated and used as control. All six plots annually received urea (100 kg/ha) and NPK fertilizer. On soil sampled after 8 years of amendment (0-15 cm depth) β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and urease activities have been measured, that are also useful to calculate the soil quality index AI3 (Puglisi et al. 2006 Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 1673-1681). Organic carbon, soil respiration, microbial and fungal biomasses were also monitored. The results showed that β-glucosidase, urease and acid posphomonoesterase activities, were significantly higher in the soil treated with pomace compared to control (about 3, 6, 2 folds higher, respectively). Similar trends were shown also by organic C, soil respiration, microbial and fungal biomasses. In particular, the increase in β-glucosidase and urease activities was consistent with the incremented value of microbial biomass. The increase of β-glucosidase activity in soils treated on the long term might depend, as suggested by Piotrowska et al. (2006, Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 600-610), on the fact that soils had acquired the ability to use carbohydrates brought to the ground by the pomace. Finally, the AI3 index denoted a net improvement in the quality of the soil amended with pomace compared to control. In conclusion, it can be said that, in this type of soil, annual pomace intake in the mentioned manner and quantities has led to a doubling of the soil organic matter and to an increase in microbial biomass and activity, without any apparent negative effect. Keywords: enzyme activities, olive pomace, soil amendment, soil respiration

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Long-term nutrient efficient biosolid substrate for outdoor ornamental nurseries Ozdemir Saim, Dede Omer Hulusi, Ozer Hasan Department of enviromental engineering Sakarya University Sakarya Turkey

The most common growing media used in Mediterranean ornamental nursery is peat and coir are either non renewable or increase the cost of nursery production. Replacing peat with other organic resources provides a low-cost input for crop production, reduces the waste stream and enhances nutrient recovery. In this experiments, four different nutrient rich composts produced from composting municipal sewage sludge with structurally suitable bulking agent for growing media ingredients, namely hazelnut husk (HHC), rice hull (RHC), corn straw (CSC) and sawdust (SWC) to use as growing media for outdoor nursery plants. The performance of compost was determined by both compost properties compared to standard peat and by measuring plant growth parameters during two consecutive years by growing nutrient responsive nursery species Cupressus macrocarpa, and Thuja orientalis. Nursery plant growth, biomass production, and leaf nitrogen content were also determined. In general, the physico-chemical properties of all composts were satisfactory for container growing media; however HHC and SWC composts performed better in plant growth parameters than in RHC and CSC substrates. The main physical and physico-chemical parameters of composts; bulk density (0.458-1.62 g/cm3) particle density (1.34-1.96 g/cm3), porosity (42.48-73.28 % v/v) air capacity (20.53-27.70 % v/v) water holding capacity (235-456 ml/L) wettability (3.28-6.48 min.) shrinkage (15.38-36.15 % v/v) pH (6.92-8.0), EC (1.66-3.46 ms/cm) and organic matter (51.7-73.18 %) were in the range of ideal growing media characteristics. There was no leaf nitrogen deficiency at the end of the second growing season for all plants growing in different substrates. The comprehensive growth index values calculated for Thuja and Cupressus were 0.86, 0.89 for HHC, 0.78, 0.77 for SWC and 0.71, 0.74 for peat respectively, which were higher than those in the RHC and CSC. HHC and SWC composts appeared to be suitable for evergreen nursery production such as Cupressus and Thuja. Biosolid proved to be an efficient component as a long term nutrient source ingredient of composted substrates for outdoor nursery plants.

Keywords: biosolid compost; container substrate; Cupressus macrocarpa; Thuja orientalis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Nutrient rich growing media produced from sewage sludge Dede Omer Hulusi, Ozdemir Saim Sakarya University enviromental engineering department Sakarya Turkey

All over our country and the world, sewage sludge generated in waste water treatment facilities has a significant place among organic wastes. Approximately 80000-130000m3 waste water is processed at Karaman Domestic Waste Water Treatment Plant (Turkey), where sewage sludge used in this study is obtained and as a result of the treatment operation nearly 17,5 tones km/day sewage sludge is obtained. Together with the cities growing and infrastructure works speeding, sewerage systems are gradually developing and the amount of sewage sludge is increasing through the connection of these systems to waste water treatment facilities. Sewage sludge reaches up to so high amounts that it has become a very big problem to dispose these wastes. Sewage sludge fills the landing areas rapidly and it causes serious problems in these areas. Hence, it is not correct to send them directly to land filling areas unless the amount of the organic substance included is reduced. Burning those wastes for disposal isn’t considered useful due to high cost and toxic gases causing the problem of air pollution during the process of burning. Sewage sludge, whose agricultural use is considered the most practical and sustainable disposal way, is of considerable economic value for plant growing as it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reusability of the sewage sludge as nutrient supply in their growing media. In order to achieve this, the main physical, physicochemical and chemical features of the growing media which was prepared through mixing sewage sludge and hazelnut husk were determined. In the study, growing media were prepared by mixing sludge (S) with hazelnut husk (HH) in the following proportions: 12,5% (HH+S1), 25% (HH+S2), 50% (HH+S3). The addition of sewage sludge increased the particle size index, bulk density and particle density of the media, however porosity, air capacity and water holding capacity decreased. The most significant effect was the shortening of wettability time. When the chemical features of the prepared media were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that sewage sludge raised plant nutrient ingredients, primarily nitrogen, considerably. The main purpose of the study is to provide the recycle of the wastes. In this respect, as well as providing high-quality and low-cost growing media, wastes can be disposed efficiently.

Keywords: sewage sludge, hazelnut husk, growing media, ornamental plants

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Physical characterization of organic wastes: case study in Turkey Dede Gulgun, Dede Omer Hulusi, Oztekin Hazel, Ozer Hasan Department of enviromental engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

During the agricultural activities and agricultural product processing, a wide range of organic wastes forms and after a while grows up to huge amounts. These wastes are generally disposed at random places or tried to be destroyed by burning. Such practices cause considerable environmental pollutions and inconveniences such as air pollution, stink, pathogen reproduction and vector appeal. However these wastes can be turned to an efficacious product with employing a useful recycling method. One of the best alternatives is using organic wastes as a substrate in ornamental plant growing. Organic wastes were widely used as a substrate in crop production in many countries such as Spain, France, Belgium and UK. Even though Turkey is a country of intensive agricultural activities that resulting huge amounts of organic wastes, it is not yet benefited from these wastes as a substrate. The aim of the study was to determine the physical and hydro-physical characterization of organic wastes which has a potential as a substrate occurred during the agricultural activities in Turkey. Organic wastes were collected various regions of Turkey. Occurred generously during the agricultural production or processing of agricultural products, the absence of a useful purpose and having certain stability against to decomposition were considered during the selection of the organic wastes. Hazelnut husk (HH), Maize straw (MS), Pine litter (PL), Tea waste (TW), Sawdust (WW), Rice Hull (RH), Municipal waste compost (MWC) (from the Istanbul municipal composting facility) were selected in accordance with these mentioned criteria’s. While hazelnut husk and maize straw were grounded with a grinder, other samples were not grinded. Our results show that, while the highest particulate size was obtained at RH (CI =96, Dg =2.404, σg=1.496), the lowest size was determined at SW (CI =25, Dg =0.698, σg=2.34). When the obtained physical and physico-chemical properties were compared with the ideal values for a growing medium, best results were determined at HH (Bulk density (0.169 g/cm3), Particular density (1.489 g/cm3), Porosity (88.6% v/v), Air capacity (55.1 % v/v), Water holding capacity (335 ml l-1 ), Wettability (1.92 minute), Shrinkage (16.1 % v/v), pH (4.82), EC (2.975 mS/cm) and Organic matter (94.22 %)). The insufficient results were obtained at RH (Bulk density (0.099 g/cm3), Particular density (1.524 g/cm3), Porosity (93.47 % v/v), Air capacity (84.53 % v/v), Water holding capacity (89 ml l-1), Wettability (< 1 minute), Shrinkage (24.99 % v/v), pH (7.57), EC (0.315 mS/cm), Organic matter (89.24 %). As a result, utilization of these tested organic wastes as a growing media component holds potential for usage as an alternative to natural peat.

Keywords: agricultural organic waste; growing media; organic waste characterization

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the coastal zone management Bayram Bülent1, Kayı Abdullah2, Yılmaz Altan2, Erdoğan Mustafa2, Şeker Dursun Zafer3 1

Yildiz Technical University, Dept. of Geomatic Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey General Command of Mapping Dikimevi, Ankara, TURKEY 3 Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey 2

Coastline changes is increasing rapidly due to both natural and human effects. In the last three decades, the expansion of touristic, industrial and culture fishing establishments through coastal areas has brought about uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization. In this study, the coastline in KarasuTurkey region has been extracted by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery. For this purpose; 7 cm ground sampling distance UAV imagery taken in 2013 by Gatewing-X100 by 40% sidelap and 70% overlap was used as post imagery. Orthophotos were produced as base map for extraction of coastline. An object-oriented approach has been applied to detect shoreline by using orthophoto maps of Karasu-Turkey which are created from UAV images. There are several related studies which have mentioned, object-oriented classification method is efficient especially for high resolution images to avoid mix-classification. In the presented study the eCognition object-oriented fuzzy image processing software has been used. The used commercial software gives the users also the possibility to develop custom tools for classification in addition to its standard object feature tools. Customized arithmetic features have been used to achieve more accurate shoreline segmentation results. Two main object classes have been created as “water bodies” and “land” to extract shoreline. The segmentation results were converted into “dxf” vector data format. The results were compared to the results derived from manual digitizing. Random control points on each image were used. The RMS errors of selected points were calculated.

Keywords: coastline, unmanned vehicle, photogrammetry, object oriented, image segmentation

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

A new approach to extract shoreline using GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) Bayram Bülent1, Reis Hatice Çatal1, Oğurlu Mustafa2, Şeker Dursun Zafer3, Janpaule Inese4 1

Yildiz Technical University, Dept. of Geomatic Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey Istanbul Water Resources and Sewerage Administration 3 Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey 4 University of Latvia, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Riga, Latvia 2

Human based interactions such as unplanned growth of urbanization along shorelines, natural dynamics of coastal areas can have crucial effects on the nature of coastal areas. Monitoring and management of shorelines are very important and crucial issues. Coastal management requires fast, up-to-date and accurate spatial information. High resolution satellite images, aerial photographs and orthophoto maps are essential data sources for monitoring and extraction of shorelines. In this study, a texture analysing method has been proposed to extract shoreline by using 1:5000 scaled orthophoto maps of Riga-Latvia and Istanbul-Turkey. In this study, using texture analysing, the images have been automatically classified using Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and K-means methods. By using GLCM, 12 Haralick features is calculated for every single pixel of the image. Four Haralick features have been chosen for segmentation. These are Entropy, Varience, Angular Second Momentn and Sum Varience. Haralick features have been generated for 00 direction and then K-means classification has been applied. The result image consisted of two classes which are land and water bodies. Binarized images have been processed by developed vectorization algorithm and vector data in standard dxf format has been created in the last step of the study. The obtained shorelines were compared to the results derived from manual digitizing. Random control points on each image were used for comparison. The RMS errors of selected points were calculated.

Keywords: image processing, gray level co-occurrence matrix, photogrammetry, coast line, haralick features

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Assessing the biomethane potential of three pickling and canning semi-solid wastes under thermophilic conditions Zarkadas Ioannis1, Georgopoulos Nikos2, Kaldis Fokion2, Sarigiannis Denis1, Pilidis Georgios2 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Application and Technology, University campus, 45110, Ioannina, Greece Vegetable pickling and canning is a multibillion Euros industry which presenting great export potential, with the annual total EU production reaching the 1.6 million tons. Pickling is a traditional method of preservation and is being employed for the long term storage of vegetables under either an acidic brine solution, or an acidic oily solution. During the pickling process two distinctive waste products are generated: a) the spent pickling effluents containing large concentrations of salt and simple organic acids and b) semi-solid product in different pickling stages, that due to different reasons (manufacturing or preservation) it is not fit for human consumption and it must be disposed. Based on data provided by a large pickling and canning industry of Northern Greece, between 2 to 4% of the total production is disposed off. This in turn is putting significant pressure on the economics of the manufacturers not only due to the loss of production capacity but also due to storage and disposal costs that the companies must bear. While for the spent brine effluents a number of management technologies are available, including filtration and regeneration, for the semi-solid wastes the treatment is very difficult as these wastes are presenting corrosive, bactericide and phytotoxic properties due to the high concentrations of NaCl, the presence of organic acids and the very low pH, rendering landfilling as the only option. Anaerobic digestion is a natural process which provides the opportunity for recovering marketable products from biomass by converting the organic matter into biogas that can be immediately used as a sustainable fuel and an organic fertilizer that can be used in agricultural land as fertilizer. The AD is widely employed for the management of farmed animal manures with mixed results considering the low biodegradability and biomethane potential of such substrates. In order to improve methane yields and subsequently the economics of the AD systems biomass from different source can be co-digested. This co-digestion can improve the biomethane production of the system, through increasing hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates and through corrections on the operational parameters of the systems including C/N ratios and minimization of inhibitor effects through dilution. The objective of this work was to investigate the biomethane potential of red pepper, green pepper and green stuffed olives under thermophilic conditions in batch systems a) as single substrates and b) in 20% addition on volatile solid basis to cattle manures. Based on the results of this work, the red peppers and green stuffed olives can be considered as excellent substrates to AD systems with the biomethane potentials of these wastes reaching as high as 500mL/gVSadded. On the other hand the methane production the green peppers was very low, lower even when compared to the production of the cattle manure. The low biomethane potential of the green olives is probably an effect of the very high concentrations of NaCl that is added during production for preservation purposes and which is known to presenting toxic properties toward the anaerobic microorganism. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane production, industrial waste management

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Exploring the biomethanation of mink farming generated wastes in Greece Zarkadas Ioannis1, Dontis Georgios1, Pilidis Georgios2, Sarigiannis Denis1 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Application and Technology, University campus, 45110, Ioannina, Greece

The production of fur based commodities in Greece is driven by a dynamic and well established industry with long tradition in the production of quality products, which moreover presenting significant exporting experience. The Western Macedonia region is the area where nearly all of the fur production in Greece is taking place including the feed manufacturing, the farming and the transformation of the pelts into final commodities. The specie that is most commonly farmed for fur production is the American Mink (Mustela vison) which is a carnivore, semi-aquatic mammal, with the full grown males reaching the 45cm in length, 20 cm in height and the 2 kg in weight. The diet of the farmed animals is composed of low cost protein rich byproducts, including slaughterhouse and aquaculture wastes. During the mink feed preparation the high protein feed is mixed with cereal based products in order to create a total mixed daily ratio in the form of a thick paste that allows the feed to stay firm on the feeders, minimizing loses. The wastes that are being generated from the mink breading facilities are manures and waste feed both of which are collected underneath the cages in small piles of up to 50cm in height. The waste management options for this waste stream is restricted by the high solids, organics and nitrogen content that are significantly hampering the abilities of aerobic biological processes to effectively treat this waste stream. Even so, composting is widely employed, due to the low cost applied, with however mixed results. A waste management option which can be employed for the management of the fur farming wastes is the anaerobic digestion (AD). AD is a biomass bio-conversion process disengaged from the weather conditions which offers the advantages of self-sustentation, income generation, and waste valorization with limited material requirements. Anaerobic digestion of manures and plant waste materials it is offering both the opportunity for the recovery of biogas (a methane rich gas) but also of the hygienized and stabilized digestate which can be applied onto agricultural land as an organic fertilizer. In addition, odorous emissions, a feature of open manure storage and treatment systems, are avoided. The substrates assessed in this work where the fresh and weathered mink manure (FMM, WMM respectively) waste feed (WF) and the bone and meat meal (BMM) that is being generated by the dead mink bodies during the pelting stage. The two main characteristics of all the wastes assessed were the high total solid levels and the high protein concentrations reaching as high as 97% and 58% for the BMM respectively. The specific bio-methane potential of the assessed substrates found as 367 and 428 mL CH₄/gVS added for the fresh and weathered mink manures respectively, 547 mL CH₄/gVS added for the waste mink feed and 590 mL CH₄/gVS added for the mink bone and meat meal, corresponding in all cases to a VS reductions higher than 65%.

Keywords: fur farming waste management, anaerobic digestion, biogas production 28 | P a g e

Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Environmental and resource efficient management of End of Life tyres via pyrolysis Zabaniotou Anastasia Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

The objective of the study is to provide an option for End Of Life tyres management for interested companies and bodies in the field of waste recycling and materials /energy recovery in the Mediterranean environment, by desiminating results of a EU LIFE project (DEPOTEC project).The goal is to develop a roadmap for a sustainable valorization of End of Life tyres with resource efficiency. Energy and carbon-based materials production via pyrolysis can provide a sustainable management solution in Mediterranean countries. The quality of gaseous and liquid fuels from pyrolysis process are of high energy content, whereas char's high sulphur content, originated from vulcanization and sulphur deposition during pyrolysis, prevents energeric valorization option and thus it can be considered for other uses. ELT char is a mesoporous material of low moisture, with high carbon and hydrogen content. Many possible beneficial applications of ELT char are being evaluated aiming to decrease cost during tyre manufacturing, or provide value-added products. Perspectives of char valorization towards innovative carbon-based materials can incorporate solutions such as: a) its use as substitute of certain CBp groups during tyre manufacturing, b) as a precursor material for activated carbon production, c) upgraded to an organic soil ameliorant however with certain modifications to its structure and chemical properties so as to fully conform to EU standards, d) complex photocatalytic materials, e) mimetic catalytic materials substrate. The roadmap will include process requirements in terms of operating conditions applied to ELT char (temperatures, residence times and oxidizing medium, washing and post treatment etc) for each carbon material providing suitable, well tailored technical solution of paramount importance not only in material quality but also as the key point to achieve environmental and financial sustainability.

Keywords: ELT, pyrolysis, management, resource efficiency, energy, materials recovery

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Dynamic behavior and stability analysis of Adapazari city municipal solid waste landfill Sunbul Ayse Bengu1, Sunbul Begum2 1

Department of Civil Eng., Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak,Turkey Department of Enviromental Eng., Sakarya University,Sakarya,Turkey

2

In this paper, the numerical study of the seismic response and stability analysis of a solid waste landfill (MSW) is presented. Plaxis 2D finite element program, based on 2D plain strain principles, used in numerical model solutions. MSW landfill is modeled as two dimensional plane strain model. Mohr Coulomb (MC) soil model that is used for both soil and municipal solid waste to simulate the construction of the landfill, including five parameters namely; Young’s modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (υ), the cohesion (c), the friction angle (φ), and the dilatancy angle (ψ). The response of landfill is investigated for the construction stages, four layers of solid waste are considered for the landfill. Material parameters are selected from laboratory and in situ test results are also obtained from area and literature reviews. Therefore the land fill is considered to be constructed within layers of 10 meters, stress and displacement components occurred in the landfill calculated by the program. The stability analyses are evaluated at both under normal conditions and dynamic conditions during 1999 Marmara Earthquake. The factor of safety estimated using PLAXIS under both the conditions decreased as the solid waste degraded with time. Based on the results from this extensive study, it is concluded that the stability of landfills should be evaluated using the geotechnical parameters of solid waste. The results indicate that during and after the earthquake, the necessary threshold stability of the landfill is implemented. Despite the fact that, by the end of an earthquake, the permanent settlements will likely to be occurred significantly. The deformations and stress components as a result of earthquake analysis within the landfill are presented under ground motion effects.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, dynamic analysis, safety method, finite element analysis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Investigation of the most suitable areas for wastewater treatment plant using GIS based multi-criteria decision analysis method Şeker Dursun Zafer, Yucel Ugur ITU, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

In our days residential areas like counties and cities are growing and developing expeditiously. Thereby to control the development constructionally and economically in the residential areas, specifying and planning the needs of residents, information systems are needed gradually. Establishment of waste water treatment has a great role in modern urbanizing. Locating the treatment facilities is an important factor for city inhabitability, clean environment and waste waters’ oscillation to the nature. In this study, to locate the most appropriate area for waste water treatment plant for Sarıoğlan County in Kayseri Province, Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHM) was used on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and aiming to constitute The Multiple Criteria Decision Making model. Sarıoğlan County’s neighboring settlements are Bünyan to the south, Akkışla to the east, Özvatan and Sivas to the North. Also Sarıoğlan is one of the smallest counties of Kayseri Province and its population is 14.521 for 2014 according to the Address Based Population Registration System. Locating the optimum areas for waste water plantations, 8 most important criterion have been determined. In this way, 2 managers’ and 5 technical experts’ opinions who have experience in sewerage systems, rainwater disposal systems and wastewater treatment plants and working actively in public corporation have been received. By means of a survey which was attended by employees of the same corporation criteria weights are determined by making binary comparisons. From determined weights, the low elevation, distance to the urban area, expropriation, the weights of the criteria of distance to residential and proximity to the roads found to be higher than other measures during the analysis have been seen more dominant of these criteria. For analyzing the data in study to the same extent the maximum value of some criteria is 1, and for some measure of the maximum value is normalized to be 0. As a result of the normalization process values of the criteria are determined to be between 0 and 1. All criterion combined by help of ArcGIS with their designated weights, synthesis map is normalized again that came off in the end of the analysis, divided into 9 sections and determined the most appropriate area of the treatment plant can be made. In total the designated area is approximately 33 hectares.

Keywords: GIS, multicriteria decision analysis, treatment plant

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

The use of remote sensing and GIS in spatial analysis of aquaculture in Firat Basin, (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) Sivri Nuket1, Algancı Uğur2, Başusta Nuri3, Başusta Asiye3, Şeker Dursun Zafer4, Akgün Hakan5 Department of Environmental Engineering, İstanbul University, 34320, Avcılar, Istanbul, Turkey Center for Satellite Communication and Remote Sensing, İstanbul Technical University, 34469, İstanbul, Turkey 3 Faculty of Fisheries, Fırat University, 23119, Elazığ, Turkey 4 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Geomatics, İstanbul Technical University, 34469, İstanbul, TURKEY 5 Elazığ Fisheries Research Station Directorate, 23040, Elazığ, Turkey 1 2

Turkey is divided into 26 hydrologic basins depending on the topographic structure. These basins have different productivities and potentials in relation with the annual rainfall they receive. Among these basins, Fırat Basin that constitutes approximately 28.5% of the water potential of the whole country takes the first place in terms of water productivity with 31.61 billion m3 and Dicle Basin takes the second place with 21.33 billion m3. Fishery is the most effective activity within the different usage areas in these basins. Determination of the current situation of the facilities performing activities in the region, the potential of aquaculture, point and spread pollution load, determined pressures-effects and hot spots have great importance in managing such big hydrologic basins. Estimates of area with potential (or lack of it) for fish farming development are influenced by many factors, some of which were originated from data inaccuracy, their spatial and temporal availability, the analytical approach and the underlying assumptions adopted. However, the increasing availability of remotely sensed data and greater capabilities of computer technology suggest an expanded role of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for large-scale assessments of aquaculture potential, and many of the problems affecting results of studies will likely be minimized or eliminated as more data becomes available and more experience is gained with aquaculture-oriented GIS. Within the scope of this study, Remote Sensing being one of the current and quick resulting technologies, and GIS were utilized in order to provide effective usage of Fırat basin water resources in terms of water products and determine sustainable management strategies. GIS are basically integrated with computer-based systems which allow the input of multispectral Landsat image data to produce aquaculture related parameter maps. In constituting detailed spatial analysis, the coordinated data collected from site surveys were correlated with reflectance information derived from satellite images and these correlation relationships were spatially distributed to all basins with use of geo-statistical tools inside the GIS environment. This study mainly aims to perform spatial analyses of aquaculture facilities in Fırat Basin via remote sensing and GIS in order to determine their current situation. Apart from the pressures and impacts on the ecosystem, the possible effects of total N/P load were also visualized in order to improve the existing potential, to control the feasibility of decisions to be made about the region and to enlighten decision makers are among the primary objectives. Keywords: Fırat Basin, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, water resources, aquaculture

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Decision support tool for urban solid waste management Handakas Evangelos1, Sarigiannis Denis1, Manariotis Ioannis2, Υannopoulos Panayotis2, Zarkadas Ioannis1 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece

To date, solid waste management remains a significant problem for many countries in spite of the existence of various environmentally acceptable as well as economically viable methods. Moreover, waste management has been enforced by regulations that aim at increasing recycling, pre-selection of waste and energy and material recovery. The public has an increasing awareness about the appropriateness of the various available methods combined with worries about the effects of the implementation on environment sustainability with emphasis on effects on public health. Hence, a development of innovative strategies is needed to deal in order to devise the most appropriate treatment/disposal methods. In this study alternative scenarios aimed at sustainable administrations of municipal solid wastes and at minimizing the unused material fraction to be disposed of in landfills have been selected and analyzed by examining their effects on environmental sustainability. The methodological framework of the analysis is based on cost-benefit and life cycle analysis coupled with social-economic indices. A survey of 1000 participants was realized to investigate the societal acceptance of the different technological options. Furthermore, SWOT analysis was used to develop qualitative attributes of the different technological options. The approach was applied in the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Municipality of Paionia, Kilkis, Central Macedonia, Greece, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including potential global and local scale airborne emissions. Results are given in the form of indices of efficiency, effectiveness, environmental and public health impacts. The analysis reveals that the currently existing management strategy based on landfilling is the worst management strategy on a global scale. The investigation on combined waste treatment scenarios has showed that biological/mechanical treatments can result in very important benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction. Additionally, biological/mechanical treatments in combination with disposal of residuals have demonstrated their environmental benefits against other management methods. However, not all options are equally benign to the local environment and to the health of the local population, since they are both affected by non-negligible local emissions. Our results showed that proper integration of modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts. It is clear that the developed analysis framework produces different conclusions than a simple environmental impact assessment based only on estimated or measured emissions. However, the interaction with the national and local economy, the existent economic depression and the effect on growth has to be examined in combination with additional tools based on financial data in order to demonstrate the overall sustainability of an integrated approach. Keywords: decision support tool, solid waste management, sustainability indicators, life cycle assessment, SWOT, cost-benefit analysis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Evaluation of water reuse in a metal finishing industry Insel Güçlü1, Gümüşlü Efe1, Yüksek Gülten1, Sayı Uçar Nilay1, Ölmez Hancı Tuğba1, Germirli Babuna Fatoş1, Okutman Taş Didem1, Ubay Çokgör Emine1, Fırat Ertem Derya2, Yıldırım Ökmen2, Erturan Özge2 1

Istanbul Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, Maslak, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Arçelik A.Ş, Bolu Pişirici Cihazlar İşletmesi

Following agricultural, industrial sector is one of the largest users of water for development, consuming 5-10% of global water withdrawals (WWAP, 2009). The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 (OECD, 2012) predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector (WWDR, 2015). Metal coating industry which is usually categorized under the metal finishing industry is one of the industries that consume high amount of water. Therefore actions should be undertaken for both economic and environmental sustainability reasons, in order to consider as well as improve wastewater treatment and reuse. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the level required for reuse. Recent studies published in the literature revealed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing process, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing process, consecutively. Right after degreasing process there are three wastewater generating processes in the factory namely enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. The related characterization for the processes and water sources were provided in Table 1. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory (Table 1). Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for the reuse were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: water reuse, metal finishing industry, ultrafilration, reverse osmosis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Comparison of rededge texture features of RapidEye imagery for crop classification Ustuner Mustafa, Balik Sanli Fusun Department of Geomatic Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Since the rapid population growth and climate change over the world, the need of the food and water for human life have been increasing hence the sustainable management of agricultural resources has been becoming crucially important for increased agricultural production as well as food security measures. New earth observation satellites offers high spatial resolution with different variety of spectral features and fast revisit rates of the same location, and this provide an advantage to manage the natural resources. In this study, we examined the impacts of texture features of red-edge spectral band for classifying crops in Aydin Province, located in Turkey. The study area is located in Aegean region of Turkey and comprised of intensive cultivation areas. Different texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment, and correlation) from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) using different window sizes have been computed. Support Vector Machines (SVM), is one of the machine learning algorithms and recently preferred since its superior image classification performance, has been carried out here for the classification step. Radial Basis Function (RBF) has been selected here as a kernel type for SVM classification. We also compared the classification results of texture features with original RapidEye imagery. Our experimental results indicate that the size of processing window play an important role on the classification accuracy of the red-edge band texture features and the classification accuracy of RapidEye original bands outperformed the others as 89.90% overall accuracy.

Keywords: texture, agriculture, classification, RapidEye, food, SVM

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Is it possible to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge? Avci Yaprak1, Filibeli Ayse2 1

Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca, Izmir-Turkey 2 Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental Engineering, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca-Izmir/Turkey Phosphorus (P) is one of the fundamental element for all living organisms. Phosphorus recovery technologies are developing day by day because of the realizing the importance of phosphorus. The current depletion of phosphorus has led to the development of various phosphorus recovery techniques and finding new phosphorus sources. Steen (1998) has pointed out that world fertilizer use would reach 60-70 million t/a of phosphates by 2050. Various methods are known for phosphorus recovery including phosphorus recovery from wastewater, sludge and sewage sludge ash. Studies have shown that over 90% of the incoming phosphorus are transferred to the sludge fraction in wastewater treatment plants (Cornel and Schaum 2009). Phosphorus can be found in various forms in nature such as orthophosphate, polyphosphate and organic phosphorus. Municipal wastewaters may contain from 5 to 20 mg/L of total phosphorous, of which 1-5 mg/L is organic and the rest in inorganic form. In this study, we investigate phosphorus recovery potential from liquid which extracted from sludge and parameters, affecting the phosphorus recovery such as temperature, mixing time and concentration of the added Mg(OH)2. Phosphorus are recovered as a struvite (MAP) form. Experimental results are evaluated by using the Box Behnken Design with Minitab 17. Sludge samples were taken from Bolu Wastewater Treatment Plant. At the begining of the study characterization of the sludge samples are analysed. By applying different temperature, mixing time and Mg(OH)2 concentration most appropriate conditions for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge were investigated. For this purpose Box – Behnken Experimental Design Method was used. According to Box-Behnken Experimental Design, three independent variables X1 (temperature), X2 (mixing time), X3 (concentration) were used. Jar Test apparatus was used as a mixer and three different mixing times were applied such as 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Sample temperatures were adjusted with water bath and temperature of the samples was controlled by using mercury thermometer. Applying temperatures are 24 0C (as an ambient temperature), 5200C and 8000C. Mg(OH)2 solutions were used as a Mg2+ source. Three different Mg(OH)2 concentration were applied to the samples 0.1 M, 1.05 M and 2.0 M. Recovered phosphorus was settled as a struvite (MAP). Struvite is magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4) and forms a hard crystalline. BoxBehnken Experimental Design Method consists of three central point and twelve factorial points. Central point repeated three times. The recovered phosphorus amount was found by using response function.Minitab 17 Statistical Software Program was used to determine the response surface coefficients. According to experiments which were done in laboratory, observed phosphorus recovery values were found. The observed values were in accordance with the predicted values. R squared value is 0.92. Results were evaluated for finding the effects of temperature, mixing time and concentration on phosphorus recovery from sludge. Results have shown that mixing time do not significantly effect phosphorus release while an increase in sample temperature effects considerably. The maximum phosphorus release condition was found at 5200C sample temperature, 0.1M concentration and 30 minitues mixing time. Keywords: phosphorus recovery, phosphorus release, sewage sludge, struvite, MAP, Box-Behnken

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

The combined chronic synergistic ecotoxicological impact (CSEI) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the hydraulic fractioning-based gas production in the off shore Mediterranean region Zoller Uri Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel

Persistent organic endocrine disrupting chemicals (POEDCs) reach off shore Mediterranean sea water via rivers, fluids, aquifers, WWTP's effluents as well as intentional disposal of sludges and "rejects" of WWTP's. Consequently the constitute potential ecotoxicological and health risks resulting from the chronic exposure to them. This chronic synergistic ecotoxicological endocrinic impacts CSEI of the non-biodegradable APEOs surfactants, PAHs, hormones and pharmaceuticals which are constantly added to the Mediterranean sea, constitute an issue of major environmental and health concerns in the Mediterranean region. The CSEI of real POEDCs mixtures in WWTPs' effluents, surface-, seawater- and ground water, have been determined using the Zebra Fish Eggs Production Test (ZFEPT) which meets the criteria of Environmental Indicators [1,2]. The eastern Mediterranean basin (in which Israel is located) is a semi-arid region which is experiencing an extreme shortage of water resources, ~ 90% of its sewage water are treated by activated sludge (AS) and sand aquifer treatment (SAT) - based WWTPs, ~70% of which are reused mainly in agricultural irrigation. As a result, POEDCs mixtures which include APEOs, PAHs, hormones and Pharmaceuticals do reach the eastern Mediterranean off-shore seawater. The wide consumption of crude oil-based fuels is accompanied by an increasing contamination of soils and groundwater's by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLEs). Their persistence, due to their relative non-biodegradability, constitutes a major environmental ecotoxicological and health risk concern. The recent boom of shale gas and its rapid development and production, mainly via horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) by surfactants and 'specialty' polymers (which are closely graded trade secrets) sharpened the need for economical production of more hydrocarbons from a single drilling site, reuse the hydraulic fracturing water and reduce the risk to the environment [3,4] Thus, the resulting CSEI in the eastern off-shore Mediterranean seawater and shores' aquifers as a result of the recent expansion of gas extraction and supply in that area constitutes an issue of main concern environmentally and health-wise. References [1] Zoller, U. et al, The case of the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Mediterranean Sea region. Is there a Problem? Wat. Sci. & Technol. 50 (5), 79-84 (2004). [2] Zoller, U. & Haushan, M., Synergistic ecotoxicity of APEOs-PAHs in rivers and sediments; is there a potential health risk? Reviews Environ. Health. 25(4), 351-357 (2010). [3] Bomgardner, M. M., Underground innovators. Chemical & Engineering News; April 13: 13- 14 (2015). [4] Vengosh, A. et al., A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. Environ. Science & Technology, 48, 8334-8348 (2014). Keywords: persistent organic endocrine disrupting chemicals (POEDCs), Combined Chronic synergistic Ecotoxicological Impact (CSEI), Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Effects of marble on phase formation in self-compacting type decorative cement composites Stoyanov Ventseslal1, Kostova Bilyana2, Serafimova Ekaterina3, Petkova Vilma2,4 University of Structural Engineering and Architrcture (VSU) „Lyuben Karavelov“, Sofia, Bulgaria New Bulgarian University, Department of Natural Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 3 University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia, Bulgaria 4 Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 1 2

The decorative cement mortars and concretes are an artificial imitation of the natural stones. The main advantage of these artificial stones is their better workability, but the durability and stability are the key objectives in the use of these cement composites. To achieve a good aesthetic surface of decorative composites, that allows their multilateral application (decorative stamp concrete, pots, balustrade, ornamental stones, restoration of architectural monuments, decoration of facades, fences, terraces, etc.), the use of white Portland cement and white or colour fine and coarse aggregates are necessary. These limitations both in phase and mineral composition of used cement, the disparate properties of the surface of the aggregates and the necessity of greater quantity of water suggest large differences in formed structure of these compositions, compared to conventional cement ones. Based on white Portland cement, three types of cementitious composites were studied. The density of their structure at 28 and 90 days of water curing were evaluated by measurement of some physicalmechanical properties such as density, compressive strength and porosity. X-ray diffraction analysis, IR and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the crystal structures and their morphology. The experimental data show that the cement composites with higher water content exhibit more variety of new-formed phases, like hydration products of C-S-H type. The structure of self-compacting type decorative mortars is so dense that there is no possibility of crystal hydrates development at late curing ages. The use of marble as filler leads to a partial inclusion of carbonate ions in the new-formed hydrated phases (carbo-aluminates).

Keywords: White Portland cement, decorative mortar, cement hydration

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Influence of high energy milling activation on application of waste chicken eggshells Petkova Vilma1,2, Kostova Bilyana2, Shopska Maya3, Kadinov Georgi3, Baláž Matei4, Baláž Peter4, Kadiyski Milen1 1

New Bulgarian University, Department of Natural Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 3 Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 4 Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic 2

The industrial development of agriculture is related to improving the quality of food as well as to accumulation of large quantities of waste. The eggshell (ES), together with eggshell membrane (ESM) are by-products in food processing and manufacture plants and after the food production represent the biological waste. The ES together with ESM represent 11% of the total mass of the egg the chemical composition of ES is as follows: calcium carbonate in the form of calcite (94%), organic matter (4%), calcium phosphate (1%) and magnesium carbonate (1%). The fibrous ESM is composed mainly of proteins. This biomaterial can be utilized as a source of calcium for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite, which is the main component in bones and teeth. Another application of the eggshell is the sorption of heavy metals from wastewaters. The high-energy milling (HEM) is well-known method used for modification of structure and properties of materials. The mechanical activation of wide variety of materials leads to the improvement of their properties. Such change was registered also with ES, when the sorption and dechlorination activities have dramatically increased after HEM process. Moreover, the transformation from calcite to aragonite was evidenced in this system. In the present study, the properties of the materials obtained by HEM activation of eggshells make them appropriate for practical application.

Keywords: eggshells, CaCO3 polymorph, high energy milling activation, microsized crystals

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Investigation of thermal properties of domestic treatment plant sludges Ayol Azize, Tezer Ozgun, Gurgen Alim Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

The amount of excess sludge from domestic wastewater treatment facilities has drastically been increased in all over the World. The optimized processing of the sludge is very important since it has a great portion of the overall investment and operational costs of the facilities (Ayol and Durak, 2013). While the sludge management in an economically affordable, socially acceptable, and environmentally effective manner is one of the critical environmental problems, the challenge is shifted to the properly locating disposal alternatives and complying more stringent limitations set by regulations. This situation promotes a waste strategy with the priorities of beneficial usage of treatment plant sludges. Although sludge has been considered as a waste, it is a resource that can be evaluated for generating of renewable energy. Therefore, thermal processing of the sludges using drying and gasification technologies can be promoted as cost effective and environmentally sound alternative in sludge management field. However, the composition of the sludge should be wellknown. Sludge contains hydrocarbons and inorganic materials. To evaluate the applicability of thermal processing of sludge, its thermal properties should also be analyzed. This research study has focused on the determination of domestic sludge’s thermal properties. The sludge samples after solar drying plant were taken from a domestic wastewater treatment plant located in Izmir, Turkey. In the experimental approach, following parameters -dried solids content, organic matter content, total organic carbon, elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, FTIR, XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS, lower heating value (LHV)- were analyzed. All analysis was done according to the Standard Methods (APHA, 2005). In the lack of any standard protocol, the procedures which have been widely used in scientific studies were applied. The research results from this work showed that the domestic sludge could be evaluated for energy recovery purpose. In this paper, the results will be presented and debugged in details. This study was supported by TÜBİTAK-ÇAYDAG under grant #113Y166 Research Project.

Acknowledgements This study was supported by TÜBİTAK-ÇAYDAG under grant #113Y166 Research Project. References Ayol, A., Durak, G., “Fate and Effects of Fry-Drying Application on Municipal Dewatered Sludge", Drying Technology, DOI:10.1080/07373937.2012.736440, 31:3, 350-358, 2013. Standard Methods (APHA, 2005). APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., APHA-AWWA-WEF, A. D. Eaton, L. S. Clesceri, and A. E. Greenberg, eds., 2005. Keywords: treatment plant sludge, thermal properties, energy recovery, waste management

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Comparing the use of synthetic and domestic wastewater effluents for coupling nitrogen removal and chlorella vulgaris and scenedesmus dimorphus production Insel Güçlü1, Pehlivanoğlu Mantaş Elif1, Gürel Melike1, Iça Tuba2, Gençsoy Elif Banu3, Movahedpour Faezeh4, Görgün Eyüp3, Okutman Taş Didem1, Ubay Çokgör Emine1, Ozbaşaran Murad3 1

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. 2 Dumlupınar University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Evliya Çelebi Yerleşkesi Tavşanlı Yolu 10. km, Kütahya, Turkey 3 Norm Çevre Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., ITU Arı Teknokent Teknoloji Geliştirme Bölge Şubesi, ITU Ayazağa Kampüsü, Arı 6 Binası No:203 34469 Maslak Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey 4 Crop Ecology, Department of Plant Eco-Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran

The streams from domestic wastewater treatment plants have been considered as a valuable medium for mass cultivation of algal biomass. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performance of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Scenedesmus dimorphus (SD) when domestic wastewater effluent after UV disinfection and Bold Basal’s Growth Synthetic Medium (BBM) are used as media. The trials were carried out in an effective volume of 0.4 L erlenmeyer flasks, operated at constant aeration with filtered air at a temperature of 25 ± 1 oC, photoperiod of 16:8 light:dark cycles, and 35-40 μmol photon m2.s-1 light density. Runs were started approximately with an optical density (OD) of 0.4 at 10 and 40 mg NO 3-N/L concentration for the synthetic media and wastewater effluent. Algal biomass was assessed daily by means of optical density (680 nm), Chlorophyll-a, and dry weight. Nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, phosphate, pH and oil content of algal biomass were also analyzed. The results for Bold Basal’s Growth Medium are provided in Fig.1-3. Evaluation and comparison of synthetic media and effluent wastewater will be given in detail in the full manuscript.

Keywords: domestic wastewater, nitrogen removal, chlorella vulgaris, scenedesmus dimorphus

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Geotechnical monitoring of encapsulated tailings storage "Blue Lagoon" Frangov Georgi Ivanov University of Structural Engineering &Architecture (VSU) "Lyuben Karavelov" - Sofia

Copper ore zone, which is subject of intensive development for more than 50 years exists in Central Bulgaria. In this region the ore has been mined both on the surface and underground, and subsequently it passed through several stages of flotation. The waste products of this process are deposited as sludge in tailings facilities. In 2002 one of the oldest tailings facilities known as "Blue Lagoon", located close to the town Pirdop was encapsulated. Consequently, regular survey was implemented to monitor the stability of the facility, the fluctuation of groundwater levels in the dam and the tailings, subsidence of sludge under the weight of the reclamation embankment. In the initial period measurements were conducted over two months, and later were made over longer periods. In this work the data from the measured subsidence and displacements of geodetic benchmarks and piezometers are presented. The final analysis is based on field inspections, evaluation of the recent condition of the site, and comparison the results with data from previous hydrological and geodetic measurements. Settlement and displacement of the dam are reported from the data of 20 control bench-marks on the dam crown and berms located along nine cross sections. The compaction of the slurry under the weight of the sealing embankment is recorded with a special type of benchmarks. The assessment of the consolidation of sludge and speed trend is made on the basis of previous cycles. The depression curve in the body of the tailings dam is determined according to the data of 19 piezometers located in eight profiles across the dam axis. The water levels in the body of the encapsulated tailings pond are reported from six piezometers.

Keywords: geotechnical monitoring, geodetic benchmarks, settlement and displacement

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Assessment of K-struvite precipitation as a means of nutrient removal and recovery Kabdasli Isik, Kuscuoglu Sezen, Tünay Olcay Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

The impact of nutrients on the environment, particularly on water bodies, has led to extensive studies for nutrient control. Studies were focused on human urine in which a significant part of nutrients exists as well as some industrial wastewaters which are rich in terms of nutrients. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) precipitation proved to be a viable and efficient method for most of the cases for removal and recovery of ammonia and phosphate. On the other hand, potassium is one of the most important component of human urine and agricultural drainage. However, studies for potassium removal are quite limited. Potassium struvite or K-struvite (MgKPO4.6H2O) is a sparingly soluble salt belonging to struvite mineral group and has the potential of being used a means of potassium and phosphate removals. In this study, K-struvite precipitation was evaluated on the basis of potassium removal through experimental studies conducted on synthetic solutions as well as synthetically prepared urine samples. The study aimed to assess the potential of K-struvite precipitation for control and recovery of nutrients considering all aspects of operation. As the pH is a master variable in K-struvite precipitation it was the first parameter being evaluated. The experimental evaluation was realized at K:Mg:P molar ratio of 1:1:1 and initial concentrations of 250 mM. The pH range studied was 6 to 11. K removal efficiencies varied between 1% at pH 6 and 47% in the range of 9-10. Decreasing the initial concentrations to 100 and 10 mM caused a drop in K removal efficiencies to 25 and 55 at pH 9-10, respectively. The studies conducted at different initial K:P:Mg ratios provided useful information in terms of the mechanism of the process as well as the applicability of precipitation since K removal efficiencies increased significantly. Application of increases in K dosage 20-44% with respect to P and Mg at 125-187 mM P and Mg concentrations resulted in K removal efficiencies between 24-38% together with high P and Mg removals. On the other hand, overdose of P and Mg up to K:Mg:P molar ratio of 1:2:2 with varying initial K concentrations of 50-180 mM provided increased K removals. At 180 mM initial K concentration 40% overdose of P and Mg resulted in 50% K removal. Increasing the overdose of P and Mg to 100% with initial K concentrations of 50-125 mM provided K removals between 67 and 78%. In all experiments P and Mg removals were almost complete. In another set of experiments the effect of 100% overdose of p and Mg was tested with a wide range of initial K concentration of 6.25 to 125 mM. Results showed that the K removal efficiency was up to 50% for lower initial K concentration, while over 70% removals were obtained for higher initial K concentrations, the maximum was 85% with 100 mM K concentration. The best results through the experiments conducted using synthetically prepared urine sample with initial K concentration of 31.82 mM was obtained as 87% K removal with K:Mg:P molar ratio of 0.5:1:1 at pH 10.04.

Keywords: K-struvite, precipitation, nutrient removal and recovery, urine

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes Kabdasli Isik, Konuk Kübra, Tünay Olcay Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, TURKEY.

A suitable low concentration of fluoride in drinking water is beneficial to health since it is an essential constituent in the human diet. According to the World Health Organization the acceptable fluoride concentration varies in the range of 0.5 – 1 mg/L in order to prevent people from skeletal and dental problems. On the other hand, high concentrations of fluoride occurring naturally in groundwater cause several health problems such as fluorosis being a serious bone disease. In order to eliminate or minimize these health problems, excess fluoride must be removed from drinking waters using a suitable treatment process. There are several treatment processes to remove fluoride from drinking waters and wastewaters. Among them, chemical precipitation with lime, adsorption using activated alumina, activated carbon, or fly ash, coagulation with alum have been reported as effective defluoridation methods. An addition to these methods, electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes has proved to be a very efficient defluoridation process which has developed during the last decade. Recently, electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes has been proposed as a promising treatment method for defluoridation. The target of the present study was to investigate the defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes and to explore the effect of electrocoagulation operation parameters such as the applied current density, initial pH, and type and dose of electrolyte on fluoride removal. In the experimental study, the effect of varying operating parameters such as the applied current density (0.75–15.16 mA/cm2), initial pH (3.0–6.0), initial fluoride concentration (2–5 mg/L) and type (NaCl and KCl) and dose (50-150 mg/L) of electrolyte on defluoridation was investigated. The results of the experimental study indicated that an increase in the applied current density, KCl concentration, and initial fluoride concentration significantly enhanced defluoridation performance whereas there was no remarkable effect of NaCl concentration and initial pH on fluoride removal efficiency. Results have also demonstrated that remaining fluoride concentration can be reduced below 1 mg/L when electrocoagulation operation conditions are optimized.

Keywords: stainless steel electrodes, electrocoagulation, drinking water, defluoridation

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Air pollutant emissions and landfill gas composition in a MSW landfill in Greece A. Lagoudi1, K. Poulios2,3, G. Anagnostopoulos1, R. Chandrinou1, K. Alivanis2, E. Papachristou3 1

Terra Nova Ltd, Environmental Engineering Consultancy, GR-115 27, Athens, Greece Regional Association of Solid Waste Management Agencies of Central Macedonia, GR-546 26, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Planning, Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece 2

Several compounds are emitted in a municipal solid waste landfill site including methane, hydrogen sulfide, Volatile Organic compounds, etc. These compounds are released from the landfill gas flares, potential biogas engines, leachate collection and treatment, release of gas from cracks in the soil or from wells, as well as from landfill activities. The rate of gas generation at a landfill site varies throughout the life of a landfill and is dependent on several factors such as waste types, depths, moisture content, degree of compaction and the length of time since the waste was deposited. The implementation of an appropriate monitoring and control programme concerning biogas composition as well as air quality in the landfill site is important in order to comply with the legislative requirements (Directive 99/31/EC), to avoid health and safety problems as well as odor nuisance in the nearby area and to ensure proper operation of the landfill. A detailed monitoring programme was implemented in the landfill site of Mavrorachi in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki during November 2013 and March 2014. The monitoring programme included a detailed analysis of the landfill gas composition reaching the flares, measurements of several parameters in the monitoring wells, in the working face of the landfill as well as in the surrounding area. A significant variance was found in the levels measured in the flare gases depending on the date and the flare while all the parameters measured showed similar variation. Methane ranged between 17,2 - 59,1% and H2S ranged between nd - 115 ppm. The main VOC compounds found were toluene, xylene, butane, hexane, cyclohexane, propane and methylbutane with total concentration between 19 – 316 mg/m3. The levels of Total sulfur, total chloride and fluoride were low, while no Hg was detected. The levels of all the above mentioned compounds found in the monitoring wells as well as in the surrounding areas were quite low. Volatile organic compounds in the air ranged between 38 230 μg/m3. Furthermore, comparisons are made of the landfill gas compositions of landfills accepting different categories of waste.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, landfill, landfill gas

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

The port waste management system: a case study for Çanakkale port Koraltürk Gülsüm1, Eroğlu Pektaş Güzide Öncü 1, Alkan Güler1, Mert Şenöz Kutsi 2 1

Assistant Professor Dr., Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering, Avcilar. Istanbul 2

Assistant Professor Dr., Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering, Avcilar. Istanbul 3

Professor Dr., Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering, Avcilar. Istanbul 4

Yildiz Technical University, Naval Architecture& Maritime Faculty, Department of Naval Architecture& Marine Engineering, 34349, Besiktaş, Istanbul,Turkey

Ports are known as the most important gateways for having trade from one point in the world to another. Such trading including maritime transport, shipping, shopping and marine services are done through the ports. Ports accordingly are subject to various kinds of waste every year and this is a big issue for many port authorities in terms of important environmental concerns. The waste reception facilities in ports vary in terms of type and capacity. Almost all of these waste reception facilities are designed to have bilge and ballast water handling. The importance of having proper waste reception facilities for ship’s waste at ports is essential to reduce the probability of increased marine pollution from ships. The International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) provides an international regulation for port reception facilities to minimize ship-generated wastes and cargo residues. MARPOL regulates the ports to provide seagoing arrival vessels with necessary waste reception facilities for safely dispose and management various types of wastes. Recently developing a Port Waste Management Plan with an efficient ship waste handling system is vital for ports to ensure smooth and efficient waste management services in compliance with international legislation in place. In this regard Port Waste management planning should be concerned as an economical, environmental, technical and administrative issue for all ports including especially Turkey since the economy and trade in Turkey has been growing since 10 years. In this article, subjects to be presented are ship-generated waste types, port waste reception procedures, port waste management systems in Turkish ports and assessment and progress of Turkish ports with waste reception facilities in the recent years. In this case Canakkale port will be examined in terms of efficiency of handling waste through its own waste management system, since Çanakkale is one of the most growing ports in North Aegean Sea in Turkey with annually collecting approximately 170,000 tonnes of waste from ships (Kepez) Port, the Dardanelles and the surrounding area, particularly in the prevention of pollution and environmental protection of our seas to be collected next largest contribution provided by enormous contribution to recycling of waste as a result of decomposition also provides added value to our country. Keywords: port waste managemet, waste management plan, Çanakkale port,

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Environmental health and well being

Environmental health and well-being

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Environmental health and well being

Applying epidemiological methodology in prioritizing environmental interventions Athena Linos Department of hygiene, epidemiology and medical statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Given that resources are always limited decision makers in the environmental arena are often pressed by conflicting interests. Epidemiological methodology can help in directing them towards informed and just prioritization. Prioritizing environmental interventions authorities should take into consideration data that determine the magnitude of the effect (outcome) of the environmental exposure on human health, and subsequent increase of mortality as well loss of life years as well as quality life years (measured as DALYs and QUALYs). To do so epidemiologists need to determine the magnitude of: a) b) c) d)

the population at risk (exposed population) the incidence, prevalence and mortality due to the pre-determined effect (outcome) The relative risk effect (outcome) among the exposed vs non exposed The attributable risk to the specific environmental exposure

Sound epidemiologic methodology is the basis of determining all the above indicators. Usually the most important indicator is the attributable risk. In addition severity of the effect both biological and genetic is always being taken into consideration along with possible differentiation effect on vulnerable populations such as, infants, children, pregnant and nursing women, the elderly and the refugees. Often during prioritization additional factors such as cost, socioeconomic factors, population perceptions and lobbying play a significant role. It is the obligation of scientists to cooperate on determining risks, prioritizing but also informing the public and facilitating appropriate and just lobbying.

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Environmental health and well being

Development of environmental public health indicators in Europe Dimitroulopoulou Sani1, Vardoulakis Sotiris1, Heaviside Clare1, Katsouyanni Klea2, Samoli Evi2, Santana Paula3 1

Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Oxon, UK 2 Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece 3 Department of Geography, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Health inequalities have been increasing in Europe, particularly in the context of an ageing society and economic crisis (Marmot et al., 2012). This may lead to challenges in respect of health delivery, especially in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness. The main objective of EURO-HEALTHY project, funded under Horizon 2020 (2015-2018), is to identify practicies that have the highest potential to enhance health and health equity across European regions with particular focus on metropolitan areas. To achieve this, the project will develop a population health index, based on the relationship between multiple determinants (e.g. demographic, social, economic, environmental, lifestyle, and health care) and health outcomes in the past 15 years. The index will be eventually used to evaluate the population’s health and wellbeing in 273 NUTS 2 European regions and 9 selected pilot metropolitan areas (Athens, Barcelona, Berlin, Lisbon, London, Paris, Prague, Stockholm and Turin), covering populations of 28 EU countries. The current paper presents the results from a comprehensive literature review that was carried out to identify the key environmental risk factors affecting public health and wellbeing in Europe. The focus was on: a) climatic and environmental factors and b) urban and built environment factors. Table 1 presents examples of environmental health aspects that are included in the study. A list of the identified indicators is also presented as well as the rationale for their prioritisation. Based on this selection, a document with the metadata specifications of environmental indicators will be produced.

References Marmot M et al. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. Lancet 2012, 380:1011–29.

Keywords: indicators, public health, well-being

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Environmental health and well being

Primary and secondary PM2.5 impact on human health from industrial plants Cervino Marco1, Mangia Cristina2, Gianicolo Emilio Antonio Luca3 1

CNR, ISAC, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Bologna, Italy 2 CNR, ISAC, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Lecce, Italy 3 CNR, IFC, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce, Italy and University of Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz, Germany

Epidemiological studies reported adverse associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and mortality and morbidity. Pivotal issues of integrated environmental and health impact assessment regarding large industrial sources of PM and gaseous precursors of secondary PM₂.₅ (mainly SO₂ and NOx) are burned fuel (coal, oil, natural gas), pollution abatement technology, diffusion of flue gases in the populated environment. Due to the complex non-linear gas-particle chemistry, modelling the formation of secondary PM₂.₅ from a single point source would require the implementation of complex photochemical grid models, which need as input all the emissions of the area and contributions from external sources. Such data are almost never available. Consequently, the estimation of the impact of a single point source in forming secondary PM₂.₅ is often disregarded in environmental and health impact assessments. As case of study, we considered the emissions from different industrial sources (two coal power plants and one cement manufacturing plant located in the provinces of Brindisi and Lecce in Southern Italy. We estimated ambient primary and secondary PM₂.₅ originating from the sources using the dispersion model CALPUFF. The study area and model domain is 105x135 km² wide and comprises two towns (Brindisi and Lecce) and 125 villages with a total population of 1,152,000 individuals. Simulations were performed for one year. Among several modeling chain configurations and background atmospheric composition values (as ozone and ammonia concentration values), we selected those that demonstrated to lead to an intermediate PM pollution pressure. The chemical mechanism MESOPUFF was activated: five species scheme (SO₂, SO₄+, NOx, HNO₃, NO₃-), and daytime SO₂ and NOx oxidation are hourly varying functions of background ozone concentration, solar radiation, atmospheric stability and plume NOx concentration. The health impact was expressed in terms of number of natural deaths potentially attributable to the single emission source. Results showed that in presence of large emissions of gas precursor (coal power plants), the estimated secondary PM₂.₅ extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM₂.₅ with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM₂.₅ increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable natural deaths. Findings evidence that neglecting the contribution of secondary PM₂.₅ leads to underestimate the potential impacts of such industrial emissions on air quality and human health. Reduction of the local impact may be obtained by changing the power plants fuel from coal to natural gas, and estimating emissions with the same energy production, as well as best available pollution abatement technology. In this case results showed a significative decrement for ambient PM distribution, up to an order of magnitude as well as for NOx.

Keywords: air, pollution, source, dispersion, death

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Environmental health and well being

Crop protection and preservation of environment: evaluation in vivo of bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid mimics (RH-5849 and RH-5992) on pupae of Ephestia kuehniella Leila Kirane Amrani1, Asma Tazir2, Nadia Soltani Mazouni3 1

Department of Biology, Laboratory of Applied Animal Biology, Reproduction & Development Group, Faculty of Sciences,University Badji Mokhtar of Annaba 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,University Badji Mokhtar of Annaba 3 Department of Biology, Laboratory of Applied Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences,University Badji Mokhtar of Annaba

In recent years, the toxicity of insecticides to humans and wildlife has caused much public concern and led to the use of more target-specific chemicals. Because of secondary effects of conventional insecticides, the insect growth regulators (IGRs) are receiving more practical attention to provide for safer foods and a cleaner environment. Among these compounds the dibenzoylhydrazines or nonsteroidal ecdysteroid agonists, have been developed. Such compounds are hormonally active and disrupt development of pest insects primarily by induction of a precocious and incomplete lethal moulting in several insect orders; they exert their toxicity by binding to the ecdysteroid receptor as does the natural insect moulting hormone. The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. Two compounds of this class (RH-5992 and RH-8549) were tested in vivo by topical application on the development of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using a gravimetrical method. The compounds were diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae. The effects of this molecules were studied on the biochemical composition of the cuticle using a gravimetrical method. The treated pupaes showed a different profile from that of controls.The results obtained showed that the two non-steroidal agonists reduced the amount of cuticle chitin without any significant effect on the cuticular protein content. Tebufenozide (RH-5992) causes an acceleration of development, he is more active than is RH-5849.

Keywords: non-steroidal ecdysone mimics, ephestia kuehniella, insect development, metamorhosis, chitin, proteins, cuticle

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Environmental health and well being

Screening and prioritization of chemicals for REACH: the cumulative PBT index model in QSARINS Gramatica Paola, Cassani Stefano, Sangion Alessandro, Papa Ester Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance in the assignment of any chemical to the category of PBTs or vPvB, chemicals that require an authorization in REACH for their use and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and prioritization tools, the cumulative PBT Index model [1], implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA) [2a,b], the new software for the development and validation of QSAR models, by Ordinary least Squares (OLS) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for variable selection, offers a new holistic approach for an early identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties, directly from their molecular structure. The Insubria PBT Index was applied to screen and prioritize big datasets for a total of more than 4000 chemicals of environmental concern and with heterogeneous molecular structures. The results of this screening have been compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. A good agreement (higher than 76%) between the two approaches has been found, supporting the need of a consensus approach: a priority list containing 1313 compounds, identified as the most hazardous for their potential PBT behavior by both methods, has been proposed. [3] In addition, some classes of chemicals of high concern as emerging pollutants, such as Flame Retardants (FRs) and Personal Care Products (PCPs), have been specifically screened in this comparative exercise. It is interesting to note that some FRs, already marketed as “safer alternatives” to banned FRs, have been identified as potential PBTs, starting from their molecular structure. [4] This structure-based approach is an early safety strategy which responds to two levels of action in relation to the management, according to REACH regulation, of chemicals of highest concern: a) the need for screening tools for identification and prioritization of PBTs, and b) the a priori design for the synthesis of safer alternatives, according to the green chemistry philosophy of “benign by design”. References [1] E.Papa, P.Gramatica, “QSPR as a support for the EU REACH regulation and rational design of environmentally safer chemicals: PBT identification from molecular structure”, Green Chem., 12, 836-843, 2010 [2] a) P.Gramatica, N.Chirico. E.Papa, S.Cassani, S.Kovarich, “QSARINS: A new software for the development, analysis and validation of QSAR MLR models”, J. Comput.Chem, 34, 2121-2132, 2013; b) P.Gramatica, S.Cassani, N.Chirico, “QSARINS-Chem: Insubria Datasets and New QSAR/QSPR Models for Environmental Pollutants in QSARINS”, J. Comput. Chem., 35, 10361044, 2014 [3] P.Gramatica, S.Cassani, A.Sangion, “PBT Assessment and Prioritization by PBT Index and Consensus Modeling: Comparison of Screening Results from Structural Models”. Environ Intern., 77, 25-34, 2015 [4] P.Gramatica, S.Cassani, A.Sangion, “Are some “safer alternatives” PBTs or not? The case study of new flame retardants” Environ Sci.Technol, 2015, submitted.

Keywords: QSAR, PBT, QSARINS, prioritization, flame retardants, personal care products

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Environmental health and well being

Alteration of some physiological parameters among lead exposed workers Mansouri Ouarda Bentayeb1, Abdennour Cherif2, Khelili Kamel2 1

Faculty of Medicine, university Badji Mokhtar ANNABA Department of Biology, Faculty of science, university Badji Mokhtar ANNABA

2

Heavy metal accumulations in the environment are major sources of pollution and contamination. During last decades, the possible effects of the environment on our health became a major concern of our companies and an active field of research. Lead is an abundant toxic metal that is detectable in practically all phases of the inert environment and in all biological systems. This study aims at evaluating the effect of the metal element-trace; lead, on the sex hormones in male workers, on the blood lead (B-Pb) and on some physiological biomarkers. The study was conducted on 50 were exposed to lead (exposed group), 25 subjects (control group) were recruited from a rural area and were not exposed to lead. There was a statistically significant difference between exposed and control groups regarding B-Pb, which vary between (142-796 µg/L). The value of PPZ, vary between (43-554µg/L). The results indicated a significant reduction of the testosterone concentration in exposed workers compared to the control. However, the rate of LH was strongly increased at the individuals exposed to Pb. The biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the rate of the creatinine, the urea and the acid urique. The hepatic results showed no difference in the rate of TGO and TGP between both groups of study. However the rates of the enzyme phosphatase alkaline, triglyceride and cholesterol a significant difference were registered.

Keywords: LH, physiological parameters, testosterone, B-Pb, PPZ

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Environmental health and well being

Ecological and human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban and rural surface soils: the Novi Sad city and the surrounding settlements, Serbia Škrbić Biljana, Cvejanov Jelena, Tadić Đorđe Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

Trace elements as well as other pollutants are known to be accumulated in surface soils as a result of both contaminations from point sources and from long-range aerial transport. A total of 21 topsoils samples were collected from different sites of urban areas in the city of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia, its suburban settlement and nearby villages. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg and Fe were used to evaluate the pollution levels by enrichment factor (EF) and pollution index (PI) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US EPA. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of these exposure routes were considered. EF values were between 0.37 and 6.62 for Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb indicated low enrichment, i.e. no increase in concentration of these elements over the past 20 year while EF for Zn and Cd was 13.39 and 56.09, respectively, pointed out intermediate enrichment which is related to the anthropogenic sources. Calculated PIs for all elements except for Zn indicated no contamination of soil. To assess the overall potential for non-carcinogenic effects posed by all exposure pathways: direct oral ingestion of substrate particles; inhalation of soil particles trough the mouth and nose; and dermal absorption of heavy metals in particles adhered to exposed skin, a Hazard Index (HI) approach has been applied. The observation indicate that children have been relatively vulnerable population in comparison with adults. Co has been identified as the priority control metal due to its high HI (1.08) for children while HIs, in same category, for other metals were below 0.1 except for Pb for which HI was from 0.04 to 0.19. Non-carcinogenic HIs for adult were far below 0.1 for all heavy metals except for Co which HI was from 0.12 to 0.47 indicated low health risk. The aggregated cancer risk has been calculated by summing the individual cancer risk values across all exposure pathways. Total cancer risk (TCR) of Cr 5.24x10-6 being a bit higher than 10-6 could be regarded as a tolerable, whereas TCR values for Pb, Cd and Ni could be negligible for both, children and adults. The data presented here were obtained within the project No. 114-451-1148/2014-03 funded by the Secretariat of the Science and Technological Development of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Keywords: heavy metal, soil contamination, enrichment factor, pollution index, health risk assessment

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Environmental health and well being

Estimating individual exposure by human monitoring Tolis Evangelos Ioannis1, Pitaraki Nikoleta I.1, Sakellaris Ioannis A.1, Siarga Maria A.1, Pronk Anjoeka2, Loh Miranda3, Cherrie John3, Bartzis John G.1, Sarigiannis Denis A.4 1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technology Laboratory, University of Western Macedonia, Kozani, Greece 2 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Zeist, Netherlands 3 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

In the frame of the EU project: “Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large population Surveys (HEALS)” (www.heals-eu.eu), a specific study on human monitoring of location and activity, has been performed in seven European cities, including the city of Kozani, Greece. The aim of the study was to monitor human activity by using light weight sensors and Smartphone application (app), and estimate the associated individual human exposure. The present study is restricted to Kozani city area. Four volunteer individuals sharing the same working place, have been selected and monitored simultaneously for a period of one week. The data measured/collected per person were: activity related parameters, location of the individual as well as comfort data (temperature and relative humidity) of the individual’s environment while moving. In one individual, additional indoor air quality measurements have been performed in the office and in the house area for validation purposes. The individual exposure on selected pollutants has been estimated, based on modeled indoor and outdoor air quality data. The modeling results have been compared with the actual measurements.

Keywords: exposure, sensors, apps, human activity, air quality

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Environmental health and well being

Beta-sitostero up-regulated paraoxonase-1/arylesterase status via peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ in irradiated rats Moustafa Enas Mahmoud, Thabet Noura Magdy Department of Radiation Biology, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt Paraoxonase (PON) has been extensively investigated in the context of human pathology and reduced serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activities have been linked to increased systemic oxidative stress and related clinical conditions of many disease. The present study was to point up the Beta-sitosterol restraining mechanisms against gamma Irradiation exposure induced oxidative stress mediated through constitutive activation of paraoxonase-1/arylesterase status via Peroxisome ProliferatorActivated Receptors (PPAR-γ). The antioxidant potential of Beta-sitosterol was examined on whole body irradiated rats with a single dose 5 Grey (Gy). A follow up period of 2 weeks post-irradiation showed administration of Betasitosterol significant decrease in MDA accompanied with increase in antioxidant enzyme and modulated lipid profile content with elevated level of PON1/ARE gene expression and activity in serum and liver tissues. We suggest that, Beta-sitosterol up-regulation (PPAR-γ) activated PON1/ARE status prevents or suppresses oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation exposure. Keywords: Beta-Sitosterol-Radiation- PPAR-gamma- PON-1/ARE

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Environmental health and well being

The analysis of the effect of parameters in gas metal arc welding of structural steel with metal cored wire on welding fume using taguchi method and ANOVA Mert Tolga Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Welding is one of the most important manufacturing techniques in heavy industry manufacturing sectors and gas metal arc welding is highly utilized in manufacturing due to its relatively ease of use and adaptability to automation. Welding process emits hazardous fume, which is comprised of metal particulates and gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, which may be generated in significant quantities during common arc welding processes. It is known that more than 800,000 welders are active around the world today and emissions related to welding can affect environment and worker’s health adversely. In this study, Taguchi design of experiment method is employed in gas metal arc welding of low carbon structural steel using metal cored wire. Fume emissions are researched using variety of process parameters. Fume formation rate results are evaluated using Taguchi and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an evaluation is made towards the effect of global welding activities on environment and workers’ health.

Keywords: GMAW, structural steel, metal cored wire, welding fume, Taguchi and ANOVA, worker's health and environment

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Environmental health and well being

Characterization of sub-micrometer fume particles in MMA welding of shipbuilding steel with different types of electrodes Mert Tolga, Bilgili Levent, Şenöz Kutsi Mert, Çelebi Uğur Buğra, Ekinci Serkan Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Arc welding process is a significant source of by-products such as metal particulates and noxious gases. It is vital to characterize aerosols and define particle composition and size in order to make an assessment for a welder’s exposure to welding fume since welding has been associated not only with many respiratory problems such as cough, chronic bronchitis, and asthma but also lung cancer. In this study, manual metal arc (MMA) welding of shipbuilding steel were realized with rutile, basic and cellulosic covered electrodes using variety of parameters. The most and the least fume generating covered electrodes and parameter combinations were analyzed in terms of fume particle composition and morphology. Results were evaluated with regard to occupational health and safety as well as environmental effects.

Keywords: fume, particle composition, MMA welding, shipbuilding steel, occupational health and safety, environment

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Environmental health and well being

Comparison of global distributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide with GIS based atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration research in ITU campus, Istanbul –Turkey Denli Hayri Hakan, Seker Dursun Zafer, Onursal Denli Gaye Geomatics Division, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

According to the maps produced by Japan Meteorological Agency, the raising rate around the Marmara Sea in Turkey is in average higher than Mauna Loa Observatory. As clean air in the sense of low concentrated CO and CO2 is essential for basic requirement of live, a test study has been performed. Istanbul Technical University main campus in Istanbul/Turkey was selected as study area. It is located near by the heart of the commercial area with the approximate population of 30K including students and stuff. At the 80’s, the neighborhood of the campus was totally covered with the forestry areas and small buildings which were converted to skyscrapers later on. The area now is housing many national and international companies in these huge skyscrapers at the northern part adjacent with a road of high traffic intensity. The other parts of the campus are either surrounded by squatter’s house or roads which can be classified as heavy traffic. As the indoor air quality is directly depend on to outdoor gas component, the study focused to find out the distribution of Carbon dioxide levels in and around the campus. GIS based distribution maps were realized using daily measured parameters in the campus on 30 stations. GIS based spatial analyses have been carried out to display the distribution level of the Carbon dioxide concentration. CO2 concentration comparisons with different areas have been made.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, ITU Campus, GIS

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Environmental health and well being

Risk-based management of occupational safety and health for welding in shipyards Çelebi Uğur Buğra, Bilgili Levent, Mert Tolga, Şenöz Kutsi Mert, Ekinci Serkan Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Regulations with regard to occupational safety and health are continuously developed and modified especially in developed countries in order to protect their labor force and soon after these regulations are accepted and applied in developing countries, who try to adapt themselves into modern world. Shipbuilding and ship repair industry is known as a heavy industrial zone. Production processes in shipbuilding industry are variable and complicated. Shipbuilding industry production processes and these processes contain variety of occupational accident risks such as, toxicity of painting, falling, exposure to electric shock, explosion, being hit by equipment, construction machinery and crane accidents and fire.Hundreds of people die by means of these accidents all over the world every year. Furthermore, exposure to burrs, flames, sparks, toxic fumes and dusts occurred by welding and allied processes may cause injuries or occupational accidents and diseases that result in workforce loss in working days. Shipbuilding workers are also exposed to a variety of genotoxic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The health risks of inhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may not only depend on the total external dose, but also on the pattern of exposure. During this study, painting and welding processes are investigated in detail and all wastes and residues are described with effects on workers’ health. Risk assessment decision matrix based risk analysis will be realized for welding process in shipbuilding.

Keywords: risk analysis, painting process, shipyard, occupational health and safety, welding

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Environmental health and well being

Toxicity and health effects of ortho-chloro-benzylidenemalononitrile (CS gas) Zucchetti Massimo1, Bertone Stefano2 1

Politecnico di Torino, DENERG,Italy Lawyer, Ambrosio & Commodo Associates, Torino, Italy

2

The chemical product ortho-chloro-benzylidene-malononitrile (the so-called CS gas), is chemically synthesized by reacting two chemicals compounds: 2-clorobenzaldeide and malononitrile. CS gas has repeatedly been used as a tear gas by police forces during manifestations and riots, in Europe, in the United States and elsewhere. The immediate effects of the gas on humans occur at low concentrations and depend on the irritating action to the skin and mucous membranes. The first target organs are represented by eyes: intense tearing due to irritation of the mucous membrane, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, periorbital edema, burning, and pain. CS is commonly classified as a non-lethal weapon to control the riots. However, CS gas has proven to have toxic side effects that are currently studied in toxicology. In weak subjects, literature reports damage to the lungs, and in some cases, effects on the heart and liver have been reported too. The potential damage to internal organs, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms, was evidenced by accidental exposures reported in literature. Concerning the eyes, the increase in intraocular pressure may onset acute glaucoma in susceptible individuals. As far as respiratory apparatus is concerned, usual effects are represented by irritation of the upper airways that are manifested clinically as nasal congestion and runny nose: those effects are usually reversible and disappear within a short time if the exposed person moves to breath clean air and washes himself and clothes with fresh water. In some cases, irritating effects may extend distally and cause laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchial irritation and cough with copious phlegm. In severe cases laryngitis may result in laryngospasm and irritation of the lower airways, namely ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). In the medical literature numerous cases of prolonged cough and breathing difficulties for several months are also reported. Concerning skin, contact with the gas skin causes burning sensation that usually subsides quickly: the contamination of the clothes can prolong the effects and, in case of prolonged exposure, can lead to real burns. For gastrointestinal tract, effects usually stem from the contamination of food and beverage, and depend on the irritation of the mucous membranes and lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, abdominal pain. More serious effects such as acute liver disease (hepatitis) have also been reported occasionally. Finally, there is some evidence from recent studies of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of CS. They identify the mechanism that underlies the toxic action of CS, namely the formation of cyanides. Our study, presents, classifies and reports in detail for the first time a cluster of side effects cases due to exposure of Italian people participating to manifestations since 2001 up to the present days: they all confirm the toxicity of the CS gas for humans.

Keywords: environmental pollution, health effects, ortho-chloro-benzylidene-malononitrile, gas CS, toxicity

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Environmental health and well being

A study to determine level of awareness about health and carbon footprint among geomatics engineers in Turkey Sariturk Batuhan1, Sivri Nuket2, Seker Dursun Zafer1 1

Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

2

This study contains the results of "Living Standards Survey" which has 38 questions and “Health Survey” which has 41 questions. Surveys created with Google Drive. Participants are members of the Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers which has over 10000 members and attached to the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, one of the most important non-governmental organizations of Turkey. The participants are informed via e-mail. Surveys applied between March and June 2014. 645 responses for Living Standards Survey and 723 responses for Health Survey received from approximately 13000 members of the chamber. These responses saved to the tables on Google Spreadsheets automatically by Google Drive and then arranged by answers. According to the results of Living Standards Survey, most of the participants are young Geomatics engineers and 87% of them are male. 5.9% of the participants were born in 1987, 5.7% in 1988 and 5.4% in 1984. 23.4% of the participants live in Istanbul, 16.9% of them live in Ankara and 5% in Izmir. According to the results of Health Survey; 47.2% of the participants don’t know their blood pressure, 19.1% getting a treatment for a kind of disease, 33.6% are smoking, 49.1% using alcohol and 53.4% of them regularly exercise. As a result of these two surveys matching, Living StandardsHealth Database acquired. Some queries are done on this database that consists of data from 557 participants. Among the geographical regions, Eastern Anatolian Region has the highest rate of blood pressure knowledge with 61% followed by Marmara Region with 58%. According to the answers of the question “Do you currently have a disease that treated?” 20% of the participants have a disease that treated. Among the age groups; 14% of 20-30 group, 13% of 30-40 group and 30% of above 40 age group have a disease. Among the geographical regions; Black Sea Region has the highest rate with 25% and Central Anatolia Region follows with 24%. About the diseases; 24% of the participants have diabetes and 17% have blood pressure. Among age groups; for 20-30 group rates are 14% diabetes and 14% blood pressure, for 30-40 group 20% diabetes and 16% allergies and for above 40 age group 25% blood pressure and 29% diabetes. According to the answers of the question “Do you smoke?” 35% of the participants smoke. Among the geographic regions, the highest rates are 55% for Southeastern Anatolia Region and 37% for Central Anatolia Region. Among the age groups; 33% of 20-30 group, 41% of 30-40 group and 28% of above 40 age group smoke. About amount of cigarettes smoked, average for Geomatics engineers in Turkey is 0.9 packs per day. Among the geographical regions; Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region and Black Sea Region have the highest rate with 1.1 packs per day. For the age groups, despite having the lowest ratio, above 40 age group has the highest amount with 1.1 packs per day.

Keywords: carbon footprint, geomatics, Turkey, CO2 emission, health

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Environmental health and well being

Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of selenium at trace levels in cosmetic, food and environmental samples Dogan Mehmet1, Unsal Yunus Emre3, Tüzen Mustafa3, Soylak Mustafa2 1

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Ankara, Turkey Erciyes University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry,38039 Kayseri, Turkey 3 Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat, Turkey 2

Selenium is known essential element for all living organism (1,2). A new micelle-mediated separation and preconcentration method was developed for trace levels of selenium (IV) ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on cloud point extraction of Se (IV) ions with Triton X-114 in the presence of chelating agent such as arsenozo III. Se (IV) ions react with arsenozo III in surfactant solution yielding a hydrophobic complex at pH 6. The phase separation was accomplished by centrifugation for 8 min at 4000 rpm. The calibration graphs obtained from Se(IV)– arsenozo III complex was linear in the concentration 50-3000 µgL-1 with detection limit 0.9 µgL-1. The interference effect of several ions, amount of arsenoz III, and amount of Triton X-114 were investigated. The accuracy and validity of the proposed method was tested by means of three replicate analyses of the certified standard material and addition- recovery methods. The developed method was successfully applied to selenium in cosmetic, food and environmental samples. References 1. Saygi, K.O., Melek, E., Tuzen, M., Soylak, M. (2007). Talanta, 71, 1375-1381. 2. Tuzen, M., Saygi, K.O., Soylak, M. (2007). Talanta, 71, 424-429.

Keywords: cloud point extraction, selenium, cosmetic, food, environmental samples

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Environmental health and well being

Influence of ballast waters on the biological components of the port aquatorium in the south-eastern Adriatic sea (port bar-Montenegro) Petović Slavica, Drakulović Dragana, Joksimović Danijela, Pestorić Branka Institute of marine biology, Kotor, Montenegro

Port of Bar is located on the south-eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and comprises area of 106 ha (waters surface is 90 ha). Ballast water carried by vessels is an important way for transfer of harmful aquatic organisms, pathogens and non indigenous species. Their negative effects can be divided into ecological, economic, and human health influence. The environmental impact is related primarily in the fact that in the new ecosystem alien organisms are more aggressive than native species. Therefore, if they survive, these organisms multiply rapidly at the expense of alohtone organisms. In this way, biodiversity of the sea and ocean is endangered. The economic impact of alien species on an ecosystem is also present. Harmful effects of ballast water mostly affects fisheries, tourism, but also other economic activities. In addition, the most worrying, is the negative impact of ballast water on human health. Sampling was done during winter and spring season in 2015. Analyses were included samples of sea water (physico-chemical parameters) and marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton) from four stations which include three berths and one station closer to the entrance of the port Bar, while for study of benthos samples were collected from two stations (berths). Analyses of sea water showed increased oxygen saturation (122%) in upper layer while concentration of nutrients has moderate values. The total phytoplankton abundance reached values around 105 cells/l. The phytoplankton was dominated by diatoms almost. From diatoms group the most abundant were: Chaetoceros affinis, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Abundance of potentially toxic diatom Pseudonitzschia spp. reached value more than 103 cells/l. Regarding zooplankton composition, it was identified maximum a total of 31 mesozooplankton taxa. Acartia clausi was dominant species in winter either spring. Copepods dominated in total mesozooplankton abundance in all positions in these two seasons. Analyses of zoobenthos showed presence of many animal groups (Porifera, Anthozoa, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Decapoda, Bryozoa, Echinodermata, Tunicata). The most numerous was group Polychaeta. Among identified species were recorded non indigenous species. Transfer of harmful aquatic organisms via ballast waters may lead to changes on ecosystems and negative impact on human health and the economy. This study, as first survey of port aquatorium in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea (Montenegro), will offer useful information for future investigation of ports area and ballast discharges.

Keywords: port, south-eastern Adriatic Sea, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos

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Environmental health and well being

The link between residential air quality and children’s health: A review Stamatelopoulou Asimina1, Saraga Dikaia1, Asimakopoulos Dimosthenis N2, Vasilakos Christos1, Maggos Thomas1 1

Environmental Research Laboratory/ I.N.RA.S.T.E.S., National Centre for Scientific Research “DEMOKRITOS”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece 2 Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Greece

Nowadays, the modern way of human life has lead to their increasing exposure to residential indoor air pollutants (i.e. building materials, solvents used in cleaning, paints, bio-contaminants, tobacco smoke, plastics, carpets and combustion) which has been associated with adverse health effects. Young children comprise a vulnerable subpopulation for several reasons. Firstly, they spend the largest part of their time indoors at home. Secondly, they are more severely affected by the environmental contaminants because of the higher ratio of body surface area to volume than adults, while their respiratory and other systems are under development. Another reason is their particular behavioral and physiological characteristics, such as hand-to-mouth behavior, crawling, playing with dirt and sucking or chewing toys. Furthermore, the breathing zone of very young children is closer to the floor, where respirable pollutants may accumulate. Special attention has been paid to infants because of their commonly mouth breathing, which bypasses the filter of the nose and may contribute to the deeper penetration of air pollutants into their respiratory system. Finally, parents often consider renovation or redecoration (e.g. wall painting) of children bedrooms as a way for indoor air quality improvement, while ignoring their exposure to emissions. Although the health effects of indoor air pollutants are not fully understood, indoor air quality has been linked with an array of children’s health outcomes including asthma, behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, autism, cancer, dysfunctional immune systems, neurological impairments and reproductive disorders. For all the above reasons, children’s exposure to environmental pollutants in residential environment has received significant attention as numerous studies on the simultaneous assessment of IAQ in homes and its link to children’s health have been conducted. It is the purpose of the current study to review the methodological approaches used for the assessment of air quality in homes and the determination of several health effects on children. Children’s health outcomes that have been studied in literature, include primarily respiratory diseases such as asthma, impairment of lung function, wheeze and dry cough and allergic disorders such as, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. The methodology followed for the determination of the above health impacts varies among questionnaires, collection of urine samples, skin-prick tests, spirometric measurements and blood samples, depending on the health problem that had to be examined. The main goal of this review is to summarize remarkable findings about the link between residential air quality and health effects on children’s health as well as to draw conclusions about the most harmful pollutants and health problems intensified. Keywords: indoor air quality, children's health, houses, health effects

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Environmental health and well being

Occupational safety and health risk analysis model for painting, blasting and welding processes in shipyards Bilgili Levent, Çelebi Uğur Buğra, Şenöz Kutsi Mert, Mert Tolga, Ekinci Serkan, Vardar Nurten Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Due to the complexity of the shipbuilding processes, such as painting, blasting and welding, various types of harmful emissions and wastes occurred. It is well known that these emissions, wastes and the risks of processes have major dangerous effects on human health and environment in case of deficient risk management plans. Painting, blasting and welding processes are the most risky operations during shipbuilding. Risks, which occur during these main shipbuilding processes, can be reduced by establishing a suitable risk management model, analyzing the risks in detail, estimating the hazards and injuries comprehensively and taking suitable precautions. In this study, painting, blasting and welding processes are investigated in detail and all risks are described with effects on workers’ health. Risk analysis model in terms of occupational safety and health is established for each process in shipbuilding.

Keywords: shipyard, shipbuilding, welding, blasting, painting, occupational safety and health, risk management

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Environmental health and well being

The HEALS approach to health and environment-wide associations Schuhmacher Marta1, Annesi Maesano Isabella2, Cherrie John3, Bartzis John4, Sarigiannis Denis5 1

Rovira i Virgili University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarragona-Catalonia 43007, Spain 2 University of Paris Marie Curie, Epidemiology of Allergic and Respiratory diseases Department, Medical School, Paris 75012, France 3 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Riccarton Edinburgh, EH14 4AP, United Kingdom 4 University of West Macedonia, Kozani 50100, Greece 5 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece The exposome represents the totality of exposures from conception onwards, simultaneously identifying, characterizing and quantifying the exogenous and endogenous exposures and modifiable risk factors that predispose to and predict diseases throughout a person’s life span. Unraveling the exposome implies that both environmental exposures and genetic/epigenetic variations are reliably measured simultaneously. HEALS (Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large population Surveys) brings together a comprehensive array of novel technologies, data analysis and modeling tools that support efficient design and execution of exposome studies. The HEALS approach brings together and organizes environmental, socio-economic, exposure, biomarker and health effect data; in addition, it includes all the procedures and computational sequences necessary for applying advanced bioinformatics coupling advanced data mining, biological and exposure modeling so as to ensure that environmental exposure-health associations are studied comprehensively. The overall approach will be verified in a series of population studies across Europe, tackling various levels of environmental exposure, age windows and gender differentiation of exposure, and socio-economic and genetic variability. The main objective of HEALS is the refinement of an integrated methodology and the application of the corresponding analytical and computational tools for performing environment-wide association studies in support of EU-wide environment and health assessments. The HEALS approach will be refined on the basis of preexisting population data and then it will be applied in a pilot environment and health examination survey covering eighteen EU Member States. The lessons learned will be translated into scientific advice towards the development of protocols and guidelines for the setting up of a European environment and health examination survey. A pilot exposure and health survey (EXHES) will be organized in 10 EU countries to test the applicability of the HEALS approach for EU-wide large population surveys. EXHES will combine a longitudinal and a nested case-control phase to allow for better definition of environmental exposures and better characterization of disease and risk phenotypes over the limited duration of the project, whilst setting the foundation for post-project follow-up. The technological and computational integration proposed in HEALS will be tested through EXHES with regard to both technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness. The lessons drawn from the EXHES pilot survey will provide the basis for drafting scientific advice, protocols and, eventually, guidance for the setting up of a European Health and Exposure Survey, paving the way to EU-wide assessments. HEALS provides an integrative framework for identifying the proper covariates that affect the health endpoints of relevance under the light of health surveys, as well as constraining assessment bias. In practice, HEALS ushers in “enviromics”, the study of a wide array of environmental factors in relation to health and biology towards unraveling the causal associations between environment and health. Keywords: exposome, health, environment 67 | P a g e

Environmental health and well being

Improving interaction mechanism of metal mixtures (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr) in generalized Physiological Toxicokinetic Model (PBTK) Karri Venkatanaidu, Kumar Vikas, Schuhmacher Marta Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain

Humans are exposed to hazardous materials from their environment. Metals such as Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) are widely dispersed in the environment. Physiologically-based Toxicokinetic (PBTK) models are commonly used to estimate the adverse effects such as nephrotoxic, neurotoxic (decreases IQ value) and carcinogenic actions associated with metals. Several well-developed PBTK modelling approaches exist for these individual metals. However, there are no published studies that extend the analysis to mixtures of metals. Similarly, there are numerous studies exploring potential pathways of biochemical interactions of these individual metals, but no published studies for combinations of metals. Typically, exposures to mixtures are assessed assuming either independence or additivity. However there may be synergistic or antagonistic effects exist, although evidence for these kinds of interactions and potential impact of combined exposures is less well understood but continues to grow. For example, “Interaction profiles” for several chemicals including metals, based on a binary weight-of-evidence approach, found greater than additive effect of combined exposures of these chemicals which may be due to potential synergetic effect. Further, the binary weight-of-evidence approach only considers binary interactions. There are no published studies that extend the analysis to combinations of three and more constituents simultaneously to understand the ADME (Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) and biochemical interactions of mixture. In this work, with intensive literature review, hypothesised modes of action for individual compound are constructed. Pb, Cd, Hg metals shows common mode of action on essential organs (kidney, brain), Lead is unique among the metal ions in that at many of these sites, it can activate the Ca+2 dependent functions rather than inhibiting it but with metal ions, such as Cd+2, Hg+2, and the interaction is inhibitory. Iron inhibits lead and cadmium intestinal uptake due to shared absorption mechanisms, Cadmium and zinc are also known to have a variety of interactions due to the metal-binding protein metallothionein, heavy metal cadmium (Cd) induces the CYP4502A6, CYP4502E1, and CYP4502C9, Lead inhibits the CYP4502A6, CYP4501A2, metal mixtures also alter the CYP450 enzymes. Hypothesized modes of action provide a baseline for understanding potential mechanisms associated with biochemical interactions of mixture. In the second step, using omics, we evaluate the relevant concentrations of mixtures of metals in conjunction with genetic influences to identify potential pathways and mechanisms. This allows an evaluation of biological plausibility with respect to a hypothesized mode-of-action based on the best available understanding of molecular events required for evaluating adverse effects.

Keywords: metal mixtures, PBTK, mode-of-action, omics

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Environmental health and well being

Health assessment of sleep deprivation Shustanova Tatyana A Department of the general and clinical biochemistry, Rostov state medical university, Rostov-onDon, Russia

To development of the stress lead ecological disasters, extreme situations, examinations at students, the busy schedule of day, the sleep deprivation. We investigated influence of the deprivation of the sleep on health (a functional condition) and adaptation of students by means of physiological and biochemical methods. 10 students of faculty of natural sciences of the Southern federal university articipated in experiment at the age of 18-23 years. Deprivation was to the current of one days without the sleep. We carried out questioning of students, studied characteristics of the sleep, cardiovascular system, the central nervous system. We defined activity of the catalase and the content of the hemoglobin in the saliva of students. We established that many students have sleep violations, it is a lot of night sleeps and poor quality of morning awakening. At the sleep deprivation the frequency of warm reductions increases for 5,3% (р > 0,05) and level of the functional condition goes down for 19% (р ≤ 0,05). Visual and motor reaction of students increases by 7,5 % (р > 0,05), the total number of mistakes on light incentive increases for 60% (р < 0,001). We found out that at the sleep deprivation in the saliva activity of the catalase goes down for 49,7 % (р < 0,001), the content of the hemoglobin increases for 47,6 % (р < 0,001). It is known that at the moderate stress there is the inhibition of free radical processes, peroxidation of lipids and activation of the antioxidant system of the organism. However at a long tension increase of intensity of free radical processes and fall of antioxidant protection of cages – superoxide dismutases and catalases is observed. Thus, we established that at the daily deprivation of the sleep in the organism of students attention level, working capacity, adaptation goes down and prooksidant/antioxidant balance is displaced.

Keywords: сatalase, hemoglobin, saliva, health, deprivattion, sleep

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Environmental health and well being

Assessment of the environmental impact of heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the ports and bays in Montenegro Castelli Ana, Mitric Milena, Kljajic Zoran Institute of Marine Biology, University of Montenegro

In the conditions affected by human activities, concentrations of heavy metals in surficial sediments can exist in elevated levels and pose a threat for the marine ecosystem health. This is particularly evident in the ecosystems of ports, populated and industrialized coastal area. The surficial sediments were sampled in September 2014 at 11 positions, belonging to the aquatorium of the ports and bays in coastal area in Montenegro. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration and pollution level of the Cd, Hg, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr and As. The concentrations of selected heavy metals in the surficial sediment (0-2cm), for the fine fraction < 0,63µm, were obtained by using ICP-MS method. In the absence of the national criteria for the quality of sediment, the assessment based on the screening, was carried out by referring to the criteria of the UK Cefas guidelines, relating to the disposal of dredged material and the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life, based on toxicology data, as well as to the MACs listed in national Regulations on permitted amounts of hazardous and harmful substances in soil, and by comparing to the region. The range of concentration for the selected elements, in mg/kg d.w., were following: Cd (0,11-1,68), Hg (0,05-4,40), Cu (12,48-121,51), Ni (58,26-161,68), Pb (8,97-228,15), Zn (34,52-350,65), Cr (38,56-95,80) and As (9,70-39,05). In almost all location, Cd content in the sediment was of no concern and not dangerous for the protection of aquatic biota, as it is expected to cause very rare adverse biological effect. The contents of Hg, Cu, Cr and Ni in sediments could represent a potential danger for the exposed organisms, but these sediments need further testing in order to define whether their levels in sediment pose a significant threat to organisms. The As concentration in most of sediment samples should not pose a problem for the sediment disposal into the sea. However, according to the Canadian sediment quality guidelines, these sediments could occasionally be threat to the living organisms and further research on the impact of As, present in the sediment, is suggested. The Zn and Pb content in sediment samples is equally distributed from that of no concern, to one that requires further consideration and testing of sediment before its disposal into the sea. However, content of Zn in the sediment of most locations should not cause adverse effect to biota, while the Pb concentrations in the sediment of many locations could occasionally cause adverse effects. The element content above the value that points to frequent and significant threat to the living organisms, was measured for Hg (two locations) and for Cu, Pb and Zn (one location). One location had sediment (Hg) undesirable for disposal into the sea. This study was performed within the framework of the National environmental monitoring program - marine ecosystem part.

Keywords: assessment, heavy metals, sediment

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Environmental health and well being

Geospatial quantification of pollutant loads in ports Sakellariadou Fani Department of Maritime Studies, University of Piraeus

Ports are small semi-closed marine areas hosting numerous pollutant activities. They are recognized as hot spots and secondary pollutant sources for the adjacent coastal area. Major contaminants include heavy metals, organometallics, persistent organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Ports are characterized by limited water mixing with the open sea. Therefore, pollutants are accumulated in the water column and finally deposited to the sediment matrix as sea sediments are physical traps for many environmental pollutants. This mechanism can build up to chronic pollution levels that may result in ecological degradation with potential severe impacts on marine bio-communities’ and species’ well-being, the possibility of cascading effects upon human health through the food web and effects upon the economy. As sea sediments act as archive of environmental pollution trends it is accepted that dated sediment cores measurements reveal the effectiveness of convention and regulations to control and eliminate the environmental input of pollutant loads. The extent of sediment contamination should be thoroughly quantified and for this reason a procedure of specific geospatial and statistical techniques should be applied. It is well known that geostatistical techniques produce a prediction surface as well as provide some measure of the certainty or accuracy of the predictions. The application of statistical methods on the geochemical data is widely used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic over natural causes that may affect environmental status. At the present paper, a geostatistic approach was applied to generate the metal pollution dispersion to the Piraeus port area. Piraeus port is the largest Greek seaport and one of the largest ports in Europe, located at the crossroads of three continents, Europe, Africa and Asia and serving as a port of Athens since Archaic times. It includes passenger and commercial ports, a ship repair zone and a container terminal. In a first step, sediment samples from specific sample points of the Piraeus port were collected. Each of them was treated by hand for the removal of unrepresentative material and then it was homogenized. Samples were dried at 40°C and thoroughly ground using a small pestle and mortar. The samples were digested with a mixture of concentrated HNO3-HF-HClO4 in screw capped Teflon beakers on a hot plate. Metal concentrations were measured with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. In a following step a geodatabase was created by applying a GIS software known as ArcGIS, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute. ArcGIS is considered as a useful tool for working with maps and geographic information, enabling easy display and visualisation of data. Kriging geostatistical method served for the generation of the interpolation surfaces for heavy metal pollution in the study area. The paper provides maps with metal concentrations at sample locations as well as interpolated metal concentrations for the study area. Action Lists for a number of European countries were used to evaluate the contaminant scores of the sampled data. Also, raw geochemical data were treated with agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis to identify metal sources, level of occurrence and differential mobilisation. Keywords: geostatitics, metal, Piraeus, pollution, sea, sediment.

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Environmental health and well being

Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in food samples with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using QuEChERS as extraction method Tsitouridou Roxani1, Tsochatzis Emmanuil1, Gika Hellen1, Kalogiannis Stavros2 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Department of Nutrition and Diatetics, 57400, Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece

Dichloroanilines, mainly 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline, are compounds which characterized as Endocrine Disrupting compounds (EDC)and are basic by-products of pesticides degradation. Their detection and existence implies that pesticides application is involved. More specific, 3,4-dichloroaniline is the main by-product of herbicides. Detection of phthalates is correlated with extended pollution (industrial or human). Rivers receive large amounts of those pollutants, which could be easily transported to various cultivations via irrigation channels as in the case of paddy fields. Another reason that phthalates are detected in foods is due to their migration through packaging materials where they widely used. Target analytes are stable in solutions and are resistible at high temperatures. In our study a U-VD SPHER Pure TUR 100 C18-E 1.8 μm (100 x 2.0 mm) analytical column has been used at 30oC to separate 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline as well as di-n-Octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-methyl phthalate (DMP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). A gradient elution program starting from 40 % A (methanol-0.1% HCOOH)-60 % B (H2O-0.1% HCOOH) up to 100 % A was applied, over 15 min, in a flow rate of 200 μL min-1. Selected phthalates, were detected with a triple quadrupole MS, using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ionization mode. Data were collected in MRM mode under optimized conditions. Sample preparation in rice grains, was based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe). Different dispersants (GCB, PSA, C18, Alumina, Florisil) were evaluated for the effective clean-up of the sample. Results indicated good chromatographic separation, fast sample preparation procedure, low sensitivity as well as good accuracy (recoveries, %) and precision (RSD, %) and prove that the method was able to quantify the pollutants in food matrices.

Keywords: dichloroanilines; endocrine disrupting compounds, UPLC-MS

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Environmental health and well being

Sniffing out the plastic: In vitro bioaccessibility of plasticisers present in indoor dust using simulated human lung fluids Kademoglou Katerina1, Giovanoulis Georgios2, Magnér Jörgen2, Collins Chris D.1 1

University of Reading IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

2

Plasticisers are additives imparting durability, elasticity and flexibility in the manufacture of polymeric products such as films and cables. The lack of migration stability has resulted into their classification as major indoor contaminants. Due to their extensive everyday use, the process of assessing human exposure and possible health effects arising from indoor contamination only began the past decade with limited results so far. This study forms a part of the EU Marie Curie Initial Training Network “Advanced Tools for Exposure Assessment and Biomonitoring” (A-TEAM) aiming to develop and establish novel methods on human exposure biomonitoring of flame retardants and pseudo-POPs such as PEs, having as a study group indoor dust originating from N=60 participants’ houses in Norway. In the present study, we investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility (i.e. uptake/absorption) of plasticisers present in indoor dust collected from vacuum cleaner bags with respect to potential routes of exposure such as inhalation. Artificial human body fluids are used regarding the relevant exposure route, i.e. lung fluids. Indoor dust is manually sieved at <63μm using a methanol-washed metallic sieve. 200mg of dust are incubated at 37oC in 20mL of artificial lung fluid. All media incubations are conducted for 96h. After each incubation step, the samples are centrifuged at 3000rpm for 10min and the supernatant is subjected for a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using MTBE:Hexane 3:1. A selective and sensitive method to determine the analytes of interest will be employed by using gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In the present study, we present levels from a selection of established and alternative plasticisers in indoor dust and we propose an alternative route for human exposure via dust inhalation.

Keywords: bioaccessibility, phthalates, human exposure, inhalation

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Environmental health and well being

QSARs for predicting physicochemical and metabolic properties of environmental chemicals Sarigiannis Denis1, Papadaki Krystalia1, Kontoroupis Periklis2, Karakitsios Spyros1 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Natural and Renewable Resource Exploitation Laboratory, 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece

A current limitation for the introduction of Physiologically Based Bio Kinetic (PBBK) models in the risk assessment arena is the lack of the generic character of these models. In order to expand the applicability domain of PBBK models, model parameterization for data “poor” chemicals is developed using advanced Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). After an extensive literature review, several QSAR approaches were investigated for the estimation of physicochemical and biochemical parameters of environmental chemical compounds. The most appropriate of these methods include: a) the unified algorithm, which is based on tissue composition; b) the group contribution method, based on chemical structure fragments and c) the Linear Free Energy Relationship (LFER), which takes into account the physicochemical descriptors of chemical compounds. The most efficient of all the examined methods was LFER analysed using the statistical method of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The data set of 33 and 29 environmental chemicals was used in order to predict the tissue/blood partition coefficients for seven main human tissues (heart, adipose, muscle, kidney, lung, liver, brain) and the constants of metabolism (maximal velocity of metabolism, normalized to the human bodyweight and Michaelis – Menten constant), respectively. The initial data sets were divided into training (70%), validation (15%) and test (15%) set. The coefficient of determination, R2, was equal to 0.97, 0.81, 0.95 for kidney, heart, adipose/blood partition coefficient and 0.92, 0.91, 0.96, 0.81 for liver, muscle, brain and lung/blood partition coefficient, respectively. In addition, the square of correlation coefficient for maximal velocity of metabolism and Michaelis – Menten constant was equal to 0.99 and 0.82, respectively. The derived model was then applied to a satisfactory number of compounds, categorized into different chemical groups, in order to expand its domain of applicability. The significantly improved performance of LFER and ANN combination can be ascribed to its capacity to represent mathematically the complex interactions of biochemical micro-processes, which are lumped into the metabolic and physicochemical parameters. In general, the proposed QSAR model offers two major advantages: it fills the data gaps of data “poor” chemical compounds, allowing the wide use of PBBK models and it supports the “safe by design” concept for environmental chemicals, by allowing the successful prediction of their toxicokinetic behaviour based on molecular parameters.

Keywords: QSARs, artificial neural network, Linear Free Energy Relationhship, tissue/ blood partition coefficients, metabolic constants

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Environmental health and well being

Sensor data analysis for environmental exposure assessment Sarigiannis Denis1, Chapizanis Dimitrios1, Kontoroupis Periklis2, Karakitsios Spyros1 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Natural and Renewable Resource Exploitation Laboratory, 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece

The exposome represents the totality of exposures from conception onwards, simultaneously identifying, characterizing and quantifying the exogenous and endogenous exposures and modifiable risk factors that predispose to and predict diseases throughout a person’s life span. Unraveling the exposome implies that both environmental exposures and genetic variation are reliably measured simultaneously. Smartphone apps, wireless devices and the downsizing of monitoring technologies and costs make it possible for various environmental stressors and exposure factors to be measured more easily and frequently, thus providing a more reliable “time–geography of exposure” shifting the current paradigm from a population to an individual level. This study examines the feasibility of using a series of sensors for tracking personal location and activities and assessing exposure at a personal level. Four participants in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece during a summer week, wore a series of devices such as a) a temperature logger to detect changes between indoor and outdoor conditions, b) a commercially available fitness monitor to capture motion and intense of activity, c) a GPS device to track location and speed along with d) Moves, a smartphone application that enables tracking of location and activity. Additionally, a time activity diary was filled out on paper by participants each day. Location, motion and intense of activity data were used as input to an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, aiming at deriving a timeactivity model based solely on sensor data. Furthermore, by storing data in a geographic information system (GIS) format and using geographically explicit Agent-Based Modelling architecture (ABM), the trajectory of an individual participant, “agent”, was modelled and projected on a single layer, superposed onto urban air quality modelled maps of particulate matter PM concnentration in Thessaloniki. Personal exposure as well as inhale adjusted exposure to air pollutants was then evaluated by assigning pollutant concentrations to a person depending on his/her coordinates as well as their different activities, the level of intensity and the corresponding inhalation rate. Such kind of investigations offer valuable information on the utility of several commercial devices as modular add-ons to exposure studies. Data collected by “smart” devices can help provide more accurate exposure assessment for exposure simulation modelling and epidemiology studies. An improvement of environmental exposure assessment would allow us to draw better conclusions on the association between environment and health at the population level.

Keywords: exposure assessment, personal exposure, time-activity pattern, agent based modelling

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Environmental health and well being

Gene expression of hsp70 in gonads of “Mytilus galloprovincialis” as biomarker of environmental marine pollution in Campania sites Speranza Giuseppe, Ricciardiello Marica, Guerriero Giulia, Basile Adriana, Fucci Laura, Piscopo Marina Department of Biology, University Federico II Naples, Italy

Aquatic ecosystems are under constant pressure of anthropogenic pollutants originating from various sources. Simple and reliable ways have been looked for to monitor the level of particular chemicals such as heavy metals or other pollutants in the aquatic environment and to elucidate the mechanisms of pollutants uptake and storage in organisms. That resulted in a proliferation of studies based on ecotoxicological approaches using biomonitors and biomarkers. Biomonitoring involves the use of filter feeding mollusk bivalves such asMytilus galloprovincialis for their wide geographical distribution, abundance, sedentary, tolerance to environmental changes, high bioconcentration factors, population stability, size and adaptability to all experimental approaches. These organisms tend to accumulate pollutants in their tissues without showing any apparent detrimental effect. Moreover, they could reflect the real available bio-fraction of the pollutant. In order to have an early system predicting the pollution effects even at low levels, biomarkers were extensively studied. HSPs (Heat Shock Proteins) have been suggested as sensitive biomarkers of the sub-lethal or subtle toxicity of pollutants because they are involved in protecting and defending cells from environmental offenses; in addition their induction is much more responsive than traditional indices of contaminant effects. HSPs are proteins that are synthesized in response to cellular stress that induces denaturation of other proteins. The 70 kDa family (HSP70) is most highly conserved and has been most extensively studied. Four key features of HSP70 have driven its application in environmental risk assessment: (1) it is highly conserved in a wide variety of organisms from bacteria to humans; (2) it responds to a variety of environmental stresses; (3) its induction is very sensitive to environmental assaults; and (4) its expression has been correlated to other toxicological end points. Mytilus galloprovincialis hsp70 has been used as a “screening” biomarker for marine contamination evaluating its expression level in gonads and gills. Specimens were housed during summer time in Campania: Miseno (Mi2), Bagnoli Sud (BaS2) and Bagnoli Nord (BaN2). Control mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (GO2) were purchased from an aquaculture farm in Goro (Ferrara, Italy). The results obtained by Real-Time qPCR show that the expression of hsp70 gene in gonads is 2, 3 and 7 times higher than GO2 in Mi2, BaS2 and BaN2, respectively; in gills hsp70 expression level is only about 2 times higher than GO2 in all Campania sites. In conclusion the results indicate that the xenobiotics present in those sites induce almost always an increase of expression level of hsp70 gene; differences could depend on the tissue types and xenobiotics types which are present in different Campania areas. These xenobiotics could affect reproductive health of Mytilus galloprovincialis and other marine organism in these areas. This work has been funded by a National Project (PRIN 2010-2011, prot. 2010ARBLT7_001/008). Keywords: hsp70, Mytilus galloprovincialis, marine pollution, Campania

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Environmental health and well being

Analysis of the effects of Campania sea pollution on health reproductive of Mediterranean mussel Pagliarulo Vita, Guerriero Giulia, Basile Adriana, Fucci Laura, Piscopo Marina Department of Biology, University Federico II Naples, Italy

The pollution of sea water is mainly due to human activities; in fact, industries and agricultural activities determine waste discharge of various pollutants, particularly hydrocarbons and heavy metals in marine environment. The heavy metals are xenobiotics and are found primarily in coastal waters. Much work is devoted to analysis of the effects of xenobiotics in the organisms which are used to monitor Mediterranean sea; we have used the marine bivalve mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis also known as Mediterranean mussel. Mussels were housed for 30 days during summer time in three sites of Campania; particularly in the coastal site Capo Miseno (Mi2) and in polluted sites for the presence of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urban wastewater Bagnoli South (BaS2) and Bagnoli North (BaN2). Control mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (GO2) were purchased from an aquaculture farm in Goro (Ferrara, Italy). After 30 days mussels were collected and oocytes and sperms were extracted from the gonads, in order to assess the health reproductive of marine organisms in these areas. The studies were designed to evaluate the effect of pollution on the state of the three Protammine-like proteins (PLII PLIII and PLIV), necessary for the condensation of the genomic sperm DNA, being the major basic component of sperm chromatin of this organism. The analyses were performed also on the three basic proteins that are associated with oocytes DNA. The protammine-like proteins were extracted with 5% perchloric acid while proteins associated to oocytes DNA with 0.2N HCl. The latter were defined as P44, P16 and P6 on the base of their molecular weight evaluated by SDS-PAGE. The proteins were analyzed by AU-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Results show that protammine-like proteins extracted from mussels housed in Mi2 don’t present significative differences respect to those extracted from mussels GO2 while protammine-like proteins extracted from mussels housed in BaS2 and BaN2 appear mainly in the form of aggregates. The electrophoretic pattern of basic proteins from oocytes of mussels housed in Mi2, BaS2 and BaN2 resulted more altered respect to that of proteins from mussels GO2 oocytes. In fact, basic proteins appeared as aggregates already in the case of Mi2, while for BaS2 and BaN2 degradation of proteins was shown in addition to protein aggregates. To assess whether these proteins were still able to bind correctly DNA, EMSA were performed using genomic DNA extracted from sperm of GO2 mussels. Results showed a slight decrease in DNA binding affinity for the protamine-like proteins extracted from mussels housed in Mi2 while higher decrease for BaS2 and BaN2. EMSA performed using basic proteins from oocytes of mussels housed in Mi2, BaS2 and BaN2 indicate a lower DNA binding affinity of these proteins lower than those extracted from oocytes of GO2 mussels. These results indicate that the pollution can affect the properties of the sperms and oocytes peculiar proteins and then the health reproductive of Mytilus galloprovincialis and other marine organisms in these areas. This work has been funded by a National Project (PRIN 2010-2011, prot. 2010ARBLT7_001/008).

Keywords: Campania, Mediterranean Sea pollution, health reproductive, Mytilus galloprovincialis, oocytes, sperm

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Environmental health and well being

Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment Hammami Marwa Ben Moncef1, Hatira Abdessatar2, Ben Romdhane Samir3, Ben Youssef Samir3 1

Hammami Marwa Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092. and Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020 2 Abdessatar Hatira Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092 3 Samir Ben Romdhane and Samir Ben Youssef Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020

The tailings in Tunisia are a source and a threat to the degradation of mining environments. Indeed the impact study of discharges of lead from lead-zinc mine in Ghazela-Jalta region was carried out in part by sampling on agricultural land at the tailings dam, soil, plants (wheat and fenugreek), snails and water (surface and drinking) and analysis of lead and other the other physicochemical parameters. The results revealed high levels of lead exceeding the standards recognized at all ecosystem components mentioned before. Fenugreek is an accumulator lead plant compared to wheat: after harvest 5.5 ppm for wheat and 12 ppm for fenugreek seeds. These tenures exceed the standards (0.50ppm for grains, 1.00ppm to leaves and stems). For drinking water we found a concentration of 03.mg/l of lead that exceeds the standard 0.1mg/l could cause chronic lead poisoning and sometimes acute lead poisoning. Analyses of soil profiles of 50 cm show: high levels of total lead (1712.5 ppm) compared to soluble lead (2.70ppm). Thus we confirmed bioaccumulation of lead in the viscera gastropods which could be a risk and a danger to consumers. Analyses of gastropods on sale to the public showed the following RESULTS: 9.00ppm for the viscera weighing 5.57g and 7.00ppm for a weight of 4.50g (contents exceeding 4 times the norm).

Keywords: mining discharges, lead, Yalta-Ghezala, bioaccumulation, pollution, environment

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Environmental health and well being

Environmental health in industrially contaminated sites in Europe Iavarone Ivano1, Martuzzi Marco2 1

Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Italian Institute of Health (ISS), and WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health in Contaminated Sites, Rome, Italy 2 World Health Organization - Regional Office for Europe, Bonn, Germany

Early industrialization and poor environmental management practices have resulted in a multitude of sites that are heavily contaminated. In Europe, there are 340000 contaminated sites (CS) identified by the European Environment Agency. Assessments exist on the health impacts of some cases of CS, yet the overall impact of living in or close to a CS is still unknown, due to fragmentation of objectives and methods. It is urgent to promote cooperation among researchers and risk managers to identify common strategies at international level. In Italy, legislation on CS has been long in place, and national assessments have been done over at least two decades on national priority CS. The Italian SENTIERI study showed 10000 excess deaths (44 CS), and 10% excess of cancer incidence (23 CS), respectively over a ten, and an eight year-period. 60% of population living in the 300 municipalities comprised in 44 CS belongs to the highest deprivation groups. Building on this experience, and on expert consultation promoted by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and by the WHO Collaborating Centre for environmental health in contaminated sites, a COST Action “Industrially Contaminated Sites and Health Network” (ICSHNet) has been recently launched (http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/isch/Actions/IS1408). COST is the longest-running European framework supporting trans-national cooperation among researchers across Europe. The Action, coordinated by the Italian Institute of Health (ISS), aims at identifying priorities and guidance on transfer scientific evidence into the policy making process. Key aspects related to industrially CS (ICS) concern environmental contamination, economic development, social cohesion, poverty, health, well-being and social inequalities. This is because population subgroups with low socio-economic conditions often live in areas with high pollution and poor-quality housing, near industrial and waste dumping sites with limited access to a good quality health services and green space. The Action ICSHNet already involves 22 EU countries, and counts on about one hundred scientists and environmental health experts from tens of research and public health institutions. Researchers with a leading role in the Mediterranean Scientific Association for Environmental Protection (MESAEP) are already involved in the Action. A key component of the MESAEP work is on emerging pollutants and CS and the related environmental management. Its involvement in the COST action will contribute significantly to both its outreach to the scientific and environmental policy communities across the Mediterranean, and to the incorporation of knowledge, expertise and experience in dealing with ICS in both sides of the Mediterranean basin.

Keywords: environmental health, industrial contamination, well-being and inequalities

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Environmental health and well being

An investigation on impact of painting and operation emissions in a ship’s life cycle to the environment Bilgili Levent1, Celebi Ugur Bugra1, Chatzinikolaou Stefanos2, Ventikos Nikolaos2 1

Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

2

Shipbuilding and shipping industries are comprehensive and complex sectors with various types of manufacturing and operation phases. Ship manufacturing is a long-termed and complicated body of processes including mainly painting, blasting, cutting and welding and various auxiliary operations. Painting is the most important emission producer stage amongst all. Although innovative and more environmental-friendly methods were developed in recent years, traditional ship manufacturing methods, which have considerable impacts on human health and environment, are still in use extensively. Ship operation phase is the longest stage of a ship’s life cycle and due to the internal combustion occurred in main and auxiliary engines; different types of gaseous emissions are produced. Besides, various wastes are discharged into the sea in liquid and solid forms. In this study, a ship, which operates in Aegean Sea, was selected. The painting emissions, which are produced during shipbuilding, are investigated. Besides, the operation phase of the ship is investigated in terms of gaseous and particulate forms of flue gas. The impacts of these emissions to the human health and environment are examined.

Keywords: shipbuilding, painting, ship operation, ship emissions

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Environmental health and well being

A reverse dosimetry model for environmental and consumer products chemicals: The case of bisphenol-A Sarigiannis Denis1, Handakas Evangelos1, Gotti Alberto2, Karakitsios Spyros1 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece

The combination of human Physiologically Based BioKinetic (PBBK) models and biomonitoring aiming to the evaluation of environmental exposure of humans to chemicals is an ongoing research field known as exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry. In this study a reverse dosimetry model, using two different algorithms, namely Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Differential Evolution Monte Carlo (DEMC) was coupled with a generic PBBK model aiming at reconstructing exposure from biomonitoring data from industrial chemicals. The generic model was applied for the assessment of a highly controversial industrial chemical with widespread applicability in consumer goods, namely bisphenol-A (BPA). Exposure scenarios were built based on an extensive literature review of BPA exposure data and the generic PBBK model was properly parameterized. BPA is considered to be rapidly conjugated into BPA glucuronide (BPA-Glu), resulting in rapid elimination from the human body due to the water solubility of this metabolite. Exposure to BPA was reconstructed based on real-life HBM European data. Average urinary glucuronidated bisphenol-A (BPA-Glu) was 2.8 μg/L across Europe, covering different age groups. In particular the algorithm has been tested under the assumption that the average amount of 2.8 μg/L BPA-Glu to human’ s urine is the results of an ordinary adult dietary schedule that includes 3 different meals: i) breakfast at 7:00 am (dose 1), ii) lunch at 2:00 pm (dose 2) and iii) dinner at 7:00 pm (dose 3). The results of the exposure reconstruction algorithms after 1000 iterations converge to the available biomonitoring data. All the prior distribution have been moved through to the direction of the actual exposure dose. The results indicated that the overall daily intake is very low, approximately 1 μg/kg_bw/d, which is far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 50 μg/kg_bw/d proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Comparing the computation needs of the algorithms, the DEMC is 3 to 4 time slower than MCMC but the predictions have better approach to the actual value, when the algorithm were tested again synthetic data for validation purposes. The high frequency exposure interval representing the real life exposure scenario of this study increases the computation needs. The need for better awareness of biomarker levels is obvious in case of the exposure to chemical substances and more when the substances are rapidly metabolized. The algorithm of DEMC is used for first time in exposure reconstruction models providing clear benefits in terms of biomonitoring data assimilation; however, additional optimization of the code will result in smaller computational time. A generic and reliable generic (covering a large chemical space) exposure reconstruction scheme, could be a very useful tool for modern risk assessment of chemicals, utilizing the large amount of existing human biomonitoring data.

Keywords: exposure reconstruction, reverse dosimetry, BPA, genetic algorithm, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Differential Evolution Monte Carlo

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Environmental health and well being

The reactive oxidative potential from biomass emitted particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1) and its impact on human health Sarigiannis Denis, Kyriakou Stavroula, Kermenidou Marianthi, Karakitsios Spyros Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece

The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1) and its impact on human health, based on the production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Particulate matter are able to produce ROS, because they contain redox active compounds (organic constituents, metals) depending on their production sources. An extensive campaign was carried out from January to April 2013 at two locations in the urban area of Thessaloniki to determine the chemical composition of urban aerosols and to correlate their toxicity (based on the PM ability to generate ROS) with biomass combustion as a way of residential heating. MPPD Model was used in order to determine the deposition of particles across the three main regions (naso-pharyngeal, tracheo-bronchial and pulmonary) of human respiratory tract (HRT). Finally, region specific oxidative stress index is calculated across three different regions of human respiratory tract (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial and pulmonary bronchioles region). This is actually the product of the mass of different size fractioned PM, multiplied to the oxidative potential of the specific size fraction, at the HRT region of interest. This calculation forms a new exposure metric, called region Specific Oxidative Stress index (SOS), which refers to the oxidative stress associated to a specific HRT region. PM levels during the cold period where higher compared to the warmer period. In addition, PM levels in the urban background station were higher than the traffic one, indicating the strong presence of PM emission sources other than traffic. Based on additional chemical analysis of PM (levoglucosan, which is a specific biomass burning tracer), it was found that biomass burning for space heating was the reason why PM levels where higher during the cold period and especially in the urban background station. Moreover, particulate matter of urban background station not only had higher concentration values than particulate matter of traffic station, but also represented higher oxidative potential values. As a result, although exposure to PM for the people living close to the urban background station was almost 50% higher, the overall SOS index was up to 4 times higher. Although further research is needed in order to discover the mechanisms that PM induced ROS provoke respiratory, cardiovascular and other types of diseases, the use of region specific oxidative stress index allows us to better associate exposure to PM and the related health outcomes.

Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species, MPPD model, human respiratory tract (HRT)

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Environmental health and well being

WEHEAL: A personalized health smartphone application against environmental stressors and pollutants Stefanopoulos Leadros1, Handakas Evangelos2, Sarigiannis Denis2, Maglaveras Nicos1,3 1

Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Lab of Medical Informatics, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 3 Institute of Applied Biosciences, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, 60361 Thermi, Greece

Environmental pollution has become a major problem that has adversely affected the environmental quality. Hence, human health is under a significant threat revealing the need for raising awareness and unremitting information of the public. For these purposes a mobile application framework was designed in this study in order to improve the Well-being, to inform about Environmental pollution and to ameliorate HEALth (WEHEAL) of the population. One of the main scopes of the app is to provide the user with real time data, on the environmental conditions of his current location through the utilization of the built-in GPS transponder of his smartphone. The application operates by parsing the online up-to-date databases of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and cross-referencing the GPS position of the user with the nearest environmental station. The environmental pollution levels are illustrated to the user through indicators with the user also receiving suggestions for preventive actions that might be necessary. In order to ensure the user-friendliness and user-appealing of the application, certain customizable features were added so that the user is possible to store his favorite locations, set timed alerts about a location or set alerts when the pollution levels of his current location are above a threshold that could cause certain health issues (e.g. respiratory infection). The user will also receive advices regarding the minimization of exposure on environmental pollution levels. Additionally, the app keeps track of the user’s daily activities through the data from the mobile sensors as well as the available personal activities sensors. Furthermore, WEHEAL aims at combining the emotional status of the user during his daily activities by coupling a manual mental logger. Overall, the application target is to provide live feedback from the environmental stations directly to the user along with suggestions on how to protect his personal health through minimizing the exposure to environmental stressors and pollutants.

Keywords: mobile application, personal health, well-being, environmental monitoring, personal exposure

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Environmental health and well being

Assessment of health risks for vulnerable population groups posed by exposure to mercury and its compounds Horvat Milena, Snoj Tratnik Janja, Mazej Darja, Stajnko Anja, Falnoga Ingrid, Jagodic Marta, Pavlin Majda Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia

he objective of the presentation will be to underline investigation of mercury (Hg) exposure, effects, and susceptibility in Mediterranean population in early life and compare them with the outcomes of the population living in contaminated site due to historic mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia. Hair, cord blood, and breast milk samples were used to assess exposure to mercury and its compounds. Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, manganese) and essential elements (selenium, zinc, copper) were also analyzed. The results showed that the main predictor of mercury exposure in the Mediterranean population is the fish consumption demonstrated by large proportion of MeHg in biomarker samples. Population living in contaminated site exhibits higher mercury concentrations, but with smaller proportion of Hg as MeHg. This indicates the importance of speciation as well as proper use of exposure biomarkers in human biomonitoring programmes (HBM) in contaminated sites. Mercury in mother´s hair and in cord blood did not predict Bayley scores at 18 months of child age (language, cognitive and motor functions) but a moderate beneficial effect of fish consumption in pregnancy was observed for the whole PHIME population. The number of examined mother/child pairs from Idrija was too small to show any significant effect. Other chemical elements were not associated with the outcome. In terms of susceptibility, it was demonstrated that the ABC transporters appear to play a major role in transport of MeHg across the placenta and accumulation of MeHg during early development. Moreover, the retention of inorganic Hg and MeHg is modified to a different degree by polymorphism of glutathione–s–transferase gene. This again stresses the importance of speciation of Hg in exposed populations. The studies are on-going in the framework of the EU funded projects, HEALS (Health Environment associations in large population Studies) and Life+ CROME (Cross Mediterranean Heath Environment Network), which use the existing cohorts, and build on novel susceptibility markers and effect testing and integrate them within Health and Environment-wide Associations studies (EWAS) as part of the exposome approach.

Keywords: mercury, exposure, health risk, fish consumption

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Environmental health and well being

Longitudinal epidemiological study of low-level mercury exposure in susceptible population Snoj Tratnik Janja1, Miklavčič Višnjevec Ana1, Mazej Darja1, Stajnko Anja1, Krsnik Mladen2, Osredkar Josko2, Kobal Alfred B2, Kodric Janja3, Neubauer David3, Marc Janja4, Falnoga Ingrid1, Horvat Milena1 1

Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana, Slovenia University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia 3 University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Ljubljana, Slovenia 4 Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia 2

Within one of the largest study ever conducted in the general European population on the impact of mercury through food consumption (PHIME project), methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure, effects, and susceptibility in the general population in early life were investigated. The study included populations from Slovenia, Croatia, Italy and Greece. In total, approx. 1700 mother-child pairs were recruited from the participating countries, 500 from Slovenia. Mercury levels have been determined in the mother’s hair, cord blood, cord tissue, meconium and breast milk. Children were tested for neurodevelopment (Bayley III test) at 18 months of age. Glutathione related genes were studied in a subset of participating mother-child pairs as a susceptibility markers. In comparison to other countries involved, Slovenia showed low mercury exposure. In general, mercury exposure did not predict Bayley scores but a moderate beneficial effect of fish consumption in pregnancy was observed in cognitive and verbal domain. Preliminary genotyping results demonstrated that glutathione-S-transferase seems to influence retention of MeHg in the mothers. Moreover, a study including PHIME birth cohorts from Italy and Greece showed that the ABC transporters appear to play a major role in the transport of MeHg across the placenta and accumulation of MeHg during early development (1). As these genes appear to influence MeHg internal dose they might offset MeHg neurotoxicity. The studies performed so far showed that the neuro-epidemiological studies need to include a new focus on genetically susceptible groups in order to assess a more realistic potential risk of neurotoxicant exposures at low levels. In the future work, the existing Mediterranean cohorts will be included in the on-going 7th FP project HEALS and LIFE+ project CROME to identify gene variants responsible for individual’s susceptibility to selected contaminants. References (1) LLOP, Sabrine, SNOJ TRATNIK, Janja, MAZEJ, Darja, HORVAT, Milena, et al. Polymorphisms in ABC transporter genes and concentrations of mercury in newborns - evidence from two Mediterranean birth cohorts. PloS one, 2014, vol. 9/5, e97172-1-e97172-9. Keywords: mercury, prenatal exposure, fish consumption, neurodevelopment, glutathione metabolism, ABC transporters

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Environmental health and well being

Essential and toxic elements at Slovenian population: results of human biomonitoring Mazej Darja1, Tratnik Janja Snoj1, Šlejkovec Zdenka1, Jagodic Marta1, Fajon Vesna1, Stanjko Anja1, Krsnik Mladen2, Skitek Milan2, Kocman David1, Kobal Alfred B.1, Kononenko Lijana3, Horvat Milena1 Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia 3 Ministry of Health, Chemical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1 2

The main objective of the human biomonitoring programme is to provide data on exposure of the inhabitants of Slovenia to environmental chemicals (pollutants) and to look at spatial differences in exposure. The study population includes lactating women who have given birth for the first time and men from the same area in the age from 20-40 years who met the inclusion criteria. Twelve areas in Slovenia covering urban, rural and potentially contaminated area due to past human activities were chosen. A total of 1096 persons were sampled (535 women and 561 men)*. In the first stage of analysis, we monitored the concentration of toxic elements (cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic) and essential elements (selenium, copper and zinc) in blood, breast milk, urine and/or hair and biochemical markers of kidney damage in urine. In the second phase of analysis determination of POPs (dioxins, furans, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated flame retardants) will be done. Exposure of general population to toxic elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic is low and generally do not pose a risk to the population under investigation. The results of analysis are comparable with the results of similar studies in other countries. Results of the analysis for essential elements (selenium, copper and zinc) are within the ranges given by international organizations and are comparable with other studies elsewhere in the world, which means that there was no noticeable lack or excess of these elements in participating subjects except in some individuals. The data obtained will allow a health risk assessment of Slovenian population as well as further development and implementation of risk reduction measures. * Recruitment and sampling phase was implemented by the help of former regional Institutes of Public Health, which are now joined within National Institute of Public Health, and regional hospitals and health centres.

Keywords: human biomonitoring, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, essential elements

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Environmental health and well being

Impact of environmental factors on the fate of disabilities, in the province of Béni –Mellal, Morocco Habbari Khalid, Batoui Sanae, Hasnaoui Mustapha Lfe Sciences department, Sciences and Technics Faculty, Sulta Moulay Slimane University

When it is in a context such as that of developing countries, the concept of disability is characterized by very singular trends. This is particularly Béni-Mellal we decided to focus our work dealing with issues related to hearing impairment, motor and mental. The objectives in this research are to evaluate the etiology of these impairments in children and adults. Our sample consisted of 415 persons with Disabilities, 208 of whom had sensorineural hearing loss, 144 people had motor disabilities and 63 people had mental retardation. According to our results the main causes of sensorineural hearing loss were extrinsic causes (prenatal, perinatal and postnatal) with (55.7%); bacterial meningitis and hyperthermia are the major causes of acquired deafness in children less than 10 years with 3.8% and 8.1% respectively. Prenatal extrinsic causes were the main causes of motor impairment especially in children crippled brain motor with 30.6%, perinatal and postnatal extrinsic causes accounted for 16.7% and 9.7% respectively. In people with mental retardation, prenatal genetic causes represented 46.6% dominated by children with Down syndrome, perinatal causes were 12.7% of the sample and postnatal causes 12.7% of cases. In general, the events during the prenatal period appear to have a major impact on the occurrence of disabilities especially in children. Presbycusis, noise and injuries are the leading causes of sensorineural hearing loss in adults, head injuries, rheumatism, and malignant tumors are the leading causes of motor impairment in adults.

Keywords: deafness, motor disability, mental disability, prenatal causes, perinatal causes, postnatal causes, children, adults, survey, Béni Mellal.

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Environmental health and well being

Recent satellite technologies for soil salinity assessment with special focus on Mediterranean countries Gorji Taha1, Sertel Elif2, Tanik Aysegul1 1

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering,Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Geomatics Engineering,Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Soil salinization is one of the most important phenomena accelerating the land degradation processes which in turn cause loss of soil productivity and reduction in biomass production. Due to high spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity, mapping and tracking its changes is an essential issue for anticipating natural disaster like desertification and for mitigating severe economic and social consequences in especially arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Over the past few decades, remote sensing technologies highly contribute to rapid and accurate soil salinity assessments. These approaches are fast, non-destructive and can potentially be used to map topsoil salinity after conducting digital image processing techniques. Multispectral and particularly, hyperspectral remotely sensed data are an important source for monitoring soil salt content on a large scale. Provision of a relatively cheap multispectral data at short, repeated intervals has allowed detecting changes in soil salinity and assessing its speed of occurrence. In previous studies, barriers such as interference due to the presence of vegetation restricted the precision of mapping salinity; however, more recent studies tested some new methods for predicting soil salinity with improved precision by using hyperspectral data. The knowledge and data gained from remote sensing of saline soils is highly utilized as a part of worldwide agricultural activities. Prevailing climatic conditions alongside using old irrigation technologies in the Mediterranean countries put forward the common soil salinity problem. Remotely sensed images taken over a period of time are used to monitor the advancement of the reclamation projects in these countries to ensure that the processes are being carried out appropriately and that the soil is being returned to its original condition and to predict areas at risk. The main objective of this study is to review the most recent remote sensing applications for soil salinity assessment via various multispectral data, such as LANDSAT, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), SPOT, IKONOS, Quick Bird and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) series of satellites, as well as hyperspectral data such as HuanJing (HJ)-HSI and Hyperion EarthObserving 1 (EO-1). Furthermore, utility of recent remote sensing analysing techniques and methods including linear spectral unmixing, supervised maximum likelihood classification, visual image analysis, Guassian maximum likelihood algorithm, principal components analysis, inverted Gaussian function, partial least square regression technique, data mining techniques, multiyear maxima and multi-scale modelling, artificial neural network and regression–kriging approaches will be discussed in the full manuscript. Examples of the temporal and spatial changes in salt- affected Mediterranean soils will be referred. In addition, various spectral bands which are sensitive to soil salinity for each multispectral data will be introduced and also explanations will be given about the generation of salinity and vegetation indices by combining appropriate spectral bands in order to achieve most significant correlation with ground electrical conductivity values. Keywords: soil salinity, remote sensing, spectral indices 88 | P a g e

Environmental health and well being

Effect of di-butylphthalate spillage scenarios on the general layout of a plant Avsar Edip1, Demir Sinem2, Iskender Fatma Gulen2, Germirli Babuna Fatos2 1

Bitlis Eren University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 13000, Bitlis, Turkey 2 Istanbul Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Di-butylphthalate is a commonly used auxiliary chemical in many different industrial sectors, such as paint, plastic, automotive, textile etc. Being an endocrine disrupting chemical, di-butylphthalate is a carcinogenic and toxic material. Di-butylphthalate causes serious health effects in workplaces. Exposure levels of this chemical by inhalation route are estimated to be below 2 mg/m3 with a reasonable worst case of 5 mg/m3averaged over a shift, with possible short-term exposure levels of up to 10 mg/m3.In this respect the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the di-butylphthalate spillage scenarios on the general layout of a plant using this auxiliary. For this purpose IAQX Version1.0 Model for single component solvent is used. Thes pillage of 2, 5, 15, 20 and 30 liters of di-butylphthalate within production chambers of 10×10×3 m3 and 20×15×3 m3 are simulated by using 3 different air exchange rates (8 times in 8 hours; 16 times in 8 hours; 24 times in 8 hours). Besides the effect of immediate cleaning within half an hour after the spillage and nocleaning at all conditions are assessed. The results obtained are evaluated.

Keywords: di-butylphthalate, spillage scenarios, exposure levels

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Environmental health and well being

The potential physical impacts of microplastics on Istanbul coastal area Sivri Nuket, Kiremitci Vildan Zülal, Özcan Hüseyin Kurtuluş, Çullu Ahmet Faruk Department of Environmental Engineering, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

Large water masses on which transportation, recreational activities and fishery are common have been preferred for the purpose of discharge with or without treatment of wastewaters in recent years. Not only wastewater but also solid wastes may reach coastal ecosystems through similar ways. The increasing pollution leads to the deterioration in the water quality of the region as well as the quality of the recreation areas in parallel with the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions in seas. Therefore, plastic packages and plastics wastes being formed later on, no matter how meticulously they are collected, may lead to adverse effects on marine ecosystems in terms of their content. In coastal areas where macro plastics are detected, the entrance of materials into the marine ecosystem is highly easy as a result of climatic abiotic factors. The macro plastics that reach seas and oceans disintegrate in time and get a microplastic size and thus pose a threat for the marine organisms. This study aims to determine the possible entrance ways of macro and micro plastics, which were detected after they had been dimensioned in coastal area, into the marine ecosystem and their possible effects on living ecosystem. The studies which have newly been started on microplastics, reveal the need for making a policy by predicting the conditions of globalized world apart from the country conditions. The role of researchers in the monitoring of plastic pollution will increase in the coming years, and the truly “big” data they document must become part of the science of plastic pollution. For the present, it is real that a few scientists around the Turkey are engaged in attempting to understand the consequences of the problem of plastic that contaminates seas.

Keywords: antropogenic litter, plastic, microplastic, recreation areas, Turkish Seas.

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Environmental health and well being

Experimentally investigation for environmentally blasting process of AL 5083-H116 plates Bilgili Levent1, Şenöz Kutsi Mert1, Alankaya Veysel2, Çelebi Uğur Buğra1 1

Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Turkish Naval Academy, Istanbul, Turkey

2

Contamination of blasting abrasives and paint chips during surface preparation before paint applications causes the blasting process to be the most significant source of waste for metal working industries. This pollution contains toxic materials which are destructive for environment and poisonous for personnel. Therefore, replacement of conventional processes with less contaminating, more environmentally safe alternative methods is crucial. In this study; blasting processes are experimentally investigated to perform effectiveness comparison between conventional methodologies and dry-ice blasting as convenient alternative. The performance of steel balls, cast iron and dry-ice blasting materials are observed on painted plates. 5083-H116 type aluminium is chosen for experiments which are preferred as a common construction material because of its corrosion resistance and high stiffness to weight ratio. Results are presented as the cleaning performance at specific time limit and surface roughness of the material.

Keywords: blasting process, dry-ice blasting, waste materials, paint removal, environmentally safe process

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Environmental health and well being

Internal dosimetry metrics for risk assessment of endocrine disruptors – the case of bisphenol A Sarigiannis Denis1, Karakitsios Spyros2, Handakas Evangelos1, Gotti Alberto1 1

Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Natural and Renewable Resource Exploitation Laboratory, 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece

A major outcome of INTEGRA project (CEFIC LRI) is a computational platform that integrates multimedia environmental, (external) exposure and toxicokinetic modelling within a dynamic framework in time. Use of toxicokinetic modelling transforms exposure/risk assessment of environmental chemicals since it allows risk characterization to be based on internal dosimetry metrics. In this way high throughput system data such as the ones generated by Tox21 in vitro testing can be used, towards the nowadays need of “exposure based risk assessment”. This opens the way towards a higher level of assessment that incorporates refined exposure (tissue dosimetry) and toxicity testing (Biological Pathway Altering Dose – BPAD). The applicability of INTEGRA was tested on bisphenol-A. Several exposure scenarios were investigated, (a) incorporating data from external exposure assessment based on food residues and food consumption patterns, (b) from exposure reconstruction of real life EU-wide human biomonitoring data using exposure reconstruction algorithms. Reconstructed exposure was then run in forward mode in the PBBK model, so as to estimate the Biologically Effective Dose (BED) in the target tissue. In order to associate the risk of the several exposure scenarios based on BED derived by the PBBK model, two different exposure metrics were used: - The Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 50 μg/kg_bw/d proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, was translated into internal exposure, found to correspond to a concentration of 0.16 μg/L of free plasma BPA. - In vitro, the ToxCast assays provided six ER agonist or binding AC50 values for BPA, ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 μM. To calculate a conservative Biological Pathway Altering Dose (BPAD), the lowest ToxCast AC50 was selected (0.64 μM for Attagene Factorial cis ERE assay). This estimated concentration (145 μg/l), is 3 orders of magnitude higher than the equivalent derived from the EFSA TDI (0.16 μg/l). The assessment indicated that taking into account age dependent bioavailability differences of BPA, specific exposure scenarios (i.e. bottle fed neonates and premature infants hosted in intensive care units) result in BED close to the EFSA TDI legislative threshold. Use of the ToxCast AC50 BPAD as an internal exposure risk characterization metric, resulted in increased margins of safety compared to conventional exposure/risk characterization.

Keywords: external exposure, internal exposure, modelling, bisphenol-A

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Environmental health and well being

A methodological approach in quantifying uncertainties of air quality health impact assessments Sarigiannis Denis A1, Kontoroupis Periklis1, Schieberle Christian2, Miller Brian G3, Singh Vikas P4 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Institute for Energy and Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany 3 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 4 Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research (CAIR), University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom 2

Evaluation of uncertainty in complex health impact assessment of air pollution is usually disregarded regardless of its importance. The reasons behind this arise due to the inherent complexity in the processes involved, the lack of knowledge on the parameter distribution and most importantly due to the lack of a framework to assess the uncertainty. This paper introduces a methodological framework to explicitly estimate uncertainties associated with the health impact from exposure to pollutants. In this regard the proposed uncertainty framework consists of a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessment tools categorized into three tiers: tier 1 corresponds to the qualitative part, where all sources of uncertainty are tabulated in a matrix, annotating uncertainty’s direction, level and appraisal of the knowledge-base; tiers 2 and 3 involve the quantitative evaluations of those sources of uncertainty with the highest degree of influence to the final result(s), provided that sufficient information and resources are available. The statistical methods employed include screening methods utilizing the local and global sensitivity algorithms (tier 2), the Bayesian theory and Monte Carlo Simulation methods (tier 3). The advantages of the proposed methodology cover the entire spectrum of environmental health impact assessment. In brief, uncertainty could be identified in every section of the full chain health impact and quantified via probability density functions. Firstly, the sensitivity methods are used, to compute the contribution of each input parameter to the model output and hence exclude those parameters with minimal influence. Secondly, the Bayesian theory is utilized to update uncertainties from multiple models and ground observation stations. Lastly, the Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the propagation of uncertainty along the chain of calculations.

Keywords: global sensitivity, Monte Carlo Simulation, urban increment models, life tables

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Environmental health and well being

A stochastic approach to spatially disaggregate pesticide usage data for health impact assessment studies Kontoroupis Periklis1, Sarigiannis Denis A.1, Karabelas Anastasios J.2 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece 2

Plant protection products, commonly referred to as pesticides are known to cause serious health problems to farmers, workers and bystanders. While pesticide usage data are necessary for the health impact assessment, they are scarce and not in adequate resolution. This work presents a methodology to disaggregate data to a high resolution level, by allocating pesticide quantity to crops stochastically. From an initial Active Substance (AS) list and the corresponding typical dosages, a distribution of pesticide usage per crop and unit area is estimated. Sampling techniques are used to randomly spatially re-allocate pesticide quantities, ensuring that the area covered matches the ‘sprayed’ crop area. This procedure is repeated for a number of random grid cell realizations in order to deduce a probability density function of pesticide usage per active substance to crops. The formulated distributions once parameterized, are used in a nonlinear optimization routine, to select quantities with the lower uncertainty. In this regard it is ensured that the constraints of crop area per unit cell and pesticide quantity are not violated.

Keywords: plant protection products, optimization, uncertainty, spatial re-allocation

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Environmental health and well being

Cancer risk of PAHs in biomass emitted particulates Sarigiannis Denis, Karakitsios Spyros, Zikopoulos Dimitris, Nikolaki Spyridoula, Kermenidou Marianthi Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

In this study, the carcinogenic risk from poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter, in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece is examined. A campaign of PM measurements in air was conducted during a warm and a cold period, in years 2012-2013. PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected in Teflon filters using six low-flow air samplers, in three pollution monitoring stations. The monitoring stations constituted of a representative station of the background urban pollution, a traffic-induced station. The samplers operated at a flow-rate of 38 L∙min-1, with a collection time per sample of 24 h. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the Teflon filters using an extraction method. Nineteen individual PAHs were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system (GC/MS) and concentrations in air were calculated for all monitoring stations. The potential risk of exposure to the mixture of PAHs in air was assessed using the toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) approach based on Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The BaP-TEQ (Toxicity Equivalent Quotient) (carcinogenic equivalent, in ng/m3) was calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each PAH compound with its TEF for cancer potency relative to BaP. The TEQ was multiplied with the Inhalation Unit Risk to compute the urban population’s risk. Results show that particulate concentrations (PM2.5, PM10) are higher in the background station compared to the traffic-induced station for the same days of monitoring. Similarly, the same trend is observed from the analysis of PAHs concentrations. This is attributed to the increased biomass burning in the area close to the background station. While in the past, pollution was credited to the traffic in the city centre and industry in the western suburbs, currently there is a shift in pollution, in favor of the domestic heating. This is evident from the latest measurements in years 2011 and 2012 from urban monitor sites. From analysis of levoglucosan - an indicator compound for the presence of emissions from biomass burning in samples of atmospheric PM-, it is estimated that the percentage of PM concentration attributed to biomass burning is about 34% in the urban background station. Therefore, TEQ due to biomass burning is calculated as 34% of the TEQ derived from the urban background data. Population’s cancer risk attributed to biomass burning and to the traffic pollution is estimated.

Keywords: PAH exposure, biomass burning, Human respiratory Tract Deposition Model, internal dose, lung cancer risk, children susceptibility

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Climate change mitigation and adaptation

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Temporal and spatial analysis of tornado cases in Turkey Yavuz Veli1, Cavus Pelin Cansu1, Ozen Cem1, Temiz Caner1, Ozdemir Emrah Tuncay2, Denı̇z Alı̇1 1

Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 General Directorate of Meteorology, Atatürk Airport Meteorology Office, Yeşilköy, Istanbul, Turkey

The importance of meteorology has increased considerably due to increasing number of natural disasters in recent years. In summer extremely above the normal level temperatures, in winter extremely below the normal level temperatures, heavy rainfalls, extreme winds, large hail, lightning and tornadoes have started to seeing more in Turkey. In this study, tornado, one of the rare event that we begin to see much more in recent years, was investigated. Both tornado types which occuring on land or sea examined together in this study. After giving general information about the tornado, the first analysis was made that is about the number of tornadoes between the years 1997 and 2015. Then cities seen the tornado and how many tornado events seen in this period was investigated, these cities has been examined with regard to how the tornado is suitable for the region. After that statistical analysis was performed regarding mortalities caused by the tornadoes. According to the results obtained from the study, 68 % of tornadoes occured on land and 32 % of tornadoes occured on the sea. 17 people died and 71 people were injured in this period because of tornadoes. All mortal cases have occured as a result of tornado occured on land. A total of 263 cases examined in the study, 90 cases occured in Antalya and Mersin, Muğla and İstanbul was followed it respectively. Only in Antalya, 3 people lost their lives and 25 people injured result of tornadoes.

Keywords: tornado, Turkey, Antalya, rare events

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Temporal and spatial analysis of hail in Turkey Cavus Pelin Cansu, Yavuz Veli, Ozen Cem, Temiz Caner, Deniz Ali Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Hail has very important place throughout human history. Classification of the disaster of the hail event are associated with moral and material damages. Due to the large size of the hailstone and its rapid falling speed can cause so many damages on transportation, human life, environment, vegetation, animals etc. In this study, hail event analysis made for Turkey between the years 1999 and 2015. Firstly, general information about hail were given and then annual and monthly trend analysis were performed. After this, statistical analysis for urban and regional were investigated. Detailed synoptic analysis was performed for the selected day when hail event occured from the review of 1476 cases. According to obtained results of the analysis, hail events in Turkey was followed by a linear increasing trend with in the selected period.

Keywords: hail, hailstone, Turkey, disaster

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Seasonality and persistence investigation of extreme precipitations for Eastern Black Sea region Yılmaz Mustafa Utku1, Özgür Evren2 1

Kirklareli University, Department of Civil Engineering, Kirklareli, Turkey Istanbul Technical University, Department of Meteorology, Istanbul, Turkey

2

Turkey has 646 mm annual precipitation normal with regard to 1981-2010 reference period. It is seen that Black Sea Region has the highest average annual precipitation with 885 mm. Especially, eastern part of the region is the most rainy area in Turkey. With respect to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, it was presented that there will be changes in periods while the extreme precipitation occurs as a result of climate change. Thus, it is clearly said that the number of flood events will increase all around the world, including Turkey. In the study, seasonalities of extreme precipitations for Eastern Black Sea Region were examined by using directional statistical method. Daily total precipitation data for 6 meteorological stations were used in order to apply the method. The observation period was chosen as 1965-2014 for 5 stations and 1962-2011 for Trabzon station. Firstly, the threshold value for extreme precipitation was selected as 20 mm. Then, different threshold values were used until 60 mm precipitation. In directional statistical method, individual dates of extreme precipitations are defined as directional variables and directional mean and variance are calculated. Extreme precipitation dates are being converted to angular values and these days are being considered as a unit vector which has direction ϴ. In polar coordinate, the measures of directional mean and variance have been expressed as a vector that has direction θ ̅ and magnitude r. While applying calculations, total time period was divided into 5 subperiods for all stations and changes of persistence in extreme precipitation days as far as subperiods were presented. Persistence is a very substantial concept especially in climate studies. The r value explained above can be considered as a measure of persistence, as well. In the study, persistence values for each period was calculated and investigated separately. The results obtained from seasonality and persistence analysis will be helpful in order to detect the continuity of extremes and investigate the distribution of severe precipitations within a year.

Keywords: seasonality, precipitation, persistence, Turkey

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Turkey’s technıcs and technologıes for combatıng desertıfıcatıon Çetı̇n Mustafa Yeşil Türkiye Ormancılar Derneği

In 1992 World Summit desertification were brought at the world's agenda. Turkey became a party to UN Convention to Combat Desertification in 1998. In frame of reconstruction works on combating desertification in Turkey, the Directorate General of Combating Desertification and Erosion was created under the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs in 2011. In Turkey; significant practices are made and are continuing for combating desertification. Particularly, the technics and technologies used are shared with neighboring countries. In this notification; primarily Turkey’s technics and technologies on desertification and its capacity on this subject will be mentioned.

Keywords: desertification, technique, technology, Türkiye, sustainable

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Tillage effects on basic properties of an calcareous soil under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions in Morocco Mohammed Belmekki1, Mohamed Boughlala2, Bouchaib Bencharki1 Laboratoire d’Agroalimentaire et Santé. Univ Hassan I, Settat 26000 Morocco Regional Agricultural Research Center of Settat, Settat 26000 Morocco

1 2

Water scarcity and soil degradation are serious problems threatening agricultural development in semi-arid areas of Morocco. Actual land uses based upon abusive tillage, overgrazing, overintensification and inappropriate crop management are major contributors to soil destabilization through erosion processes and to crop failure through extreme soil dryness. It is though suggested that conservation agriculture (CA) based on no-tillage (NT) or minimum tillage systems could solve the problems of soil erosion, soil fertility and soil with low water-holding capacity. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of NT in its various options of residue cover under wheat rotations on restoring the quality of fragile clay soils such as calcixeroll. This search was based on a long-term experiment (Experimental Station of Sidi El Aydi) establishmed in 1994 inorder to compare the sustainability of a range of rotation, tillage and stubble management systems on a clay soil. Four tillage treatments were compared: conventional off-set disking, no-tillage system with three levels of residue: bare no-till (NT0), 50% of residue cover (NT50) and full surface residue cover (NT100). Three rotation treatments were tested: continuous wheat, fallow–wheat and fallow–wheat–barley. Another experiment on direct seeding with three rotations was conducted in farmer field on farm demonstration plots in the comune of Gdana since 2007. Severeal physicochemical parameters were investigated at four different depth layers (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 et 1030 cm, these parameters are: soil moisture, soil aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM), soil pH, and soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) content. The results show that no-tillage system allows an improvement of aggregation and OM content of the sampled horizons, especially in the upper horizon when full cover is applied. Soil tillage is more degrading than no-tillage without residue cover. It was found also that the continuous wheat rotation has improved the structural aspects of the soil and allowed the accumulation of organic matter compared with rotations including fallow. The lasting benefits from no-tillage system on soil quality were confirmed in on farm demonstration plots. After a period of time, NT system had a significant impact on different physical and chemical parameters of soil compared to conventional tillage system, especially at the 0-50 mm horizon. There was an increase in SOM content and a slite decrease in soil pH. The performance of soil aggregates was better with regard to different stresses caused by the mechanical tests and there was a net improvement in soil fertility in terms of N, P and K soil content. Also, the continuous application of no-tillage system in the farm has improved significantly the water holding capacity of the soil. Consequently, CA development and adoption in Morocco can be a potential solution addressing major challenges including resource degradation, land and water scarcity and climate change.

Keywords: no-tillage, crop residue, rotation, soil organic matter, soil moisture, aggregate stability

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Soil characterization and comparison of organic matter quality and quantity of two stands under different vegetation cover on Monte Faito (Campania, S-Italy) Curcio Elena, Danise Tiziana, Innangi Michele, Alvarez Romero Marta, Coppola Elio, Fioretto Antonietta, Papa Stefania Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon pool, of which about 20% is stored in forest soils. In a climate change scenario, it is more and more important to understand mechanisms and factors that govern organic C sequestration, stabilization and dynamics in forest soils, as their C has a crucial role in mitigating the atmospheric CO2. In this view, decomposition of plant material is a keystone phenomenon in regulating forests’ C cycle. Climate affects litter decomposition rate both directly and indirectly. Directly, by influencing microbial activity and/or microbial species composition; indirectly, by altering the quantity and quality of organic detritus delivered to the soil. Different ecosystems likely show different mechanisms and sequestration rates of C in soil and react differently to climate changes. On this basis, the present work aims to (a) characterize soils and compare organic matter quality and quantity in two forest stands with different vegetation cover on the same parent material (Fagus sylvatica L as a broad-leaved and Pinus nigra as a conifer) and (b) evaluate the distribution and activity of the microbial biomass along the soil profiles. The research was carried out on Monte Faito, Campania – S. Italy, along the decomposition’s continuum (from litter layers to 140 cm soil depth) in autumn 2012. In order to reach our goals we evaluted: standing litter, SOM fractions (TOC, TEC, HA, FA, NH and humin), cellulose, lignin, N, C contents, microbial and active fungal biomass, enzyme activities involved in OM degradation (cellulase, xylanase, dehydrogenase and chitinase). Statistical analyses have been performed in order to highlight the influences of the concurrent examined parameters on C sequestration. The two stands have clearly revealed differences both in chemical-physical and biological parameters, which put forward a clear separation of the two profiles, even though the parent material is the same.

Keywords: broad-leaved and conifer forests - quality of soil organic matter- microbial biomass

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Impact of no-tillage systems on quality of a calcixeroll soil in Chaouia plain (western Morocco) Mohammed Belmekki1, Mohamed Boughlala2, Ossama Elgharras3, Bouchaib Bencharki1 1

Faculty of Sciences and Techniques/UniversityHassan1,Settat,Morocco Laboratory of Ag.Economy Regional Center of Agricultural Research, Settat,Morocco 3 Laboratory of Ag.Engineering.Regional Center of Agricultural Research,Settat,Morocco 2

In the Chaouia region, water scarcity and low soil quality are the two main constraints for the development of durable agriculture. Removal of crop residues, mechanical methods of seed bed preparation and overgrazing makes the situation even worse by further destroying soil structure that tends to hold particles and making them more vulnerable to erosion, which affects negatively the soil production potential. It is though suggested that Conservation agriculture (CA) with no-tillage or direct drilling and on the use of crop residue mulch could provide a solution to this problem. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of (NT) in its various options of residue cover under wheat rotations on the soil moisture, soil organic matter, pH, aggregate stability, soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),and potassium (K) content of a calcareous soil at four different depth layers (0-5, 510, 10-15 et 10-30 cm. This research was carried out in farmer field on farm demonstration plots in the commune of Gdana and on experimental Station of Sidi El Aydi. Four tillage treatments were compared: conventional off-set disking, no-tillage system with three levels of residue: bare no-till (NT0), 50% of residue cover (NT50) and full surface residue cover (NT100). Likewise, three rotation treatments were tested: continuous wheat, fallow-wheat and fallow-wheat-barley. The results showed that the No-tillage system had a significant impact on different physical and chemical parameters of soil compared to conventional tillage system, especially at the 0-50 mm horizon. There was an increase in soil organic matter content and a decrease in soil ph. The results showed also that besides resistance of calci xeroll soil under NT to slow wetting test, the soil could resist also of the fast wetting test. Furthermore, the continuous application of no-tillage system in the farm has improved significantly the water holding capacity of the soil. Consequently, CA development and adoption in Chaouia region may prove to be an alternative land management tool able to mitigate/reverse land degradation and to improve farmers’ livelihood""

Keywords: No-tillage, NPK, soil organic matter, soil quality, structural stability

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Climate change impact on photodegradation and ecotoxicity of PAHs in Mediterranean soils Schuhmacher Marta1, Marquès Montse1, Mari Montse1, Sierra Jordi3, Domingo José Luís2, Nadal Martí2 1

Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain 2 Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain 3 Laboratory of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Climate change is one of the most important problems to be faced by the mankind in the 21th century. Specifically, one of the consequences of climate change that has recently attracted most attention is its potential to alter the environmental distribution and biological effects of chemical toxicants, therefore having a significant impact on human health. As climate change is already altering temperature and solar radiation, among other parameters, an impact on the fate, transport and distribution pathways of semivolatile organic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is estimated. PAHs are a family of widespread environmental pollutants, whose chemical structure is based on two or more fused benzene rings. They tend to deposit via dry and wet processes on the soil top layer, where they accumulate due to their hydrophobic nature and stable chemical structure. Therefore, soil is considered as one of the major sinks of atmospheric PAHs. This study was aimed at estimating changes in PAH concentrations and ecotoxicological levels in two typical Mediterranean soils as a consequence of temperature and solar radiation exposure. Arenosol soil samples corresponded to Haplic Arenosol, an acidic and coarse-textured soil with granitic origin. In turn, Regosol soil samples belonged to Calcaric Regosol, which is formed of sedimentary materials and fine-textured soil. Ten grams of dry soil were deployed in glass petri dishes and contaminated by using a mixture of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs. Soil samples were subjected to light radiation in a climate chamber under 2 different climate scenarios. Firstly, a current Mediterranean climate (20ºC and 9.6 W/m2) was simulated. Secondly, the extreme IPCC-based climate scenario RCP 8.5 scenario (24 ºC and 24 W/m2) was performed. Simultaneously, dark control samples, covered by aluminum foil, were concurrently incubated in the climate chamber. Soil samples were removed the following days: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14 and 28. PAHs were extracted from soil samples and PAH concentrations were analyzed by means of GC-MS while ecotoxicity levels were further controlled by Microtox® test. The results showed variations of the PAH concentrations in the exposed soils according to the molecular weight of the compound, soil texture, climate conditions and time of exposure. PAHs suffered significant volatilization at higher temperature, being those of lower molecular weight completely volatilized in the extreme climate change scenario. In Arenosol soil, higher photodegradation rates of PAHs were found as temperature and solar radiation increased. In contrast, in fine-textured soil similar photodegradation rates were observed in all the assessed scenarios. It may be explained by the content of photocatalysts in soil, such as oxides of iron, aluminum, manganese and titanium. Regarding to Microtox® results, soil samples became more detoxified over time in the current climate scenario, showing a higher detoxification rate in fine-textured soil. Lower changes in toxicity levels when simulating the climate change scenario may be related to the potential creation of toxic metabolites. Hence, soil detoxification is likely to be dependent on soil properties and climate conditions. Keywords: climate change, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, photodegradation, ecotoxicity, soil, Mediterranean 104 | P a g e

Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Resilience of restored ecosystems as the basic attribute which mitigates the effects of climate change: Α review of the literature Zevgolis Yiannis, Troumbis Andreas Department of Environment, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece

The degradation and loss of ecosystems due to anthropogenic pressures, is considered to be the primary cause which threatens not only biodiversity, but ecosystem services deriving from it as well as. Ecological Restoration is considered to be the most significant management approach which causes or accelerates the recovery of a disturbed ecosystem. The objectives concerning the restoration of degraded ecosystems, require the coexistence of nine ecological attributes, which have been described by the Society of Ecological Restoration (SER). These features, even though they are referring to the recovery of the ecosystem, they actually fulfill multiple human values. The major attribute that must be displayed by a restored ecosystem, is resilience. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to measure the other eight attributes. Resilience can be measured by elasticity and amplitude. Elasticity is the rate at which an ecosystem returns to its historic conditions, while amplitude indicates the width to which the ecosystem can endure itself. The significance of resilience has been recognized by the 2010 Aichi Convention on Biological Diversity. In this Convention, it was stated that at least 15% of disturbed ecosystems must be restored by 2020, in parallel with the strengthening of the ecosystems’ resilience which contributes to the mitigation of the effects of climate change. Moreover, according to The New York Declaration on Forests, the parties have supported the reversal of deforestation and the restoration of forest and grassland ecosystems, in response to the impacts of climate change. Considering the aforementioned, the importance of resilience is clearly perceived as a goal of ecological restoration, and therefore the purpose of this research, is investigating resilience as a mitigating component of the effects of climate change. For achieving this, we investigated articles concerning restoration projects that were published in scientific journals ("Restoration Ecology", "Ecological Management & Restoration», “Ecological Restoration"). More specifically, we examined: a) how and to what extent the attributes described by SER, were measured, b) if the restoration objectives of each project, had included resilience measurement, c) which restoration technique that had been used, was optimal for measuring resilience, d) which type of ecosystems from those who had been studied, had responded better to disturbances and e) if the degree of deviation from the "normal" state of each ecosystem had been a critical factor for measuring resilience. Under identical conditions, all restoration efforts would reset the disturbed ecosystems in a state where all the attributes would appear. However, results have demonstrated that: a) the most studied attributes were those concerning species composition, b) few restoration projects encompassed resilience measurements, c) there wasn’t any optimal restoration technique for finding resilience, d) there wasn’t any specific type of ecosystem which responded better to a disturbance and e) the higher the degree of a disturbance, the greater the inability of an ecosystem to absorb it. The difficulty in measuring resilience leads to unsafe conclusions, with regard to the ability of an ecosystem to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Keywords: climate change mitigation, restoration ecology, resilience

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Remote sensing and GIS based prediction of the rainfall on Mosul city Şeker Dursun Zafer1, Qassim Sahar Saeed2, Yahya Bashar Muneer1 1

ITU, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey University of Mosul

2

The aim of this research is to predict a short-term forecast of rain in city of Mosul, since water plays an important role in all fields of life. This prediction is based on taking a group of infrared satellite images for moving clouds in three consecutive days, from 27th to 29th of January, 2013 in order to forecast the rain in the city of Mosul. For this; spatial relationship is established between the cloud movement and the wind direction. In order to get a short-term prediction, Radial Basis Function (RBF) method is used for Geo-statistics analysis, which determines the center that coordinates clouds centers, which cause rainfall on the city. At the same prediction days, a series of clouds is used in the analysis to find the exact movement during the three days in one hour and the base for their movement step by step every 6 hours, which was used to find the spatial relationship between cloud movements on earth and wind speed. Eventually, a wide range database was established with several parameters such as the distance, speed, direction and time.

Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), cloud tracking, Radial Basis Functions (RBF), precipitation, satellite data

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Applicatıon of terrestrial laser scanner for quantification of beach profiles Şeker Dursun Zafer1, Koroglu Aysun1, Kabdasli Sedat1, Karabork Hakan2, Goktepe Ayhan2, Varol Evren1 1

ITU, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey SU, Sekcuk University

2

The sediment transport at coastal beach profiles are the vital factor for the design of coastal and seashore structures. The volume, the direction and the characteristics of sediment transport depends on sea state characteristics such as wave height, period and length; morphological characteristics such as beach profile, vegetation cover; and artificial characteristics such as groins, jetties and other coastal structures. Usually undisturbed beach profiles remain stable in where net sediment transport can be accepted as zero. On the other hand, any external or internal interference disturbs the stability resulting with either erosion or deposition at beach profiles. Experimental investigations of coastal erosion generated by the action of irregular waves were carried out in laboratory flumes. It is well known that both the field surveys and the experimental studies are not precise enough to give details about the suspended sediment load due to wave action. In this study, different wave groups were generated over the beach profile and the amount of coastal erosion were measured using terrestrial laser scanner. Then obtained results were compared with the results gathered by means of conventional instruments. It was concluded that comparing to the conventional methods, laser scanners can be effectively used to define the beach profile changes under wave actions. This study focused on using Laser Scanner systems to obtain more precise data that can be processed easily to evaluate the effect of waves on the changes of beach profiles. Using conventional measurement systems or laser scanner systems, the experiments and field surveys are all agreed that it is the wave energy that initiates erosion of the beach profiles.

Keywords: beach profile, cross section, terrestrial laser scanner

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Multisite modeling and prediction of annual and monthly precipitation records in the Cheliff watershed – Algeria Harkat Samra1, Boukharouba Khadidja2, Douaoui Aek3 1

Crop production and sustainable development of natural resources, National School of Hydraulics,Blida, Algeria 2 University of Biskra, Algeria 3 Crop production and sustainable development of natural resources,University of Khemis Miliana, Algeria

Rainfall is a hydrologic variable which is product of complex time-varying phenomena that are stochastic in nature. Rather than the seasonal effect, which is due to the annual revolution of the earth around the sun, precipitation can be affected by many other factors such as topography, distance from the moisture sources, temperature, pressure, air mass movements, etc. Climate change is an additional difficulty which affects the magnitude and the variability of precipitation, and the result is that rainfall amounts and their distribution vary temporally and spatially even in small areas. Any effective water resources system planning, design and operation is tightly linked to the available water amount, which depends on a detailed study of precipitation, runoff and groundwater levels time series. Describing and predicting the precipitation variability in space and time are fundamental requirements for a wide variety of human activities and water project designs. The objective of this paper is to develop a Kalman Filter (KF) model approach to multisite precipitation modeling and prediction, in addition to the assessment of associated errors. In order to apply the multisite KF, 51 year annual and monthly precipitation records (1959-2009) are used from 39 rainfall stations in the Chéliff watershed of the western Algeria. KF is one of the most powerful tools in the optimal filtering theory. It is based on the least squares concept and operates with two fundamental estimates: the first one is based on a prior knowledge of the system, the second one is a prediction based on new information (measure). By combining these two independent estimates, KF leads to an improved estimate and its great advantage is to provide accurately the prediction error covariance, which is a measure of the estimation accuracy. The obtained result is an on-line operation; where the estimator can deal with changes in the model, the parameters, and the variances. Hence, the precipitation predictor is not fixed with time and space, but adapts itself to the evolving meteorological conditions. Optimal predictions of annual and monthly precipitation amounts are obtained and the associated error covariance is given accurately. In addition, equal precipitation contour maps of the Cheliff watershed are provided together with the spatial variations of the associated errors, also in the form of maps.

Keywords: kalman filter, multisite prediction, precipitation, cheliff watershed, Algeria

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Investigation of the adaptation potential of winter wheat to future climatic conditions in northwest Turkey using CERES-Wheat and WOFOST Models Çaldağ Barış1, Şaylan Levent1, Akataş Nilcan1, Bakanoğulları Fatih2, Çaylak Osman1, Özkoca Yunus1, Semizoğlu Elif1, Özgür Evren1, Şirin Deniz1 1

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology 34469, Maslak, Istanbul/Turkey. 2 Atatürk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station Directorate. 39010, Kırklareli/Turkey.

Agriculture is one of the primary sectors that is expected to be affected globally by climate change. In this regard, prior knowledge on possible yield reactions of crop yield to changing such environmental conditions is essential for decision makers. Hence, there is a clear need of comprehensive studies on the estimation of adaptation abilities of globally grown crops, which could also be indicators of related future risks and benefits. Moreover, studies on plant vulnerabilities by means of climate change are also needful for sustainable agriculture, which is substantial for food quantity, quality and security. A guiding research, which was conducted as the first step by aforementioned means in northwestern Turkey (the Thrace Region) is presented in this study. This region comes to the forefront particularly by its wheat, rice and sunflower productions, which are superior to Turkey’s averages. Aim of the study is to present the adaptation ability of winter wheat grown in the Thrace to possible climate change by consideration of grain yield. To achieve this, two explanatory crop growth simulation models, namely CERES-Wheat and WOFOST were applied on three selected locations (in Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli cities) in the region to enable comparative spatio-temporal analysis. Desired databases were supplied with virtual past and real time inputs of the dynamic crop, soil, and atmosphere system. Then, two-step model calibrations were applied for the representation of the past and current field outputs by means of wheat’s yield components. This was followed by model validation that included meaningful variations in future climate inputs like global solar radiation, temperature, precipitation and CO2. Lastly, the A1B scenario outputs of a regional climate model were filtered out according to the coordinates of the selected parcels and the remaining data were used as the meteorological simulation inputs of CERES-Wheat and WOFOST for growing seasons within the future 2015-2100 period, respectively. Concordantly, CERES-Wheat indicated that the wheat yield is expected to be in decrease in all of the locations for the mean 2017-2100 growing season, among which the falling ratio reached 32% in Tekirdağ. Also extreme hot and dry growing seasons were evaluated separately where the severest yield decrease was obtained at Edirne as 48% also by CERES-Wheat. In general, most (but not each) of the outputs of both models were generally consistent where WOFOST showed more optimistic aspects.

Keywords: CERES-Wheat, WOFOST, Turkey

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Public health co-benefits from traffic related greenhouse gas emission policies to the city of Thessaloniki Sarigiannis Denis A.1, Kontoroupis Periklis1, Nikolaki Spyridoula1, Gotti Alberto2, Chapizanis Dimitris1 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece 2

Climate change is a major environmental concern of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions at most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with hammered out climate change action plans and monitoring systems where future policies could be assessed. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two measures are investigated, including the operation of an underground rail (metro) in the city centre and changes in fleet composition and filter technology (i.e. the promotion of electric vehicles and the use of new Euro V and VI filters). Their effect to human health (mortality and morbidity) is computed, utilizing state of art concentration response functions to PMx, NO2 and C6H6. It is hence possible to evaluate the potential co-benefits from the reduced green house gases to the health impact by the year 2020. Simulations show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits: coupling the city metro with appropriate changes in traffic composition will reduce air pollution. In particular, savings in the monetary cost due to mortality cases will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively, corresponding to the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure. Similarly, the wide promotion of ‘green’ transportation in the city, will provide savings in monetary cost, resulting from the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure up to 60.4 and 49.1 of 41.2 and to 1.08 million Euros respectively.

Keywords: public health co-benefits, climate change, air pollution, data fusion, metro

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Noise pollution in the city of Thessaloniki: the effect of climate change policies Sarigiannis Denis A, Kontoroupis Periklis Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Climate change threatens the health of human populations worldwide, adverse health consequences are among the many important reasons that it is important to reduce global GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The urban area of Thessaloniki is the key entity for the investigation of the impacts of concrete actions on health and wellbeing. In this respect, the effects of two traffic policies on ambient noise for the city of Thessaloniki are assessed and their potential health impact is computed. The traffic measures investigated include the operation of an underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition in favour of the electric vehicles. The effect of noise exposure to human health (morbidity) is computed, utilizing epidemiological relationships. It is hence possible to evaluate the potential co-benefits from the reduced GHG to the health impact by the year 2020. Simulations show significant environmental health co-benefits. The city’s metro will reduce noise induced morbidity in the city centre in proximity to the metro line. Similarly, the promotion of green transportation will significantly decrease morbidity due to the reduced noise in all the municipalities in the city by up to 80%. The latter measure is preferable as the zero emission transportation may improve both the air and noise quality in the city.

Keywords: Public health co-benefits, noise pollution, NMPB, metro, green transportation

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

The Cyprus adaptation strategy to climate change-focus on water Ioannou Kyriaki Department of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment of Cyprus (MANRE)

The planet's climate is changing and inevitably affects humanity and life that surrounds us. The impacts of climate change are already evident in Cyprus and expected to become variably more serious especially for the vulnerable groups of society and key sectors of the economy, such as the water sector. The observed more frequent and longer lasting droughts, along with the diversification of rainfall, the higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, have and will continue to have adverse chain-consequences on humans, natural systems and infrastructure. The core of the actions undertaken globally to address effectively the unavoidable impacts of this climate change is the development and implementation of national adaptation strategies. The Cyprus National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change has been developed within the framework of the Life project, CYPADAPT, aiming to enhance the preparedness and capacity of Cyprus to respond to the impacts of the changing climate. It provides the framework for the selection of cost-effective adaptation measures, practices and actions proposed for each sector of the economy, in order to achieve resilience and protect effectively the society, infrastructure and environment from the respective climatic consequences and natural disasters. The implementation and sustainability of the adaptation strategy requires continuous cooperation between the state authorities, stakeholders and citizens, as well as coordination of early, multi-level planning and management, to address successfully the adverse effects of climate change in Cyprus.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation strategy, adaptation in water sector

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Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Temperature persistence as a criterion of climate change Özgür Evren, Koçak Kasım Department of Meteorology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

In today’s world, climate change is one of the most influential events on the earth. It is expected to change the world and way of lives permanently. Thus, it is important to conduct studies in order to determine the extent of the climate change. Trend analysis is the widely used technique whether a given time series has changed through time. In most applications, it is usually accepted that linear trend is found sufficient for climate change. In this study, change of persistence is utilized for the purpose of detecting a possible climate change in a time series. From the statistical point of view, the persistence can be defined as the positive serial dependence in the time series. In application, conditional probability of the type P(x|xt-1) is one of the preferred approach in order to evaluate the serial dependence for a given variable. Here P(x|xt-1) denotes the conditional probability of the event xt at time t, given the event xt-1 at time t-1. In order to calculate the P(x|xt1), it is necessary to determine a truncation level. In this study by using daily minimum, average and maximum temperature data from various stations in Turkey, change of persistence based on the conditional probabilities were calculated. For truncation level of temperature data long term averages of the variable were considered. For some selected stations, persistence was calculated for every predetermined sub-period and the change of persistence was obtained as a time series. The results of this analysis showed that the proposed method can be used an alternative approach to determine whether a given time series has changed through time or not.

Keywords: climate change, persistence, temperature, time series

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Indoor and outdoor air pollution

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Indoor air quality in residences at the city of Kozani, Greece: effects of the house location Tolis Evangelos Ioannis, Sabaziotis Vasilios, Galinos Konstantinos, Kalimeri Krystallia K, Bartzis John G. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technology Laboratory, University of Western Macedonia,Kozani, Greece

Indoor air is considered as an important factor for human health due to the fact that people spend more than 90% of their time inside buildings and vehicles (87% and 6% respectively). Indoor air pollutants include chemical and biological contaminants. The main chemical species sources are combustion products and compounds released from indoor materials (building materials and consumer products, off-gassing emission) [1], while a number of studies have evaluated the correlation between indoor and outdoor air pollution [2]. Indoor air quality investigations were conducted in three residences at the city of Kozani, during winter 2011. The localization of the three dwellings was different. Residence A was located near the city center, residence B was located at the city center, and residence C was located far from the city center. The weekly experimental campaign concerned the following pollutants: VOCs (BTEX, terpenes etc), carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde etc.) and NO2 using the passive sampling methodology. Samples were placed at each residence at two indoor sites (bedroom and living room) and one outdoors. Results showed that there are considerable sources of organic compounds inside the residencies and in some cases the outdoor concentrations are the main sources of indoor air pollution. The residences located at the city center (B) and close to the city center (A) revealed higher concentrations than the house located uptown. These results were also verified by the analysis of the indoor-outdoor ratio (I/O). [1] Dales et al 2008. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ, 179(2); 147-152. [2] Lee et al 1999. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at 14 public places in Hong Kong. Environment International 25 (4); 443-450.

Keywords: VOCs, carbonyl compounds, NO2, indoor air, Kozani

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Exposure to volatile organic compounds in the downtown of Belgrade Petrovic Srdjan1, Ostojic Bojana2, Popovic Aleksandar3, Djordjevic Dragana2 ICTM – Centre of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 14– 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 2 ICTM – Centre of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 14–16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 3 Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12–16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 1

Daily mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are measured and analyzed at the downtown site of Belgrade (Studentski Park) during the period August 2011 - June 2012. Downtown of Belgrade is surrounded by several streets with high traffic and in one of them heavy transport dominates. Eastern of Belgrade, relatively near in Pancevo, there are refineries, petrochemical and Fertilizer Plant. Southwest of Belgrade, in Obrenovac there are thermal power plants while in the southeast, in the town of Smederevo are located steel factories. All these facilities are located within a radius of 40km from Belgrade downtown. Samples of ambient air are collected in stainless-steel containers by passive sampling and analyzed them by a GC-FID/ECD coupled with thermal desorber. The concentrations of total VOC and their daily variations significantly depending on the season and also on the meteorological conditions. Under adverse wind conditions, the influence of industrial emissions of VOC on the downtown hydrocarbon levels was observed. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests for data set is 0.663 which is a moderate value that satisfies the criterion of > 0.5. Principal component analysis revealed 13 factors. After varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization the four factors were identified with the largest contribution to the variance. Further analysis has revealed that the main contribution to the pollution in the center of Belgrade from traffic, then from using solvents for paints and varnishes and air conditioners and other cooling systems.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds; principal component analysis; urban air; thermaldesorption; passive sampling

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk Villanueva Florentina1, Tapia Araceli2, Amo Salas Mariano3, Cabañas Beatriz2, Notario Alberto4, Martinez Ernesto2 1

Atmospheric Pollution Laboratory. Research Institute for Combustion and Atmospheric Pollution, University of Castilla La Mancha and Castilla La Mancha´s Science and Technology Park 2 Atmospheric Pollution Laboratory. Research Institute for Combustion and Atmospheric Pollution, University of Castilla La Mancha 3 Department of Mathematics. Faculty of Medicine. University of Castilla La Mancha, 4 Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Castilla La Mancha

Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello® passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4 µg m-³, respectively followed by butanal (29.1 µg m-³), acetone (28.4 µg m-³) and acetaldehyde (21.4 µg m-³). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1 µg m-³ ) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4 µg m-³ and limonene, 13.4 µg m-³ ) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio > 6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8 x 10-⁵ to 4.1 x 10-⁴ for formaldehyde, from 8.6 x 10-⁶ to 3.5 x 10-⁵ for acetaldehyde and from 2.0 x 10-⁶ to 1.5 x 10-⁵ for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10-⁶) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies.

Keywords: indoor air, aldehydes, VOCs, passive samplers, industrial area Puertollano, health risk

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PM2.5 bound organic molecular marker speciation methods and observations from daily measurements in Ankara, Turkey Kocak Ebru1, Aslan Kılavuz Seda2, Imamoğlu Ipek1, Tuncel Gürdal1 1

Middle East Technical University Kocaeli University

2

In this study organic speciation of PM2.5 particles were collected at two sampling stations in the city of Ankara is discussed. One of these stations is a typical urban station close to the city center and the other one is a suburban station in the Middle East Technical University, which is approximately 15 km from the urban station. PM2.5 samples were collected daily onto prebaked quartz filters using a Hi-Vol sampler at a typical flow rate of 1.06-1.18 m³/min between July 2014 and February 2015. Particle loading on filters were determined gravimetrically by weighting filters before and after sampling. Typical PM2.5 mass concentrations are 40.7 and 32.2 μg/m³ at the urban and suburban stations, respectively. After weighting, 1/7 of the filters were used for organic particulate (PAH, alkane and fatty acids) measurements. These filter pieces were then extracted with reagent grade methylene chloride. All glassware used in the extraction process was cleaned with soap and water, rinsed in deionized water, hexane and given a final rinse with methylene chloride (DCM) immediately prior to use. Prior to extraction, each filter was spiked with 100 μl of surrogate mixture containing known concentrations of isotopically labeled compounds not present in the atmosphere. After that, the extracts were concentrated with rotary evaporator. Then extracts passed through Na₂SO₄ and glass wool column to remove any moisture and filter particles and concentrated under a gentle stream of ultra-high purity nitrogen to a final volume of 100 μl. For each day sample, this procedure was applied twice to obtain separate extracts for derivatized and non-derivatized part. For derivatized part, BSTFA/TMCS (%1) was added into vial for derivatization at the end of the ‘Na₂SO₄ and glass wool column’ step and wait at 70°C for 2 hrs. Finally, internal standard (1-Phenyldodecane 97%) was spiked to vials. Effect of various extraction and analysis procedures on recoveries of measured organic compounds were investigated. Three different solvents were chosen: toluene, hexane and dichloromethane. Firstly each solvent was used for 30 minute (one step extraction) and then was used for 30+30 min (two step extraction). Secondly, solvents were mixed by 1:1 (v). At the end of recovery study, DCM was chosen as extraction solvent with %30-125 recovery. Optimized methodology was used on aerosol samples collected at the two stations. Typical concentrations ranged between 0.9 ng/m³ and 8.1 ng/m³ for alkanes, 0.2 ng/m³ and 0.9 ng/m³ for PAHs, 0.4 ng/m³ and 15.1 ng/m³ for fatty acids. Concentrations of most of the measured organic markers were higher at the urban station compared to suburban one. Typical urban-to-suburban ratio were 1.8 for alkanes, 1.9 for PAHs and 2.0 for fatty acids. Winter time concentrations of measured parameters are generally higher than their concentrations in summer samples. However there are also exceptions to this general trend. For example summer and winter concentrations of fatty acids are comparable in both seasons and summer concentrations of hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid are higher than their corresponding concentrations in winter. Keywords: particulate matter, PM2.5, organic marker, method optimization

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Development of standardized method on automated measuring systems for particulate matter PM10, PM2.5: field validation tests Maggos Thomas1, Pateraki Stella1, Bessa Marisa1, Gikoudis Christos1, Panteliadis Pavlos2, Visser Jaap2, Vasilakos Christos1, Hafkenscheid Theo3 1

Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR "DEMOKRITOS", Ag. Paraskevi, Athens, Greece 2 Municipal Health Service (GGD) Amsterdam, Department of Air Quality, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 3 National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

On April 2012, the European Commission (EC) charged the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC264/WG15) to elaborate new standard for the automated measurement of Particulate Matter (PM). The draft Technical Specification (prCEN/TS 16450) for Automated Measuring Systems (AMS) for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) combines principles from existing standards for gases and the guidance to demonstration of equivalence of ambient air monitoring methods. The current study was addressed two different tasks: to investigate i) the practicality of the QC checks proposed in the standard and ii) the feasibility of meeting the performance requirements. Taking into consideration the importance of the effects which will be of possible variations in the implementation of the reference method, parallel measurements according to EN 12341 were performed during the testing period. The fieldwork took place in 4 European monitoring sites using different AMS systems. However, in this study are discussed the results of two of them, representing suburban background (Ag. Paraskevi in Athens, Greece) and industrial (Reyndersweg, Noord Holland, Netherlands) locations. In the case of Athens, an AMS (TEOM1400-FDMS8500c, Thermo Scientific) and two identical controlled flow rate (2.3 m3/h) samplers (DERENDA LVS 3.1) were deployed simultaneously for the collection of the PM10 data. As far as the Noord Holland is concerned, the measurements were accomplished with the use of two identical sequential samplers (DERENDA LVS 3.1) and three PM10 AMSs (TEOM1400-FDMS8500c, Thermo Scientific; Swam 5a Dual Channel, FAI instruments; BAM 1020, Met One Instrument Inc.). With the principal aim to gain information on the differentiation of the seasonal behavior of the types of filter which were used, the experimental campaigns were held within the period May 2014 - January 2015, covering 96 days. The purpose was to capture different meteorological conditions, emissions and air pollution levels cases. In order to identify and evaluate information in filter behavior, Emfab and PTFE filters were used in the suburban background site while Emfab and preconditioned Whatman QMA filters were applied in the industrial site. The main outcomes from the study were: i) Emfab and PTFE filters appeared to be very well correlated between each other (Pearson Coefficient: 0.97 and 0.99 for the warm and cold period, respectively), ii) Emfab and preconditioned Whatman QMA filters correlated well too for both warm and cold period (Pearson Coefficient: 0.99), iii) the between Reference Method (RM) uncertainty was 1.05 & 098 μg/m3 during warm and cold period respectively (<1.5 μg/m3 limitation set by the standard) iv) all AMSs fulfil the requirements of the performance characteristics set out by prCEN/TS 16450, v) all AMSs used passed the equivalence test when compared to RM, for both the warm and cold period and vi) TEOM-FDMS overestimated PM10 at both types of environment. "The study was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) and EFTA on the basis of Framework Partnership Agreement (FPA) 2009" Keywords: PMx, automated measuring method, field test 119 | P a g e

Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Vertical characteristics of the PM10 and PM2.5 profile in a real urban street canyon: concentrations, chemical composition and associated health risks Pateraki Styliani1, Bairachtari Kyriaki1, Stamatelopoulou Asimina1, Panagopoulos Panagiotis1, Markellou Constantina2, Vasilakos Christos1, Mihalopoulos Nikolaos3, Maggos Thomas1 1

Environmental Research Laboratory/ I.N.RA.S.T.E.S., National Centre for Scientific Research “DEMOKRITOS”, Athens, Greece 2 Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Chemistry Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece 3 Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Athens, Greece

Despite the increased number of studies that have been performed for the flow and transport of pollutants released about a single building and a cluster of buildings, street canyon remains the most widely examined configuration in urban air quality problems. Street sections flanked with buildings and promote the accumulation of traffic-induced pollutants, since air exchange is restricted as a result of the isolation effect of buildings to the air flow. This is why street canyons are considered as hot spots where exposure levels can be very high. The monitoring campaign described in this work has been performed in a roadside environment, next to the busiest roads of the urban atmosphere of Athens. The simultaneous placement of the experimental equipment on different heights of a 19m high building (1st and 5th floor) at the street canyon, allocates the analysis of the configured vertical PM profile. The particle mass determination was conducted gravimetrically, according to EN 12341. The ionic and carbonaceous species were detected using suppressed ion chromatography and a carbon analyser, respectively, while the analysis of the PAHs will be performed according to ISO 12884. During the fieldwork (winter: 17/12/133/1/1/14, summer: 22/9-1/10/14), a total of 80 samples were collected. In total, the average PM10 peaks were obtained on the 1st floor while in the case of PM2.5, the maximum concentration levels occurred on the 5th one, both during the wintertime. It is worth commenting on the absence of a statistical vertical PM10 differentiation in the winter case (p>0.05) as well as on the higher PM2.5 partitioning in the PM10 mass during the winter period (up to 91%) being compared with the one of the summer (up to 60%). Compositionally, OC was the main contributor to the winter particles mass, with significant differences on the vertical axis (17 and 14 μg/m3 on the 1st and 5th floor, respectively). The strong correlation of the specific component with the particles mass (0.88-0.91) strengthens the hypothesis for its local identity. This work was financially supported by the EnTeC FP7 Capacities programme (REGPOT-20122013-1, FP7, ID: 316173).

Keywords: PMx, street canyon, ions, carbon, PAHs, health

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Summertime concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at background sites across the Aegean: phase partitioning and size distribution Besis Athanasios1, Samara Constantini1, Voutsa Dimitra1, Kouvarakis Giorgos2, Eleftheriadis Kostas3, Vassilatou Vassiliki3, Lammel Gerhard4, Sofuoglu Aysun5 1

Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 2 University of Crete, Iraklion 3 NCSR Demokritos Institute, Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, Athens, Greece 4 Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno, Czech Republic and Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Dept., Mainz, Germany 5 Izmir Institute of Technology, Chemical Engineering Dept., Urla-Izmir, Turkey

The summertime gas/particle partitioning and aerosol mass-size distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated during a two-week sampling campaign concurrently conducted in July 2012 at four background sites across the Aegean, Eastern Mediterranean i.e.: (a) Neochorouda, at the air pollution monitoring station of the Region of Central Macedonia, (b) Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, at the CNRS "Demokritos" station, (c) at the EMEP station Finokalia, Crete and (d) Urla-Gülbahce, Western Turkey. Total (g+p) concentrations of Σ6PBDE at Ag. Paraskevi and Urla (18.9 and 16.3 pg m-3, respectively) were significantly higher than those determined at Finokalia (0.88 pg m-3). Mean aggregate concentration (sum of five particle fractions) of Σ11PBDEs at Neochorouda was found to be 1.13±0.50 pg m-3. PBDE particle-size distribution featured a distinct enrichment in smaller particles. More than 65% of ∑11PBDE was associated with particles of <0.95 µm of aerodynamic diameter. Our results imply that particulate PBDEs may have long atmospheric residence times and they may be capable of reaching the deeper parts of the human respiratory system. This research was supported by the GACR (project No. 312334) and the European Union FP7 (No. 262254 ACTRIS, R&D for Innovations-Regional R&D Centres project CETOCOEN).

Keywords: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers; Particle-size distribution; Gas phase; Particulate phase

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Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental Balkan (Belgrade) Djordjevic Dragana S1, Buha Jelena2, Stortini Angela Maria3, Mihajlidi Zelic Aleksandra1, Relic Dubravka4, Barbante Carlo5, Gambaro Andrea5 1

University of Belgrade, Centre of Chemistry - ICTM, Studentskitrg 14–16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland 3 Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy 4 Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentskitrg 12–16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 5 Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy 2

The properties of atmospheric aerosol show spatial and temporal variability. Due to the various atmospheric lifetimes because of various sizes of particles and complex chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, their global distribution shows large regional differences and their properties are poorly known. Depending on their composition the scattering and absorption of light by particles are different. Fine atmospheric aerosol mass concentrations are of especially importance because of their impact on human health, their ability to scatter light affecting visibility, and their role in global climate change. Fine particles are produced by combustion processes and in chemical reactions in the atmosphere. By coagulation of smaller particles and by condensation of low-vapor-pressure products of gas-phase reactions atmospheric particles are growing. The mechanical action of the wind on the Earth’s surface releases sea salt, soil dust, and vegetation debris into the atmosphere. These aerosols consist mainly of coarse particles (1
Indoor and outdoor air pollution

VOCs, PAHs and ions measurements in an office environment in the vicinity of a small industry Sakellaris Ioannis A.1, Tolis Evangelos1, Saraga Dikaia E.2, Bartzis John G.1 1

University of Western Macedonia (UOWM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technology Laboratory, Sialvera & Bakola Street, 50100 Kozani, Greece 2 Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, National Center for Scientific Research "DEMOKRITOS", Aghia Paraskevi Attikis, P.O.B. 60228, 15310 Athens, Greece

In the frame of the present study, air quality measurements have been performed in two buildings, an office building and a small plastic craft industry, both located in a semi- industrial area of Athens. The monitoring campaign lasted for three days during September 2014 and included Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and PM10 measurements. In the office building, measurements took place in an open space office on the second floor and outdoors. In the second building, the measurements took place in the area of the production line and outdoors. For the VOC sampling, Tenax tubes were selected, using SKC pumps which were calibrated at 80mL/min. The sampling time interval was 1h (8 samples during the working hours) for 30 minutes. Duplicate samples were also taken. Tenax tubes were analyzed on a GC/MS thermal desorption system. PM10 sampling was conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors for 24 hours according to EN12341 using quartz fiber filters. The chemical characterization of PM10 fraction included analysis for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and ionic species (major anions and cations) using GC-MS and ion chromatography techniques respectively. Indicative results, in the case of the office building, showed that benzene indoor concentration ranged between 1.04 and 2.75 μg/m3 during the first day and 0.88 and 1.96 μg/m3 during the second day. Toluene and styrene indoor average values were 5.69 and 3.13 μg/m3 for the first day while in the second day were lower. PM10 average concentration was 15.5 μg/m3 in the office and 28 μg/m3 outdoors. Regarding the plastic craft industry building, benzene, toluene and styrene average concentrations were 9.29, 109.44 and 209.89 μg/m3 respectively. PM10 concentration was 42 μg/m3 in the office and 26.3 μg/m3 outdoors. In general, the measured compounds levels were below the proposed limits in both buildings; recording the higher values in the craft industry building.

Keywords: VOCs, PAHs, ions, particulate matter, offices

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Similarities and differences in compositions of Eastern and Western Black Sea aerosol Balcılar Ilker1, Zararsız Abdullah2, Kalaycı Yakup2, Doğan Güray3, Tuncel Gürdal1 1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University,Ankara, Turkey Turkish Atomic Energy Authority,Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, Turkey 3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey 2

In this study daily aerosol samples were collected at two different sampling stations at the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Western Black Sea sampling station was located at Kırklareli (41°58’00”N 27°23’36”E) which was at the Bulgarian border of Turkey, 50 km from the Black Sea coast. The station on the Eastern Black Sea is a high altitude site approximately 70 km from the black Sea coast (Torul, 40°32’34”N 39°16’57”E). Both stations are situated at relatively remote rural locations. Nearest large settlement area is at least 40 km away from both sites. Daily coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected on polycarbonate (Nuclepore) filters at both sampling stations using Gent Stacked Filter Units (SFU) between March 2011 and December 2012. Collected aerosol samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) using an Oxford ED–2000 Spectrometer. Concentration of 17 trace elements and SO₄² were determined in coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) aerosol samples. Measured concentrations varied between approximately 0.44 ng/m³ for As and 2216 ng/m³ for SO₄² at the Eastern Black Sea atmosphere and 0.55 ng/m³ for As and 3416 ng/m³ for SO₄² at the Western Black Sea atmosphere. Concentrations of pollution derived elements were higher at the Western part of the black sea, which is not surprising considering distribution of industrial sources around sampling locations. However, concentrations of some specific elements like Mn, Cr are higher on the Eastern Part of the basin, due to emissions from smelters and metallurgical industries located at Georgia, Eastern part of Ukraine and central Russia. Besides the general evaluation of the elemental data also Factor Analysis (FA) was applied to the elemental data to characterize aerosols with respect to sources and quantify the different sources and their importance for the composition of the aerosols at both Eastern and Western atmospheres.

Keywords: Eastern Black Sea, Western Black Sea, trace elements, aerosol, EDXRF

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Temporal evolution of PM10 concentrations during 20012013 in the city of Volos, Greece Proias George1, Moustris Kostas2, Larissi Ioanna3, Nastos Panagiotis4, Paliatsos Athanasios5 1

Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly, 38334, Volos Greece Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli Str., 12244 Athens, Greece 3 Department of Electronic-Computer Systems Engineering, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli Str., 12244 Athens, Greece 4 Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Athens, Greece 5 General Department of Mathematics, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli Str., 12244 Athens, Greece 2

The objective of this work is to study the temporal evolution of suspended particulate matter in the city of Volos. For this reason, the time series of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), for a ten-year period (2001-2013) are analysed. PM10 data were acquired from a fully automated monitoring station, established by the Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change, in order to measure air pollution levels in Volos, a medium-sized city, which faces the effects of industrialization. The major findings of this study are: (a) The mean seasonal variation of the examined air pollutant concentrations, shows a double peak pattern. The dominant peak is observed in late autumn- winter against the secondary peak observed in late spring -early summer. (b) The analysis shows that the PM10 concentration levels remain higher than the corresponding thresholds for human health protection, set by the European Union. (c) Exceedances over the threshold of 50 μg/m3 are much more than the permitted violations of 35 days per year, assigned by the EU Directive, during almost the examined period. (d) Sahara dust events during the period were examined and analyzed. The above analysis illustrates the need for measures by the authorities in order to protect the public health and particularly the vulnerable groups within the city of Volos.

Keywords: urban air pollution, time series analysis, PM10, Volos, Greece

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From the smallest (10 nm) to the biggest (10 µm) particle: a complete PM characterization Avino Pasquale1, Manigrasso Maurizio1, Capannesi Geraldo2, Rosada Alberto2, Vitali Matteo3, Protano Carmela3, Guerriero Ettore4, Russo Mario Vincenzo5 1

DIT, INAIL Research Area, via Alessandria 220/E, I-00189 Rome (Italy) ENEA, R.C.-Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 Rome (Italy) 3 University of Rome La Sapienza, p.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy) 4 IIA-CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma, I-00016, Monterotondo St. (Italy) 5 University of Molise, via De Sanctis, I-86100 Campobasso (Italy) 2

This communication shows a complete chemical-physical characterization of the particulate matter in the range 10 nm to 10 μm. This task is important for understanding the effects of new technological processes on the evaluation of the air quality; simultaneously, it is not trivial considering the relative analytical implications. We will show how the main fraction of the aerosol average size distributions during different events in Rome both in winter and summer periods, is characterized by significant levels of PM2.5, especially in summertime, when the atmospheric stability conditions are numerically more than those in other period causing a pollutant accumulation: almost 75% of total PM10 fraction is PM2.5. A particular attention has been devoted to investigate the contribution of Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) on aerosol number concentration and their dynamic of formation: the trends of UFPs vs. NOx and of UFPs vs. total PAH show the primary origin of this pollutant and the narrow relationship between combustion processes and their presence in urban atmosphere. Particle formation in the nucleation mode was favored in periods with high radical oxidative activity. About the chemical characterization we determined almost 30 elements in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; after, we analyzed 4 different granulometric size below 100 nm for investigating the element distribution in particles extremely dangerous for the human health. An important issue of this communication regards the comparison of these data with previous measurements performed by the authors. In particular, the concentration level comparisons of OC/EC and PM2.5 and, mainly, of PM10 will be shown. All the samples were collected in downtown Rome; the UFPs were investigated by SMPS and FMPS analyzers (TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) whereas the elements were determined by mean of Instrumental Nuclear Activation Analysis (INAA).

Keywords: PM, particle, size distribution, VOC, elements, urban aerosol

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Spatio-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 Over Marmara Region, Turkey Öztaner Yaşar Burak1, Özçomak Duygu1, Güney Burcu2, Bektas Balcik Filiz3, Kahya Ceyhan4, Çakır Sedef5, Kalkan Kaan2 1

Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Science, Department of Climate and Marine Science, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Istanbul Technical University, Informatics Institute, Geographical Information Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey 4 Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorological Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey 5 Cyprus International University, Department of Environmental Engineering, North Cyprus

Air pollutants are generally described as substances introduced into the atmosphere by anthropogenic forcing that have detrimental effects on living creatures and nature. There is a wide range of air pollutants that conduce to global, regional and local problems and directly influence our life quality through the local air quality. Air pollutants are categorized into two major groups such as particulate matters (PM) and gases. Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets most reliably associated with human health. In this study, preliminary PM2.5 data observed between March 2013 and February 2014 were used to investigate relationship between population density and temporal PM2.5 over Marmara Region. The study region covers approximately 68.000 km2 in areal extend that corresponds to 8.5% of Turkey’s surface area and 40% of the Turkey’s population. Industry, commerce, agriculture and tourism are dominant economic resources in the region. The regions’ air circulation is dramatically affected by unplanned urbanization, reduced vegetation cover, construction of high buildings and etc. All these activities tend to create potential sources for mineral dust in the atmosphere. Temporal variance results were calculated and compared in behalf of European Union, United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organizations’ PM2.5 standards. Cluster analyses were applied to gain a statistical significance of PM2.5 data. 13 observation stations were separated into five classes and Ward hierarchical cluster analysis based on Euclidian distance method was performed. Population density data were acquired from Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) and classification results were compared within the context of population density on provincial basis. Finally, PM2.5 concentration variance was explained within European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalyzes temperature and wind speed datasets.

Keywords: PM2.5, spatio-temporal analysis, Marmara region, air pollution

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Hazardous fume emissions in MMA welding of AH-36 steel with different electrodes and analysis with taguchi and ANOVA Mert Tolga, Bilgili Levent, Şenöz Kutsi Mert, Çelebi Uğur Buğra, Ekinci Serkan Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Manufacturing sector is crucial for a country’s rapid and continuous development and welding is one of the most highly utilized manufacturing processes in heavy industries such as shipbuilding, pipeline and steel constructions, manufacturing of pressure vessels. Despite many advantages in manufacturing, welding is one of the most important pollution sources and important amount of detrimental fume and noxious gas emissions are emitted during welding. In this study, manual metal arc (MMA) welding of AH-36 structural steel with rutile, basic and cellulosic covered electrodes using variety of parameters were investigated and fume formation rates were measured and analyzed using Taguchi design of experiment method and analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, toxic gases formed during welding were measured as well. Results obtained were evaluated in terms of environment friendliness and worker’s health.

Keywords: MMA welding, structural steel, fume formation, workers’ health, taguchi, ANOVA

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Study of dissolved organic matter and its spectroscopic characteristics in rainwater of an urban area Pantelaki Ioanna, Balla Dimitra, Papageorgiou Alexandros, Voutsa Dimitra Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece

Rainwater plays an important role in scavenging compounds from the atmosphere. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous and major component of rainwater from both marine and continental origin. DOM in rainwater is a mixture of various organic compounds. DOM is an essential reactant in many rainwater processes including a variety of photo mediated processes and trace metal complexation. Precipitation is a globally important removal mechanism for atmospheric DOM that plays a significant role in global carbon cycling (Muller et al. 2008; Santos et al. 2009; Seaton et al. 2013; Balla et al. 2014). The aim of this project was to study dissolved organic matter in rainwater of the urban area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. For this purpose rainwater samples were collected by an automatic wet/dry collector (Sierra Andersen) that was on the roof of a building of the university campus located at the city center. Samples were collected at varying intervals depending upon intensity of precipitation for one year (2014- 2015). Upon collection samples were filtrated through 0.45 μm membrane filters and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by a TOC-Vcsh analyzer. Spectroscopic characteristics of dissolved organic carbon were studied by employing UV-Vis spectrometry, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and proton NMR spectrometry. UV-Vis absorbance was measured in the range of 200-500 nm. Fluorescence intensity was scanned from 240400 nm at Δλ=44 nm. ¹H-NMR spectra were acquired for both rainwater samples and C18 solid phase extracted samples. The concentrations of DOC in rainwater as well as its spectroscopic characteristics are presented in this study. Monthly volume weighted mean concentrations of DOC are shown. Results are discussed in relation to meteorological data (direction and velocity of wind, relative humidity, air temperature, gaseous pollutants) and air masses trajectories. References Balla D., Papageorgiou A., Voutsa D. (2014) Study of aldehydes in rainwater of the urban atmosphere. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 12062-12073. Muller C.L., Baker A., Hutchinson R., Fairchild I.J., Kidd C. (2008) Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Atmospheric Environment 42, 8036-8045. Santos P.S.M., Otero M., Duarte R.M.B.O., Duarte A.C. (2009) Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter isolated from rainwater. Chemosphere 74(8), 1053-1061. Seaton P.J., Kieber R.J, Willey J.D., Avery G.B., Dixon J.L. (2013) Seasonal and temporal characterization of dissolved organic matter in rainwater by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Atmospheric Environment 65, 52-60. Keywords: rainwater, DOC, NMR, UV–visible, fluorescence, air mass trajectory

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Monitoring of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag technique near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley (southern Italy) Caggiano Rosa, Calamita Giuseppe, Sabia Serena, Trippetta Serena IMAA, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale, CNR, C.da S. Loja, Z.I., 85050, Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy

The atmospheric pollution has long been of environmental and human health concern. In this field, the monitoring of the trace element-related atmospheric pollution is of fundamental importance but at same time it is a very complex problem due to a variety of reasons: the great number of potentially dangerous substances, the difficulty in estimating bioavailability, the large spatial and temporal variations of the pollution phenomena, the high costs of the recording instruments and hence the low sampling density of a purely instrumental approach (Achotegui-Castells et al., 2013; Wolterbeek, 2002). For all these reasons, the monitoring of trace element concentrations in the atmospheric particles, usually monitored through traditional methods, is often complemented by the use of simpler and less expensive biomonitoring techniques. The main objective of this work is the spatial and temporal assessment of 17 atmospheric trace element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) measured by means of the “lichen-bag” technique in the Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy). The Agri Valley is characterized by the presence of one of the largest European on-shore reservoirs (crude oil and gas) and an oil/gas pre-treatment plant (identified as Centro Olio Val d’Agri – COVA) located in an anthropized area. The COVA plant represents the anthropogenic activity with the highest release of atmospheric pollutant emissions in the Agri Valley (Trippetta et al., 2013). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Mt. Rifreddo (Southern Italy) and exposed in 59 selected monitoring points over periods of 6 (from October 2011 to April 2012) and 12 months (from October 2011 to October 2012), respectively. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The Principal Component Analysis was applied to identify the main sources of the trace elements determined. Finally, in order to analyze and compare the spatial patterns of the measured elements, the 59 sparse point samples were converted to continuous fields covering the domain of interest by means of a deterministic METHOD: the inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolator.

References Achotegui-Castells, A., Sardans, J., Ribas, À., and Peñuelas, J.: Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring, Environ. Monit. Assess., 185, 615–629, 2013. Wolterbeek, B.: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution: principles, possibilities and perspectives, Environ. Pollut., 120, 11–21. 2002. Trippetta, S., Caggiano, R., and Telesca, L.: Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy), Atmos. Environ., 77, 105-116, 2013. Keywords: biomonitoring, trace elements, oil/gas pre-treatment 130 | P a g e

Indoor and outdoor air pollution

PM1 measurements close to an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley -southern Italy Trippetta Serena, Sabia Serena, Caggiano Rosa IMAA, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale, CNR, C.da S. Loja, Z.I., 85050, Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy

The Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - southern Italy) is an area of international concern since it houses one of the largest European on-shore reservoir and the biggest crude oil pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d’Agri – COVA) within an anthropized context. This plant includes several thermodestroyers and a system of torches which continuously emit gaseous pollutants and particulate matter mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges due to the combustion processes involved. These emissions should represent a real problem for the surrounding environment, also posing health risks to the population living close to this plant. The present study enters this context and its purpose is to investigate the PM1 concentration and chemical composition and to identify the main sources contributing to its presence in Agri Valley. To this aim, PM1 daily measurements have been performed in the suburb of Viggiano (40°20'8.59"N, 15°54'7.43"E, about 840 m above sea level - a.s.l.) starting from December 2011. This site was chosen since Viggiano is the nearest town to the COVA plant, at about 2.4 km away from it, and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley (about 3100 inhabitants). The PM1 samples have been collected using a low volume (16.7 l min-1 flow rate) gravimetric sampler and their trace element content (e.g., Al, Be, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Ti, S and Zn) has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). Starting from the PM1 chemical composition and by the integrated use of complementary tools such as the enrichment factor technique and the principal component analysis, a preliminary identification of the main PM1 emission sources has been performed. To this aim, PM1 measurements referred to a shorter period have been analysed. The results obtained have given a realistic picture of the emission features of the area where anthropogenic activities both typical of little urban settlements and related to industrial plants - where oil/gas processing occurs - are inserted in a rural context.

Keywords: PM1, trace elements, source identification, Agri Valley

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Human exposure and risk assessment of three PM fractions (10, 2.5 and 1) in an urban-industrial area of Barcelona Schuhmacher Marta1, Sánchez-Soberón Francisco1, Mari Montse1, Nadal Martí2, Rovira Joaquim2, Grimalt Joan O.3, Van Drooge Barend L.3, Domingo José L.2 Environmental Analysis and Management Group, Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. 2 Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, San Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain. 3 Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. 1

It is estimated that more than 800.000 premature deaths annually are caused by inhalation of particulate matter (PM). In fact, some studies consider this pollutant as the most harmful in air. Damage caused by PM depends profoundly on their size (being the smallest the most harmful), chemical composition (being more dangerous those PM comprising hydrocarbons, metals or acids) and shape (being the sharp PM more hazardous than the spherical ones). Industrial production and traffic are two of the main anthropogenic sources of PM. Although previous studies have been carried out evaluating impacts over human health of PM collected in environments influenced by industries and traffic, some gaps have been found. Some studies are focused on PM10 (those PM with diameter smaller than 10 µm), not properly addressing the size issue. In other manuscripts human health risks were calculated without having into account daily activity patterns and indoor environments. In order to evaluate the possible risks of PM over the population and clarify the contribution from different sources, we propose the present study. Three PM fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were collected in an area influenced by a cement plant and two highways located in the outskirts of Barcelona (Spain). Chemical characterization of the particles (through the analysis of metals, ions, carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) was performed to evaluate the potential adverse effects on health, and have a preliminary idea of the contribution from different sources. In order to better assess the exposure and heath risks posed by PM, an exposure model based on the daily activity pattern of an average adult individual was developed. Indoor concentrations, calculated through the use of the software IAQX v 1.1 developed by the U.S.E.P.A., were taken into consideration when using the exposure model. Results indicate that contribution from traffic to ambient PM seems to be more related to metal content, while burning process in cement kiln is more linked to PAHs levels. Maximum human health risk levels were found due to PM1 fraction, being the totality of PAHs and some metals mostly located in this fraction. Non carcinogenic risks were below the threshold established by the U.S.E.P.A Carcinogenic risks for PAHs and most of the metals were below the limit of 10-5, except for Cr (VI), which was in the range considered as assumable (10 -6-10-4) by the U.S.E.P.A. Further research is needed in order to improve our knowledge about the possible health damage over the population. To finish the physicochemical characterization of the PM, morphology of particles is being determined by means of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope. Once this results were ready it will be possible to run an integrated human respiratory tract (HRT) model coupled with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model in order to quantitatively estimate the relationship between exposure to PM and tissue dosimetry, taking explicitly into account the physiological characteristics of the human biological system. This study was possible thanks to the funding received through the HEALS project, developed by European Union under their Seventh Framework Programme. Keywords: particulate matter, PAHs, risk assessment, human respiratory tract PBPK

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Using lichens to monitor PAHs in a multi-source industrial and urban area Augusto Sofia, Doloir Tracy, Schuhmacher Marta Tecnatox Group, Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that raise environmental concerns because of their toxicity. These compounds form mainly through incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and spills of petroleum derivatives. Sources of PAHs in the atmosphere include automobiles, resuspended soils, refineries, and power plants. Due to the risk associated with human exposure to PAHs, it is of crucial importance to develop strategies to identify sources of contamination in order to minimize the input of PAHs at the ecosystem level and in the human food-chain; for that, not only must the sources be identified but also the sites where PAHs are being deposited. Chemical analyses of air and soil have been used to monitor atmospheric deposition from different sources. These methods have been successfully complemented with biomonitoring tools. Among biomonitors, lichens (symbioses of fungi and algae) have particularly shown to reflect atmospheric levels of PAHs and to be useful to increase spatial resolution of data. The aim of this study was to implement a biomonitoring survey using lichens in the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe – Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). In this complex, a total of 33 companies, including an oil refinery, as well as a number of chemical and petrochemical industries are currently operating. To implement the biomonitoring survey, lichens were collected from a background area (non-contaminated) and transplanted to 15 sites in the industrial and urban areas of Tarragona. After two months of exposure (between December 2014 and February 2015), lichens were collected and concentrations of the 16 EPA-PAHs were quantified. Results were spatially analysed in order to disclose the areas with highest and lowest PAH concentrations. PAH profiles were used to track different pollution sources in the area.

Keywords: 16 EPA-PAHs, biomonitoring, pollution, petrochemical

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Buildings design and indoor air quality-experience and prospects Kotzias Dimitris1, Pilidis Georgios2 1

Ex-Official of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra/Italy University of Ioannina, Ioannina/Greece

2

In the last three decades numerous studies were dealing with the air quality in indoor environments. Most of the work was focused onto the chemical characterization and quantification of priority air contaminants indoors, which may represent a risk for human health, well being and comfort. The reason for all these activities was the fact, that people spend a very great portion of their time (85 to 90%) in confined spaces i.e. in homes, office buildings, schools, public transport means etc. and thus exposed to many of the chemicals accumulated indoors. Accumulation of indoor air contaminants was often connected a) with changes in ventilation regimes applied in buildings, b) with open windows permitting the penetration of outdoor air pollutants into indoor environments, c) with activities of the occupants (cleaning), which lead to the emission of some very specific individual compounds and/or mixtures of compounds (smoking) belonging to various chemical classes, d) with emissions from building or construction materials indoors. In the course of the last years, however, an additional factor (saving energy in buildings) affecting indoor air quality became important. Saving energy in buildings has initially been facing with construction of more air tight buildings and the appropriate adaptation of ventilation regimes. In addition an attempt was made to promote the development of low emitting products to be used in indoor environments.In this context, relevant Directives/Policies are: The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive [91/2002/CEE], [The recast Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) 31/2010] The Construction Products Regulation (CPR) [305/2011/CEE] The guidelines for indoor air quality (WHO/2010) The EU Green Paper on Smoking ban (COM 2007). By the end of 2020 (2018 for buildings occupied and owned by public authorities), all new buildings should comply with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive obligations and thus meet 'nearly zero-energy' performance levels using innovative, costoptimal technologies with integration of renewable energy sources on site or nearby. The performance of innovative technologies and the applied solutions for highly energy performing buildings should not, however, compromise indoor air quality, well being and comfort. This will be among others the challenge for the coming years in Europe, taking into consideration the current peculiar economic situation and the herewith emerging societal needs. Indoor air quality in view of energy saving requirements for new and old buildings will be the focus of the presentation.

Keywords: indoor air quality, energy saving, directives, policies

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Airborne nanoparticles. Recent toxicological findings and human health implications Manzo Luigi Department of Environmental Health, University of Pavia, Eucentre

Airborne nanoparticles (ANPs) are ultrafine particles in the nanometer size range that have been suggested to play a major role in driving toxic and carcinogenic effects of air pollution. While epidemiological research in this field is still limited, recent studies indicate that: (i) increases in mortality is independent for fine and ultrafine particles, (ii) a decrease of respiratory functions is associated with high ANP concentrations, independently from PM10 and PM2.5 particles, (iii) the number rather than the mass of particles modulates acute effects, (iv) a relationship between exposure to ANPs and cardiovascular morbidity can be observed in subjects with chronic heart diseases, (v) ANPs have more delayed effects than fine particles (PM2.5) either on the respiratory or cardiovascular system. Experimental studies have documented considerable toxicity of ANPs such as those associated with diesel soot, welding fume, carbon black, coal fly-ash, and other sources. Nanoparticles absorbed by inhalation can transcytose epithelial/endothelial cells into the systemic circulation to reach sensitive target tissues. Invasion of the systemic circulation by ANPs has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction (e.g. heart rate and rhythm disturbance, QT changes on electrocardiogram), and direct effects on the myocardium and coronary vasculature. In addition exposure to ANPs can induce lung inflammation, slower growth of lung function, and intestinal microbiota alterations. Increase in blood viscosity and blood coagulability induced by nanoparticles can precipitate adverse cardiac events in people with coronary lesions. A direct nose-to-brain transfer for nanoparticles absorbed from the nasal cavity and transported via the olfactory epithelium or via the trigeminal nerves has been reported in laboratory animals. Other studies have raised concerns about the potential impact of ANPs on CNS outcomes including chronic brain inflammation, microglia activation, changes in the blood-brain barrier, and white matter abnormalities. ANPs are anticipated to be more toxic than the PM2.5 due to their larger number and surface area per mass unit. In addition, these particles can act as efficient carriers for toxicants, such as trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The main pathophysiological mechanism proposed to explain ANP toxicity is oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Notably, oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in a wide range of acute and chronic diseases associated with air pollution, including lung cancer, asthma, chronic inflammatory lung disease, and autoimmune disorders. The oxidative potential of ultrafine particles is partly dependent on the presence of organic compounds absorbed onto their surface area, such as quinones and PAHs. Several biomarkers have been proposed in the last years to assess oxidative stress-dependent effects of airborne nanoparticles in vivo, namely plasma concentrations of isoprostanes, high-sensitivity Creactive protein, soluble E-selectin, and measurements of oxidized guanine bases in blood cells or urine. References AB Knol et al, Particle and Fibre Toxicol (2009). T. Coccini et al, Int J Theor Appl Nanotechnol (2012). Work supported by Grants from the Italian Ministry of Health and the CARIPLO Foundation. Keywords: ultrafine particles, cardiovascular toxicity, lung damage, oxidative stress, biomarkers

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Comparison of influence of dust transport to PM10 concentrations in different cities located on Mediterranean coast of Turkey Tepe Ahmet Mustafa1, Doğan Güray1, İlker Balcılar2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey Middle East Technical University

In this study, dust transport from desert areas to four cities, namely Antalya, İçel, Adana and Hatay, located on Mediterranean coast of Turkey were investigated. In each city PM10 concentrations were determined from monitoring stations operated by Ministry of Environment and Civilization. The PM10 values obtained from these stations were combined with back trajectories calculated by using HYPLIT model. The trajectories ending from desert areas were grouped and relevant PM10 concentrations were analyzed separately. The influence of potential dust transport were determined for each city. The effect of dust transport was highest in Hatay and Adana. Even though Adana and İçel were neighboring cities with a distance of 90 km, the influence of dust transport to İçel was not as much as to Adana. Seasonality in dust transport to these cities were also analyzed.

Keywords: dust transport, Mediterranean, PM10, back trajectory

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Monitoring of PM2.5 and PM10 levels in indoor places Simou Konstantina1, Sarigiannis Denis1, Handakas Evangelos1, Karakitsios Spyros2 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece

Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air that vary in size and composition, depending on the location and time of its source. Studies have linked PM, and particularly the inhalable particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) to adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of PM in indoor environments and calculate the relative risk, where people live, work, travel, visit, amuse and exercise during ordinary days of their life. A measurement campaign was carried out in 32 different indoor places within the city of Thessaloniki, Greece during 20 days on November and December of 2014. The measurements were performed using an optical counter Grimm 11-R. The results indicate that there is a correlation between indoor PM concentration levels and human activities. The amount of the average concentration of PM2.5 ranged between 3 μg/m³ and 65 μg/m³ and PM10 ranged between 15 μg/m³ and 115 μg/m³ during the day. Particularly, high PM concentration levels were observed in bus and railway stations with PM10 levels exceeding the 140 μg/m³. High PM levels are related to large number of vehicles that approach these locations as well to PM migration via natural convection from outdoor to indoor environments. Furthermore, high concentration levels were observed at places such as churches, restaurants, bars or universities and this can be correlated to their poor employed ventilation system. Nonetheless, large variation of PM concentrations was clearly observed (ANOVA, p>0.05) between the different locations, which may exist due to movement of air masses, intense human activities or large number of visitors making it clear that there is a great need for the assessment of personal exposure. Additionally, the levels of PM were evaluated according to the Common Air Quality Indicator (CQAI) that is based on the EU legislation and the AQI of the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Although, these indicators were design for outdoor environments, they were used in indoor environments for the first time illustrating that air quality in indoor places can be unhealthy for sensitive groups. Overall, the study revealed that the public is exposed to PM indoor concentrations that may be of high concern for sensitive human groups because PM may contain high concentrations of organic carbon, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinines.

Keywords: indoor air pollution, indoor air quality, health risks, human personal exposure, environmental monitoring

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Relationship between concentration of ozone, α-pinene, d-limonene and aldehydes in cold and warm seasons at office micro-environments across Europe by statistical data analysis Mabilia Rosanna1, Perreca Erica1, Mihucz Viktor2, Mandin Corinne3, Cattaneo Andrea4, Carrer Paolo4, Fossati Serena4, Trantallidi Martin4, Bartzis John5, Sakellaris Ioannis6, Ventura Gabiela6, Fernandes Oliveira6 1

National Research Council CNR, Italy ELTE University of Budapest 3 Cencre Scientidique et Tecnique du Batiment CSTB, Paris 4 University of West Macedonia 5 Instituto de Engharia Mecanica, Porto 6 The Neterlands organization for Applied Scientific Research 2

Urban lifestyle has increased exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including mono- and sesquiterpenes. In the presence of ozone these unsaturated organic compounds of biogenic origin have a propensity for oxidation in the air. Monoterpenes such as α-pinene and d-limonene are commonly found in room fresheners, cleaning products, wood-based furniture coatings, etc. Climate change is likely to increase the ozone concentration by 10-30 ppbv by the end of the 21st century. Ozone is also produced in indoor air by photocopiers, laser printers and indoor air purifiers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between concentration of O3 and α-pinene, d-limonene as well as aldehydes, such as formaldehyde, determined in air samples collected in cold and warm seasons in modern office buildings equipped with mechanical ventilation systems across Europe by a statistical approach, focusing on the microclimatic conditions (humidity, temperature and air flow rate) favoring the terpene oxidation. Special emphasis was paid to concomitant sampling of air indoors and outdoors (close to the air intake of the mechanical ventilation systems) since, in many cases, research related to potential of health impacts of main indoor air pollutants are based separately on either indoor or ambient air studies often without knowledge of their interaction. This work was supported from the project “OFFICAIR” (On the reduction of health effects from combined exposure to indoor air pollutants in modern offices) funded by the European Union 7th Framework (Agreement 265267) under Theme: ENV.2010.1.2.2-1.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, seasonal changes, air conditioning

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Study of in-vehicle particulate matter exposure Handakas Evangelos, Chapizanis Dimitris, Sarigiannis Denis, Karakitsios Spyros Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

The proximity of vehicles to emissions from other vehicles on freeways and busy roadways leads to elevated pollutant concentrations in vehicle cabins compared to other indoor environments. A significant and disproportionate share of total personal exposure can occur during driving, especially for pollutants emitted mostly by vehicles, such as ultrafine particles. In particular, ultrafine particles are a greater threat to human health compared with larger particles, since they can easily penetrate the lung tissue, enter the circulatory systems and be deposited in the brain, causing severe health effects. In this study we present in-cabin and outdoor measurements of particulate matter concentration and size distributions while driving on busy streets of the center of Thessaloniki, Greece. Measurements were carried out during 4 consecutive days (08:30 – 15:30) of July and were performed using an optical counter (TSI Optical Particle Sizer Model 3330). Three different in-cabin ventilation settings were evaluated: a) open windows, a ventilation setting that brings in outside air, b) air condition (AC) on and c) AC and recirculate (RC) on. Overall car protection as well as commuter exposure were estimated based on in-cabin and outdoor concentrations. Outdoor measurements during the days of experiment varied with median values for PM10 at 31 ug/m3 (range: 13 - 131 ug/m³) and for PM2.5 at 5 ug/m³ (range: 3 - 19 ug/m³). “Open windows” is the ventilation setting at which the highest concentration levels were observed (PM10 median, min, max: 34, 11, 160 ug/m³ and PM2.5 median, min, max: 6, 3, 21 ug/m³). The airrecycling mode leads to a clear reduction in the concentration inside a vehicle. Shifting from “open windows” to “AC and RC on” setting, leads to an average reduction by 72% for PM10 and by 50% for PM2.5. The average reduction while changing from “open windows” to “AC on” was 64% for PM10 and 46% for PM2.5. This study contributes to a better understanding of human exposure to particulate matter and provides information regarding the accumulation of particles in private vehicles. It is clear that the ventilation settings have a major effect on the levels of exposure. Studies of the past show that ultrafine and nanoparticles from vehicle exhaust can be quite toxic since they contain high concentrations of organic carbon content, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinines, therefore enhancing the risk of adverse health effects occurrence. The ventilation choice one makes, can effectively reduce exposure to on-road particle pollution.

Keywords: vehicle occupants exposure, ventilation mode, particulate matter, in-cabin, in-vehicle

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Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge Sarigiannis Denis1, Handakas Vagelis1, Kermenidou Marianthi1, Karakitsios Spyros1, Charisiadis Pantelis2, Makris Kostantinos2 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus 2

The Charilaos Trikoupis bridge, known as bridge of Rio-Antirio, is one of the world’s longest cablestayed bridge of multiple openings in the world, with a total length of 2,252 meters. It connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study an overview of the air pollution monitoring in the area in 2013-2014 is presented. This is part of the annual environmental impact assessment of the bridge operation that our laboratory is responsible for on behalf of the Ministry of Development. Four campaigns were realized in the course of the last two years. The exact periods of the two annual campaigns were selected taking into account the high traffic seasons according to a careful examination of the bridge traffic patterns. In each of the campaigns dynamic measurements of CO, NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were performed continuously during 10-day periods near the edges of the bridge located in the urban areas or Rio and Antirrio. Moreover, meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature, cloud cover and humidity) were recorded. The pollution data were analyzed statistically and the quality of the air was characterized according to the US Environmental Protection Agency indicators and the European Common Air Quality Index framework. The results indicated that air pollution levels are in generally below the regulatory thresholds. Moreover, the traffic emissions from the bridge are not the main source of air pollution in the area. PM2.5 and PM10 levels were below 25 and 50 μg/m³ on both sides of the bridge almost every day. These limits were exceeded only one day (5/12/2013) on the side of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10 respectively). The low contribution from traffic emissions in the area is also justified by the low PM2.5/PM10, which is on average 0.49 (s.d. 012), indicating that long range transport is more significant that local sources. However, during the winter period, PM2.5 and PM10 levels are higher due to the use of light oil and biomass burning for space heating. Pb levels were very low; the daily value recorded (4.5 ng/m³) is two orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory limit of 0.5 mg/m3. Hourly average concentrations of CO, SO2, NO and ΝΟ2 for the side of Antirrio where 3.99 mg/m³, 1.82 μg/m³, 6.6 μg/m³ and 38.6 μg/m³, while for Rio the respective levels were 5 mg/m³, 4.39 μg/m³, 3.74 μg/m³ και 22.81 μg/m³ respectively. Overall the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the surrounding air pollution levels is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily volume of vehicles, the respective traffic fleet composition and the speed limit which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. The higher levels of PM observed during the winter period are attributed to local sources of space heating, as well as to the lower mixing height. Keywords: air pollution, traffic emissions

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Reactive oxygen species associated with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Metropolitan area of Thessaloniki: chemical analysis and source apportionment Sarigiannis Denis, Kermenidou Marianthi, Tzimou – Tsitouridou Roxani, Nikolaki Spyridoula, Karakitsios Spyros Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece

The concentrations of PM10 at urban sites increase during the winter due to the combination of strictly anthropogenic urban emissions such as traffic and domestic heating, and meteorological conditions such as the prevalence of anticyclonic scenarios. Over the last couple of years, the use of biomass as heating source was used in the large metropolitan areas of Thessaloniki affecting a large amount of city’s population. At the same time the use of light heating diesel was heavily taxed. In the same period Greece faces a financial crisis with significant repercussions on the average household income. This combination resulted in reduced traffic loads but excessive biomass use for domestic heating during wintertime. An extensive campaign was carried out from January to April 2013, at two locations in the urban area of Thessaloniki. Firstly, the urban background site is located PM samplers were placed on the roof of a building at a height of approximately 9 m above the ground. No significant traffic sources were in a close proximity to the site. Secondly, the traffic site is located at the campus area of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, at a balcony of the School of Engineering, Building D. The site is crossed by the main highway of Thessaloniki, Egnatia Street. Samplers were placed at a height of 6 m from the ground. For the collection of aerosols, low volume samplers were used (TCR-Tecora). PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected on PTFE filters (Pall Corporation, 47 mm diameter) for 24 h. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were analyzed for black carbon, ionic species, metals, pahs, levoglucosan and ROS generation. Ambient air data showed a high concentration of PM10 (73.1 μg/m³) and PM2.5 (62.7 μg/m³) during the sampling period. The contribution of traffic is reduced, while during the sampling period the contribution of biomass heating increases up to 34%. Chemical analysis proves that oxidative potential of a certain PM sample is not correlated to PM mass. On the contrary, a strong correlation between chemical composition and oxidative capacity of a PM sample seems to exist. Assessing the potential of chemical compounds of atmospheric aerosols at both sites to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and identify major ROS-associated emission sources. ROS-generation potential of particles was quantified by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. A simple linear regression between the DTT activity and aerosol chemical components revealed strong associations between PM ROS generation potential and biomass burning markers. ROS activity was found to be associated with high concentrations of metals, pahs and levoglucosan found in PM2.5 and PM10 at both sites. PM2.5 are combustion derived, such as diesel exhaust particles and biomass burning for domestic heating. Furthermore, PM10 constituents are ground particles, such as dust and pollen. In addition, even in lower amounts than PM2.5, PM10 may be derived from biomass combustion processes, too. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to apportion the relative contribution of various sources to the ROS-generation potential of chemical species of PM2.5 and PM10. Keywords: reactive oxygen species chemical analysis source apportionment particulate matter

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The method of measuring radon flux density and values of other environmental factors as earthquake precursors; the application of automatic anomaly detection software Nicolì Leonardo1, Zucchetti Massimo2 1

International Association for Research Seismic Precursors (iAReSP) Politecnico di Torino, DENERG,Italy

2

Scientific research leading to the successful prediction of large earthquakes, sufficiently in advance, has great significance to mankind. Unfortunately, to this date, no reliable method has been developed for the successful application of earthquake prediction based on a geological scale, when applied to a human scale: the latter requires precise timing, location and intensity, factors not easily defined geologically. Nevertheless, based on long-term studies, some earthquake precursors like change in ion concentration in water, variation in concentration of He, Ne, Ar, Rn and N2 in the environment of the affected zone, on the abnormality of behaviour in some animals, occurrence of milder foreshocks before a large earthquake, sudden water-level change in some wells, ground deformation, stress buildup in the country rocks (which may in turn alter electric resistance of the rocks), etc. have been identified. But most of these precursors are subject to so many different influences that they behave erratically and therefore have been poorly understood so far, making earthquake prediction a controversial issue. The scientific detection of anomalies precursors of earthquakes and development early warning system can be possible just through the simultaneous detection of multiple factors. The integration of our multidisciplinary station which provide multi-method measurement approach such as: ·capacity to detect the emission of Radon ·measurements variation of electric and electromagnetic fields ·using of the meteorological parameters ·the camera with optical vibration technology for using both edifice and animal environment represent great asset to supply the correlation of these data and locate the detection anomalies of earthquake precursors. For measure indoor Radon concentration we use the method of Continuous Radon Monitoring (C.R. of EPA). The air is either diffuses into a counting chamber. The counting chamber is ionization chamber. Scintillation counts are processed by electronics, and radon concentrations for predetermined intervals are stored in the instrument's memory. This detection category includes devices that record real-time continuous measurements of radon gas over a series of minutes and report the results in hourly increments. The anomalies of number of pulses counted will be automatically identifying with our specific software, which able in real time to show the anomalies that would hardly be identifiable with the single view or with a normal data flow control. This specific software Radonometro is situated in underground environment to avoid the interferences which might be caused by climatic factors. Across our seismic network we are able to analyse the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and identify the correlation with the anomalies. We can demonstrate how various anomaly detection analysis of several factors which fault zone could to produce, can serve to pinpoint pre earthquake related phenomena. Keywords: radon, earthquakes, detection

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Public participation in air quality monitoring Robinson Johanna, Kocman David, Kontić Davor, Horvat Milena Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Air quality poses health risk to humans worldwide. Knowing what the air quality levels are is traditionally left to the scientists and governmental institutions to monitor and report. The regulatory monitoring is usually made in a few selected locations in cities covering only fraction of the city at a time. However, personal exposure to air pollution can significantly vary in different locations in the city. This kind of street level information is not currently available, even though many cities are trying to provide this information to the citizens via air quality models. An ongoing European project CITISENSE is developing and testing how a network of low cost fixed and portable air quality sensors could provide more information to the citizens about the air quality in higher spatial and temporal resolution. Ljubljana, Slovenia, is one of the participating cities. Private citizens as well as schools are invited to host fixed air quality sensors or carry portable ones to monitor their immediate vicinity outdoors as well as indoors. The emergence of low-cost air quality sensor units is opening new possibilities for individuals and groups to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, as well as to share this information with other citizens. In Ljubljana, one can receive information from only two governmental air quality stations. Even though the city has taken steps to improve the local air quality, the citizens themselves still need to understand what is their contribution to the problem and how can they improve the situation. Thus, air quality awareness raising is becoming more and more important. New technological solutions make it possible for the citizens to have the invisible visible by visualizing the personalized air quality data in smartphones and on-line. Transforming the data gathered by the low-cost sensors into information that is useful and easy to understand by the general public is the key in increasing the citizens’ awareness of their environment, and enhancing their ability to recognize and change their exposure to air pollution resulting in better quality of life for all. The tools, which are developed within the project, will contribute to engage the citizens in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception. Involving citizens at a local level and obtaining and using their knowledge will not only help research but will also help to create a community of active citizens -¬ the citizens’ observatory. The citizens’ observatory will be used to empower local people to contribute to environmental governance. This will give them and other project stakeholders, such as local authorities, schools and NGOs, a forum to exchange results as well as discuss and receive additional information on related issues. Acknowledgements CITI-SENSE project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308524. www.citisense.eu.

Keywords: air quality, empowerment, citizens’ observatory

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Indoor BTEX and carbonyls levels in Thessaloniki, Greece, emitted from building materials Sarigiannis Denis, Karakitsios Spyros, Kontoroupis Periklis, Zarkadas Ioannis, Nikolaki Spyridoula, Kermenidou Marianthi, Handakas Evangelos, Papadaki Krystalia, Chapizanis Dimitrios Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece The study describes at identifying the contribution of building materials on indoor VOCs in Thessaloniki. A long list of basic and artificial, as well as other type of other materials such as floorings, gypsum products and plaster boards, paints and varnishes, wood based panels and carpets were tested for VOCs emissivity. A sampling campaign took place in winter in homes in Thessaloniki, aiming to capture the effect of winter climate conditions in indoor air quality with respect to contamination to major VOCs. Overall 50 residential locations of non-smokers (aiming at capturing only the contribution of building materials) were sampled, including different type of residential buildings. Collecting data from different building types, allowed us to identify different types of buildings, of traditional or modern architecture, thus covering a broad range of building materials used. Differences in materials used were reflected in the respective indoor emissions and concentration levels as well. From the chemical emissivity results it was evident that different categories of the same type of materials present wide variability of emissions. Thus, among different types of flooring, the resilient types of flooring emit a strong amount of BTEX (and carbonyls at a smaller extent). Similarly, wall paints emission might differ significantly based on the respective sub-types (e.g. latex based paints are strong VOCs emitters, in contrast to water based paints). In order to correctly associate in situ measured VOCs levels and the respective emissions, we need to correctly account for the exact type and amount of building materials inventory. An additional parameter incorporating variability among the several residential locations is the air exchange rate. This is greatly affected by the house insulation, which in turn depends on the year of construction and the respective energy class. Mean VOCs levels in Thessaloniki were 0.8 μg/m3 for benzene, 5.2 μg/m3 for toluene, 0.7 μg/m3 for ethylbenzene, 2 μg/m3 for xylenes, 6.6 μg/m3 for formaldehyde and 3.8 μg/m3 for acetaldehyde. The analysis of correlation of the calculated emissions (based on the surface and the type of building materials identified in each location, normalized for the area of the residence) and the respective concentrations. Significant correlations were identified between the estimated emissions and the respective measured concentrations for BTEX, with R2 ranging from 0.43 to 0.55. Stronger correlations were found for aldehydes (R2 = 0.67 for formaldehyde and 0.62 for acetaldehyde). This indicates the importance of the building materials identified as determinant contributors of indoor air quality regarding VOCs. Parameters that affect these correlations include air exchange rates differences among the several houses, the wide variability of the emission factors among similar materials, and the use of domestic cleaning products significantly affecting VOCs concentrations and especially BTEX levels.

Keywords: indoor air quality, BTEX, aldehydes, building materials

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Cancer risk associated to combined exposure to indoor BTEX and carbonyls emitted from building materials Sarigiannis Denis, Karakitsios Spyros, Kontoroupis Periklis, Zarkadas Ioannis, Nikolaki Spyridoula, Kermenidou Marianthi, Handakas Evangelos, Papadaki Krystalia, Chapizanis Dimitrios Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

The study deals with the assessment of carcinogenic risks associated to exposure to indoor BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and carbonyls (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) emitted from building materials in Thessaloniki, Greece. Using the data from an extensive campaign including measurements of indoor BTEX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, a biology based methodology for assessing the carcinogenic risks was developed. This included the development of an integrated modelling framework comprising of: - An inhalation exposure model that accounts for daily activity patterns and the effect of the relateted activities on inhalation rate and actual intake - The use of toxicokinetic models that take into account mixtures interaction (especially important for the quartenary mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) - The use of biology based dose response models for associating internal dose to cancer risks. - Assessment of uncertainty and variability of the affecting parameters. This was implemented in each stage through Marcov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. Based on the methodology described above, daily dose (normalised per body weight) is significantly differentiated among the different age groups; bodyweight normalised dose for children is about two times higher to respective one for the adults. Cancer risks related to the major carcinogenic compounds (benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were estimated. Estimated lifetime risk due to residential exposure in Thessaloniki for leukemia and nasopharyngeal cancer were below 1E-06 (which is considered as acceptable risk), while laryngeal cancer was slightly above 1E-06. Cumulative risk was below 10E-5, mainly increased by laryngeal cancer, which in turn is mainly defined by acetaldehyde. However, this is the result of the fact that that the existing methodology for acetaldehyde is quite conservative, overestimating actual risks compared to the ones related to benzene and formaldehyde. Regarding the individual residential locations, higher risks are related to houses characterized by the combined presence of materials with high potency of VOCs (such as latex wall paints, gypsum decorates). In any case, it is advisable to avoid combination of materials that result in high levels of indoor air VOCs concentration, aiming to minimize the cumulative cancer risk. This is more important for children, due to the higher bodyweight normalised dose receiving compared to adults (under similar exposure conditions), as well as to the susceptibility related to early developmental stages.

Keywords: indoor air, cancer risk, benzene, formaldehyde

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Determination of 19 PAHs in air samples using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Sarigiannis Denis, Nikolaki Spyridoula, Zikopoulos Dimitris, Kermenidou Marianthi Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

The aim of our study was to develop an efficient and selective method for the determination and quantification of 19 PAH compounds in the atmosphere. This method was applied to air samples collected in the area of Thessaloniki between January and April of 2013. Two sampling sites were used in the urban area of Thessaloniki: an urban background site and a traffic site. PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected on PTFE filters (Pall Corporation, 47 mm diameter) for 24h. Analysis of the filters was performed by a gas chromatographer coupled with an inert MSD mass spectrometer. PAHs identification was accomplished using PAHs standards solutions. The calibration curves were estimated using the internal standard calibration method. For the quality assurance and control, laboratory blanks and field blanks were extracted and analyzed in the same way as the samples. Nineteen PAH compounds were analyzed in this study. It is noted that all calibration curves showed good linearity (over 0.995). The method detection limit (for a volume of air of 55 m 3) ranged from 0.008 to 0.27 ng/m3, depending on the specific PAH compound considered. Validation of the analytical procedure was carried out by analyzing a standard reference material of urban particulate matter (NIST, SRM 1649b). This analysis was in good agreement to the certified values (i.e. PAH recoveries above 80%). Concentrations in samples from the two monitoring stations showed variations both in PM fractions and PAH compounds. For example, in the urban area, benzo[a]pyrene concentration for PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 varied from 0.031 to 14.98 ng/m3, 0.068 to 18.24 ng/m3 and 0.075 to 19.68 ng/m3, respectively. Similarly, in the traffic area benzo[a]pyrene concentration for PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 varied from 0.046 to 4.45 ng/m3, 0.055 to 6.29 ng/m3 and 0.057 to 7.918 ng/m3, respectively.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, air, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Indoor galaxolide concentration prediction from building and occupants characteristics Annesi Maesano Isabella1, Banerjee Soutrik1, Amrani Fouad1, Dallongeville Arnaud4, Blanchard Olivier2, Deguen Séverine3, Costet Nathalie6, Zmirout Navier Denis5 1

INSERM and Pierre and Marie Curie-Sorbonne Universities EHESP School of Public Health 3 Inserm UMR1085-IRSET 4 French Environment and Energy Management Agency 5 Lorraine University Medical School 6 Université de Rennes 1 2

Galaxolide (HHCB) is used for fragrance like in floor cleaners, dishwashing liquids or bleaching agents, in personal care products like soaps, body lotions or shaving creams, and in room refreshers and incense sticks. The aim of the current study was to build a predictive model from a questionnaire-based dwelling and occupants' characteristics to predict measured indoor HHCB concentration. HHCB was sampled in the living room of 150 dwellings in Brittany in the frame of the PELAGIE Study). HHCB was log-transformed. A standardized questionnaire was used for assessing building characteristics and occupants activities. Multiple imputation (MI) was carried out to fill missing covariate information. Min-max normalization of the covariates was subsequently carried out to bring all covariates’ values to [0, 1] range. Given the large number of covariates, an attribute selection procedure was run to select covariates from a list of 288 variables with which subsequent predictive models were built. Stepwise selection procedure using ‘Schwartz Bayesian Criterion (SBC) with competitive variable exclusion’ and ‘hybrid LASSO’ were both administered to select a subset of covariates. Of the two methods, the former method being more parsimonious for HHBC and with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.5, was chosen to carry out supervised machine learning algorithms. A 10-fold cross validation (CV) was applied to choose the best model from the reduced set of attributes based on the cross validated rootmean-squared-error (RMSECV) criterion. The model with the least RMSECV was defined as the best model. This model was compared with other models. In addition, the same algorithms were run with the full set of variables for comparison of performance. Linear regression model was found to have the best performance (R2 = 0.48) along with fitted models from neural network, relevance vector machine (RVM), Gaussian processes, support vector (SV) regression, stochastic gradient boosting, bagging and rotation forest. From the linear model, the main variables that increased HHCB were: living in rural area, drying clothes in dwellings, painted walls, chipboard furniture, double glazing, damaged floors and duration of bathroom aeration. Laminated floors and plants were found to decrease the HHCB concentration. This study helped us to identify the main attributes that could partially explain the measured concentration of HHCB in the dwellings of our sample. Given the interpretability of the linear model compared to the other more complex models, we propose the linear model from the questionnairederived variables as the method of predicting indoor HHCB, which is cheaper than measuring it physically. Keywords: galaxolide, predictive models, indoor air pollution, musk, statistics, expology, epidemiology 147 | P a g e

Indoor and outdoor air pollution

The potential use of a particulate matter sensor for “Exposome” research. Kuijpers Eelco1, Remy Franken Anjoeka Pronk,1, Voogt Marita1, Dimitris Chapizanis Denis Sarigiannis,2, Zdravko Spiric Spyros Karakitsios,2, Mina Stametelopoulou Thomas Maggos3, Bartzis John4, Schieberle Christian5, Miranda Loh Susanne Steinle,6, Cherrie John6 1

TNO, NL Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece 3 NCSRD, Greece 4 UOWM, Greece; 5 University of Stuttgart, Germany; 6 IOM, Scotland. 2

It is now possible to assess indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) with low cost sensors. As part of the HEALS project (www.heals-eu.eu), funded by the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU FP7), we evaluated the potential use of a low cost PM sensor to assess indoor PM as part of an exposome methodology. In an experimental design we simulated several household activities (e.g. vacuum cleaning, cooking) that generate PM and placed the low cost PM sensor (Dylos DC1700) side by side with a conventional device (TSI APS). In addition, the Dylos DC1700 is currently being used in approximately 150 participants in 3 countries across Europe (Scotland, Greece and the Netherlands) as part of a pilot study aimed at developing a methodology for measuring the exposome. Collected data for the first participants (n=3) was visually compared with the Dutch air quality monitoring network. In the experiment we found a high correlation between the APS and the Dylos DC1700 for different size ranges (> 0.5µm and > 2.5µm) (> 0.96). Preliminary results of the pilot study data collected with the Dylos DC1700 suggest large variation in PM between days for a single participant and on average between participants. However, first pilot study results suggest a high correlation with the Dutch air quality monitoring network. The high correlation between TSI APS and Dylos DC1700 in the experimental setup suggested that this low cost sensor may be used for measuring indoor PM. The typical particle size distribution patterns of the TSI APS will be applied to the results collected with the Dylos DC1700 to increase the size selectiveness and for conversion into calculated mass concentrations. These findings will be used for personal exposure modelling based on time-activity information as part of the HEALS exposome methodology.

Keywords: air pollution, noise; exposure assessment; indoor air quality

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Radon measurements in dwellings of Central Macedonia Xanthos Stelios Department of Automation Engineering, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki

Indoor radon measurements have been performed in houses in the towns of Thessaloniki, Serres and Drama during winter and summer period. Different radon measuring techniques were used: a) EIC (Electret Ion Chambers) and b) Lucas cells. The first ones were used for estimating integrated radon concentration over a long time period. The second ones were used for measuring short time radon concentration (20 minutes of air grab sampling). In Thessaloniki, more than 30 dwellings were monitored. The geometric mean estimated in Thessalonliki was 85 Βq/m3 whilst the arithmetic mean was 89±28 Βq/m3 during summer period. For the winter period the geometric mean estimated was 142 Βq/m3 and the arithmetic mean equal to 150±47 Βq/m3. In Serres, more than 20 dwellings were monitored. The geometric mean estimated in Serres was 75 Βq/m3 and the arithmetic mean equal to 88±44 Βq/m3 during summer period. For the winter period the geometric mean was found equal to 81 Βq/m3 and the arithmetic mean equal to 97±55 Βq/m3. In Drama more than 12 dwellings were monitored. The geometric mean estimated was 140 Βq/m3 and the arithmetic mean equal to 152±68 Βq/m3 during summer period. For the winter period the geometric mean was estimated equal to 157 Βq/m3 and the arithmetic mean equal to 169±59 Βq/m3. Only one house from the monitored towns had a radon concentration above 300 Βq/m3 and only during the summer period that the house was closed. The 300 Βq/m3 is the reference levels for the annual average activity concentration proposed by European Commission. Correlation of results is being observed depending on seasonal variations of radon. It has been observed that in winter period, as expected, radon concentrations are higher than in summer one. It is unlikely to correlate results between short-term air grab samples and a long-term average radon measurement. House conditions play significant role in radon concentration for short term measurements (e.g., doors, windows, open or closed apart from normal use). As a matter of fact, the above factors play significant role in radon variations even during a day period.

Keywords: indoor radon, integrated measurements, seasonal variations

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Indoor and outdoor air pollution

Radioactivity measurements and physicomechanical properties of building materials used in Northern Greece: a combination study Xanthos Stelios1, Papaliangas Theodosios2, Vosniakos Konstantinos2, Tzilini Maria2 1

Department of Automation Engineering, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki 2 Department of Civil Engineering, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki Building materials can cause significant gamma dose rates indoors, due to their naturally occurring radionuclides of terrestrial origin. Gamma spectroscopy laboratory measurements have been performed measuring different type of building and raw materials used in Northern Greece constructions. Materials measured are masonry one like bricks, sand etc, superficial ones like tiles and some raw materials. In order to perform the measurements mentioned above a High purity Germanium detector was used. More than 55 different materials were measured for possible elevated activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. A first comment on data measurements is that marbles used in Northern Greece constructions seem to have small concentration of radioactivity whilst on the other hand granites have high concentration of radioactivity. For investigating possible limitation of building materials use, the activity concentration index I was determined. This factor is adopted by the European Commission as a dose criterion for control. The I index was determined for the materials of interest in the present work and found less than 6 for superficial materials and less than 1 for bulk ones. The above values are the reference levels for superficial and bulk materials respectively. Moreover measurements of physical and mechanical properties of the same building materials were performed. A possible correlation between radioactivity measurements and physicochemical properties was investigated.

Keywords: radioactivity measurements, building materials, physicomechanical properties

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Water and soil pollution and control

Water and soil pollution and control

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Water and soil pollution and control

Pressure control in district metering areas - case study Luxor Soussa Hoda Ain Shams University - faculty of engineering

Egypt as a part of arid and semiarid countries lying in North Africa and in the Middle East is suffering of limited water resources, especially with it increasingly population growth and new Nile conflicts to redistribute the water shares. So, minimize the water leakage from the urban water network system, can be save a good percentage of water allocated to domestic use (8%). About 20% is lost within the water distribution network. Within this work, water losses management techniques are being applied with integrating information technologies (SCADA, GIS, CIS and Hydraulic Modeling) to achieve water losses reduction. The Active Leakage Control ALC was also used as an important factor affecting physical water losses. Two cities had been selected as case studies, one in Turkey at Antalya were this approach is long applied and well established, and the second for comparing similar approach at Luxor city in Egypt as a leading experience. The results conducted by this research could be taken as a guideline for water utilities in Egypt to start over their methodologies to follow water losses management strategies in dividing network into DMAs. Results of dividing the city to DMAs while reducing leakage from the distribution system by pressure reduction and control to economically levels through the adoption of effective active leakage management strategy had been showed. Data acquisition, calculation and analysis should be effectuated through continuous monitoring in the future as to decide the possible and suitable action for sustain the development of the water sector and minimize water losses.

Keywords: DMA, SCADA system, active leakage

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Water and soil pollution and control

Investigation of coliform bacteria removal efficiency in the urban wastewater treatment plant of the city of Sakarya Yıldırım Nurbanu, Öz Nurtaç Department of Environmental Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

"The aim of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of coliform bacteria which are not found in “Regulation on Urban Wastewater Treatment” but causes diseases as cholera and typhoid if given to the receiving environment, from treatment plant in Sakarya. The samples were periodically taken from Sakarya Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant. These samples were determined for the removal efficiency of coliform bacteria and E.coli which taken from treatment plant influent, physical treatment effluent and biological treatment effluent. A most probable number (MPN) method was studied for determination of coliforms. The results were statistically compared with the removal efficiency of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS) and pH".

Keywords: urban wastewater treatment, coliform bacteria, removal efficiency

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trace elements analyses in the liver of deep sea fauna from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) Arianna Storelli, Grazia Barone, Vito Pietro Busco, Maria Maddalena Storelli Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceuticals Department University of Bari Strada Prov.le per Casamassima km3 Valenzano BA Italy

Trace metals concentrations (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Cu, Zn and Ni) were determined in the liver of two deep-sea species Trachyrincus trachyrincus and Coelorinchus coelorinchus. Specimens were collected in the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the framework of deep sea environment monitoring studies. The order of concentrations found in both species was: Zn>Cu=As>Ni>Hg>Cr>Cd>Pb. The concentrations of metals appeared to augment with the increasing of the depth of occurrence of the species. The comparison of results showed, infact, some significant differences between species, having T. trachyrincus deeper waters species, higher levels than C. coelorhincus. Diet, including trophic feeding level, and specific physiological metal regulation of each species are probably the main factors explaining the observed interspecific differences in metals levels.

Keywords: deep sea fish, liver, trace elements, Mediterranean Sea

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Water and soil pollution and control

Magnetite nanoparticles and yeast as a new biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt Abdallah Maha Ahmed Mohamed1, Mahmoud Mohamed El Said2, Osman Maher Mohamed2, Ahmed Somaia Bahloul1 1

National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries Faculty of Science, Chemistry department

2

Biosorption is an extensive technology applied for the removal of heavy metal ions and other pollutants from aqueous solutions. In the present study, the biosorption of cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury ions from polluted surface seawater in El-Max Bay was determined using hybrid active carbon sorbents. These sorbents were treated chemically by acid, base and redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker’s yeast biomass for increasing their biosorption capacity and the highest metal uptake values. The surface function and morphology of the hybrid immobilized sorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. The results of metal removal values are prove the vital role of baker’s yeast as a significant high removable due to functional groups at baker’s yeast cell wall surface that have the ability to forming various coordination complexes with metal ions. A noticeable increase in the removal of all studied metals was observed and reached to 100%.

Keywords: activated carbon, baker’s yeast, wastewater, El Mex Bay, Egypt

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Water and soil pollution and control

Challenges in selection of small – medium scale wastewater treatment alternatives in terms of water reuse Yıldırım Mustafa1, Topkaya Bülent2 1

Antalya Water & Wastewater Administration, Antalya, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

2

Water scarcity is the major problem in semi-arid and arid regions where Mediterranean climate conditions prevail. In these regions including Turkey, drinking and irrigation water demand has been increasing in connection with population growth, while potable water sources have decreased as a result of discharging wastewater to them. Recently, water reusing option emerges as a solution for these regions. However, to reuse the wastewater, treatment efficiency should be promoted to be desired level. Therefore, water reclamation should be evaluated along with treatment process and the most appropriate option can be identified in terms of economical and environmental criteria. In our country, population of 2015 municipalities which constitutes 70% of the existing municipality’s is less than 5000. After changing the number of municipalities in 2014, the number of municipalities was reduced to 1397 and settlements with a population of less than 2000 has transformed the neighborhoods. According to the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive item 6, ".. municipal wastewater treatment plants should be designed to work with sufficient performance under normal local climatic conditions.. and while the plant design, seasonal changes in organic and hydraulic load should be taken into account". Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” approach that can present the most environmentally solution by taking all emitted direct and indirect emissions in construction, operation/maintaining and demolition phases of alternatives into account. In this study, vegetated land treatment (VLT), constructed wetland (CW), rotated biological conductor (RBC), activated sludge (ASP), facultative stabilization pond (SP), membrane bioreactor (MBR), and extended aeration (EA) that can be applicable treatment alternatives for small-medium scale communities are assessed by using LCA. Also in this assessment, less sensitive and sensitive received media mentioned in Urban Wastewater Directive and water reusing are taken into consideration. To local conditions be considered, an Ms-Excel based decision support tool including LCA results is developed. The tool can assign weights to impact categories using Analytical Hierarchy Process and present most appropriate options to the user.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, life cycle assessment, analytical hierarchy process, decision support tool

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Water and soil pollution and control

Fractionation and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments in Serbia Sakan Sanja1, Relić Dubravka2, Popović Aleksandar2, Đorđević Dragana1 ICTM, Chemistry Center, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, Belgrade 11000, Serbia Faculty of Chemistry, Applied Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Serbia

1 2

Sediments in surface water are most vulnerable to various pollution including heavy metals due to their ease of access for the disposal of urban and industrial wastewater. In fact, the sediment acts as an accumulation reservoir and could bound or release heavy metals from the water column. In order to assess the general pollution of Serbian river sediment, the heavy metal contamination and the associated ecological risk in this region were determined by using: the BCR sequential extraction procedure, comparison of the metal contents with the sediment quality guidelines, determination by the risk assessment code and calculation the Secondary Phase Enrichment Factor. The results of the fractionation suggest the following ranking in order of decreasing metal mobility in the exchangeable/acid soluble fraction: Mn > Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Fe = Cr > V. This fraction is the most labile and generally considered as representative of the bio-available portion of the metals. The exchangeable fraction of Mn, Cd and Zn was rather high, implying that these metals were mobile in the environment. There was possibility that significant part of Mn in sediments precipitates as manganese carbonate. The high percentage of Mn, Cd, and Zn in weakly-bound fractions indicate that the considerable amounts of these elements may be released into water following non-exchange process and dissociation of Mn-carbonate phase if basins are to become more acid. Lead, zinc and copper were primarily associated with Fe-Mn oxides. These elements may be released from sediment, if there is a change of oxidation state of Fe and Mn and thus may pose a long-term source of contamination. Fractionation of Cr, Fe, V and Ni showed that the major portion of these elements was in the residual fraction. The elements are retained within the crystal lattice of minerals and in wellcrystallized oxides, and could be used as an indicator of natural sources input. An assessment of metal pollution levels in studied sediments is made by comparing obtained values metal contents with the freshwater sediment's Quality Guidelines. Content of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exceed the MAQ values proposed by soil standards for Serbia, which indicated that the most of the sediments were with heavy metal contamination.

Keywords: fractionation, heavy metal, ecological risk, surface sediment

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Water and soil pollution and control

Biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by a Pseudomonas Spp Adhyaeddine Hamitouche1, Zoubida Bendjama2, Abdeltif Amrane3, Farida Kaouah2 1

Centre de Recherche scientifique et technique en Analyses Physico-Chimiques, BP 248, CRAPC, Alger, Algeria 2 Laboratoire des Sciences du Génie des Procédés Industriels, Faculté de Génie Mécanique et de Génie des Procédés, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, ElAlia, 16111, Bab ezzouar, Alger, Algeria 3 Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6226, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7, France and Université européenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes, France

Chlorophenols are a group of pollutants chemicals with chlorine atoms (between one and five) attached to the phenolic structure, and there are 19 congeners exist in total. They are used to manufacture herbicides, insecticides, wood preservatives and industries as synthesis intermediates or as raw materials in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and dyes. For this reason, they are finding in wastewater and more research is done to fight against this pollution. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the effects of the mineral medium composition and the pH on 2-chlorophenol removal. In this purpose, 2-chlorophenol removal was carried out in a batch reactor containing mixed bacteria; the temperature (30°C), the stirring velocity (200 r /min), the KH2PO4 concentration (1.5 g/L), the K2HPO4 concentration (2 g/L) and 2chlorophenol concentration (100 mg/L) were kept constants. The initial pH was varied in the range 5 – 9 and the mineral components were tested in the following concentration ranges: 0 – 2 g/L for Nitrogen sources (NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, KNO3 and NH4NO3), 0 – 0.5 g/L for NaCl and 0 – 0.2 g/L for MgSO4. Their effects on 2-chlorophenol biodegradation and specific growth rate were examined. The shorter biodegradation time of 2-chlorophenol was 45.2 h for NH4Cl, NaCl and MgSO4 concentrations of 1, 0.2 and 0.1 g/L respectively. Maximum specific growth rate (0.44 h-1) and total 2-chlorophenol removal were recorded for an optimal pH value of 8.

Keywords: 2-chlorophenol, biodegradation, batch reactor, mineral medium

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Water and soil pollution and control

Effect of foreign ions on removing copper (II) from aqueous solutions by treated Martil sand Ziat Khadija1, Nebagha Khaled Cheikh1, Redouany Yassine1, Rghioui Lotfi2, Saidi Mohamed3 Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Substances Naturelles et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Moroccoc 2 Equipe Physico-Chimie de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Meknès, Morocco 3 Laboratoire de Spectroscopie, Modélisation Moléculaire, Matériaux et Environnement (LS3ME) Faculté des Sciences de Rabat, Morocco 1

Heavy-metal pollution occurs in many industrial wastewater such as those produced by metal plating facilities, mining operations, battery manufacturing process, the production of paints and pigments, and the glass production industry. Due to their accumulation through food chain and persistent in nature, it is necessary to remove toxic heavy-metals from wastewater. Intake of excessively large doses of copper by man leads to severe mucosal irritation and corrosion, widespread capillary damage, hepatic and renal damage and central nervous system irritation followed by depression. Severe gastrointestinal irritation and possible necrotic changes in the liver and kidney could occur. Conventional technologies for the removal of heavy-metal such as chemical precipitation, electrolysis, ion exchange and reverse osmosis are often neither effective nor economical. Among the physico-chemical treatment process adsorption is highly effective, cheap and easy to adapt. Adsorption has been proven to be a successful method for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Activated carbon is highly effective in adsorbing heavy metals from wastewater but high cost limits its use. The abundance of sand and their low cost are a strong candidate as an adsorbent for removal of heavy-metal from wastewater. The objective of this study is to investigate the adsorption characteristics of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions by the use of treated Martil sand (TMS). The influence of operating variables such as nature of copper salt, the presence of cations and anions were investigated to better understand copper adsorption process. The results showed that nature of salt influenced copper uptake. The adsorption of copper, decreases in the presence of alkali cations, in the order Li+ > Na+ > K+. The presence of anions in solution was found to inhibit copper uptake.

Keywords: adsorption, copper, sand, foreign ions

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Water and soil pollution and control

Impact of environment pollution caused by waters discharges of SOMIVER society: Recuperation Silver Ghemmit Doulache Naima Chemistry Department, Faculty of sciences; Fibrous Polymers Treatment and Forming Laboratory, University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Avenue of Independence-35000, ALGERIA

In Algeria, the nonexistence of silver mines makes it particularly rarer than its classification among the precious metals imposes its metal recuperation. The objective of this study is electrodeposition of silver ions of sludge from waste water of miroiterie of SOMIVER Thenia. The process applied in this case is electrolysis of sludge formed in a glass cell containing two electrodes: a cathode made of aluminum and a graphite anode. An adjustable continue current source capable of delivering from 1 to 10 A, this causes the cathode reaction electrodeposition of silver. Therefore, we lead to precede by comparison determinations under the effect of weight of cathode. Its weighing before and after electrolysis, and weight difference, means that amount of silver accumulated. Second, we determined the characteristics of sludge by electrochemical aluminum interface (OCP linear voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) before and after electrolysis, this is made possible by PGZ 301 potentiostat. In the electrolysis of silvering solution it has proved that low currents from 0.5 to 4 A can get a good yield of deposit silver where ∆m increases linearly with increasing intensity of electrolysis current for a period of 30 minutes. By against, for electrolysis currents higher than 4 A we recorded decrease in the amount of silver.

Keywords: silver, sludge, electrolysis, OCP, voltammetry, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

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Water and soil pollution and control

A green hydrothermal route to copper (II) recovery by reduction using D-glucose Djerad Souad, Mahfouf Esma Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Annaba, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000, Algeria.

A variety of industries are responsible for the release of heavy metals into the environment through their waste waters generated from hydrometallurgy, electroplating rinse liquors, petrochemical, refinery, fertilizer, etc. These heavy metals such as copper, chromium, zinc, lead and mercury are toxic for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and for humans. Water pollution by heavy metals is becoming a persistent problem and numerous studies have been focused on different removal techniques such as precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane technology. However, these methods allow removal of metals which are ultimately discarded as sludge and do not permit the reuse of the metals, resulting in a waste of raw materials. As the natural sources for metals are declining, it is becoming more economical to recover heavy metals into their metallic state and reuse them. The reduction technique uses several reducing agents such as hydrogen, sodium borohydride, hydrazine, phosphite, glycerol and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. These reducing agents are highly reactive and pose potential environmental risks. Nowadays, there is obviously an increased emphasis on the topic of green chemistry and chemical processes which aim at the total elimination or the minimization of generated waste and the implementation of sustainable processes. In this study, we present a green hydrothermal method to recover ionic copper in its metallic form using D-glucose, a natural and nontoxic reducing agent. Several parameters were studied such as the molar ratio of glucose/Cu2+:1-2-3-4 and 8, temperature: 30-50-60 and 70°C, and molar ratio of NaOH/Cu2+: 1-1.5 and 2. The concentration of residual Cu2+ was analyzed at the end of the reaction by volumetric method and the powder obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results have shown that the reduction of Cu2+ led to the formation of a mixture of Cu and Cu2O. The optimal conditions obtained were: glucose/Cu2+=4, temperature=60°C and NaOH/Cu2+=1.5 and reaction time=30min.

Keywords: water treatment, copper, D-glucose, green process

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Water and soil pollution and control

Photocatalytic degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by sodium decatungstate Bouziani Asmae1, El Hourch Abderahman1, El Azzouzi Mohammed1, Sarakha Mohamed2 1

Department of chemistry, Mohammed V university, Rabat. Morocco Institut de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand ICCF, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand, France

2

The decatungstate of sodium Na4W10O32 have an incontestable photocatalytic property which was used for the degradation and elimination of the biocide “Triclosan” in aqueous solution using ultraviolet radiation. The photocatalyst Na4W10O32 was synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by UV-Visible and IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, dichlorophenoxy) phenol) was studied using different concentrations of the photocatalyst and excited at 365 nm. In all cases, the degradation process mainly involved the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The system W10O324-/UV showed a very efficient degradation and the total disappearance of triclosan was obtained within 120 min irradiation time. The degradation pathways involved the homolytic scission of C–O bond and hydroxylation of the phenolic group. The process leads to the formation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol which represents 25% of triclosan conversion. The formation of dechlorinated products was also obtained. The intermediate byproducts were identified by means of HPLC/MS/MS using electrospray (ES) interfacing technique.

Keywords: water treatment, photocatalyst, decatungstate, triclosan

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Water and soil pollution and control

The content of heavy metal mobile forms in soils of the Rostov agglomeration Tagiverdiev Suleiman, Gorbov Sergey, Bezuglova Olga, Tischenko Svetlana, Plakhov Herman Academy of biology and biotechnology Southern Federal University The estimation of the heavy metal contamination of soils in Rostov-on-Don and the surrounding area was carried out. The soil profiles were established in different parts of the Rostov agglomeration and are represented of different soil genesis: Urbostratozem (#1304) Screened Urbostratozems (#1302), Calcareous Ordinary Chernozem under woody vegetation (#1306). The content of soluble forms of metals compared with the texture, pH and concentration of organic and inorganic carbon. The contents of heavy metals were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with equipment of Spectroscan MAKS-GV. The soluble forms of metals oxides were extracted with ammonium acetate solution mixed 10:1 with soil. The soluble forms of metal concentrations in the digests and extracts were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil samples were analyzed for texture by wet sieving and sedimentation. The content of total C and inorganic C were measured with dry combustion using high-temperature catalytic combustion analyzer total organic carbon (TOC-L CPN Shimadzu). The degree of soil contamination with heavy metals was assessed by comparing their content with the MPC values (danger coefficient method) or using the total contamination factor Zc = ∑Kc ‒ (n‒1), where Kc is the concentration coefficient equal to the ratio between the metal concentration in the soil and its background value, and n is the number of elements whose content exceeds the background value. The cobalt was the most soluble in Chernozem, due to low carbonate content. It can also be noted that content of cobalt with depth in this soil was decrease. The greatest soluble of metals has the lead - up to 98.5% of the total content. In addition, the mobility of lead is significantly lower in Chernozem in comparison with Urbostratozem. The direct correlation had between the soluble forms of copper and inorganic carbon in all horizons. This is due to the ability of carbonates to bind copper, forming insoluble compounds. These compounds can accumulate in carbonate horizons. If the pH had change to acid side, these compounds break down, and copper again becomes available in soil solution. There is a direct correlation between the content of soluble forms of zinc and lead in relation to organic carbon (#1302). It is contrary to the generally accepted norms of inverse correlation. It is due to complicate of particular Urbostratozems because U horizons are bulk in nature and they are genetically unrelated to the underlying natural soil horizons. The distribution along the profile of manganese and copper had correlate with texture. The distribution of cobalt, zinc and lead in the soil profile wasn’t depending from texture. The high content of soluble forms of heavy metals was observed in anthropogenically transformed horizons mainly. Despite this fact the pollution has low level. This research was supported by project No. 213.01-2014/007 VG, implemented in the framework of the base part of the inner SFU grant, as well as the state support of the leading Scientic schools of the Russian Federation (NSH-2449.2014.4) using equipment PCU "Biotechnology, Biomedicine and environmental monitoring" southern Federal University. Keywords: mobile forms of heavy metal, soil of urban areas, Chernozem

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Water and soil pollution and control

Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in river network of Serbia Devic Gordana J, Djordjevic Dragana, Sakan Sanja IChTM, Center of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Serbia

River systems play an important role in the sustainable development of the entire biophysical environment; inland rivers, in particular, flow through landscapes where ‘‘human– nature’’ interactions have strong and long-lasting effects. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 11 water quality variables collected during the year 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia. The content of elements in water samples of the most important rivers which flow through Serbia as well as their tributaries was examined applying the chemometric techniques. Q-model clustering depends on geographical location of sampling sites, categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, Serbia. Most sites classified as ‘‘low pollution zones’’ (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as ‘‘moderate and high pollution zones’’ (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, nonpoint source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. Our results revealed that river waters were primarily polluted by TN, TP, As and Ni with remarkably spatio variability, and there were increasing industrial effluents in rivers northward. The Danube-Tisa-Danube cannal correspond to very high polluted. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the River network of Serbia

Keywords: river network of Serbia, nutrients, heavy metal pollution, chemometric technique

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Water and soil pollution and control

Release, toxicity and interaction with clay minerals of silver nanoparticles and ions Kyzioł Komosińska Joanna1, Krzyżewska Iwona1, Rosik Dulewska Czesława1, Baran Agnieszka2, Franus Wojciech3, Czupioł Justyna1 1

Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics 3 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the Lublin University of Technology 2

The paper presents results of releasing nanosilver (nAg) from textiles in washing processes depending on a type and color of textile, type of surface functional group, as well as washing conditions such as temperature (40, 60 and 90°C), ratio of the solid phase to solution, water hardness and surfactants presence. Toxicity tests of aqueous solutions with nAg were derived from washing processes that were performed by a use of Ostracodtoxkit (chronic toxicity to the Heterocypris incongruens), Daphtoxkit F (immobilization of Daphnia) and Microtox (Vibrio fischeri inhibition of luminescence). Assessment of the results was based of hazard classification. Additionally, interaction of nAg with clay minerals (kaolinite and smectite group) which are common components of river suspension and sediments, depending on: initial concentration (0.1 – 100 mg/L), pH value of solution (3.0, 5.5, 7.0) and ratio of the solid phase to solution (1:100, 1:250 and 1:500) was researched. Obtained results were compared with susceptibility to binding of Ag ions by the clay minerals. The results showed that in simulated washing conditions a release of nAg from textiles that contain nAg depends on type of textile, their initial contain of nAg, washing temperature, surfactants presence and water hardness. It was found that the amounts of nAg obtained for cotton were higher than those for viscose as well as and of ecru textiles in comparison to black and graphite ones. Results showed that the highest amounts of nAg were released at 60°C and the lowest at 40°C. Usage of tap water instead of distilled caused a reduction in nAg release. In a presence of surfactants a significant increase in nAg release was observed. Investigated aqueous solutions were classified to II class – nontoxic, indicating a lack of acute hazard or low hazard. More sensitive organism to nAg was Daphnia than bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Studies on interaction of silver with clay minerals stated that Ag nanoparticles were bonded at 99% regardless of mineral type, initial concentration of nAg, pH values of solution and the ratio of the solid phase to solution. However, Ag ions were bonded with clay minerals in the range of low initial Ag concentration in solution (to 10 mg/L) in the similar amounts as nAg. In a high range of concentration was found influence of porosity, specific surface area and cation exchange capacity which was depended on type of clay minerals structure. Sorption capacity of tested minerals has changed in a series: kaolinite>montmorillonite>beidellite. The highest amounts of Ag ions were bonded by kaolinite, which was found to be characterized by the highest porosity from studied minerals. Sorption capacity of kaolinite was 33.5 mg/g and Ag ions were removed at from solution 54.64% of initial amount. It was observed threefold higher sorption capacity for montmorillonite than for beidellite. This indicated that structure and net charge are significant in the binding processes of Ag ions. Taking into account the sorption conditions, the highest amount Ag ions were bonded at pH 5.5 and solid phase to solution 1:500 ratio.

Keywords: nanoparticles, nanosilver, environment, toxic, clay minerals, sorption

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Water and soil pollution and control

Influence of parameters in photocatalytic degradation of chloridazon herbecide in aqueous TiO2 suspensions Hakima Azaari1, Abderrahim El Hourch1, Mohammed Elazzouzi1, Mohamed Sarakha2 Département of chimistry, University Mohamed V- Faculty of Sciences Agdal, Rabat – Morocco. Clermont University, University Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand (ICCF), Aubière, France 1 2

Today, we can be sure that human activity and modern lifestyle are responsible for the worsening environmental pollution. The sources of pollution are becoming more numerous and diverse. Also, the use of pesticides in various fields, their toxic nature and bioaccumulation are considerable dangers to humans. The intensive use of these products has a significant impact on the environment and consequently on the food chain elements. Studies have shown the presence of pesticide residues in ecosystems frequently in aqueous phase. They are also present in the air and in food. However, different studies have shown the harmful effects of these products on human health, depending on the applied dose. It is therefore necessary to study the fate and impact of pesticides in the environment. The aim of this work was to for Assessment of impact parameters on photodegradation of chloridazon. TiO2 P25 degussa was used as catalyst and photodegradation occurred in aqueous solution under excitation at 365nm. The effect of different TiO2 concentrations, the herbicide concentration and irradiation time were investigated. The analysis was performed by (HPLC). Similarly, it has been shown that the ions Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, CO32- has an effect on the photocatalytic degradation on the basis of the results, we concluded that this pollutant disappears completely after 20 minutes of irradiation. Analysis of the reaction mixture by HPLC coupled to mass allowed us further identify the photoproducts formed during mineralization.

Keywords: pollution, degradation, photocatalyse, TiO2

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trace metals accumulation and their translocation in "Phragmites australis" (L.) collected along the Sarno River Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Barbato Giuseppe, Vitale Alfredo, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

The aquatic macrophytes play an important role at removing contaminants from the rhizosphere by filtration, adsorption, cation exchange and through chemical changes induced by plant organisms. There are numerous studies which show that these (a) can accumulate metals in their tissues (Dunbabin and Bower 1992 Science Total Environ 111:151-168; Wright and Otte 1999 Biol Environ. Proc Royal Irish Acad 99(B):3–10; Papa et al 2012 Journal of Environmental Management; Baldantoni et al 2005 Aquatic Botany 83: 48-60; Baldantoni et al 2009 Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 101: 166-174), and (b) can concentrate them in their and so they provide an integrated framework of the contaminant concentrations in the time (Whitton et al 1981 In: Say PJ & Whitton BA (Eds) University of Durham, England, 135–145). Therefore, the macrophytes can be used in environmental investigations as bioindicators “in-situ” of the water quality due to their ability to accumulate chemical substances (Lewis 1995 Environmental Pollution 87: 319–336). According to this characteristic, they have been identified as a group potentially useful for bioremediation and biomonitoring (Biernacki et al 1997 Journal of Great Lakes Research 23:97–107; Salt et al 1998 Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49:643–668). The Sarno River is the most polluted river in Italy (Campania region) because of many important tannery and skins factories located along its course and large dumping of untreated agricultural and industrial waste. The Sarno is 24 km long and his basin covers 500 sq. km. That area is densely populated, containing 750,000 in habitants. Large-scale dumping of untreated agricultural and industrial waste into the river aggravates the situation. Additionally, the area is also tormented by frequent flooding and mudslides; in the last 20 years, the embankments have ruptured two or three times a year, causing spillover of polluted waters into the adjacent countryside with all the risk to public health. Therefore, the aim of this work was to quantify the trace metals accumulation in “Phragmites australis” (Cav.) (roots, stolons, stalks and leaves) sampled along the Sarno River. The data obtained were compared to the concentrations of the metals assayed in the rhizosphere sediments and the interstitial water to assess the bioaccumulation in different organs and bio-extraction.

Keywords: "Phragmites australis" L., rhizosphere sediment, trace metal, traslocation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trace metals accumulation in "Fragaria ananassa" and its possible use as a bioaccumulator Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Mottola Simona, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

Food is the major intake source of toxic trace elements by human beings. In particular, fruit are essential components of the diet, by contributing protein, vitamins, iron, calcium and other nutrients in short supply (Bigdeli and Seilsepour, 2008 - American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 4 (1): 86-92). The trace metals are the most dangerous pollutants for both human health and environment because they are not biodegradable and tend to bio-accumulate having a long biological half-life. It Is well known that plants take them up from soil as well as from air particulate but also from contaminated water (Radwan and Salama (2006) Food Chem Toxicol 44:1273-1278; Tuzen and Soylak (2007) Food Chemistry 102:1089–1095; Duran A et al., 2007 Int J Food Sci Nutr 59:581-589 Akan et al., 2009 - American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (3): 534-542). The goal of this study was to assay the trace metal contents in “Fragaria ananassa” samples collected from 14 sites located in Campania and Lazio regions and compared to a control site located in Puglia regions (Italy). Sites selection was made considering their different human impact in order to evaluate the possible role of “Fragaria ananassa” as bioaccumulator. These areas (sites located in Campania region), according to a document from the Civil Protection Department in 2007, were reported like a high risk of exposure and mortality due to an important human impact. Instead, ARPA Lazio reports classified as polluted and not for air pollution, the two sites selected in the Lazio region. In order to evaluate the possible contamination source has been analysed the content of these elements in the soil and in irrigation water.

Keywords: "Fragaria ananassa", trace metal, bioaccumulation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Soil–plant transfer of trace metals to vegetable of "Helianthus tuberosus" and "Solanum lycopersicum" plants Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Schiavone Tiziana, Del Vecchio Aldo, Carillo Petronia, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

According to a survey of environmental monitoring agency ARPA, there are different critical sites in Campania. They are legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets. As is known, crops grown in contaminated soils contain higher level of heavy metals compared to crops grown in soil not contaminated. Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006 Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 169: 101–123; Liu et al (2006) Nature 439 (7076):551-6; Wong et al 2002 Cell 109(2): 229-241). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food very important along with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of “Helianthus tuberosus” and “Solanum lycopersicum” sampled in the coastal area of Castel Volturno (Italy). This area is one of the different sites, which is defined "critical" according to a survey of environmental monitoring agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant.

Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Environmental monitoring of Inner Thermaikos Gulf The ICME Project Boskidis Ioannis1, Symeonidis Panagiotis1, Seferlis Miltiadis2, Petrakakis Maximos3, Kelesis Apostolos3, Tzoumaka Paraskevi3 1

Draxis Environmental S.A., Thessaloniki, Greece EKBY, Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 Department of Environmental Actions, Municipality of Thessaloniki, Greece 2

The Project ICME (Integrated Coastal Monitoring of Environmental Problems in Sea Region and the Ways of Their Solution) aims at developing innovative tools for the monitoring and management of sea regions with pilot implementation in four countries (Greece, Georgia, Armenia and Turkey). In Greece, the project is focused in inner Thermaikos Gulf area and in its framework an environmental monitoring program in the coastal and sea area of the Gulf is designed. The main purpose of the program is to assess and monitor the environmental status of the study area and in order to fulfil that target, two separated but interdependent monitoring networks were designed and implemented. The first network consists of seven monitoring stations in the coastal area of Thermaikos Gulf (covering the area from Kalochori to the west, to Aggelochori in the east) in which monthly expeditions are conducted for the in situ determination of water temperature, pH, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen and Total Dissolved Solids concentrations. Water samples are collected from each station, for the determination of chl-a concentrations. The second network consists of seven stations in the sea area of the Gulf, where bi-monthly monitoring expeditions are conducted for the in situ determination of current velocity, water temperature, pH, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen concentrations and Total Dissolved Solids, while water samples are collected from various depths, for the determination of chla and nutrients concentrations. The two networks were designed so as to cover the various natural and human impacts in the Gulf, their implementation started in August 2014 and is still ongoing. This study presents the preliminary results of the above described monitoring program.

Keywords: Thermaikos Gulf, environmental monitoring, nutrients

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Water and soil pollution and control

Copper biosorption by Argan nut shell: Equilibrium study El Boundati Youssef1, Ziat Khadija1, Rghioui Lotfi2, Saidi Mohamed1 Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Substances Naturelles et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Morocco 2 Equipe Physico-Chimie de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Meknès, Morocco 1

Heavy metal ions can be released into wastewater from various industries such as metal finishing, electroplating, automotive, battery manufacturing, steel industries, tannery, paint manufacturing, electronic industries, etc. Due to their persistence in nature, it becomes essential to remove them from wastewaters [1]. Inorganic micro-pollutants are of considerable concern because they are nonbiodegradable, highly toxic and have a probable carcinogenic effect [2,3]. One of the heavy metals that is toxic to humans and widely studied by many researchers is copper. The excessive intake of copper by Man leads to severe mucosal irritation, widespread capillary damage, hepatic and renal damage, central nervous problems followed by depression, gastrointestinal irritation and possible necrotic changes in the liver and kidney [4]. The World Health Organization recommended a maximum acceptable concentration of Cu (II) in drinking water of 1.5 mg L-1 [5]. Hence, the removal of copper from aqueous solutions is extremely important. The conventional methods for removing copper include coagulation, chemical precipitation, ionexchange and adsorption. The biosorption is the most widely used method because it is an economically feasible, simple, effective, versatile and environmentally friendly method in practice. In this study, Argan nut shell (ArNS), an agricultural by-product, was characterized and investigated as a biosorbent for adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Utilization of ArNS as inexpensive adsorbent for contaminant removal can convert this waste into useful product but also alleviates the disposal problems. The adsorption experiment was cried out in a batch system. The adsorption capacities of ArNS for Cu (II) was shown as a function of temperature and initial concentration. The sorption phenomena were expressed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the effect of temperature on the model constants was investigated. References [1] S. Klimmrk, H.J. Stan, A. Wilke, G. Bunke, R. Buchholz, Comparative analysis of the biosorption of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc by algae, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35 (21) (2001) 4283–4288. [2] G. Cimino, C. Caristi, Acute toxicity of heavy metals to aerobic digestion of waste cheese whey, Biol. Wastes 33 (1990) 201–210. [3] P. Madoni, D. Davoli, G. Gorbi, L. Vescovi, Toxic effect of heavy metals on the activated sludge protozoan community, Water Res. 30 (1996) 135–142. [4] Rengaraj, S., Yeon, J-W, Kim, Y., Yung, Y., Ha, Y-K, Kim, W-H, 2007. Adsorption characteristics of Cu (II) onto ion exchange resins 252H and 1500H: Kinetics, isotherms and error analysis. J. Hazard. Mater. 143, 469–477. [5] Rao, C.S., 1992. Environmental Pollution Control Engineering, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi. Keywords: copper; adsorption models; argan; biosorption 171 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in municipal wastewater Smutná Michaela, Čáslavský Josef Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology

This work is focused on the determination of phosphodiesterase 5 selective inhibitors in communal wastewater. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are the main active ingredients of medicaments which are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The aim of this work was determination of three phosphodiesterase inhibitors in communal wastewater; specifically it was sildenafil citrate, vardenafil hydrochloride and tadalafil. These compounds are the main active ingredients of medicaments with trade names Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. In this study phosphodiesterase inhibitors in municipal wastewater from three sewage treatment plants with different numbers of equivalent inhabitants were analysed: Sewage treatment plant in Brno – Modřice (630 000 EI), Hodonín (90 000 EI) and Luhačovice (16 200 EI). In each of the above mentioned facilities 24 - hour cumulated samples of the influent and effluent wastewater were collected. On the Brno - Modřice sewage treatment plant also weekly monitoring of the concentration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors was realized. At first, the analytical method was optimized and then applied on real wastewater samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the pre-treatment of wastewater samples. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC/ESI-MS) was applied for the identification and quantification of the target compounds. It was assumed that the most widely used of these drugs is Viagra (this assumption was based on survey in pharmacies), so sildenafil would be found in the largest quantities. In spite of this, only vardenafil was detected at concentrations exceeding the limit of detection and quantification and only in influent wastewater; its levels were between 0.1 and 0.6 ng.l-1. Due to good efficiency of the treatment process its concentrations at outflow water were bellow limit of detection. Tadalafil had to be excluded from the measurement because of his extremely low recovery during SPE extraction optimization. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, wastewater, HPLC/MS, SPE extraction

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Water and soil pollution and control

Comparation of treatability of tannerywastewater by using chemical coagulation & electrocoagulation process Akarsu Ceyhun1, Gulsen Habibe Elif1, Ozay Yasin1, Deveci Ece Ummu2, Dizge Nadir1, Yatmaz Huseyin Cengiz3 1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin, TURKEY Department of Environmental Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde, TURKEY 3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey 2

Technological development and increase in population increase the demand of clean water that the source is restricted. The wastewater is one of water source that has to be treated to reuse and obtain to save the sources. It is well known that the researchers to develop new and economic technologies. The leather tanning industry is well known of the leading economic sectors in many countries. Although this reputation, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. Biological processes are mostly chosen process but they are inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrated to biological treatment for this sense. The objective of this study was to reduce the cost of discharging the effluents, for this aim we develop a treatment system that can effectively reduce the concentration of pollutants in tannery wastewater to environmentally acceptable levels. Chromium (Cr), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and sulfur (S) removal from tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated by using Standart Methods. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. Electrical conductivity, salinity, temperature, and pH were measured after the process application. Also membrane process is used to recover the wastewater after treated chemical process.

Keywords: tannery wastewater; chemical coagulation process; electro-coagulation process; membrane process; chromium; water recovery

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Water and soil pollution and control

Linear musk compounds in waste water Švestková Tereza, Vávrová Milada Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry

Synthetic musk compounds are artificial organic compounds with a smell similar to the odor of a natural musk. The group of synthetic musk compounds includes nitromusk, polycyclic, macrocyclic and linear musk compounds. The most recently discovered and also the least known group of artificial musks are linear musk compounds. These substances are now often used in cosmetics, personal care products, detergents and various cleaning products. They have leaked into all the major environment compartments, especially into the hydrosphere. Increasing attention has been paid to synthetic musk compounds in the last few years due to their environmental impact. The topic of this research is determination of twelve linear musk compounds (linalool, 2cyclohexylethanol, fresco menthe, citronellol, HSA, isobornyl acetate, arocet, aroflorone, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, lilial, isoamyl salicylate and hexylcinnamic aldehyde) in waste water samples. The samples were taken at inflow and outflow of three different waste water treatment plants (WWTP Brno-Modřice, WWTP Luhačovice and WWTP Hodonín) with a different number of equivalent inhabitants. At first, the analytical procedure was optimized and then it was applied on real waste water samples. The method of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used for the isolation of selected samples, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS), served for the identification and quantification of target compounds. Concentration of selected musk compounds was found to be within the range of units to hundredths ng•ml-1 in waste water. The highest levels in all selected waste water treatment were determined for linalool and citronellol. The concentration range of citronellol was 0.784 – 4.748 ng.ml-1. The highest concentration of citronellol was found in WWTP Luhačovice. The concentration range of linalool was 1.621 – 3.642 ng.ml-1 and its highest concentration was found in WWTP Brno-Modřice. The efficiency of cleaning process in waste water treatment plant, calculated from experimental data, was found to be within the range of 69.45 – 96.71 %. Despite the high efficiency of the cleaning process, there has been found contamination of surface waters. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: linear musk compounds, SPME, waste water, GC/MS

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Water and soil pollution and control

Complexation of chrome by nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite: application in tannery of Marrakech Morocco Eladlani Nadia Nadia1, Rhazi Mohamed Mohamed2, Ouahrouch Aziz Aziz3, Taourirt Moha Moha4 Department of chemistry, Ecole normale supèrieure de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 2 Mohamed Rhazi, department of chemistry, Ecole normale supèrieure de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 3 Aziz ouahrouch, department of chemistry, faculté des sciences et technique de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 4 Moha taourirte, department of chemistry, faculté des sciences et technique de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 1

As we know clay has a good capacity to adsorb metallic ions, that’s why we reinforced chitosan with 1%, 2% and 3% of montmorillonite to prepare three nanocomposites (MMTCTf1%, MMTCTf2% & MMTCTf3%). Our objective of these preparations is complexation study of chrome (III). To identify this interaction of nanocomposites with chrome (III), we used different analysis FTIR spectroscopy, potentiometry and contact angle. Optical microscopy allowed us to see the difference of morphology before and after complexation. We also presented the adsorption kinetic of chromium (III) ions using UV/Visible analysis. Finally, we used a real effluent recuperated from tannery of Marrakech Morocco. The UV-Visible analysis and ICP-OES spectroscopy let us to determine the remaining quantity of chrome in effluent after complexation by our ligands (MMTCTf1%, MMTCTf2% & MMTCTf3%).

Keywords: chitosan, montmorillonite, chrome, nanocomposite, complexation.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of glyphosate treatment aerated biofilter Anass Laabi University Hassan II Superior National School of Electrical and Mechanical

Glyphosate [N- (phosphonomethyl) glycine] is widely used as a herbicide in many countries. This product may cause contamination of the human body, food, animals and ecosystems. His presence in the food chain is further increased more than 75%. It is increasingly found in surface water. It is a readily biodegradable product, but generates aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is more dangerous to the environment than the parent molecule. The present work is to study the possibility of elimination of glyphosate may be present in the water. The aerated biofiltration is adopted for treatment. The aim of the work is to identify the operating conditions of this technique for a better control, to better apprehend. Treatment monitoring will be carried out using certain parameters, the concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

Keywords: glyphosate acid, aminomethylphosphonic, biofiltration, herbicide

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Water and soil pollution and control

Adsorption study of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solution on layered double hydroxides El Hassani Kaoutar, Anouar Abdellah, Arkhis Mohamed Department of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology FSTS, Hassan 1st University, Settat, MOROCCO

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), a class of anionic clays, have attracted considerable interest because of their application as potential adsorbents for removal of toxic anions from contaminated water. In the present study, the possibility of adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on synthetic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from aqueous solution were exanimated. Both the as-synthesized and calcined samples had been studied. The dyes adsorption capacity was determined from adsorption isotherms and a kinetic study. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, concentration of dye, the M²⁺/M³⁺ ratio and the morphology of the adsorbent on the capacity of adsorption were studied. The regeneration study indicates that the LDHs adsorbents could be used for several cycles.

Keywords: layered double hydroxides, anionic clays, dye, adsorption, regeneration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes – synthesis, characteristics and possibility of their use in the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater Boncel Sławomir1, Czupioł Justyna2, Kyzioł–komosińska Joanna2, Krzyżewska Iwona2 1

Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology 2 Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences

We present conditions of the synthesis, physicochemical properties and the potential use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the removal of anionic and cationic contaminants from water and aqueous media. MWCNTs were synthesized at 760°C via catalytic Chemical Vapour Depositon (c-CVD) using a ferrocene–toluene solution as catalyst precursor and carbon substrate. Oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs) were obtained by a variety of oxidative treatments of pristine (assynthesized) MWCNTs. Morphology and functionalization of nanotubes (i.e. a degree and type of functional groups, mainly –COOH/-OH ratio) were controlled at the stage of both synthesis and the post-treatment. In the case of MWCNTs, full control of the morphology (length and diameter, degree of graphitization) was achieved at the stage of c-CVD synthesis by regulation of ferrocene concentration, temperature and time of the process. In turn, for O-MWCNTs – morphology and chemistry of the surface were controlled by selection of oxidizing agent e.g. nitrating mixture (98% H₂SO₄ + 68% HNO₃; v/v=3:1) or Fenton reagent. Mean length and outer/inner diameters of pristine MWCNTs varied. We have shown that 2 h– synthesis from 5.5% wt. of Fe(Cp)₂ in toluene at 760°C furnished MWCNTs of a length and outer/inner diameters ca. 250 μm and 40/10 nm, respectively. Oxidative treatment of MWCNTs caused degradation of the sp²–carbon skeleton — nanotubes were found as cut and the most outer walls were removed. And so, oxidation of MWCNTs with a nitrating mixture made O-MWCNT 300– times shorter (0.8 μm) and 2 times thinner (20 nm) than MWCNTs. Importantly, the oxidation process was found repeatable. O-MWCNTs – were easily water-dispersible since they contained hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Both functionalities were found as capable of electrostatic interactions and coordination of metal ions. These interactions could be further enhanced by π–cation interactions. An in-depth analysis of pristine and functionalized nanotubes was performed using microscopic studies (SEM, TEM, STM, AFM), elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetry (TGA, DTA, TG-IR), surface analysis (BET) and spectroscopic methods (Raman, FT-IR) revealing their adsorption potential. Our studies clearly indicated MWCNTs as a candidate for effective and selective adsorbent of heavy metal cations (Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) and inorganic anions (CrO₄²⁻/Cr₂O₇²⁻, SO₄²⁻, PO₄³⁻, Cl⁻) with their high specific area and susceptibility to a range of chemical modifications towards tunable adsorption.

Keywords: multi-wall carbon nanotubes, synthesis, characteristics, sorptions, contaminants

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of medium density fiberboard wastewater by Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/persulfate enhanced hydrodynamic cavitation processes Khoei Shiva1, Fakhri Hadi1, Balcik Cigdem2, Olmez Hanci Tugba1, Keskinler Bulent2 1

Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Environmental Engineering Department, Gebze Technical University, TR-41400, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

In the last decade the production of wood panels, especially of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) has a dramatic growth period throughout the world. MDF wastewater is characterized by its high suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) as well its biologically difficult-to-degrade recalcitrant organic compounds. Its high organic load mainly originating from celluloses, lignin and resin acids impose serious wastewater management and disposal problems. In the last decade great effort has been out forward to develop efficient treatment technologies for the treatment of OMW including evaporation, biological treatment, coagulation, electro-oxidation, separation, sedimentation, dewatering, etc. Biological treatment processes alone are not enough for treating MDF wastewater because of existing non-biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) using highly reactive radicals, such as hydroxyl (HO•) are excellent methods for the removal of toxic and/or refractory pollutants in water and wastewater. Recently, sulfate radical (SO4•-) has received considerable attention as an alternative oxidant to HO•, with similar capacities to harshly attack pollutants. The AOP involving ferrous iron activated persulfate (PS) to generate SO4•- has been widely used. The present work highlights the novel approach of combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and Fe2+/PS processes to develop a feasible and effective process for the post treatment of biologically treated wastewater generated from MDF industry. In the present study we have investigated the treatability of biologically treated MDF wastewater (COD = 448 mg/L; TOC = 248 mg/L; pH = 7.7) received from a factory located in Gebze/Turkey. AOP experiments were performed at different PS doses (5 and 10 mM in the presence of 0.5 mM Fe2+ catalyst at pH = 3). HC process was applied at these conditions in order to enhance the treatment efficiency. Treatment performances were evaluated in terms of COD removal and PS consumption rates. In the present case, Fe2+/PS process of biologically treated MDF wastewater was rather inefficient, resulting in 12% and 10% COD removals after 75 min treatment for 5 mM and 10 mM initial PS concentrations, respectively. The results indicated that the Fe2+/PS oxidation of biologically treated MDF wastewater seems to be a slow process; the effective treatment of this wastewater might need the combination of HC. Under the investigated reaction conditions, after 75 min Fe2+/PS enhanced HC treatment, approximately 25% COD removals were achieved for 5 mM and 10 mM initial PS concentrations. The effectiveness of the Fe2+/PS enhanced HC process in terms of COD abatement might be attributed to the additional SO4•- formation due to the HC. Results of the experimental studies were evaluated and discussed in terms of applicability of Fe2+/PS and Fe2+/PS enhanced HC processes for the reduction of residual COD in biologically treated MDF wastewater. Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, medium density fiberboard wastewater, sulfate radical, Fe2+/persulfate process 179 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

The effects of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(ii) and Mn(ii) removal by submerged membrane system and its application of least squares method Ormancı Acar Turkan1, Aya Serhan Aydın2, Çelik Suna Özden3, Türekci Neşe1 Departmant of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, İstanbul University, Avcılarİstanbul, Turkey 2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Gumussuyu, 34437- Istanbul, Turkey 3 Departmant of Environmental Engineering, Çorlu Engineering Faculty, Namık Kemal University, Çorlu- Tekirdağ, Turkey 1

The aim of this study is to assess the effect of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(II) and Mn(II) removal by an aerated-submerged membrane system. Fe(II), Mn(II) and fulvic acid used to prepare the synthetic solutions, obtained from seasonal characterization of Natural Organic Matters (NOM or UV254), iron and manganese in Ömerli Dam and Danamandıra drinking water sources, representing surface and ground water, respectively. Zee Weed-1 (ZW-1) ultrafiltration membrane was used as aerated-submerged membrane module. Material of this membrane is polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF) and it has 40 nm nominal pore size. The pressure changes in the membrane system were continuously monitored by means of pressure gauge. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254, iron and manganese concentrations were measured in the raw water, unfiltered and filtered water. It is concluded that pressure increases with the solution contain iron and fulvic acid together were lower than the solution contain fulvic acid alone. In the case of raw water contain iron oxide, it is shown that the iron removal was very fast but the increasing effect of iron oxide on the removal efficiency of manganese was considerably higher than those of iron. Increasing the concentrations of fulvic acid reduced the removal efficiency of iron slightly, but when iron oxide present in the solution, the removal rates of iron and manganese were as high as 100% and 90%, respectively. Similarly, the removal efficiencies of DOC and UV254 were increased with the positive effect of iron oxide, too. In the modelling process, the least squares method is applied to the experimental data to find the numerical values of the parameters of the best-fit function and to characterize the statistical properties of estimates.

Keywords: fulvic acid; iron oxide; submerged membrane; removal of iron and manganese; least square method.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Study of the effects of wastewater treatment technologies on the elimination of pollutants from aquatic ecosystem Vavrova Milada1, Hlavínek Petr2, Úterský Michal2, Korytárová Jana3, Turková Jiřina3, Píšťková Veronika1 1

Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection 2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Municipal Water Management 3 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Structural Economics and Management Wastewater samples were taken at the inlet and outlet of the Mikulov wastewater treatment plant. Residual beta-blockers falling within the group of pharmaceuticals most commonly used in human medicine were determined in wastewater. After a pilot study based on targeted grab samples of wastewater, contamination caused by these medications was monitored over a week in order to determine the dynamics of the drug dispersion in wastewater and to assess the possibility of whether technologies applied at the wastewater treatment plant will have an effect on reducing the betablockers concentration in wastewater. Beta-blockers are a heterogeneous group of substances synthesised at the beginning of the 1960’s as drugs with antianginal and antiarrhythmic effects. Only later it was accidentally discovered that beta-blockers also reduce blood pressure. The first clinically used beta-blocker, propranolol, was developed in 1964 by British pharmacologist J. W. Black, who strived after annulling the harmful effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin on the heart function. Propranolol strongly reduces mortality and morbidity in people suffering from angina pectoris and is also salubrious in arrhythmia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treatment. Since appearing in the market, the beta-blockers have become one of the basic groups of antihypertensive drugs and the safest antiarrhythmic medication. Unlike antiarrhythmic medications class I (propafenone, flecainide etc.) and III (amiodarone) they do not have pro-arrhythmic effects and do not increase mortality during long-term application and, on the contrary, they reduce it. Wastewater samples were taken on a regular basis for a period of 7 days at the inlet and outlet of the Mikulov WWTP which is designed as a mechanical-biological plant with tertiary treatment. The biological stage consists of a pair of activation circulation tanks with mechanical aeration and two secondary clarifiers. Phosphorus is removed from water by chemical precipitation. Sludge sanitary treatment takes place by means of oxygen; sanitarily treated sludge is then mechanically dewatered. Its capacity is 24,850 PE. The final analysis of β-blockers was performed using the method of liquid chromatography with a massspectrometric detection. The measurement was realized using the high-performance liquid chromatograph Agilent 1100 Series, with the Kinetex C18 (150 x 3.0 mm x 2.6 µm) column for the separation. The analytes were detected by means of mass spectrometer MS Agilent 6320 Ion Trap LC/MS in a positive mode with electrospray ionization. The level of wastewater contamination by targeted pharmaceuticals differed over specific days during the week both in the influent and effluent. It may also be concluded that based on the results of real wastewater sample measurement, the concentration of the individual beta-blockers in wastewater greatly differed and some of them show a trend between the pharmaceutical consumption and the amounts detected in real samples. Acknowledgements The project was executed as part of multi-faculty projects of specific research, MŠMT ČR, FAST/FCH–J–14–2422 and faculty project of specific research No. FCH-S-15-2869 from Ministry of education, youth and sports of the Czech Republic. Keywords: waste water, pharmaceuticals, beta-blockers, elimination, SPE, LC/MS 181 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Bisphenol A in waste water in the Czech Republic Čáslavský Josef1, Vávrová Milada2, Nohelová Gabriela1, Sedláčková Simona2 1

Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Brno, Czech Republic 2 University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Brno, Czech Republic

Bisphenol A (BPA) together with alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, nonylphenol and isomers of 4-nonylphenol) belongs to a group of substances which are monitored in environmental matrices for their toxicity. These compounds act as endocrine disruptors that mimic the effect of naturally produced hormones, blocking hormone receptors in cells, affecting the synthesis, transport, metabolism and excretion of hormones. BPA is also toxic for reproduction and it is also suspected for neurotoxicity. It also shows bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties. Currently, BPA is widely used as a raw material for the production of polycarbonates, which found their use in food industry, in medicine, building industry, electronics and in many other branches. This study was focused on the determination of BPA levels at the inflow and outflow of three waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Two of them treat municipal waste water; the first one situated in Brno-Modřice is two-stage facility with mechanical cleaning followed by biological treatment using activated sludge. Its capacity is more than 600 thousands EI. The second WWTP treats waste water from small spa town Luhačovice in South Moravia (capacity 16 200 EI). The third one is small WWTP treating waste waters form the area and buildings of University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno (UVPS). 24-hour mixed samples were taken at the inflow and outflow of all WWTP. Target compound was isolated using SPE and after derivatization twodimensional comprehensive gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection was used for their determination. The concentrations of BPA at inflow of the WWTP Brno-Modřice were during one week sampling campaign ranging from 1.36 to 1.98 ng/mL, at outflow the BPA levels were 0.15 – 1.36 ng/mL. Average removal efficiency was 48 %. BPA level at inflow of WWTP in Luhačovice was 1.19 ng/mL, outflow water concentration was 0.25 ng/mL, i.e. removal efficiency was 79 %. The levels at the inflow of WWTP at UVPS were between 16.09 and 25 ng/mL, outflow levels were from 3.6 to 5.5 ng/mL; average removal efficiency was in this case 79.2 %. From these values follows that not insignificant amount of BPA enter the surface water where the water biota could be negatively influenced. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project No. FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: bisphenol A, waste water, SPE, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration Mutlu Öykü, Türkoğlu Demirkol Güler, Çetin Ender Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, İstanbul University, Avcılar, Turkey

Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. The presence of natural organic substances in drinking water cause various problems in drinking water as color, odor, taste problems and disinfection by-products (DBPs) as a result of disinfection with chlorine. Drinking waters which contains high amount of natural organic matter, do not reach the desired stability of disinfection and do not treated sufficiently promoted biological growth in distribution system and increased chemical doses for treatment. Hence, it is important to know organic content of water and treatment plants must be designed appropriate to it. The design of systems appropriate to removal of organic matter is extremely important factor to prevent the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts. Coagulation and adsorption methods are the most used methods for removal of organic matters. In recent years, membrane filtration method entegreted with coagulation, adsorption or aeration process was given much attention by researchers. The aim of this study is determination the changes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values of samples that were taken from influent of Kağıthane Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Istanbul and determination the removal efficiency by applying coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration methods separately for attaining the desired limit values and besides that membrane filtration applied after coagulation and adsorption methods. In this study, alum and FeCl3 were chosen as the coagulant, clay as adsorbent. For membrane filtration ZW10 UF membrane was used. Removal efficiencies of DOC and UV254 were compared using alum and FeCl3 and the results showed that FeCl3 is more effective for removal compared to alum. In the adsorption section of the study, removal efficiencies were observed 30-40%. In the membrane filtration section DOC removal efficiency was determined 32%. The result of this study showed that applying coagulation method with FeCl3 is more effective and economical for the removal of organic matters with respect to the adsorption and membrane filtration method. Applying both coagulation and membrane filtration methods were the most effective for organic matter removal efficiency were observed.

Keywords: DOC, UV254, coagulation, adsorption, membrane filtration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Alum sludge valorisation on phosphate removal from aqueous solution Zineb Salem, Leila Djekoune, Leila Boumehdi, Khedidja Allia University of Sciences and Technology of Houari Boumediene FGMGP, LSGPI, Algiers, Algeria

This study is led on the valorisation of sludge obtained after sedimentation from the drinking water treatment plant located at the west of Algiers. Alum sludge characterization by X fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitative EDAX and leaching tests were also performed. The leaching tests are very important for residues management monitoring. The aluminum, iron and calcium predominance in the alum sludge is the result of using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant and the hard nature and ferruginous water dam. The influences of several parameters (contact time, sorbent concentration, phosphates concentration, pH and the shaking rate) on the phosphate removal were investigated in batch adsorption experiment. The optimal conditions of sorption found are as follow: sorbent concentration of 20 g.L -1, an equilibrium time of 60 min and a shaking rate of 200 rpm. This study showed that alum sludge has a strong power of phosphate removal; in effect from 80 to 97% of the phosphate ions in aqueous solution are eliminated. The application of different adsorption models showed that the orthophosphate adsorption on sludge is well described by Langmuir model. These results showed that the use of alum sludge could be a promising solution for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: alum sludges, adsorption, phosphates, kinetics

184 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of some metal ions in leachate in compacted and consolidated grounds and variability hydraulic conductivity Cansız Selçuk Vildan1, Özçoban Mehmet Şükrü2, Şengül Ayse Büşra3, Ormancı Acar Türkan4, Güneş Durak Sevgi4, Tüfekci Neşe4 Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, İstanbul, Turkey Yildiz Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Geotechnical Department, Istanbul-Turkey 3 Fatih University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, IstanbulTurkey 4 Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, IstanbulTurkey 1 2

Rapid economic growth, technological advancements, industrialization, urbanization, population growth and increase in the welfare status pave the way for the increase of waste materials. Hence, it has become essential to prevent environmental pollution and recycle the waste materials in order to make them a source of benefit for economics. Although methods like incineration, composting are employed to dispose solid waste materials, these methods are not absolute disposal methods and they have to be stored for the final removal of materials like ash, scum produced after incineration and composting. In order for solid materials to be disposed ultimately in a way not to harm environment and detriment human health, sanitary landfill are formed. In solid waste materials landfill sites leachate is the most significant problem in terms of environmental pollution. It is essential to block leachate before it reaches saturated layer or ground water level. To prevent this storage soil is made impermeable. Natural and crumpled clay used in sanitary landfill areas is usually used as ceiling or floor cover or in formation of side banks. Clay soil layers are employed effectively in blocking polluters such as leachate and organic liquids. According to previous researches the structure of soil is destroyed due to the leachate through and thus there have been alterations in permeability of the soil. This study has determined variations in the permeability of clay soil and removal rate of present ions in leachate on the clay soil. For this purpose, leachate collected from Sanitary Landfill at Şile – Kömürcüoda locality of the Anatolian side of Istanbul has been subjected to compaction via standard methods of compacted clay sample used in the same facilty and passing through reactions which are consolidated and thus experimental permeability of samples has been determined. In order to detect removal rate of clay soil alterations of Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions in influent and effluent of reactor has been analyzed. As a result of permeabilty experiments conducted with leachate, permeability alterations have been observed in clay soils to which standard compaction is apllied and clay soils to which compaction and consolidations are applied together. Pores between particules at clay soil to which standard compaction is applied is less than the pores between the particules on the clay soil to which standard compaction and consolidation are applied due to compression. When the results of clay soil permeability experiments are analyzed, existence of solid particules and microorganisms in the leachate at the beginning lead to dicrease of permeability, however, it has been observed that by the time being the permeability increases on account of deformations that the leachate causes on the clay soil. In general, when experiment results of Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) parameters are examined removal rate of clay soil which are compressed with standard methods and consolidated higher than that of clay soil compressed with standard compaction method. Keywords: leachate, metal ions, permeability, standard compaction, consolidations 185 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Survey of annual for filamentous microorganisms characterization in wastewater treatment plant in South Turkey - Antalya Bayrak Çamlıca Yasemin Büşra, T. Içemer Gönül Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

One of the most important problems caused to decrease in the performance of wastewater removal efficiency is sludge bulking and foaming in aeration basins of biological wastewater treatment plants. The filamentous microorganisms were proved as the main responsible for sludge bulking and foaming in the activated sludge. In this study, the filamentous microorganisms existing in treatment plants of Antalya were characterized for determination of relationship between the filamentous microorganisms and sludge bulking and foaming problems. For this purpose, the activated sludge samples were taken monthly from the aeration tank of 16 wastewater treatment plants during June 2012 - May 2013. Then, the monthly occurrence of bulking and foaming were associated with the detected filamentous microorganisms. The sludge bulking and foaming problem was encountered in 99% of the treatment plants during the summer period. Also, the sludge volume index was measured as more than 150 ml/g throughout the year in all facilities. According to microbial examination, the most frequently detected species were Type 0041, Type 0675 and Microthrix parvicella in sequence throughout the year. As a result of this study, the above mentioned species were supposed as responsible from the sludge bulking and foaming.

Keywords: wastewater treatment plant, filamentous microorganisms, characterization, activated sludge, bulking sludge, foaming sludge

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Water and soil pollution and control

Soil and water usage as sustainable natural resources at Mediterranean region in Turkey Onursal Denli Gaye, Denli Hayri Hakan Department of Geomatics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul,Turkey

Natural resources provide the basis for the three pillars of sustainable development, economic, social and environmental. However, physical reserves can become depleted and scarce, and this can then undermine future economic and social development. Moreover, the way in which resources are used can reduce the quality of the environment to an extent that can threaten ecosystems and the quality of human life. Natural resources includes environmental media such as air, water and soil. These resources sustain life and produce biological resources. In contrast with raw materials it is their declining quality that causes concern. It is not a question of how much there is, but what state they are in. Total quantities of air, soil and water on earth do not change within human time scales, but because of pollution their quality is often poor. Moreover, the biological diversity of environmental resources is of vital importance. The relations between resource use and environmental impact are only partially known at present. Furthermore they change with time, for example, as a result of technical or social developments. Differences in regional conditions and use patterns need also to be considered. In addition, environmental impacts related to the use of different resources vary widely. So, initially the strategy has to determine which resources at any given time are of biggest concern, e.g. the resources with the greatest potential for environmental improvement, taking into account technological possibilities and socio-economic aspects. Policies that is also determined, influence the use of resources and their environmental impact. In this study, the current status of soil and water use in Turkey, which is important and plays a vital role for human life and the environment, has been examined.

Keywords: soil, water, land use, environment

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Water and soil pollution and control

The effect of temperature on biological foaming potential and stability in activated sludge T. Içemer Gönül, Atıcı Tuğçe Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

A stable foam and scum formation in the activated sludge process is a common problem in activated sludge plants. In particular, temperature and hydrophobic properties filamentous (Gordonia amarae, Microthrix parvicella and others) or non-filamentous (Rhodococcus spp) are the causes of foaming activated sludge. These filamentous species are strongly hydrophobic due to having cell walls composed mycolic acid and generated biological foam. This foam is highly enriched with floating biomass and covers activated sludge tanks, secondary clarifiers. It causes severe operating problems, increases maintenance efforts and may lead to poor effluent quality. It is widely accepted that the formation and stabilization of these foams require gas bubbles, surface active compounds and hydrophobic particles in activated sludge. Gas bubbles in the system originate from aeration and mixing or from gas production in denitrification reactors. In the formation of foam, the temperature determines the biological foams tend to accumulate a system so that the accumulation of foam due to the overabundance of mycolata occurs more frequently during the summer and in warmer climates. There are in the 27 biological treatment plant in Antalya and the temperature is thought to be a relationship between the activated sludge foam. This foam problem is seen in the majority of these biological wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, we selected 11 wastewater treatment plants in the Antalya coast and seasonally (2014) examined the relationship between foam potential and temperature. The effect of temperature on foam potential was examined of the Alka-Seltzer and sintered disc aeration column test at 10-40°C using activated sludge obtained from Antalya WWTP’s. This temperature range was represented of typical ambient temperatures in Antalya. Because, activated sludge temperature in summer reaches 30-35°C. In addition, of foam and activated sludge determined such as filamentous microorganisms determination and MLSS, SVI, the EC, pH. The results demonstrated that the relationship between temperature and potential of activated sludge biological foam.

Keywords: biological foam, temperature, foam potential and stability, activated sludge, foaming sludge

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Water and soil pollution and control

Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate on soil microbiota: influence of soil organic matter content Bello Diana1, Gil Sotres Fernando2, Leirós M. Carmen2, Trasar Cepeda Carmen1 Departamento de Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, 15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain 2 Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, USC, Campus Vida, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain 1

The 2,4-diclorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a compound of anthropogenic origin and classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Union (EU) as a priority contaminant. The proportion of the 2,4 DCP reaching the soil that is ionized depends on the pKa of 2,4-DCP and on the soil pH, the closest they are the highest the proportion of phenolate formed will be. Moreover, studies carried out in recent years by our research group suggest that the toxic form for soil microorganisms is the ionic form of 2,4-DCP. Therefore, it is expected that at soil pH values close to the pKa of 2,4-DCP (7.9) this compound should be more toxic. However, it has also been suggested that the 2,4-DCP may be retained through adsorption processes with the soil organic matter and soil colloids. This would limit the proportion of molecules in solution which are able to undergo dissociation and to produce 2,4-dichlorophenolate. In other words, the quantity of phenolate available to exert its toxic effect on soil microorganisms would be regulated not only by the pH, but also by the organic matter content of the soils. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the toxic effects of 2,4-DCP and the proportion of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in two soils with a high pH (7.65 and 7.98), but differing in their organic matter content. The two soils were located in the same area and were developed over calcareous rock, although they had different vegetation cover, and therefore also different soil organic matter contents. One of the soils was under forest with an organic carbon content of 4.5%, while the other was a vineyard with an organic carbon content of 1.9%. Both soils were contaminated under laboratory conditions with 500 mg kg-1 of 2,4,-DCP and the microbial biomass carbon and the activities of urease and dehydrogenase of contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples were determined after 0 and 72 hours. In addition, anionic and neutral forms of 2,4-DCP were quantified by a gas chromatograph coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the toxicity of 2,4-DCP was more intense in the soil with the lowest organic matter content than in the soil with the highest organic matter content, both initially and after three days of soil-contaminant contact time. Moreover, the proportion of phenolate forms was much higher in the soil with a lower organic matter content, especially immediately after the contamination. On the contrary, the proportion of neutral molecules in the forest soil was higher than in the cultivated soil, both initially and after three days of incubation. In conclusion, the results clearly show that the organic matter significantly mitigate the toxicity of 2,4-DCP on soil microbiota. This is probably due to some kind of hydrophobic interactions of soil organic matter with the neutral molecule, thus limiting the quantity of 2,4-DCP available to undergo the dissociation process to the anionic form. In any case, more studies are necessary to prove this hypothesis. Keywords: chlorophenols; soil contamination; organic matter content; 2,4-dichlorophenolate; microbial biomass; soil enzymatic activities

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Water and soil pollution and control

Occurrence, distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia Imen Haddaoui1, Olfa Mahjoub2, Borhane Mahjoub1, Abdelhamid Boujelben1, Müfit Bahadir3 1

Department of Horticultural Systems Engineering and Environment, Higher Institute of Agronomy Chott Mariem, Sousse University, BP. 47, 4042 Sousse, Tunisia 2 National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry, Carthage University, P.O. Box 10, 2080, Ariana, Tunisia 3 Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagering 30, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany

Water pollution by organic compounds has caused considerable and worldwide concern. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are considered major sources of pollution since they are receptors of different types of discharges as well as of industrial, urban, and rural waste leachates conatining a large number of pollutants. Among the numerous contaminants in WWTP effluents, PAHs are of particular interest for several reasons like persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, acute toxic effects on human beings and animals, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and their endocrine disrupting activity. The occurrence and distribution of 16 priority PAHs listed by USEPA were investigated in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia. Samples comprised (i) treated wastewater (TWW) from two WWTP, of which the effluents are used for irrigation, (ii) surface water from one of the major rivers in Tunisia (Meliane River), and (iii) groundwater in farmland irrigated with TWW and used for irrigation and animal watering. A total of 50 samples were collected during 3 sampling campaigns stretching between March 2013 and September 2014 and analyzed with GC/MS after extraction with C18 RP cartridges. The sum of 16 PAHs in water samples ranged from 1.46 to18.42 µg L-1 in TWW, 0.72 to 44.99 µg L1 in surface water, and 0.12 to 3.92 µg L-1 in groundwater. TWW is suggested to be the main source of PAHs in water resources. In fact, highest levels were registered in TWW and their discharge points located along Meliane River. PAHs accumulation in water resources showed a temporal and spatial distribution in favor of dry weather and WWTP effluents. The results show that low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs are the most abundant in all water samples, while high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs are the lowest in all water samples, suggesting pyrolitic sources of formation and emission. This investigation highlights the potential toxic effects of PAHs in the future on the exposed environment especially for soil and plants irrigated with TWW.

Keywords: PAH, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, irrigation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of basic red 46 dye from aqueous solutions by untreated alfa grass Boumehdi Leila, Hamdi Lamia, Cherid Nassima, Salem Zineb, Allia Khedidja Research Laboratory of Science in Industrial Process Engineering (LSGPI), Department of Process Engineering and Cryogenics, USTHB, Algiers, Algeria

During these last years, an increasing interest is focused to find low cost adsorbents derived from natural and waste materials that are available and efficient for synthetic dyes removal from aqueous solutions. Alfa grass, which constitutes a natural lignin cellulosic material and widely available, could be suggested as a low cost adsorbent for treat colored wastewaters. Alfa grass, Stippa tenacissima, is a tussock grass also called Esparto grass and is widely distributed in semi-arid and arid regions like northwest Africa particularly Algerian high plateaus and southern Spain. In this context, we carried out a study to test adsorption capacities of untreated Alfa stems for the removal of basic red (BR 46) as a dye in aqueous solution. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, solution pH and temperature on BR 46 adsorption were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters, the kinetics and the factors controlling the adsorption process were also calculated and discussed. The equilibrium behavior of BR 46 adsorption was examined by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found as 14.92 mg/g. The adsorption kinetic was tested by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic parameters showed that BR 46 adsorption onto Alfa grass is a favourable endothermic and spontaneous phenomenon. The Alfa stems in a rough state have good adsorption effectiveness with respect to dyes without a preliminary treatment. Moreover, the availability, and the low cost of the Alfa grass can lead this agro-industrial material to be used for treating colored wastewaters.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, Alfa grass, water

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Water and soil pollution and control

Physicochemical characterization of leachate discharge fkih ben salah from Morocco Hafida Hanine1, Hasna Merzouki1, Brahim Lekhlif2, Hassan Latrache1, Khalid Habbari1 1

University Of Sultan Moulay Slimane Fst Benmellal School Of Mohamedia Laboratory Of Hydrology

2

The waste generated by domestic and industrial activities, set dumpsite pose a risk of contamination of the groundwater in the region Fkih Ben Salah flowing in aquifers composed of sand phosphates and phosphatic limestone. This consists mainly of organic matter (77.7%), and other waste such as tissues (6.1%), plastic and cardboard (5.1%), miscellaneous packaging (3.3 %), metals (1.8%) and the lenses (0.9%). Therefore, it is necessary to study the environmental problems of the discharge through an assessment of the risk generated by the discharge of pollutants on the surrounding environment and particularly on water resources. It is with this objective that fits the job. It consists of a physicochemical characterization of leachate. The results of leachate analysis showed that the average value of pH is 4.7 (young leachate). The total hardness is 68.33 mg / l. Leachate is very rich in organic matter (BOD5 equal to 6697mgO2 / l), COD is 18026mgO2 / l. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.34) is greater than 0.3 and marking a favorable biodegradability of leachate studied. Viewpoint mineral composition, leachate is rich in total nitrogen NTK (2361mg / l), total phosphorus (144mg / l), orthophosphate (100.95 mg / l), sulphate (1326.87 mg / l) and chloride ion (2051.11 mg / l). However, heavy metals in the composition of leachate is very important. Indeed, the concentrations of iron (59.03 mg / l) and zinc (8.59 mg / l) are abnormally high. As for copper and lead, their concentrations are on average 2 mg / l. Analysis of these results, it is necessary a hybrid treatment physicochemical means (precipitation, coagulation, electrocautery, etc.) followed by a biological process (biofilter) to reduce the pollution load generated by the leachate.

Keywords: leachate, COD, BOD5, heavy metals, electrocoagulation, biofilter, groundwater

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Water and soil pollution and control

Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network Öz Nurtaç Department of Environmental Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

In this study, Sakarya, drinking and using water is aimed to search of the effectiveness which existing disinfection with methods currently used. Sakarya province selected 17 of the 102 water samples were taken from the sampling point of the center and the district. At each sampling point in the free chlorine in the water was measured and the amount E.coli have been identified in the laboratory. Membrane filtration technique is used in the analysis. According to these results, Sakarya, drinking and using water outside settlements in the northern part has been determined that the appropriate to our country’s standards as bacteriological. (EN ISO 93081-water quality-detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria Part-1 Membrane filtration method). If the used disinfection method has been found to be adequate. In some periods, the fact that the desired level of residual chlorine levels in the system but have been found with coliform bacteria, has strengthened the possibility that contaminated during distribution of water network. Therefore pipes must be robust and maintenance must be performed. Adequate controls are not expected as long as the structures pose serious problems in terms of public health in the future.

Keywords: drinking water, Escherichia coli, disinfection, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Mercury and dichromate free determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) Bahadir Müfit1, Kolb Marit1, Teichgräber Burkhard2 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany 2 Emschergenossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen, Germany 1

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important parameter for the determination of organic load in water. It is based on the almost complete oxidation of organic content to CO2 and H2O, and the results are given as oxygen needed for this reaction in mg/L. In particular, for operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and taxation of the wastewater polluters, COD is used worldwide in national and EU directives. Since end of 1970s, the standard method for COD determination is oxidation of water samples with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and masking chloride with mercury sulfate (HgSO4), since otherwise chloride ions lead to an elevated COD value through co-oxidation with K2Cr2O7. This reaction, regulated through DIN/EN/ISO norms worldwide, produces a huge volume of environmental pollutants while measuring an environmental parameter. A replacement of COD through e.g. total organic carbon (TOC) does not work due to missing reproducible correlations of the two parameters with each other, since the organic carbon in wastewater may occur in different oxidation stages (e.g. in ethane versus in oxalate) leading to much different correlation factors. In the meantime, Hg is classified as a priority pollutant and should be “phased out” soon, and Cr(VI) is a strong carcinogen and should be forbidden from 2017 after REACH. Therefore, there is a high demand for the development of an alternative method for COD determination without polluting the environment. In the frame of a research project granted by the Federal German Environmental Foundation (DBU), we have developed a new method using Mn(III) as oxidant and AgNO 3 for the removal of chloride ions and for preventing them from co-oxidation. The excess amount of Mn(III) applied for oxidation is titrated back with iron(II)sulfate as also done for the current COD standard method with Hg and Cr(VI). This method was tested with different types of aqueous samples including domestic and industrial wastewaters, containing low and high concentrations of chloride, and differently persistent organic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the standard method using Hg and Cr(VI). Most importantly, the wet-chemical method developed makes use of the same COD equipment as for the standard method currently in use. With this, the laboratories worldwide do not need to purchase new equipment and detectors for end point determination. Other oxidants tested for COD determination were less satisfactory. This novel COD determination method is environmentally benign and does not pollute the environment with neuro-toxic (Hg) and carcinogenic (Cr(VI)) compounds. Therefore, this method will be further developed to German DIN and international ISO procedure of COD analysis.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD, Mn(III), AgNO3, free of mercury and dichromate

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Water and soil pollution and control

Retention of PAHs in a Mediterranean soil after different amendments Cornejo Juan, Bruna Felipe, Real Miguel, Guzman Ignacio, Celis Rafael Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla. IRNAS-CSIC

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of ubiquitous environmental contaminants, produced primarily as a result of incomplete combustion from predominantly anthropogenic sources including fossil fuel, biofuel, and vegetation fires. Previous studies have shown that PAHs are strongly sorbed by the soil organic matter. On the other hand, it is known that the addition of noncontaminant wastes to soils, besides improving soil physicochemical properties, can reduce the diffusion of organic pollutants from one compartment to another by increasing their sorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorption capacity and the effect of soil addition of nonhazardous wastes such as a material like to gypsum (G), a waste from mining exploitation, wollanstonite (W) and an organic waste from olive oil production (OIW) on the fate of selected PAHs. Natural silicates like montmorillonite (SA) and bentonite (B) and a synthetic layered double hydroxide (HT) and their corresponding organoderivatives (SAHDTMA and HTDDS) were used as well. Sorption-desorption, leaching and dissipation studies were performed under laboratory conditions with a sandy-clay soil, unamended and amended with those materials. The results obtained showed that OIW and the nanocomposites (SAHDTMA and HTDDS) had a high affinity for the PAHs studied, as indicated by the obtained Kf values. The sorptive capacity increased with the hydrophobic character of the organic contaminant. The effectiveness of the used amendments on the PAHs retention increased in the following order: Gypsum ≈ Wollanstonite ≈ Bentonite < OIW < SA-HDTMA ≈ HTDDS. The affinity of the adsorbents was greater for high-molecular weight PAHs. Leaching experiments corroborated that organic residues and clay nanohybrids could be recommended as soil amendments for immobilizing PAHs in soils.

Keywords: polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil remediation, industrial wastes, gypsum, wollastonite, bentonite, organoclays, organo LDH, organic waste (OIW).

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Water and soil pollution and control

Variation of physicochemical parameters in a longline mussel culture system Moriki Amalia1, Savvidis Yiannis2, Papadimitriou Chrysi3, Fantidou Irene1, Kapageridis Nikos1, Stoilas Vasilis Orestis3, Antoniou Alexander3, Galinou Mitsoudi Sofia2 1

Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki (ATEITh), Sindos, Thessaloniki, 57400, Greece 2 Department of Civil Engineering ΤΕ, ATEITh, Sindos, Thessaloniki, 57400, Greece 3 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, ATEITh, N.Moudania, Greece

Mussel culture by longline system in the basin of Chalastra, Thermaikos Gulf (NW Aegean Sea), takes place since 1995 and represents about 30% of the Greek annual production. The quality of the mussels is affected by the environmental conditions and the applied culture practices. Different handlings related to the spatial layout of the mussel shocks were investigated, such as distances between the shocks of 30, 50 70 or 90 cm. Temperature, salinity, density and dissolved oxygen were systematically measured in twelve sampling periods during a year (July 2014-April 2015) in order to evaluate the environmental quality of the water column in the mussel culture under different handling conditions. Dissolved oxygen is a key parameter for assessing water quality. The presence of oxygen is vital for the marine organisms and its depletion may affect growth, reproductive rates and, in anoxic conditions, mortality. Moreοver, well oxyganeted waters indicate healthy oxidative status of the marine environment. Evidence of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen concentration < 3 mL/L) has been reported in previous studies in the area. The above mentioned physical parameters’ profiles were recorded with an autonomous CTD datalogger, while dissolved oxygen measurements were performed by the Winkler method. Samples were taken by means of a van Dorn water sampler in three depths, 1 m from the surface, 5 m (the depth were the mussels are hanging) and close to the bottom, in about 10 m depth. Analysis took place on board. As far as the thermosaline properties of the seawater are concerned the mussels live and grow up more effectively in temperatures of 10-25 °C as well as in salinities around 34 ppt. Focusing on our research, temperature values recorded during the period of July 2014 and April 2015 were between 9.8 to 27.3 °C at surface waters and between 9.8 to 26.7 °C at five meters below sea surface. Salinity values recorded during the same period were found to be 30.36 up to 37.17 ppt at surface waters and between 34.80 and 37.20 ppt at five meters below sea surface. Concerning the values of temperature and salinity recorded in front of each different handling, it seems that generally there were not important differences. On the contrary, dissolved oxygen presented variation both among handlings and in the different depths. Dissolved oxygen values ranged from 3.16 to 8.80 mL/L with a mean value of 5.98 mL/L. The lowest values, close to hypoxia, were recorded near the bottom. The highest concentrations are related to the photosynthetic activity during the spring months. The average dissolved oxygen concentrations in the different handlings were found in levels that do not present serious oxygen deficiency (4 - 6 mL/L). However, water quality deteriorates in a few meters in the shallow waters of the mussel system.

Keywords: mussel culture, salinity, dissolved oxygen

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trials of clay materials for discoloration and detoxification of water from the olive mill waste Hermosin Maria Carmen, Adelino Maria Angeles, Celis Rafael Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IRNAS-CSIC). Avenida Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

Olive mill waste (OMW) or alperujo is the solid residue with high moisture content produced in the extraction process of oil in two phase system. Its use as soil fertilizer and conditioner improves the soil quality, contributes to carbon sequestration, and facilitates a sustainable solution for the disposal of this waste, which is extensively produced in the Mediterranean basin. Nevertheless, the addition of OMW to soils can also give rise to some adverse effects as: a) colouration of water, due to the high levels of tannins and lignin that may cause ecotoxicological effects, b) increase the mobility of some heavy metals and pesticides and c) phytotoxic effects due to its content in phenolic compounds. All those negative effects are mainly related to the content of soluble organic matter (SOM) of OMW and they may be aggravated when uncontrolled spill happens from the site where it is stored. Two natural cationic clays, SWy and CTI, along with synthetic anionic clay or carbonate-hydrotalcite HTCO3 and its calcined product HT500, were assayed to remove color and toxic components extracted from alperujo as soluble organic matter (SOM). Both cationic clays are expandable lamellar phyllosilicates of smectite type with different purity and cation exchange capacity. The anionic clay (HTCO 3) is a layered magnesium-aluminum double hydroxide, also known as LDH, which has a high anion exchange capacity. Its calcination product (HT500) has the ability to adsorb anions from water by the reconstruction of its layered structure or “memory effect”. The purpose of this work was to assess the utility of those natural or synthetic adsorbents to reduce the adverse effects associated with the application of alperujo or OMW to agricultural soils or to remediate the effects produced by uncontrolled spills. Anionic clays had a greater affinity and adsorption capacity to eliminate both the color and the organic components of the SOM from an alperujo water extract, as compared to the smectite clays. The anionic clay HTCO3 showed a higher discoloring capacity than the cationic SWy and CTI clays, but the amounts of organic carbon removed from the water alperujo extracts were similar for the three clays, ranging from 34 to 39%, at the higher sorbent/solution ratio assayed (50:1); that fact suggests that both type of adsorbent remove different organic compounds from alperujo extract. The calcined anionic clay HT500 showed the maximum discoloring power and removed more than 75% of the organic carbon from the water alperujo extract. The UV-VIS spectra of the untreated and sorbent treated water alperujo extracts indicated that cationic clays adsorb different organic components compared to the anionic clay. A bioassay showed that HT500 decreased the phytotoxic effect of alperujo water extract towards Lepidium sativum. The calcined product of the hydrotalcite offers a potential use as possible adsorbent in systems for elimination of the phytotoxicity of alperujo contaminated waters or even as an alternative treatment to composting, for subsequent agricultural application of alperujo. Acknowledgment Funding by P07-AGR-03077, P11-AGR-07400 and AGR-264 of Junta de Andalucía, (FEDER-FSE EU Programs) and Contract RECUPERA 2020 of MICINN-CSIC. Keywords: adsorption, alperujo, hydrotalcite, LDH, organic residue, phytotoxicity, smectite, soil, soluble organic matter, water contamination.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Cadmium could affect (Mytilus galloprovincialis) health reproductive by changing sperm PLII and PLIII proteins properties and promoting DNA oxidative damage Pollice Francesca, Guerriero Giulia, Basile Adriana, Fucci Laura, Piscopo Marina Department of Biology, University Federico II Naples, Italy

The heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems due to the industrialization and pollution derived. The increasingly widespread of organism heavy metals pollution depends on their tendency to accumulate in the soil, air, water, and thus in the food chain, so may have harmful effects on living organisms even at low concentrations. Cadmium is biopersistant and remains in organism for many years before being eliminated. In order to monitor Mediterranean sea levels of heavy metals are used specific bioindicators like Mytilus galloprovincialis whose sperm chromatin is organized by three protamine-like (PLII, PLIII and PLIV) basic proteins. Mytilus galloprovincialis is unable to metabolize the toxic substances and bioaccumulate them; the concentrations of these pollutants in its tissues reproduce the extent of environmental contamination. We have evaluated the effects that CdCl₂ has on DNA and on Mytilus galloprovincialis PLII and PLIII proteins properties. We analyzed the self-association ability of PLII and PLIII in the presence of CdCl₂ by turbidity assay and GTA-cross linking reactions. Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis used in the experiments were purchased from an aquaculture farm in Goro (Ferrara, Italy) (GO2). The results show that CdCl₂ caused PLII but not PLIII aggregation by turbidity assay, while produced a reduction of self-association ability for both proteins in the presence of glutaraldehyde. Further, CdCl₂ induced a decreasing PLII binding affinity to DNA but an increasing for PLIII and promoted H₂O₂ DNA damage even in the presence of both PLII and PLIII. The effects of CdCl₂ were also evaluated in vivo. The obtained data show that PL-proteins extracted from sperm of mussels exposed to 10µM CdCl₂ didn’t show significative differences respect to control but a higher DNA binding affinity of these proteins was observed. Such changes could cause abnormal compaction of sperm chromatin and consequently a reduction the in reproductive fitness. In EMSA performed in the presence of CdCl₂, DNA bands resulted more visible in the agarose gel suggesting that CdCl₂ could produce DNA unwinding and increased exposure of nitrogenous bases. In conclusion, cadmium has negative effects on both Mytilus galloprovincialis PLII and PLIII properties and on DNA; on PLII promotes the formation of aggregates, probably altering its function in the formation, of the correct sperm chromatin structure of this organism together with the other PL-proteins and core histones. Further cadmium interferes with PLIII/DNA binding affinity at particular protein/DNA ratios, preventing it to protect DNA from oxidative damage and promoting DNA unrolling. Such changes could affect the susceptibility of DNA to oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide and any other xenobiotic agents. The effects of CdCl₂ observed in Mytilus galloprovincialis could cause fertility disorders and thus be responsible for the decreased reproductive fitness of Mytilus galloprovincialis as well as of other marine species. This work has been funded by a National Project (PRIN 2010-2011, prot. 2010ARBLT7_001/008). Keywords: cadmium, Mytilus galloprovincialis, protamine-like, health reproductive, water pollution

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Water and soil pollution and control

Regional distributions of geochemical properties in Mersin and Iskenderun bays Akcay Ismail, Tuğrul Süleyman, Tezcan Devrim, Yalçın Ural, Elimujiang Ebula, Başduvar Şehmus, Kalegeri Pınar Middle East Technical University-Institute of Marine Sciences

NE shelf waters of NE Mediterranean (Fig.1), especially the bays of Mersin and Iskenderun, are highly polluted by direct wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources and contaminated river inflows. In this study, surface sediments from Mersin and Iskenderun inner bays (including Mersin Harbor) were collected at 17 stations in April and September, 2014 to determine spatial distributions of heavy metals, total/organic carbon (TC, TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and grain-size distributions in two bays (Fig. 1). The results in the table show that metal concentrations (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in surface sediments from the Iskenderun inner bay were higher than the Mersin bay values, due to greater inputs from metal industries established in the region. Regional variations of Al in sediment resulted in greater spatial variations of enrichment factors of metals in surface sediments of the two inner bays. On the other hand, the suspended particles and nutrients carried by regional major rivers to the Mersin bay (Berdan, Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers) have led to enhancement of TC, TOC and TN in the bay surface sediments as compared to the properties of Iskenderun inner bay sediments. This effect is more pronounced in Mersin international harbor and shallow near-shore zone sediments. Significant and negative correlations were observed between the concentrations of organic carbon and Cr, Co, Ni in sediments whereas TOC and Pb pollution displayed positive correlations, indicating role of organic compounds on the enrichment of Pb in coastal surface sediments of the Mersin Bay. Acknowledgements This study was supported by TUBITAK within 111G152 (Dredging Applications and Environmental Management of Dredged Material) project. We would like to thank METU-IMS technical personnel for helping geochemical sampling and analyses.

Keywords: NE Mediterranean, surface sediments, heavy metal distribution, grain-size

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Water and soil pollution and control

Analysis of pressures and impacts for the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir Yenilmez Firdes Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is located on Aksu River within the border of Burdur province. It was constructed for irrigation and supply energy between 1988 and 1993. The surface area of the reservoir is 2.34 km2. Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is faced with eutrophication problem. The trophic status of the reservoir is in eutrophic range. The reservoir is so important for being a natural recreational area, culture fishing area, being used for irrigation and supply energy. Moreover, it is planning to supply drinking water to Antalya in near future. Therefore, the water quality in the reservoir and analysis of pressures and impacts are particularly significant. Analysis of Pressures and Impacts are helpful to design targeted and proportionate measures and assess the effectiveness of the programmes of measures. The European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) requires also that a review of the impact of human activity on the status of surface waters. In this study, pressures within the watershed of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir and their impacts on the water quality of the reservoir were analyzed. For this purpose, landuses in the watershed, point and non-point pollution sources were identified and evaluated together with the water quality data belonging to 2013. Evaluation was performed according to the limit values given in the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. It was seen that the water quality of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir falls into Category A3 (Drinkable water following physical, chemical and advanced treatment and disinfection). Therefore, measures are suggested to take pressures under control and to improve the water quality within the watershed of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir.

Keywords: Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir, pressure and impact analysis, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Microbial toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in soils of contrasting pH Bello Diana1, Leirós M. Carmen2, Gil Sotres Fernando2, Trasar Cepeda Carmen1 Departamento de Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, ES-15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Universidad de Santiagod e Compostela, Campus Vida, ES-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 1 2

Previous studies carried out by our research group have demonstrated that the negative effects of diverse chlorophenols, like 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), on soil microbial biomass and activity is highly dependent on the soil organic matter content and the soil pH, where the effects of both factors are interconnected. The 2,4-DCP molecules can exist in the anionic and/or in the neutral form, and the proportion of each of these forms in soils contaminated with this compound depends directly on the pKa value of the chlorophenol (pKa2,4-DCP= 7.9) and on the soil pH. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the effect of 2,4-DCP on different microbial and biochemical properties sensitive to contamination is more intense in calcareous than in acidic soils. It has been suggested that the anionic form of 2,4-DCP is the toxic molecule to soil microorganisms, because 2,4-diclorophenolate is more soluble and smaller than the neutral form and, therefore, it can cross the cell membranes and once inside the cell cytoplasm it can cause the death of soil microorganisms. Therefore, it would be expected that in soils with similar characteristics (especially concerning their organic matter content), once the 2,4-DCP reaches the soil, the closer the soil pH to the pKa of this compound, the higher will be the proportion of 2,4-dichlorophenolate available in soil solution and, in consequence, the higher will be the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on soil microbial activity. In the present study we investigated the relationship between the soil pH and the concentration of neutral and ionic forms of 2,4-DCP in soils artificially contaminated with this compound, as well as their relationship with the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on several soil biochemical and microbiological properties. For this purpose, 2,4-DCP was applied to two agricultural soils of contrasting pH, an acidic (pH=5.25) and a calcareous (pH=7.65) soil, and with low organic matter content (2.5 and 1.4 %Ct). After 72 hours of contact time between the soil and the 2,4-dichlorophenol, both the anionic and the neutral forms of 2,4-DCP were quantified in soil extracts using a gas chromatograph coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Moreover, the microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase and urease activities were analysed both in contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples. The soils were also characterized as regards their general properties (total C and N contents, pH in KCl, texture, etc.). The results demonstrated that the closer the value of the soil pH to the pKa of 2,4-DCP the greater the presence of 2,4-DCP¯, whereas when the soil pH is acidic the proportion of the neutral molecules predominate. Moreover, the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on microbial biomass carbon and on dehydrogenase and urease activities was most intense in the calcareous soil. Therefore, it seems that there is a direct relation between the concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenolate and the reduction of soil biochemical properties. In conclusion, soil pH should be considered as a decisive factor in the toxicity of 2,4-DCP for soil microorganisms.

Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenol; soil pollution; soil pH; pKa; microbial biomass; soil enzymatic activities

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Water and soil pollution and control

Analysis of trends in the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir Yenilmez Firdes Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is located on Aksu River within the border of Burdur, Turkey. The reservoir is so important for being a natural recreational area, culture fishing area, being used for irrigation and supply energy. It has a surface area of 2.34 km2. It will be also used as a drinking water supply for Antalya in near future. However, the water quality in the reservoir is under stress due to point and non-point pollution sources within the borders of Isparta and Burdur provinces. Currently, the reservoir suffers from eutrophication problem. When the studies conducted on the water quality of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir was examined, it was seen that there was a gap in the determination of change in the water quality via a systematic trend analysis. In this study, trends in selected water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand) in Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir for the period of 2005 to 2014 will be analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. Hence, the change of water quality and the effectiveness of the measures will be evaluated based on the trends. Results will be beneficial for the future studies and better management of the water quality in the reservoir.

Keywords: Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir, Mann-Kendall, trend, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Monitoring the health status of some fishes exposed to environmental heavy metals pollution Kenawy Amany Mohamed1, Marzouk Mohamed Said1, El Khatib Nahla Ramzy2, Abo Gabal Shams Amin1 1

Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 2 Department of fish parasitology, Animal Health Institute, Dokki, Giza,Egypt

In this work, the environmental pollution by heavy metals (lead, cadmium & mercury) in water and fish (Orechromis spp., C. garipenus) is studied in 3 localities at River Nile (Helwan, El-Hawameia, El-Warak) and also we studied the relationship between the physicochemical parameters of water and the accumulation of these metals in fish flesh, and it is concluded that the highest value of lead in water was recorded in Helwan at summer, while the highest value of cadmium in water was in ElWarak at spring and finally the highest value of mercury was in Helwan at spring. Regarding fish, the highest value of lead was recorded in C. garipenus in Helwan at summer, while the highest value of cadmium was in Oreochromis in El-Warak at autumn, finally the highest value of mercury was in C. garipenus in El-Warak at summer. Moreover, the effect of heavy metals on healthy status of O. niloticus also was studied and the results recorded that the LC50 of lead, cadmium and mercury for O. niloticus was 3.5, 21, 0.72 mg/L, respectively. It is also noticed reduction in RBCs count, Hb content, PCV% in O. niloticus exposed to those metals and there were elevation in serum urea and creatinien as well as liver enzymes. Augmentation these results was by the histopathological studies, which revealed changes in liver, kidney, gills and spleen. It could be concluded that the liver is the primary organ of the accumulation of these metals in O. niloticus.

Keywords: Orechromis spp., C. garipenus, heavy metals, pollution, histopathology

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Water and soil pollution and control

Lead treatment alternatives by chemical precipitation Kabdasli Isik, Tünay Olcay, Teymür Pınar Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Heavy metals are among the most important and toxic pollutants and have included in the lists of priority pollutants. Hydroxide precipitation is a common efficient and proven method for the control of heavy metals. The most important exception is lead ions. On the other hand, lead is one of the most toxic metal posing a significant threat to living organisms. While scientific literature is very rich in the area of hydroxide precipitation, the sources for lead control by chemical precipitation is rather limited. In this paper lead removal by chemical precipitation using lead sulfate, lead carbonate and lead hydroxide is theoretically and experimentally investigated and results are comparatively evaluated. The solubility of lead hydroxide is high and the performance of hydroxide precipitation is generally not adequate for lead control. The applicable means of lead precipitation can be realized using lead sulfate, lead carbonate and lead phosphate. Lead phosphate precipitation, although advantageous in terms of solubility has not been a preferred method since phosphate is also a pollutant. Therefore, in this study sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide salts of lead have been considered. Theoretical modelling is based on solubility of the salts depending on pH and involves the use of equilibrium equations, mass balances and electroneutrality equation. Complexes of lead with sulfate, carbonate and hydroxyl ions are accounted for. Varying sulfate and carbonate doses were used to evaluate the common ion effect. Results were expressed as phase diagrams. Experimental study was conducted using synthetic solutions of lead salts. Theoretical solutions and experimental study results exhibited a satisfactory fit except the extreme concentrations. The theoretical solutions are informative for applications enabling to determine applicable pH ranges, carbonate and sulfate doses to reach desired effluent quality and interactions between different solid phases formed. Results are comparatively evaluated and discussed on the basis of application and meeting the discharge standards.

Keywords: lead, chemical precipitation, lead sulfate precipitation, lead carbonate precipitation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network Tanas Eda Nihan1, Oz Nurtac1, Sen Isa2 1

Dapertment of Environmental Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Sakarya City's Public Health Laboratory

2

In this study, Sakarya, drinking and using water is aimed to search of the effectiveness which existing disinfection with methods currently used. Sakarya province selected 17 of the 102 water samples were taken from the sampling point of the center and the district. At each sampling point in the free chlorine in the water was measured and the amount E.coli have been identified in the laboratory. Membrane filtration technique is used in the analysis. According to these results, Sakarya, drinking and using water outside settlements in the northern part has been determined that the appropriate to our country’s standards as bacteriological. (EN ISO 93081-water quality-detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria Part-1 Membrane filtration method). If the used disinfection method has been found to be adequate. In some periods, the fact that the desired level of residual chlorine levels in the system but have been found with coliform bacteria, has strengthened the possibility that contaminated during distribution of water network. Therefore pipes must be robust and maintenance must be performed. Adequate controls are not expected as long as the structures pose serious problems in terms of public health in the future.

Keywords: drinking water, Escherichia coli, disinfection, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Biodegradation of 2,4 chorophenol by the acclimated activated sludge microorganisms in a tubular bioreactor Deveci Ece Ümmü Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey

In tubular bioreactor with acclimated active sludge was studied for removing 2,4-chorophenols. This experiment is important in the application of biological pollution control technologies for toxic matter. The bioreactor was operated as continuously and batch system. The effect of influent flow rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and initial phenol concentration on the overall system performance were investigated. The removal efficiency in the tubular batch bioreactor decreased linearly with increase in loading phenol concentration. At higher loadings the decline of removal efficiency was more significant for 500 ppm phenol concentration by active sludge. In continuous system phenol removal efficiency determined as 81 % in initial 250 ppm phenol concentration, in batch systems the efficiency was found 99 % in initial 500 ppm phenol concentration.

Keywords: 2,4-cholophenols, acclimations, active sludge, tubular reactor

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Water and soil pollution and control

Equilibrium and kinetics study of phosphate removal from natural seawater by adsorption on pretreated eggshell Yeddou Mezenner Nacéra1, Atmani Fatiha2, Bensaadi Zohra1, Sadaoui Zahra1 Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algerie 2 2Agence Thématique de Recherche en Sciences et Technologie, Avenue Pasteur, ENSA, Belfort, B.P 62 Hacene Badi, El-Harrach, Algerie 1

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in aquatic environments, but excessive phosphorus input may lead to eutrophication. Chemical treatment is widely used for phosphate removal, but their cost and sludge production make chemical treatment an unattractive option for wastewater treatments. Sorption method can remove phosphate steadily. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the adsorption characteristics of phosphate onto calcined eggshell using batch experiments. The adsorption behaviour of calcined eggshell in seawater is expected to be different than in freshwater because its surface electrical properties will be modified by the high ionic strength and competition for surface sites by major and minor seawater constituents. In this study, experiments were repeated for different initial phosphate concentration and temperature values. It was observed that the increase in uptake capacity of the sorbent with increasing phosphate concentration.The adsorption was dependent on the pH of the solution because of the ionisation of groups existing on the surface of the sorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data for phosphate adsorption on calcined eggshell can be represented appropriately by Freundlich model in the studied concentration and temperature rang. - Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be made: Calcined eggshell have shown excellent adsorption potential to phosphate. Batch studies show that a simple model of pseudo-second-order kinetic equation can adequately predict the adsorption of phosphate on calcined eggshell. Also, it was observed that the intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step.

Keywords: low-cost sorbent, seawater, sorption

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Water and soil pollution and control

Photocatalytic degradation of natural seawater organic matter Yeddou Mezenner Nacéra1, Atmani Fatiha2, Bensaadi Zohra1 Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algerie 2 Agence Thématique de Recherche en Sciences et Technologie, Avenue Pasteur, ENSA, Belfort, B.P 62 Hacene Badi, El-Harrach, Alger. 1

In the last two decades seawater has become a more important source for drinking purposes. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most common technique, because of its suitability for brackish water and seawater. Seawater contains some organic matter which can affect the desalination process. Hence, eliminating these organics in pre-treatment processes is essential. Relatively few studies have been made on the degradation of dissolved OM in seawater. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate the removal of OM natural seawater (NSW) using a TiO2. In this study, the samples were collected at the Algiers port. This study is investigated at pH 8.1 with TiO2 dose of 0.5 g/l. The kinetic study shows that after 4h of illumination while the efficiency reaches 78%. The OM degradation undergoes a fast increase during the first 2 h with 65% of degradation, then the rate decreases as the reaction goes longer and this can be explained as follows: over time, the concentration of intermediates increases and competes with the parent compound for both the side reactions and for available radiation, leading a decrease of the reaction rate. Also, the catalyst dose is an important parameter and the photo-degradation of organic molecules is affected by the number of active sites and the absorption ability of the catalyst. In order to investigate the pH effect on the photodegradation, the experiments are conducted over the pH range (5-9). The results indicate that the photo-degradation of OM is not favored in acidic solutions (pH 5).

Keywords: OM natural seawater, sweater, photo-degradation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Biological, photocatalytic and ultrasound treatment of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic: ciprofloxacin Guney Gokce, Sponza Delia Teresa Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

This study presents the comparision of biological and advanced treatment processes for the treatment of ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic which is an important micropollutant from hospital effluents. The treatability of this antibiotic was investigated using a single aerobic, a single anaerobic, an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system, a sonicator, and a photocatalytic reactor with cerium (IV) oxide (CeO₂) nanoparticle in a raw hospital wastewater. Effect of temperature, sonication time and nanoparticle concentration were chosen for operating parameters of the sonicator. The effects of irradiation time, UV light power and CeO₂ nanoparticle concentration on the micropollutant yields were determined as the operating parameters of photocatalytic process. COD and ciprofloxacin (CIP) yields were determined. Methane gas productions and total VFA concentrations were also monitored in anaerobic reactor. pH changes, dissolved oxygen variations and redox potentials were monitored in anaerobic and aerobic reactors. Furthermore, the effects of HRT and OLR on the pollutant yields was researched in both reactors. Among the aforementioned treatment processes, it was found that the high treatment yields for ciprofloxacin pollutant were obtained with photocatalytic process for 0.50 gr/L nano CeO₂ concentration at 300 W UV light power for 45 min at 25 °C and a pH of 7.00 (93.4%) than anaerobic/aerobic sequential biological process at an OLR of 0.19 gr COD/L.day (82.7%) and sonication with nano CeO₂ for 0.50 gr/L nano CeO₂ concentration at 35 °C for 45 min and a pH of 7.00 (82.0%) to remove the CIP from hospital wastewater effluents.

Keywords: biological, CeO2 nanoparticle, ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolone, photocatalytic, sonication

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Water and soil pollution and control

Pharmaceutical compounds in non-conventional water resources in Tunisia Fries Elke1, Mahjoub Olfa2, Mahjoub Borhane3, Berrehouc Anne4, Lions Julie4, Bahadir Müfit5 1

Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry (INRGREF), University of Carthage, Ariana, Tunisia 3 Higher Institute of Agronomic Sciences of Chatt-Meriem, University of Sousse, Tunisia 4 French Geological Survey (BRGM), Orléans, France 5 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany 2

Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) and their metabolites contaminate water resources through discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In Tunisia, 21 PCs with three metabolites in addition to two biocides were analysed in wastewaters for the first time. Four municipal WWTPs (Sud Meliane, SE4, SE3, and Korba) receiving effluents of various origins were selected. 15 grab samples of wastewater were collected during 2013-2014. PCs were measured by using UPLC/MS-MS. The selected PCs were detected in raw wastewater, treated wastewater, and reclaimed water used for irrigation and aquifer recharge. Low concentrations of gemfibrozil were detected in SE4 (22 and 24 ng/L) and SE3 (79 ng/L) deriving likely from touristic hotels. Caffeine was detected at high concentration (165,000 ng/L) in effluents of SE4. Concentrations of ibuprofen (IBU) and its metabolite, (2-OH-ibuprofen), atenolol (ATE), carbamazepine (CAR), ketoprofen, diclofenac (DIC), furosemide, fenofibrate, and paracetamol (PAR) were high. At SE4, concentrations of carbamazepine in treated wastewater were between 543 ng/L and 1,281 ng/L. IBU and PAR as over-the-counter medication were found at relatively high concentrations. In Korba, CAF was detected at 97,600 ng/L, 2-OH-IBU at 8,170 ng/L, and IBU at 3,040 ng/L. In the untreated wastewater sample, the concentration of IBU was higher than the concentration of its metabolites. Concentrations of 2-OHIBU, IBU, ATE, CAR, bezafibrate, DIC, oxazepam, trimetoprim, and triclosan in reclaimed water were comparable to those in effluents of SE4, and sometimes even higher. The highest concentrations of IBU and 2-OH-IBU were found in reclaimed water used for irrigation. In view of the present results, special attention should be paid to the occurrence of some compounds as they may be transferred to crops and groundwater during irrigation and aquifer recharge.

Keywords: pharmaceutical compounds, Tunisia, wastewater, irrigation, recharge

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Water and soil pollution and control

GST induction and ultrastructural alterations in Lemna minor L. exposed in bags in a polluted river of South Italy Conte B.1, Sorbo S.2, Piscopo M.1, Rabbito D.1, Basile A.1 Department of Biology, Università di Napoli Federico II; Napoli, Italy C.e.S.M.A., Università di Napoli Federico II; Napoli, Italy

1 2

Water pollution is a major environmental and human health issue because rivers may transport pollutants away from sources, impairing the whole ecosystem health. The river Sarno represents one the most disturbed water ecosystems in Europe: lacking of law observance, deficiencies in the sewerage-purification systems, spilling of not adequately treated waste waters from industries, and the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in crop fields have been producing a heavy pollution of freshwaters (Albanese et al., 2013; De Pippo et al., 2006). Plants react to pollutants in a very complex way, activating a number of parallel and/or consecutive reactions at molecular, physiological and morphological levels. Most of the species belonging to the Lemnaceae (duckweeds) family are widely used as model hydrophytes in ecotoxicology, due to their wide distribution, fast growth, short life span, and sensitivity to environmental changes. This study aimed at evaluating biological effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily polluted river Sarno (Campania, South Italy), using bags containing the water plant Lemna minor L. Homogeneous samples of 750 mg of L. minor, collected from the Botanical Gardens of the University of Naples, were accurately washed and disposed in 10 x10 cm wide, nylon, 1 mm2 - meshed bags. The bags were exposed for one week floating on the water of the river Sarno, to determine morphophysiological modifications as a response to pollutants. Moreover, some specimens were exposed in vitro at the same heavy metal (HM) concentrations as measured in the polluted sites of the river, and compared with data from the bag experiment. A number of parameters were measured and evaluated on these samples: heavy metal accumulation, ultrastructural organization and GST induction. The results showed that L. minor is very effective at accumulating heavy metals. Morphological alterations concern most of all chloroplasts (their shape and thylakoid organization) and vacuoles. GST were influenced by the exposure. The results suggest the potential use of this species and this method both in biomonitoring and phytoremediation projects. References Albanese, S., Iavazzo, P., Adamo, P., Lima, A., DeVivo, B., 2013. Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Sarno river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach. Environ. Geochem. Health 35, 283–297. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10653-012-9483-x. De Pippo, T., Donadio, C., Guida, M., Petrosino, C., 2006. The case of Sarno River (Southern Italy). Effects of geomorphology on the environmental impacts. ESPR – Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 13, 184–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/ espr 2005.08.287 (2006).

Keywords: Lemna minor, bioaccumulation, freshwater, Italy, pollution

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Water and soil pollution and control

Atmospheric pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) in the Italian Triangle of Death Esposito Sergio1, Sorbo Sergio2, Cardi Manuela1, De Lillo Alessia1, Lentini Marco1, Basile Adriana1 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy Ce.S.M.A., Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy

1 2

The metal-tolerant liverwort Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) (Lunulariales), was collected in two urban sites, by comparing gametophytes with samples collected in a rural, non-polluted area. Two polluted sites in two highly contaminated urban areas were chosen: the downtown of Naples, and in the city center of Acerra, one of the tops of the Triangle of Death. This latter area is in the South of Italy, and it is known for the severe increase in deaths produced by cancer, heavily exceeding the Italian average has been observed for the last decades. This rise in mortality is caused by high levels of pollution coming from illegal waste disposal by criminal organizations. The control, unpolluted country site, was chosen in Riccia (Molise, Italy), a small town far from big urban areas and industrial activities. The liverwort Lunularia cruciata (Marchantiales) was used to evaluate the impact of metal(loid)s on a wide range of cellular responses, including changes in gene expression and transcription, as well as phytochelatin synthase activity: in this study, changes in ultrastructure and induction of phytochelatins, and Heat Shock Proteins 70 have been investigated and related to the different levels of pollution. In both urban sites, cellular ultrastructure was strongly modified, and severe alterations were observed in organelles, in particular inducing marked alterations of the chloroplast structure. Simultaneously, strong increments in phytochelatins and Hsp70s were detected in gametophytes from both urban sites, compared with control samples. These effects are discussed in order to describe the response to pollution in L. cruciata in order to propose this liverwort species as a possible bioindicator able to measure the effects of atmospheric pollution on living organisms, particularly related to metal(loid) contamination.

Keywords: Lunularia cruciata, atmospheric pollution, Italian Triangle of Death

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Water and soil pollution and control

Heavy metals in treated wastewater resources used for irrigation: case studies from Nabeul-Tunisia Rmili Marwa1, Mahjoub Olfa2, Mahjoub Borhane3, Bahadir Müfit4 1

Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, Tunis, Tunisia National Research Institute of Rural Engineering, Waters and Forestry, Tunis, Tunisia 3 Higher Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia 4 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany 2

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in wastewater (WW) and aquatic environments may occur from three generic sources: domestic, industrial and urban. CEC include heavy metals, which can impact human and environmental health. The aim of this study was to show the effects of urban and industrial discharges on treated wastewater (TWW) quality used for irrigation purpose, their impact on groundwater quality in a semi-arid area in Northern Tunisia, and their potential environmental implications. To assess the water quality, we collected TWW and groundwater samples for analyzing with ICP-OES for Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Zn and comparing the outcomes with Tunisian standards of discharge and for reuse in agriculture. The results showed that TWW from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Nabeul were characterized by a high pollution with heavy metals with concentrations of Cr (15.66 µg/l), Ni (15.52 µg/l), and Cu (116.51 µg/l). Except for Al, the element concentrations did not exceed the Tunisian Standards for WW reuse for agricultural irrigation (NT 106.03) and those for discharge in surface water bodies (NT 106.02) (1989). These concentrations are high compared to those detected in other studies. This may be caused by industries without the required pre-treatment of their discharges in these areas, the overload of WWTP, and the lack of maintenance of equipments. High levels of heavy metals can cause environmental risk and lead to food crops contamination. However, the TWW could be used to irrigate plants tolerant to high heavy metal concentrations after current Tunisian standards. The outcomes of this study show clearly the urgent necessity to implement appropriate regulations to foster sustainable management of TWW in the best way especially in irrigation reuse. This will be important especially in Tunisia because the amount of TWW used for irrigation is increasing rapidly as a consequence of the water scarcity.

Keywords: heavy metals, treated wastewater, groundwater, irrigation, Tunisia

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Water and soil pollution and control

Elucidating the mechanism of ultrafiltration by investigating of dye-surfactant interactions in aqueous solutions Olcay Aybı̇ke nil1, Polat Mehmet1, Polat Hürriyet2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmır Instıtute of Technology, Izmır, Turkey Department of Chemistry, Izmır Instıtute of Technology, Izmır, Turkey

1 2

Low Molecular Weight Contaminants (LMWCs) in waters are serious environmental concern due to removal problems with classical techniques such as chemical coagulation, biological treatments and adsorption. LMWCs are usually co-present with surface active agents in contaminated waters. Though such advanced removal techniques as ultrafiltration and micelle enhanced ultrafiltration are said to perform better, no systematic study is present for elucidating how the contaminant-surfactants interactions affect removal efficiency. In this study, methylene blue (MB), a dye widely employed in textile, paper and chemical industries, was chosen as the model contaminant. Surfactants selected were anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic ethoxylated octylphenol (TX-100). Surface tension, size, charge and contact angle measurements were conducted to investigate dye-surfactant interactions. Cellulose nitrate filters were employed to determine the effect of these interactions in filtration efficiency. It is found that there is an electrostatic interaction between the filter paper and MB and as a result there is high removal of this contaminant. The filtration behavior changes significantly in the presence of surfactant. If the surfactants exist as monomer removal efficiencies decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. Charge of the surfactants effect the removal efficiency. Interactions between the filter surface and the surfactant molecules are as important as those between the filter surface and the contaminant. Interactions between the contaminant and the surfactant molecules are also important since they determine the form of the contaminant in the system, hence the filtration response. Low removal efficiency is seen in the micellar range due to the formation of compact surfactant micelles, which envelope MB in their structure, which cannot be retained by the pores of the filters used.

Keywords: ultrafiltraion, low molecular weight contaminants, critical micelle concentration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Determining the water pollution of Kizilirmak river of Turkey by using satellite images and spectral measurement data Gursoy Onder1, Ozyonar Fuat2, Kasaka Ergun3 1

Department of Geomatics Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey 3 Department of Biology, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey 2

Water resources are getting more and more important with each passing day in case of survival of humanity. For this reason, assessing water resources’ quality and also monitoring them have attracted lots of attention in the recent years. Remote sensing has been growing widely in the last decade and its resources are very usable when it comes to water resources management. In this study, by using remote sensing technology, satellite images that have 350 to 1050 nanometres wavelength band sensors (e.g. CHRIS Proba) are used to determine the quality of the Kizilirmak River’s water. Kizilirmak River is born and also pours out to sea in country limits of Turkey. It is the longest river of the country by the length of 1355 kilometres. Through the river’s resources, ground based spectral measurements are made to identify the quality differences of the water at the test spots that have been determined before. In this context at Imranli, where the river contacts civilization for the first time, which is located in Sivas city of Turkey, samples are gathered in order to do ground based spectroradiometer measurements. These samples are gathered simultaneously with the image acquiring time of CHRIS Proba satellite. Spectral signatures that are obtained from ground measurements are used as reference data in order to classify CHRIS Proba satellite’s hyperspectral images over the study area. Satellite images are classified based on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity attributes. As a result, interpretations obtained from classified CHRIS Proba satellite hyperspectral images of the study area are presented.

Keywords: water pollution, remote sensing, spectral measurement

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Water and soil pollution and control

Equilibrium and kinetics study of nitrate removal from natural seawater by adsorption eggshell Atmani Fatiha1, Yeddou Mezenner Nacera2, Keddam Sabrina2, Mokbel Ouahiba2 1

Faculty of Technology, University Blida 1 Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB 2

Water pollutants have huge impacts on the entire living systems including terrestrial, aquatic, flora and fauna. Several nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, nitrite and ammonia have been found as common pollutants in various wastewaters. Especially nitrate can bring in severe problems, including eutrophisation and infection diseases, such as cyanosis and cancer of the alimentary canal. The purpose of the present work is to use calcined eggshell as a sorbent for the removal of nitrate. The effect of temperature and adsorbent dose of seawater on nitrate removal was studied. The adsorption of nitrate is increased with increase in adsorbent dose and remains constant after the equilibrium time. The equilibrium time was 60 min and temperature studies showed that adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous nature. The Langmuir, Timken and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results obtained in this work suggest that calcined eggshell has a potential application as adsorbent media for removing NO3 from seawater.

Keywords: nitrate removal, seawater, adsorption, calcined eggshell

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of bilge water by hybrid adsorption and photocatalytic processes Atmani Fatiha1, Yeddou Mezenner Nacera2, Djellab Lamia1 1

Faculty of Technology, University Blida 1 Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB 2

Generally, bilge waters can be briefly defined as saline and greasy wastewaters. The oil and grease are mixed with the sea water, which affects many marine species. Bilge water is a complex mixture of various compounds such as solvents, surfactants, fuel, lubricating oils and hydraulic oils. It is resulted mainly by the leakage from the machinery and freshwaterwashdowns, which are allowed to drain to the lowest inner part of the ship's hull. There are several physicochemical methods used for bilge water treatment such as biodegradation electrochemical and electro-coagulation/flotation.The research herein presented discusses adsorption and photodegradation as a method to treat bilge water and eggshells-TiO2 was studied as adsorbent. The influence of operating parameters as contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose (0,5 - 3g/l) on the removal efficiency of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity was analyzed. The bilge wastewater used for this study was supplied by Harbour Bouharoune. Chemical oxygen demand removal increased from 26.7% to 78.7% as the adsorbent dose increased from 0.2 to 2 g. The kinetics of adsorption by eggshells were fast, reaching 35 % of the total adsorption capacity in five minutes (T= 20°C, pH =7.66, m=2.5 g/L). It was found that the turbidity removal efficiency decreased and 97% were achieved at the end of 100 min reaction. The adsorption and photocatalytic processes process was found to be effective for the purification of bilge water and adsorption isotherms of eggshells-TiO2 samples were fitted to Langmuir model.

Keywords: bilge water, adsorption, eggshells, photocatalytic process and kinetics

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Water and soil pollution and control

The impacts of cargo wash operations in bulk carriers to the marine environments Irtem Şevket Süleyman1, Bayar Sibel2, Elmas Güldem2, Ergin Ayfer2, Alkan Güler2, Buğra Çelebi Uğur2 1

Institute of Graduate Studies in Science and Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Maritime Transportation Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2

In this paper, the operation process in ships is evaluated with “Cargo Wash Operations in Bulk Carriers”. The critical path of the spillage responding process is determined. The findings of the method used to develop spillage respond and training procedures.

Keywords: spillage, cargo wash operation, pollution, CPM PERT

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment and recovery of table olive wastewater via membrane separation technologies Ozbey Bahar1, Balcık Canbolat Cigdem1, Dizge Nadir2, Keskinler Bülent1 1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey

2

Table olive fermentation is one of the oldest application of biotechnology in food processing industry and a considerable amount of water is used during the process. As a result of the table olive processes, olive brine wastewater is released which has a high value of COD and contains a significant amount of conductivity and suspended solids. Therefore, treatment of table olive brine wastewater is quite difficult by conventional treatment methods and because of this, new treatment technologies have been investigated. There are limited studies in the literature for the treatment strategies of table olive brine wastewater. In this study, treatability of the olive brine wastewater provided from table olive facility was investigated in laboratory using by chemical and membrane filtration processes. For chemical treatability studies, optimum coagulant type, pH, amount of coagulant, flocculant type and amount of flocculant were defined. In membrane filtration treatability studies, treated wastewater by optimum chemical treatment conditions was treated by advanced treatment technologies which contain ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (NF/RO) membranes. During the membrane studies, optimum NF and RO membrane types, operation pH and transmembrane pressures were determined. Consequentially, after the chemical and membrane treatment processes, discharge standarts were obtained which are 600 mg/L for COD and 20 mS/cm for electrical conductivity. As a result of treatability studies, removal efficiencies of COD and electrical conductivity reached up to 99,9% and 99,2%, respectively.

Keywords: table olive wastewater; chemical treatment; membrane separation; cod removal; salt rejection

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Water and soil pollution and control

Multispecies algal bioassay to study the contamination of coastal waters in the estuarine mixing area Mingazzini Marina, Palumbo Maria Teresa Water Research Institute IRSA, CNR

Coastal marine environments are likely to be the ultimate sink for the anthropogenic pollutants, deliberately or purposely discharged into the environment. While the river inputs are recognized as the major contamination source of the coastal systems, marine and freshwater quality studies are separately undertaken, according to a traditional dichotomy existing between methodological approaches in water quality assessment. Currently separated methods are possibly limiting the correct river-water management, which should be better integrating the information from land-based impact studies of coastal marine waters. Biological assays simultaneously investigating the responses of marine and fresh-water organisms are rarely used as toxicity or trophic assessment methods to study the contamination of river-coastal water systems. Particularly, estuarine mixing waters, where major physicochemical changes can likely affect the bioavailability of pollutants, are most difficult to be tested by biological assays because it should require the use of euryhaline organisms capable of tolerating the entire range of estuarine salinities, from fresh to marine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of three selected algal species to be simultaneously used as test organisms in biological assays to investigate the trophic contamination over the entire salinity gradient from 0 to 37 psu, linking the algal responses to the river, estuarine and marine water trophic status. While the joint use of two species, the freshwater Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the marine (15 to 37 psu) Phaeodactylum tricornutum was previously applied to the study of the trophic potential of the Po River - Adriatic Sea system, the suitability of Dunaliella tertiolecta, as a further, more tolerant species, was evaluated to cover the estuarine mixing area in the salinity range 6 to 15 psu. Like the other two species, Dunaliella, which is a motile green alga, is a fast-growing unicellular species particularly easy to cultivate and to count. By contrast, its large difference in cell biomass makes its growth potential, in terms of cell number, hardly comparable within the multispecies assay. The use of a Multisizer electronic particle counter coupled to the gravimetric analysis of the dried biomass of the three algal species enabled to calculate the specific yield conversion factor starting from the cell number. The responses to laboratory enrichment bioassays performed using the three species showed a good correlation linking phosphorus concentration to biomass, revealing the same yield of all species per phosphorus unit. The joint use of the three species revealed effective, enabling to define the trophic gradient over the entire salinity mixing (0 to 35 psu) of river with seawaters in the Po – Adriatic estuarine area.

Keywords: algal growth potential, algal yield, estuarine mixing area, euryhaline algal species

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Water and soil pollution and control

Impact of synthetic estrogen 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol on carbon removal kinetics Ubay Cokgor Emine, Alanyali Burcu, Topuz Emel, Zengin Balci Gulsum Emel, Okutman Tas Didem, Iskender Fatma Gulen Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey

The existence and persistence of estrogenic chemicals in aquatic environments may affect both public and ecosystem wellness. Estrogenic compounds are known to cause endocrine disruption in wildlife and humans, including 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (or Ethinylestradiol), a widely used pharmaceutical. Ethinylestradiol (or 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone estradiol. Studies on the biodegradability of estrogens receive high attention from scientists that 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, the main ingredient in the contraceptive pill, is not easily detected in the environment due to its low concentration at μg/l levels in surface, sewage and ground waters. Although sorption occurs quickly, biodegradation is the primary removal means for estrogens in wastewater. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol removal efficiencies vary from 34 % to almost 100 %. Variations in wastewater treatment processes and operational conditions are generally regarded as the reason for fluctuations in removal efficiencies and effluent concentrations. This study investigated the impact of 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol, a significant compound among endocrine disrupter on the biodegradation of a synthetic organic substrate – a peptone/meat extract mixture - under aerobic conditions. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was sustained at steady state at a sludge age of ten days with substrate feeding. After the biomass seeding the reactors were started with the peptone mixture and an initial 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol concentration (EE2) of 1 mg/L. Experimental profiles of oxygen uptake rates and polyhydroxyalkanoates were evaluated by calibration of a selected model. 1 mg/L of 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol had no acute effect on process kinetics. However, at the fortieth day of acclimation period to EE2, model simulation results showed that the maximum heterotrophic growth rate and the maximum hydrolysis rate for slowly hydrolysable products increased due to the stimulated enzyme activity.

Keywords: endocrine disrupter, biodegradation of a synthetic estrogen, carbon removal kinetics

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Water and soil pollution and control

The determination of bacteriological quality of Kilyosİğneada coast and sea water Kimiran Erdem Ayten1, Arslan Aydoğdu Elif Özlem1, Gülener Merve2, Zorbozan Hazal2, Balcı Muharrem3, Yeşilova Kübra4, Anda Merve4, Balkıs Neslihan4 Department of Biology, Section of Fundamental and Industrial Microbiology, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Institute of Sciences, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Architecture and Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey 4 Department of Biology, Section of Hydrobiology, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 1

The Black Sea is an inland sea in southeastern Europe and is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. The Black Sea marine life is under threat because of the pollution caused by industrial and domestic wastes. In this reason, in the current study, we examined the bacteriological contamination of Western Black Sea coast and sea water. The samples were seasonally collected from 5 different regions (Kilyos, Karaburun, Yalıköy, Kıyıköy and İğneada) from the surface waters of sea and littoral zone and were analyzed in terms of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria by special culture methods, and total bacteria count by DAPI-CTC double-staining method. Gram-negative bacteria were identified by using API 20E and 20NE test strips (BioMérieux, France) for oxidase negative and positive strains, respectively. The antibiotic (cephalothin, imipenem, gentamicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, erythromycin, ceftazidime, carbenicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, cefoxitin, cefoperazone, nitrofurantoin, amikacin, penicillin, cefotaxime) and heavy metal (chromium, nickel, zinc, cobalt, copper, mangan, and mercury) resistance of isolates were examined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test protocol and serial dilution method, respectively. It was found that the number of bacteria changed depending on the season. At the same time, Aeromonas spp., Burkholderia spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Kluyvera spp., Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp., Providencia spp., Raoultella spp., Salmonella spp., Serratia spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Sphingomonas spp., and Vibrio spp. bacteria were identified. Currently, when considering the ratio of fecal coliform to fecal streptococci, it was found that the main reason for the pollution of the coasts of Kilyos and Kıyıköy is human origin. On the other hand we found that the littoral zone polluted than sea water, in terms of the number of indicator bacteria. When the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria was considered, we found that the most of isolate have resistance profile against to the penicillin, while the higher sensitivity were detected for gentamicin, tobramycin and norfloxacin. According to the results of the minimum bactericidal concentration of heavy metals, the highest sensitivities was detected against to mercury with the concentration of 6.25 μg ml⁻¹.

Keywords: indicator bacteria, pseudomonas, aeromonas, antibiotic resistance, heavy metal resistance

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Water and soil pollution and control

Ongoing and potential oil pollution in the Adriatic Sea Morović Mira1, Ivanov Andrei2, Oluić Marinko3, Kovač Žarko1, Terleeva Nadezda2 1

Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, P.P. 500, 21000 Split, Croatia P.P. Shirshov Institute of Оceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36, Moscow 117997, Russia 3 Geo-sat, Poljana B. Hanžekovićeva 31, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2

In the Adriatic Sea, high number of oil slicks has been detected on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The sources of these slicks are most often deliberate releases of oil and oily products, caused by tank washing or through routine operations of transport or fisheries ships. Concern regarding the oil pollution has risen lately, since states surrounding the Adriatic Sea: Croatia, Montenegro and Albania have intensified exploration of undersea sources of hydrocarbons. If the oil would be found, the transport of oil will also be intensified. Oil platforms are potential sources of pollution, if not properly maintained. The leaking of oil may occur during all phases of exploration as well as exploitation. Regarding oil pollution, due to the prevailing cyclonic circulation in the Adriatic, about forty Italian oil rigs are not Croatian major concern, but Croatian territorial waters are potentially endangered from exploration and exploitation activities in Montenegro, Albania and Croatia. Here we demonstrate a number of slicks from different sources on SAR satellite images, showing existing pollution level, occurring practically on a daily basis. We also discuss potential damage for Croatian coastal communities in case of larger accidents.

Keywords: oil pollution, adriatic sea, SAR images

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Water and soil pollution and control

Spectroscopic analysis of nitric-acid treated mixtures on the base of biomass and chicken litter Serafimova Ekaterina1, Petkova Vilma2, Pelovsky Yoncho1, Kostova Bilyana3 1

University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia, Bulgaria Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 3 Department Natural Sciences, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria 2

Poultry farming is a traditional branch of the Bulgarian national livestock in recent years for poultry meat and eggs. They are grown industrially between 15 and 22 million birds, of which 8-10 million hens, which produce daily between 4000-6000 t excrement. In one year aspect that defines an amount of about 500 000 t. As in other areas of the industry, and in this case, a major problem is the need to comply with regulatory requirements in the EU and in the country. In Bulgaria there are a few good practices implemented in poultry farms for the use of waste as secondary raw material or energy resource. This problem has not found the best solution globally too. The proposed new solution is constructed on the basis of waste from poultry farms with additional waste products from other industries and biomass. The aim is to do integrated recovery of several wastes. These spectroscopic analysis have attempted application of the solid phase poultry waste and identifying the phases in it, in order to obtain organic products for agriculture. It was found that the selected wastes and other raw materials have a structure and composition, which defines them as carriers of essential micro-nutrients without excessive content of heavy and toxic elements, which allows them to be classified as suitable components for obtaining soil improvers.

Keywords: poultry excrements, biomass, soil improvers, IR, XRD, SEM

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Water and soil pollution and control

Soil contamination by heavy metals in flood plain of Qweik river, Aleppo, Syria Kadhim S.L.1, Salih S.A.1, Qadir M2,3 1

University of Tikrit, Department of Applied Geology, Tikrit, Iraq, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria 3 International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka 2

This study including determination of soil contamination by some heavy metals at south of Aleppo city in Syria.The sewage wastewater and industrial wastewater of Aleppo flow in the channel of the Qweik river, and this water polluted by heavy metals. The wastewater mixed with natural water of Euphrates river by artificial channel extend from Al-Asad lake to Qweik river in Sandarat Campus, North Aleppo, the channel flow capacity is about 3m3/sec. the purpose of this project to enhance the water quality of Qweik river and dilute the concentrations of heavy metal pollutants It noted that the relative high concentration of Fe, Cu and Zn in the top soil in the 1st two station which is closed to the river channel, and that associated with high concentrations of organic matter. The concentration of Cd horizontally and vertically more than the tolerance limit compared by the standards. The variation may related to the different degree of leaching of this element, and the high enrichment of Cd in the soil may related to irrigation by sewage wastewater, during long period of time. The concentration of Mn is below the standard limit. It is recommend to carry on analyses for other heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, V, and Ti in the soil and plants, which is important to recognize the degree of pollution and contamination of the soil.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Sedimentology and heavy metals of the dust storms in Tikrit city/ Iraq Eman L. Salman1, Amera I. Hussain2 1

Ishik University/Engineering College/ Civil Engineering Dept./Erbil Tikrit University/College of Science/ Applied Geology Dept. /Tikrit

2

Collection of five samples of the dust have been collected from the storms which occurred during (2009 and 2010) in Tikrit city. Grain size analysis show that the silt size forming the majority (62.6% ), fine sand (23.52%) and clay (13.88%) , also CaCO3 and organic content have been determined determined with average (25.9%) and (2.11%) respectively. The heavy metals including Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Co, and Zn showing that Zn , Ni, Co and Cr are more than the standards in the crust of the earth which considered pollutant elements while Cd and Pb are less than the standards.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment Hammami Marwa Ben Moncef1, Hatira Abdessatar2, Ben Romdhane Samir3, Ben Youssef Samir3 1

Hammami Marwa Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092. and Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020 2 Abdessatar Hatira Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092 3 Samir Ben Romdhane and Samir Ben Youssef Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020

The tailings in Tunisia are a source and a threat to the degradation of mining environments. Indeed the impact study of discharges of lead from lead-zinc mine in Ghazela-Jalta region was carried out in part by sampling on agricultural land at the tailings dam, soil, plants (wheat and fenugreek), snails and water (surface and drinking) and analysis of lead and other the other physicochemical parameters. The results revealed high levels of lead exceeding the standards recognized at all ecosystem components mentioned before. Fenugreek is an accumulator lead plant compared to wheat: after harvest 5.5 ppm for wheat and 12 ppm for fenugreek seeds. These tenures exceed the standards (0.50ppm for grains, 1.00ppm to leaves and stems). For drinking water we found a concentration of 03.mg/l of lead that exceeds the standard 0.1mg/l could cause chronic lead poisoning and sometimes acute lead poisoning. Analyses of soil profiles of 50 cm show: high levels of total lead (1712.5 ppm) compared to soluble lead (2.70ppm). Thus we confirmed bioaccumulation of lead in the viscera gastropods which could be a risk and a danger to consumers. Analyses of gastropods on sale to the public showed the following RESULTS: 9.00ppm for the viscera weighing 5.57g and 7.00ppm for a weight of 4.50g (contents exceeding 4 times the norm).

Keywords: mining discharges, lead, Yalta-Ghezala, bioaccumulation, pollution, environment

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The molecule preserve environment: effects of inhibitor of the angiotensin converting enzyme on reproductive potential and composition contents of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller Yezli Touiker Samira1, Kirane Amrani Leila2, Soltani Mazouni Nadia3 Yezli-Touiker S.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria Kirane-Amrani L.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria 3 Soltani-Mazouni N.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria 1 2

Due to secondary effects of conventional insecticides on the environment, the agrochemical research has resulted in the discovery of novel molecules. That research work will help in the development of a new group of pesticides that may be cheaper and less hazardous to the environment and non-target organisms which is the main desired outcome of the present work. Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a target for the development of novel insect growth regulators. Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) it was tested in vivo by topical application on reproduction of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The compound is diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae (10g/ 2l). The effects of this molecule was studied,on the biochemistry of ovary (on amounts nucleic acid, proteins, the qualitative analysis of the ovarian proteins and the reproductive potential (duration of the pre-ovipotion, duration of the oviposition, number of eggs laid and hatching percentage). Captopril reduces significantly quantity of ovarian proteins and nucleic acid. The electrophoresis profile reveals the absence of tree bands at the treated series. This molecule reduced the duration of the oviposition period, the fecundity and the eggviability.

Keywords: Ephestia kuehniella, captopril, reproduction, biochemistry of ovary

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxic effects of fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress Benbouzid Houneida1, Berrebbah Houria2, Djebar Mohamed Réda2 1

Department of Biochemistry, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria Laboratory of Cell Toxicology, General Direction of Scientific Research and Technological Development Annaba University, Algeria. 2

The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of organotin acaricide: Fenbutatin oxyde tested at concentrations of 30, 40 and 60 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. We have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment and confirmed by the percentage of responses. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione Stransferase activity recorded in the presence of various Fenbutatin oxyde concentrations involve the activation of detoxification system. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations.

Keywords: fenbutatin oxyde, detoxification, oxidative enzymes, Paramecium sp.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxicity of Acaricides to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions Ayad Loucif Wahida1, Nedji Neila2 1

Department of medicine, faculty of medicine, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria. Department of biology, Laboratory of Applied Biology, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.

2

Pollination is a key ecosystem service for both biodiversity and human welfare. More than 70% of the world’s crop production depends to some extent on biotic pollination, which is primarily performed by insects. Pollination by bees also increases seed set and fruit set, size, quality, shelf life and commercial value of a majority of crops. While bees are by far the most efficient group of insect pollinators, their populations are declining worldwide. A number of stressors have been identified as potential contributing factors, including the use of acaricides, which have negative effect on bee health. Acaricides are used to treat honey bee colonies to control the varroa mite ("Varroa destructor" Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied different concentrations of oxalic acid (3.5%, 6% and 20%) on the newly emerged workers of "A. mellifera intermissa", in order to evaluate the toxicity of the acaricide by studing the specific activity of the Glutathione S-Transferase and the histological structure of the midgut. Results showed toxic effects of oxalic acid on honey bees. The toxicity is expressed by the induction of the Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity 24 hours after its administration at high concentration (20%) and, 48 hours after at low concentrations. Also, cells midgut alteration was observed after topical application of oxalic acid at 3.5% and 20% with high cellular damage of the intestinal epithelium of the treated bees 72 hours after the application of the treatment as compared to untreated ones.

Keywords: toxicity, Acaricide, Apis mellifera intermissa, GST, midgut

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Cyanotoxicity responses to the ecological status of the Greek lakes Kagkalou Ifigeneia Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace

Cyanobacteria cause problems worldwide while freshwater and lakes are especially susceptible to harmful algal blooms because of the eutrophication. Harmful algal blooms of cyanobacteria pose a risk for human health and ecosystem sustainability due to the production of toxic compounds, so called cyanotoxins. Greek lakes experience progressive eutrophication due to hydro- morphological alterations, point and diffuse pollution sources and land use changes. Following the pattern of the warm Mediterranean lakes, lakes in Greece show a tendency toward domination of cyanobacteria with frequent occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms while their persistence is longer than in Northern European lakes. The aim of the present paper is to address how the toxin occurrence is coupled to the ecological status in Greek lakes, under the light of Water Framework Directive, and which are the key factors for their cyanotoxicity. Yet, the synergies among the human pressures promoting cyanobacterial dominance are examined. This contribution also describes the potential impacts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins on lentic ecosystem’s goods and services. Mitigation measures at catchment level, current practises as well as cutting edge research towards effective treatment technologies are also discussed.

Keywords: cyanotoxins, ecological status, Greek lakes

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Oil pollution in eastern coastline of Algeria Belfetmi Naoufel Zouheir1, Meghlaoui Zoubeida1, Guemouda Messaouda1, Daas Tarek1, Maamcha Ouided1, Scaps Patrick2 1

Laboratory of Applied Animal Biology,Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba-Algeria Laboratory of Annelids Neuroimmunology, CNRS FRE 2933-UST of Lille 59655- France

2

In recent years Algeria has experienced an urban, agricultural, industrial and tourism significant development, which threatens the quality of the marine environment. The city of Skikda and one of the examples of the country's pollution. The city of Skikda suffers from the problem of pollution by oil. This area comprises several units as polluting the complex of plastic, and the liquefaction complex refinery. This work was carried out during 2013 in order to assess the level of contamination by hydrocarbons and their impact on aquatic organisms on the one hand and to compare the diversity of polychaete annelid species between the two sites Study: Skikda and El-Kala, on the other hand. The assay of total hydrocarbons was performed according to the method of Rodier (1996). Also, biochemical analysis of a biomarker, the glutahtion-S-transferase (GST), was evaluated in Perinereis cultrifera method of Habig and al. 1974. It has been demonstrated that the contamination by hydrocarbons is present in Skikda with 5.4 ± 1.01 mg / L. The enzymatic activity of GST in individuals Skikda reveals a peak infection rate in the month of April with 8.56 ± 0.92 µM / min / mg protein. The establishment of an inventory of Polychaeta allowed the identification of several species of annelids (Neries falsa, Platyneries dumerillii, Perineries marionii, Lepidonotus clava,.), at two study sites, with the exception of Platyneries dumerilli virtually absent at the site of Skikda, unlike Lepidonotus clava and Perineries marionii which were abundant at the site of Skikda. These results reflect the direct impact of this pollution on animal biodiversity in the coastal eastern Algeria.

Keywords: Keywords: Biodiversity, GST, Oil Pollution, Perineries cultrifera, Algeria

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Evaluation of the impact of heavy metals in Callista chione using glutathione reductase as a potential biomarker of stress Dassenakis Manos1, Chalkiadaki Olga1, Paraskevopoulou Vasiliki1, Lydakis Simantiris Nikos2 1

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and of Biochemical Processes, Technological Education Institution of Crete 2

Many compounds, including metals, enter the marine environment from anthropogenic activities. Some of these substances may generate oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to glutathione (GSH), which is a critical molecule against oxidative stress maintaining the reducing environment of the cell. Any imbalance of the ratio GSSG/GSH in the cell is a sign of oxidative damage of the cell. This balance is maintained by glutathione reductase. In this work, specimens of the marine bivalve Callista chione remained for 20 days in aquaria contaminated with 0.5 mg/L of either Pb, or Cd or Ni. Every 5 days of the exposure period, gills, mantle, digestive system and the remaining body were dissected and analyzed for heavy metal content and GR activity. After the 20 days period, the remaining bivalves were transferred to heavy metal-free seawater for a 10 days depuration experiment. Tissue samples were lyophilized, homogenized and digested with conc.HNO₃. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by GFAAS. Glutathione Reductase assay measures GR activity by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation. GR was determined according to the method described by Carlsberg and Mannervik (1985). Cd and Pb were mainly accumulated in C. chione gills, while Ni was mainly accumulated in the body tissue. The highest GR activity for the organisms exposed to Pb was measured in their digestive systems. The same stands for the Cd-exposed organisms, while for the Ni-exposed, the highest enzyme activity was measured in their gills. The trend for the GR activity in the body and digestive system was: exposure to Ni>Pb>Cd whereas for gills: exposure to Ni>Cd>Pb and for the mantle: Pb>Ni>Cd. During depuration period, Pb concentrations in all tissues of the organisms reduced, whereas Cd concentrations reduced only in the gills of the bivalves and Ni concentrations reduced only in the mantle and digestive system of the organisms. During depuration, GR decreased in all the tissues of the organisms exposed to Pb and Cd and in the gills of the organisms exposed to Ni. Acknowledgments: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: heavy metals, Callista chione, glutathione reductase, biomarker

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

An insightful molecular analysis reveals foreign honeybees among Algerian honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L) Achou Mohamed1, Loucif Ayad Wahida2, Legout Hélène3, Hmidan Hayan4, Alburaki Mohamed5, Garnery Lionel6 Laboratoire de Biologie Animale Appliquée, Université Badji-Mokhtar B.P.13, Sidi-Amar, Annaba, Algérie 2 Faculté de Médecine, Route de Zaâfrania, B.P 205, Université Badji-Mokhtar, Annaba, Algérie 3 Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes et Spéciation, CNRS, Bât13, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198, Gifsur-Yvette, France 4 Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), Département de géographie, Case Postale 8888, Succursale centre-ville Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8, Canada 5 The University of Tennessee, Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, West TN Research and Education Center, 605 Airways Blvd., Jackson, TN, 38301, USA 6 Université de Versailles, Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78 Versailles, France 1

This study assessed the genetic diversity of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Algeria, in North Africa, using the molecular marker mtDNA COI-COII (Cytochrome Oxidase I and II). In total, five hundred eighty-two honeybee workers were sampled from 22 regions of the country. A PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis of the mtDNA samples distinguished the honeybee evolutionary lineages and mtDNA haplotypes from each region. Our data revealed the presence of three different honeybee lineages among the studied populations, comprising the African (A), North Mediterranean (C) and West Mediterranean (M) lineages. Eight different mtDNA haplotypes were recorded at various frequencies (A1, A2, A8, A9, A10, A13, C7 and M4). For the first time, our results identified a low genetic introgression (3.1%) of non-local mtDNA haplotypes (C7 and M4) among the local Algerian honeybees, most likely due to the import of foreign honeybees. Notably, the southern Algerian honeybee populations had lower haplotype diversity than the northern populations. Overall, the local North African honeybee subspecies A. m. intermissa and/or A. m. sahariensis seem to be remarkably dominant across northern Algeria.

Keywords: Apis mellifera intermissa; mtDNA marker; haplotype diversity; introgression; evolutionary lineage; Algerian honeybee populations

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Assessment of genotoxic effects of a fungicide (propiconazole) in green frog tadpole’s Rana saharica using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet essay) Naziha Bourenane Bouhafs University Badji Mokhtar Medecine Faculty Annaba Algeria

ARTEA330EC is a fungicide used to inhibit many types of fungi on cereals and rice; it is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in our area (Northeast Algerian). The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of fungicides in different tissues of amphibian using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by propiconazole in tadpoles of Rana saharica by comet assays was investigated. The LC (50) - 96 h of the fungicide was estimated. On this basis of LC (50) value sub lethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined (25; 50; 75 and 100ppm). The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA in comet tails of tadpoles exposed to above concentrations the fungicide after 2,4,8 and 12 days. In general, non-significant effects for both of concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated specimen compared to the controls with the first concentrations. However it was found that the highest DNA damage was observed at the highest concentration (100ppm) and the longest time of exposure (day12). This study indicated comet assay to be sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of propiconazole in this species of Amphibian

Keywords: amphibian, comet essay, fungicide, genotoxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Ameliorative effect of (Triticum durum) on thyroid, liver and reproductive functions of males albino rats induced with lead acetate Mansouri Ouarda Bentayeb1, Abdennour Cherif2, Khelili Kamel2 1

Faculty of Medicine, University Badji Mokhtar ANNABA Department of biology, Faculty of sciences, University Badji Mokhtar ANNABA

2

This study is mainly focused on the search for an effective treatment to reduce Pb toxicity by using wheatgrass Triticum durum. Rats were divided into 3 groups; the control, the group exposed to a diet containing 600 mg Pb acetate/Kg diet (Pb), and the group received a combination of Pb and 9g wheatgrass /100g diet (Pb-WG) for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed and pathological examinations were performed. Results showed a decrease in the concentration of serum hormone T3, TSH and bilirubin compared to the control and the Pb-WG. The supplementation of wheatgrass caused a considerable in the levels of these hormones. The level of Alanine-Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate-Aminotransferase (ASAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in rats treated with Pb compared to the control and the Pb-WG. Control and WG supplemented rats showed normal liver and thyroid. Shrinkage was seen in the structure of follicles exposed to Pb also the liver of PbAcintoxicated rats exhibited degenerated hepatocytes and portal inflammatory cell infiltrations. The testicles have marked a destruction or absence of germ cells and the light of some seminiferous are almost empty. The addition of wheatgrass in the daily food ration reduces the risk of lead poisoning.

Keywords: Histological sections, lead, T3, TSH, Testosterone

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Effect of fungicides propinebe, proconazole and their mixture in the male rat Mallem Leila1, Aiche Mohamed Amine2, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah2 1

Faculty of medicine, department of dentistry, university Badji Mokthar- Annaba, Algeria Laboratory of animal ecophysiology, department of biology, faculty of sciences, Badji Mokthar University, Annaba, Algeria 2

The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the male rat Wistar. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole (60mg/Kg body weight/day), Propinebe (100mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment, all groups of animals were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10¨% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were more toxic especially those treated with the Propiconazole and the mixture. Perturbation in hematological and biochemical's parameters in the treated groups as compared to the control. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in the treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole. It was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated groups compared with the control group. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis, epidydimis and liver in the treated group with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixtures, fertility, hematology, biochemical’s parameters

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Cumulative effect of fungicides and their mixture in the male rat Mallem Leila1, Aiche Mohamed Amine2, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah2 1

Faculty of medicine, department of dentistry, university Badji Mokthar- Annaba, Algeria Research laboratory of animal ecophysiology, department of Biology, faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokthar university, Annaba, Algeria 2

The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the male rat Wistar. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole (60mg/Kg body weight/day), Propinebe (100mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment, all groups of animals were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10¨% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were more toxic especially those treated with the Propiconazole and the mixture. Perturbation in hematological and biochemical's parameters in the treated groups as compared to the control. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in the treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole. It was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated groups compared with the control group. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis, epidydimis and liver in the treated group with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixtures, fertility, hematological and biochemical’s parameters

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Histological effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa after exposure to thiamethoxam Smina Ait Hamlet1, Mohamed Djekoun2, Meriem Smati1, Asma Semmasel1, Samira Bensoltane3 1

Cellular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, P.O. Box 12, 23000, Algeria 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and the Universe, University of May 08th, 1945, Guelma, 24000, Algeria 3 Faculty of Medicine, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, 23000, Algeria

This study investigated the effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa, after exposure to a neonicotinoid insecticide, the thiamethoxam. The qualitative changes were studied by evaluating the effects of ginger after the treatment by thiamethoxam on the tissue of hepatopancreas through histological study. Information on the effect of ginger or its compounds on animal performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites, however, is lacking. However, no research has been conducted to assess the effect of processing method on the efficacy of ginger as antioxidant after exposition to neonicotinoids on animals. First, adult snails Helix aspersa were exposed by ingestion and contact to fresh lettuce leaves which were soaked with an insecticide solution. The thiamethoxam test solutions were 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L. The experiment was done for 20 days. Then, the treatment by thiamethoxam was stopped and replaced with a treatment by 2g/L of ginger under the controlled laboratory conditions during 15 days. The histological examination of the hepatopancreas of the treated snails showed alterations as a response to all the treatments with thiamethoxam. This insecticide caused destructive effects in the digestive system, as well as biochemical effects in Helix aspersa. On the other hand, the histological exploration of the hepatopancreas of the treated snails with ginger showed a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue of snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of digestive tubules. Also, the changes observed under the treatment with ginger present lot of interest. Thus, the antiinflammatory effect of ginger was never tested before on gastropods and especially, on the land snail Helix aspersa.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, thiamethoxam, hépatopancréas, histological study, ginger

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

In vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles in Daphnia magna upon chronic aqueous exposure Bensoltane Samira1, Djekoun Mohamed2, Boutalbi Karima2, Aït Hamlet Smina3 Faculté De Médecine, Département De Médecine Dentaire, Université De Badji Mokhtar Annaba Faculté De Biologie, Université Du 08 Mai 1945, Guelma 3 Faculté Des Sciences, Département De Biochimie, Université De Badji Mokhtar Annaba 1 2

With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and the applications of nanoparticles, environmental exposure to these particles is increasing. A variety of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed and incorporated into products where their unique catalytic capacity, optoelectronic properties, antimicrobial activity and other characteristics make them attractive for a broad range of applications. However, their impact in human and environmental health is not well studied. It is projected that this will inevitably lead to an increase of the release of NPs into aquatic systems. This will lead to concomitant increase in the exposure of aquatic organisms to NPs, which may result into adverse effects on the biota. A variety of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed and incorporated into products where their unique catalytic capacity, optoelectronic properties, antimicrobial activity and other characteristics make them attractive for a broad range of applications. The study of the ecotoxicity of manufactured nanomaterials (NM) to aquatic organisms has a relative recent history when com Fe2O3NPs pared with that of other toxic substances. Small invertebrate species such as "Daphnia magna"" "D. magna"" have advantages of easy culturing and high sensitivity to environmental contaminants. They are commonly used for bioaccumulation and depuration experiments of different NPs. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for assessing health and ecotoxicological risks rejection of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. A procedure has been developed: for management and risk assessment generated by Fe2O3NPs via a toxicological bioassay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles with an average particle size of 50nm on the survival, reproduction Short and long term disturbances were recorded during the reproductive cycle through the life history (longevity, age at maturity, egg size,.). For the 21-day test a concentration-response relationship was observed for mortality, longevity and reproduction. Light microscopy showed that Fe2O3NPs accumulate within the gastrointestinal tract. We were also able to identify embryotoxicity Fe2O3NPs in different stages of development. Indeed, the result obtained show that Fe2O3NPs is responsible for defect in different regions of body. Develop abnormal neonates of various shapes and sizes, with undeveloped shell and the disappearance of the antennas. These results need to been verified by further studies. This scenario has led to a quantitative risk assessment. This study demonstrates the utility of evaluating nanoparticle effects relative to nonnano-scale counterparts and presents the first report of chronic exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles in ""D. magna"". Keywords: nanoprticles, Fe2O3, Daphnia magna, reproduction, ecotoxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Hazardous potential of gold nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay on Arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) Škarková Pavlína1, Vávrová Milada1, Drobne Damjana2, Romih Tea2, Kos Monika2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Purkyňova 118, Brno, Czech Republic University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 1 2

In the presented study, we assessed the influence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and AuCl₃ on different biological endpoints of the model organism Porcellio scaber. By employing a cell membrane integrity assay, we tested whether gold compounds have the potential to cell membrane destabilization, which could lead to direct entry of AuNPs into hepatopancreatic cells. We coupled this technique with AAS measurements, to corroborate whether AuNPs internalization or Au+ assimilation actually occurred. Furthermore, we tested the adverse biological effects of AuNPs and AuCl₃ on Porcellio scaber, detectable via morphometric characteristics of the hepatopancreatic epithelium and standard toxicological parameters (body mass change, food consumption and mortality). We were interested by possible avoidance behavior in 14 days of exposure to different sources of food at the same time. In this experiment avoidance behavior was not observed. The mass of consumed leaves were almost identical from both pieces (control and contaminated) for tested concentrations compounds Au NPs and AuCl₃. We did not find any membrane destabilization or Au assimilation into the body or any physiological stress in both AuCl₃ and NP-exposed animals, which was in direct proportion to Au concentration in the food. So, no adverse effect was present at the tissue level or at the level of the whole organism. We conclude that AuNPs and AuCl₃ have very low toxic potential for Porcellio scaber upon 14-day exposure for tested concentrations of 1, 10 and 60 μg Au/g of food dry mass. The investigation was supported by the research projects financed by Slovenian Research Agency (J1-4109) and within the FP7 EU Project ‘‘NANOVALID’’ (Contract No. 263147) and by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Porcellio scaber, toxicity test, cell membrane destabilization, avoidance behavior

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Investigation of land use/cover changes of Sazlidere basin by using normalized difference impervious surface index Sarıyılmaz Fulya Başak1, Musaoğlu Nebiye1, Tanık Ayşegül2 1 2

Istanbul Technical University Geomatic Engineering Department Istanbul Technical University Environmental Engineering Department

According to Turkish Statistical Institute, the population of Turkey is accepted to be 84,247,088 in 2023 whereas the share of Istanbul will be 16.6 million. One of the important results of rapid population growth is Land Use/Cover Change (LULC). LULC has been a key research topic in regarding both global and local environmental studies on Istanbul, which is listed among the 25 largest urban areas in the world, is the most crowded city in Turkey. Extending to Europe and Asia, Istanbul still keeps its attractiveness despite its current population of approximately 14 million. Moreover, many people migrated from rural areas to Istanbul starting from 1970s as it is also known as the most industrialized city of Turkey. Consequently, the uncontrolled urbanization caused changes in LULC and these changes have even become more noticeable within the past two decades, resulting in many environmental problems difficult to remedy. Over 90% of the water demands of Istanbul are currently supplied from the seven drinking water reservoirs, four of which (Terkos, Buyukcekmece, Alibeykoy, and Sazlidere ) are located on the European side, and three on the Asian side (Omerli, Darlik, and Elmali) of the metropolis. Currently these basins from where drinking water demand of Istanbul is supplied are heavily affected by the LULCs and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to determine the most updated condition of LULCs in order to to develop plans for achieving the best and effective management of water resources. In this study, LULCs of Sazlidere Basin were determined by using temporal remote sensing data. The watershed covers an area of approximately 157 km2. There is a dam in the basin that has been constructed in 1996. In the basin, small residential areas; such as villages, open land, industrial and commercial areas together with forested areas are observed. Also, agricultural and livestock breeding activities are common. The basin is under fairly strong LULC and urban pressure. The normalized difference impervious surface index (NDISI) was used to extract impervious surfaces of the watershed from 1997, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT imagery and areal comparison of impervious surfaces for each of the investigated years were performed. The study aims to provide quantitative values on each of the land use activities in the basin together with the corresponding changes with time. This information may further be utilized by the related authorities such as planners, decision – makers and environmentalists responsible of environmental welfare of such significant basins.

Keywords: remote sensing, Sazlidere Basin, NDISI, Istanbul, land use/cover change

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Seasonal investigation of the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contens of dominant macroalgae in the western coast of the Black Sea Yeşilova Kübra1, Balkis Neslihan2, Taşkın Ergün3 1

Istanbul University, Institute of Science, Istanbul-Turkey Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Istanbul-Turkey 3 Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, Manisa-Turkey 2

In this study, the ecological features and the total protein, carbohydrate and lipid amounts of the dominant macroalgae species of the western Black Sea coast have been investigated. Seasonal samplings have been carried out in five coastal stations (İğneada, Kıyıköy, Yalıköy, Karaburun, Kilyos) between November 2012 and August 2013. After the examination of the collected samples, 25 macroalgae species belonging to 9 families and 11 genera have been determined. The highest protein content has been determined in the summer season sampling of Callithamnion corymbosum with a percentage of 47.09 % (İğneada), while the lowest has been determined in the winter season sampling of Corallina officinalis with a percentage of 0.10 % (Yalıköy). The highest proportion in carbohydrate content was observed in Ceramium rubrum (87.02 %), collected in summer at Kilyos, while the lowest has been found in Cystoseira barbata (2.60 %) which was sampled in the autumn season at Karaburun. The highest lipid ratio has been found in summer in Callithamnion corymbosum (22.04 %, İğneada), and the lowest ratio has been found in spring in Ulva compressa (0.75 %, Kilyos). The sea temperature values varied between 6.71 °C – 25.02 °C, the salinity varied among 11.95 – 16.54 %, the dissolved oxygen varied between 6.95 – 14.61 mg/L and the pH values varied between 4.67 – 7.28 during the study.

Keywords: Macroalgae, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, Black Sea

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The effect of the temporal changes on the phytoplankton composition at the Istanbul coastal area Sivri Nuket1, Balcı Muharrem2, Balkıs Neslihan3, Şeker Dursun Zafer4 Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Eng. Dept., 34320, Avcılar, Turkey Istanbul University, Institute of Science, 34134, Vezneciler, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134, Istanbul, Turkey 4 İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Eng., Dept of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak, İstanbul, Turkey 1 2

Monitoring of phytoplankton is a useful tool for investigating eutrophication and environmental degradation in the marine ecosystems. However, total phytoplankton alone is not enough to conduct a full investigation. Among the phytoplankton groups, several have exceptional features, such as Cyanophyceae, the growth of some of which are not limited by nitrogen, and Dinophyceae species that can produce toxic secondary metabolites and, therefore, cause harmful algal blooms. In this study, phytoplanktonic groups were monitored at the southwestern coast of Istanbul during 2007-2013. The monitoring study was conducted monthly for a period of one year. Phytoplankton species were identified and classified into groups, then analyzed quantitatively. In general, Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae were the most important in terms of species’ number and abundance. In some periods of sampling, ""Euglena"" sp. (Euglenophyceae) had shown excessive increase. Especially, during the spring period, the species of diatoms (""Skeletonema costatum"" and ""Pseudonitzschia"" sp.) and dinoflagellates (""Alexandrium minutum"", ""Gonyaulax fragilis"" and ""Heterocapsa triquetra"") had increased remarkably. Seasonal variation in phytoplankton succession was found to be related to temperature. In addition, harmful bloom forming Cyanobacteria members, especially ""Microcystis aeroginosa"", were found several times at stations 4th and 5th. All the results obtained by data analysis were visualized using Geographical Information System (GIS) as an initial effort to develop a local phytoplanktonic species atlas which will be important for environmental management.

Keywords: phytoplankton, harmful bloom forming, temporal changes, Istanbul

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The molecular properties of nitrodibenzofurans and their mutagenic activities Stankovic Branislav1, Ostojic Bojana2, Djordjevic Dragana2 1

Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Serbia Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Serbia

2

Dibenzofuran (DF) is one of environmental pollutants identified in air, groundwater, fuel gas, fly ash from municipal incinerators, diesel exhaust particulates, and cigarette smoke. Several nitro derivatives can be formed from DF with various concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) under light irradiation. Some of them are strong bacterial mutagens. The effect of metabolic activation on the mutagenicity of nitrodibenzofurans (NDFs) was evaluated with Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.¹ ² On the other hand, nitrodibenzofuran chromofore has been identified as a new caging group for ultra-efficient photolysis in living cells.³ Librando and Alparone revealed the relationship between averaged polarizability of dimethylnaphthalenes and experimental first-order biomass-normalized biodegradation rate coefficients.⁴ Recently, they also proposed vibrational markers for distinguishing nitrophenanthrene and nitroanthracene isomers and prediction of their mutagenic activities.⁵ In this study we performed a theoretical study of geometrical parameters, relative energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, dipole moments, polarizabilities, and vibrational properties of 1-nitro-dibenzofuran (1NDF), 2-nitro-dibenzofuran (2-NDF), 3-nitro-dibenzofuran (3-NDF), 4-nitro-dibenzofuran (4-NDF), 2,6-dinitro-dibenzofuran (2,6-DNDF), 2,7-dinitro-dibenzofuran (2,7-DNDF), and 2,8-dinitrodibenzofuran (2,8-DNDF) employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with different basis sets. We selected several quantum-chemically derived descriptors which can characterize the reactivity, shape and binding properties of investigated nitrodibenzofurans. The mutagenic activity/physico-chemical property relationships are discussed. References 1. Watanabe, T.; Hirayama, T. Mutat. Res. 1992, 283, 35-43. 2. Watanabe, T.; Kaji, H.; Kasai, T.; Hirayama, T. Mutat. Res. 1994, 325, 11-19. 3. Momotake, A.; Lindegger, N.; Niggli, E.; Barsotti, R. J.; Ellis-Davies, G. C. R. Nature Methods, 2006, 3, 35-40. 4. Librando, V.; Alparone, A. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 1646–1652. 5. Alparone, A.; Librando, V. Chemosphere 2013, 90, 158-163.

Keywords: nitrodibenzofurans, mutagenic activities, environmental pollutants, DFT method

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Trace elements analysis along a simple food chain using feathers of Italian Sparrows in different age classes as monitors of pollution in Southern Italy Innangi Michele1, De Rosa Davide2, Giannotti Marcello3, Fozzi Ilaria4, Angelini Marinella1, D'argenzio Carla5, Trifuoggi Marco5, Fioretto Antonietta1 1

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy 2 Environmetrics Lab, Department Biosciences and Territory, University of Molise, Pesche, Italy 3 WWF Oasis "Lago di Conza", Conza della Campania, Italy 4 Centro Studi Fauna, Porto Torres, Italy 5 Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy Societies as industrialized as ours are, more and less, increasingly polluted. A subtle threat is given by trace elements, which are considered a major hazard to the environment. However, unlike other sources of pollutions that can be easily detected and that can cause a decline in populations (e.g. poisoning, oil spills), high concentrations of trace elements can cause understated damages. As a matter of fact, while they can rarely cause direct death, they often imply a reduction in fitness and/or a “silent death” which is hardly detectable. Evaluating the health of an ecosystem can be assessed through measuring the concentration of trace elements within the bodies of bio-indicators organisms. Since plants are sessile and accumulate trace elements from their surrounding environment, they can be used to monitor the dynamics of a long period of pollution in a localized area. However, in order to detect pollution in a wider area, it could be useful to use bio-indicators that reflect a larger spatial scale. Non-migratory birds use different sources of food and water within their home range, thus the levels of trace elements in their bodies and in their feathers can reflect the level of toxic elements in their territory and give insight about possible bioaccumulation and/or biomagnification phenomena. In detail, the use of feathers, which are collected from birds captured through mist nets, simplify the research. Birds can excrete trace elements in several tissues, including eggs, but feathers are increasingly used in trace element analysis. In this research, we analyzed concentrations of 6 trace elements (Al, V, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) along a food chain with the Italian Sparrow as the final consumer inside an agricultural area, with industries nearby, next to a lake in Southern Italy (Lago di Conza). In detail, we measured the concentration in the water, the phytoavailability of these elements in the soils, the concentration in both roots and fruits of plants which fall within the sparrow’s trophic spectrum, the concentration of animals which are commonly eaten by sparrows during the breeding season (i.e. earthworms, ants, spiders) and within the feathers of juveniles, birds which are moulting from juveniles to adult and adult sparrows. All measurements were performed through ICP-MS. The results highlight that some elements (Cu, Zn and Pb) increase their concentration from water to soil to plants to animals and, noticeably, they strongly bioaccumulate as their concentration is always higher in adult birds than juveniles. The concentration of Cd, instead, decrease from juveniles to moulting birds, but it increases again in adult birds. This suggest some sort of excretion mechanisms in the moult and a later increase during adulthood. Other elements (V and Al) are strongly accumulated in plants’ roots, but are no longer present in high concentration further on in the food chain. The preliminary results from our research highlight the importance of monitoring trace elements along the food chain and the relevance of non-migratory, opportunistic birds like the Italian Sparrow to detect particular sources of pollution, especially using different age classes. Keywords: bioaccumulation/biomagnification, environmental pollution, Italian sparrow, trace elements 247 | P a g e

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Mixtures of contaminants and complex samples: basic challenges for microalgae-based ecotoxicological tests Giménez Papiol Gemma1, Bouloux Mathilde1, Roig Neus1, Sierra Jordi2, Schuhmacher Marta1 1

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain 2 Laboratori d’Edafologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Microalgae are ubiquitous organisms, with several species representative of different phyla maintained easily in laboratory conditions, showing a high growth rate and sensitivity to a wide range of contaminants. Algal growth inhibition assays are extensively used in aquatic ecotoxicology since decades ago (OECD 1984), while their suitability for miniaturisation makes them interesting candidates for the “bio” part of a biosensor for the detection of pollution. The standardized ecotoxicological protocol accepts a varied array of microalgae species, nevertheless, it requires optimal culturing conditions and specific growth stages for a correct performance. It is also time consuming, since it lasts between 48 and 96h. Several biosensors based on microalgae have been developed, many of them relying on dead microalgae containing active enzymes; living microalgae attached to a biosensor usually are in suboptimal conditions because they must be immobilized, managed and/or stored in order to be part of the sensor. Navicula pelliculosa (Bacillariophycea), Raphidocelis subcapitata (Chlorophyta) and Synechococcus leopoliensis (Cyanobacteria) showed an acceptable performance in previous ecotoxicological tests with arsenic (As) solutions, in both standard and suboptimal conditions (Giménez Papiol et al. 2015). Here we present the next steps: 1) tests with solutions of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn); 2) tests with mixtures of As, Ni, Pb and Zn and 3) tests with natural samples from the Ebro river basin (NW Mediterranean) containing known mixtures of As, Ni, Pb and Zn, among other contaminants. The results will be discussed under the light of microalgae performance/sensitivity, contaminants interactions, and microalgae ability to assess the overall pollution status of a sample.

References Giménez Papiol G, Roig N, Sierra J, Schuhmacher M. Effects of arsenic compounds on freshwater microalgae from different phyla under suboptimal conditions. SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 3 – 7 May 2015. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. 1984. Algal growth inhibition test.

Keywords: ecotoxicology, microalgae growth inhibition assay, heavy metal mixtures, pollution assessment

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Data on macrozoobenthos of the mediolittoral of Sazani island (Albania) Selmani Jula1, Ruci Stela1, Beqiraj Sajmir1, Kasemi Denada2 1

Biology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania Biology Department, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Vlora, Albania

2

Macrozoobenthos from the mediolittoral of rocky coast of the Sazani Island (south-eastern Adriatic Sea, Albania) has been investigated during 2012 – 2014. Replicated quantitative samples have been taken in early May and in late September each year, by using a reticulated frame as a standard sampling area unit in four sites, of which two on the eastern coast and two others on the western coast of the island. This study gives data on species composition of macrozoobenthos and a general assessment of quantitative characteristics, seasonal variations and stability of zoobenthic populations in the studied area. A total of 45 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates have been recorded in the mediolittoral only, with a high dominance of mollusks, among other species of cnidarians, nematodes, annelids, crustaceans and sipunculids. It is worthy to note the presence of 14 endangered species in national scale in the studied area. The highest abundance has been recorded for gastropods and crustaceans. The seasonal variations were relatively high in both species number and abundance. The stability of benthic community seems to be moderate in most sampling sites. The difference in species composition, quantitative characteristics and degree of stability of the macrozoobenthic population is evident between eastern and western coast of the island. Algal cover and exposure of the coast seem to play an important role for the species composition and abundance of benthic populations in the mediolittoral of the island. These populations, especially on the eastern side of the island, may also be impacted from the urban and tourist developments on the eastern part of Vlora Bay. Provided data on the benthic populations of the shallow coastal waters of Sazani Island are also relevant for the conservation and management of the only MPA of Albania, Sazani Island – Karaburuni Peninsula

Keywords: benthic populations, rocky coast, Sazani island, Adriatic Sea, Albania

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxic effects of Fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress Benbouzid Houneida1, Berrebbah Hh2, Djebar Mr2 1

Department Of Biochemistry, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria Laboratory Of Cell Toxicology, General Direction Of Scientific Research And Technological Development, Annaba University, Algeria 2

The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of organotin acaricide: Fenbutatin oxyde tested at concentrations of 30, 40 and 60 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. We have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment and confirmed by the percentage of responses. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione Stransferase activity recorded in the presence of various Fenbutatin oxyde concentrations involve the activation of detoxification system. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations.

Keywords: fenbutatin oxyde, detoxification, oxidative enzymes, Paramecium sp.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plant cleaning process using ecotoxicity tests Zlamalova Gargosova Helena, Urminska Barbora Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic

With the growth of human population connected with the increasing demands and needs of consumption the amount of worldwide produced waste water is growing as well. This is related to the effort to develop more advanced wastewater treatment methods, as well as more specific control of contaminants presence in treated waters. That’s why it becomes relevant to perform not only chemical analysis but also ecotoxicological bioassays as the means of evaluation of biological effects caused by wastewater discharges to recipient. None of the wastewater treatment plants are able to eliminate residues completely – it can only decrease the pollution level to an acceptable value. Therefore it is important to find out if the treatment process is sufficient to provide a satisfactory decrease of environmental impact (ecotoxicity) to the organisms in recipient. Our work was focused on the evaluation of efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) by selected ecotoxicological bioassays. Samples at the inflow and outflow of three WWTP in the Czech Republic with different population equivalent (PE) and small variability of mechanical and biological stage and eventually in chemical cleaning stage were evaluated (WWTP Lednice, 12000 PE; WWTP Mikulov, 24 850 PE; WWTP Brno Modřice, 600 000 PE). Ecotoxicity tests on crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna as representative of consumers, aquatic plant Lemna minor, terestric plant Allium cepa as producers, Vibrio fischeri as decomposer were conducted. The results have shown that the efficiency of all evaluated wastewater treatment plants is sufficient to reduce acute toxic effects to minimum. Average toxicity removal was over 80 %. Sensitivity of used testing organisms to water toxicity was as follows: V. fischeri > T. platyurus > D. magna > A. cepa > L. minor. In case of WWTP Brno Modřice samples of treated water after primary treatment was also evaluated. In this case sufficient sensitivity to differentiate water toxicity exhibit tests on T. platyurus, A. cepa and V. fischeri. Direct water toxicity testing using acute toxicity test is useful tool to predict effect of treated water to organisms in recipient, but we must not underestimate long time effect of residual toxicity. Thus it is necessary to focus on the use of tests of chronic toxicity, genotoxicity respective mutagenicity, which can detect the long-term effects on the target organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project No. FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: waste water, ecotoxicity testing, direct water toxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The impacts of the ship ballasting on the sea biodiversity Irtem Şevket Süleyman, Bayar Sibel, Elmas Güldem, Ergin Ayfer, Alkan Güler, Buğra Çelebi Uğur Department of Maritime Transportaion Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

Today, an ordinary Panamax type ship has a twenty thousand metric ton ballast water capacity. When she sails in ballast conditions, the capacity can reach to thirty six metric tons by taking water into the ballast hatches. This quantity of water is enough to make changes on local environment system. In this study, ballast exchange operations of ships will be analyzed based on fugu type fishes increasing in Antalya Location for recent years. The relations between this new fish type in Antalya Region and ship ballasting operations will be examine.

Keywords: ballast exchanges of ships, marine biodiversity, fugu fish, antalya region

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Algal ecotoxicological testing of groundwater priority contaminants using closed-system technique Mingazzini Marina, Palumbo Maria Teresa Water Research Institute IRSA, CNR

While toxicity testing should be an integral part of the groundwater bioremediation projects, only few studies have attempted to include ecotoxicological tests, since standard testing procedures have not been developed to suit some of the groundwater priority contaminants. In fact, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), belong to the most frequently found contaminants in European groundwaters. The development of a sensitive ecotoxicological procedure being appropriate for VOCs while relatively easy to be performed is therefore regarded as a current research need. With this aim, an algal test procedure has been set-up within a bioremediation project aimed at the evaluation of the efficiency of a bioelectrochemical technique applied to groundwaters historically contaminated by CAHs. The procedure was developed using a closed-system, as required by testing VOCs. Since a major point when using exposure systems without gas exchange is linked to the carbon dioxide limitation, we selected to supply CO2 as bicarbonate enrichment. Closed-flasks completely filled with bicarbonate-added test solutions were stoppered with parafilm lids, and connected to a magnetic stirrer mechanism to guarantee the homogeneous suspension of the growing algal cells during the 72 hour-exposure. The increased efficiency of the closed versus the standard procedure was evaluated by the simultaneous use of both methods to test standard chemicals as well as contaminated groundwater samples. Finally, the ability of the closed-system to detect the detoxification effect of the groundwater dechlorination treatment was evaluated by testing pre and post–treatment samples from a laboratoryscale bioelectrochemical reactor. Based on the obtained results, revealing the important advantage of the closed versus the standard system, the proposed ecotoxicological technique proved appropriate for testing groundwater priority contaminants. The combination of its characteristics of simplicity and sensitivity makes it suitable to be routinely used for groundwater monitoring, successfully improving bioremediation studies. Particularly, based on its characteristics, such a sensitive and simple test design could be suitable for checking innovative groundwater bioremediation technologies.

Keywords: algal toxicity testing, closed test system, CAHs, groundwater bioremediation

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Investigation of potential biological sensivity of sediments of Aliağa Bay Oral Rahime1, Koçbaş Fatma2, Oral Ersel Zafer3 1

Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Department of Biology, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa, Turkey 3 Maritime Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Izmir, Turkey 2

In the present study, sediment samples from Aliağa Bay were toxicologically and chemically evaluated. Toxicity tests were performed using embryos of the sea urchin ""Paracentrotus lividus"". Concentrations of some heavy metals ( Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr ) and 16 PAHs ( naphtalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz (a) anthracene, chrycene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (g, h, i) perylene, dibenzo (a, h) anthracene, ındeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene ) in the sediments were measured. Chemical and toxicity data showed that levels of haevy metals (not PAHs) associated to the toxicity in sediment from Aliağa Bay. According to our results, a combination of biotests and chemical analyses is recommended for monitoring and assessment of sediment quality. In addition, the use of" P. lividus"embryos is effective in evaluating biological effects of marine sediment contamination. The authors would like to thank Ege University (Project Code: 10-SÜF-09) for providing financial support for the project.

Keywords: sediment, toxicity, sea urchin

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Thermal map analysis of tree trunks in urban parks with spatial statistics Zevgolis Yiannis1, Vasios Georgios K.2, Kyriakidis Phaedon C.2, Troumbis Andreas1 1

Department of Environment, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece Department of Geography, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece

2

The importance of parks existing in urban environments is widely recognized, due to the range of ecosystem services which they provide. It is perceptible that these services are inextricably linked to the health of urban park ecosystems, mainly because a fully functional ecosystem is more resistant and resilient to environmental pressures. In general, the study of an ecosystem’s health, includes measurements of several variables, such as: richness and abundance of organisms, vegetation cover (e.g., herbs, shrubs, trees), woody plant density, biomass, and vegetation profiles. In urban parks typically prevalent woody vegetation - tree health evaluation and assessment is considered essential. In particular, the methodologies concerning tree health are characterized as destructive and nondestructive, depending on the accuracy of assessing wood decay as well as the easiness that these methods impact on woody vegetation. These methods include measurements of electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance, sonic speed and surface temperature. Some of the techniques used to apply these measurements are destructive such as drilling for core sampling or mechanical resistance. A non-destructive technique for the evaluation of tree health is thermal imaging, which detects the distribution of tree trunk surface temperature. When trees are considered healthy, the energy absorbed from the environment is stored and emitted from the tree trunk’s surface following a specific pattern, according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. An uneven temperature distribution indicates a structural defect in the tree. This variance in tree trunk surface temperature depends on the different thermal conductivity. For example, the area covering a cavity has a lower temperature than the surrounding healthy area. In this research, surface temperatures of tree trunks were analyzed using spatial statistics so as to determine the state of their health. For this purpose, the most central and widely used urban park in the city of Mytilene (Agia Eirini) with a total area of 11,955m2, was investigated. Specifically, the health of the dominant tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia) were examined via IR images which were obtained circularly around the trees from a specific distance (1.5 m) and height (1.3 m). The IR images were organized in various levels, from individual trees, to sub-groups and total study area, and their combination formed various thermal maps for each level, respectively. These tree trunk surface temperatures were analyzed using spatial statistical techniques, such as Geary’s coefficient, Moran’s index, and semivariograms correlation. The measurement of total variance and distribution of temperature were combined with environmental parameters such as tree characteristics e.g. (sub)-species, tree perimeter and position in the study area. Furthermore, local tree surfaces with similar high temperature values were defined, focusing on the coldest surface patches which indicate structural defects such as cavities. Initial results showed that urban parks could be organized in different thermal zones, based on the proposed analysis, which implies variance in their structural quality and health. In individual tree level, the detection and mapping of the various types of cavities was possible offering significant data for specialized park management.

Keywords: tree thermal imaging, thermal map analysis, tree health, spatial correlation

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Fungi: Their role in biodeterioration of historical monuments Sert Hacer1, Sterflinger Katja2 1

Akdeniz University, Manavgat Vocational High School, Antalya, Turkey University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austrian Center of Biological Resources and Applied Mycology, Muthgasse 18, A 1190, Vienna, Austria 2

In this study the fungal diversity and deterioration on historical monuments were investigated. The Aspendos Ancient City (Antalya/Turkey) in Mediterranean Region was chosen as study area, because of its outstanding historic and artistic value and the large variety of monuments. The sample collection, isolation, morphological and molecular characterizations were done according to Sterflinger & Krumbein 1997 and Sterflinger & Prillinger 2001. From a total of around 108 samples 42 fungal strains were isolated, and could be assigned to 8 different genera (Coniosporium, Capnobotryella, Massarina, Mycocalicium, Phaeococcomyces, Phoma, Rhinocladiella, Sarcinomyces). The observations of the rock surfaces clearly demonstrate that there is a strong positive correlation between the fungi and the alteration of the rock surfaces.

Keywords: biodeterioration, black fungi, aspendos, Turkey, monument

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Energy, environment and sustainability

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Simulation and optimisation of solvent amine consumption in column absorption of natural gas treatment Chemini Rachida, Messekdji Mohamed Tayeb, Ghalmi Raouf Faculté de Génie Mécanique et de Génie des Procédés, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers, Algeria

The aim of our study is to optimise the quantity of solvent amine used to reduce the content of CO2 in natural gas in order to reach the commercial specifications. The consumption of solvent amine in absorption column is evaluated by simulation. Different parameters, flow and temperature of natural gas and solvent amine were studied. The results show that a quantity of amine is found in vapour phase of reflux drum. The loss in amine is proportional with the increase on temperature and flow of gas input. The high speed of gas circulation drive the amine in vapour phase of absorber. A reduction in the temperature of amine makes it possible to lower the loss of amine. This is explained by the thermodynamics of the reaction (exothermic). Indeed, the calorific contribution will be added to the energy released by the reaction, to allow the evaporation of amine. The first solution is to act on the operating conditions by increasing the amine flow in order to find a compromise between the loss of amine and the content of CO2 in gas while respecting the requirements of marketing for gas export (< 2%). This proposition was realised and the reduction of amine loss is 2.7 litre/hour instead of 3.3 litre/hour, which generate more than 40 000 Euros per year of benefit. The second solution is to eliminate totally the loss of amine by installing a tubular heat exchanger after the column of absorption in order to condense all the quantity of driven amine and to recover it at the bottom of the reflux drum. This exchanger use water like a refrigerating fluid. The generate profit is 223 000 Euros.

Keywords: simulation, optimisation, treatment, natural gas, solvent amine, absorption column

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Evaluating the topographic effect on estimation of renewable energy sources potential in Sakarya basin Keskin Merve, Dalğın Semih, Doğru Ahmet Özgür Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

As the world population increases, the demand of the energy and the energy consumption by industry and households also increase. This energy demand is mostly provided by the use of fossil fuels. However reduction in fossil fuel sources have been promoting the use of the renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. Determination of the renewable energy potential is quite related with the precise examination and mapping of the long-term meteorological data (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and etc.) measurements. These data is considered as point source data because they are collected at specific points, which are mostly meteorological monitoring stations, and used for estimating unsampled surface values. Various spatial interpolation methods such as Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted, and Natural Neighbor and etc. are used to estimate the values of the unsampled locations of a surface. The accuracy of the spatial interpolation methods varies depending on the total number of point sources as well as their locations and spatial distribution. In addition to these parameters, topographic characteristic of the study area is also important factor affecting the accuracy of the applied spatial interpolation methods. This study aims to investigate the effect of the topography on the estimation of the unsampled meteorological parameters for the use of accurate renewable energy potential determination in Sakarya River Basin in Turkey. In this context, firstly deterministic or geostatistics interpolation methods with single or multi parameter (kriging, inverse distance weighted, polynomial, co-kriging) were applied on a specific data set of 36 meteorological monitoring stations in/around study area in order to introduce the topographic effects. Accuracy of the created surface data were assessed by using cross validation technique that allows for comparison of estimated and true (measured) values by using only the information available in sample data set. Secondly, multiple regression method was used to understand the correlation between climate parameters and topography. Regression based and weighted-average approach is very useful especially for interpolating a surface variable in a heterogeneous topography with the meteorological stations at different elevations. Results of the study mainly show that accuracy of the applied interpolation method is affected by several parameters. Therefore, it is not possible to mention that there is a single interpolation method to be applied on all data sets.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, geostatistics, kriging, cokriging, multiple regression

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes Ciggin Asli Seyhan, Peredenci Nuriye Altunay Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes for biogas production is a biological process that combines sustainable waste disposal and renewable energy production. However, the compact structure of lignocellulosic biomass consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin requires pretreatment before the anaerobic digestion process. The ultrasonic pretreatment, declared as innovative technologies by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a novel method for the pretreatment of biomass prior to anaerobic digestion of several organic wastes. It is proved that the complex organic biomass is degraded with ultrasound (King and Forster, 1990; Wang et al., 1999) while the undesired by-products (toxic etc.) are not formed during process (Vincenzo, 2007). The several studies were reported on the success of ultrasound as a pretreatment process for increasing the biodegradation rate of lignocellulosic biomass such as palm oil (Bussemaker et al., 2012); rice hull, corn stover (Yachmenev et al., 2009); sugarcane bagasse (Velmurugan et al., 2012). Similar to all pretreatment processes, process conditions of ultrasound pretreatment should be optimized to determine the suitable pretreatment conditions for maximizing the biogas production. In this framework, the aim of this study is to optimize process conditions of ultrasound pretreatment for the enhancement of biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes. The agricultural wastes from the cultivation of tomato, cucumber, pepper, eggplant and zucchini, which were produced in highest quantity, were selected as lignocellulosic biomass. The synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic waste was investigated by applying low ultrasound power and high reaction time and vice versa. For this purpose, the experimental studies were carried out at relatively short reaction time (30-90 seconds) with the high ultrasonic power (150250 W) and long reaction time (10-60 minutes) with low ultrasonic power (20-100 W). In the pretreatment studies carried out at high ultrasound power ranges, the maximum increase in biogas production compared to untreated lignocellulosic waste was determined as 25% at the ultrasound power of 200 W with a reaction time of 60 second. On the other hand, the maximum increase in biogas production was observed as 39% at the ultrasound power of 20 W with a reaction time of 60 minutes in the pretreatment studies carried out at low ultrasound power ranges. These results indicated that the combination of low ultrasound power with long reaction time is more effective on the enhancement of biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, agricultural wastes, ultrasonic pretreatment

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Computational fluid dynamics approach to wind energy calculation and assessment of wind resource of Aegean region in Turkey Temiz Caner, Yavuz Veli, Deniz Ali Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

In this study, one of the problem that frequently encountered in the calculation of wind energy, calculation of complex fluid was examined by using CDF-based WindSim Software for Aegean region of Turkey. The scope of this work, the behavior of the wind on the field selected, calculated through WindSim Software and micro-positioning were performed on the region considering the IEC conditions and maximum annual energy production. After then, the maximum annual production of the turbine is calculated. WindSim is Computational Fluid Dynamics based software. This software, because of the infrastructure, especially in areas with rough terrain such as Turkey, which allow the calculation of more accurate and realistic behavior of the wind. At the same time, by the using of 3TIER data which based on so many years of data, the wind potential (wind speed, directional distributions, etc.) and temporal changes were examined. In addition, the capacity factor of the region comparing the results of WindPro (fluid-based software) and performance anaysis were made.

Keywords: wind energy calculation, CFD, WindSim, Turkey

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Comparison with linear and non-linear models in longterm wind energy production Temı̇z Caner1, Yavuz Veli1, Özdemir Emrah Tuncay2, Deniz Ali1 1

Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 General Directorate of Meteorology, Atatürk Airport Meteorology Office, Yeşilköy, Istanbul, Turkey

With the developing technology and increasing energy demand, the trends towards renewable energy sources is increasing rapidly throughout the world. Wind energy is that the most preferred source of renewable energy comes in first place in this context, and there is a lot of applications. Determination of wind energy potential subject is one of the most sensitive issues studied in this sense. In this study, long term wind data (1981-2015) of Izmir region were analyzed using with linear (WasP) and nonlinear (WindSim) models. Non linear models which analyze topography more precisely, were used, and high performance results has provided. WindSim is Computational Fluid Dynamics based software. This software, because of the infrastructure, especially in areas with rough terrain such as Turkey, which allow the calculation of more accurate and realistic behavior of the wind. According to preliminary results obtained, WindSim (Non-linear Model, CFD based) shows high performance more than WasP (Linear Model).

Keywords: wind energy, energy production, CFD, WasP, WindSim

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Change of enzyme activity of the catalase of the brown forest soil of the republic of Crimea after the influence of the alternating magnetic field and contamination by nickel Minnikova Tatyana, Trushkov Anatoly, Denisova Tatyana Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

In soil as in biodynamic system the special role belongs to enzymes. By researches of different authors it is established that activity of soil enzymes can serve as an additional diagnostic indicator of soil fertility and its change as result of anthropogenous influence. The role of a catalase is that it destroys hydrogen peroxide, toxical for living organisms. The catalase plays the leading role at oxidation-reduction reactions in the soil which are the main link in the course of synthesis of humic substances in the soil and an important indicator of their biological activity. Important characteristic of a catalase is activity at very wide range of acidity of soils (рН 410). The brown forest soil was object of researches. Samples (Atop soil, 0-25 cm) selected during the summer in 2014 near city Sympheropol’, the Republic of Crimea. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. Contamination by nickel was carried out in the form of oxide (II) concentration of 1 and 10 Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC). The fresh dried-up samples of the soil (200 g) placed in glass vessels, humidified with water (to 60% of a full moisture capacity) and placed in installation (solenoid). Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. The description of installation is submitted in our previous work. Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. It was established that the variation magnetic field as an independent factor had no impact on enzyme activity of a catalase while control excess was observed. The significant effect was observed for options of contamination of 1 MPC of Ni +50 µT, by 1 MPC of Ni + 100 µT and 1 MPC of Ni +650 µT for 94% (р<0,001), 93% (р<0,05), 85% (р<0,05), respectively.

Keywords: alternating magnetic field, nickel contamination, activity of catalase of soil

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Change of length of roots and sprouts of the radish on the alkalinity chernozem of Crimea after the influence of the variation of magnetic field and contamination by nickel Minnikova Tatyana, Galyga Victory, Denisova Tatyana Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Interest in studying of effects of impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on biological objects constantly increases. It is explained by repeatedly confirmed facts of the expressed influence of EMF of various ranges and level of impact on change of biochemical, physiological, behaviour parameters of live organisms. Electromagnetic fields of the ionizing nature make various impacts on biological properties of soils of different genesis and properties. Reaction of organisms and their metabolites depends by nature electromagnetic influence, its level, influence time, like the soil. The alkalinity chernozem was object of researches. Samples (Atop soil, 0-25 cm) selected during the autumn in 2014 near city Kerch’, the Republic of Crimea. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. Pollution by nickel was carried out in the form of oxide (II) concentration of 1 and 10 Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC). The fresh driedup samples of the soil (200 g) placed in glass vessels, humidified with water (to 60% of a full moisture capacity) and placed in installation (solenoid). Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. As test object used radish of seeds (Raphanus sativus). After the termination of term of an exposition seeds of a radish placed in Petri's cups (on 20 seeds in each cup) on skilled and control samples of the soil. Seeds was put on 4 days in the climatic Binder chamber (Germany), every day noted number of the sprouted seeds. Experience was put in three replicates. Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. It is established that the magnetic field as an independent factor and in combination with contamination by nickel causes the oppressing action as at length of roots, and length of green seedlings. The maximum inhibition of length of roots is observed for options of 1 MPC of Ni+100 мкТл, 10 MPC of Ni+100 мкТл – 52%, 49% of difference of control (р<0,05) respectively. Similarly for length of shoots observed significant decrease in length for options of 1 MPC of Ni+100 мкТл, 10 MPC of Ni+100 мкТл, 10 MPC of Ni+650 мкТл – 58%, 45%, 68% (р<0,05) differences from control respectively.

Keywords: alternating magnetic field, nickel contamination, change of roots and sprouts of the radish

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Persistency of bacteria of the genus of Azotobacter of the dark-chestnut soil of the Crimea to the influence of the variation magnetic field and contamination by nickel Minnikova Tatyana, Trushkov Anatoly, Denisova Tatyana Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Bacteria of the Azotobacter genus represent the microorganisms living and fixing nitrogen free. Generally they meet in the top soil horizons. Bacteria of river of Azotobacter are very exacting to environment conditions. Especially they are sensitive to toxic influence of a number of substances, in particular heavy metals. Electromagnetic fields in the modern world are a factor of physical impact, on a biota the soil and ecosystems in general. In this regard research of the influence of electromagnetic fields combined with heavy metals is much important. The dark chestnut was object of researches. Samples (Atop soil, 0-25 cm) selected during the autumn in 2014 near country Primorsky, the Republic of Crimea. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. Pollution by nickel was carried out in the form of oxide (II) concentration of 1 and 10 Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC). The fresh driedup samples of the soil (200 g) placed in glass vessels, humidified with water (to 60% of a full moisture capacity) and placed in installation (solenoid). Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. The abundance of bacteria of the Azotobacter genus was determined in damp samples. This method in what calculate of fouling of lumps of soil. The method consists in determination of number of bacteria of the Azotobacter genus on medium of Ashby, after 5-10 days of incubation. The number of bacteria was counted as quantity of lumps of the soil with slime to total number of lumps. Existence of colonies of bacteria was confirmed by microscopy technique. The smallest stability for bacteria of the Azotobacter genus is noted in options: Ni of 1 MPC, Ni 1 MPC+50 µT, Ni 1 MPC+100 µT, Ni 1 MPC+650 µT - abundance of bacteria is lower than control for 78%, 47%, 58%, 79% (p<0,05) respectively. To influence of a variation magnetic field as independent factor, bacteria were steadier. The smallest values are received for both a flux density 50 µT and 650 µT - 57% and 47% (p<0, 05) less control value.

Keywords: alternating magnetic field, nickel contamination, bacteria of the Azotobacter genus

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Electrochemical behavior of lead alloys in the presence of two surfactants in 0.5 M sulfuric acid Boudieb Naima Bouchelaghem, Bounoughaz Moussa University M’Hamed Bougara-UMBB-FSI-LTMFP- Algeria

Electrochemical behavior and corrosion layers of lead alloys electrodes, in the absence and in the presence of two surfactants (PS) in 0.5 M H2SO4 sulfuric acid medium were investigated at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), polarization curves (Tafel plot) and Discharge test. Lead alloys electrodes were supplied by the Unit of Accumulators located at Oued Smar – Algeria. PS solutions were prepared by adding an appropriate amount of PS to 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The films were formed under different potentials and polarization conditions in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to explore the film layer morphology deposited on the surface of the electrodes. The obtained results indicate that hydrogen evolution in the presence of surfactants increase. The addition of PS to battery electrolyte enables the batteries to be charged and discharged with increase current densities. It is clearly observed that the morphology of PbSO4 layer changes under the influence of surfactants. Impedance spectroscopy measurement showed that the PS addition decreased the resistance of the electrode ie, the PbO2 and PbO and PbSO4 formation were decreases on the surface of lead alloys electrode. The adsorption of PS on the active sites of the oxide layers, in electrolyte, have a beneficial effect on the charge/discharge characteristics of the positive, the negative electrodes and on the cycle life of lead/ acid batteries.

Keywords: lead battery, surfactant, lead alloys, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), SEM, electrochemical techniques

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Energy, environment and sustainability

The use of geoinformation technology while determining the route of the water ways: A case study of Channel Istanbul Hamamci Samet Feyyaz1, Dogru Ahmet Ozgur2 1

Informatics Institute, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Geomatics Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

2

Site selection for the installation of the engineering structures is the key parameter for the success and sustainability of the related engineering project. Selecting the “best” location for building an engineering structure would also minimize the risk of environmental load, maximize economic compensations, and minimize competition with the use of other resources. Although economic structure is one of the essential factor for site selection, environmental and social factors should be taken in to account during planning process in order to provide sustainable results. All these factors mainly based on topographic characteristics of the study area as well as its location. Consequently, site selection can be considered as a challenging stage of an engineering project. Geographical information system (GIS) is the only technology which can be used in general way to many complex spatial problems. There are various examples of the use of GIS technology for different site selection purposes such as water harvesting, fishery, restoration, watershed management and etc. Alternative to the Istanbul Strait, construction of a new waterway between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea is projected with the aim of prevention of possible shipwreck, reduction of the traffic load which is caused by the transit pass from the Istanbul Strait, acceleration of the traffic by reducing the cost of vessels which are waiting to pass through the strait, getting the large tonnage vessels which are posing danger while passing through the strait and tankers under control due to the narrow and curved structure of the strait. In this study, a GIS assisted site selection application was executed for determining the alternative waterways connecting Black Sea and Marmara Sea at the European part of Istanbul. In this context four alternative waterway routes were compared in a multi-criteria decision making process by considering the topographical, hydrological, ecological, geological, socio-economical characteristics of Istanbul City.

Keywords: Geographical Information Systems, site selection, multi-criteria analysis, impact assessment, urban planning, and decision support systems

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Determining characteristics of lands effected by noise pollution of airports Hamamci Samet Feyyaz1, Dogru Ahmet Ozgur2, Sari Deniz1, Ozkurt Nesimi1, Seker Dursun Zafer2 1

Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli, Turkey 2 Geomatics Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

The noise is basically defined as unwanted or distributing sound. The noise pollution takes place when there is either excessive amount of noise or an unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. This definition is usually applicable to sounds or noises that are unnatural in either their volume or their production. Noise pollution in large urban areas is regarded as a growing problem of communities. There are various factors that contribute to increase of noise levels in urban areas such as increasing urban population, which contributes to high traffic volume combined with increased intensity. In addition to traffic, excessive noise from airplanes negatively affects human health and endangers the environment by affecting the habitat of the affected land. Therefore it should be determined and mapped precisely in order to assess its affects. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is extensively used for noise mapping. GIS provides a powerful set of tools for storing and retrieving, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set purposes. Noise pollution can also be examined by the use of GIS technology. Land use classification is an important process that provides basic information on the main characteristics and structure of the terrestrial land. It is important to know the affected land use classes as well as the sociodemographic composition of the vulnerable population living in the noise-affected areas in order to develop effective policies on noise control and abatement. The most appropriate method for determining the effect of the sourced noise around airports given is to build noise maps. Impacts of the noise pollution can be determined just after producing the noise maps. The main aim of this study is to characterize the fields affected by airport noises in terms of land use characteristics in Turkey. In this context four major international airports, which are located in İstanbul (Ataturk Airport), Ankara (Esenboğa Airport), İzmir (Adnan Menderes Airport) and Antalya (Antalya Airport), were selected as study areas with their runways in different geometrical characteristics. In order to evaluate the noise effects, noise maps of these airports were prepared by using SoundPlan Software. The official land use data prepared within CORINE project were also used as the input data. GIS overlay analyses were used to characterize the field affected by airport noises. The obtained results are compared with each other; the effects of the city airports are evaluated. As a result of the study, Istanbul Ataturk Airport is identified as the most critical airport with its high rate effect on settlement and industrial areas (37,10% and 32,21% respectively) because it is located in the city. Ankara Esenboga and Antalya Airports are identified as critical airports with their high effects on natural life because these airports effect green lands with 81,63% and 79,12% rates respectively. As a result of the examination Izmir Airport can be considered as best located airport with its moderate effects on different land use classes.

Keywords: CORINE, land use, noise mapping, modelling

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Determination of the cultivated areas with landsat 8 multi-temporal images: evaluation of spectral vegetation indices Alganci Ugur Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Determination of the cultivated areas and crop types is crucially important in yield estimation and gross agricultural production determination but also considerably essential in terms of environmental monitoring as agricultural activities affect the environment directly by increasing the use of water resources and increasing the ammonium and nitrate based nutrient loads in soil. Moreover, vegetation development has also direct impact on carbon cycle due to photosynthesis progress. One of the efficient methods for cultivated area and crop type determination is satellite image based analysis. Satellite images provide timely and accurate information for agricultural monitoring with their large coverage capability and their sensitivity to crop spectral responses. Crop types can be identified by their unique spectral reflectance characteristics in their different development stages thus can be effectively mapped for large spatial extends with classification of satellite images. Previous researches showed that using a single date image classification for crop type identification may result with insufficient results if the image acquisition date is not suitable for differentiating the crops spectrally. As single date image analysis requires a very specific acquisition time interval, most of the researches rely on multi-temporal images acquired periodically during the growing season of the crops. At this point, using whole spectral bands for all images will be time and source consuming as processing of the huge amount data is not feasible, thus a data dimension reduction strategy becomes vital. Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) are proved to be one of the most effective ways to detect the vegetative situation of crops and widely used in such kind of analysis. Determination of cotton and maize cultivated areas with multi-temporal satellite images was the main concern of this study. Study area was selected as Harran Plain located on Sanliurfa province, Turkey, as this plain hosts a huge amount of agricultural production of cotton and maize in spring-summer season with its suitable and effective irrigation system. 13 multi-temporal images acquired with 16 day interval from Landsat 8 OLI sensor were used to identify cultivated areas on Harran Plain. Image acquisition dates from 11 April 2014 to 5 November 2014 completely covers the phenological development period of cultivated crop types. Terrain corrected images were subjected to radiometric calibration procedure and Top of Atmosphere (ToA) reflectance values were derived. This procedure is known to be efficient and a perquisite for multi-temporal image analysis. ToA reflectance images were then used for SVI production. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Index (GI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were used in this research as vegetation suppression and data dimension reduction methods. Then SVI image stacks were classified with pixel based Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm and results were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of different SVI in cultivated area and crop pattern detection regardless the classification algorithm. Keywords: cultivated area mapping, crop type identification, multi-temporal satellite image, spectral vegetation indices, pixel based classification

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Variation of chlorophyll-α concentrations related to winter weather conditions Kotta Dionysia1, Kitsiou Dimitra2 1

Marine Section, Hellenic National Meteorological Service, 16777 Hellinikon, Greece and Department of Marine Sciences, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greece 2 Department of Marine Sciences, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greece

The Hellenic Seas (Eastern Mediterranean) are in general characterized by low primary production with chlorophyll α concentration - the indicator of phytoplankton abundance - being higher in winter and/or early spring. Weather conditions could influence marine primary production, affecting in some extent the necessary components of the procedure: light and nutrients; therefore it is considered important to assess their impact on chlorophyll α concentration. In this paper, the variation of chlorophyll α concentrations in the Hellenic Seas has been studied in relation to the different weather conditions of winters 2014 and 2015. January and February 2014 were milder than 2015, the latter being colder, windier and especially during February rainier, as revealed by Hellenic National Meteorological Service data. Chlorophyll α variations were examined through satellite derived datasets from My Ocean project, based on Mediterranean Ocean Color algorithms. Air temperature, wind speed and precipitation represented the weather conditions; the data used were monthly means from the European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Era-Interim reanalysis. Chlorophyll α variations were also examined in relation to satellite sea surface temperature. All datasets were stored in a spatial database and processed in the framework of a Geographical Information System (GIS). The differences of chlorophyll α concentrations between winter 2014 and 2015 and of the weather related parameters were calculated pixel-by-pixel for the study area. In general, it was found that chlorophyll α concentration was higher during winter 2015 than 2014. In particular, almost all the important (above 35%) chlorophyll α concentration differences between the two years represented increase for 2015. These differences were beyond 50% over many regions and were positively related to the higher precipitation amounts and stronger winds detected over most of these areas. Chlorophyll α concentration increases above 70% for 2015 were also observed; over the more productive region of the North Aegean Sea, over many coastal areas - fact that could probably be attributed to terrestrial nutrient input increase due to higher rainfall - and over the cyclonic Rhodes Gyre region. Variations of chlorophyll α and sea surface temperature did not show any clear relation. The results indicated that weather conditions could play an important role in the variation of chlorophyll α concentrations and furthermore to the primary production, since large increases in precipitation and stronger winds were related to higher chlorophyll α concentrations.

Keywords: precipitation, wind speed, temperature, satellite data, GIS, Aegean Sea

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Minimizing air pollutant emissions from cruise ships by alternative maritime power "Case ttudy: Kuşadası port" Yildirim Peksen Duygu1, Peksen Nurullah Hakan2, Alkan Guler3, Bayar Sibel3 1

Maritime and Port Management, Yalova University, Yalova, Turkey Yalova Harbour Master’s Office, Yalova, Turkey 3 Maritime Transportation Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2

In our modern world, many people prefer to travel with cruise ships due to the luxury and comfortable voyage around of the world. By this type transportation mode requires high speed vessels with high powered engines. Furthermore, these cruise ships which also known as floating hotels require significantly high electrical loads in order to supply the hotel services and passenger needs. Among cruise ship routes, Kuşadası Port is one of the major destinations not only in Turkey but also in the Mediterranean Region because of the its historical significance, artifacts, buildings and also its amazing nature and beaches. However, these vessels cause considerable amount of exhaust emissions at cruising, hotelling and maneuvering and they visit ports near the important coastal cities during the year especially in summer. In summer, cities are very crowded due to people’s holiday. Because of the fact that many people have been affected from cruise ships emissions by facing health problem such as asthma, lung cancer and other respiratory tract diseases. On the other hand, environmentally, exhaust emissions cause air quality deterioration and climate change. In this study 388 cruise ships and 60 passenger ship which have approached Kuşadası Port during 2014 have been examined and their total emissions have been estimated. To minimize ship emissions at hotelling and cruising mode, there are some effective fuels and alternatives. In this study only hotelling mode has been investigated. Aim of the study is to reduce hotelling emissions of cruise ships at Kusadası port by providing shore to ship electricity that is called Alternative Maritime Power (AMP) or cold ironing. At the end of the study, results can lead the cruise ships to prefer shore side electricity supply instead of marine fuels, during the hotelling period. Hence, exhaust emissions will be reduced considerably due to the choice of clean energy source, and finally dangerous impacts of ship emissions will be minimized, too.

Keywords: alternative maritime power, cruise ships, ship exhaust emissions, Kuşadası Port

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Environmental research on factors of comfort conditions and microclimate in urban open spaces Michalopoulou Konstantina, Anastasiou Maria, Kosmopoulos Panos Democritus University of Thrace

This study attempts to benchmark the effect of design parameters of outdoor urban spaces to the microclimate and the comfort conditions, by taking into account parameters of the microclimate, doing a comparative analysis between them, and drawing conclusions, for five different outdoor urban spaces and in all four seasons. It also focuses on thermal indices expressing the conditions of thermal comfort of pedestrians outdoors. The survey was conducted in five open spaces in the city of Kastoria, south oriented. The spaces selected for the field survey were selected to be approximately in the same area within the urban web, with as similar characteristics as possible in terms of orientation and relief, while the differences focus on the coating materials, the quality and quantity of green, and the use of space. Therefore the measurement results were comparable. As part of the survey, a series of field measurements of environmental parameters took place. Specifically measured were the air temperatures, surface temperatures, blackball and wet bulb temperatures, the relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation, incident and reflected. Measurements were made in all four seasons of the year. The aim was to draw conclusions about the impact of materials in the forming of temperatures: surface, air, ball and wet bulb, and the forming of the surface temperature, relative to the incident and reflected radiation. It should be noted that the field measurements in open spaces, were made with portable instruments and not by automatically recording machines which, as known, operate without the direct control of the researcher. In order to estimate the thermal comfort conditions in the outdoor areas studied, questionnaires were distributed, which asked users of the open spaces to reply during the summer and winter, to questions about the perceived by them thermal environment, to determine the degree of thermal comfort and to suggest ways to improve comfort conditions in those spaces. Moreover, simulation models were used to study the thermal comfort in the measurement areas, using data from the measurements for all four periods of measurements. As a result, the survey was completed with the combination of the data from the field measurements, the questionnaires and the simulation models. Subsequently, experimental interventions with changes in the coating materials in the subject areas are proposed, through simulations, and the results of the analysis of the effect of these on the microclimate and the thermal conditions in the open spaces are described. In conclusion, it is shown that the replacement of hard materials with perforated materials or grass, greatly improves the thermal comfort conditions, while it appears that the planting of large trees, deciduous with rich top, significantly improves the thermal comfort conditions during the day.

Keywords: microclimate, open spaces, outdoor thermal comfort conditions

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Energy: an interdisciplinary study for advanced solutions Zucchetti Massimo1,2 1

Politecnico di Torino, DENERG,Italy Laboratory for Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge (MA) US

2

Interdisciplinary research (IDR ) is a mode of research by teams or individuals that integrates information, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, and / or theories from two or more disciplines or segments of expert knowledge in order to promote knowledge at a fundamental level or to solve problems whose solution is beyond the scope of a single discipline or area of research. Each of the disciplines involved must be able to provide its more advanced aspects, acquiring those of the other in order to arrive at a new common ground The interdisciplinary thinking is rapidly becoming an integral part of International Research, thanks to four major "drivers": the inherent complexity of nature and society, the desire to explore problems that are not limited to a single discipline, the need to solve the problems of company that is also complex, and the power of new technologies. Successful interdisciplinary researchers have found a way to intersect and synthesize disciplinary depth with breadth of interests, visions, and skills. This paper illustrates an interdisciplinary approach to help solve the energy problem in the TwentyFirst Century, and how innovative renewable energy sources, and innovative nuclear energy sources can be a solution. The situation of the world energy issue is demonstrating how an interdisciplinary approach is probably necessary to sketch out a solution. The vastness of the problem should not lead to a too generalized approach: the main view is essential, but must be accompanied by the implementation of two actions of purely technological content: 1. Simple solutions that aim to reduce the growth of energy needs in developing countries, focusing on efficiency, savings and conversion, and that will lead to the reduction of social and geographical disparities in its availability and its use. 2. Most advanced technological innovation, aimed to seek new sources of energy and high-tech energy- intensive approach, in developed countries. In the twenty-first century the large flows of masses, fuels and materials, needing massive transportation, causing high pollution, belong to the past scenarios. The two guiding concepts to be kept in mind when looking for new energy sources are: 1. The equivalent of Einstein's mass-energy 2. The imitation of energetics of living beings A few case studies regarding innovative renewable and nuclear energy technologies will be proposed: they are part of a general methodology that will put them into a vision of the overall problem.

Keywords: energy, nuclear energy, renewable energy, interdisciplinary study

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Evaluation of research activities dealing with solid waste management in MENA countries Aktas Kemal1, Gedik Kadir1, Kranert Martin2, Topkaya Bülent1 1

Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey Stuttgart University

2

Solid waste management (SWM) has become more important municipal issue because of the rise of environmental and health awareness. The world population has tripled in the last century and also consumption habits, welfare and education status of societies which have huge impacts on solid waste management have changed dramatically. Hence the change in waste generation and composition makes it hard to manage the problem. Especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Such as Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. According to United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (Unicef) MENA consist of 20 countries and with addition of Turkey it reaches 21 countries with the population of more than 500 million people. Countries which have population over 10 million in MENA are Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Sudan, Algeria, Iraq, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Tunisia respectively. Because of the economic and political instability in most of MENA countries, it is hard to create solid waste management strategies. In addition, the lack of usable data regarding solid waste generation and disposal technologies is an issue. However, numerous studies have been carried out to research on different aspects of solid waste issue in MENA countries. There are nearly 18 thousand published articles with reference to “solid waste” in Science Citation Index (SCI) database including all countries and time range between 1970 and 2015. This number goes down dramatically to approximately 1100 article in MENA countries. From articles, around 900 articles out of 1100 are published by 5 countries which are Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan respectively. During the last ten years 847 article were published on solid waste management with an upward trend each year. In this study, bibliometric analysis research was conducted on solid waste management in MENA countries. The results of this study will be presented

Keywords: solid waste, solid waste management, bibliometric analysis, MENA region

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in soil profile from the loukous valley using GC-ECD Imane El Fadil1, Rakan Altarawneh2, Mufeed Batarseh3 1

Faculty of Sciences Agdal Rabat- Morocco Faculty of Scirences Mu’tah AlKarak-Jordan 3 Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research/Mutah University 2

The environment is a dynamic system and might be disturbed by different human activities. The release of pesticides caused by intensive use in agricultural activities could cause several adverse impacts on the environment. Agricultural pesticides most often are applied as liquids, granules or seed sprayed/treated on the crop and/or to the soil (Pimentel and Levitan, 1986). As more than 98% of sprayed pesticides and 95% of herbicides goes somewhere else in the environment, and extremely small percentage less than 0.2% for pesticides and less than 0.5% of herbicides go into a direct contact with or consumed by target pests. These amounts are adversely affect public health, beneficial biota, contaminate soil and water, and the atmosphere of the ecosystem. Ecosystems are integrated and stable systems, they include humans, all other species on this planet, and basic biotic and abiotic processes (Pimentel, 1995; Miller, 2004). Organic complexation of metals in soils and waters is thought to be one of the most important factors governing solubility and bioavailability of metals in soil-plant system. It is important to differentiate between naturally occurring organic compounds in soil and those compounds derived from man’s activities. The organic compounds in soil which could form metal complexes may be divided into three main classes: naturally occurring soil organic molecules of known structure and chemical properties, including aliphatic acids, polysaccharides, aminoacids, polyphenols; anthropogenically derived organic chemicals from agriculture, industrial and urban activities; humic and fulvic acid substances which accumulate in soil but whose structure are unknown in detail. The specific aim will be to obtain qualitative and quantitative understanding of the role of humic substances on the transport of toxic metals in the environment. These results will provide necessary scientific information concerning the the binding behavior of selected toxic heavy metal ions with humic substances from different origin.

Keywords: pesticides, CG/MS, adsorption

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Solar energy potential of cities in Turkey; A GIS based analysis Usta Ziya, Cömert Çetin, Yılmaz Volkan Department of Geomatic Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

Solar energy is environmentally safe, efficient and sustainable energy source. Recently, photovoltaic systems have been developed and production of electricity directly from the sunlight has gained importance and become widespread. Photovoltaic systems will obviously be more important in the near future with their low cost compared to other energy production methods and continuously increasing efficiency. For example, in some European countries, municipalities produce solar potential maps to determine the suitable spots for the photovoltaic systems. However, In Turkey, there is no production of the solar potential maps for this purpose. Every building in an area may not be suitable for photovoltaic systems installed on the rooftops. Because some parameters like insolation time and shadow effect may affect the efficiency of energy production via photovoltaic panels. Therefore, solar potential analysis must be performed before the installation of photovoltaic panels. This kind of analysis can be implemented through solar modules that are integrated in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this study, Karadeniz Technical University Campus, which is situated in the city of Trabzon, has been selected as the study area. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based solar analysis module (r.sun) of open source GIS software GRASS has been used in this study. Solar analysis has been performed using very high-resolution DEM and DSM (Digital Surface Model) which are produced by using the photos taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Also analysis considered shadowing effect in the implementation process. Suitable areas have been determined by producing beam irradiation, diffuse irradiation, reflected irradiation and insolation time raster maps. The work is underway for generating solar potential maps of some other cities in Turkey. This study has shown that Karadeniz Technical University campus has some solar energy potential. We believe that solar potential maps are significant for urban planning work and therefore these maps must be taken into consideration in all kinds of planning processes.

Keywords: GIS, solar energy, solar potential, shadow effect

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Impact of hydrocarbons pollution on the physiology and the metabolism of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L): study of the mechanisms of their phytoremédiateur potential Yacine Bellout1, Leila Khelif2, Reda Djebbar3, Ouzna Abrous Belbachir4 1

Bellout yacine, Departement of biology, UMBB university, Boumerdes, Algeria Abrous Belbachir ouzna, Departement of vegetal physiology, USTHB university, Algers, Algeria 3 Khelif Leila, Departement of vegetal physiology, USTHB university, Algers, Algeria 4 Djebbar reda, Departement of vegetal physiology, USTHB university, Algers, Algeria 2

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants is associated with effects on the morphology and physiology of plants where the need to identify these effects by assessing the toxicity of these pollutants on the plant. Plants under the influence of certain environmental pollutants produce toxic free radicals and can cause significant cellular damage by damaging major components of the cells, proteins, sugars, pigments and lipids. Soil polluted by hydrocarbons was recovered at a quagmire of oil drilling in southern Algeria. The physico-chemical analysis of the soil showed the presence of a large quantity of hydrocarbons. This soil is used for growing peas. The analysis of soil microbial present in both control and polluted soils has highlighted the presence of bacteria, actinomycets and fungis in different proportions. To the reactions of pea "Pisum sativum L" contamination by hydrocarbons, we studied the responses of this plant (growth and physiology) at different concentrations of pollution. The morphological point of view, the effect of pollutants appeared on seedling growth of peas. The results showed a good growth of seedlings grown in control soil compared to polluted soils. In addition, the dosage of photosynthetic pigments, sugars and proteins showed that the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil influenced the biochemical parameters of pea. All these results argue that the presence of oil has affected the morphological and physiological behavior of pea seedlings has developed a system of defense against chemical stress.

Keywords: oil, hydrocarbon, soil, pollution, "Pisum sativum L"

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Energy, environment and sustainability

An auxiliary tool for landscape evaluation: Ecological risk analysis based on analytic hierarchy process Aksu Gül Aslı1, Musaoğlu Nebiye2, Uzun Adnan3 1

Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, Faculty of Engineering and Design, Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Geomatic Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey 3 Landscape Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Işık University, Turkey Ecological Risk Analysis may be used as an auxiliary method in making landscape planning decisions based on protection-utilization balance. However, both choosing the subject criteria of the analysis, and assigning values to such criteria are all left to the discretion of the decision-maker. Ecological Risk Analysis is therefore ranked as a qualitative mode of assessment among the risk analysis methods. What was intended herein was to rule the Ecological Risk Analysis, which may significantly contribute to the assessment of a landscape, out of being a qualitative mode, and to turn it into a semiquantitative means of assessment. It was thereby intended to reduce the weak points of the Ecological Risk Analysis. In order to turn the Ecological Risk Analysis into a semi-quantitative mode of assessment, Analytic Hierarchy Process, as being among the Multiple Criteria Analysis methods, was resorted. Main and sub-criteria to be subjected to respective assessment were therefore determined at first. At this point, it was set forth from the basis of the equation of “Risky Areas = Areas with High Ecological Value”. First of all, in order to accord with the assessment of the test area at the level of 1:25.000 scale, the main criteria (vegetation, soil, water, and bioclimatic comfort) to determine the "Ecological Value", and the sub-criteria to set forth these criteria were decided upon. These criteria were then overlaid by means of matrices within the scope of the Analytical Hierarchy Method, weight ratios thereof were determined, and the consistency ratios thereof were calculated. Upon finding out the consistency ratios at acceptable levels per each match-up, sub-criteria were superimposed, at first, according to the calculated weight ratios, and the risk maps of the main criteria were thereby attained. Having these risk maps of the main criteria further superimposed according to the weight ratios, which had been calculated to be consistent, the Ecological Risk Map was thereby attained. Matching up of the criteria by means of matrices, and consideration of the consistency ratios altogether allowed for the assignment of values to the criteria within a certain consistency. This process has brought a semiquantitative approach in the value assignment process, which is at the sole initiative of the decisionmaker, and has thereby enhanced the efficiency of the Ecological Risk Analysis, as an auxiliary means, in the landscape assessment. Regions which belongs to high risk were discussed in de frame of landscape planning and sustainability.

Keywords: ecological risk analysis, analytic hierarchy process, landscape evaluation

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Proposed certification standard for the sustainable management and development of Mediterranean beaches Zisimopoulos Vasileios1, Zorpas Antonis2, Zouridaki Maria1 1

Aelia Sustainable Engineering Open University of Cyprus, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management 2

Costal Zones are recognized of strategic importance to all Europeans and in general coastal is perceived as the land sea interface. A land use model is a representation of the interactions between different non‐linear systems – biophysical and anthropic, that influence the dynamics of Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC). This uniqueness, a result of the coexistence of land, sea and air, accounts for the ecological and environmental sensitivity of all coastal zones. They are unfortunately under severe pressure leading to huge environmental impacts due to the intense and unregulated human intervention. Although the beaches of the general Mediterranean region constituted and still constitute a part of its significant natural heritage, nothing has been done to support the sustainable development of these areas, which would ensure both the protection of the environment and natural resources, and the general progress of the region. This problem can be solved through the use of a pioneering and innovative tool: the certification standard for sustainable beach management and development called Costa Nostrum® (= our coast), applicable to all Mediterranean beaches. The main purpose of Costa Nostrum® is the development of a management model-draft and a certification standard, under which sustainable management and development of each beach will be achieved. Through this process the protection of the environment, the economic development of the areas around the beach and general societal prosperity will also be ensured. Upon completion, it will provide a number of sustainability indicators, which should be recorded, as well as several principles and steps that will facilitate the success of the sustainable development of the beach. A classification of all sustainable beaches will also be provided, depending on the criteria and specifications they meet. This standard can be adopted and implemented either by individual beaches of certain municipalities or regions. It is also directly applicable to beaches that "belong" to private entities-companies, such as hotel units. It is designed in such a way that all beaches, whether organized or not, even those that are considered eco-beaches, can potentially qualify and be characterized as sustainable, provided they meet the basic criteria of the management plan-standard. At the same time, each beach has its own unique characteristics, needs and requirements as well as its own specific capabilities in regard to service provision. Therefore, the proposed standard evaluates those services as well as the characteristics of the beach, and ranks it accordingly in one of four categories (only for organized beaches), while also contributing to the upgrade of the provided services. The benefits of meeting the sustainability standard for one or more beaches, are diverse, important and cover all three aspects of sustainable development (economy, society and environment), thus greatly facilitating the general advancement and progress of the coastal area. It should be emphasized that the use of the proposed indicators, principles and steps will result in an objective and fair assessment of the standard, which would ensure the sustainable development of the beach.

Keywords: sustainable beach management, sustainable development, sustainable tourism, sustainable indicators

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Innovative approaches in plant growth: LED and Saharan desert dust Saydam Ahmet Cemal1, Elmaslar Emine2, Kiremitci Vildan Zülal2, Sivri Nuket2, Varol Ilgın Deniz2, Paralı Ege Ecem3 1

Hacettepe University, Environmental Engineering Dept., 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey İstanbul University, Environmental Engineering Dept., 34320, Avcılar, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Emine Ornek High School, Hasköy Mah. Eğitim Cad. 12. Sokak, Mudanya, Bursa, Turkey 2

The main objective of preventing famine in the world is to yield more products within harvest period by using less energy. As in all production activities, the objective in agricultural production is to ensure maximum efficiency with optimum input as well. For maximum efficiency, not only product variety but also providing the adaptation to ecologic conditions is the main prerequisite. Different ecologic conditions, effect of light in different wave length or contributions towards the soil where the plant is grown play important roles in the acceleration of ecologic processes directly or indirectly for the growth of plants. In this study, main goals were considered as light and water factor. To this end, plants were regularly watered via the water obtained after distilled water and Saharan dust were mixed and kept in a certain ratio and LEDs shedding lights in different wave lengths; and the growth effects were investigated. In this research, a total of 120 LEDs, being 3 Volts and thirty from each color were used. The most important reason of low energy consumption of especially preferred LEDs is low losses. Being an herbaceous plant from Phaseolus species of legume family, ""Phaseolus vulgaris"" was preferred due to its ability to grow rapidly in almost every kind of lands. In analysis on the growth of plants on which day/night period was applied, it was observed that the best result was taken from the beans to which yellow-green LED light was given. It was detected that the best result in terms of leaf efficiency was in beans to which night red/blue light was given. It was observed that the growth of ""Phaseolus vulgaris"" plants which were watered with the irrigation water obtained with Saharan Desert dust was better than other plants watered with distilled water. Considering plant height, it was seen that those watered with the irrigation water obtained with Saharan Desert dust were 1.4 times higher than other plants watered with distilled water. Similar results were found for the amount of leaf and plant weight proving the positive effect of Saharan Desert dust.

Keywords: Saharan desert dust, Phaseolus vulgaris, LED, plant growth

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Investigation of wind data with different time scales by using chaotic approach Diren Deniz Hazel, Özgür Evren, Koçak Kasım Department of Meteorology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

There has been an increasing tendency to use renewable energy in recent years. Wind is one of the most popular ones in the clean energy sources. On the other hand, meteorological conditions and topography have more impact on wind energy compared with the other clean energy types. In addition, intermittent character of wind speed must be considered accurately in wind energy related studies. Thus, it is important to investigate the wind speed with the state of the art techniques. The measurements and the predictions of wind speed must be done correctly. It is a well known fact that, the north and northwestern part of Aegean Region and south part of Marmara Region have the strongest wind speed with more than 8 m/s wind speed averages. Therefore, two stations from western part of Anatolia were used. Observation period was taken to be 2010-2014 for both stations. According to nonlinear dynamical system approach, it is possible to represent the time evolution of a system by its trajectories in phase space. In this study, the phase space was reconstructed by using wind speed data for different time scales such as minutes, ten-minutes, hourly and daily averages. The reconstructed phase space was used as a model to investigate the general characteristics of wind data. It was presented that which time scale is more useful for the characterization of wind phenomena. Besides investigation of different properties of wind speed data, prediction for various time scales also found out successfully.

Keywords: wind speed, prediction, clean enery, chaos theory, Turkey

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Comparison of modeled and measured CO2 exchanges over winter wheat in the Thrace part of Turkey Yeşilköy Serhan1, Akataş Nilcan2, Şaylan Levent2, Çaldağ Barış2 Atatürk Soil Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station Directorate, Kırklareli, Turkey Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

1 2

Terrestrial ecosystem has an important role on the global carbon budget. Approximately 7 % of global carbon budget is resulted from agricultural sources. Agriculture is an emission source and also a storage area for carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems. Evaluation of CO2 fluxes over a selected area has become a significant issue for the studies on global carbon budget and climate change considering the effects of CO2 as a greenhouse gas. Thus, it was aimed to measure, analyze, model and evaluate the CO2 fluxes over winter wheat crop which is an important nutritional source for Turkey, by using a micrometeorological method called eddy covariance and the numerical agro-ecosystem model called Agro-C. Changes in CO2 during growing period of winter wheat (November 2012-July 2013) were determined in the experimental area of Atatürk Soil Water and Agricultural Meteorology Station Directorate in Kırklareli City, located in the Thrace part of Turkey (41°41'53'' N, 27°12'37'' E). In this context, net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) values of winter wheat estimated by eddy covariance method were analyzed and compared to the simulated results by Agro-C model during the growing period of winter wheat.

Keywords: greenhouse gas exchange, CO2 flux, Eddy covariance, Agro-C model

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Development of typical meteorological year for representative areas of the Greek region Kavadias Kosmas A1, Paliatsos Athanasios G2, Bartzokas Aristides3, Kambezidis Harry D4 1

Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications & Environmental Protection, TEI of Piraeus, Greece Laboratory of Environmental Technology, Electronic Computer Systems Engineering Department, TEI of Piraeus, Greece 3 Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Greece 4 Atmospheric Research Team, Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Greece 2

Reliability of climatic data is of primary concern for the conduction of robust energy efficiency studies for the building sector. At the same time, owed to the vast growth of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), sufficient knowledge of climate conditions is a prerequisite for the effective sizing and optimum operation of similar systems. To this end, commercial software used for the energy simulation of buildings and RES installations depends on the use of detailed time series of climatic data for the area of interest. Such data is used for the estimation of heating and cooling loads for the building sector as well as for the hourly estimation of energy production in case of RES installations. Nevertheless, time series employed do not normally correspond to the use of typical meteorological years (TMY). In this context, it is important to note that employment of time series that do not correspond to TMY induces the risk of considering low-frequency, extreme weather events that are in turn responsible for the production of misleading results (e.g. system oversizing). For this purpose, use of representative time series for the conduction of similar energy studies is considered critical. The most important meteorological parameters to this end encompass solar radiation, ambient air temperature, relative humidity and depending on the purpose of the study, wind speed and wind speed direction. Emphasizing on the significance of solar-based application for the Greek region and the local building sector in specific, the current study develops the TMY for four Greek areas, representing all four climatic zones of the Greek region, namely Heraklio (Crete island), Athens (Southeastern Mainland), Thessaloniki (North, coastal) and Kastoria (North, continental). The TMY time series are calculated based on the modified by Greek research teams Sandia method and they are comprised of hourly values of air temperature, relative humidity, ambient pressure, direct and global solar radiation on the horizontal plane. This method, along with the modifications, has been tested in solar energy systems’ evaluation, both worldwide and in Greece, with very good results. The TMYs obtained from the application of the developed methodology are then compared with the values of solar energy potential adopted in the Greek Regulation for the Energy Efficiency of Buildings in order to demonstrate differences between the two. Results showed that the monthly and annual solar energy values estimated by the TMY’s are in agreement with the ones included in the Greek Regulation. The developed TMYs can be employed for the reliable hourly simulation either of building energy demand or energy production of solar energy systems.

Keywords: TMY, solar radiation, solar energy

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Energy, environment and sustainability

The efficiency of artificial neural networks modelling in forecasting daily global solar irradiation one day ahead Moustris Konstantinos P1, Kavadias Kosmas A2, Paliatsos Athanasios G3 1

Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TEI of Piraeus, Greece Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications & Environmental Protection, TEI of Piraeus, Greece 3 Laboratory of Environmental Technology, Electronic Computer Systems Engineering Department, TEI of Piraeus, Greece 2

Global solar irradiation is considered as the most significant parameter in meteorology, solar conversion and renewable energy applications. During the last years the contribution of solar power to the electricity supply has been increasing fast leading to a strong need for accurate solar power predictions. Due to the strong increase of solar power generation the prediction of solar yields also becomes more and more important. In this work, an effort was made in order to forecast for one-day ahead the daily total global irradiation on a horizontal plane at five different locations (Agios Kosmas, Penteli, Ano Liossia, Zografou, and Mandra) within the greater Athens area, Greece. For this purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were applied. For the appropriate ANN training, hourly values of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration and global irradiation were used, covering a five-year period, 2006-2010. For evaluating the potential of the prediction of the proposed ANN model, the 2011’s dataset was used as a testing dataset. The aforementioned meteorological parameters have been recorded by the monitoring network of the Hydrological Observatory of Athens, operated by the National Technical University of Athens, during the six-year period, 2006-2011. More specifically, two different ANN models were developed for each one of the five examined locations. The first ANN model predicts the daily sunshine duration of the next day. Then, this prediction feeds the second ANN model which predicts the daily total global irradiation, one-day ahead. Both models use as input data, during the training phase, historical meteorological data from the previous days for each examined location. For the evaluation of the results and the ability of the developed prognostic models, appropriate statistical indices such as the coefficient of determination (R2), the index of agreement (IA), the mean bias error (MBE) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used. According to the results, the IA ranges between 0.913 and 0.989 and the R2 ranges between 0.709 and 0.959 indicating that the proposed ANN model’s predictive ability is quite satisfactory at a statistical significant level of p<0.01.

Keywords: solar irradiation, forecasting, artificial neural networks, ANN

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Small hydro power stations contribution in Greek electricity generation. Present situation and future prospects Kaldellis John K1, Kondili Emilia M2 1

Lab of Soft Energy Applications & Environmental Protection, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Greece 2 Optimisation of Production Systems Laboratory, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Greece

Hydropower is a mature electricity production technology contributing more than 15% to the fulfillment of the planet electricity consumption. Hydropower is also inexhaustible since it is based on the hydrological cycle motivated by the available solar energy. Greece and more precisely the west and north part of the mainland possesses significant hydropower potential that is up to now partially exploited. Unfortunately, large hydro power stations require huge capital investments and face the contradiction of the local societies. This is not the case for small hydro power (SHP) stations. Actually in Greece, increasing interest for building SHP stations got off the ground since 1994. Even recently, and despite the economic recession, there is a strong investors’ interest for extended development of (SHP). According to the available data, SHP stations are the most prosperous option for additional hydropower penetration in developed electricity markets. In this context, an enormous number of requests keep piling up in the Greek Regulatory Authority of Energy and the corresponding Ministry, with the object of creating new SHP stations of total capacity approaching 1000MW. The present work investigates the existing situation concerning the applications of hydropower plants in Greece, while the results obtained are compared with the corresponding international and European status. Subsequently, emphasis is laid on analyzing the current situation and the future prospects of the SHP in Greece. Moreover, the electricity generation utilization degree of the existing hydropower stations, using long term official data is estimated. Accordingly, the limited implementation degree of SHP in Greece is discussed. The results obtained underline the fact that the electricity generation is not a high priority for the national water management policy despite the increased interest to create several new small hydropower plants throughout Greece. According to the information gathered and analyzed, one may state that the available local hydropower potential is quite promising and can substantially contribute to the accomplishment of the national-EU target to cover the 40% of the corresponding electricity consumption from renewable resources also improving the country’s independency from imported fuels.

Keywords: water potential; capacity factor; renewable energy; social attitude

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Drought monitoring based on soil moisture related NDVI-LST feature space in Southern East of Turkey using MODIS data Papila Ibrahim1, Sertel Elif2, Üstündağ Burak Berk3 1

Electronic & Communication Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey 2 Geomatics Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey 3 Computer Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey

In this research MODIS data are used to monitor a drought through a two year period around southern east part of Turkey. Three indices Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI) and Vegetation Supply Water Index (VSWI) are extracted to provide spatial information on drought which are related to soil moisture. Correlation analyses is carried out between the three indices and soil moisture data which are collected from meteorological TARBIL stations. Terra MODIS 8 day composite of Land Surface Temperature (LST) (MOD11) and monthly composite of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (MOD13) are used for this study. Soil moisture data collected at the time most closely to the satellite data time were chosen and correlated with TVDI, VTCI and VSWI. Topography and land cover type sensitivities are also considered during the study.

Keywords: MODIS, TVDI, VTCI, VSWI, soil moisture, TARBIL stations

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Renewable energy investments, historic environments, and local communities in Greece: existing policy and practice, and suggestions towards sustainability Poulios Ioannis Ioannis Poulios, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece

In the current unstable economic and political environment of Greece, Renewable Energy is promoted as a most promising and developing market. Given that the conventional fuels are increasingly becoming expensive – not referring to the irreversible impact of theirs on the natural environment –, the development of RE has become a high priority by the Greek government, and investors appear eager to take advantage of this opportunity. A series of difficulties arise, however, in the cases that Renewable Energy investments come in conflict with the protection of historic environments. It is important to note that in countries like Greece that are rich both in energy resources and in historic environments, such cases of conflict are by no means rare, often leading to most considerable delays and even the cancellation of RE projects. The presentation: a) deals with energy government issues related to the existing policy and practice in Greece, with reference to specific examples of historic environments; and b) proposes strategies and methodologies of broader applicability (also outside Greece) on how a Renewable Energy investment can succeed while at the same respecting the historic environment and the local community. The ultimate aims is to contribute to the creation of a new, sustainable model of energy planning that would connect RE development with historic protection and sustainable development. This presentation is part of an ongoing research activity on this issue. Stages of research: a) Poulios, I. 2012. Renewable Energy Plants Development, Historic Environments and Local Communities: Lessons from the Greek Experience. The Historic Environment: Policy and Practice, vol. 3, issue 2, 127–142; and b) Poulios, I, and Scalia, M 2014. Renewable Energy Plants and the Historic Environment in Greece: Policy and Practice, Journal of Architectural Conservation, vol. 20, issue 3, 197–208.

Keywords: renewable energy investments, heritage conservation, sustainable development, local communities, Greece

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Energy, environment and sustainability

A comparison of spatio-temporal interpolation methods to estimate speed information Bıçakçı Yunus Serhat1, Sarıca Beytullah1, Pakdil Mete Ercan1, Yazırlı Batuhan1, Demirel Hande2 1 2

ITU, Informatics Ins., Geographical Information Technologies Program ITU, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Dept. Geomatics Engineering

Road transport, especially congestion, contributes about one-fifth of the European Union (EU)'s total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), and considered as one of the major source global greenhouse gas emissions. There are many efforts to reduce these impacts. However, this is a challenging task, since data, tools, methods and systems are not mature even lacking to support decision making process. With this respect especially speed information is vital, but not integrated into transport models. The speed information is currently available via Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Infrastructure, so the possibility of introducing speed data into transport model should be explored. Hence, the aim of the study is to integrate speed data into TRANS-TOOLS model, which is the major model used for transport policy analysis in EU. In order to integrate the speed data, a frame-work is designed and spatial interpolation methods namely, spatial overlay, buffering and inverse distance weighting (IDW) are compared to estimate speed information. The major contribution of this study is to model the temporal dimension of the speed data that is lacking in the typical spatial analyze tools. The initial results are promising, where all speed information is associated to the TRANS-TOOLS network and values are simulated hourly. According to the initial results, spatial analyze methods could successfully fill the gap in the transport model and could aid policy making process

Keywords: Geographic Information Systems (GIS), congestion, carbon emissions, spatial interpolation methods

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Techno-economic analysis for the optimal hybrid renewable energy based system planning in autonomous islands of Aegean Sea Tzanes Georgios, Zafirakis Dimitris, Xydis George A, Kaldellis John K Lab of Soft Energy Applications & Environmental Protection, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences

Most small and medium size Greek islands of Aegean Sea cover their electricity needs on the basis of autonomous thermal power stations consuming remarkable quantities of imported oil. Additionally, several small islands cover their needs for clean water with water imports at an extremely high cost. In this context, the current work summarizes an extended and systematic research effort spent in order to face these important and pressing problems of our islands. More specifically, under the framework of the PHAROS (Aristia-II) research project, a comprehensive planning tool for the study of hybrid renewable energy systems (RES) to ensure meeting the demand for energy and water in the small and medium scale autonomous islands of the Aegean Sea has been developed. The newly developed software tool E.S.A. followed a methodology based on hourly basis calculations. The RES production (wind and PV actually) is compared to the energy demand of the under examination system and accordingly the needs of the required storage devices are revealed. The operational characteristics of the desalination plants are also estimated according to the annual water consumption of the island under investigation. A preliminary economic evaluation of the whole system (Wind-PV-Battery-Diesel-Desalination) has been undertaken and a great number of possible solutions are produced under this setup. Based on the techno-economic results identified, the optimal solution for each island may be selected. According to the results obtained the proposed solution can be implemented with limited initial capital cost (e.g. for an island similar to Agios Efstratios the cost of the proposed hybrid system can be approx. 3.6 MEUR with less than 4 days per year contribution from the island’s diesel plant) accepting minimum operation of the existing thermal power station. This initial capital required for the hybrid power solution may be further reduced (e.g. by 40%) assuming some additional contribution (e.g. total 10% participation) of diesel oil plant in the total annual electricity consumption of the island. Recapitulating, the proposed solution may significantly contribute on reducing the operational cost of the existing autonomous electricity generation micro-grids improving at the same time the life quality of the local remote communities.

Keywords: hybrid system; battery; software tool, desalination, cost reduction

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Enhancing carbon footprint estimation via spatial data Kazan Özge, Demirel Hande ITU, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Dept. Geomatics Engineering

The main objective of the study is to estimate carbon footprint of Istanbul Technical University students and compare different carbon footprint calculators in order to test the impact of spatial data within the calculation. The carbon footprint is defined as “the the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person”. However, it is very difficult to calculate the total carbon footprint, hence there exists several models for estimation that are employing spatial data, since activities are location-based. Spatial information technologies could provide mature solutions for better estimations. For this purpose 400 students are surveyed and various calculators were compared with different spatial data sets. According to the preliminary results, spatial analyses and geographical information systems could assist decision makers and enhance the estimations.

Keywords: carbon footprint, spatial, transport network, model comparison

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Energy, environment and sustainability

A comparative analysis of local sustainable energy strategies among European communities Cosmi Carmelina1, Di Leo Senatro1, Loperte Simona1, Pietrapertosa Filomena1, Salvia Monica1, Dvarioniene Jolanta2 1

National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis,C.da S. Loja Z.I. Tito Scalo (PZ), I 85050 Potenza, Italy 2 Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, K. Donelaicio str. 20, LT-44239 Kaunas, Lithuania

An integrated and comparative analysis of local sustainable energy strategies of 19 European communities located in 15 different countries (Municipality of Tulln (AT), Municipality of Worms (DE), Municipality of Slagelse (DK), Municipality of Aigaleo (EL), City of Skopje (FYRM), City of Ivanic-Grad (HR), The Local Government of Budapest District 18 and Municipality of Szentes (HU), The Potenza Province and the Municipality of Potenza (IT), Municipality of Kaunas (LT), Municipality of Jasło (PL), Municipality of Torre Vedras (PT), Municipality of Avrig and Harghita County Council (RO), City Municipality Ptuj (SI), City of Nitra (SK), County Durham and Sheffield City Region (UK)) was performed. Three main aspects were considered: the policy making context, the energy market and best practices exchange, the stakeholders involvement to raise community awareness and to foster behavioral changes. The strategic plans developed to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources by different local communities inside the EU were compared to highlight similarities and differences in order to evaluate their contribution to the achievement of EU strategic targets on energy and climate, as well as to set up transferable and customizable methodologies, tools and guidelines to be used at local scale for the design and implementation of action plans and sustainable energy policies. The analysis focused on the following issues: i) Regional contextual framework: to highlight previous actions and current regional motivations, local trends, resources and potentials, constraints and fragilities; ii) Vision and main OBJECTIVES: what the region aspires to become. It is a long term view and concentrates on the future; the main objectives should identify the results that the regions want to achieve; iii) Designed Strategy: the main strategic lines of the Local Implementation Plans, the key interventions and measures and/or the main projects to be developed in the future; iv) Financial sources: the identification of the monetary resources to fund the defined strategy; v) Monitoring mechanisms: the proposed monitoring actions to verify the effective implementation of the designed strategy. This work summarizes the work developed in the framework of the projects INTERREG IVC RENERGY – Regional Strategies for Energy Conscious Communities (http://www.renergyproject.eu/), and SEE RE-SEEties (http://www.re-seeties.eu/) both aimed at valorising endogenous resources use and improving, by means of interregional cooperation, the effectiveness of regional development policies in the area of energy. Keywords: sustainable energy strategies, energy efficiency, RES

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Creating urban growth simulation models driven by the Bosphorus bridges Ayazli Ismail Ercument1, Kilic Fatmagul2, Lauf Steffen3, Kleinschmit Birgit3, Demir Hulya2 1

Department of Geomatics Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Department of Geomatics Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Department of Geoinformation in Environmental Planning, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany 2

In the past and today, Istanbul has always been one of the most important cities in the world because of its historical, cultural and natural features. This fact has caused increase in population and great transportation problem since 1950s. To surmount the transportation problem, two bridges were built and a third one is being constructed on the Bosphorus. Although zone plans, which made in the 1960s, suggested the urban growth to east-west direction, each bridge created its own traffic and triggered urbanization to northward. Main objectives of this paper are to determine the land use changes driven by Bosphorus bridges, predict potential impacts of the 3rd bridge and compare the effects of different routes on land use in Istanbul. Two motorways were selected among for alternative routes preparing for 3rd bridge. In this study, the red and yellow routes were examined by creating urban growth simulation models. To achieve our purposes, Landsat satellite images were classified to produce land use data for four periods. These periods were determined in accordance with Bosphorus bridges construction dates. The first Bosphorus Bridge was built over the Bosphorus in 1973, the second Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in 1988 and the third Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge route was announced in 2009. Therefore, time periods of the land use data were selected as 1972, 1987, 2002 and 2009. To create slope map, DEM data obtained from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Satellite images for the years 1972 and 1987 were manually digitalized for producing transportation data. The motorways were obtained from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for the years 1997 and 2009, and two 3rd Bridge routes were integrated with the motorways for the year 2009, separately. To find out the impacts of Bosphorus bridges on the urbanization, cellular automata (CA) based urban growth simulation models were created for the year 2030 and change detection analysis were implemented between 2009 and 2030. According to results, Istanbul will continue grow northward and almost the half of forest area will be damaged and transformed to urban area in 2030. References Kabadayi E., 2008, Sadakat İstanbul, Boğazını Koru, Atlas, Vol. 180, Istanbul.

Keywords: simulation, urban growth model, cellular automata, LULC change

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Risk management of Koprivlen landslides Kadiyski Milen1,2, Sarov Stoyan3, Frangov Georgi4, Kostov Vladislav1, Stoyanov Ventseslav4, Petkova Vilma1,5, Papaliangas Theodosios6 1

Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria European Polytechnical University, Pernik, Bulgaria 3 Geology and Geophysics JSCo, Sofia, Bulgaria 4 University of Structural Engineering and Architecture, Sofia, Bulgaria 5 New Bulgarian University, Department “Natural Sciences”, Sofia, Bulgaria 6 Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Department of Civil Infrastructure Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece 2

The present paper provides detailed results from the implementation of project RISKLIDES in the framework of European Territorial Cooperation Programme “Greece-Bulgaria 2007-2013”. The study shows the geological and hydrogeological features, as we as the risk mitigation strategy, and risk management of two landslides, developed in Miocene-Pliocene sediments next to Koprivlen village, Gotse Delchev municipality, Blagoevgrad region, SW Bulgaria. A detailed characteristic of the area has been made, including data for the seismic situation, water table, and seasonal rain values. Fieldwork included sample collecting, low-scale geological mapping, and core boring. Laboratory analyses were performed on the collected samples for mineralogical phase identification as well as for rock and soil strength. As a result, detailed low-scale 3D GIS maps of the landslides were produced. A landslide risk management and mitigation strategy is provided for the prevention of the development of Koprivlen landslides

Keywords: risk management, risk mitigation, landslides, RISKLIDES, Blagoevgrad region

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Migration of soaring birds over Belen windfarm in Belen pass / Antakya TURKEY Sert Hakan1, Erdoğan Ali2, Aslan Aziz1, Kaçar Mustafa Süleyman2, Sönmez Özgür Can2 1

Akdeniz University Faculty of Education and Educational Science Antalya /Turkey Akdeniz University Faculty of Science Antalya / Turkey

2

The raptor stream at West Palearctic is probably a continuation of that which passes through the bottleneck site of Belen in southern Turkey where at least 30.000 raptors and 100.000 White Storks pass through each autumn and spring. We studied between 2010-2013 autmn and spring the Migration of soaring birds over Belen Windfarm in Belen Pass / Hatay Turkey. We observed and count 252.444 (2010-2013 Spring), 229.567 (2010-2013 Autmn) migration of soaring birds at Belen Pass. The situation soaring bird migration, before and after construction of wind farms in Belen Pass and are statistically analysed.

Keywords: migration, soaring birds, Belen, Turkey, windfarm, raptor, white stork

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Actual challenges for agriculture wastes treatment and environmental impact Malollari I.1, Xhagolli L.1, Manaj H.1, Dhroso A.1, Kotori P.2, Sana M.3 1

Chemical Process Engineering Group, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana Department of Chemistry, University of Vlora, 3 University A.Moisiu Durres, Albania 2

Some reasonable questions can be risen as follows: Is the cost of waste to energy comparable to the cost of alternative disposal? How will the recycling program be bolstered by the presence of waste to energy? What air pollution control technologies will be employed to ensure superior performance? What are the benefits associated with the site location that make it preferable to other alternatives? To be able to answer these questions, you have to practical exercise using organic wastes for energy profit in terms of specific conditions in different rural areas in Albania. The assumption that recycling ‘saves energy’ is because if the product is combusted or landfilled, a new product will have to be manufactured to serve the same function. Therefore, the energy saving from recycling is really the difference between the energy required to manufacture a new product minus all of the energy required to transport and reprocess the product in the recycling phase. If that difference is greater than the energy that would be realized from combusting that product and recovering the energy (or, for that matter, landfilling the material and capturing the landfill gas) then recycling is indeed the best option. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion (AD) being an alternative method recently studied, is a microbial process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in an oxygen- free environment to produce a solid digestate along with biogas. Anaerobic digestion converts organic matter into carbon dioxide (~40%) and methane (~60%) via four defined stages: hydrolysis, fermentation, acetogenesis and finally methanogenesis. The digestion process can occur in a range of temperatures, typically between 30–60°C and at various moisture levels, which determine both the conversion rate and composition of the effluent. A typical AD process generally achieves a reduction of 50–55% of the organic content.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, organic wastes, agricultural wastes, thermo-chemical methods of treatment

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Energy, environment and sustainability

A study of the uptake of heavy metals by plants alfalfa Argiri Apostolia, Tsadilas Christos Institute of Industrial and Forage Plants

In the present study, was investigated the metals uptake (Cd, Pb and Zn) of the plants alfalfa, which grown in contaminated soils with heavy metals and amended with zeolite. For this purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in four replicates as follows: pots of capacity 2 kg soil were filled with soil from three different regions of Thessaly (industrial area, rural area by applying sewage sludge and non-polluted area) with a known content of Cd, Pb and Zn. In all pots zeolite was added at two different levels (0 and 1% zeolite / kg soil), and plant seeds of alfalfa. Thirty-five days after germination, the cutting of alfalfa took place. The morphological characteristics of plants were identified and the total Cd, Pd and Zn in the overground part of these were determined, by using the method of the dry gas and the use of atomic absorption. Also, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) for the accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of plants, was determined. The concentration of heavy metals in plants, such as the bioaccumulation factor, followed the order: Zn> Cd> Pb. Higher concentration of heavy metals was shown at the plants, which were developed in soil from industrial area (238.16, 1.30, and 0.07 mg Zn, Cd and Pb kg-1 of soil, respectively) and less was the concentration of metals in plants which were developed in soils with zeolite.

Keywords: cadmium, lead, zinc, alfalfa, zeolite

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Environmental aspects of nutrition

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

CD36 AA-genotype is associated with decreased lipid taste perception in Tunisian obese subjects Karmous Inchirah1, Plesnik Jiri2, Mankai Amani3, Abid Abdel Majid4, Khlifi Sarra5, Ben Jemaa Houda6, Aouidet Abdallah7, Khan Naim8 1

inchirah KARMOUS, 1 faculty of sciences of bizerte Jiri PLESNIK, 2 Laboratory of Neurobiology and Molecular Psychiatry, Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic. 3 Amani MANKAI,3 Higher School of Sciences and Technology of health of Tunis 4 Abdelmajid ABID, 4 National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology of Tunis 5 sarra KHLIFI,3 Higher School of Sciences and Technology of health of Tunis 6 houda BEN JEMAA,3 Higher School of Sciences and Technology of health of Tunis 7 abdallah AOUIDET,3 Higher School of Sciences and Technology of health of Tunis 8 N.A KHAN, 5Physiology of Nutrition and Toxicology INSERM U866 University of Bourgogne; 2

Dietary lipids are essential for the proper functioning of the body. However, their overconsumption may lead to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Our work was focused on studying the relationship between fat taste sensitivity, eating behavior and obesity. We recruited obese (n=63) and lean (n=64) Tunisian subjects via the internet and leaflets advertising. Blood sera was collected for the determination of glucose concentration, insulin, hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, uric acid, creatinine, PYY and cholecystokinine (CCK). We conducted oleic acid taste sensitivity to correlate the taste detection threshold to body mass index (BMI) in obese and control subjects. We observed significant difference in blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol before and after oro-sensoriel detection of fat taste perception in obese and control subjects. Moreover, in the control group, the increase in PYY, CCK and insulin after fat taste test was observed. We noticed a positive correlation between BMI and linoleic acid sensitivity in the obese group. The results showed that an increase in fat taste detection threshold is associated with BMI. This increase is higher in the obese group compared to the control group.

Keywords: obesity, lipids, taste, gene CD36

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Honeybee hive products and their antimicrobial activity Ayad Loucif Wahida1, Nedji Neila2 1

Department of medicine, faculty of medicine, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria. Laboratory of Applied Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria 2

This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of propolis and honey samples of honey bees collected from 4 different sites in Algeria. Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was extracted using 70% ethanol and pure honeys were prepared. These preparations were tested for antimicrobial activity against "Bacillus cereus" (IPA), "Staphylococcus aureus" (ATCC25923R), "Escherichia coli" (ATCC25922) and "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" (ATCC27893R). The disc diffusion method was employed and the antimicrobial activity was determined as an equivalent of the inhibition zones diameters after incubation of the cultures at 37°C for 24 h. Also, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured spectrophotometrically in each propolis and honey samples. Results showed that Algerian propolis and honey inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were variable, depending on the propolis or honey samples. The strong antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis and honey may be due to high total phenolic and flavonoid contents and this study suggests potential use of these natural hive products in food.

Keywords: propolis, honey, antimicrobial activity, food

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Detection of some metals in honey from Ankara, Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry Sireli Ufuk Tansel1, Iplikcioglu Cil Guzin1, Yurdakok Dikmen Begum2, Filazi Ayhan2, Ulker Huseyin1 1

Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara/Turkey 2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara/Turkey

An important aspect of honey quality is the presence of contaminants due to environmental contamination. One of the most concerned contaminants in honey is metals. In this study, Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn, Al, Hg and Cu levels determined in a total of 100 honey samples belonging to 15 different companies, collected from Ankara, Turkey, by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean values were found Cd 0.343, Pb 1.101, Fe 41.13, Zn 6.76, Al 1.490, Hg 0.618, Cu 0.06 mg/kg. These results showed that the metal levels were known to be within the acceptable limits. In Turkey, honey production areas are generally far from the industrial areas and the flora and soil are suitable for high quality honey production so as seen in our results, honey is safe for metals which are harmful for human health. This data also indicates that, honey production is made in accordance with the regulations and it's under control.

Keywords: Honey, heavy metal, atomic absorption spectrometry, environmental contamination, public health

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Analysis of food consumption in children Bahi Lahoucine1, Salimi Soundoss2, Bouhdadi Siham2, Dehbi Fatima2 1

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and techniques, Beni-Mellal, Morocco Department of Pediatrics 2, Hospital Abderrahim Harouchi, CHU Ibn Rushd, Casablanca, Morocco

2

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of dietary surveys by food frequency questionnaire in Morocco, and assess the nutritional status and coverage in macro-and micronutrients of children between 2 and 8 years. This is a prospective descriptive study on a sample of 108 children aged from 2 to 8 years and divided into two age groups consultant at two Hospitals in the period beginning April to 31 May 2010. It consists at first in a questionnaires and anthropometric measurements, and secondly in an analysis of food consumption in macro and Micro nutrients using dietetic software. The underweight, stunting, malnutrition and obesity were found respectively in 11.11%, 1.85%, 6.48% and 5.56% of children in our series. The average intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates were respectively 84%, 119%, 91% and 61% of recommended intakes. The studies of macronutrient found average intakes of vitamin A, iron and zinc respectively 326%, 82.60% and 26.46% of recommended intakes. Food frequency questionnaires yielded excellent reliability and acceptable validity and are adapted to our context. The results of anthropometric measurements are better than the national data. The energy and fat intakes are slightly below the recommendations. The carbohydrate intakes are much lower. Only the protein intakes are covered. Intakes of vitamin A are sufficient through food fortification in this vitamin. Iron intakes are below the recommendations and the intakes of zinc are very inadequate. Although the children in our series are considered "healthy" subjects, we found relatively high numbers of nutritional disorders. An action plan has been developed for hospitalized children for better nutritional support.

Keywords: macronutrient, iron, zinc, vitamin A, food frequency questionnaire

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Effect of dredged material dumping into coastal and offshore waters on local phytoplankton communities Schulze Leona Julia, Tuğrul Süleyman, Uysal Zahit Middle East Technical University-Institute of Marine Sciences

Dumping of waste materials into the sea is a common threat to existing marine ecosystems. Observations about the influence of dredged material dumping on pelagic plankton communities are scarce. This study aims at assessing the combined effect of nutrients and metals extracted from sediments to seawater on coastal and offshore plankton communities of Mersin Bay, NE Mediterranean. Coastal plankton communities in Mersin Bay are better adapted to spatial and temporal changes in input rates of nutrients from water-sediment interface and terrestrial sources as experienced in productive marine environments. Nearshore (water column depth: 20 m) and offshore (water column depth: 200 m) waters, sampled in late April 2014 (Exp. 1) and early March 2015 (Exp. 2) have been used in bio-assay experiments to assess the effect of sediments dredged from least and heavily polluted harbors, namely Limonlu (Exp. 1) and Samandağ (Exp. 2) located in NE Mediterranean. In the experiments, 2.5/3.75 and 12.5/22.5 grams of sediments were added to seawater samples (5L) representing spring bloom and post bloom periods for the NE shelf ecosystem. Subsamples were taken daily from each bottles to determine steady state of plankton growth (observed via chlorophyll-a measurements) to measure concentrations of nutrients, chl-a and changes in plankton community in the incubated samples. The results reached from the quantitative analyzes of in vivo experiments are the following: Significant biomass (Chlorophyll-a) increases appeared in both nutrient-depleted communities (Exp. 1) and the off-shore early spring community (Exp. 2), reaching the maximum levels after 240 hrs. However, biomass increase remained at low levels in the nutrient-enriched coastal community with minimum sediment amounts added. Abundances (Flow-cytometric analyses [cells/mL]) of Synechococcus and Picoeukaryotes were markedly enhanced in the offshore communities with increasing amount of sediments added. However, Picoeukaryote cell abundances decreased in coastal communities with increase of sediments added as a contrary trend appeared in the off-shore communities with similar amount of sediment added from Samandağ. After the addition of sediments to seawater samples, shaking and sediment settling time of 4 hours, increases in the initial concentrations of reactive phosphate, silicate and nitrate in sediment addition offshore seawater samples were proportional to the amount of sediments in the treatments. In the first 72 hrs, phosphorous decreases in offshore communities were faster than silicate removal, whereas the silicate uptake was very fast in the coastal community of bloom period (Exp. 2), mirroring changes in chlorophyll-a concentrations. Comparison of these results indicates that dumping of dredged material into nutrient-rich coastal areas are expected to have limited contribution to he pelagic phytoplankton community as compared to its effect on the offshore community. However, a lag-time of 72-144 (Exp. 1) and up to 216 h (Exp. 2) in biomass increases appears to limit the effect of one-time sediment dumping due to dilution of nutrients dissolved from dumped materials via regional currents. Acknowledgment This research was supported by TUBITAK/111G152 Keywords: North-Eastern Mediterranean, dredge material dumping, plankton community 302 | P a g e

Environmental aspects of nutrition

Attenuation of Spirulina Platensis on acute liver injury in rats exposed to both γ- radiation and carbon tetrachloride Moustafa Enas Mahmoud, Mansour Somaya Zakaria, Ibrahim Sahar Ismail National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority.P.O. BOX:29 Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Spirulina platensis (SP) on liver injury induced by exposure to γ-radiation (Rad), carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) and both Rad+CCL4 in male albino rats Sprague Dawley. Exposure to either γ-radiation or CCl4 induced significant increases in the levels of liver carboxylesterase (CE) and myloperoxidase (MPO) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) contents, and DNA fragmentation % in addition, a significant elevation of serum Creactive protein (CRP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) contents, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, with concomitant damage in liver architecture. Exposure to Rad+CCl4 has potentiated the severity of liver injury. SP treatment has significantly reduced the severity of liver injury substantiated by significant improvement in the biochemical and histopathological changes. It could be concluded that Spirulina platensis by interfering with radical-mediated cell death and inflammation would protect liver tissues from CCL4 and γ-radiation-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: spirulina, γ-radiation, carbon tetrachloride, liver injury

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Environmental aspects of nutrition

Environmental dimensions of nutrition and diet in public health and chronic disease. A case for Mediterranean diet? Kristo Aleksandra S., Sikalidis Angelos K. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Istanbul Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey Chronic disease such as various cancers, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are attributed to varying extents to environmental and lifestyle factors. Inflammatory and oxidative stress constitute a common denominator of chronic disease, with environmental pollutants such as particulate matter, persistent organic pollutants or heavy metals known to induce or exacerbate these ailments. The role of diet in health and disease is multifaceted. As a primary lifestyle factor, diet has a heavy impact on health status and chronic disease risk, documented by the rising levels of chronic disease morbidity and mortality on a global scale along with a rapid westernization-globalization of diet and lifestyle. Diet is the sole route of exposure to a multitude of nutrients and bioactive compounds but also a significant route of exposure to environmental contaminants with a multitude of adverse effects. Optimal nutrition attenuates the toxicity of environmental pollutants and may potentially avert the adverse effects in humans. Diet may modify the health risk of exposure to environmental pollutants and ameliorate the impact of exposure by stimulating protective mechanisms or enhancing biological defense pathways. A plethora of epidemiological and clinical evidence has documented the protective effect of Mediterranean diet against cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome and generally chronic/ age-related disease with chronic low-grade inflammation. Beyond protection against chronic disease with varying environmental contribution, Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced incidence of lung cancer among chronic smokers, a disease state with a more explicit environment-health connection. Individual nutrients such as antioxidant minerals and vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and certain amino acids, and bioactive compounds such as plant-derived polyphenols exert protection at many levels, from scavenging oxygen and nitrogen species to affecting antioxidant gene expression profile. Essential trace metals (Se, Mn, Zn, Cu) are vital cofactors in several antioxidant enzyme systems. Omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols can control and reduce inflammation through a series of pathways related to CVD and cancer prevention such as inhibiting prostaglandin and leukotriene production, regulating anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokine balance, as well as positively modifying cell proliferation, angiogenesis and coagulation processes. On the other hand poor nutrition status increases the susceptibility to the onset and development of chronic diseases, and to environmental insults and related disease conditions. For example, high intake of vegetable oils such as linoleic acid may favor vascular inflammation, and exacerbate the oxidative and inflammatory damage induced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). While a clear link exists between energy imbalance and adiposity, accumulating evidence suggests a strong association between adiposity and endocrine disrupting contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nutrition is identified as an essential modifiable determinant of chronic diseases. While nutrition informs significantly the predisposition and handling of environmental insults at various levels (epigenetic, metabolic), it also constitutes a multifactorial set of parameters that affects the genome and metabolic processes and hence an individual’s health in its own right. Thus, the environmental dimensions of nutrition along with targeted dietary strategies aimed to protect against the deleterious effects of environmental exposure, constitute a promising field for contributions to public health and wellbeing. Keywords: bioactive compounds, chronic disease, environmental contaminants, inflammation, mediterranean diet, nutrition

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Environmental economics, policy and education

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Impact of tourism in a small coastal resort of N.W. Greece Beza Paraskevi Technological Educational Institute of Epirus

Tourism brings economic benefits to countries but they are usually substantial socio-economic and environmental costs associated with it. Such costs can affect larger areas that superficially appear more resilient and can be overhelming for small island resorts (Davenport and Davenport, 2006). The aim of this paper is to describe the transformation of a small fishing village to a cosmopolitan summer destination and the pressures which are generated to the coastal environment. In writing this paper the author had necessarily to rely on an unusual extent to “grey literature” (i.e. limited-circulation reports and web-disseminated material). This reflects the sustained lack of financial report for rigorous scientific study of the environmental effects of tourism. Study area, Sivota, is a picturesque, seaside village in the prefecture of Thesprotia in N.W. Greece just 24 km south of Igoumenitsa, known as the cosmopolitan summer destination of the area. An important indicator for coastal tourism pressure is the ratio between number of tourists and number of local residents. According to the last Census data in 2011 the number of local residents was 875 for the village, but the Local Authority estimates that it is increased between May and September to 30004000 people a 340% increase. It is considered that the overall population reaches 10000 inhabitants. The settlement of Sivota initially consisted of a few huts providing shelter to fishermen who used the bay for fishing. From the 1970’s the buildings of hotels and apartment blocks increased steadily transforming Sivota to a tourist village, living mostly in the summer and deserted in winter. The natural features of the landscape and particularly the hill overlooking the bay from the south side was thoroughly built up, replacing the green and rocks with facades of hotels and apartment blocks (Fig.1). This process of overbuilding can lead to unsustainable development of coastal areas which not only impacts heavily in the environment and society but, in the long term, is also eroding the economic benefits of tourism since it destroys the basis of the tourism activity in coastal areas, namely the variety of the landscape and the ecosystem - in the sea and on the land. Sivota is serviced by an old sewage system that causes many problems in the inhabitants and the environment. The convergence of boats, visitors and vendors tends to generate a lot of litter on the beach. There is a serious water consumption during the summer months. This is considered a serious threat to the continuation of the settlement as a tourist resort. Water consumption in peak summer is estimated at 2500 m3/ day and 500 m3/day in winter. Sivota has been transforming from an unspoilt fishing harbor to a town that developed as a result of its natural beauty. There is a conflict between development and maintenance of natural beauty. Acknowledgements Many thanks to the Department of Planning of Regional Planning of the Regional Unit of Thesprotia. References Davenport J, Davenport J.L (2006). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67:280–292. Keywords: Sivota tourism, coast, impact

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Environmental economics, policy and education

The economic values of ecosystem goods and services in Karavasta Lagoon, Albania Koto Romina1, Bani Aida1, Bani Erla2, Dautaj Anja3 1

Agro-Environmental Department, Faculty of Agronomy and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirane, Albania. 2 Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.. Paris. France 3 Institute of International Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Corvinus University of Budapest.

Lagoons are highly productive coastal features that provide a range of natural services that directly or indirectly translate to economic services and values to humans. The benefits may take several forms but the economic benefits are highly valued, and are obtained from the lagoons goods and services. Nowadays the lagoon ecosystems were threatened by land-exploitation changes. The aim of this study is to estimate the total economic value (TEV) of the direct and indirect values and to demonstrate the net benefit derived from the main ecosystem services in the Karavasta Lagoon (40º56’ N and 19º29’ E), (Ramsar site 1996). The Karavasta Lagoon is included on one of the most various mosaics of coastal habitats in Albania and one of the most important ecological and economical areas. The economic evaluation was done by using the direct use of goods, Fisheries, and Agriculture. The market price method of these two goods was used to put a monetary value to the lagoon. To gather data about Agriculture and Fishing activity we conducted interviews with the local institutions, municipalities, surveys with households around the lagoon, private companies etc. In addition, an evaluation was done using the “non–use value” as Tourism. As far as tourism in theKaravasta lagoon was concerned, there was no real market for cultural activities. The income generated in this area was not recorded but existed only as spontaneous tourism. The contingent evaluation method was used to determine the value of an ecosystem by finding out how much survey respondents are willing to pay for particular ecosystem attributes or services. So to have information and data we will create a hypothetic scenario with WTP (willingness to pay). The results about the economic value in the Karavasta lagoon showed that the Total economic value on two main direct activities Agriculture and Fisheries and the spontaneous, hypothetical market created for Tourism are approximately: 28,744.610 Euro. These results can help make suggestions to improve the sustainable use and to also show decision makers the needs for improved management in order for this value to be maintained and preserved for future generations.

Keywords: ecosystem, goods, services, Karavasta lagoon, TEV (Total economic value)

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Tendencies towards environmental criminality during the recession in Greece Zevgolis Yiannis, Oikonomou Vera, Troumbis Andreas Department of Environment, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece

When a country's attempt in economic growth experiences some kind of shock that could undermine and alter this process, the impacts on biodiversity are major. The shock usually derives from political failures that differentiate and lead to misappropriation of the biodiversity resources. Such a policy failure is an economic crisis, whose effects have obvious consequences in biodiversity resources. Both, the Greek economy and the global economy were affected, due to the 2007 Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Given the country’s accomplishments in the last decade (one of the highest GDP growth rates in the European Union), this was an unexpected development. In addition, Greece is a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, 21% of its territory is committed to the Natura network and it has signed all biodiversity - related conventions. Considering the aforementioned, we endeavor to define how the economic crisis has impacted on Greece’s biodiversity resources, by examining the environmental criminality in the hunting, fishing, and logging sector. We assume that the economic crisis through downward pressure, which affected the living standards of the Greek people, adversely altered their behavior towards biodiversity resources. Additionally, it dislocated the policies for biodiversity conservation expressed through the underfundment of the protection mechanisms. To investigate and evaluate the environmental criminality in Greece’s biodiversity resources during the crisis, we used the Pressure - State - Response framework (PSR) and we determined the trends of the time series of indicators that corresponded to each frame of the model. We present the available trends for 16 main indicators and 4 subindices that were designed in order to cover the period 2001 to 2012. In addition, the indices were correlated in order to define their interrelationship. The analysis clearly demonstrated the downward trend that appears in the main economic indicators from the onset of economic crisis i.e. 2007 – 2008. Accordingly, in the beginning of the crisis, there has been is a simultaneous rise of environmental criminality. Abrupt changes in misuse of biodiversity resources should also be related with the Administration's ability of funding activities for protection and conservation. Lack of liquidity and funding inability from the banking system, especially from 2008 and onwards, has sharply reduced the total environmental expenditure. We have concluded that, the trend of the Greek residents’ behavior in the delinquent activities on biodiversity resources, has changed adversely during the crisis period. In addition, the parallel indifference displayed by the Administration, which creates and implements the policy of conserving biodiversity resources, has exacerbated the problem.

Keywords: financial crisis, environmental criminallity, PSR framework

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Environmental economics, policy and education

A new approach for quantitative measure of urban complexity by metric entropy method Bilgi Serdar Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Urbanization is the inevitable trend of social and economic development of people. One of the tasks of urban planners is to plan and design urban areas for individuals and households. More than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. Complexity is an important factor in urban areas because of natural hazards, emergency or other critical situations, waste of time, common using of the landscaping, sport facilities and other social areas …etc. Additionally, complexity affects the spatial distribution of residential buildings, industry, commerce, energy consumption, water use, waste management…and other environmental and social correlations. An important goal in future is to make existing and new urban areas more aesthetic, self-sufficient, sustainable and enjoyable places for better living of people while interacting with each other. Entropy can be used as a criterion for the quantitative measure of spatial information on maps. Such a quantitative criterion can be used to compare the spatial distribution of the real objects like residental, recreation, social and sport facilities in urban areas. In this study, metric entropy method was experimented by a case study studied in Istanbul for defining the complexity of urban areas. Moreover, a quantitative measure is proposed to define the “complexity value” of urban areas. Thus, existing or planned urban plans will be evaluated by the method and significant results obtained will be discussed.

Keywords: metric entropy method, spatial distribution, complexity

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Environmental economics, policy and education

The procedures onboard the ships against environment pollution Irtem Şevket Süleyman, Bayar Sibel, Elmas Güldem, Ergin Ayfer, Alkan Güler, Buğra Çelebi Uğur Department of Maritime Transportation Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

The shipping companies must have procedures having the objectives of ensuring that the shipboard services of ships under the Company’s management satisfy the requirements of the system for the marine environmental protection, and ensuring and maintaining the environmental protection by establishing procedures for the same. In this study, the contents of these procedures will be mentioned and will be procure advisory consequences for ship managements.

Keywords: ship management, pollution revention, Marpol 73/78, NOx/SOx emissions, wastes or noxious substances from the sihps, responding to spillage procedures

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Geovisualization of time variance Gülerman Ayşe Giz1, Gökkaya Mustafa Ali2, Demirel Hande3 1

ITU, Science and Engineering Ins., Geomatics Engineering ITU, Informatics Ins., Geographical Information Technologies 3 ITU, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Dept. Geomatics Engineering 2

The paper mainly discusses modeling and visualization of the time variance as a key factor in temporal Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Geovisualization and spatial statistics as an interdisciplinary research filed offers a wide range of methods and techniques to reveal spatial patterns in distribution of various indicators. Adapting methods from geographic knowledge discovery spatial and spatiotemporal data-patterns and information can be visualized in different types of charts, plots and combined with elements of cartography. As a case study, railway speed change, passengers changing transport choices, behaviors and abilities would be referred. Spatial data is categorized in two parts that how data should be analyzed and how should be evaluated. Various geostatistical and cartographic visualization techniques are applied such as inverse distance weighting, conformal map, cartogram and results are discussed with respect to knowledge exaction and interpretation.

Keywords: geovisualization, spatial, indicators, time, cartography

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Environmental economics, policy and education

What is the real cost of energy? Comparison between E.U. and Greece Kaldellis John K, Botsis Konstantinos, Sarantos Ioannis Lab of Soft Energy Applications & Environmental Protection, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Greece

The role of energy in everyday life is vital, since energy contributes in every sector of our economy and it is also necessary for every human activity. However in many cases people state that the energy price is high, while there are several others strongly insisting that the monetary value of energy does not represent the real cost of energy. In this context the current research analyzes all the numerical figures included in the market price of electricity and fossil fuels (i.e. gasoline, diesel-oil and natural gas) for the local economy in the course of time. According to the results obtained the total consumer price of every type of energy includes several other non-energy related additions, since most energy types are heavily taxed. Subsequently the energy price values of the local economy are compared with the available official data concerning the E.U. country members. The comparison results are quite interesting, although one may state that they do not describe the complete story. In order to obtain a clear cut picture, the available energy price values for all the countries under investigation are normalized using the corresponding gross domestic product (GDP) data. In this case the comparison results are completely different with the ones of the previous analysis. However, in view of the European energy market liberalization and the expected integration of the E.U. electrical network such big differences may not be acceptable. Finally, in our effort to analyze the real energy cost in depth, the so called external cost of energy is also mentioned. Significant parameters like the environmental impacts and benefits as well as the macro-economic cost of energy along with the energy sector subsidization are also included. Recapitulating, the present study successfully estimates the real energy cost taking into account not only the financial cost but also the energy external cost, tax excluded.

Keywords: energy price, fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, GDP, social cost of energy

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Creating motives and tools in order to enable citizens to become “Smart Citizens”: A “socially-oriented” bottomup approach towards sustainability Vlachokostas Christos Vice President of the General Assembly of Technical Chamber of Greece, Νikis 4, 10563 Athens, Greece

Exposure to numerous environmental stressors is a sustainability threat which our society is still facing at social, environmental and political levels. Health burden from environmental exposures in EU is estimated to be very significant, since they induce direct and indirect health risks to humans. Simultaneous exposure to multiple health stressors represents an increased risk to public health. Exposure to chemical and physical stressors endangers human health, longevity, quality of life and the “ageing well” of citizens. As individuals are exposed to several pollutants simultaneously there is a need to address combined exposures in a more integrated way. This paper presents, a multidisciplinary framework that requires the combination of the involvement of a wide range of networks of people, knowledge and sensors. Up-to-now problems such as air or noise pollution in urban areas were mainly addressed by stakeholders, policy-makers, local authorities and scientists. The solution was seen with a top-down perspective. Furthermore, these problems were usually addressed separately, with a top-down approach and not in a holistic way. However, smart cities are about “smart citizens”, who participate in their city’s daily governance, are concerned about increasing the quality of life of their fellow-citizens, and about protecting their environment. The participation of citizens was not sufficient enough to leverage realistic control in numerous chemical and physical health stressors. In this light, scientific effort is required to provide methods within communities’ empowerment (“Real Communities” i.e. people with the same interests/behaviors e.g. bicyclists’ unions, citizens’ unions, mothers’ unions etc.) and to foster edemocracy for efficient governance, through new creative ways of collaboration between various citizens, stakeholders and actors of the urban fabric. Towards this effort “different” citizens in terms of expertise, gender and priorities need to become collectively intelligent and empowered. This is of vital importance, in order to put forward a “socially-oriented” bottom-up approach and combine it with the top-down BAU scenario to efficiently and simultaneously address multiple health stressors in urban areas. Accomplishing this challenge, provision of motives, incentives and smart tools for citizens are required in order to change their lifestyles and behavior in a more sustainable way. Thus, collective awareness for a bottom-up participatory effort is the basis to effectively improve urban environmental quality and consequently provide the “meet in the middle” optimal approach towards sustainability.

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Life saving kiosk for sustainable disaster crisis management Gülnerman Ayşe Giz, Göksel Çiğdem Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Sustainability of Urban Environment is the most argumentative phenomena within the past decade which is the most seriously suffers from disasters as aspects of economic, environment and social at the same time. Disaster applications is the most vital applications within urban studies under the title of Geographical Information System. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emergency demands, meets them over notification maps, increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service institutions notifications and aims to increase the capability of management. This design prosals’ leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is built between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal has envisaged in a case study by considering the ability of public participation and power use with data flow modal based on location. Furhermore, Comparison with the other available applications in manner of time within the concept of detail of data, required staff and expertise degree, data reality and data archive has been discussed.

Keywords: disaster crisis management, urban environment, kiosk, location based communication

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Environmental economics, policy and education

A novel and innovative approach in energy and environmental advanced education Kondyli Emilia Michael1, Kaldellis John K.2 1

Emilia M. Kondili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Piraeus University of Applied Science John K. Kaldellis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Piraeus University of Applied Science

2

The work intends to present the novelties that have been introduced in the development and the implementation of a new Postgraduate Course in Energy and Environmental Investments, the needs that the course intends to cover taking into consideration to opportunities for development that are emerging in our country for the next years and the responsiveness of the Greek professionals to this challenge. The close and continuous interaction of continuous education with development and progress in the fields of the energy and the environment are demonstrated and the difficulties and critical points of education professionals of very different disciplines is also described in the work.

Keywords: energy and environmental investments, business and opportunities in energy

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Environmental economics, policy and education

Strategic environmental planning in the Region of Central Macedonia: The role of Technical Chamber of Greece/Section of Central Macedonia Banias Georgios President of the Permanent Committee for Energy and Environment, Technical Chamber of Greece/Section of Central Macedonia

Environmental quality contributes significantly to social welfare, public health and sustainability. In recent years, anthropogenic pressures on the environment have reached critical levels in numerous areas worldwide, resulting in the continued deterioration of local environments. The problems are more intense for conurbations, which are crucial engines of local socio-economic development and, where human activities are inevitably concentrated in relatively small areas. Nowadays, the Region of Central Macedonia (RCM) faces significant pressures. The growing population is placing an increasing amount of pressure on the area’s environment, which is already degraded, and the local environment is considerably threatened by ecological, social and economic impacts. The area is characterized by shortage of green space, which burdens local air quality, public health and the Region’s aesthetics while limits the recreation choices of inhabitants. Transportation deficiencies are also a major challenge to the Region’s environmental, social and financial development. Furthermore, the waste management infrastructure is considered to be inadequate. On the above basis, the role of Technical Chamber of Greece/Section of Central Macedonia (TCG/SCM) towards the environmental planning of RCM can be characterised of vital importance. As a regional branch, the TCG/SCM implements the activities and serves the objectives of the TCG (Technical Consultant of the Goverment), as these are mandated by its statutory framework, within the region of its competence. Within the framework of its role, during the last decade the TCG/SCM, among other activities, has conducted studies with respect to the various environmental pressures of RCM. Indicatively, TCG/SCM implemented studies related to: (i) Air Quality in the Greater Thessaloniki Area, (ii) Waste Management, (iii) Energy and sustainability, (iv) Conventional fuels and Sustainable Development. Last but not least, it should be highlighted that TCG/SCM has been involved in numerous research projects in the scientific field of environmental management and sustainability.

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Exposome Workshop

Exposome Workshop

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Exposome Workshop

Multiscale connectivity - a high dimension biology approach to unravel the exposome Sarigiannis Denis Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

The exposome represents the totality of exposures from conception onwards, simultaneously identifying, characterizing and quantifying the exogenous and endogenous exposures and modifiable risk factors that predispose to and predict diseases throughout a person’s life span. Unravelling the exposome implies that both environmental exposures and genetic variation are reliably measured in tandem and linked through mechanistic analysis of toxicity pathways rather than only phenotypically associated. To better understand the interaction between environmental exposure and disease, we need to; (a) capture the biological perturbations initiated by exposure to environmental stressors; and (b) identify which of these perturbations overcome the homeostasis barrier, resulting in observed alterations of the cell/tissue environment and eventually to pathologic phenotypes. Towards this aim, integrated exposure biology provides the methodological elements for the surveillance of changes at different levels of biological organization through the use of the full array of –omics and post-omics technologies including epigenomics. Starting from untargeted transcriptomics and metabolomics we proceed with joint analysis of biological processes induced by exposure to xenobiotics at the molecular level and of metabolic processes induced in parallel. Dynamic flux balance analysis is a key element in the joint interpretation of gene expression data and metabolite profiles. This allows us to identify putative pathways of toxicity, which need to be verified by targeted multi-omics and functional assays. Identification of the functional links among the data derived from different high throughput testing platforms and their proper interpretation are supported by advanced bioinformatics such as support vector machines and clustering algorithms and systems biology models. Examples of the dawn of the exposure biology era are given and the future perspectives discussed in the context of supporting efficiently exposome studies.

Keywords: exposome, connectivity, omics, pathway analysis

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Exposome Workshop

Using a physical activity monitor and smartphone app to determine time-use and location information for exposure studies Loh Miranda1; Pronk Anjoeka2; Kuijpers Eelco2; Schieberle Christian3; Chapizanis Dimitrios4; Stamatelopoulou Asimina5; Bartzis John6; Spiric Zdravko7; Sarigiannis Denis4; Cherrie John1,8 1

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom TNO, Zeist, Netherlands 3 University of Stuttgart, Germany 4 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece 5 National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece 6 University of Western Macedonia, Kozani, Greece 7 OIKON, Ltd Institute for Applied Ecology, Zagreb, Croatia 8 Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK 2

The proliferation of smartphone applications (apps) and fitness monitors provides new and less expensive methods for tracking participant time-location-activity patterns in exposure studies. As part of the Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large population Surveys (HEALS) project, this study examines the feasibility of using the Moves app and a commercially available fitness monitor – the Fitbit Flex for tracking people’s location and activities. Four participants per city (7 cities –Athens, Edinburgh, Kozani, Stuttgart, Thessaloniki, Utrecht, Zagreb) wore these devices along with a GPS device and Actigraph activity sensor, for comparison, for a week. A temperature logger was also worn to detect changes between indoor and outdoor conditions. A timeactivity log was filled out on paper by participants for each day. Preliminary results indicate that classification of indoor and outdoor location was done with over 80% accuracy using either the GPS or Moves plus various external variables. Daily step counts by the Fitbit corresponded well with the Actigraph but minute-by-minute counts were less well correlated. This investigation will provide information on the utility of several commercial devices as modular add-ons to exposure studies.

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Exposome Workshop

Environmental origin of neurodevelopmental disorders: in vivo models to unraveling complex etiologies Ricceri Laura1, Venerosi Aldina1, De Felice Alessia1, Scattoni Maria Luisa1, Minghetti Luisa1, Tait Sabrina2, Chiarotti Flavia1, Calamandrei Gemma1 Dept Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy Dept Food Safety and Veterinary Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy

1 2

Strong evidence exists that environmentally relevant exposure to chemical pollutants at critical developmental stages affects neural and behavioral development in children. Recent advances in research offer important clues into pathogenetic mechanisms of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), indicating that environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out. Specifically, in NDDs, variations in several candidate genes may confer higher vulnerability to different kinds of adverse environmental stressors, including early exposure to chemicals. Notwithstanding the great body of epidemiological data that support the adverse effects of many chemicals on child neurodevelopment, there are still large gaps in knowledge in this field, as for the mechanisms of toxicity, the estimation of the dose-response relationship and the individual dimension of the exposure history including gene vulnerability and epigenetic mechanisms. All this considered, there is an overall need to invest more in discovery research able to fill out the knowledge gaps which lay beneath neurotoxicological hypothesis for NDDs. Along this line, the exposomic approach is aimed at characterizing and quantifying the exogenous and endogenous exposures and modifiable risk factors that predispose to and predict NDDs. A critical issue in such context is the identification and validation of peripheral biomarkers of effects that can inform on typical and atypical brain development, and help to establish biologically plausible links between chemical exposure and health effects. Behavioral toxicology studies might significantly contribute by modeling in “simpler” living organisms the complexity of the human exposure scenarios. Studies with laboratory rodents allow assessment of dose-response relationships, critical periods of susceptibility, and the relative contribution of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. More importantly in the neuropsychiatric disease field, the use of the in vivo models permits the selection of omic biomarkers anchored to the behavioral phenotype, which increases their translational value. As an example we present recent data on developmental neurotoxicity of the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to CPF in utero and/or in early development several behavioural responses are altered in the two sexes, in parallel with sex-dependent interference on neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). The route of exposure selected in our studies corresponds to relevant human exposure scenarios, supporting the view that neuroendocrine effects, especially in susceptible time windows, should deserve more attention in risk assessment of OP insecticides. Notably, in a mouse model of idiopathic autism, the BTBR strain, prenatal exposure to CPF induces more marked alteration of early behaviour than in wild type mice, associated to increased oxidative stress markers in both plasma and brain. Thus, in synergy with mechanistic in vitro studies, PBPK models and human data, in vivo models may be pivotal to identify candidate biomarkers and pinpoint susceptible groups or lifestages to be translated to large prospective studies within the exposome context. Supported by FP7 HEALS Grant N° 603946 “Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys” and by CROME Grant N° LIFE12 ENV/GR/001040 “CrossMediterranean Environment and Health Network” Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders exposome developmental neurotoxicity organophosphorous pesticides

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18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution - MESAEP

c/o Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1. 85764 Neuherberg Germany info@mesaep.org – http://www.mesaep.org 18th International Symposi...

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