18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution - MESAEP

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c/o Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1. 85764 Neuherberg Germany [email protected] – http://www.mesaep.org

18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Life in the Mediterranean Region September 26-30, 2015 Crete – Greece

Book of abstracts

2015

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Table of contents

Table of contents Sustainable natural resource and waste management .................................................... 12 Satellite-based multi-temporal assessment of a dried lake: case study of Akgol wetland ............................................... 13 Investigation of morphometric and hydrological characteristics water basins using GIS based numerical models ........ 14 Determination of conservation areas and tracking sustainability with Lucis model: A case study of Istanbul ............... 15 Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater with magnetite TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles ................. 16 Water consumption of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting model ...................................................................... 17 Valorisation of incineration residues by solidification .................................................................................................... 18 A contribution from industrial ecology practices for waste as a resource in a green economy contest ........................... 19 An application on reducing the evaporation from an open water surface ....................................................................... 20 Soil amendment by means of olive pomace in a long term experiment: effects on soil enzyme activity and microbial community ...................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Long-term nutrient efficient biosolid substrate for outdoor ornamental nurseries .......................................................... 22 Nutrient rich growing media produced from sewage sludge ........................................................................................... 23 Physical characterization of organic wastes: case study in Turkey ................................................................................. 24 The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the coastal zone management .................................... 25 A new approach to extract shoreline using GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) ................................................ 26 Assessing the biomethane potential of three pickling and canning semi-solid wastes under thermophilic conditions.... 27 Exploring the biomethanation of mink farming generated wastes in Greece .................................................................. 28 Environmental and resource efficient management of End of Life tyres via pyrolysis ................................................... 29 Dynamic behavior and stability analysis of Adapazari city municipal solid waste landfill............................................. 30 Investigation of the most suitable areas for wastewater treatment plant using GIS based multi-criteria decision analysis method ............................................................................................................................................................................ 31 The use of remote sensing and GIS in spatial analysis of aquaculture in Firat Basin, (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) ......... 32 Decision support tool for urban solid waste management ............................................................................................... 33 Evaluation of water reuse in a metal finishing industry .................................................................................................. 34 Comparison of rededge texture features of RapidEye imagery for crop classification ................................................... 35 Is it possible to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge? .............................................................................................. 36 The combined chronic synergistic ecotoxicological impact (CSEI) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the hydraulic fractioning-based gas production in the off shore Mediterranean region ........................................................ 37 Effects of marble on phase formation in self-compacting type decorative cement composites ...................................... 38 Influence of high energy milling activation on application of waste chicken eggshells .................................................. 39 Investigation of thermal properties of domestic treatment plant sludges ........................................................................ 40 Comparing the use of synthetic and domestic wastewater effluents for coupling nitrogen removal and chlorella vulgaris and scenedesmus dimorphus production ......................................................................................................................... 41 Geotechnical monitoring of encapsulated tailings storage "Blue Lagoon" ..................................................................... 42 Assessment of K-struvite precipitation as a means of nutrient removal and recovery .................................................... 43 Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes .................................................. 44 Air pollutant emissions and landfill gas composition in a MSW landfill in Greece ........................................................ 45 The port waste management system: a case study for Çanakkale port ............................................................................ 46

Environmental health and well-being............................................................................... 47 Applying epidemiological methodology in prioritizing environmental interventions ..................................................... 48 Development of environmental public health indicators in Europe ................................................................................ 49 Primary and secondary PM2.5 impact on human health from industrial plants .............................................................. 50

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Crop protection and preservation of environment: evaluation in vivo of bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid mimics (RH-5849 and RH-5992) on pupae of Ephestia kuehniella .............................................................................................................. 51 Screening and prioritization of chemicals for REACH: the cumulative PBT index model in QSARINS ....................... 52 Alteration of some physiological parameters among lead exposed workers ................................................................... 53 Ecological and human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban and rural surface soils: the Novi Sad city and the surrounding settlements, Serbia ...................................................................................................................................... 54 Estimating individual exposure by human monitoring.................................................................................................... 55 Beta-sitostero up-regulated paraoxonase-1/arylesterase status via peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ in irradiated rats .................................................................................................................................................................. 56 The analysis of the effect of parameters in gas metal arc welding of structural steel with metal cored wire on welding fume using taguchi method and ANOVA ....................................................................................................................... 57 Characterization of sub-micrometer fume particles in MMA welding of shipbuilding steel with different types of electrodes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 58 Comparison of global distributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide with GIS based atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration research in ITU campus, Istanbul –Turkey ............................................................................................... 59 Risk-based management of occupational safety and health for welding in shipyards ..................................................... 60 Toxicity and health effects of ortho-chloro-benzylidene-malononitrile (CS gas) ........................................................... 61 A study to determine level of awareness about health and carbon footprint among geomatics engineers in Turkey ...... 62 Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of selenium at trace levels in cosmetic, food and environmental samples.................................................................................................................................................... 63 Influence of ballast waters on the biological components of the port aquatorium in the south-eastern Adriatic sea (port bar-Montenegro) ............................................................................................................................................................. 64 The link between residential air quality and children’s health: A review ....................................................................... 65 Occupational safety and health risk analysis model for painting, blasting and welding processes in shipyards ............. 66 The HEALS approach to health and environment-wide associations ............................................................................. 67 Improving interaction mechanism of metal mixtures (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr) in generalized Physiological Toxicokinetic Model (PBTK) ................................................................................................................................................................ 68 Health assessment of sleep deprivation ........................................................................................................................... 69 Assessment of the environmental impact of heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the ports and bays in Montenegro ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Geospatial quantification of pollutant loads in ports ....................................................................................................... 71 Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in food samples with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using QuEChERS as extraction method ................................................... 72 Sniffing out the plastic: In vitro bioaccessibility of plasticisers present in indoor dust using simulated human lung fluids ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 73 QSARs for predicting physicochemical and metabolic properties of environmental chemicals ..................................... 74 Sensor data analysis for environmental exposure assessment ......................................................................................... 75 Gene expression of hsp70 in gonads of “Mytilus galloprovincialis” as biomarker of environmental marine pollution in Campania sites ................................................................................................................................................................ 76 Analysis of the effects of Campania sea pollution on health reproductive of Mediterranean mussel ............................. 77 Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment ............. 78 Environmental health in industrially contaminated sites in Europe ................................................................................ 79 An investigation on impact of painting and operation emissions in a ship’s life cycle to the environment .................... 80 A reverse dosimetry model for environmental and consumer products chemicals: The case of bisphenol-A................. 81 The reactive oxidative potential from biomass emitted particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1) and its impact on human health .............................................................................................................................................................................. 82 WEHEAL: A personalized health smartphone application against environmental stressors and pollutants ................... 83 Assessment of health risks for vulnerable population groups posed by exposure to mercury and its compounds .......... 84 Longitudinal epidemiological study of low-level mercury exposure in susceptible population ...................................... 85

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Essential and toxic elements at Slovenian population: results of human biomonitoring ................................................. 86 Impact of environmental factors on the fate of disabilities, in the province of Béni –Mellal, Morocco ......................... 87 Recent satellite technologies for soil salinity assessment with special focus on Mediterranean countries ...................... 88 Effect of di-butylphthalate spillage scenarios on the general layout of a plant ............................................................... 89 The potential physical impacts of microplastics on Istanbul coastal area ....................................................................... 90 Experimentally investigation for environmentally blasting process of AL 5083-H116 plates ........................................ 91 Internal dosimetry metrics for risk assessment of endocrine disruptors – the case of bisphenol A ................................. 92 A methodological approach in quantifying uncertainties of air quality health impact assessments ................................ 93 A stochastic approach to spatially disaggregate pesticide usage data for health impact assessment studies ................... 94 Cancer risk of PAHs in biomass emitted particulates ..................................................................................................... 95

Climate change mitigation and adaptation ...................................................................... 96 Temporal and spatial analysis of tornado cases in Turkey .............................................................................................. 97 Temporal and spatial analysis of hail in Turkey ............................................................................................................. 98 Seasonality and persistence investigation of extreme precipitations for Eastern Black Sea region ................................ 99 Turkey’s technıcs and technologıes for combatıng desertıfıcatıon ............................................................................... 100 Tillage effects on basic properties of an calcareous soil under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions in Morocco ......... 101 Soil characterization and comparison of organic matter quality and quantity of two stands under different vegetation cover on Monte Faito (Campania, S-Italy) .................................................................................................................... 102 Impact of no-tillage systems on quality of a calcixeroll soil in Chaouia plain (western Morocco) ............................... 103 Climate change impact on photodegradation and ecotoxicity of PAHs in Mediterranean soils .................................... 104 Resilience of restored ecosystems as the basic attribute which mitigates the effects of climate change: Α review of the literature ........................................................................................................................................................................ 105 Remote sensing and GIS based prediction of the rainfall on Mosul city ....................................................................... 106 Applicatıon of terrestrial laser scanner for quantification of beach profiles .................................................................. 107 Multisite modeling and prediction of annual and monthly precipitation records in the Cheliff watershed – Algeria ... 108 Investigation of the adaptation potential of winter wheat to future climatic conditions in northwest Turkey using CERESWheat and WOFOST Models ....................................................................................................................................... 109 Public health co-benefits from traffic related greenhouse gas emission policies to the city of Thessaloniki ................ 110 Noise pollution in the city of Thessaloniki: the effect of climate change policies ........................................................ 111 The Cyprus adaptation strategy to climate change-focus on water ............................................................................... 112 Temperature persistence as a criterion of climate change ............................................................................................. 113

Indoor and outdoor air pollution .................................................................................... 114 Indoor air quality in residences at the city of Kozani, Greece: effects of the house location ........................................ 115 Exposure to volatile organic compounds in the downtown of Belgrade ....................................................................... 116 Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk..................................................................... 117 PM2.5 bound organic molecular marker speciation methods and observations from daily measurements in Ankara, Turkey ........................................................................................................................................................................... 118 Development of standardized method on automated measuring systems for particulate matter PM10, PM2.5: field validation tests .............................................................................................................................................................. 119 Vertical characteristics of the PM10 and PM2.5 profile in a real urban street canyon: concentrations, chemical composition and associated health risks ........................................................................................................................ 120 Summertime concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at background sites across the Aegean: phase partitioning and size distribution ................................................................................................................................... 121 Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental Balkan (Belgrade) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 122 VOCs, PAHs and ions measurements in an office environment in the vicinity of a small industry .............................. 123

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Similarities and differences in compositions of Eastern and Western Black Sea aerosol ............................................. 124 Temporal evolution of PM10 concentrations during 2001-2013 in the city of Volos, Greece ...................................... 125 From the smallest (10 nm) to the biggest (10 µm) particle: a complete PM characterization ....................................... 126 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 Over Marmara Region, Turkey........................................................................... 127 Hazardous fume emissions in MMA welding of AH-36 steel with different electrodes and analysis with taguchi and ANOVA ........................................................................................................................................................................ 128 Study of dissolved organic matter and its spectroscopic characteristics in rainwater of an urban area ......................... 129 Monitoring of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag technique near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley (southern Italy)............................................................................................................... 130 PM1 measurements close to an oil/gas pre-treatment plant: the case study of the Agri Valley -southern Italy ............ 131 Human exposure and risk assessment of three PM fractions (10, 2.5 and 1) in an urban-industrial area of Barcelona. 132 Using lichens to monitor PAHs in a multi-source industrial and urban area ................................................................. 133 Buildings design and indoor air quality-experience and prospects ............................................................................... 134 Airborne nanoparticles. Recent toxicological findings and human health implications ................................................ 135 Comparison of influence of dust transport to PM10 concentrations in different cities located on Mediterranean coast of Turkey ........................................................................................................................................................................... 136 Monitoring of PM2.5 and PM10 levels in indoor places .............................................................................................. 137 Relationship between concentration of ozone, α-pinene, d-limonene and aldehydes in cold and warm seasons at office micro-environments across Europe by statistical data analysis ..................................................................................... 138 Study of in-vehicle particulate matter exposure ............................................................................................................ 139 Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge ..................................................................... 140 Reactive oxygen species associated with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Metropolitan area of Thessaloniki: chemical analysis and source apportionment ............................................................................................................................................. 141 The method of measuring radon flux density and values of other environmental factors as earthquake precursors; the application of automatic anomaly detection software ................................................................................................... 142 Public participation in air quality monitoring ............................................................................................................... 143 Indoor BTEX and carbonyls levels in Thessaloniki, Greece, emitted from building materials ..................................... 144 Cancer risk associated to combined exposure to indoor BTEX and carbonyls emitted from building materials .......... 145 Determination of 19 PAHs in air samples using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ......................................... 146 Indoor galaxolide concentration prediction from building and occupants characteristics ............................................. 147 The potential use of a particulate matter sensor for “Exposome” research. .................................................................. 148 Radon measurements in dwellings of Central Macedonia ............................................................................................ 149 Radioactivity measurements and physicomechanical properties of building materials used in Northern Greece: a combination study ......................................................................................................................................................... 150

Water and soil pollution and control .............................................................................. 151 Pressure control in district metering areas - case study Luxor ...................................................................................... 152 Investigation of coliform bacteria removal efficiency in the urban wastewater treatment plant of the city of Sakarya 153 Trace elements analyses in the liver of deep sea fauna from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) ..... 154 Magnetite nanoparticles and yeast as a new biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt .................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Challenges in selection of small – medium scale wastewater treatment alternatives in terms of water reuse ............... 156 Fractionation and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments in Serbia ............................................... 157 Biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by a Pseudomonas Spp ........................................................................................... 158 Effect of foreign ions on removing copper (II) from aqueous solutions by treated Martil sand .................................... 159 Impact of environment pollution caused by waters discharges of SOMIVER society: Recuperation Silver ................ 160 A green hydrothermal route to copper (II) recovery by reduction using D-glucose ...................................................... 161 Photocatalytic degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by sodium decatungstate ................................................. 162

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The content of heavy metal mobile forms in soils of the Rostov agglomeration .......................................................... 163 Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in river network of Serbia ....... 164 Release, toxicity and interaction with clay minerals of silver nanoparticles and ions ................................................... 165 Influence of parameters in photocatalytic degradation of chloridazon herbecide in aqueous TiO2 suspensions ........... 166 Trace metals accumulation and their translocation in "Phragmites australis" (L.) collected along the Sarno River ..... 167 Trace metals accumulation in "Fragaria ananassa" and its possible use as a bioaccumulator ....................................... 168 Soil–plant transfer of trace metals to vegetable of "Helianthus tuberosus" and "Solanum lycopersicum" plants ......... 169 Environmental monitoring of Inner Thermaikos Gulf - The ICME Project .................................................................. 170 Copper biosorption by Argan nut shell: Equilibrium study........................................................................................... 171 Sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in municipal wastewater ......................................................................................... 172 Comparation of treatability of tannerywastewater by using chemical coagulation & electrocoagulation process ........ 173 Linear musk compounds in waste water ....................................................................................................................... 174 Complexation of chrome by nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite: application in tannery of Marrakech Morocco ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Removal of glyphosate treatment aerated biofilter........................................................................................................ 176 Adsorption study of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solution on layered double hydroxides ......................... 177 Multi-wall carbon nanotubes – synthesis, characteristics and possibility of their use in the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater .................................................................................................................................................... 178 Treatment of medium density fiberboard wastewater by Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/persulfate enhanced hydrodynamic cavitation processes ...................................................................................................................................................... 179 The effects of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(ii) and Mn(ii) removal by submerged membrane system and its application of least squares method .............................................................................................................................. 180 Study of the effects of wastewater treatment technologies on the elimination of pollutants from aquatic ecosystem .. 181 Bisphenol A in waste water in the Czech Republic ...................................................................................................... 182 Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration ............. 183 Alum sludge valorisation on phosphate removal from aqueous solution ...................................................................... 184 Treatment of some metal ions in leachate in compacted and consolidated grounds and variability hydraulic conductivity ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Survey of annual for filamentous microorganisms characterization in wastewater treatment plant in South Turkey Antalya .......................................................................................................................................................................... 186 Soil and water usage as sustainable natural resources at Mediterranean region in Turkey ........................................... 187 The effect of temperature on biological foaming potential and stability in activated sludge ........................................ 188 Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate on soil microbiota: influence of soil organic matter content ................................... 189 Occurrence, distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia .......................................................................................................................................................................... 190 Removal of basic red 46 dye from aqueous solutions by untreated alfa grass .............................................................. 191 Physicochemical characterization of leachate discharge fkih ben salah from Morocco ................................................ 192 Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network ......................................................................... 193 Mercury and dichromate free determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD)........................................................ 194 Retention of PAHs in a Mediterranean soil after different amendments ....................................................................... 195 Variation of physicochemical parameters in a longline mussel culture system............................................................. 196 Trials of clay materials for discoloration and detoxification of water from the olive mill waste .................................. 197 Cadmium could affect (Mytilus galloprovincialis) health reproductive by changing sperm PLII and PLIII proteins properties and promoting DNA oxidative damage ........................................................................................................ 198 Regional distributions of geochemical properties in Mersin and Iskenderun bays ....................................................... 199 Analysis of pressures and impacts for the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir ............................................. 200 Microbial toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in soils of contrasting pH ......................................................................... 201

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Analysis of trends in the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir........................................................................ 202 Monitoring the health status of some fishes exposed to environmental heavy metals pollution ................................... 203 Lead treatment alternatives by chemical precipitation .................................................................................................. 204 Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network ......................................................................... 205 Biodegradation of 2,4 chorophenol by the acclimated activated sludge microorganisms in a tubular bioreactor ......... 206 Equilibrium and kinetics study of phosphate removal from natural seawater by adsorption on pretreated eggshell .... 207 Photocatalytic degradation of natural seawater organic matter ..................................................................................... 208 Biological, photocatalytic and ultrasound treatment of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic: ciprofloxacin ............................. 209 Pharmaceutical compounds in non-conventional water resources in Tunisia ............................................................... 210 GST induction and ultrastructural alterations in Lemna minor L. exposed in bags in a polluted river of South Italy ... 211 Atmospheric pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) in the Italian Triangle of Death .......................................................................................................................................................... 212 Heavy metals in treated wastewater resources used for irrigation: case studies from Nabeul-Tunisia.......................... 213 Elucidating the mechanism of ultrafiltration by investigating of dye-surfactant interactions in aqueous solutions ...... 214 Determining the water pollution of Kizilirmak river of Turkey by using satellite images and spectral measurement data ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 215 Equilibrium and kinetics study of nitrate removal from natural seawater by adsorption eggshell ................................ 216 Treatment of bilge water by hybrid adsorption and photocatalytic processes ............................................................... 217 The impacts of cargo wash operations in bulk carriers to the marine environments ..................................................... 218 Treatment and recovery of table olive wastewater via membrane separation technologies .......................................... 219 Multispecies algal bioassay to study the contamination of coastal waters in the estuarine mixing area ....................... 220 Impact of synthetic estrogen 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol on carbon removal kinetics .................................................... 221 The determination of bacteriological quality of Kilyos-İğneada coast and sea water ................................................... 222 Ongoing and potential oil pollution in the Adriatic Sea ................................................................................................ 223 Spectroscopic analysis of nitric-acid treated mixtures on the base of biomass and chicken litter ................................. 224 Soil contamination by heavy metals in flood plain of Qweik river, Aleppo, Syria ....................................................... 225 Sedimentology and heavy metals of the dust storms in Tikrit city/ Iraq ....................................................................... 226

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity ............................................................................................ 227 Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment ........... 228 The molecule preserve environment: effects of inhibitor of the angiotensin converting enzyme on reproductive potential and composition contents of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller............................................... 229 Toxic effects of fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress .............................................................................................................................................................. 230 Toxicity of Acaricides to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions ................................................... 231 Cyanotoxicity responses to the ecological status of the Greek lakes............................................................................. 232 Oil pollution in eastern coastline of Algeria ................................................................................................................. 233 Evaluation of the impact of heavy metals in Callista chione using glutathione reductase as a potential biomarker of stress ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 234 An insightful molecular analysis reveals foreign honeybees among Algerian honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 235 Assessment of genotoxic effects of a fungicide (propiconazole) in green frog tadpole’s Rana saharica using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet essay) ................................................................................................................ 236 Ameliorative effect of (Triticum durum) on thyroid, liver and reproductive functions of males albino rats induced with lead acetate.................................................................................................................................................................... 237 Effect of fungicides propinebe, proconazole and their mixture in the male rat ............................................................. 238 Cumulative effect of fungicides and their mixture in the male rat ................................................................................ 239

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Histological effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa after exposure to thiamethoxam ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 240 In vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles in Daphnia magna upon chronic aqueous exposure ................................. 241 Hazardous potential of gold nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay on Arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 242 Investigation of land use/cover changes of Sazlidere basin by using normalized difference impervious surface index 243 Seasonal investigation of the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contens of dominant macroalgae in the western coast of the Black Sea ...................................................................................................................................................................... 244 The effect of the temporal changes on the phytoplankton composition at the Istanbul coastal area ............................. 245 The molecular properties of nitrodibenzofurans and their mutagenic activities ............................................................ 246 Trace elements analysis along a simple food chain using feathers of Italian Sparrows in different age classes as monitors of pollution in Southern Italy ........................................................................................................................................ 247 Mixtures of contaminants and complex samples: basic challenges for microalgae-based ecotoxicological tests ......... 248 Data on macrozoobenthos of the mediolittoral of Sazani island (Albania) ................................................................... 249 Toxic effects of Fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress .............................................................................................................................................................. 250 Assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plant cleaning process using ecotoxicity tests.......................... 251 The impacts of the ship ballasting on the sea biodiversity ............................................................................................ 252 Algal ecotoxicological testing of groundwater priority contaminants using closed-system technique ......................... 253 Investigation of potential biological sensivity of sediments of Aliağa Bay .................................................................. 254 Thermal map analysis of tree trunks in urban parks with spatial statistics .................................................................... 255 Fungi: Their role in biodeterioration of historical monuments...................................................................................... 256

Energy, environment and sustainability ........................................................................ 257 Simulation and optimisation of solvent amine consumption in column absorption of natural gas treatment ................ 258 Evaluating the topographic effect on estimation of renewable energy sources potential in Sakarya basin ................... 259 Synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes ........ 260 Computational fluid dynamics approach to wind energy calculation and assessment of wind resource of Aegean region in Turkey....................................................................................................................................................................... 261 Comparison with linear and non-linear models in long-term wind energy production ................................................. 262 Change of enzyme activity of the catalase of the brown forest soil of the republic of Crimea after the influence of the alternating magnetic field and contamination by nickel ................................................................................................ 263 Change of length of roots and sprouts of the radish on the alkalinity chernozem of Crimea after the influence of the variation of magnetic field and contamination by nickel .............................................................................................. 264 Persistency of bacteria of the genus of Azotobacter of the dark-chestnut soil of the Crimea to the influence of the variation magnetic field and contamination by nickel .................................................................................................................. 265 Electrochemical behavior of lead alloys in the presence of two surfactants in 0.5 M sulfuric acid .............................. 266 The use of geoinformation technology while determining the route of the water ways: A case study of Channel Istanbul ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 267 Determining characteristics of lands effected by noise pollution of airports ................................................................ 268 Determination of the cultivated areas with landsat 8 multi-temporal images: evaluation of spectral vegetation indices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Variation of chlorophyll-α concentrations related to winter weather conditions........................................................... 270 Minimizing air pollutant emissions from cruise ships by alternative maritime power "Case ttudy: Kuşadası port" ..... 271 Environmental research on factors of comfort conditions and microclimate in urban open spaces .............................. 272 Energy: an interdisciplinary study for advanced solutions ............................................................................................ 273 Evaluation of research activities dealing with solid waste management in MENA countries ....................................... 274 Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in soil profile from the loukous valley using GC-ECD ......................................... 275 Solar energy potential of cities in Turkey; A GIS based analysis ................................................................................. 276

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Impact of hydrocarbons pollution on the physiology and the metabolism of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L): study of the mechanisms of their phytoremédiateur potential ..................................................................................................... 277 An auxiliary tool for landscape evaluation: Ecological risk analysis based on analytic hierarchy process ................... 278 Proposed certification standard for the sustainable management and development of Mediterranean beaches ............ 279 Innovative approaches in plant growth: LED and Saharan desert dust ......................................................................... 280 Investigation of wind data with different time scales by using chaotic approach ......................................................... 281 Comparison of modeled and measured CO2 exchanges over winter wheat in the Thrace part of Turkey ..................... 282 Development of typical meteorological year for representative areas of the Greek region ........................................... 283 The efficiency of artificial neural networks modelling in forecasting daily global solar irradiation one day ahead ..... 284 Small hydro power stations contribution in Greek electricity generation. Present situation and future prospects ........ 285 Drought monitoring based on soil moisture related NDVI-LST feature space in Southern East of Turkey using MODIS data................................................................................................................................................................................ 286 Renewable energy investments, historic environments, and local communities in Greece: existing policy and practice, and suggestions towards sustainability ......................................................................................................................... 287 A comparison of spatio-temporal interpolation methods to estimate speed information .............................................. 288 Techno-economic analysis for the optimal hybrid renewable energy based system planning in autonomous islands of Aegean Sea ................................................................................................................................................................... 289 Enhancing carbon footprint estimation via spatial data ................................................................................................. 290 A comparative analysis of local sustainable energy strategies among European communities ..................................... 291 Creating urban growth simulation models driven by the Bosphorus bridges ................................................................ 292 Risk management of Koprivlen landslides .................................................................................................................... 293 Migration of soaring birds over Belen windfarm in Belen pass / Antakya TURKEY ................................................... 294 Actual challenges for agriculture wastes treatment and environmental impact ............................................................. 295 A study of the uptake of heavy metals by plants alfalfa ................................................................................................ 296

Environmental aspects of nutrition ................................................................................ 297 CD36 AA-genotype is associated with decreased lipid taste perception in Tunisian obese subjects ............................ 298 Honeybee hive products and their antimicrobial activity .............................................................................................. 299 Detection of some metals in honey from Ankara, Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry ..................................... 300 Analysis of food consumption in children .................................................................................................................... 301 Effect of dredged material dumping into coastal and off-shore waters on local phytoplankton communities .............. 302 Attenuation of Spirulina Platensis on acute liver injury in rats exposed to both γ- radiation and carbon tetrachloride . 303 Environmental dimensions of nutrition and diet in public health and chronic disease. A case for Mediterranean diet?304

Environmental economics, policy and education .......................................................... 305 Impact of tourism in a small coastal resort of N.W. Greece .......................................................................................... 306 The economic values of ecosystem goods and services in Karavasta Lagoon, Albania ................................................ 307 Tendencies towards environmental criminality during the recession in Greece............................................................ 308 A new approach for quantitative measure of urban complexity by metric entropy method .......................................... 309 The procedures onboard the ships against environment pollution ................................................................................ 310 Geovisualization of time variance ................................................................................................................................. 311 What is the real cost of energy? Comparison between E.U. and Greece ....................................................................... 312 Creating motives and tools in order to enable citizens to become “Smart Citizens”: A “socially-oriented” bottom-up approach towards sustainability .................................................................................................................................... 313 Life saving kiosk for sustainable disaster crisis management ....................................................................................... 314 A novel and innovative approach in energy and environmental advanced education ................................................... 315 Strategic environmental planning in the Region of Central Macedonia: The role of Technical Chamber of Greece/Section of Central Macedonia.................................................................................................................................................... 316

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Exposome Workshop ....................................................................................................... 317 Multiscale connectivity - a high dimension biology approach to unravel the exposome .............................................. 318 Using a physical activity monitor and smartphone app to determine time-use and location information for exposure studies ........................................................................................................................................................................... 319 Environmental origin of neurodevelopmental disorders: in vivo models to unraveling complex etiologies ................. 320

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Sustainable natural resource and waste management

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Satellite-based multi-temporal assessment of a dried lake: case study of Akgol wetland Musaoglu Nebiye, Dervisoglu Adalet, Tanik Aysegul, Seker Dursun Zafer, Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University

Wetlands are well-known with their rich biological diversity and economic value beyond their significant functions like serving nesting and breeding areas for the migrating birds, maintaining partial treatment of wastewater, etc. Turkey, as a signatory of the Ramsar Convention, has committed to protect her valuable and numerous wetlands and to utilize them more rationally. Akgol Wetland, addressed as part of the Eregli Reeds, is located within the borders of Konya Watershed of Turkey at the southern end of Inner Anatolia region of Turkey (Figure 1). Due to its semi-arid climatic prevalence, the adverse effects of global climate change have started to be experienced. According to Ramsar Wetland Type Classification, Akgol is declared as Class A- Permanent shallow marine waters. The entire system consists of shallow wetlands, reeds, saline steps and of 5 freshwater lakes connected to each other. Prior to being dried, the area had been hosting to 250 different type birds among which the well-known ones were cormorants, pelicans, herns, flamingos, ducks, swallows, lapwings, hirundos, etc. Wetlands are well-known with their rich biological diversity and economic value beyond their significant functions like serving nesting and breeding areas for the migrating birds, maintaining partial treatment of wastewater, etc. Turkey, as a signatory of the Ramsar Convention, has committed to protect her valuable and numerous wetlands and to utilize them more rationally. Akgol Wetland, addressed as part of the Eregli Reeds, is located within the borders of Konya Watershed of Turkey at the southern end of Inner Anatolia region of Turkey (Figure 1). Due to its semi-arid climatic prevalence, the adverse effects of global climate change have started to be experienced. According to Ramsar Wetland Type Classification, Akgol is declared as Class A- Permanent shallow marine waters. The entire system consists of shallow wetlands, reeds, saline steps and of 5 freshwater lakes connected to each other. Prior to being dried, the area had been hosting to 250 different type birds among which the well-known ones were cormorants, pelicans, herns, flamingos, ducks, swallows, lapwings, hirundos, etc. The objective of the study is to set an ‘Information Database’ of the watershed by determining the temporal changes in land-use activities with time, the effective processes that were dominating and the percent distribution of the prevailing activities. As such, this study aims to aid decision makers and planners in the rehabilitation of vulnerable natural water bodies by providing valuable historical data and conducting data analyses on the land and water resources.

Keywords: remote sensing, Geographic Information System, wetland, akgol, change detection

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Investigation of morphometric and hydrological characteristics water basins using GIS based numerical models Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics, Istanbul, Turkey

Various models are being used in determination of the water basins similarity. Widely used methods assess the general characteristics of the basins with the aid of morphometric parameters. Studies might be the form of comparing the whole basin area with itssubbasins in order to find similarities and to compare basins with each other. Hydrologic and morphologic analyses are done to find out the main characteristics of the basins. In this study, Buyuk Menderes basin which extends across a long walley and flow into the Aegean Sea is chosen as the field of study. Buyuk Menderes Basin houses the Buyuk Menderes River which is the longest river in Western Anatolia and forms an important source of water supply in the region. In the basin, there is a characteristic of meander, towards the river mouth. Rivers bed ends with a productive plain formed by alluvium which has a significant importance especially for farming activities in the region. In this study, the morphologic structure of Buyuk Menderes Basin and Subbasins forming this basin are compared. The main interest of assessments is hydrologic reactions of these subbasins. ArcGIS 9.3 software and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are used in the study, which provides a big convenience in calculating parameters especially like drainage density, bifurcation ratio and sinusoidal index. Along with Morphometric parameters, land areas giving same hydrological response (HRU) were determined by use of ArcSWAT interface. For these computations, 10 m spatial resolution Digital Elevation Model(DEM) data, basin’s soil maps, 2012 dated Corine land cover data and hour interval weather predictions by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction of the U.S. National Weather Service, (in form of data sets Climate Forecast System Reanalysis-CFSR) were used as inputs to the model. The effects of morphologic structures of the basins and the hydraulic characteristic of basin having similarities were computed by using morphometric parameters of basins in numeric methods and in the ArcSWAT interface by determining areas which have similar hydrologicaly response units. According to these analyses, Morphologic and hydrologic structure similarities of basins were assessed. The morphologic parameter values obtained in the study, defined ranges of these values and the other morphometric parameters were put into relationship to acquired a general opinion about the basin. The relationship between the Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) generated from the model and the results of morphologic analysis have provided an opinion to be given to the overall basin. Results of the realized study will be useful on the better definition of basin characteristics and watershed management.

Keywords: basin morphology, drainage density, bifurcation ratio, sinusoidal index

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Determination of conservation areas and tracking sustainability with Lucis model: A case study of Istanbul Kaya Sinasi Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics, Istanbul, Turkey

Since 20st century, rapid developments in technology and science have caused dramatic change in human life and these changes have resulted in irreversible environmental damage and pollution. At first, relatively low population and abundant natural resources brought wastefulness easily. However, increasing population, from 1.5 billion at the beginning of century to over 3 billion at middle of century, caused decrease of natural resources and rising environmental pollution. This phenomena lead people to search for new development and planning methods. Protection of environment and natural resources has been accepted as one of the planned development’s priorities due to devastating effects of chemical weapons on environment and human health caused by First and Second World Wars. As a global metropolis, Istanbul also experienced these processes and by 1950s, it has faced distorted and uncontrolled urbanization due to mass immigration. Bosporus bridges, built in 1973 and 1988, has directed growth of urbanization to north of the city. Istanbul already hosts the 20% of Turkish population and it continues to growth with macro projects. However, this population growth has been threatening the city’s forests that are located especially at north parts, protected water basins, agricultural lands, and protected areas for natural lives or historical heritages. In this study, LUCIS (Land Use Conflict Identification Strategy) model is used to find best suitable conservation areas with regards to land use conflicts. LUCIS model has been used to identify most suitable lands for conservation especially in developing countries to find solution for land use conflicts. LUCIS model enable new tools for Land-use suitability analysis and produces a spatial representation of probable conflicts of future land use. The model uses Model Builder interface of ArcGIS, which is software related to Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Through this model, strategies and targets are created, best suitable conservation areas are determined in terms of physical and economic aspects and results are compared with current conservation areas. According to the results of this study, natural resources, water basins, forests, and green areas and parks in city has been under pressure by urbanization at Istanbul. It shows that development plans should give more priority on environmental and natural resource protection instead of economic reasons. Moreover, model for future conservation land areas are produced with LUCIS for environment and natural resource protection.

Keywords: sustainability, resource usage, lucis, land use, GIS, development, planning, suitability analysis

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater with magnetite TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles Enayati Ahangar Laleh1, Movassaghi Karim1, Emadi Masoomeh2 1

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran, Chemistry Department, Azad Islamic University Marvdasht Branch 72711-13119, Iran

2

In this study Magnetite TiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles ([email protected]) was used for photocatalic threatment of cephalosprines antibiotics from the pharmaceutical wastewater. Magnetic-nanoparticles were prepared according to Massart’s method. Briefly, adding an aliquot of tetraethylammonium hydroxide was to the iron (II) sulfate solution and an iron (III) chloride solution (2:1 mol ratio) were mixed under vigorous mechanical stirring. Immediately a black solution of magnetite formed. TiO2 layer was produced by a solvothermal method by adding titanium tetrabutoxide solution to Fe2O3 suspension in ethanol. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and FT-IR and UV-Vis Persistence of pharmaceutical residues was demonstrated for common treatments applied for pharmaceutical wastewaters, such as sand filtration, chemical, chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation, advanced oxidation processes and activated carbon TiO2 photocatalysis is an emerging wastewater treatment technology with key advantages including the lack of mass transfer limitations. For determination the kinetic of treatment with [email protected] in presence of UV irradiation different times were used. Decreasing of UV-Vis absorption of wastewater after treatment relative to different time was monitored by UV-Vis spectrum of wastewater samples. Immobilizing TiO2 on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles is a good strategy that enables the scientists to recover the photocatalysis for several treatment processes. TiO2-MNP could be easily separated from wastewater by applying a magnetic field. In this research for achieving a good performance in treatment process several parameters were optimized as will be mentioned in below such as UV irradiation, pH, amount of TiO2-MNP and time. The efficiency of this method is 100% for low concentration and for high concentration of cephalosporin antibiotics needs two steps of the treatment. References 1. Frauke Luddeke, Stefanie Heb, Claudia Gallert, Josef Winter, Hans Gude, Herbert Leoffler, water research, Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques, 69 (2015) 243-251. 2. Klaus Kümmerer, Chemosphere, Antibiotics in the aquatic environment– A review– Part I 75 (2009) 417–434. 3. Adriana Ledezma Estrada, Yu-You Li, Aimin Wang, Biodegradability enhancement of wastewater containing cefalexin by means of the electro-Fenton oxidation process Journal of Hazardous Materials, 227– 228 (2012) 41– 48.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, TiO2 @ Fe3O4, parmaceutical coumpound, cephalosprine antibiotics, wastewater, Photocatalic degradation.

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Water consumption of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting model Sivri Nuket1, Çilingirtürk Ahmet Mete2, Imamoğlu Mehmet Zeki3, Şeker Dursun Zafer3 1

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. Environmental Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul, TURKEY 2 Marmara University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Dept. Statistics, Bahcelievler, Istanbul, TURKEY 3 Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatics Engineering, 34469, Istanbul, TURKEY Together with changing climatic conditions, environmental pollution and the future scenarios associated with increasing population foresees the water shortage even water famine. In an established city especially in large cities municipalities should plan and expand the infrastructure investments based on the forecasting water consumption with related to population growth using prediction methods. Especially in large metropolitan cities those planning are vital. In this study, water consumption of the 39 districts of Istanbul province was investigated during the period of 2010-2014. However, for the 18 of the 39 districts of Istanbul province any statistically significant patterns were not established among the tested with a variety of mathematical models. Main reasons of failures of these modellings could be considered as the high amount of migration of the district, the restructuring of the administrative borders, re-planning of the districts as either industrial or commercial districts. In the study it is tried to determined meaningful absolute water consumption rates for the province of Istanbul by means of statistical forecasting models. The results of ratio model are close to logistic model. In addition, it is studied determined the districts which are in different behavior using basic statistics of the changes in water consumption based on the years. However, due to the possible differentiations of the size and development level, similar districts were separated by cluster analysis. Four different water consumption patterns were emerged after the analysis. Thus, determination of the different and excessive behavior become more meaningful and its relationship with other parameters were defined for interpretation. When the results were analyzed, extreme changes in 8 districts were figure out. In addition, using two phase least squares method, only accepting water consumption statistics as associated sequentially; it is possible to obtain the prediction and determine units which are not suitable to the model. This application presented that 3 districts whose administrative boundaries were changed are different than the others. Statistical results were visualized using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this study it is resulted that the planning can be done using mathematical methods especially in developing cities. In this way, effective investment can be considered and supported with training about water consumption issues. In the study special water boundary maps of the districts were created using GIS.

Keywords: mathematical methods, water consumption, logistic model, Istanbul

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Sustainable natural resource and waste management

Valorisation of incineration residues by solidification Zineb Salem1, Hichem Boutamine1, Fatiha Salem2, Mohamed Khodja1, Khedidja Allia1 FGC, USTHB, Bâb - Ezzouar 16 111 Algiers, Algeria LSGPI.FGMGP, USTHB, Bâb - Ezzouar 16 111 Algiers, Algeria.

1 2

Incineration is so far the most reliable method to reduce the volume of waste, it remains no less an important generator of residues strongly harmful and dangerous to the environment, The aim of this work is to study the effectiveness of stabilization-solidification process, applied to incineration residues of pharmaceutical waste, to a value in the field of civil engineering. This process is also known for its efficiency in the containment of pollution. The residues used in this work were obtained from expired pharmaceutical product incineration (ECFERAL incinerator, ALGIERS). This study involves characterizing residues considered before treatment. These residues shows strong alkaline property with pH=10.24. The residues density of 2 g.cm-3 makes it a fairly light material. The main chemical components of incineration residues are sulfate and chloride, and small amount of other elements. The metals leachate pollution respects the following limiting values with: Cd 0,05) and level of the functional condition goes down for 19% (р ≤ 0,05). Visual and motor reaction of students increases by 7,5 % (р > 0,05), the total number of mistakes on light incentive increases for 60% (р < 0,001). We found out that at the sleep deprivation in the saliva activity of the catalase goes down for 49,7 % (р < 0,001), the content of the hemoglobin increases for 47,6 % (р < 0,001). It is known that at the moderate stress there is the inhibition of free radical processes, peroxidation of lipids and activation of the antioxidant system of the organism. However at a long tension increase of intensity of free radical processes and fall of antioxidant protection of cages – superoxide dismutases and catalases is observed. Thus, we established that at the daily deprivation of the sleep in the organism of students attention level, working capacity, adaptation goes down and prooksidant/antioxidant balance is displaced.

Keywords: сatalase, hemoglobin, saliva, health, deprivattion, sleep

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Environmental health and well being

Assessment of the environmental impact of heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the ports and bays in Montenegro Castelli Ana, Mitric Milena, Kljajic Zoran Institute of Marine Biology, University of Montenegro

In the conditions affected by human activities, concentrations of heavy metals in surficial sediments can exist in elevated levels and pose a threat for the marine ecosystem health. This is particularly evident in the ecosystems of ports, populated and industrialized coastal area. The surficial sediments were sampled in September 2014 at 11 positions, belonging to the aquatorium of the ports and bays in coastal area in Montenegro. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration and pollution level of the Cd, Hg, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr and As. The concentrations of selected heavy metals in the surficial sediment (0-2cm), for the fine fraction < 0,63µm, were obtained by using ICP-MS method. In the absence of the national criteria for the quality of sediment, the assessment based on the screening, was carried out by referring to the criteria of the UK Cefas guidelines, relating to the disposal of dredged material and the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life, based on toxicology data, as well as to the MACs listed in national Regulations on permitted amounts of hazardous and harmful substances in soil, and by comparing to the region. The range of concentration for the selected elements, in mg/kg d.w., were following: Cd (0,11-1,68), Hg (0,05-4,40), Cu (12,48-121,51), Ni (58,26-161,68), Pb (8,97-228,15), Zn (34,52-350,65), Cr (38,56-95,80) and As (9,70-39,05). In almost all location, Cd content in the sediment was of no concern and not dangerous for the protection of aquatic biota, as it is expected to cause very rare adverse biological effect. The contents of Hg, Cu, Cr and Ni in sediments could represent a potential danger for the exposed organisms, but these sediments need further testing in order to define whether their levels in sediment pose a significant threat to organisms. The As concentration in most of sediment samples should not pose a problem for the sediment disposal into the sea. However, according to the Canadian sediment quality guidelines, these sediments could occasionally be threat to the living organisms and further research on the impact of As, present in the sediment, is suggested. The Zn and Pb content in sediment samples is equally distributed from that of no concern, to one that requires further consideration and testing of sediment before its disposal into the sea. However, content of Zn in the sediment of most locations should not cause adverse effect to biota, while the Pb concentrations in the sediment of many locations could occasionally cause adverse effects. The element content above the value that points to frequent and significant threat to the living organisms, was measured for Hg (two locations) and for Cu, Pb and Zn (one location). One location had sediment (Hg) undesirable for disposal into the sea. This study was performed within the framework of the National environmental monitoring program - marine ecosystem part.

Keywords: assessment, heavy metals, sediment

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Environmental health and well being

Geospatial quantification of pollutant loads in ports Sakellariadou Fani Department of Maritime Studies, University of Piraeus

Ports are small semi-closed marine areas hosting numerous pollutant activities. They are recognized as hot spots and secondary pollutant sources for the adjacent coastal area. Major contaminants include heavy metals, organometallics, persistent organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Ports are characterized by limited water mixing with the open sea. Therefore, pollutants are accumulated in the water column and finally deposited to the sediment matrix as sea sediments are physical traps for many environmental pollutants. This mechanism can build up to chronic pollution levels that may result in ecological degradation with potential severe impacts on marine bio-communities’ and species’ well-being, the possibility of cascading effects upon human health through the food web and effects upon the economy. As sea sediments act as archive of environmental pollution trends it is accepted that dated sediment cores measurements reveal the effectiveness of convention and regulations to control and eliminate the environmental input of pollutant loads. The extent of sediment contamination should be thoroughly quantified and for this reason a procedure of specific geospatial and statistical techniques should be applied. It is well known that geostatistical techniques produce a prediction surface as well as provide some measure of the certainty or accuracy of the predictions. The application of statistical methods on the geochemical data is widely used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic over natural causes that may affect environmental status. At the present paper, a geostatistic approach was applied to generate the metal pollution dispersion to the Piraeus port area. Piraeus port is the largest Greek seaport and one of the largest ports in Europe, located at the crossroads of three continents, Europe, Africa and Asia and serving as a port of Athens since Archaic times. It includes passenger and commercial ports, a ship repair zone and a container terminal. In a first step, sediment samples from specific sample points of the Piraeus port were collected. Each of them was treated by hand for the removal of unrepresentative material and then it was homogenized. Samples were dried at 40°C and thoroughly ground using a small pestle and mortar. The samples were digested with a mixture of concentrated HNO3-HF-HClO4 in screw capped Teflon beakers on a hot plate. Metal concentrations were measured with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. In a following step a geodatabase was created by applying a GIS software known as ArcGIS, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute. ArcGIS is considered as a useful tool for working with maps and geographic information, enabling easy display and visualisation of data. Kriging geostatistical method served for the generation of the interpolation surfaces for heavy metal pollution in the study area. The paper provides maps with metal concentrations at sample locations as well as interpolated metal concentrations for the study area. Action Lists for a number of European countries were used to evaluate the contaminant scores of the sampled data. Also, raw geochemical data were treated with agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis to identify metal sources, level of occurrence and differential mobilisation. Keywords: geostatitics, metal, Piraeus, pollution, sea, sediment.

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Environmental health and well being

Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in food samples with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using QuEChERS as extraction method Tsitouridou Roxani1, Tsochatzis Emmanuil1, Gika Hellen1, Kalogiannis Stavros2 1

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Department of Nutrition and Diatetics, 57400, Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece

Dichloroanilines, mainly 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline, are compounds which characterized as Endocrine Disrupting compounds (EDC)and are basic by-products of pesticides degradation. Their detection and existence implies that pesticides application is involved. More specific, 3,4-dichloroaniline is the main by-product of herbicides. Detection of phthalates is correlated with extended pollution (industrial or human). Rivers receive large amounts of those pollutants, which could be easily transported to various cultivations via irrigation channels as in the case of paddy fields. Another reason that phthalates are detected in foods is due to their migration through packaging materials where they widely used. Target analytes are stable in solutions and are resistible at high temperatures. In our study a U-VD SPHER Pure TUR 100 C18-E 1.8 μm (100 x 2.0 mm) analytical column has been used at 30oC to separate 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline as well as di-n-Octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-methyl phthalate (DMP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). A gradient elution program starting from 40 % A (methanol-0.1% HCOOH)-60 % B (H2O-0.1% HCOOH) up to 100 % A was applied, over 15 min, in a flow rate of 200 μL min-1. Selected phthalates, were detected with a triple quadrupole MS, using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ionization mode. Data were collected in MRM mode under optimized conditions. Sample preparation in rice grains, was based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe). Different dispersants (GCB, PSA, C18, Alumina, Florisil) were evaluated for the effective clean-up of the sample. Results indicated good chromatographic separation, fast sample preparation procedure, low sensitivity as well as good accuracy (recoveries, %) and precision (RSD, %) and prove that the method was able to quantify the pollutants in food matrices.

Keywords: dichloroanilines; endocrine disrupting compounds, UPLC-MS

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Environmental health and well being

Sniffing out the plastic: In vitro bioaccessibility of plasticisers present in indoor dust using simulated human lung fluids Kademoglou Katerina1, Giovanoulis Georgios2, Magnér Jörgen2, Collins Chris D.1 1

University of Reading IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

2

Plasticisers are additives imparting durability, elasticity and flexibility in the manufacture of polymeric products such as films and cables. The lack of migration stability has resulted into their classification as major indoor contaminants. Due to their extensive everyday use, the process of assessing human exposure and possible health effects arising from indoor contamination only began the past decade with limited results so far. This study forms a part of the EU Marie Curie Initial Training Network “Advanced Tools for Exposure Assessment and Biomonitoring” (A-TEAM) aiming to develop and establish novel methods on human exposure biomonitoring of flame retardants and pseudo-POPs such as PEs, having as a study group indoor dust originating from N=60 participants’ houses in Norway. In the present study, we investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility (i.e. uptake/absorption) of plasticisers present in indoor dust collected from vacuum cleaner bags with respect to potential routes of exposure such as inhalation. Artificial human body fluids are used regarding the relevant exposure route, i.e. lung fluids. Indoor dust is manually sieved at Na+ > K+. The presence of anions in solution was found to inhibit copper uptake.

Keywords: adsorption, copper, sand, foreign ions

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Water and soil pollution and control

Impact of environment pollution caused by waters discharges of SOMIVER society: Recuperation Silver Ghemmit Doulache Naima Chemistry Department, Faculty of sciences; Fibrous Polymers Treatment and Forming Laboratory, University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Avenue of Independence-35000, ALGERIA

In Algeria, the nonexistence of silver mines makes it particularly rarer than its classification among the precious metals imposes its metal recuperation. The objective of this study is electrodeposition of silver ions of sludge from waste water of miroiterie of SOMIVER Thenia. The process applied in this case is electrolysis of sludge formed in a glass cell containing two electrodes: a cathode made of aluminum and a graphite anode. An adjustable continue current source capable of delivering from 1 to 10 A, this causes the cathode reaction electrodeposition of silver. Therefore, we lead to precede by comparison determinations under the effect of weight of cathode. Its weighing before and after electrolysis, and weight difference, means that amount of silver accumulated. Second, we determined the characteristics of sludge by electrochemical aluminum interface (OCP linear voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) before and after electrolysis, this is made possible by PGZ 301 potentiostat. In the electrolysis of silvering solution it has proved that low currents from 0.5 to 4 A can get a good yield of deposit silver where ∆m increases linearly with increasing intensity of electrolysis current for a period of 30 minutes. By against, for electrolysis currents higher than 4 A we recorded decrease in the amount of silver.

Keywords: silver, sludge, electrolysis, OCP, voltammetry, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

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Water and soil pollution and control

A green hydrothermal route to copper (II) recovery by reduction using D-glucose Djerad Souad, Mahfouf Esma Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Annaba, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000, Algeria.

A variety of industries are responsible for the release of heavy metals into the environment through their waste waters generated from hydrometallurgy, electroplating rinse liquors, petrochemical, refinery, fertilizer, etc. These heavy metals such as copper, chromium, zinc, lead and mercury are toxic for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and for humans. Water pollution by heavy metals is becoming a persistent problem and numerous studies have been focused on different removal techniques such as precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane technology. However, these methods allow removal of metals which are ultimately discarded as sludge and do not permit the reuse of the metals, resulting in a waste of raw materials. As the natural sources for metals are declining, it is becoming more economical to recover heavy metals into their metallic state and reuse them. The reduction technique uses several reducing agents such as hydrogen, sodium borohydride, hydrazine, phosphite, glycerol and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. These reducing agents are highly reactive and pose potential environmental risks. Nowadays, there is obviously an increased emphasis on the topic of green chemistry and chemical processes which aim at the total elimination or the minimization of generated waste and the implementation of sustainable processes. In this study, we present a green hydrothermal method to recover ionic copper in its metallic form using D-glucose, a natural and nontoxic reducing agent. Several parameters were studied such as the molar ratio of glucose/Cu2+:1-2-3-4 and 8, temperature: 30-50-60 and 70°C, and molar ratio of NaOH/Cu2+: 1-1.5 and 2. The concentration of residual Cu2+ was analyzed at the end of the reaction by volumetric method and the powder obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results have shown that the reduction of Cu2+ led to the formation of a mixture of Cu and Cu2O. The optimal conditions obtained were: glucose/Cu2+=4, temperature=60°C and NaOH/Cu2+=1.5 and reaction time=30min.

Keywords: water treatment, copper, D-glucose, green process

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Water and soil pollution and control

Photocatalytic degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by sodium decatungstate Bouziani Asmae1, El Hourch Abderahman1, El Azzouzi Mohammed1, Sarakha Mohamed2 1

Department of chemistry, Mohammed V university, Rabat. Morocco Institut de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand ICCF, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand, France

2

The decatungstate of sodium Na4W10O32 have an incontestable photocatalytic property which was used for the degradation and elimination of the biocide “Triclosan” in aqueous solution using ultraviolet radiation. The photocatalyst Na4W10O32 was synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by UV-Visible and IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, dichlorophenoxy) phenol) was studied using different concentrations of the photocatalyst and excited at 365 nm. In all cases, the degradation process mainly involved the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The system W10O324-/UV showed a very efficient degradation and the total disappearance of triclosan was obtained within 120 min irradiation time. The degradation pathways involved the homolytic scission of C–O bond and hydroxylation of the phenolic group. The process leads to the formation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol which represents 25% of triclosan conversion. The formation of dechlorinated products was also obtained. The intermediate byproducts were identified by means of HPLC/MS/MS using electrospray (ES) interfacing technique.

Keywords: water treatment, photocatalyst, decatungstate, triclosan

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Water and soil pollution and control

The content of heavy metal mobile forms in soils of the Rostov agglomeration Tagiverdiev Suleiman, Gorbov Sergey, Bezuglova Olga, Tischenko Svetlana, Plakhov Herman Academy of biology and biotechnology Southern Federal University The estimation of the heavy metal contamination of soils in Rostov-on-Don and the surrounding area was carried out. The soil profiles were established in different parts of the Rostov agglomeration and are represented of different soil genesis: Urbostratozem (#1304) Screened Urbostratozems (#1302), Calcareous Ordinary Chernozem under woody vegetation (#1306). The content of soluble forms of metals compared with the texture, pH and concentration of organic and inorganic carbon. The contents of heavy metals were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with equipment of Spectroscan MAKS-GV. The soluble forms of metals oxides were extracted with ammonium acetate solution mixed 10:1 with soil. The soluble forms of metal concentrations in the digests and extracts were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil samples were analyzed for texture by wet sieving and sedimentation. The content of total C and inorganic C were measured with dry combustion using high-temperature catalytic combustion analyzer total organic carbon (TOC-L CPN Shimadzu). The degree of soil contamination with heavy metals was assessed by comparing their content with the MPC values (danger coefficient method) or using the total contamination factor Zc = ∑Kc ‒ (n‒1), where Kc is the concentration coefficient equal to the ratio between the metal concentration in the soil and its background value, and n is the number of elements whose content exceeds the background value. The cobalt was the most soluble in Chernozem, due to low carbonate content. It can also be noted that content of cobalt with depth in this soil was decrease. The greatest soluble of metals has the lead - up to 98.5% of the total content. In addition, the mobility of lead is significantly lower in Chernozem in comparison with Urbostratozem. The direct correlation had between the soluble forms of copper and inorganic carbon in all horizons. This is due to the ability of carbonates to bind copper, forming insoluble compounds. These compounds can accumulate in carbonate horizons. If the pH had change to acid side, these compounds break down, and copper again becomes available in soil solution. There is a direct correlation between the content of soluble forms of zinc and lead in relation to organic carbon (#1302). It is contrary to the generally accepted norms of inverse correlation. It is due to complicate of particular Urbostratozems because U horizons are bulk in nature and they are genetically unrelated to the underlying natural soil horizons. The distribution along the profile of manganese and copper had correlate with texture. The distribution of cobalt, zinc and lead in the soil profile wasn’t depending from texture. The high content of soluble forms of heavy metals was observed in anthropogenically transformed horizons mainly. Despite this fact the pollution has low level. This research was supported by project No. 213.01-2014/007 VG, implemented in the framework of the base part of the inner SFU grant, as well as the state support of the leading Scientic schools of the Russian Federation (NSH-2449.2014.4) using equipment PCU "Biotechnology, Biomedicine and environmental monitoring" southern Federal University. Keywords: mobile forms of heavy metal, soil of urban areas, Chernozem

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Water and soil pollution and control

Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in river network of Serbia Devic Gordana J, Djordjevic Dragana, Sakan Sanja IChTM, Center of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Serbia

River systems play an important role in the sustainable development of the entire biophysical environment; inland rivers, in particular, flow through landscapes where ‘‘human– nature’’ interactions have strong and long-lasting effects. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 11 water quality variables collected during the year 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia. The content of elements in water samples of the most important rivers which flow through Serbia as well as their tributaries was examined applying the chemometric techniques. Q-model clustering depends on geographical location of sampling sites, categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, Serbia. Most sites classified as ‘‘low pollution zones’’ (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as ‘‘moderate and high pollution zones’’ (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, nonpoint source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. Our results revealed that river waters were primarily polluted by TN, TP, As and Ni with remarkably spatio variability, and there were increasing industrial effluents in rivers northward. The Danube-Tisa-Danube cannal correspond to very high polluted. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the River network of Serbia

Keywords: river network of Serbia, nutrients, heavy metal pollution, chemometric technique

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Water and soil pollution and control

Release, toxicity and interaction with clay minerals of silver nanoparticles and ions Kyzioł Komosińska Joanna1, Krzyżewska Iwona1, Rosik Dulewska Czesława1, Baran Agnieszka2, Franus Wojciech3, Czupioł Justyna1 1

Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics 3 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the Lublin University of Technology 2

The paper presents results of releasing nanosilver (nAg) from textiles in washing processes depending on a type and color of textile, type of surface functional group, as well as washing conditions such as temperature (40, 60 and 90°C), ratio of the solid phase to solution, water hardness and surfactants presence. Toxicity tests of aqueous solutions with nAg were derived from washing processes that were performed by a use of Ostracodtoxkit (chronic toxicity to the Heterocypris incongruens), Daphtoxkit F (immobilization of Daphnia) and Microtox (Vibrio fischeri inhibition of luminescence). Assessment of the results was based of hazard classification. Additionally, interaction of nAg with clay minerals (kaolinite and smectite group) which are common components of river suspension and sediments, depending on: initial concentration (0.1 – 100 mg/L), pH value of solution (3.0, 5.5, 7.0) and ratio of the solid phase to solution (1:100, 1:250 and 1:500) was researched. Obtained results were compared with susceptibility to binding of Ag ions by the clay minerals. The results showed that in simulated washing conditions a release of nAg from textiles that contain nAg depends on type of textile, their initial contain of nAg, washing temperature, surfactants presence and water hardness. It was found that the amounts of nAg obtained for cotton were higher than those for viscose as well as and of ecru textiles in comparison to black and graphite ones. Results showed that the highest amounts of nAg were released at 60°C and the lowest at 40°C. Usage of tap water instead of distilled caused a reduction in nAg release. In a presence of surfactants a significant increase in nAg release was observed. Investigated aqueous solutions were classified to II class – nontoxic, indicating a lack of acute hazard or low hazard. More sensitive organism to nAg was Daphnia than bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Studies on interaction of silver with clay minerals stated that Ag nanoparticles were bonded at 99% regardless of mineral type, initial concentration of nAg, pH values of solution and the ratio of the solid phase to solution. However, Ag ions were bonded with clay minerals in the range of low initial Ag concentration in solution (to 10 mg/L) in the similar amounts as nAg. In a high range of concentration was found influence of porosity, specific surface area and cation exchange capacity which was depended on type of clay minerals structure. Sorption capacity of tested minerals has changed in a series: kaolinite>montmorillonite>beidellite. The highest amounts of Ag ions were bonded by kaolinite, which was found to be characterized by the highest porosity from studied minerals. Sorption capacity of kaolinite was 33.5 mg/g and Ag ions were removed at from solution 54.64% of initial amount. It was observed threefold higher sorption capacity for montmorillonite than for beidellite. This indicated that structure and net charge are significant in the binding processes of Ag ions. Taking into account the sorption conditions, the highest amount Ag ions were bonded at pH 5.5 and solid phase to solution 1:500 ratio.

Keywords: nanoparticles, nanosilver, environment, toxic, clay minerals, sorption

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Water and soil pollution and control

Influence of parameters in photocatalytic degradation of chloridazon herbecide in aqueous TiO2 suspensions Hakima Azaari1, Abderrahim El Hourch1, Mohammed Elazzouzi1, Mohamed Sarakha2 Département of chimistry, University Mohamed V- Faculty of Sciences Agdal, Rabat – Morocco. Clermont University, University Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand (ICCF), Aubière, France 1 2

Today, we can be sure that human activity and modern lifestyle are responsible for the worsening environmental pollution. The sources of pollution are becoming more numerous and diverse. Also, the use of pesticides in various fields, their toxic nature and bioaccumulation are considerable dangers to humans. The intensive use of these products has a significant impact on the environment and consequently on the food chain elements. Studies have shown the presence of pesticide residues in ecosystems frequently in aqueous phase. They are also present in the air and in food. However, different studies have shown the harmful effects of these products on human health, depending on the applied dose. It is therefore necessary to study the fate and impact of pesticides in the environment. The aim of this work was to for Assessment of impact parameters on photodegradation of chloridazon. TiO2 P25 degussa was used as catalyst and photodegradation occurred in aqueous solution under excitation at 365nm. The effect of different TiO2 concentrations, the herbicide concentration and irradiation time were investigated. The analysis was performed by (HPLC). Similarly, it has been shown that the ions Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, CO32- has an effect on the photocatalytic degradation on the basis of the results, we concluded that this pollutant disappears completely after 20 minutes of irradiation. Analysis of the reaction mixture by HPLC coupled to mass allowed us further identify the photoproducts formed during mineralization.

Keywords: pollution, degradation, photocatalyse, TiO2

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trace metals accumulation and their translocation in "Phragmites australis" (L.) collected along the Sarno River Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Barbato Giuseppe, Vitale Alfredo, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

The aquatic macrophytes play an important role at removing contaminants from the rhizosphere by filtration, adsorption, cation exchange and through chemical changes induced by plant organisms. There are numerous studies which show that these (a) can accumulate metals in their tissues (Dunbabin and Bower 1992 Science Total Environ 111:151-168; Wright and Otte 1999 Biol Environ. Proc Royal Irish Acad 99(B):3–10; Papa et al 2012 Journal of Environmental Management; Baldantoni et al 2005 Aquatic Botany 83: 48-60; Baldantoni et al 2009 Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 101: 166-174), and (b) can concentrate them in their and so they provide an integrated framework of the contaminant concentrations in the time (Whitton et al 1981 In: Say PJ & Whitton BA (Eds) University of Durham, England, 135–145). Therefore, the macrophytes can be used in environmental investigations as bioindicators “in-situ” of the water quality due to their ability to accumulate chemical substances (Lewis 1995 Environmental Pollution 87: 319–336). According to this characteristic, they have been identified as a group potentially useful for bioremediation and biomonitoring (Biernacki et al 1997 Journal of Great Lakes Research 23:97–107; Salt et al 1998 Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49:643–668). The Sarno River is the most polluted river in Italy (Campania region) because of many important tannery and skins factories located along its course and large dumping of untreated agricultural and industrial waste. The Sarno is 24 km long and his basin covers 500 sq. km. That area is densely populated, containing 750,000 in habitants. Large-scale dumping of untreated agricultural and industrial waste into the river aggravates the situation. Additionally, the area is also tormented by frequent flooding and mudslides; in the last 20 years, the embankments have ruptured two or three times a year, causing spillover of polluted waters into the adjacent countryside with all the risk to public health. Therefore, the aim of this work was to quantify the trace metals accumulation in “Phragmites australis” (Cav.) (roots, stolons, stalks and leaves) sampled along the Sarno River. The data obtained were compared to the concentrations of the metals assayed in the rhizosphere sediments and the interstitial water to assess the bioaccumulation in different organs and bio-extraction.

Keywords: "Phragmites australis" L., rhizosphere sediment, trace metal, traslocation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trace metals accumulation in "Fragaria ananassa" and its possible use as a bioaccumulator Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Mottola Simona, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

Food is the major intake source of toxic trace elements by human beings. In particular, fruit are essential components of the diet, by contributing protein, vitamins, iron, calcium and other nutrients in short supply (Bigdeli and Seilsepour, 2008 - American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 4 (1): 86-92). The trace metals are the most dangerous pollutants for both human health and environment because they are not biodegradable and tend to bio-accumulate having a long biological half-life. It Is well known that plants take them up from soil as well as from air particulate but also from contaminated water (Radwan and Salama (2006) Food Chem Toxicol 44:1273-1278; Tuzen and Soylak (2007) Food Chemistry 102:1089–1095; Duran A et al., 2007 Int J Food Sci Nutr 59:581-589 Akan et al., 2009 - American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (3): 534-542). The goal of this study was to assay the trace metal contents in “Fragaria ananassa” samples collected from 14 sites located in Campania and Lazio regions and compared to a control site located in Puglia regions (Italy). Sites selection was made considering their different human impact in order to evaluate the possible role of “Fragaria ananassa” as bioaccumulator. These areas (sites located in Campania region), according to a document from the Civil Protection Department in 2007, were reported like a high risk of exposure and mortality due to an important human impact. Instead, ARPA Lazio reports classified as polluted and not for air pollution, the two sites selected in the Lazio region. In order to evaluate the possible contamination source has been analysed the content of these elements in the soil and in irrigation water.

Keywords: "Fragaria ananassa", trace metal, bioaccumulation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Soil–plant transfer of trace metals to vegetable of "Helianthus tuberosus" and "Solanum lycopersicum" plants Papa Stefania, Bartoli Giovanni, Schiavone Tiziana, Del Vecchio Aldo, Carillo Petronia, Fioretto Antonietta Dep. Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies - Second University of Naples - Via Vivaldi, 43 - 81100 – Caserta, ITALY

According to a survey of environmental monitoring agency ARPA, there are different critical sites in Campania. They are legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets. As is known, crops grown in contaminated soils contain higher level of heavy metals compared to crops grown in soil not contaminated. Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006 Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 169: 101–123; Liu et al (2006) Nature 439 (7076):551-6; Wong et al 2002 Cell 109(2): 229-241). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food very important along with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of “Helianthus tuberosus” and “Solanum lycopersicum” sampled in the coastal area of Castel Volturno (Italy). This area is one of the different sites, which is defined "critical" according to a survey of environmental monitoring agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant.

Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Environmental monitoring of Inner Thermaikos Gulf The ICME Project Boskidis Ioannis1, Symeonidis Panagiotis1, Seferlis Miltiadis2, Petrakakis Maximos3, Kelesis Apostolos3, Tzoumaka Paraskevi3 1

Draxis Environmental S.A., Thessaloniki, Greece EKBY, Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 Department of Environmental Actions, Municipality of Thessaloniki, Greece 2

The Project ICME (Integrated Coastal Monitoring of Environmental Problems in Sea Region and the Ways of Their Solution) aims at developing innovative tools for the monitoring and management of sea regions with pilot implementation in four countries (Greece, Georgia, Armenia and Turkey). In Greece, the project is focused in inner Thermaikos Gulf area and in its framework an environmental monitoring program in the coastal and sea area of the Gulf is designed. The main purpose of the program is to assess and monitor the environmental status of the study area and in order to fulfil that target, two separated but interdependent monitoring networks were designed and implemented. The first network consists of seven monitoring stations in the coastal area of Thermaikos Gulf (covering the area from Kalochori to the west, to Aggelochori in the east) in which monthly expeditions are conducted for the in situ determination of water temperature, pH, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen and Total Dissolved Solids concentrations. Water samples are collected from each station, for the determination of chl-a concentrations. The second network consists of seven stations in the sea area of the Gulf, where bi-monthly monitoring expeditions are conducted for the in situ determination of current velocity, water temperature, pH, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen concentrations and Total Dissolved Solids, while water samples are collected from various depths, for the determination of chla and nutrients concentrations. The two networks were designed so as to cover the various natural and human impacts in the Gulf, their implementation started in August 2014 and is still ongoing. This study presents the preliminary results of the above described monitoring program.

Keywords: Thermaikos Gulf, environmental monitoring, nutrients

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Water and soil pollution and control

Copper biosorption by Argan nut shell: Equilibrium study El Boundati Youssef1, Ziat Khadija1, Rghioui Lotfi2, Saidi Mohamed1 Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Substances Naturelles et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Morocco 2 Equipe Physico-Chimie de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Meknès, Morocco 1

Heavy metal ions can be released into wastewater from various industries such as metal finishing, electroplating, automotive, battery manufacturing, steel industries, tannery, paint manufacturing, electronic industries, etc. Due to their persistence in nature, it becomes essential to remove them from wastewaters [1]. Inorganic micro-pollutants are of considerable concern because they are nonbiodegradable, highly toxic and have a probable carcinogenic effect [2,3]. One of the heavy metals that is toxic to humans and widely studied by many researchers is copper. The excessive intake of copper by Man leads to severe mucosal irritation, widespread capillary damage, hepatic and renal damage, central nervous problems followed by depression, gastrointestinal irritation and possible necrotic changes in the liver and kidney [4]. The World Health Organization recommended a maximum acceptable concentration of Cu (II) in drinking water of 1.5 mg L-1 [5]. Hence, the removal of copper from aqueous solutions is extremely important. The conventional methods for removing copper include coagulation, chemical precipitation, ionexchange and adsorption. The biosorption is the most widely used method because it is an economically feasible, simple, effective, versatile and environmentally friendly method in practice. In this study, Argan nut shell (ArNS), an agricultural by-product, was characterized and investigated as a biosorbent for adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Utilization of ArNS as inexpensive adsorbent for contaminant removal can convert this waste into useful product but also alleviates the disposal problems. The adsorption experiment was cried out in a batch system. The adsorption capacities of ArNS for Cu (II) was shown as a function of temperature and initial concentration. The sorption phenomena were expressed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the effect of temperature on the model constants was investigated. References [1] S. Klimmrk, H.J. Stan, A. Wilke, G. Bunke, R. Buchholz, Comparative analysis of the biosorption of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc by algae, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35 (21) (2001) 4283–4288. [2] G. Cimino, C. Caristi, Acute toxicity of heavy metals to aerobic digestion of waste cheese whey, Biol. Wastes 33 (1990) 201–210. [3] P. Madoni, D. Davoli, G. Gorbi, L. Vescovi, Toxic effect of heavy metals on the activated sludge protozoan community, Water Res. 30 (1996) 135–142. [4] Rengaraj, S., Yeon, J-W, Kim, Y., Yung, Y., Ha, Y-K, Kim, W-H, 2007. Adsorption characteristics of Cu (II) onto ion exchange resins 252H and 1500H: Kinetics, isotherms and error analysis. J. Hazard. Mater. 143, 469–477. [5] Rao, C.S., 1992. Environmental Pollution Control Engineering, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi. Keywords: copper; adsorption models; argan; biosorption 171 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in municipal wastewater Smutná Michaela, Čáslavský Josef Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology

This work is focused on the determination of phosphodiesterase 5 selective inhibitors in communal wastewater. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are the main active ingredients of medicaments which are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The aim of this work was determination of three phosphodiesterase inhibitors in communal wastewater; specifically it was sildenafil citrate, vardenafil hydrochloride and tadalafil. These compounds are the main active ingredients of medicaments with trade names Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. In this study phosphodiesterase inhibitors in municipal wastewater from three sewage treatment plants with different numbers of equivalent inhabitants were analysed: Sewage treatment plant in Brno – Modřice (630 000 EI), Hodonín (90 000 EI) and Luhačovice (16 200 EI). In each of the above mentioned facilities 24 - hour cumulated samples of the influent and effluent wastewater were collected. On the Brno - Modřice sewage treatment plant also weekly monitoring of the concentration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors was realized. At first, the analytical method was optimized and then applied on real wastewater samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the pre-treatment of wastewater samples. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC/ESI-MS) was applied for the identification and quantification of the target compounds. It was assumed that the most widely used of these drugs is Viagra (this assumption was based on survey in pharmacies), so sildenafil would be found in the largest quantities. In spite of this, only vardenafil was detected at concentrations exceeding the limit of detection and quantification and only in influent wastewater; its levels were between 0.1 and 0.6 ng.l-1. Due to good efficiency of the treatment process its concentrations at outflow water were bellow limit of detection. Tadalafil had to be excluded from the measurement because of his extremely low recovery during SPE extraction optimization. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, wastewater, HPLC/MS, SPE extraction

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Water and soil pollution and control

Comparation of treatability of tannerywastewater by using chemical coagulation & electrocoagulation process Akarsu Ceyhun1, Gulsen Habibe Elif1, Ozay Yasin1, Deveci Ece Ummu2, Dizge Nadir1, Yatmaz Huseyin Cengiz3 1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin, TURKEY Department of Environmental Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde, TURKEY 3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey 2

Technological development and increase in population increase the demand of clean water that the source is restricted. The wastewater is one of water source that has to be treated to reuse and obtain to save the sources. It is well known that the researchers to develop new and economic technologies. The leather tanning industry is well known of the leading economic sectors in many countries. Although this reputation, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. Biological processes are mostly chosen process but they are inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrated to biological treatment for this sense. The objective of this study was to reduce the cost of discharging the effluents, for this aim we develop a treatment system that can effectively reduce the concentration of pollutants in tannery wastewater to environmentally acceptable levels. Chromium (Cr), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and sulfur (S) removal from tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated by using Standart Methods. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. Electrical conductivity, salinity, temperature, and pH were measured after the process application. Also membrane process is used to recover the wastewater after treated chemical process.

Keywords: tannery wastewater; chemical coagulation process; electro-coagulation process; membrane process; chromium; water recovery

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Water and soil pollution and control

Linear musk compounds in waste water Švestková Tereza, Vávrová Milada Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry

Synthetic musk compounds are artificial organic compounds with a smell similar to the odor of a natural musk. The group of synthetic musk compounds includes nitromusk, polycyclic, macrocyclic and linear musk compounds. The most recently discovered and also the least known group of artificial musks are linear musk compounds. These substances are now often used in cosmetics, personal care products, detergents and various cleaning products. They have leaked into all the major environment compartments, especially into the hydrosphere. Increasing attention has been paid to synthetic musk compounds in the last few years due to their environmental impact. The topic of this research is determination of twelve linear musk compounds (linalool, 2cyclohexylethanol, fresco menthe, citronellol, HSA, isobornyl acetate, arocet, aroflorone, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, lilial, isoamyl salicylate and hexylcinnamic aldehyde) in waste water samples. The samples were taken at inflow and outflow of three different waste water treatment plants (WWTP Brno-Modřice, WWTP Luhačovice and WWTP Hodonín) with a different number of equivalent inhabitants. At first, the analytical procedure was optimized and then it was applied on real waste water samples. The method of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used for the isolation of selected samples, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS), served for the identification and quantification of target compounds. Concentration of selected musk compounds was found to be within the range of units to hundredths ng•ml-1 in waste water. The highest levels in all selected waste water treatment were determined for linalool and citronellol. The concentration range of citronellol was 0.784 – 4.748 ng.ml-1. The highest concentration of citronellol was found in WWTP Luhačovice. The concentration range of linalool was 1.621 – 3.642 ng.ml-1 and its highest concentration was found in WWTP Brno-Modřice. The efficiency of cleaning process in waste water treatment plant, calculated from experimental data, was found to be within the range of 69.45 – 96.71 %. Despite the high efficiency of the cleaning process, there has been found contamination of surface waters. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: linear musk compounds, SPME, waste water, GC/MS

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Water and soil pollution and control

Complexation of chrome by nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite: application in tannery of Marrakech Morocco Eladlani Nadia Nadia1, Rhazi Mohamed Mohamed2, Ouahrouch Aziz Aziz3, Taourirt Moha Moha4 Department of chemistry, Ecole normale supèrieure de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 2 Mohamed Rhazi, department of chemistry, Ecole normale supèrieure de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 3 Aziz ouahrouch, department of chemistry, faculté des sciences et technique de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 4 Moha taourirte, department of chemistry, faculté des sciences et technique de Marrakech, university Cadi Ayyad Morocco 1

As we know clay has a good capacity to adsorb metallic ions, that’s why we reinforced chitosan with 1%, 2% and 3% of montmorillonite to prepare three nanocomposites (MMTCTf1%, MMTCTf2% & MMTCTf3%). Our objective of these preparations is complexation study of chrome (III). To identify this interaction of nanocomposites with chrome (III), we used different analysis FTIR spectroscopy, potentiometry and contact angle. Optical microscopy allowed us to see the difference of morphology before and after complexation. We also presented the adsorption kinetic of chromium (III) ions using UV/Visible analysis. Finally, we used a real effluent recuperated from tannery of Marrakech Morocco. The UV-Visible analysis and ICP-OES spectroscopy let us to determine the remaining quantity of chrome in effluent after complexation by our ligands (MMTCTf1%, MMTCTf2% & MMTCTf3%).

Keywords: chitosan, montmorillonite, chrome, nanocomposite, complexation.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of glyphosate treatment aerated biofilter Anass Laabi University Hassan II Superior National School of Electrical and Mechanical

Glyphosate [N- (phosphonomethyl) glycine] is widely used as a herbicide in many countries. This product may cause contamination of the human body, food, animals and ecosystems. His presence in the food chain is further increased more than 75%. It is increasingly found in surface water. It is a readily biodegradable product, but generates aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is more dangerous to the environment than the parent molecule. The present work is to study the possibility of elimination of glyphosate may be present in the water. The aerated biofiltration is adopted for treatment. The aim of the work is to identify the operating conditions of this technique for a better control, to better apprehend. Treatment monitoring will be carried out using certain parameters, the concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

Keywords: glyphosate acid, aminomethylphosphonic, biofiltration, herbicide

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Water and soil pollution and control

Adsorption study of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solution on layered double hydroxides El Hassani Kaoutar, Anouar Abdellah, Arkhis Mohamed Department of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology FSTS, Hassan 1st University, Settat, MOROCCO

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), a class of anionic clays, have attracted considerable interest because of their application as potential adsorbents for removal of toxic anions from contaminated water. In the present study, the possibility of adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on synthetic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from aqueous solution were exanimated. Both the as-synthesized and calcined samples had been studied. The dyes adsorption capacity was determined from adsorption isotherms and a kinetic study. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, concentration of dye, the M²⁺/M³⁺ ratio and the morphology of the adsorbent on the capacity of adsorption were studied. The regeneration study indicates that the LDHs adsorbents could be used for several cycles.

Keywords: layered double hydroxides, anionic clays, dye, adsorption, regeneration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes – synthesis, characteristics and possibility of their use in the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater Boncel Sławomir1, Czupioł Justyna2, Kyzioł–komosińska Joanna2, Krzyżewska Iwona2 1

Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology 2 Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences

We present conditions of the synthesis, physicochemical properties and the potential use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the removal of anionic and cationic contaminants from water and aqueous media. MWCNTs were synthesized at 760°C via catalytic Chemical Vapour Depositon (c-CVD) using a ferrocene–toluene solution as catalyst precursor and carbon substrate. Oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs) were obtained by a variety of oxidative treatments of pristine (assynthesized) MWCNTs. Morphology and functionalization of nanotubes (i.e. a degree and type of functional groups, mainly –COOH/-OH ratio) were controlled at the stage of both synthesis and the post-treatment. In the case of MWCNTs, full control of the morphology (length and diameter, degree of graphitization) was achieved at the stage of c-CVD synthesis by regulation of ferrocene concentration, temperature and time of the process. In turn, for O-MWCNTs – morphology and chemistry of the surface were controlled by selection of oxidizing agent e.g. nitrating mixture (98% H₂SO₄ + 68% HNO₃; v/v=3:1) or Fenton reagent. Mean length and outer/inner diameters of pristine MWCNTs varied. We have shown that 2 h– synthesis from 5.5% wt. of Fe(Cp)₂ in toluene at 760°C furnished MWCNTs of a length and outer/inner diameters ca. 250 μm and 40/10 nm, respectively. Oxidative treatment of MWCNTs caused degradation of the sp²–carbon skeleton — nanotubes were found as cut and the most outer walls were removed. And so, oxidation of MWCNTs with a nitrating mixture made O-MWCNT 300– times shorter (0.8 μm) and 2 times thinner (20 nm) than MWCNTs. Importantly, the oxidation process was found repeatable. O-MWCNTs – were easily water-dispersible since they contained hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Both functionalities were found as capable of electrostatic interactions and coordination of metal ions. These interactions could be further enhanced by π–cation interactions. An in-depth analysis of pristine and functionalized nanotubes was performed using microscopic studies (SEM, TEM, STM, AFM), elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetry (TGA, DTA, TG-IR), surface analysis (BET) and spectroscopic methods (Raman, FT-IR) revealing their adsorption potential. Our studies clearly indicated MWCNTs as a candidate for effective and selective adsorbent of heavy metal cations (Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) and inorganic anions (CrO₄²⁻/Cr₂O₇²⁻, SO₄²⁻, PO₄³⁻, Cl⁻) with their high specific area and susceptibility to a range of chemical modifications towards tunable adsorption.

Keywords: multi-wall carbon nanotubes, synthesis, characteristics, sorptions, contaminants

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of medium density fiberboard wastewater by Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/persulfate enhanced hydrodynamic cavitation processes Khoei Shiva1, Fakhri Hadi1, Balcik Cigdem2, Olmez Hanci Tugba1, Keskinler Bulent2 1

Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Environmental Engineering Department, Gebze Technical University, TR-41400, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

In the last decade the production of wood panels, especially of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) has a dramatic growth period throughout the world. MDF wastewater is characterized by its high suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) as well its biologically difficult-to-degrade recalcitrant organic compounds. Its high organic load mainly originating from celluloses, lignin and resin acids impose serious wastewater management and disposal problems. In the last decade great effort has been out forward to develop efficient treatment technologies for the treatment of OMW including evaporation, biological treatment, coagulation, electro-oxidation, separation, sedimentation, dewatering, etc. Biological treatment processes alone are not enough for treating MDF wastewater because of existing non-biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) using highly reactive radicals, such as hydroxyl (HO•) are excellent methods for the removal of toxic and/or refractory pollutants in water and wastewater. Recently, sulfate radical (SO4•-) has received considerable attention as an alternative oxidant to HO•, with similar capacities to harshly attack pollutants. The AOP involving ferrous iron activated persulfate (PS) to generate SO4•- has been widely used. The present work highlights the novel approach of combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and Fe2+/PS processes to develop a feasible and effective process for the post treatment of biologically treated wastewater generated from MDF industry. In the present study we have investigated the treatability of biologically treated MDF wastewater (COD = 448 mg/L; TOC = 248 mg/L; pH = 7.7) received from a factory located in Gebze/Turkey. AOP experiments were performed at different PS doses (5 and 10 mM in the presence of 0.5 mM Fe2+ catalyst at pH = 3). HC process was applied at these conditions in order to enhance the treatment efficiency. Treatment performances were evaluated in terms of COD removal and PS consumption rates. In the present case, Fe2+/PS process of biologically treated MDF wastewater was rather inefficient, resulting in 12% and 10% COD removals after 75 min treatment for 5 mM and 10 mM initial PS concentrations, respectively. The results indicated that the Fe2+/PS oxidation of biologically treated MDF wastewater seems to be a slow process; the effective treatment of this wastewater might need the combination of HC. Under the investigated reaction conditions, after 75 min Fe2+/PS enhanced HC treatment, approximately 25% COD removals were achieved for 5 mM and 10 mM initial PS concentrations. The effectiveness of the Fe2+/PS enhanced HC process in terms of COD abatement might be attributed to the additional SO4•- formation due to the HC. Results of the experimental studies were evaluated and discussed in terms of applicability of Fe2+/PS and Fe2+/PS enhanced HC processes for the reduction of residual COD in biologically treated MDF wastewater. Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, medium density fiberboard wastewater, sulfate radical, Fe2+/persulfate process 179 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

The effects of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(ii) and Mn(ii) removal by submerged membrane system and its application of least squares method Ormancı Acar Turkan1, Aya Serhan Aydın2, Çelik Suna Özden3, Türekci Neşe1 Departmant of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, İstanbul University, Avcılarİstanbul, Turkey 2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Gumussuyu, 34437- Istanbul, Turkey 3 Departmant of Environmental Engineering, Çorlu Engineering Faculty, Namık Kemal University, Çorlu- Tekirdağ, Turkey 1

The aim of this study is to assess the effect of fulvic acid and iron oxide on the Fe(II) and Mn(II) removal by an aerated-submerged membrane system. Fe(II), Mn(II) and fulvic acid used to prepare the synthetic solutions, obtained from seasonal characterization of Natural Organic Matters (NOM or UV254), iron and manganese in Ömerli Dam and Danamandıra drinking water sources, representing surface and ground water, respectively. Zee Weed-1 (ZW-1) ultrafiltration membrane was used as aerated-submerged membrane module. Material of this membrane is polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF) and it has 40 nm nominal pore size. The pressure changes in the membrane system were continuously monitored by means of pressure gauge. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254, iron and manganese concentrations were measured in the raw water, unfiltered and filtered water. It is concluded that pressure increases with the solution contain iron and fulvic acid together were lower than the solution contain fulvic acid alone. In the case of raw water contain iron oxide, it is shown that the iron removal was very fast but the increasing effect of iron oxide on the removal efficiency of manganese was considerably higher than those of iron. Increasing the concentrations of fulvic acid reduced the removal efficiency of iron slightly, but when iron oxide present in the solution, the removal rates of iron and manganese were as high as 100% and 90%, respectively. Similarly, the removal efficiencies of DOC and UV254 were increased with the positive effect of iron oxide, too. In the modelling process, the least squares method is applied to the experimental data to find the numerical values of the parameters of the best-fit function and to characterize the statistical properties of estimates.

Keywords: fulvic acid; iron oxide; submerged membrane; removal of iron and manganese; least square method.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Study of the effects of wastewater treatment technologies on the elimination of pollutants from aquatic ecosystem Vavrova Milada1, Hlavínek Petr2, Úterský Michal2, Korytárová Jana3, Turková Jiřina3, Píšťková Veronika1 1

Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection 2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Municipal Water Management 3 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Structural Economics and Management Wastewater samples were taken at the inlet and outlet of the Mikulov wastewater treatment plant. Residual beta-blockers falling within the group of pharmaceuticals most commonly used in human medicine were determined in wastewater. After a pilot study based on targeted grab samples of wastewater, contamination caused by these medications was monitored over a week in order to determine the dynamics of the drug dispersion in wastewater and to assess the possibility of whether technologies applied at the wastewater treatment plant will have an effect on reducing the betablockers concentration in wastewater. Beta-blockers are a heterogeneous group of substances synthesised at the beginning of the 1960’s as drugs with antianginal and antiarrhythmic effects. Only later it was accidentally discovered that beta-blockers also reduce blood pressure. The first clinically used beta-blocker, propranolol, was developed in 1964 by British pharmacologist J. W. Black, who strived after annulling the harmful effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin on the heart function. Propranolol strongly reduces mortality and morbidity in people suffering from angina pectoris and is also salubrious in arrhythmia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treatment. Since appearing in the market, the beta-blockers have become one of the basic groups of antihypertensive drugs and the safest antiarrhythmic medication. Unlike antiarrhythmic medications class I (propafenone, flecainide etc.) and III (amiodarone) they do not have pro-arrhythmic effects and do not increase mortality during long-term application and, on the contrary, they reduce it. Wastewater samples were taken on a regular basis for a period of 7 days at the inlet and outlet of the Mikulov WWTP which is designed as a mechanical-biological plant with tertiary treatment. The biological stage consists of a pair of activation circulation tanks with mechanical aeration and two secondary clarifiers. Phosphorus is removed from water by chemical precipitation. Sludge sanitary treatment takes place by means of oxygen; sanitarily treated sludge is then mechanically dewatered. Its capacity is 24,850 PE. The final analysis of β-blockers was performed using the method of liquid chromatography with a massspectrometric detection. The measurement was realized using the high-performance liquid chromatograph Agilent 1100 Series, with the Kinetex C18 (150 x 3.0 mm x 2.6 µm) column for the separation. The analytes were detected by means of mass spectrometer MS Agilent 6320 Ion Trap LC/MS in a positive mode with electrospray ionization. The level of wastewater contamination by targeted pharmaceuticals differed over specific days during the week both in the influent and effluent. It may also be concluded that based on the results of real wastewater sample measurement, the concentration of the individual beta-blockers in wastewater greatly differed and some of them show a trend between the pharmaceutical consumption and the amounts detected in real samples. Acknowledgements The project was executed as part of multi-faculty projects of specific research, MŠMT ČR, FAST/FCH–J–14–2422 and faculty project of specific research No. FCH-S-15-2869 from Ministry of education, youth and sports of the Czech Republic. Keywords: waste water, pharmaceuticals, beta-blockers, elimination, SPE, LC/MS 181 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Bisphenol A in waste water in the Czech Republic Čáslavský Josef1, Vávrová Milada2, Nohelová Gabriela1, Sedláčková Simona2 1

Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Brno, Czech Republic 2 University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Brno, Czech Republic

Bisphenol A (BPA) together with alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, nonylphenol and isomers of 4-nonylphenol) belongs to a group of substances which are monitored in environmental matrices for their toxicity. These compounds act as endocrine disruptors that mimic the effect of naturally produced hormones, blocking hormone receptors in cells, affecting the synthesis, transport, metabolism and excretion of hormones. BPA is also toxic for reproduction and it is also suspected for neurotoxicity. It also shows bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties. Currently, BPA is widely used as a raw material for the production of polycarbonates, which found their use in food industry, in medicine, building industry, electronics and in many other branches. This study was focused on the determination of BPA levels at the inflow and outflow of three waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Two of them treat municipal waste water; the first one situated in Brno-Modřice is two-stage facility with mechanical cleaning followed by biological treatment using activated sludge. Its capacity is more than 600 thousands EI. The second WWTP treats waste water from small spa town Luhačovice in South Moravia (capacity 16 200 EI). The third one is small WWTP treating waste waters form the area and buildings of University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno (UVPS). 24-hour mixed samples were taken at the inflow and outflow of all WWTP. Target compound was isolated using SPE and after derivatization twodimensional comprehensive gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection was used for their determination. The concentrations of BPA at inflow of the WWTP Brno-Modřice were during one week sampling campaign ranging from 1.36 to 1.98 ng/mL, at outflow the BPA levels were 0.15 – 1.36 ng/mL. Average removal efficiency was 48 %. BPA level at inflow of WWTP in Luhačovice was 1.19 ng/mL, outflow water concentration was 0.25 ng/mL, i.e. removal efficiency was 79 %. The levels at the inflow of WWTP at UVPS were between 16.09 and 25 ng/mL, outflow levels were from 3.6 to 5.5 ng/mL; average removal efficiency was in this case 79.2 %. From these values follows that not insignificant amount of BPA enter the surface water where the water biota could be negatively influenced. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project No. FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: bisphenol A, waste water, SPE, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration Mutlu Öykü, Türkoğlu Demirkol Güler, Çetin Ender Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, İstanbul University, Avcılar, Turkey

Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. The presence of natural organic substances in drinking water cause various problems in drinking water as color, odor, taste problems and disinfection by-products (DBPs) as a result of disinfection with chlorine. Drinking waters which contains high amount of natural organic matter, do not reach the desired stability of disinfection and do not treated sufficiently promoted biological growth in distribution system and increased chemical doses for treatment. Hence, it is important to know organic content of water and treatment plants must be designed appropriate to it. The design of systems appropriate to removal of organic matter is extremely important factor to prevent the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts. Coagulation and adsorption methods are the most used methods for removal of organic matters. In recent years, membrane filtration method entegreted with coagulation, adsorption or aeration process was given much attention by researchers. The aim of this study is determination the changes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values of samples that were taken from influent of Kağıthane Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Istanbul and determination the removal efficiency by applying coagulation, adsorption and membrane filtration methods separately for attaining the desired limit values and besides that membrane filtration applied after coagulation and adsorption methods. In this study, alum and FeCl3 were chosen as the coagulant, clay as adsorbent. For membrane filtration ZW10 UF membrane was used. Removal efficiencies of DOC and UV254 were compared using alum and FeCl3 and the results showed that FeCl3 is more effective for removal compared to alum. In the adsorption section of the study, removal efficiencies were observed 30-40%. In the membrane filtration section DOC removal efficiency was determined 32%. The result of this study showed that applying coagulation method with FeCl3 is more effective and economical for the removal of organic matters with respect to the adsorption and membrane filtration method. Applying both coagulation and membrane filtration methods were the most effective for organic matter removal efficiency were observed.

Keywords: DOC, UV254, coagulation, adsorption, membrane filtration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Alum sludge valorisation on phosphate removal from aqueous solution Zineb Salem, Leila Djekoune, Leila Boumehdi, Khedidja Allia University of Sciences and Technology of Houari Boumediene FGMGP, LSGPI, Algiers, Algeria

This study is led on the valorisation of sludge obtained after sedimentation from the drinking water treatment plant located at the west of Algiers. Alum sludge characterization by X fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitative EDAX and leaching tests were also performed. The leaching tests are very important for residues management monitoring. The aluminum, iron and calcium predominance in the alum sludge is the result of using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant and the hard nature and ferruginous water dam. The influences of several parameters (contact time, sorbent concentration, phosphates concentration, pH and the shaking rate) on the phosphate removal were investigated in batch adsorption experiment. The optimal conditions of sorption found are as follow: sorbent concentration of 20 g.L -1, an equilibrium time of 60 min and a shaking rate of 200 rpm. This study showed that alum sludge has a strong power of phosphate removal; in effect from 80 to 97% of the phosphate ions in aqueous solution are eliminated. The application of different adsorption models showed that the orthophosphate adsorption on sludge is well described by Langmuir model. These results showed that the use of alum sludge could be a promising solution for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: alum sludges, adsorption, phosphates, kinetics

184 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of some metal ions in leachate in compacted and consolidated grounds and variability hydraulic conductivity Cansız Selçuk Vildan1, Özçoban Mehmet Şükrü2, Şengül Ayse Büşra3, Ormancı Acar Türkan4, Güneş Durak Sevgi4, Tüfekci Neşe4 Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, İstanbul, Turkey Yildiz Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Geotechnical Department, Istanbul-Turkey 3 Fatih University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, IstanbulTurkey 4 Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, IstanbulTurkey 1 2

Rapid economic growth, technological advancements, industrialization, urbanization, population growth and increase in the welfare status pave the way for the increase of waste materials. Hence, it has become essential to prevent environmental pollution and recycle the waste materials in order to make them a source of benefit for economics. Although methods like incineration, composting are employed to dispose solid waste materials, these methods are not absolute disposal methods and they have to be stored for the final removal of materials like ash, scum produced after incineration and composting. In order for solid materials to be disposed ultimately in a way not to harm environment and detriment human health, sanitary landfill are formed. In solid waste materials landfill sites leachate is the most significant problem in terms of environmental pollution. It is essential to block leachate before it reaches saturated layer or ground water level. To prevent this storage soil is made impermeable. Natural and crumpled clay used in sanitary landfill areas is usually used as ceiling or floor cover or in formation of side banks. Clay soil layers are employed effectively in blocking polluters such as leachate and organic liquids. According to previous researches the structure of soil is destroyed due to the leachate through and thus there have been alterations in permeability of the soil. This study has determined variations in the permeability of clay soil and removal rate of present ions in leachate on the clay soil. For this purpose, leachate collected from Sanitary Landfill at Şile – Kömürcüoda locality of the Anatolian side of Istanbul has been subjected to compaction via standard methods of compacted clay sample used in the same facilty and passing through reactions which are consolidated and thus experimental permeability of samples has been determined. In order to detect removal rate of clay soil alterations of Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions in influent and effluent of reactor has been analyzed. As a result of permeabilty experiments conducted with leachate, permeability alterations have been observed in clay soils to which standard compaction is apllied and clay soils to which compaction and consolidations are applied together. Pores between particules at clay soil to which standard compaction is applied is less than the pores between the particules on the clay soil to which standard compaction and consolidation are applied due to compression. When the results of clay soil permeability experiments are analyzed, existence of solid particules and microorganisms in the leachate at the beginning lead to dicrease of permeability, however, it has been observed that by the time being the permeability increases on account of deformations that the leachate causes on the clay soil. In general, when experiment results of Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) parameters are examined removal rate of clay soil which are compressed with standard methods and consolidated higher than that of clay soil compressed with standard compaction method. Keywords: leachate, metal ions, permeability, standard compaction, consolidations 185 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Survey of annual for filamentous microorganisms characterization in wastewater treatment plant in South Turkey - Antalya Bayrak Çamlıca Yasemin Büşra, T. Içemer Gönül Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

One of the most important problems caused to decrease in the performance of wastewater removal efficiency is sludge bulking and foaming in aeration basins of biological wastewater treatment plants. The filamentous microorganisms were proved as the main responsible for sludge bulking and foaming in the activated sludge. In this study, the filamentous microorganisms existing in treatment plants of Antalya were characterized for determination of relationship between the filamentous microorganisms and sludge bulking and foaming problems. For this purpose, the activated sludge samples were taken monthly from the aeration tank of 16 wastewater treatment plants during June 2012 - May 2013. Then, the monthly occurrence of bulking and foaming were associated with the detected filamentous microorganisms. The sludge bulking and foaming problem was encountered in 99% of the treatment plants during the summer period. Also, the sludge volume index was measured as more than 150 ml/g throughout the year in all facilities. According to microbial examination, the most frequently detected species were Type 0041, Type 0675 and Microthrix parvicella in sequence throughout the year. As a result of this study, the above mentioned species were supposed as responsible from the sludge bulking and foaming.

Keywords: wastewater treatment plant, filamentous microorganisms, characterization, activated sludge, bulking sludge, foaming sludge

186 | P a g e

Water and soil pollution and control

Soil and water usage as sustainable natural resources at Mediterranean region in Turkey Onursal Denli Gaye, Denli Hayri Hakan Department of Geomatics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul,Turkey

Natural resources provide the basis for the three pillars of sustainable development, economic, social and environmental. However, physical reserves can become depleted and scarce, and this can then undermine future economic and social development. Moreover, the way in which resources are used can reduce the quality of the environment to an extent that can threaten ecosystems and the quality of human life. Natural resources includes environmental media such as air, water and soil. These resources sustain life and produce biological resources. In contrast with raw materials it is their declining quality that causes concern. It is not a question of how much there is, but what state they are in. Total quantities of air, soil and water on earth do not change within human time scales, but because of pollution their quality is often poor. Moreover, the biological diversity of environmental resources is of vital importance. The relations between resource use and environmental impact are only partially known at present. Furthermore they change with time, for example, as a result of technical or social developments. Differences in regional conditions and use patterns need also to be considered. In addition, environmental impacts related to the use of different resources vary widely. So, initially the strategy has to determine which resources at any given time are of biggest concern, e.g. the resources with the greatest potential for environmental improvement, taking into account technological possibilities and socio-economic aspects. Policies that is also determined, influence the use of resources and their environmental impact. In this study, the current status of soil and water use in Turkey, which is important and plays a vital role for human life and the environment, has been examined.

Keywords: soil, water, land use, environment

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Water and soil pollution and control

The effect of temperature on biological foaming potential and stability in activated sludge T. Içemer Gönül, Atıcı Tuğçe Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

A stable foam and scum formation in the activated sludge process is a common problem in activated sludge plants. In particular, temperature and hydrophobic properties filamentous (Gordonia amarae, Microthrix parvicella and others) or non-filamentous (Rhodococcus spp) are the causes of foaming activated sludge. These filamentous species are strongly hydrophobic due to having cell walls composed mycolic acid and generated biological foam. This foam is highly enriched with floating biomass and covers activated sludge tanks, secondary clarifiers. It causes severe operating problems, increases maintenance efforts and may lead to poor effluent quality. It is widely accepted that the formation and stabilization of these foams require gas bubbles, surface active compounds and hydrophobic particles in activated sludge. Gas bubbles in the system originate from aeration and mixing or from gas production in denitrification reactors. In the formation of foam, the temperature determines the biological foams tend to accumulate a system so that the accumulation of foam due to the overabundance of mycolata occurs more frequently during the summer and in warmer climates. There are in the 27 biological treatment plant in Antalya and the temperature is thought to be a relationship between the activated sludge foam. This foam problem is seen in the majority of these biological wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, we selected 11 wastewater treatment plants in the Antalya coast and seasonally (2014) examined the relationship between foam potential and temperature. The effect of temperature on foam potential was examined of the Alka-Seltzer and sintered disc aeration column test at 10-40°C using activated sludge obtained from Antalya WWTP’s. This temperature range was represented of typical ambient temperatures in Antalya. Because, activated sludge temperature in summer reaches 30-35°C. In addition, of foam and activated sludge determined such as filamentous microorganisms determination and MLSS, SVI, the EC, pH. The results demonstrated that the relationship between temperature and potential of activated sludge biological foam.

Keywords: biological foam, temperature, foam potential and stability, activated sludge, foaming sludge

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Water and soil pollution and control

Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate on soil microbiota: influence of soil organic matter content Bello Diana1, Gil Sotres Fernando2, Leirós M. Carmen2, Trasar Cepeda Carmen1 Departamento de Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, 15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain 2 Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, USC, Campus Vida, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain 1

The 2,4-diclorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a compound of anthropogenic origin and classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Union (EU) as a priority contaminant. The proportion of the 2,4 DCP reaching the soil that is ionized depends on the pKa of 2,4-DCP and on the soil pH, the closest they are the highest the proportion of phenolate formed will be. Moreover, studies carried out in recent years by our research group suggest that the toxic form for soil microorganisms is the ionic form of 2,4-DCP. Therefore, it is expected that at soil pH values close to the pKa of 2,4-DCP (7.9) this compound should be more toxic. However, it has also been suggested that the 2,4-DCP may be retained through adsorption processes with the soil organic matter and soil colloids. This would limit the proportion of molecules in solution which are able to undergo dissociation and to produce 2,4-dichlorophenolate. In other words, the quantity of phenolate available to exert its toxic effect on soil microorganisms would be regulated not only by the pH, but also by the organic matter content of the soils. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the toxic effects of 2,4-DCP and the proportion of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in two soils with a high pH (7.65 and 7.98), but differing in their organic matter content. The two soils were located in the same area and were developed over calcareous rock, although they had different vegetation cover, and therefore also different soil organic matter contents. One of the soils was under forest with an organic carbon content of 4.5%, while the other was a vineyard with an organic carbon content of 1.9%. Both soils were contaminated under laboratory conditions with 500 mg kg-1 of 2,4,-DCP and the microbial biomass carbon and the activities of urease and dehydrogenase of contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples were determined after 0 and 72 hours. In addition, anionic and neutral forms of 2,4-DCP were quantified by a gas chromatograph coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the toxicity of 2,4-DCP was more intense in the soil with the lowest organic matter content than in the soil with the highest organic matter content, both initially and after three days of soil-contaminant contact time. Moreover, the proportion of phenolate forms was much higher in the soil with a lower organic matter content, especially immediately after the contamination. On the contrary, the proportion of neutral molecules in the forest soil was higher than in the cultivated soil, both initially and after three days of incubation. In conclusion, the results clearly show that the organic matter significantly mitigate the toxicity of 2,4-DCP on soil microbiota. This is probably due to some kind of hydrophobic interactions of soil organic matter with the neutral molecule, thus limiting the quantity of 2,4-DCP available to undergo the dissociation process to the anionic form. In any case, more studies are necessary to prove this hypothesis. Keywords: chlorophenols; soil contamination; organic matter content; 2,4-dichlorophenolate; microbial biomass; soil enzymatic activities

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Water and soil pollution and control

Occurrence, distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia Imen Haddaoui1, Olfa Mahjoub2, Borhane Mahjoub1, Abdelhamid Boujelben1, Müfit Bahadir3 1

Department of Horticultural Systems Engineering and Environment, Higher Institute of Agronomy Chott Mariem, Sousse University, BP. 47, 4042 Sousse, Tunisia 2 National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry, Carthage University, P.O. Box 10, 2080, Ariana, Tunisia 3 Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagering 30, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany

Water pollution by organic compounds has caused considerable and worldwide concern. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are considered major sources of pollution since they are receptors of different types of discharges as well as of industrial, urban, and rural waste leachates conatining a large number of pollutants. Among the numerous contaminants in WWTP effluents, PAHs are of particular interest for several reasons like persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, acute toxic effects on human beings and animals, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and their endocrine disrupting activity. The occurrence and distribution of 16 priority PAHs listed by USEPA were investigated in water resources used for irrigation in Tunisia. Samples comprised (i) treated wastewater (TWW) from two WWTP, of which the effluents are used for irrigation, (ii) surface water from one of the major rivers in Tunisia (Meliane River), and (iii) groundwater in farmland irrigated with TWW and used for irrigation and animal watering. A total of 50 samples were collected during 3 sampling campaigns stretching between March 2013 and September 2014 and analyzed with GC/MS after extraction with C18 RP cartridges. The sum of 16 PAHs in water samples ranged from 1.46 to18.42 µg L-1 in TWW, 0.72 to 44.99 µg L1 in surface water, and 0.12 to 3.92 µg L-1 in groundwater. TWW is suggested to be the main source of PAHs in water resources. In fact, highest levels were registered in TWW and their discharge points located along Meliane River. PAHs accumulation in water resources showed a temporal and spatial distribution in favor of dry weather and WWTP effluents. The results show that low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs are the most abundant in all water samples, while high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs are the lowest in all water samples, suggesting pyrolitic sources of formation and emission. This investigation highlights the potential toxic effects of PAHs in the future on the exposed environment especially for soil and plants irrigated with TWW.

Keywords: PAH, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, irrigation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Removal of basic red 46 dye from aqueous solutions by untreated alfa grass Boumehdi Leila, Hamdi Lamia, Cherid Nassima, Salem Zineb, Allia Khedidja Research Laboratory of Science in Industrial Process Engineering (LSGPI), Department of Process Engineering and Cryogenics, USTHB, Algiers, Algeria

During these last years, an increasing interest is focused to find low cost adsorbents derived from natural and waste materials that are available and efficient for synthetic dyes removal from aqueous solutions. Alfa grass, which constitutes a natural lignin cellulosic material and widely available, could be suggested as a low cost adsorbent for treat colored wastewaters. Alfa grass, Stippa tenacissima, is a tussock grass also called Esparto grass and is widely distributed in semi-arid and arid regions like northwest Africa particularly Algerian high plateaus and southern Spain. In this context, we carried out a study to test adsorption capacities of untreated Alfa stems for the removal of basic red (BR 46) as a dye in aqueous solution. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, solution pH and temperature on BR 46 adsorption were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters, the kinetics and the factors controlling the adsorption process were also calculated and discussed. The equilibrium behavior of BR 46 adsorption was examined by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found as 14.92 mg/g. The adsorption kinetic was tested by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic parameters showed that BR 46 adsorption onto Alfa grass is a favourable endothermic and spontaneous phenomenon. The Alfa stems in a rough state have good adsorption effectiveness with respect to dyes without a preliminary treatment. Moreover, the availability, and the low cost of the Alfa grass can lead this agro-industrial material to be used for treating colored wastewaters.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, Alfa grass, water

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Water and soil pollution and control

Physicochemical characterization of leachate discharge fkih ben salah from Morocco Hafida Hanine1, Hasna Merzouki1, Brahim Lekhlif2, Hassan Latrache1, Khalid Habbari1 1

University Of Sultan Moulay Slimane Fst Benmellal School Of Mohamedia Laboratory Of Hydrology

2

The waste generated by domestic and industrial activities, set dumpsite pose a risk of contamination of the groundwater in the region Fkih Ben Salah flowing in aquifers composed of sand phosphates and phosphatic limestone. This consists mainly of organic matter (77.7%), and other waste such as tissues (6.1%), plastic and cardboard (5.1%), miscellaneous packaging (3.3 %), metals (1.8%) and the lenses (0.9%). Therefore, it is necessary to study the environmental problems of the discharge through an assessment of the risk generated by the discharge of pollutants on the surrounding environment and particularly on water resources. It is with this objective that fits the job. It consists of a physicochemical characterization of leachate. The results of leachate analysis showed that the average value of pH is 4.7 (young leachate). The total hardness is 68.33 mg / l. Leachate is very rich in organic matter (BOD5 equal to 6697mgO2 / l), COD is 18026mgO2 / l. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.34) is greater than 0.3 and marking a favorable biodegradability of leachate studied. Viewpoint mineral composition, leachate is rich in total nitrogen NTK (2361mg / l), total phosphorus (144mg / l), orthophosphate (100.95 mg / l), sulphate (1326.87 mg / l) and chloride ion (2051.11 mg / l). However, heavy metals in the composition of leachate is very important. Indeed, the concentrations of iron (59.03 mg / l) and zinc (8.59 mg / l) are abnormally high. As for copper and lead, their concentrations are on average 2 mg / l. Analysis of these results, it is necessary a hybrid treatment physicochemical means (precipitation, coagulation, electrocautery, etc.) followed by a biological process (biofilter) to reduce the pollution load generated by the leachate.

Keywords: leachate, COD, BOD5, heavy metals, electrocoagulation, biofilter, groundwater

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Water and soil pollution and control

Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network Öz Nurtaç Department of Environmental Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

In this study, Sakarya, drinking and using water is aimed to search of the effectiveness which existing disinfection with methods currently used. Sakarya province selected 17 of the 102 water samples were taken from the sampling point of the center and the district. At each sampling point in the free chlorine in the water was measured and the amount E.coli have been identified in the laboratory. Membrane filtration technique is used in the analysis. According to these results, Sakarya, drinking and using water outside settlements in the northern part has been determined that the appropriate to our country’s standards as bacteriological. (EN ISO 93081-water quality-detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria Part-1 Membrane filtration method). If the used disinfection method has been found to be adequate. In some periods, the fact that the desired level of residual chlorine levels in the system but have been found with coliform bacteria, has strengthened the possibility that contaminated during distribution of water network. Therefore pipes must be robust and maintenance must be performed. Adequate controls are not expected as long as the structures pose serious problems in terms of public health in the future.

Keywords: drinking water, Escherichia coli, disinfection, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Mercury and dichromate free determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) Bahadir Müfit1, Kolb Marit1, Teichgräber Burkhard2 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany 2 Emschergenossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen, Germany 1

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important parameter for the determination of organic load in water. It is based on the almost complete oxidation of organic content to CO2 and H2O, and the results are given as oxygen needed for this reaction in mg/L. In particular, for operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and taxation of the wastewater polluters, COD is used worldwide in national and EU directives. Since end of 1970s, the standard method for COD determination is oxidation of water samples with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and masking chloride with mercury sulfate (HgSO4), since otherwise chloride ions lead to an elevated COD value through co-oxidation with K2Cr2O7. This reaction, regulated through DIN/EN/ISO norms worldwide, produces a huge volume of environmental pollutants while measuring an environmental parameter. A replacement of COD through e.g. total organic carbon (TOC) does not work due to missing reproducible correlations of the two parameters with each other, since the organic carbon in wastewater may occur in different oxidation stages (e.g. in ethane versus in oxalate) leading to much different correlation factors. In the meantime, Hg is classified as a priority pollutant and should be “phased out” soon, and Cr(VI) is a strong carcinogen and should be forbidden from 2017 after REACH. Therefore, there is a high demand for the development of an alternative method for COD determination without polluting the environment. In the frame of a research project granted by the Federal German Environmental Foundation (DBU), we have developed a new method using Mn(III) as oxidant and AgNO 3 for the removal of chloride ions and for preventing them from co-oxidation. The excess amount of Mn(III) applied for oxidation is titrated back with iron(II)sulfate as also done for the current COD standard method with Hg and Cr(VI). This method was tested with different types of aqueous samples including domestic and industrial wastewaters, containing low and high concentrations of chloride, and differently persistent organic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the standard method using Hg and Cr(VI). Most importantly, the wet-chemical method developed makes use of the same COD equipment as for the standard method currently in use. With this, the laboratories worldwide do not need to purchase new equipment and detectors for end point determination. Other oxidants tested for COD determination were less satisfactory. This novel COD determination method is environmentally benign and does not pollute the environment with neuro-toxic (Hg) and carcinogenic (Cr(VI)) compounds. Therefore, this method will be further developed to German DIN and international ISO procedure of COD analysis.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD, Mn(III), AgNO3, free of mercury and dichromate

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Water and soil pollution and control

Retention of PAHs in a Mediterranean soil after different amendments Cornejo Juan, Bruna Felipe, Real Miguel, Guzman Ignacio, Celis Rafael Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla. IRNAS-CSIC

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of ubiquitous environmental contaminants, produced primarily as a result of incomplete combustion from predominantly anthropogenic sources including fossil fuel, biofuel, and vegetation fires. Previous studies have shown that PAHs are strongly sorbed by the soil organic matter. On the other hand, it is known that the addition of noncontaminant wastes to soils, besides improving soil physicochemical properties, can reduce the diffusion of organic pollutants from one compartment to another by increasing their sorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorption capacity and the effect of soil addition of nonhazardous wastes such as a material like to gypsum (G), a waste from mining exploitation, wollanstonite (W) and an organic waste from olive oil production (OIW) on the fate of selected PAHs. Natural silicates like montmorillonite (SA) and bentonite (B) and a synthetic layered double hydroxide (HT) and their corresponding organoderivatives (SAHDTMA and HTDDS) were used as well. Sorption-desorption, leaching and dissipation studies were performed under laboratory conditions with a sandy-clay soil, unamended and amended with those materials. The results obtained showed that OIW and the nanocomposites (SAHDTMA and HTDDS) had a high affinity for the PAHs studied, as indicated by the obtained Kf values. The sorptive capacity increased with the hydrophobic character of the organic contaminant. The effectiveness of the used amendments on the PAHs retention increased in the following order: Gypsum ≈ Wollanstonite ≈ Bentonite < OIW < SA-HDTMA ≈ HTDDS. The affinity of the adsorbents was greater for high-molecular weight PAHs. Leaching experiments corroborated that organic residues and clay nanohybrids could be recommended as soil amendments for immobilizing PAHs in soils.

Keywords: polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil remediation, industrial wastes, gypsum, wollastonite, bentonite, organoclays, organo LDH, organic waste (OIW).

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Water and soil pollution and control

Variation of physicochemical parameters in a longline mussel culture system Moriki Amalia1, Savvidis Yiannis2, Papadimitriou Chrysi3, Fantidou Irene1, Kapageridis Nikos1, Stoilas Vasilis Orestis3, Antoniou Alexander3, Galinou Mitsoudi Sofia2 1

Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki (ATEITh), Sindos, Thessaloniki, 57400, Greece 2 Department of Civil Engineering ΤΕ, ATEITh, Sindos, Thessaloniki, 57400, Greece 3 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, ATEITh, N.Moudania, Greece

Mussel culture by longline system in the basin of Chalastra, Thermaikos Gulf (NW Aegean Sea), takes place since 1995 and represents about 30% of the Greek annual production. The quality of the mussels is affected by the environmental conditions and the applied culture practices. Different handlings related to the spatial layout of the mussel shocks were investigated, such as distances between the shocks of 30, 50 70 or 90 cm. Temperature, salinity, density and dissolved oxygen were systematically measured in twelve sampling periods during a year (July 2014-April 2015) in order to evaluate the environmental quality of the water column in the mussel culture under different handling conditions. Dissolved oxygen is a key parameter for assessing water quality. The presence of oxygen is vital for the marine organisms and its depletion may affect growth, reproductive rates and, in anoxic conditions, mortality. Moreοver, well oxyganeted waters indicate healthy oxidative status of the marine environment. Evidence of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen concentration < 3 mL/L) has been reported in previous studies in the area. The above mentioned physical parameters’ profiles were recorded with an autonomous CTD datalogger, while dissolved oxygen measurements were performed by the Winkler method. Samples were taken by means of a van Dorn water sampler in three depths, 1 m from the surface, 5 m (the depth were the mussels are hanging) and close to the bottom, in about 10 m depth. Analysis took place on board. As far as the thermosaline properties of the seawater are concerned the mussels live and grow up more effectively in temperatures of 10-25 °C as well as in salinities around 34 ppt. Focusing on our research, temperature values recorded during the period of July 2014 and April 2015 were between 9.8 to 27.3 °C at surface waters and between 9.8 to 26.7 °C at five meters below sea surface. Salinity values recorded during the same period were found to be 30.36 up to 37.17 ppt at surface waters and between 34.80 and 37.20 ppt at five meters below sea surface. Concerning the values of temperature and salinity recorded in front of each different handling, it seems that generally there were not important differences. On the contrary, dissolved oxygen presented variation both among handlings and in the different depths. Dissolved oxygen values ranged from 3.16 to 8.80 mL/L with a mean value of 5.98 mL/L. The lowest values, close to hypoxia, were recorded near the bottom. The highest concentrations are related to the photosynthetic activity during the spring months. The average dissolved oxygen concentrations in the different handlings were found in levels that do not present serious oxygen deficiency (4 - 6 mL/L). However, water quality deteriorates in a few meters in the shallow waters of the mussel system.

Keywords: mussel culture, salinity, dissolved oxygen

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Water and soil pollution and control

Trials of clay materials for discoloration and detoxification of water from the olive mill waste Hermosin Maria Carmen, Adelino Maria Angeles, Celis Rafael Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IRNAS-CSIC). Avenida Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

Olive mill waste (OMW) or alperujo is the solid residue with high moisture content produced in the extraction process of oil in two phase system. Its use as soil fertilizer and conditioner improves the soil quality, contributes to carbon sequestration, and facilitates a sustainable solution for the disposal of this waste, which is extensively produced in the Mediterranean basin. Nevertheless, the addition of OMW to soils can also give rise to some adverse effects as: a) colouration of water, due to the high levels of tannins and lignin that may cause ecotoxicological effects, b) increase the mobility of some heavy metals and pesticides and c) phytotoxic effects due to its content in phenolic compounds. All those negative effects are mainly related to the content of soluble organic matter (SOM) of OMW and they may be aggravated when uncontrolled spill happens from the site where it is stored. Two natural cationic clays, SWy and CTI, along with synthetic anionic clay or carbonate-hydrotalcite HTCO3 and its calcined product HT500, were assayed to remove color and toxic components extracted from alperujo as soluble organic matter (SOM). Both cationic clays are expandable lamellar phyllosilicates of smectite type with different purity and cation exchange capacity. The anionic clay (HTCO 3) is a layered magnesium-aluminum double hydroxide, also known as LDH, which has a high anion exchange capacity. Its calcination product (HT500) has the ability to adsorb anions from water by the reconstruction of its layered structure or “memory effect”. The purpose of this work was to assess the utility of those natural or synthetic adsorbents to reduce the adverse effects associated with the application of alperujo or OMW to agricultural soils or to remediate the effects produced by uncontrolled spills. Anionic clays had a greater affinity and adsorption capacity to eliminate both the color and the organic components of the SOM from an alperujo water extract, as compared to the smectite clays. The anionic clay HTCO3 showed a higher discoloring capacity than the cationic SWy and CTI clays, but the amounts of organic carbon removed from the water alperujo extracts were similar for the three clays, ranging from 34 to 39%, at the higher sorbent/solution ratio assayed (50:1); that fact suggests that both type of adsorbent remove different organic compounds from alperujo extract. The calcined anionic clay HT500 showed the maximum discoloring power and removed more than 75% of the organic carbon from the water alperujo extract. The UV-VIS spectra of the untreated and sorbent treated water alperujo extracts indicated that cationic clays adsorb different organic components compared to the anionic clay. A bioassay showed that HT500 decreased the phytotoxic effect of alperujo water extract towards Lepidium sativum. The calcined product of the hydrotalcite offers a potential use as possible adsorbent in systems for elimination of the phytotoxicity of alperujo contaminated waters or even as an alternative treatment to composting, for subsequent agricultural application of alperujo. Acknowledgment Funding by P07-AGR-03077, P11-AGR-07400 and AGR-264 of Junta de Andalucía, (FEDER-FSE EU Programs) and Contract RECUPERA 2020 of MICINN-CSIC. Keywords: adsorption, alperujo, hydrotalcite, LDH, organic residue, phytotoxicity, smectite, soil, soluble organic matter, water contamination.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Cadmium could affect (Mytilus galloprovincialis) health reproductive by changing sperm PLII and PLIII proteins properties and promoting DNA oxidative damage Pollice Francesca, Guerriero Giulia, Basile Adriana, Fucci Laura, Piscopo Marina Department of Biology, University Federico II Naples, Italy

The heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems due to the industrialization and pollution derived. The increasingly widespread of organism heavy metals pollution depends on their tendency to accumulate in the soil, air, water, and thus in the food chain, so may have harmful effects on living organisms even at low concentrations. Cadmium is biopersistant and remains in organism for many years before being eliminated. In order to monitor Mediterranean sea levels of heavy metals are used specific bioindicators like Mytilus galloprovincialis whose sperm chromatin is organized by three protamine-like (PLII, PLIII and PLIV) basic proteins. Mytilus galloprovincialis is unable to metabolize the toxic substances and bioaccumulate them; the concentrations of these pollutants in its tissues reproduce the extent of environmental contamination. We have evaluated the effects that CdCl₂ has on DNA and on Mytilus galloprovincialis PLII and PLIII proteins properties. We analyzed the self-association ability of PLII and PLIII in the presence of CdCl₂ by turbidity assay and GTA-cross linking reactions. Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis used in the experiments were purchased from an aquaculture farm in Goro (Ferrara, Italy) (GO2). The results show that CdCl₂ caused PLII but not PLIII aggregation by turbidity assay, while produced a reduction of self-association ability for both proteins in the presence of glutaraldehyde. Further, CdCl₂ induced a decreasing PLII binding affinity to DNA but an increasing for PLIII and promoted H₂O₂ DNA damage even in the presence of both PLII and PLIII. The effects of CdCl₂ were also evaluated in vivo. The obtained data show that PL-proteins extracted from sperm of mussels exposed to 10µM CdCl₂ didn’t show significative differences respect to control but a higher DNA binding affinity of these proteins was observed. Such changes could cause abnormal compaction of sperm chromatin and consequently a reduction the in reproductive fitness. In EMSA performed in the presence of CdCl₂, DNA bands resulted more visible in the agarose gel suggesting that CdCl₂ could produce DNA unwinding and increased exposure of nitrogenous bases. In conclusion, cadmium has negative effects on both Mytilus galloprovincialis PLII and PLIII properties and on DNA; on PLII promotes the formation of aggregates, probably altering its function in the formation, of the correct sperm chromatin structure of this organism together with the other PL-proteins and core histones. Further cadmium interferes with PLIII/DNA binding affinity at particular protein/DNA ratios, preventing it to protect DNA from oxidative damage and promoting DNA unrolling. Such changes could affect the susceptibility of DNA to oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide and any other xenobiotic agents. The effects of CdCl₂ observed in Mytilus galloprovincialis could cause fertility disorders and thus be responsible for the decreased reproductive fitness of Mytilus galloprovincialis as well as of other marine species. This work has been funded by a National Project (PRIN 2010-2011, prot. 2010ARBLT7_001/008). Keywords: cadmium, Mytilus galloprovincialis, protamine-like, health reproductive, water pollution

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Water and soil pollution and control

Regional distributions of geochemical properties in Mersin and Iskenderun bays Akcay Ismail, Tuğrul Süleyman, Tezcan Devrim, Yalçın Ural, Elimujiang Ebula, Başduvar Şehmus, Kalegeri Pınar Middle East Technical University-Institute of Marine Sciences

NE shelf waters of NE Mediterranean (Fig.1), especially the bays of Mersin and Iskenderun, are highly polluted by direct wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources and contaminated river inflows. In this study, surface sediments from Mersin and Iskenderun inner bays (including Mersin Harbor) were collected at 17 stations in April and September, 2014 to determine spatial distributions of heavy metals, total/organic carbon (TC, TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and grain-size distributions in two bays (Fig. 1). The results in the table show that metal concentrations (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in surface sediments from the Iskenderun inner bay were higher than the Mersin bay values, due to greater inputs from metal industries established in the region. Regional variations of Al in sediment resulted in greater spatial variations of enrichment factors of metals in surface sediments of the two inner bays. On the other hand, the suspended particles and nutrients carried by regional major rivers to the Mersin bay (Berdan, Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers) have led to enhancement of TC, TOC and TN in the bay surface sediments as compared to the properties of Iskenderun inner bay sediments. This effect is more pronounced in Mersin international harbor and shallow near-shore zone sediments. Significant and negative correlations were observed between the concentrations of organic carbon and Cr, Co, Ni in sediments whereas TOC and Pb pollution displayed positive correlations, indicating role of organic compounds on the enrichment of Pb in coastal surface sediments of the Mersin Bay. Acknowledgements This study was supported by TUBITAK within 111G152 (Dredging Applications and Environmental Management of Dredged Material) project. We would like to thank METU-IMS technical personnel for helping geochemical sampling and analyses.

Keywords: NE Mediterranean, surface sediments, heavy metal distribution, grain-size

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Water and soil pollution and control

Analysis of pressures and impacts for the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir Yenilmez Firdes Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is located on Aksu River within the border of Burdur province. It was constructed for irrigation and supply energy between 1988 and 1993. The surface area of the reservoir is 2.34 km2. Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is faced with eutrophication problem. The trophic status of the reservoir is in eutrophic range. The reservoir is so important for being a natural recreational area, culture fishing area, being used for irrigation and supply energy. Moreover, it is planning to supply drinking water to Antalya in near future. Therefore, the water quality in the reservoir and analysis of pressures and impacts are particularly significant. Analysis of Pressures and Impacts are helpful to design targeted and proportionate measures and assess the effectiveness of the programmes of measures. The European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) requires also that a review of the impact of human activity on the status of surface waters. In this study, pressures within the watershed of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir and their impacts on the water quality of the reservoir were analyzed. For this purpose, landuses in the watershed, point and non-point pollution sources were identified and evaluated together with the water quality data belonging to 2013. Evaluation was performed according to the limit values given in the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. It was seen that the water quality of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir falls into Category A3 (Drinkable water following physical, chemical and advanced treatment and disinfection). Therefore, measures are suggested to take pressures under control and to improve the water quality within the watershed of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir.

Keywords: Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir, pressure and impact analysis, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Microbial toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenolate in soils of contrasting pH Bello Diana1, Leirós M. Carmen2, Gil Sotres Fernando2, Trasar Cepeda Carmen1 Departamento de Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, ES-15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Universidad de Santiagod e Compostela, Campus Vida, ES-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 1 2

Previous studies carried out by our research group have demonstrated that the negative effects of diverse chlorophenols, like 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), on soil microbial biomass and activity is highly dependent on the soil organic matter content and the soil pH, where the effects of both factors are interconnected. The 2,4-DCP molecules can exist in the anionic and/or in the neutral form, and the proportion of each of these forms in soils contaminated with this compound depends directly on the pKa value of the chlorophenol (pKa2,4-DCP= 7.9) and on the soil pH. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the effect of 2,4-DCP on different microbial and biochemical properties sensitive to contamination is more intense in calcareous than in acidic soils. It has been suggested that the anionic form of 2,4-DCP is the toxic molecule to soil microorganisms, because 2,4-diclorophenolate is more soluble and smaller than the neutral form and, therefore, it can cross the cell membranes and once inside the cell cytoplasm it can cause the death of soil microorganisms. Therefore, it would be expected that in soils with similar characteristics (especially concerning their organic matter content), once the 2,4-DCP reaches the soil, the closer the soil pH to the pKa of this compound, the higher will be the proportion of 2,4-dichlorophenolate available in soil solution and, in consequence, the higher will be the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on soil microbial activity. In the present study we investigated the relationship between the soil pH and the concentration of neutral and ionic forms of 2,4-DCP in soils artificially contaminated with this compound, as well as their relationship with the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on several soil biochemical and microbiological properties. For this purpose, 2,4-DCP was applied to two agricultural soils of contrasting pH, an acidic (pH=5.25) and a calcareous (pH=7.65) soil, and with low organic matter content (2.5 and 1.4 %Ct). After 72 hours of contact time between the soil and the 2,4-dichlorophenol, both the anionic and the neutral forms of 2,4-DCP were quantified in soil extracts using a gas chromatograph coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Moreover, the microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase and urease activities were analysed both in contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples. The soils were also characterized as regards their general properties (total C and N contents, pH in KCl, texture, etc.). The results demonstrated that the closer the value of the soil pH to the pKa of 2,4-DCP the greater the presence of 2,4-DCP¯, whereas when the soil pH is acidic the proportion of the neutral molecules predominate. Moreover, the negative effects of 2,4-DCP on microbial biomass carbon and on dehydrogenase and urease activities was most intense in the calcareous soil. Therefore, it seems that there is a direct relation between the concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenolate and the reduction of soil biochemical properties. In conclusion, soil pH should be considered as a decisive factor in the toxicity of 2,4-DCP for soil microorganisms.

Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenol; soil pollution; soil pH; pKa; microbial biomass; soil enzymatic activities

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Water and soil pollution and control

Analysis of trends in the water quality of Karacaören-II dam reservoir Yenilmez Firdes Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir is located on Aksu River within the border of Burdur, Turkey. The reservoir is so important for being a natural recreational area, culture fishing area, being used for irrigation and supply energy. It has a surface area of 2.34 km2. It will be also used as a drinking water supply for Antalya in near future. However, the water quality in the reservoir is under stress due to point and non-point pollution sources within the borders of Isparta and Burdur provinces. Currently, the reservoir suffers from eutrophication problem. When the studies conducted on the water quality of Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir was examined, it was seen that there was a gap in the determination of change in the water quality via a systematic trend analysis. In this study, trends in selected water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand) in Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir for the period of 2005 to 2014 will be analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. Hence, the change of water quality and the effectiveness of the measures will be evaluated based on the trends. Results will be beneficial for the future studies and better management of the water quality in the reservoir.

Keywords: Karacaören-II Dam Reservoir, Mann-Kendall, trend, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Monitoring the health status of some fishes exposed to environmental heavy metals pollution Kenawy Amany Mohamed1, Marzouk Mohamed Said1, El Khatib Nahla Ramzy2, Abo Gabal Shams Amin1 1

Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 2 Department of fish parasitology, Animal Health Institute, Dokki, Giza,Egypt

In this work, the environmental pollution by heavy metals (lead, cadmium & mercury) in water and fish (Orechromis spp., C. garipenus) is studied in 3 localities at River Nile (Helwan, El-Hawameia, El-Warak) and also we studied the relationship between the physicochemical parameters of water and the accumulation of these metals in fish flesh, and it is concluded that the highest value of lead in water was recorded in Helwan at summer, while the highest value of cadmium in water was in ElWarak at spring and finally the highest value of mercury was in Helwan at spring. Regarding fish, the highest value of lead was recorded in C. garipenus in Helwan at summer, while the highest value of cadmium was in Oreochromis in El-Warak at autumn, finally the highest value of mercury was in C. garipenus in El-Warak at summer. Moreover, the effect of heavy metals on healthy status of O. niloticus also was studied and the results recorded that the LC50 of lead, cadmium and mercury for O. niloticus was 3.5, 21, 0.72 mg/L, respectively. It is also noticed reduction in RBCs count, Hb content, PCV% in O. niloticus exposed to those metals and there were elevation in serum urea and creatinien as well as liver enzymes. Augmentation these results was by the histopathological studies, which revealed changes in liver, kidney, gills and spleen. It could be concluded that the liver is the primary organ of the accumulation of these metals in O. niloticus.

Keywords: Orechromis spp., C. garipenus, heavy metals, pollution, histopathology

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Water and soil pollution and control

Lead treatment alternatives by chemical precipitation Kabdasli Isik, Tünay Olcay, Teymür Pınar Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Heavy metals are among the most important and toxic pollutants and have included in the lists of priority pollutants. Hydroxide precipitation is a common efficient and proven method for the control of heavy metals. The most important exception is lead ions. On the other hand, lead is one of the most toxic metal posing a significant threat to living organisms. While scientific literature is very rich in the area of hydroxide precipitation, the sources for lead control by chemical precipitation is rather limited. In this paper lead removal by chemical precipitation using lead sulfate, lead carbonate and lead hydroxide is theoretically and experimentally investigated and results are comparatively evaluated. The solubility of lead hydroxide is high and the performance of hydroxide precipitation is generally not adequate for lead control. The applicable means of lead precipitation can be realized using lead sulfate, lead carbonate and lead phosphate. Lead phosphate precipitation, although advantageous in terms of solubility has not been a preferred method since phosphate is also a pollutant. Therefore, in this study sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide salts of lead have been considered. Theoretical modelling is based on solubility of the salts depending on pH and involves the use of equilibrium equations, mass balances and electroneutrality equation. Complexes of lead with sulfate, carbonate and hydroxyl ions are accounted for. Varying sulfate and carbonate doses were used to evaluate the common ion effect. Results were expressed as phase diagrams. Experimental study was conducted using synthetic solutions of lead salts. Theoretical solutions and experimental study results exhibited a satisfactory fit except the extreme concentrations. The theoretical solutions are informative for applications enabling to determine applicable pH ranges, carbonate and sulfate doses to reach desired effluent quality and interactions between different solid phases formed. Results are comparatively evaluated and discussed on the basis of application and meeting the discharge standards.

Keywords: lead, chemical precipitation, lead sulfate precipitation, lead carbonate precipitation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Investigation of water quality of Sakarya city drinking water network Tanas Eda Nihan1, Oz Nurtac1, Sen Isa2 1

Dapertment of Environmental Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Sakarya City's Public Health Laboratory

2

In this study, Sakarya, drinking and using water is aimed to search of the effectiveness which existing disinfection with methods currently used. Sakarya province selected 17 of the 102 water samples were taken from the sampling point of the center and the district. At each sampling point in the free chlorine in the water was measured and the amount E.coli have been identified in the laboratory. Membrane filtration technique is used in the analysis. According to these results, Sakarya, drinking and using water outside settlements in the northern part has been determined that the appropriate to our country’s standards as bacteriological. (EN ISO 93081-water quality-detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria Part-1 Membrane filtration method). If the used disinfection method has been found to be adequate. In some periods, the fact that the desired level of residual chlorine levels in the system but have been found with coliform bacteria, has strengthened the possibility that contaminated during distribution of water network. Therefore pipes must be robust and maintenance must be performed. Adequate controls are not expected as long as the structures pose serious problems in terms of public health in the future.

Keywords: drinking water, Escherichia coli, disinfection, water quality

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Water and soil pollution and control

Biodegradation of 2,4 chorophenol by the acclimated activated sludge microorganisms in a tubular bioreactor Deveci Ece Ümmü Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey

In tubular bioreactor with acclimated active sludge was studied for removing 2,4-chorophenols. This experiment is important in the application of biological pollution control technologies for toxic matter. The bioreactor was operated as continuously and batch system. The effect of influent flow rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and initial phenol concentration on the overall system performance were investigated. The removal efficiency in the tubular batch bioreactor decreased linearly with increase in loading phenol concentration. At higher loadings the decline of removal efficiency was more significant for 500 ppm phenol concentration by active sludge. In continuous system phenol removal efficiency determined as 81 % in initial 250 ppm phenol concentration, in batch systems the efficiency was found 99 % in initial 500 ppm phenol concentration.

Keywords: 2,4-cholophenols, acclimations, active sludge, tubular reactor

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Water and soil pollution and control

Equilibrium and kinetics study of phosphate removal from natural seawater by adsorption on pretreated eggshell Yeddou Mezenner Nacéra1, Atmani Fatiha2, Bensaadi Zohra1, Sadaoui Zahra1 Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algerie 2 2Agence Thématique de Recherche en Sciences et Technologie, Avenue Pasteur, ENSA, Belfort, B.P 62 Hacene Badi, El-Harrach, Algerie 1

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in aquatic environments, but excessive phosphorus input may lead to eutrophication. Chemical treatment is widely used for phosphate removal, but their cost and sludge production make chemical treatment an unattractive option for wastewater treatments. Sorption method can remove phosphate steadily. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the adsorption characteristics of phosphate onto calcined eggshell using batch experiments. The adsorption behaviour of calcined eggshell in seawater is expected to be different than in freshwater because its surface electrical properties will be modified by the high ionic strength and competition for surface sites by major and minor seawater constituents. In this study, experiments were repeated for different initial phosphate concentration and temperature values. It was observed that the increase in uptake capacity of the sorbent with increasing phosphate concentration.The adsorption was dependent on the pH of the solution because of the ionisation of groups existing on the surface of the sorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data for phosphate adsorption on calcined eggshell can be represented appropriately by Freundlich model in the studied concentration and temperature rang. - Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be made: Calcined eggshell have shown excellent adsorption potential to phosphate. Batch studies show that a simple model of pseudo-second-order kinetic equation can adequately predict the adsorption of phosphate on calcined eggshell. Also, it was observed that the intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step.

Keywords: low-cost sorbent, seawater, sorption

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Water and soil pollution and control

Photocatalytic degradation of natural seawater organic matter Yeddou Mezenner Nacéra1, Atmani Fatiha2, Bensaadi Zohra1 Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algerie 2 Agence Thématique de Recherche en Sciences et Technologie, Avenue Pasteur, ENSA, Belfort, B.P 62 Hacene Badi, El-Harrach, Alger. 1

In the last two decades seawater has become a more important source for drinking purposes. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most common technique, because of its suitability for brackish water and seawater. Seawater contains some organic matter which can affect the desalination process. Hence, eliminating these organics in pre-treatment processes is essential. Relatively few studies have been made on the degradation of dissolved OM in seawater. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate the removal of OM natural seawater (NSW) using a TiO2. In this study, the samples were collected at the Algiers port. This study is investigated at pH 8.1 with TiO2 dose of 0.5 g/l. The kinetic study shows that after 4h of illumination while the efficiency reaches 78%. The OM degradation undergoes a fast increase during the first 2 h with 65% of degradation, then the rate decreases as the reaction goes longer and this can be explained as follows: over time, the concentration of intermediates increases and competes with the parent compound for both the side reactions and for available radiation, leading a decrease of the reaction rate. Also, the catalyst dose is an important parameter and the photo-degradation of organic molecules is affected by the number of active sites and the absorption ability of the catalyst. In order to investigate the pH effect on the photodegradation, the experiments are conducted over the pH range (5-9). The results indicate that the photo-degradation of OM is not favored in acidic solutions (pH 5).

Keywords: OM natural seawater, sweater, photo-degradation

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Water and soil pollution and control

Biological, photocatalytic and ultrasound treatment of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic: ciprofloxacin Guney Gokce, Sponza Delia Teresa Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

This study presents the comparision of biological and advanced treatment processes for the treatment of ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic which is an important micropollutant from hospital effluents. The treatability of this antibiotic was investigated using a single aerobic, a single anaerobic, an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system, a sonicator, and a photocatalytic reactor with cerium (IV) oxide (CeO₂) nanoparticle in a raw hospital wastewater. Effect of temperature, sonication time and nanoparticle concentration were chosen for operating parameters of the sonicator. The effects of irradiation time, UV light power and CeO₂ nanoparticle concentration on the micropollutant yields were determined as the operating parameters of photocatalytic process. COD and ciprofloxacin (CIP) yields were determined. Methane gas productions and total VFA concentrations were also monitored in anaerobic reactor. pH changes, dissolved oxygen variations and redox potentials were monitored in anaerobic and aerobic reactors. Furthermore, the effects of HRT and OLR on the pollutant yields was researched in both reactors. Among the aforementioned treatment processes, it was found that the high treatment yields for ciprofloxacin pollutant were obtained with photocatalytic process for 0.50 gr/L nano CeO₂ concentration at 300 W UV light power for 45 min at 25 °C and a pH of 7.00 (93.4%) than anaerobic/aerobic sequential biological process at an OLR of 0.19 gr COD/L.day (82.7%) and sonication with nano CeO₂ for 0.50 gr/L nano CeO₂ concentration at 35 °C for 45 min and a pH of 7.00 (82.0%) to remove the CIP from hospital wastewater effluents.

Keywords: biological, CeO2 nanoparticle, ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolone, photocatalytic, sonication

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Water and soil pollution and control

Pharmaceutical compounds in non-conventional water resources in Tunisia Fries Elke1, Mahjoub Olfa2, Mahjoub Borhane3, Berrehouc Anne4, Lions Julie4, Bahadir Müfit5 1

Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry (INRGREF), University of Carthage, Ariana, Tunisia 3 Higher Institute of Agronomic Sciences of Chatt-Meriem, University of Sousse, Tunisia 4 French Geological Survey (BRGM), Orléans, France 5 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany 2

Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) and their metabolites contaminate water resources through discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In Tunisia, 21 PCs with three metabolites in addition to two biocides were analysed in wastewaters for the first time. Four municipal WWTPs (Sud Meliane, SE4, SE3, and Korba) receiving effluents of various origins were selected. 15 grab samples of wastewater were collected during 2013-2014. PCs were measured by using UPLC/MS-MS. The selected PCs were detected in raw wastewater, treated wastewater, and reclaimed water used for irrigation and aquifer recharge. Low concentrations of gemfibrozil were detected in SE4 (22 and 24 ng/L) and SE3 (79 ng/L) deriving likely from touristic hotels. Caffeine was detected at high concentration (165,000 ng/L) in effluents of SE4. Concentrations of ibuprofen (IBU) and its metabolite, (2-OH-ibuprofen), atenolol (ATE), carbamazepine (CAR), ketoprofen, diclofenac (DIC), furosemide, fenofibrate, and paracetamol (PAR) were high. At SE4, concentrations of carbamazepine in treated wastewater were between 543 ng/L and 1,281 ng/L. IBU and PAR as over-the-counter medication were found at relatively high concentrations. In Korba, CAF was detected at 97,600 ng/L, 2-OH-IBU at 8,170 ng/L, and IBU at 3,040 ng/L. In the untreated wastewater sample, the concentration of IBU was higher than the concentration of its metabolites. Concentrations of 2-OHIBU, IBU, ATE, CAR, bezafibrate, DIC, oxazepam, trimetoprim, and triclosan in reclaimed water were comparable to those in effluents of SE4, and sometimes even higher. The highest concentrations of IBU and 2-OH-IBU were found in reclaimed water used for irrigation. In view of the present results, special attention should be paid to the occurrence of some compounds as they may be transferred to crops and groundwater during irrigation and aquifer recharge.

Keywords: pharmaceutical compounds, Tunisia, wastewater, irrigation, recharge

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Water and soil pollution and control

GST induction and ultrastructural alterations in Lemna minor L. exposed in bags in a polluted river of South Italy Conte B.1, Sorbo S.2, Piscopo M.1, Rabbito D.1, Basile A.1 Department of Biology, Università di Napoli Federico II; Napoli, Italy C.e.S.M.A., Università di Napoli Federico II; Napoli, Italy

1 2

Water pollution is a major environmental and human health issue because rivers may transport pollutants away from sources, impairing the whole ecosystem health. The river Sarno represents one the most disturbed water ecosystems in Europe: lacking of law observance, deficiencies in the sewerage-purification systems, spilling of not adequately treated waste waters from industries, and the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in crop fields have been producing a heavy pollution of freshwaters (Albanese et al., 2013; De Pippo et al., 2006). Plants react to pollutants in a very complex way, activating a number of parallel and/or consecutive reactions at molecular, physiological and morphological levels. Most of the species belonging to the Lemnaceae (duckweeds) family are widely used as model hydrophytes in ecotoxicology, due to their wide distribution, fast growth, short life span, and sensitivity to environmental changes. This study aimed at evaluating biological effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily polluted river Sarno (Campania, South Italy), using bags containing the water plant Lemna minor L. Homogeneous samples of 750 mg of L. minor, collected from the Botanical Gardens of the University of Naples, were accurately washed and disposed in 10 x10 cm wide, nylon, 1 mm2 - meshed bags. The bags were exposed for one week floating on the water of the river Sarno, to determine morphophysiological modifications as a response to pollutants. Moreover, some specimens were exposed in vitro at the same heavy metal (HM) concentrations as measured in the polluted sites of the river, and compared with data from the bag experiment. A number of parameters were measured and evaluated on these samples: heavy metal accumulation, ultrastructural organization and GST induction. The results showed that L. minor is very effective at accumulating heavy metals. Morphological alterations concern most of all chloroplasts (their shape and thylakoid organization) and vacuoles. GST were influenced by the exposure. The results suggest the potential use of this species and this method both in biomonitoring and phytoremediation projects. References Albanese, S., Iavazzo, P., Adamo, P., Lima, A., DeVivo, B., 2013. Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Sarno river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach. Environ. Geochem. Health 35, 283–297. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10653-012-9483-x. De Pippo, T., Donadio, C., Guida, M., Petrosino, C., 2006. The case of Sarno River (Southern Italy). Effects of geomorphology on the environmental impacts. ESPR – Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 13, 184–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/ espr 2005.08.287 (2006).

Keywords: Lemna minor, bioaccumulation, freshwater, Italy, pollution

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Water and soil pollution and control

Atmospheric pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) in the Italian Triangle of Death Esposito Sergio1, Sorbo Sergio2, Cardi Manuela1, De Lillo Alessia1, Lentini Marco1, Basile Adriana1 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy Ce.S.M.A., Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy

1 2

The metal-tolerant liverwort Lunularia cruciata L. (Dumort.) (Lunulariales), was collected in two urban sites, by comparing gametophytes with samples collected in a rural, non-polluted area. Two polluted sites in two highly contaminated urban areas were chosen: the downtown of Naples, and in the city center of Acerra, one of the tops of the Triangle of Death. This latter area is in the South of Italy, and it is known for the severe increase in deaths produced by cancer, heavily exceeding the Italian average has been observed for the last decades. This rise in mortality is caused by high levels of pollution coming from illegal waste disposal by criminal organizations. The control, unpolluted country site, was chosen in Riccia (Molise, Italy), a small town far from big urban areas and industrial activities. The liverwort Lunularia cruciata (Marchantiales) was used to evaluate the impact of metal(loid)s on a wide range of cellular responses, including changes in gene expression and transcription, as well as phytochelatin synthase activity: in this study, changes in ultrastructure and induction of phytochelatins, and Heat Shock Proteins 70 have been investigated and related to the different levels of pollution. In both urban sites, cellular ultrastructure was strongly modified, and severe alterations were observed in organelles, in particular inducing marked alterations of the chloroplast structure. Simultaneously, strong increments in phytochelatins and Hsp70s were detected in gametophytes from both urban sites, compared with control samples. These effects are discussed in order to describe the response to pollution in L. cruciata in order to propose this liverwort species as a possible bioindicator able to measure the effects of atmospheric pollution on living organisms, particularly related to metal(loid) contamination.

Keywords: Lunularia cruciata, atmospheric pollution, Italian Triangle of Death

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Water and soil pollution and control

Heavy metals in treated wastewater resources used for irrigation: case studies from Nabeul-Tunisia Rmili Marwa1, Mahjoub Olfa2, Mahjoub Borhane3, Bahadir Müfit4 1

Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, Tunis, Tunisia National Research Institute of Rural Engineering, Waters and Forestry, Tunis, Tunisia 3 Higher Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia 4 Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany 2

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in wastewater (WW) and aquatic environments may occur from three generic sources: domestic, industrial and urban. CEC include heavy metals, which can impact human and environmental health. The aim of this study was to show the effects of urban and industrial discharges on treated wastewater (TWW) quality used for irrigation purpose, their impact on groundwater quality in a semi-arid area in Northern Tunisia, and their potential environmental implications. To assess the water quality, we collected TWW and groundwater samples for analyzing with ICP-OES for Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Zn and comparing the outcomes with Tunisian standards of discharge and for reuse in agriculture. The results showed that TWW from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Nabeul were characterized by a high pollution with heavy metals with concentrations of Cr (15.66 µg/l), Ni (15.52 µg/l), and Cu (116.51 µg/l). Except for Al, the element concentrations did not exceed the Tunisian Standards for WW reuse for agricultural irrigation (NT 106.03) and those for discharge in surface water bodies (NT 106.02) (1989). These concentrations are high compared to those detected in other studies. This may be caused by industries without the required pre-treatment of their discharges in these areas, the overload of WWTP, and the lack of maintenance of equipments. High levels of heavy metals can cause environmental risk and lead to food crops contamination. However, the TWW could be used to irrigate plants tolerant to high heavy metal concentrations after current Tunisian standards. The outcomes of this study show clearly the urgent necessity to implement appropriate regulations to foster sustainable management of TWW in the best way especially in irrigation reuse. This will be important especially in Tunisia because the amount of TWW used for irrigation is increasing rapidly as a consequence of the water scarcity.

Keywords: heavy metals, treated wastewater, groundwater, irrigation, Tunisia

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Water and soil pollution and control

Elucidating the mechanism of ultrafiltration by investigating of dye-surfactant interactions in aqueous solutions Olcay Aybı̇ke nil1, Polat Mehmet1, Polat Hürriyet2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmır Instıtute of Technology, Izmır, Turkey Department of Chemistry, Izmır Instıtute of Technology, Izmır, Turkey

1 2

Low Molecular Weight Contaminants (LMWCs) in waters are serious environmental concern due to removal problems with classical techniques such as chemical coagulation, biological treatments and adsorption. LMWCs are usually co-present with surface active agents in contaminated waters. Though such advanced removal techniques as ultrafiltration and micelle enhanced ultrafiltration are said to perform better, no systematic study is present for elucidating how the contaminant-surfactants interactions affect removal efficiency. In this study, methylene blue (MB), a dye widely employed in textile, paper and chemical industries, was chosen as the model contaminant. Surfactants selected were anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic ethoxylated octylphenol (TX-100). Surface tension, size, charge and contact angle measurements were conducted to investigate dye-surfactant interactions. Cellulose nitrate filters were employed to determine the effect of these interactions in filtration efficiency. It is found that there is an electrostatic interaction between the filter paper and MB and as a result there is high removal of this contaminant. The filtration behavior changes significantly in the presence of surfactant. If the surfactants exist as monomer removal efficiencies decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. Charge of the surfactants effect the removal efficiency. Interactions between the filter surface and the surfactant molecules are as important as those between the filter surface and the contaminant. Interactions between the contaminant and the surfactant molecules are also important since they determine the form of the contaminant in the system, hence the filtration response. Low removal efficiency is seen in the micellar range due to the formation of compact surfactant micelles, which envelope MB in their structure, which cannot be retained by the pores of the filters used.

Keywords: ultrafiltraion, low molecular weight contaminants, critical micelle concentration

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Water and soil pollution and control

Determining the water pollution of Kizilirmak river of Turkey by using satellite images and spectral measurement data Gursoy Onder1, Ozyonar Fuat2, Kasaka Ergun3 1

Department of Geomatics Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey 3 Department of Biology, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey 2

Water resources are getting more and more important with each passing day in case of survival of humanity. For this reason, assessing water resources’ quality and also monitoring them have attracted lots of attention in the recent years. Remote sensing has been growing widely in the last decade and its resources are very usable when it comes to water resources management. In this study, by using remote sensing technology, satellite images that have 350 to 1050 nanometres wavelength band sensors (e.g. CHRIS Proba) are used to determine the quality of the Kizilirmak River’s water. Kizilirmak River is born and also pours out to sea in country limits of Turkey. It is the longest river of the country by the length of 1355 kilometres. Through the river’s resources, ground based spectral measurements are made to identify the quality differences of the water at the test spots that have been determined before. In this context at Imranli, where the river contacts civilization for the first time, which is located in Sivas city of Turkey, samples are gathered in order to do ground based spectroradiometer measurements. These samples are gathered simultaneously with the image acquiring time of CHRIS Proba satellite. Spectral signatures that are obtained from ground measurements are used as reference data in order to classify CHRIS Proba satellite’s hyperspectral images over the study area. Satellite images are classified based on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity attributes. As a result, interpretations obtained from classified CHRIS Proba satellite hyperspectral images of the study area are presented.

Keywords: water pollution, remote sensing, spectral measurement

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Water and soil pollution and control

Equilibrium and kinetics study of nitrate removal from natural seawater by adsorption eggshell Atmani Fatiha1, Yeddou Mezenner Nacera2, Keddam Sabrina2, Mokbel Ouahiba2 1

Faculty of Technology, University Blida 1 Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB 2

Water pollutants have huge impacts on the entire living systems including terrestrial, aquatic, flora and fauna. Several nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, nitrite and ammonia have been found as common pollutants in various wastewaters. Especially nitrate can bring in severe problems, including eutrophisation and infection diseases, such as cyanosis and cancer of the alimentary canal. The purpose of the present work is to use calcined eggshell as a sorbent for the removal of nitrate. The effect of temperature and adsorbent dose of seawater on nitrate removal was studied. The adsorption of nitrate is increased with increase in adsorbent dose and remains constant after the equilibrium time. The equilibrium time was 60 min and temperature studies showed that adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous nature. The Langmuir, Timken and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results obtained in this work suggest that calcined eggshell has a potential application as adsorbent media for removing NO3 from seawater.

Keywords: nitrate removal, seawater, adsorption, calcined eggshell

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment of bilge water by hybrid adsorption and photocatalytic processes Atmani Fatiha1, Yeddou Mezenner Nacera2, Djellab Lamia1 1

Faculty of Technology, University Blida 1 Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB 2

Generally, bilge waters can be briefly defined as saline and greasy wastewaters. The oil and grease are mixed with the sea water, which affects many marine species. Bilge water is a complex mixture of various compounds such as solvents, surfactants, fuel, lubricating oils and hydraulic oils. It is resulted mainly by the leakage from the machinery and freshwaterwashdowns, which are allowed to drain to the lowest inner part of the ship's hull. There are several physicochemical methods used for bilge water treatment such as biodegradation electrochemical and electro-coagulation/flotation.The research herein presented discusses adsorption and photodegradation as a method to treat bilge water and eggshells-TiO2 was studied as adsorbent. The influence of operating parameters as contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose (0,5 - 3g/l) on the removal efficiency of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity was analyzed. The bilge wastewater used for this study was supplied by Harbour Bouharoune. Chemical oxygen demand removal increased from 26.7% to 78.7% as the adsorbent dose increased from 0.2 to 2 g. The kinetics of adsorption by eggshells were fast, reaching 35 % of the total adsorption capacity in five minutes (T= 20°C, pH =7.66, m=2.5 g/L). It was found that the turbidity removal efficiency decreased and 97% were achieved at the end of 100 min reaction. The adsorption and photocatalytic processes process was found to be effective for the purification of bilge water and adsorption isotherms of eggshells-TiO2 samples were fitted to Langmuir model.

Keywords: bilge water, adsorption, eggshells, photocatalytic process and kinetics

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Water and soil pollution and control

The impacts of cargo wash operations in bulk carriers to the marine environments Irtem Şevket Süleyman1, Bayar Sibel2, Elmas Güldem2, Ergin Ayfer2, Alkan Güler2, Buğra Çelebi Uğur2 1

Institute of Graduate Studies in Science and Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Maritime Transportation Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2

In this paper, the operation process in ships is evaluated with “Cargo Wash Operations in Bulk Carriers”. The critical path of the spillage responding process is determined. The findings of the method used to develop spillage respond and training procedures.

Keywords: spillage, cargo wash operation, pollution, CPM PERT

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Water and soil pollution and control

Treatment and recovery of table olive wastewater via membrane separation technologies Ozbey Bahar1, Balcık Canbolat Cigdem1, Dizge Nadir2, Keskinler Bülent1 1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey

2

Table olive fermentation is one of the oldest application of biotechnology in food processing industry and a considerable amount of water is used during the process. As a result of the table olive processes, olive brine wastewater is released which has a high value of COD and contains a significant amount of conductivity and suspended solids. Therefore, treatment of table olive brine wastewater is quite difficult by conventional treatment methods and because of this, new treatment technologies have been investigated. There are limited studies in the literature for the treatment strategies of table olive brine wastewater. In this study, treatability of the olive brine wastewater provided from table olive facility was investigated in laboratory using by chemical and membrane filtration processes. For chemical treatability studies, optimum coagulant type, pH, amount of coagulant, flocculant type and amount of flocculant were defined. In membrane filtration treatability studies, treated wastewater by optimum chemical treatment conditions was treated by advanced treatment technologies which contain ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (NF/RO) membranes. During the membrane studies, optimum NF and RO membrane types, operation pH and transmembrane pressures were determined. Consequentially, after the chemical and membrane treatment processes, discharge standarts were obtained which are 600 mg/L for COD and 20 mS/cm for electrical conductivity. As a result of treatability studies, removal efficiencies of COD and electrical conductivity reached up to 99,9% and 99,2%, respectively.

Keywords: table olive wastewater; chemical treatment; membrane separation; cod removal; salt rejection

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Water and soil pollution and control

Multispecies algal bioassay to study the contamination of coastal waters in the estuarine mixing area Mingazzini Marina, Palumbo Maria Teresa Water Research Institute IRSA, CNR

Coastal marine environments are likely to be the ultimate sink for the anthropogenic pollutants, deliberately or purposely discharged into the environment. While the river inputs are recognized as the major contamination source of the coastal systems, marine and freshwater quality studies are separately undertaken, according to a traditional dichotomy existing between methodological approaches in water quality assessment. Currently separated methods are possibly limiting the correct river-water management, which should be better integrating the information from land-based impact studies of coastal marine waters. Biological assays simultaneously investigating the responses of marine and fresh-water organisms are rarely used as toxicity or trophic assessment methods to study the contamination of river-coastal water systems. Particularly, estuarine mixing waters, where major physicochemical changes can likely affect the bioavailability of pollutants, are most difficult to be tested by biological assays because it should require the use of euryhaline organisms capable of tolerating the entire range of estuarine salinities, from fresh to marine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of three selected algal species to be simultaneously used as test organisms in biological assays to investigate the trophic contamination over the entire salinity gradient from 0 to 37 psu, linking the algal responses to the river, estuarine and marine water trophic status. While the joint use of two species, the freshwater Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the marine (15 to 37 psu) Phaeodactylum tricornutum was previously applied to the study of the trophic potential of the Po River - Adriatic Sea system, the suitability of Dunaliella tertiolecta, as a further, more tolerant species, was evaluated to cover the estuarine mixing area in the salinity range 6 to 15 psu. Like the other two species, Dunaliella, which is a motile green alga, is a fast-growing unicellular species particularly easy to cultivate and to count. By contrast, its large difference in cell biomass makes its growth potential, in terms of cell number, hardly comparable within the multispecies assay. The use of a Multisizer electronic particle counter coupled to the gravimetric analysis of the dried biomass of the three algal species enabled to calculate the specific yield conversion factor starting from the cell number. The responses to laboratory enrichment bioassays performed using the three species showed a good correlation linking phosphorus concentration to biomass, revealing the same yield of all species per phosphorus unit. The joint use of the three species revealed effective, enabling to define the trophic gradient over the entire salinity mixing (0 to 35 psu) of river with seawaters in the Po – Adriatic estuarine area.

Keywords: algal growth potential, algal yield, estuarine mixing area, euryhaline algal species

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Water and soil pollution and control

Impact of synthetic estrogen 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol on carbon removal kinetics Ubay Cokgor Emine, Alanyali Burcu, Topuz Emel, Zengin Balci Gulsum Emel, Okutman Tas Didem, Iskender Fatma Gulen Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey

The existence and persistence of estrogenic chemicals in aquatic environments may affect both public and ecosystem wellness. Estrogenic compounds are known to cause endocrine disruption in wildlife and humans, including 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (or Ethinylestradiol), a widely used pharmaceutical. Ethinylestradiol (or 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone estradiol. Studies on the biodegradability of estrogens receive high attention from scientists that 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, the main ingredient in the contraceptive pill, is not easily detected in the environment due to its low concentration at μg/l levels in surface, sewage and ground waters. Although sorption occurs quickly, biodegradation is the primary removal means for estrogens in wastewater. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol removal efficiencies vary from 34 % to almost 100 %. Variations in wastewater treatment processes and operational conditions are generally regarded as the reason for fluctuations in removal efficiencies and effluent concentrations. This study investigated the impact of 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol, a significant compound among endocrine disrupter on the biodegradation of a synthetic organic substrate – a peptone/meat extract mixture - under aerobic conditions. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was sustained at steady state at a sludge age of ten days with substrate feeding. After the biomass seeding the reactors were started with the peptone mixture and an initial 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol concentration (EE2) of 1 mg/L. Experimental profiles of oxygen uptake rates and polyhydroxyalkanoates were evaluated by calibration of a selected model. 1 mg/L of 17 alpha- ethinylestradiol had no acute effect on process kinetics. However, at the fortieth day of acclimation period to EE2, model simulation results showed that the maximum heterotrophic growth rate and the maximum hydrolysis rate for slowly hydrolysable products increased due to the stimulated enzyme activity.

Keywords: endocrine disrupter, biodegradation of a synthetic estrogen, carbon removal kinetics

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Water and soil pollution and control

The determination of bacteriological quality of Kilyosİğneada coast and sea water Kimiran Erdem Ayten1, Arslan Aydoğdu Elif Özlem1, Gülener Merve2, Zorbozan Hazal2, Balcı Muharrem3, Yeşilova Kübra4, Anda Merve4, Balkıs Neslihan4 Department of Biology, Section of Fundamental and Industrial Microbiology, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Institute of Sciences, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Architecture and Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey 4 Department of Biology, Section of Hydrobiology, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 1

The Black Sea is an inland sea in southeastern Europe and is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. The Black Sea marine life is under threat because of the pollution caused by industrial and domestic wastes. In this reason, in the current study, we examined the bacteriological contamination of Western Black Sea coast and sea water. The samples were seasonally collected from 5 different regions (Kilyos, Karaburun, Yalıköy, Kıyıköy and İğneada) from the surface waters of sea and littoral zone and were analyzed in terms of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria by special culture methods, and total bacteria count by DAPI-CTC double-staining method. Gram-negative bacteria were identified by using API 20E and 20NE test strips (BioMérieux, France) for oxidase negative and positive strains, respectively. The antibiotic (cephalothin, imipenem, gentamicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, erythromycin, ceftazidime, carbenicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, cefoxitin, cefoperazone, nitrofurantoin, amikacin, penicillin, cefotaxime) and heavy metal (chromium, nickel, zinc, cobalt, copper, mangan, and mercury) resistance of isolates were examined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test protocol and serial dilution method, respectively. It was found that the number of bacteria changed depending on the season. At the same time, Aeromonas spp., Burkholderia spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Kluyvera spp., Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp., Providencia spp., Raoultella spp., Salmonella spp., Serratia spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Sphingomonas spp., and Vibrio spp. bacteria were identified. Currently, when considering the ratio of fecal coliform to fecal streptococci, it was found that the main reason for the pollution of the coasts of Kilyos and Kıyıköy is human origin. On the other hand we found that the littoral zone polluted than sea water, in terms of the number of indicator bacteria. When the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria was considered, we found that the most of isolate have resistance profile against to the penicillin, while the higher sensitivity were detected for gentamicin, tobramycin and norfloxacin. According to the results of the minimum bactericidal concentration of heavy metals, the highest sensitivities was detected against to mercury with the concentration of 6.25 μg ml⁻¹.

Keywords: indicator bacteria, pseudomonas, aeromonas, antibiotic resistance, heavy metal resistance

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Water and soil pollution and control

Ongoing and potential oil pollution in the Adriatic Sea Morović Mira1, Ivanov Andrei2, Oluić Marinko3, Kovač Žarko1, Terleeva Nadezda2 1

Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, P.P. 500, 21000 Split, Croatia P.P. Shirshov Institute of Оceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36, Moscow 117997, Russia 3 Geo-sat, Poljana B. Hanžekovićeva 31, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2

In the Adriatic Sea, high number of oil slicks has been detected on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The sources of these slicks are most often deliberate releases of oil and oily products, caused by tank washing or through routine operations of transport or fisheries ships. Concern regarding the oil pollution has risen lately, since states surrounding the Adriatic Sea: Croatia, Montenegro and Albania have intensified exploration of undersea sources of hydrocarbons. If the oil would be found, the transport of oil will also be intensified. Oil platforms are potential sources of pollution, if not properly maintained. The leaking of oil may occur during all phases of exploration as well as exploitation. Regarding oil pollution, due to the prevailing cyclonic circulation in the Adriatic, about forty Italian oil rigs are not Croatian major concern, but Croatian territorial waters are potentially endangered from exploration and exploitation activities in Montenegro, Albania and Croatia. Here we demonstrate a number of slicks from different sources on SAR satellite images, showing existing pollution level, occurring practically on a daily basis. We also discuss potential damage for Croatian coastal communities in case of larger accidents.

Keywords: oil pollution, adriatic sea, SAR images

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Water and soil pollution and control

Spectroscopic analysis of nitric-acid treated mixtures on the base of biomass and chicken litter Serafimova Ekaterina1, Petkova Vilma2, Pelovsky Yoncho1, Kostova Bilyana3 1

University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia, Bulgaria Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria 3 Department Natural Sciences, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria 2

Poultry farming is a traditional branch of the Bulgarian national livestock in recent years for poultry meat and eggs. They are grown industrially between 15 and 22 million birds, of which 8-10 million hens, which produce daily between 4000-6000 t excrement. In one year aspect that defines an amount of about 500 000 t. As in other areas of the industry, and in this case, a major problem is the need to comply with regulatory requirements in the EU and in the country. In Bulgaria there are a few good practices implemented in poultry farms for the use of waste as secondary raw material or energy resource. This problem has not found the best solution globally too. The proposed new solution is constructed on the basis of waste from poultry farms with additional waste products from other industries and biomass. The aim is to do integrated recovery of several wastes. These spectroscopic analysis have attempted application of the solid phase poultry waste and identifying the phases in it, in order to obtain organic products for agriculture. It was found that the selected wastes and other raw materials have a structure and composition, which defines them as carriers of essential micro-nutrients without excessive content of heavy and toxic elements, which allows them to be classified as suitable components for obtaining soil improvers.

Keywords: poultry excrements, biomass, soil improvers, IR, XRD, SEM

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Water and soil pollution and control

Soil contamination by heavy metals in flood plain of Qweik river, Aleppo, Syria Kadhim S.L.1, Salih S.A.1, Qadir M2,3 1

University of Tikrit, Department of Applied Geology, Tikrit, Iraq, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria 3 International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka 2

This study including determination of soil contamination by some heavy metals at south of Aleppo city in Syria.The sewage wastewater and industrial wastewater of Aleppo flow in the channel of the Qweik river, and this water polluted by heavy metals. The wastewater mixed with natural water of Euphrates river by artificial channel extend from Al-Asad lake to Qweik river in Sandarat Campus, North Aleppo, the channel flow capacity is about 3m3/sec. the purpose of this project to enhance the water quality of Qweik river and dilute the concentrations of heavy metal pollutants It noted that the relative high concentration of Fe, Cu and Zn in the top soil in the 1st two station which is closed to the river channel, and that associated with high concentrations of organic matter. The concentration of Cd horizontally and vertically more than the tolerance limit compared by the standards. The variation may related to the different degree of leaching of this element, and the high enrichment of Cd in the soil may related to irrigation by sewage wastewater, during long period of time. The concentration of Mn is below the standard limit. It is recommend to carry on analyses for other heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, V, and Ti in the soil and plants, which is important to recognize the degree of pollution and contamination of the soil.

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Water and soil pollution and control

Sedimentology and heavy metals of the dust storms in Tikrit city/ Iraq Eman L. Salman1, Amera I. Hussain2 1

Ishik University/Engineering College/ Civil Engineering Dept./Erbil Tikrit University/College of Science/ Applied Geology Dept. /Tikrit

2

Collection of five samples of the dust have been collected from the storms which occurred during (2009 and 2010) in Tikrit city. Grain size analysis show that the silt size forming the majority (62.6% ), fine sand (23.52%) and clay (13.88%) , also CaCO3 and organic content have been determined determined with average (25.9%) and (2.11%) respectively. The heavy metals including Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Co, and Zn showing that Zn , Ni, Co and Cr are more than the standards in the crust of the earth which considered pollutant elements while Cd and Pb are less than the standards.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Impact of the rejection (discharge) of the lead of the appearance (mine) of Jalta Ghazela on the environment Hammami Marwa Ben Moncef1, Hatira Abdessatar2, Ben Romdhane Samir3, Ben Youssef Samir3 1

Hammami Marwa Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092. and Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020 2 Abdessatar Hatira Faculte Sciences of Tunis. Campus U. El Manar. 2092 3 Samir Ben Romdhane and Samir Ben Youssef Ecole National of Veterinary Sidi Thabet. Aryanah. 2020

The tailings in Tunisia are a source and a threat to the degradation of mining environments. Indeed the impact study of discharges of lead from lead-zinc mine in Ghazela-Jalta region was carried out in part by sampling on agricultural land at the tailings dam, soil, plants (wheat and fenugreek), snails and water (surface and drinking) and analysis of lead and other the other physicochemical parameters. The results revealed high levels of lead exceeding the standards recognized at all ecosystem components mentioned before. Fenugreek is an accumulator lead plant compared to wheat: after harvest 5.5 ppm for wheat and 12 ppm for fenugreek seeds. These tenures exceed the standards (0.50ppm for grains, 1.00ppm to leaves and stems). For drinking water we found a concentration of 03.mg/l of lead that exceeds the standard 0.1mg/l could cause chronic lead poisoning and sometimes acute lead poisoning. Analyses of soil profiles of 50 cm show: high levels of total lead (1712.5 ppm) compared to soluble lead (2.70ppm). Thus we confirmed bioaccumulation of lead in the viscera gastropods which could be a risk and a danger to consumers. Analyses of gastropods on sale to the public showed the following RESULTS: 9.00ppm for the viscera weighing 5.57g and 7.00ppm for a weight of 4.50g (contents exceeding 4 times the norm).

Keywords: mining discharges, lead, Yalta-Ghezala, bioaccumulation, pollution, environment

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The molecule preserve environment: effects of inhibitor of the angiotensin converting enzyme on reproductive potential and composition contents of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller Yezli Touiker Samira1, Kirane Amrani Leila2, Soltani Mazouni Nadia3 Yezli-Touiker S.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria Kirane-Amrani L.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria 3 Soltani-Mazouni N.: Départemen tof Biology,Annaba, Algeria 1 2

Due to secondary effects of conventional insecticides on the environment, the agrochemical research has resulted in the discovery of novel molecules. That research work will help in the development of a new group of pesticides that may be cheaper and less hazardous to the environment and non-target organisms which is the main desired outcome of the present work. Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a target for the development of novel insect growth regulators. Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) it was tested in vivo by topical application on reproduction of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The compound is diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae (10g/ 2l). The effects of this molecule was studied,on the biochemistry of ovary (on amounts nucleic acid, proteins, the qualitative analysis of the ovarian proteins and the reproductive potential (duration of the pre-ovipotion, duration of the oviposition, number of eggs laid and hatching percentage). Captopril reduces significantly quantity of ovarian proteins and nucleic acid. The electrophoresis profile reveals the absence of tree bands at the treated series. This molecule reduced the duration of the oviposition period, the fecundity and the eggviability.

Keywords: Ephestia kuehniella, captopril, reproduction, biochemistry of ovary

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxic effects of fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress Benbouzid Houneida1, Berrebbah Houria2, Djebar Mohamed Réda2 1

Department of Biochemistry, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria Laboratory of Cell Toxicology, General Direction of Scientific Research and Technological Development Annaba University, Algeria. 2

The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of organotin acaricide: Fenbutatin oxyde tested at concentrations of 30, 40 and 60 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. We have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment and confirmed by the percentage of responses. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione Stransferase activity recorded in the presence of various Fenbutatin oxyde concentrations involve the activation of detoxification system. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations.

Keywords: fenbutatin oxyde, detoxification, oxidative enzymes, Paramecium sp.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxicity of Acaricides to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions Ayad Loucif Wahida1, Nedji Neila2 1

Department of medicine, faculty of medicine, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria. Department of biology, Laboratory of Applied Biology, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.

2

Pollination is a key ecosystem service for both biodiversity and human welfare. More than 70% of the world’s crop production depends to some extent on biotic pollination, which is primarily performed by insects. Pollination by bees also increases seed set and fruit set, size, quality, shelf life and commercial value of a majority of crops. While bees are by far the most efficient group of insect pollinators, their populations are declining worldwide. A number of stressors have been identified as potential contributing factors, including the use of acaricides, which have negative effect on bee health. Acaricides are used to treat honey bee colonies to control the varroa mite ("Varroa destructor" Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied different concentrations of oxalic acid (3.5%, 6% and 20%) on the newly emerged workers of "A. mellifera intermissa", in order to evaluate the toxicity of the acaricide by studing the specific activity of the Glutathione S-Transferase and the histological structure of the midgut. Results showed toxic effects of oxalic acid on honey bees. The toxicity is expressed by the induction of the Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity 24 hours after its administration at high concentration (20%) and, 48 hours after at low concentrations. Also, cells midgut alteration was observed after topical application of oxalic acid at 3.5% and 20% with high cellular damage of the intestinal epithelium of the treated bees 72 hours after the application of the treatment as compared to untreated ones.

Keywords: toxicity, Acaricide, Apis mellifera intermissa, GST, midgut

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Cyanotoxicity responses to the ecological status of the Greek lakes Kagkalou Ifigeneia Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace

Cyanobacteria cause problems worldwide while freshwater and lakes are especially susceptible to harmful algal blooms because of the eutrophication. Harmful algal blooms of cyanobacteria pose a risk for human health and ecosystem sustainability due to the production of toxic compounds, so called cyanotoxins. Greek lakes experience progressive eutrophication due to hydro- morphological alterations, point and diffuse pollution sources and land use changes. Following the pattern of the warm Mediterranean lakes, lakes in Greece show a tendency toward domination of cyanobacteria with frequent occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms while their persistence is longer than in Northern European lakes. The aim of the present paper is to address how the toxin occurrence is coupled to the ecological status in Greek lakes, under the light of Water Framework Directive, and which are the key factors for their cyanotoxicity. Yet, the synergies among the human pressures promoting cyanobacterial dominance are examined. This contribution also describes the potential impacts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins on lentic ecosystem’s goods and services. Mitigation measures at catchment level, current practises as well as cutting edge research towards effective treatment technologies are also discussed.

Keywords: cyanotoxins, ecological status, Greek lakes

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Oil pollution in eastern coastline of Algeria Belfetmi Naoufel Zouheir1, Meghlaoui Zoubeida1, Guemouda Messaouda1, Daas Tarek1, Maamcha Ouided1, Scaps Patrick2 1

Laboratory of Applied Animal Biology,Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba-Algeria Laboratory of Annelids Neuroimmunology, CNRS FRE 2933-UST of Lille 59655- France

2

In recent years Algeria has experienced an urban, agricultural, industrial and tourism significant development, which threatens the quality of the marine environment. The city of Skikda and one of the examples of the country's pollution. The city of Skikda suffers from the problem of pollution by oil. This area comprises several units as polluting the complex of plastic, and the liquefaction complex refinery. This work was carried out during 2013 in order to assess the level of contamination by hydrocarbons and their impact on aquatic organisms on the one hand and to compare the diversity of polychaete annelid species between the two sites Study: Skikda and El-Kala, on the other hand. The assay of total hydrocarbons was performed according to the method of Rodier (1996). Also, biochemical analysis of a biomarker, the glutahtion-S-transferase (GST), was evaluated in Perinereis cultrifera method of Habig and al. 1974. It has been demonstrated that the contamination by hydrocarbons is present in Skikda with 5.4 ± 1.01 mg / L. The enzymatic activity of GST in individuals Skikda reveals a peak infection rate in the month of April with 8.56 ± 0.92 µM / min / mg protein. The establishment of an inventory of Polychaeta allowed the identification of several species of annelids (Neries falsa, Platyneries dumerillii, Perineries marionii, Lepidonotus clava,.), at two study sites, with the exception of Platyneries dumerilli virtually absent at the site of Skikda, unlike Lepidonotus clava and Perineries marionii which were abundant at the site of Skikda. These results reflect the direct impact of this pollution on animal biodiversity in the coastal eastern Algeria.

Keywords: Keywords: Biodiversity, GST, Oil Pollution, Perineries cultrifera, Algeria

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Evaluation of the impact of heavy metals in Callista chione using glutathione reductase as a potential biomarker of stress Dassenakis Manos1, Chalkiadaki Olga1, Paraskevopoulou Vasiliki1, Lydakis Simantiris Nikos2 1

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and of Biochemical Processes, Technological Education Institution of Crete 2

Many compounds, including metals, enter the marine environment from anthropogenic activities. Some of these substances may generate oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to glutathione (GSH), which is a critical molecule against oxidative stress maintaining the reducing environment of the cell. Any imbalance of the ratio GSSG/GSH in the cell is a sign of oxidative damage of the cell. This balance is maintained by glutathione reductase. In this work, specimens of the marine bivalve Callista chione remained for 20 days in aquaria contaminated with 0.5 mg/L of either Pb, or Cd or Ni. Every 5 days of the exposure period, gills, mantle, digestive system and the remaining body were dissected and analyzed for heavy metal content and GR activity. After the 20 days period, the remaining bivalves were transferred to heavy metal-free seawater for a 10 days depuration experiment. Tissue samples were lyophilized, homogenized and digested with conc.HNO₃. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by GFAAS. Glutathione Reductase assay measures GR activity by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation. GR was determined according to the method described by Carlsberg and Mannervik (1985). Cd and Pb were mainly accumulated in C. chione gills, while Ni was mainly accumulated in the body tissue. The highest GR activity for the organisms exposed to Pb was measured in their digestive systems. The same stands for the Cd-exposed organisms, while for the Ni-exposed, the highest enzyme activity was measured in their gills. The trend for the GR activity in the body and digestive system was: exposure to Ni>Pb>Cd whereas for gills: exposure to Ni>Cd>Pb and for the mantle: Pb>Ni>Cd. During depuration period, Pb concentrations in all tissues of the organisms reduced, whereas Cd concentrations reduced only in the gills of the bivalves and Ni concentrations reduced only in the mantle and digestive system of the organisms. During depuration, GR decreased in all the tissues of the organisms exposed to Pb and Cd and in the gills of the organisms exposed to Ni. Acknowledgments: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: heavy metals, Callista chione, glutathione reductase, biomarker

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

An insightful molecular analysis reveals foreign honeybees among Algerian honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L) Achou Mohamed1, Loucif Ayad Wahida2, Legout Hélène3, Hmidan Hayan4, Alburaki Mohamed5, Garnery Lionel6 Laboratoire de Biologie Animale Appliquée, Université Badji-Mokhtar B.P.13, Sidi-Amar, Annaba, Algérie 2 Faculté de Médecine, Route de Zaâfrania, B.P 205, Université Badji-Mokhtar, Annaba, Algérie 3 Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes et Spéciation, CNRS, Bât13, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198, Gifsur-Yvette, France 4 Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), Département de géographie, Case Postale 8888, Succursale centre-ville Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8, Canada 5 The University of Tennessee, Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, West TN Research and Education Center, 605 Airways Blvd., Jackson, TN, 38301, USA 6 Université de Versailles, Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78 Versailles, France 1

This study assessed the genetic diversity of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Algeria, in North Africa, using the molecular marker mtDNA COI-COII (Cytochrome Oxidase I and II). In total, five hundred eighty-two honeybee workers were sampled from 22 regions of the country. A PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis of the mtDNA samples distinguished the honeybee evolutionary lineages and mtDNA haplotypes from each region. Our data revealed the presence of three different honeybee lineages among the studied populations, comprising the African (A), North Mediterranean (C) and West Mediterranean (M) lineages. Eight different mtDNA haplotypes were recorded at various frequencies (A1, A2, A8, A9, A10, A13, C7 and M4). For the first time, our results identified a low genetic introgression (3.1%) of non-local mtDNA haplotypes (C7 and M4) among the local Algerian honeybees, most likely due to the import of foreign honeybees. Notably, the southern Algerian honeybee populations had lower haplotype diversity than the northern populations. Overall, the local North African honeybee subspecies A. m. intermissa and/or A. m. sahariensis seem to be remarkably dominant across northern Algeria.

Keywords: Apis mellifera intermissa; mtDNA marker; haplotype diversity; introgression; evolutionary lineage; Algerian honeybee populations

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Assessment of genotoxic effects of a fungicide (propiconazole) in green frog tadpole’s Rana saharica using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet essay) Naziha Bourenane Bouhafs University Badji Mokhtar Medecine Faculty Annaba Algeria

ARTEA330EC is a fungicide used to inhibit many types of fungi on cereals and rice; it is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in our area (Northeast Algerian). The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of fungicides in different tissues of amphibian using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by propiconazole in tadpoles of Rana saharica by comet assays was investigated. The LC (50) - 96 h of the fungicide was estimated. On this basis of LC (50) value sub lethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined (25; 50; 75 and 100ppm). The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA in comet tails of tadpoles exposed to above concentrations the fungicide after 2,4,8 and 12 days. In general, non-significant effects for both of concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated specimen compared to the controls with the first concentrations. However it was found that the highest DNA damage was observed at the highest concentration (100ppm) and the longest time of exposure (day12). This study indicated comet assay to be sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of propiconazole in this species of Amphibian

Keywords: amphibian, comet essay, fungicide, genotoxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Ameliorative effect of (Triticum durum) on thyroid, liver and reproductive functions of males albino rats induced with lead acetate Mansouri Ouarda Bentayeb1, Abdennour Cherif2, Khelili Kamel2 1

Faculty of Medicine, University Badji Mokhtar ANNABA Department of biology, Faculty of sciences, University Badji Mokhtar ANNABA

2

This study is mainly focused on the search for an effective treatment to reduce Pb toxicity by using wheatgrass Triticum durum. Rats were divided into 3 groups; the control, the group exposed to a diet containing 600 mg Pb acetate/Kg diet (Pb), and the group received a combination of Pb and 9g wheatgrass /100g diet (Pb-WG) for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed and pathological examinations were performed. Results showed a decrease in the concentration of serum hormone T3, TSH and bilirubin compared to the control and the Pb-WG. The supplementation of wheatgrass caused a considerable in the levels of these hormones. The level of Alanine-Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate-Aminotransferase (ASAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in rats treated with Pb compared to the control and the Pb-WG. Control and WG supplemented rats showed normal liver and thyroid. Shrinkage was seen in the structure of follicles exposed to Pb also the liver of PbAcintoxicated rats exhibited degenerated hepatocytes and portal inflammatory cell infiltrations. The testicles have marked a destruction or absence of germ cells and the light of some seminiferous are almost empty. The addition of wheatgrass in the daily food ration reduces the risk of lead poisoning.

Keywords: Histological sections, lead, T3, TSH, Testosterone

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Effect of fungicides propinebe, proconazole and their mixture in the male rat Mallem Leila1, Aiche Mohamed Amine2, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah2 1

Faculty of medicine, department of dentistry, university Badji Mokthar- Annaba, Algeria Laboratory of animal ecophysiology, department of biology, faculty of sciences, Badji Mokthar University, Annaba, Algeria 2

The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the male rat Wistar. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole (60mg/Kg body weight/day), Propinebe (100mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment, all groups of animals were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10¨% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were more toxic especially those treated with the Propiconazole and the mixture. Perturbation in hematological and biochemical's parameters in the treated groups as compared to the control. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in the treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole. It was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated groups compared with the control group. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis, epidydimis and liver in the treated group with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixtures, fertility, hematology, biochemical’s parameters

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Cumulative effect of fungicides and their mixture in the male rat Mallem Leila1, Aiche Mohamed Amine2, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah2 1

Faculty of medicine, department of dentistry, university Badji Mokthar- Annaba, Algeria Research laboratory of animal ecophysiology, department of Biology, faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokthar university, Annaba, Algeria 2

The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the male rat Wistar. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole (60mg/Kg body weight/day), Propinebe (100mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment, all groups of animals were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10¨% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were more toxic especially those treated with the Propiconazole and the mixture. Perturbation in hematological and biochemical's parameters in the treated groups as compared to the control. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in the treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole. It was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated groups compared with the control group. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis, epidydimis and liver in the treated group with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixtures, fertility, hematological and biochemical’s parameters

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Histological effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa after exposure to thiamethoxam Smina Ait Hamlet1, Mohamed Djekoun2, Meriem Smati1, Asma Semmasel1, Samira Bensoltane3 1

Cellular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, P.O. Box 12, 23000, Algeria 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and the Universe, University of May 08th, 1945, Guelma, 24000, Algeria 3 Faculty of Medicine, Badji-Mokhtar University, Annaba, 23000, Algeria

This study investigated the effects of ginger root in the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa, after exposure to a neonicotinoid insecticide, the thiamethoxam. The qualitative changes were studied by evaluating the effects of ginger after the treatment by thiamethoxam on the tissue of hepatopancreas through histological study. Information on the effect of ginger or its compounds on animal performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites, however, is lacking. However, no research has been conducted to assess the effect of processing method on the efficacy of ginger as antioxidant after exposition to neonicotinoids on animals. First, adult snails Helix aspersa were exposed by ingestion and contact to fresh lettuce leaves which were soaked with an insecticide solution. The thiamethoxam test solutions were 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L. The experiment was done for 20 days. Then, the treatment by thiamethoxam was stopped and replaced with a treatment by 2g/L of ginger under the controlled laboratory conditions during 15 days. The histological examination of the hepatopancreas of the treated snails showed alterations as a response to all the treatments with thiamethoxam. This insecticide caused destructive effects in the digestive system, as well as biochemical effects in Helix aspersa. On the other hand, the histological exploration of the hepatopancreas of the treated snails with ginger showed a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue of snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of digestive tubules. Also, the changes observed under the treatment with ginger present lot of interest. Thus, the antiinflammatory effect of ginger was never tested before on gastropods and especially, on the land snail Helix aspersa.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, thiamethoxam, hépatopancréas, histological study, ginger

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

In vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles in Daphnia magna upon chronic aqueous exposure Bensoltane Samira1, Djekoun Mohamed2, Boutalbi Karima2, Aït Hamlet Smina3 Faculté De Médecine, Département De Médecine Dentaire, Université De Badji Mokhtar Annaba Faculté De Biologie, Université Du 08 Mai 1945, Guelma 3 Faculté Des Sciences, Département De Biochimie, Université De Badji Mokhtar Annaba 1 2

With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and the applications of nanoparticles, environmental exposure to these particles is increasing. A variety of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed and incorporated into products where their unique catalytic capacity, optoelectronic properties, antimicrobial activity and other characteristics make them attractive for a broad range of applications. However, their impact in human and environmental health is not well studied. It is projected that this will inevitably lead to an increase of the release of NPs into aquatic systems. This will lead to concomitant increase in the exposure of aquatic organisms to NPs, which may result into adverse effects on the biota. A variety of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed and incorporated into products where their unique catalytic capacity, optoelectronic properties, antimicrobial activity and other characteristics make them attractive for a broad range of applications. The study of the ecotoxicity of manufactured nanomaterials (NM) to aquatic organisms has a relative recent history when com Fe2O3NPs pared with that of other toxic substances. Small invertebrate species such as "Daphnia magna"" "D. magna"" have advantages of easy culturing and high sensitivity to environmental contaminants. They are commonly used for bioaccumulation and depuration experiments of different NPs. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for assessing health and ecotoxicological risks rejection of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. A procedure has been developed: for management and risk assessment generated by Fe2O3NPs via a toxicological bioassay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles with an average particle size of 50nm on the survival, reproduction Short and long term disturbances were recorded during the reproductive cycle through the life history (longevity, age at maturity, egg size,.). For the 21-day test a concentration-response relationship was observed for mortality, longevity and reproduction. Light microscopy showed that Fe2O3NPs accumulate within the gastrointestinal tract. We were also able to identify embryotoxicity Fe2O3NPs in different stages of development. Indeed, the result obtained show that Fe2O3NPs is responsible for defect in different regions of body. Develop abnormal neonates of various shapes and sizes, with undeveloped shell and the disappearance of the antennas. These results need to been verified by further studies. This scenario has led to a quantitative risk assessment. This study demonstrates the utility of evaluating nanoparticle effects relative to nonnano-scale counterparts and presents the first report of chronic exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles in ""D. magna"". Keywords: nanoprticles, Fe2O3, Daphnia magna, reproduction, ecotoxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Hazardous potential of gold nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay on Arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) Škarková Pavlína1, Vávrová Milada1, Drobne Damjana2, Romih Tea2, Kos Monika2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Purkyňova 118, Brno, Czech Republic University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 1 2

In the presented study, we assessed the influence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and AuCl₃ on different biological endpoints of the model organism Porcellio scaber. By employing a cell membrane integrity assay, we tested whether gold compounds have the potential to cell membrane destabilization, which could lead to direct entry of AuNPs into hepatopancreatic cells. We coupled this technique with AAS measurements, to corroborate whether AuNPs internalization or Au+ assimilation actually occurred. Furthermore, we tested the adverse biological effects of AuNPs and AuCl₃ on Porcellio scaber, detectable via morphometric characteristics of the hepatopancreatic epithelium and standard toxicological parameters (body mass change, food consumption and mortality). We were interested by possible avoidance behavior in 14 days of exposure to different sources of food at the same time. In this experiment avoidance behavior was not observed. The mass of consumed leaves were almost identical from both pieces (control and contaminated) for tested concentrations compounds Au NPs and AuCl₃. We did not find any membrane destabilization or Au assimilation into the body or any physiological stress in both AuCl₃ and NP-exposed animals, which was in direct proportion to Au concentration in the food. So, no adverse effect was present at the tissue level or at the level of the whole organism. We conclude that AuNPs and AuCl₃ have very low toxic potential for Porcellio scaber upon 14-day exposure for tested concentrations of 1, 10 and 60 μg Au/g of food dry mass. The investigation was supported by the research projects financed by Slovenian Research Agency (J1-4109) and within the FP7 EU Project ‘‘NANOVALID’’ (Contract No. 263147) and by the project FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Porcellio scaber, toxicity test, cell membrane destabilization, avoidance behavior

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Investigation of land use/cover changes of Sazlidere basin by using normalized difference impervious surface index Sarıyılmaz Fulya Başak1, Musaoğlu Nebiye1, Tanık Ayşegül2 1 2

Istanbul Technical University Geomatic Engineering Department Istanbul Technical University Environmental Engineering Department

According to Turkish Statistical Institute, the population of Turkey is accepted to be 84,247,088 in 2023 whereas the share of Istanbul will be 16.6 million. One of the important results of rapid population growth is Land Use/Cover Change (LULC). LULC has been a key research topic in regarding both global and local environmental studies on Istanbul, which is listed among the 25 largest urban areas in the world, is the most crowded city in Turkey. Extending to Europe and Asia, Istanbul still keeps its attractiveness despite its current population of approximately 14 million. Moreover, many people migrated from rural areas to Istanbul starting from 1970s as it is also known as the most industrialized city of Turkey. Consequently, the uncontrolled urbanization caused changes in LULC and these changes have even become more noticeable within the past two decades, resulting in many environmental problems difficult to remedy. Over 90% of the water demands of Istanbul are currently supplied from the seven drinking water reservoirs, four of which (Terkos, Buyukcekmece, Alibeykoy, and Sazlidere ) are located on the European side, and three on the Asian side (Omerli, Darlik, and Elmali) of the metropolis. Currently these basins from where drinking water demand of Istanbul is supplied are heavily affected by the LULCs and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to determine the most updated condition of LULCs in order to to develop plans for achieving the best and effective management of water resources. In this study, LULCs of Sazlidere Basin were determined by using temporal remote sensing data. The watershed covers an area of approximately 157 km2. There is a dam in the basin that has been constructed in 1996. In the basin, small residential areas; such as villages, open land, industrial and commercial areas together with forested areas are observed. Also, agricultural and livestock breeding activities are common. The basin is under fairly strong LULC and urban pressure. The normalized difference impervious surface index (NDISI) was used to extract impervious surfaces of the watershed from 1997, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT imagery and areal comparison of impervious surfaces for each of the investigated years were performed. The study aims to provide quantitative values on each of the land use activities in the basin together with the corresponding changes with time. This information may further be utilized by the related authorities such as planners, decision – makers and environmentalists responsible of environmental welfare of such significant basins.

Keywords: remote sensing, Sazlidere Basin, NDISI, Istanbul, land use/cover change

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Seasonal investigation of the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contens of dominant macroalgae in the western coast of the Black Sea Yeşilova Kübra1, Balkis Neslihan2, Taşkın Ergün3 1

Istanbul University, Institute of Science, Istanbul-Turkey Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Istanbul-Turkey 3 Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, Manisa-Turkey 2

In this study, the ecological features and the total protein, carbohydrate and lipid amounts of the dominant macroalgae species of the western Black Sea coast have been investigated. Seasonal samplings have been carried out in five coastal stations (İğneada, Kıyıköy, Yalıköy, Karaburun, Kilyos) between November 2012 and August 2013. After the examination of the collected samples, 25 macroalgae species belonging to 9 families and 11 genera have been determined. The highest protein content has been determined in the summer season sampling of Callithamnion corymbosum with a percentage of 47.09 % (İğneada), while the lowest has been determined in the winter season sampling of Corallina officinalis with a percentage of 0.10 % (Yalıköy). The highest proportion in carbohydrate content was observed in Ceramium rubrum (87.02 %), collected in summer at Kilyos, while the lowest has been found in Cystoseira barbata (2.60 %) which was sampled in the autumn season at Karaburun. The highest lipid ratio has been found in summer in Callithamnion corymbosum (22.04 %, İğneada), and the lowest ratio has been found in spring in Ulva compressa (0.75 %, Kilyos). The sea temperature values varied between 6.71 °C – 25.02 °C, the salinity varied among 11.95 – 16.54 %, the dissolved oxygen varied between 6.95 – 14.61 mg/L and the pH values varied between 4.67 – 7.28 during the study.

Keywords: Macroalgae, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, Black Sea

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The effect of the temporal changes on the phytoplankton composition at the Istanbul coastal area Sivri Nuket1, Balcı Muharrem2, Balkıs Neslihan3, Şeker Dursun Zafer4 Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Eng. Dept., 34320, Avcılar, Turkey Istanbul University, Institute of Science, 34134, Vezneciler, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134, Istanbul, Turkey 4 İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Eng., Dept of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak, İstanbul, Turkey 1 2

Monitoring of phytoplankton is a useful tool for investigating eutrophication and environmental degradation in the marine ecosystems. However, total phytoplankton alone is not enough to conduct a full investigation. Among the phytoplankton groups, several have exceptional features, such as Cyanophyceae, the growth of some of which are not limited by nitrogen, and Dinophyceae species that can produce toxic secondary metabolites and, therefore, cause harmful algal blooms. In this study, phytoplanktonic groups were monitored at the southwestern coast of Istanbul during 2007-2013. The monitoring study was conducted monthly for a period of one year. Phytoplankton species were identified and classified into groups, then analyzed quantitatively. In general, Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae were the most important in terms of species’ number and abundance. In some periods of sampling, ""Euglena"" sp. (Euglenophyceae) had shown excessive increase. Especially, during the spring period, the species of diatoms (""Skeletonema costatum"" and ""Pseudonitzschia"" sp.) and dinoflagellates (""Alexandrium minutum"", ""Gonyaulax fragilis"" and ""Heterocapsa triquetra"") had increased remarkably. Seasonal variation in phytoplankton succession was found to be related to temperature. In addition, harmful bloom forming Cyanobacteria members, especially ""Microcystis aeroginosa"", were found several times at stations 4th and 5th. All the results obtained by data analysis were visualized using Geographical Information System (GIS) as an initial effort to develop a local phytoplanktonic species atlas which will be important for environmental management.

Keywords: phytoplankton, harmful bloom forming, temporal changes, Istanbul

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The molecular properties of nitrodibenzofurans and their mutagenic activities Stankovic Branislav1, Ostojic Bojana2, Djordjevic Dragana2 1

Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Serbia Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Serbia

2

Dibenzofuran (DF) is one of environmental pollutants identified in air, groundwater, fuel gas, fly ash from municipal incinerators, diesel exhaust particulates, and cigarette smoke. Several nitro derivatives can be formed from DF with various concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) under light irradiation. Some of them are strong bacterial mutagens. The effect of metabolic activation on the mutagenicity of nitrodibenzofurans (NDFs) was evaluated with Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.¹ ² On the other hand, nitrodibenzofuran chromofore has been identified as a new caging group for ultra-efficient photolysis in living cells.³ Librando and Alparone revealed the relationship between averaged polarizability of dimethylnaphthalenes and experimental first-order biomass-normalized biodegradation rate coefficients.⁴ Recently, they also proposed vibrational markers for distinguishing nitrophenanthrene and nitroanthracene isomers and prediction of their mutagenic activities.⁵ In this study we performed a theoretical study of geometrical parameters, relative energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, dipole moments, polarizabilities, and vibrational properties of 1-nitro-dibenzofuran (1NDF), 2-nitro-dibenzofuran (2-NDF), 3-nitro-dibenzofuran (3-NDF), 4-nitro-dibenzofuran (4-NDF), 2,6-dinitro-dibenzofuran (2,6-DNDF), 2,7-dinitro-dibenzofuran (2,7-DNDF), and 2,8-dinitrodibenzofuran (2,8-DNDF) employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with different basis sets. We selected several quantum-chemically derived descriptors which can characterize the reactivity, shape and binding properties of investigated nitrodibenzofurans. The mutagenic activity/physico-chemical property relationships are discussed. References 1. Watanabe, T.; Hirayama, T. Mutat. Res. 1992, 283, 35-43. 2. Watanabe, T.; Kaji, H.; Kasai, T.; Hirayama, T. Mutat. Res. 1994, 325, 11-19. 3. Momotake, A.; Lindegger, N.; Niggli, E.; Barsotti, R. J.; Ellis-Davies, G. C. R. Nature Methods, 2006, 3, 35-40. 4. Librando, V.; Alparone, A. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 1646–1652. 5. Alparone, A.; Librando, V. Chemosphere 2013, 90, 158-163.

Keywords: nitrodibenzofurans, mutagenic activities, environmental pollutants, DFT method

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Trace elements analysis along a simple food chain using feathers of Italian Sparrows in different age classes as monitors of pollution in Southern Italy Innangi Michele1, De Rosa Davide2, Giannotti Marcello3, Fozzi Ilaria4, Angelini Marinella1, D'argenzio Carla5, Trifuoggi Marco5, Fioretto Antonietta1 1

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy 2 Environmetrics Lab, Department Biosciences and Territory, University of Molise, Pesche, Italy 3 WWF Oasis "Lago di Conza", Conza della Campania, Italy 4 Centro Studi Fauna, Porto Torres, Italy 5 Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy Societies as industrialized as ours are, more and less, increasingly polluted. A subtle threat is given by trace elements, which are considered a major hazard to the environment. However, unlike other sources of pollutions that can be easily detected and that can cause a decline in populations (e.g. poisoning, oil spills), high concentrations of trace elements can cause understated damages. As a matter of fact, while they can rarely cause direct death, they often imply a reduction in fitness and/or a “silent death” which is hardly detectable. Evaluating the health of an ecosystem can be assessed through measuring the concentration of trace elements within the bodies of bio-indicators organisms. Since plants are sessile and accumulate trace elements from their surrounding environment, they can be used to monitor the dynamics of a long period of pollution in a localized area. However, in order to detect pollution in a wider area, it could be useful to use bio-indicators that reflect a larger spatial scale. Non-migratory birds use different sources of food and water within their home range, thus the levels of trace elements in their bodies and in their feathers can reflect the level of toxic elements in their territory and give insight about possible bioaccumulation and/or biomagnification phenomena. In detail, the use of feathers, which are collected from birds captured through mist nets, simplify the research. Birds can excrete trace elements in several tissues, including eggs, but feathers are increasingly used in trace element analysis. In this research, we analyzed concentrations of 6 trace elements (Al, V, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) along a food chain with the Italian Sparrow as the final consumer inside an agricultural area, with industries nearby, next to a lake in Southern Italy (Lago di Conza). In detail, we measured the concentration in the water, the phytoavailability of these elements in the soils, the concentration in both roots and fruits of plants which fall within the sparrow’s trophic spectrum, the concentration of animals which are commonly eaten by sparrows during the breeding season (i.e. earthworms, ants, spiders) and within the feathers of juveniles, birds which are moulting from juveniles to adult and adult sparrows. All measurements were performed through ICP-MS. The results highlight that some elements (Cu, Zn and Pb) increase their concentration from water to soil to plants to animals and, noticeably, they strongly bioaccumulate as their concentration is always higher in adult birds than juveniles. The concentration of Cd, instead, decrease from juveniles to moulting birds, but it increases again in adult birds. This suggest some sort of excretion mechanisms in the moult and a later increase during adulthood. Other elements (V and Al) are strongly accumulated in plants’ roots, but are no longer present in high concentration further on in the food chain. The preliminary results from our research highlight the importance of monitoring trace elements along the food chain and the relevance of non-migratory, opportunistic birds like the Italian Sparrow to detect particular sources of pollution, especially using different age classes. Keywords: bioaccumulation/biomagnification, environmental pollution, Italian sparrow, trace elements 247 | P a g e

Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Mixtures of contaminants and complex samples: basic challenges for microalgae-based ecotoxicological tests Giménez Papiol Gemma1, Bouloux Mathilde1, Roig Neus1, Sierra Jordi2, Schuhmacher Marta1 1

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain 2 Laboratori d’Edafologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Microalgae are ubiquitous organisms, with several species representative of different phyla maintained easily in laboratory conditions, showing a high growth rate and sensitivity to a wide range of contaminants. Algal growth inhibition assays are extensively used in aquatic ecotoxicology since decades ago (OECD 1984), while their suitability for miniaturisation makes them interesting candidates for the “bio” part of a biosensor for the detection of pollution. The standardized ecotoxicological protocol accepts a varied array of microalgae species, nevertheless, it requires optimal culturing conditions and specific growth stages for a correct performance. It is also time consuming, since it lasts between 48 and 96h. Several biosensors based on microalgae have been developed, many of them relying on dead microalgae containing active enzymes; living microalgae attached to a biosensor usually are in suboptimal conditions because they must be immobilized, managed and/or stored in order to be part of the sensor. Navicula pelliculosa (Bacillariophycea), Raphidocelis subcapitata (Chlorophyta) and Synechococcus leopoliensis (Cyanobacteria) showed an acceptable performance in previous ecotoxicological tests with arsenic (As) solutions, in both standard and suboptimal conditions (Giménez Papiol et al. 2015). Here we present the next steps: 1) tests with solutions of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn); 2) tests with mixtures of As, Ni, Pb and Zn and 3) tests with natural samples from the Ebro river basin (NW Mediterranean) containing known mixtures of As, Ni, Pb and Zn, among other contaminants. The results will be discussed under the light of microalgae performance/sensitivity, contaminants interactions, and microalgae ability to assess the overall pollution status of a sample.

References Giménez Papiol G, Roig N, Sierra J, Schuhmacher M. Effects of arsenic compounds on freshwater microalgae from different phyla under suboptimal conditions. SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 3 – 7 May 2015. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. 1984. Algal growth inhibition test.

Keywords: ecotoxicology, microalgae growth inhibition assay, heavy metal mixtures, pollution assessment

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Data on macrozoobenthos of the mediolittoral of Sazani island (Albania) Selmani Jula1, Ruci Stela1, Beqiraj Sajmir1, Kasemi Denada2 1

Biology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Albania Biology Department, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Vlora, Albania

2

Macrozoobenthos from the mediolittoral of rocky coast of the Sazani Island (south-eastern Adriatic Sea, Albania) has been investigated during 2012 – 2014. Replicated quantitative samples have been taken in early May and in late September each year, by using a reticulated frame as a standard sampling area unit in four sites, of which two on the eastern coast and two others on the western coast of the island. This study gives data on species composition of macrozoobenthos and a general assessment of quantitative characteristics, seasonal variations and stability of zoobenthic populations in the studied area. A total of 45 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates have been recorded in the mediolittoral only, with a high dominance of mollusks, among other species of cnidarians, nematodes, annelids, crustaceans and sipunculids. It is worthy to note the presence of 14 endangered species in national scale in the studied area. The highest abundance has been recorded for gastropods and crustaceans. The seasonal variations were relatively high in both species number and abundance. The stability of benthic community seems to be moderate in most sampling sites. The difference in species composition, quantitative characteristics and degree of stability of the macrozoobenthic population is evident between eastern and western coast of the island. Algal cover and exposure of the coast seem to play an important role for the species composition and abundance of benthic populations in the mediolittoral of the island. These populations, especially on the eastern side of the island, may also be impacted from the urban and tourist developments on the eastern part of Vlora Bay. Provided data on the benthic populations of the shallow coastal waters of Sazani Island are also relevant for the conservation and management of the only MPA of Albania, Sazani Island – Karaburuni Peninsula

Keywords: benthic populations, rocky coast, Sazani island, Adriatic Sea, Albania

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Toxic effects of Fenbutatin oxyde on Paramecium sp. with special emphasis on growth inhibition and induction of oxidative stress Benbouzid Houneida1, Berrebbah Hh2, Djebar Mr2 1

Department Of Biochemistry, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria Laboratory Of Cell Toxicology, General Direction Of Scientific Research And Technological Development, Annaba University, Algeria 2

The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of organotin acaricide: Fenbutatin oxyde tested at concentrations of 30, 40 and 60 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. We have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment and confirmed by the percentage of responses. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione Stransferase activity recorded in the presence of various Fenbutatin oxyde concentrations involve the activation of detoxification system. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations.

Keywords: fenbutatin oxyde, detoxification, oxidative enzymes, Paramecium sp.

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plant cleaning process using ecotoxicity tests Zlamalova Gargosova Helena, Urminska Barbora Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic

With the growth of human population connected with the increasing demands and needs of consumption the amount of worldwide produced waste water is growing as well. This is related to the effort to develop more advanced wastewater treatment methods, as well as more specific control of contaminants presence in treated waters. That’s why it becomes relevant to perform not only chemical analysis but also ecotoxicological bioassays as the means of evaluation of biological effects caused by wastewater discharges to recipient. None of the wastewater treatment plants are able to eliminate residues completely – it can only decrease the pollution level to an acceptable value. Therefore it is important to find out if the treatment process is sufficient to provide a satisfactory decrease of environmental impact (ecotoxicity) to the organisms in recipient. Our work was focused on the evaluation of efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) by selected ecotoxicological bioassays. Samples at the inflow and outflow of three WWTP in the Czech Republic with different population equivalent (PE) and small variability of mechanical and biological stage and eventually in chemical cleaning stage were evaluated (WWTP Lednice, 12000 PE; WWTP Mikulov, 24 850 PE; WWTP Brno Modřice, 600 000 PE). Ecotoxicity tests on crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna as representative of consumers, aquatic plant Lemna minor, terestric plant Allium cepa as producers, Vibrio fischeri as decomposer were conducted. The results have shown that the efficiency of all evaluated wastewater treatment plants is sufficient to reduce acute toxic effects to minimum. Average toxicity removal was over 80 %. Sensitivity of used testing organisms to water toxicity was as follows: V. fischeri > T. platyurus > D. magna > A. cepa > L. minor. In case of WWTP Brno Modřice samples of treated water after primary treatment was also evaluated. In this case sufficient sensitivity to differentiate water toxicity exhibit tests on T. platyurus, A. cepa and V. fischeri. Direct water toxicity testing using acute toxicity test is useful tool to predict effect of treated water to organisms in recipient, but we must not underestimate long time effect of residual toxicity. Thus it is necessary to focus on the use of tests of chronic toxicity, genotoxicity respective mutagenicity, which can detect the long-term effects on the target organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the project No. FCH-S-15-2869 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: waste water, ecotoxicity testing, direct water toxicity

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

The impacts of the ship ballasting on the sea biodiversity Irtem Şevket Süleyman, Bayar Sibel, Elmas Güldem, Ergin Ayfer, Alkan Güler, Buğra Çelebi Uğur Department of Maritime Transportaion Management Engineering, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

Today, an ordinary Panamax type ship has a twenty thousand metric ton ballast water capacity. When she sails in ballast conditions, the capacity can reach to thirty six metric tons by taking water into the ballast hatches. This quantity of water is enough to make changes on local environment system. In this study, ballast exchange operations of ships will be analyzed based on fugu type fishes increasing in Antalya Location for recent years. The relations between this new fish type in Antalya Region and ship ballasting operations will be examine.

Keywords: ballast exchanges of ships, marine biodiversity, fugu fish, antalya region

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Algal ecotoxicological testing of groundwater priority contaminants using closed-system technique Mingazzini Marina, Palumbo Maria Teresa Water Research Institute IRSA, CNR

While toxicity testing should be an integral part of the groundwater bioremediation projects, only few studies have attempted to include ecotoxicological tests, since standard testing procedures have not been developed to suit some of the groundwater priority contaminants. In fact, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), belong to the most frequently found contaminants in European groundwaters. The development of a sensitive ecotoxicological procedure being appropriate for VOCs while relatively easy to be performed is therefore regarded as a current research need. With this aim, an algal test procedure has been set-up within a bioremediation project aimed at the evaluation of the efficiency of a bioelectrochemical technique applied to groundwaters historically contaminated by CAHs. The procedure was developed using a closed-system, as required by testing VOCs. Since a major point when using exposure systems without gas exchange is linked to the carbon dioxide limitation, we selected to supply CO2 as bicarbonate enrichment. Closed-flasks completely filled with bicarbonate-added test solutions were stoppered with parafilm lids, and connected to a magnetic stirrer mechanism to guarantee the homogeneous suspension of the growing algal cells during the 72 hour-exposure. The increased efficiency of the closed versus the standard procedure was evaluated by the simultaneous use of both methods to test standard chemicals as well as contaminated groundwater samples. Finally, the ability of the closed-system to detect the detoxification effect of the groundwater dechlorination treatment was evaluated by testing pre and post–treatment samples from a laboratoryscale bioelectrochemical reactor. Based on the obtained results, revealing the important advantage of the closed versus the standard system, the proposed ecotoxicological technique proved appropriate for testing groundwater priority contaminants. The combination of its characteristics of simplicity and sensitivity makes it suitable to be routinely used for groundwater monitoring, successfully improving bioremediation studies. Particularly, based on its characteristics, such a sensitive and simple test design could be suitable for checking innovative groundwater bioremediation technologies.

Keywords: algal toxicity testing, closed test system, CAHs, groundwater bioremediation

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Investigation of potential biological sensivity of sediments of Aliağa Bay Oral Rahime1, Koçbaş Fatma2, Oral Ersel Zafer3 1

Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Department of Biology, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa, Turkey 3 Maritime Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Izmir, Turkey 2

In the present study, sediment samples from Aliağa Bay were toxicologically and chemically evaluated. Toxicity tests were performed using embryos of the sea urchin ""Paracentrotus lividus"". Concentrations of some heavy metals ( Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr ) and 16 PAHs ( naphtalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz (a) anthracene, chrycene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (g, h, i) perylene, dibenzo (a, h) anthracene, ındeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene ) in the sediments were measured. Chemical and toxicity data showed that levels of haevy metals (not PAHs) associated to the toxicity in sediment from Aliağa Bay. According to our results, a combination of biotests and chemical analyses is recommended for monitoring and assessment of sediment quality. In addition, the use of" P. lividus"embryos is effective in evaluating biological effects of marine sediment contamination. The authors would like to thank Ege University (Project Code: 10-SÜF-09) for providing financial support for the project.

Keywords: sediment, toxicity, sea urchin

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Thermal map analysis of tree trunks in urban parks with spatial statistics Zevgolis Yiannis1, Vasios Georgios K.2, Kyriakidis Phaedon C.2, Troumbis Andreas1 1

Department of Environment, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece Department of Geography, Aegean University, Mytilene, Greece

2

The importance of parks existing in urban environments is widely recognized, due to the range of ecosystem services which they provide. It is perceptible that these services are inextricably linked to the health of urban park ecosystems, mainly because a fully functional ecosystem is more resistant and resilient to environmental pressures. In general, the study of an ecosystem’s health, includes measurements of several variables, such as: richness and abundance of organisms, vegetation cover (e.g., herbs, shrubs, trees), woody plant density, biomass, and vegetation profiles. In urban parks typically prevalent woody vegetation - tree health evaluation and assessment is considered essential. In particular, the methodologies concerning tree health are characterized as destructive and nondestructive, depending on the accuracy of assessing wood decay as well as the easiness that these methods impact on woody vegetation. These methods include measurements of electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance, sonic speed and surface temperature. Some of the techniques used to apply these measurements are destructive such as drilling for core sampling or mechanical resistance. A non-destructive technique for the evaluation of tree health is thermal imaging, which detects the distribution of tree trunk surface temperature. When trees are considered healthy, the energy absorbed from the environment is stored and emitted from the tree trunk’s surface following a specific pattern, according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. An uneven temperature distribution indicates a structural defect in the tree. This variance in tree trunk surface temperature depends on the different thermal conductivity. For example, the area covering a cavity has a lower temperature than the surrounding healthy area. In this research, surface temperatures of tree trunks were analyzed using spatial statistics so as to determine the state of their health. For this purpose, the most central and widely used urban park in the city of Mytilene (Agia Eirini) with a total area of 11,955m2, was investigated. Specifically, the health of the dominant tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia) were examined via IR images which were obtained circularly around the trees from a specific distance (1.5 m) and height (1.3 m). The IR images were organized in various levels, from individual trees, to sub-groups and total study area, and their combination formed various thermal maps for each level, respectively. These tree trunk surface temperatures were analyzed using spatial statistical techniques, such as Geary’s coefficient, Moran’s index, and semivariograms correlation. The measurement of total variance and distribution of temperature were combined with environmental parameters such as tree characteristics e.g. (sub)-species, tree perimeter and position in the study area. Furthermore, local tree surfaces with similar high temperature values were defined, focusing on the coldest surface patches which indicate structural defects such as cavities. Initial results showed that urban parks could be organized in different thermal zones, based on the proposed analysis, which implies variance in their structural quality and health. In individual tree level, the detection and mapping of the various types of cavities was possible offering significant data for specialized park management.

Keywords: tree thermal imaging, thermal map analysis, tree health, spatial correlation

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Ecotoxicity and biodiversity

Fungi: Their role in biodeterioration of historical monuments Sert Hacer1, Sterflinger Katja2 1

Akdeniz University, Manavgat Vocational High School, Antalya, Turkey University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austrian Center of Biological Resources and Applied Mycology, Muthgasse 18, A 1190, Vienna, Austria 2

In this study the fungal diversity and deterioration on historical monuments were investigated. The Aspendos Ancient City (Antalya/Turkey) in Mediterranean Region was chosen as study area, because of its outstanding historic and artistic value and the large variety of monuments. The sample collection, isolation, morphological and molecular characterizations were done according to Sterflinger & Krumbein 1997 and Sterflinger & Prillinger 2001. From a total of around 108 samples 42 fungal strains were isolated, and could be assigned to 8 different genera (Coniosporium, Capnobotryella, Massarina, Mycocalicium, Phaeococcomyces, Phoma, Rhinocladiella, Sarcinomyces). The observations of the rock surfaces clearly demonstrate that there is a strong positive correlation between the fungi and the alteration of the rock surfaces.

Keywords: biodeterioration, black fungi, aspendos, Turkey, monument

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Energy, environment and sustainability

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Simulation and optimisation of solvent amine consumption in column absorption of natural gas treatment Chemini Rachida, Messekdji Mohamed Tayeb, Ghalmi Raouf Faculté de Génie Mécanique et de Génie des Procédés, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers, Algeria

The aim of our study is to optimise the quantity of solvent amine used to reduce the content of CO2 in natural gas in order to reach the commercial specifications. The consumption of solvent amine in absorption column is evaluated by simulation. Different parameters, flow and temperature of natural gas and solvent amine were studied. The results show that a quantity of amine is found in vapour phase of reflux drum. The loss in amine is proportional with the increase on temperature and flow of gas input. The high speed of gas circulation drive the amine in vapour phase of absorber. A reduction in the temperature of amine makes it possible to lower the loss of amine. This is explained by the thermodynamics of the reaction (exothermic). Indeed, the calorific contribution will be added to the energy released by the reaction, to allow the evaporation of amine. The first solution is to act on the operating conditions by increasing the amine flow in order to find a compromise between the loss of amine and the content of CO2 in gas while respecting the requirements of marketing for gas export (< 2%). This proposition was realised and the reduction of amine loss is 2.7 litre/hour instead of 3.3 litre/hour, which generate more than 40 000 Euros per year of benefit. The second solution is to eliminate totally the loss of amine by installing a tubular heat exchanger after the column of absorption in order to condense all the quantity of driven amine and to recover it at the bottom of the reflux drum. This exchanger use water like a refrigerating fluid. The generate profit is 223 000 Euros.

Keywords: simulation, optimisation, treatment, natural gas, solvent amine, absorption column

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Evaluating the topographic effect on estimation of renewable energy sources potential in Sakarya basin Keskin Merve, Dalğın Semih, Doğru Ahmet Özgür Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

As the world population increases, the demand of the energy and the energy consumption by industry and households also increase. This energy demand is mostly provided by the use of fossil fuels. However reduction in fossil fuel sources have been promoting the use of the renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. Determination of the renewable energy potential is quite related with the precise examination and mapping of the long-term meteorological data (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and etc.) measurements. These data is considered as point source data because they are collected at specific points, which are mostly meteorological monitoring stations, and used for estimating unsampled surface values. Various spatial interpolation methods such as Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted, and Natural Neighbor and etc. are used to estimate the values of the unsampled locations of a surface. The accuracy of the spatial interpolation methods varies depending on the total number of point sources as well as their locations and spatial distribution. In addition to these parameters, topographic characteristic of the study area is also important factor affecting the accuracy of the applied spatial interpolation methods. This study aims to investigate the effect of the topography on the estimation of the unsampled meteorological parameters for the use of accurate renewable energy potential determination in Sakarya River Basin in Turkey. In this context, firstly deterministic or geostatistics interpolation methods with single or multi parameter (kriging, inverse distance weighted, polynomial, co-kriging) were applied on a specific data set of 36 meteorological monitoring stations in/around study area in order to introduce the topographic effects. Accuracy of the created surface data were assessed by using cross validation technique that allows for comparison of estimated and true (measured) values by using only the information available in sample data set. Secondly, multiple regression method was used to understand the correlation between climate parameters and topography. Regression based and weighted-average approach is very useful especially for interpolating a surface variable in a heterogeneous topography with the meteorological stations at different elevations. Results of the study mainly show that accuracy of the applied interpolation method is affected by several parameters. Therefore, it is not possible to mention that there is a single interpolation method to be applied on all data sets.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, geostatistics, kriging, cokriging, multiple regression

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes Ciggin Asli Seyhan, Peredenci Nuriye Altunay Department of Environmental Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes for biogas production is a biological process that combines sustainable waste disposal and renewable energy production. However, the compact structure of lignocellulosic biomass consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin requires pretreatment before the anaerobic digestion process. The ultrasonic pretreatment, declared as innovative technologies by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a novel method for the pretreatment of biomass prior to anaerobic digestion of several organic wastes. It is proved that the complex organic biomass is degraded with ultrasound (King and Forster, 1990; Wang et al., 1999) while the undesired by-products (toxic etc.) are not formed during process (Vincenzo, 2007). The several studies were reported on the success of ultrasound as a pretreatment process for increasing the biodegradation rate of lignocellulosic biomass such as palm oil (Bussemaker et al., 2012); rice hull, corn stover (Yachmenev et al., 2009); sugarcane bagasse (Velmurugan et al., 2012). Similar to all pretreatment processes, process conditions of ultrasound pretreatment should be optimized to determine the suitable pretreatment conditions for maximizing the biogas production. In this framework, the aim of this study is to optimize process conditions of ultrasound pretreatment for the enhancement of biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes. The agricultural wastes from the cultivation of tomato, cucumber, pepper, eggplant and zucchini, which were produced in highest quantity, were selected as lignocellulosic biomass. The synergetic effects of ultrasound power and reaction time on the biogas production from lignocellulosic waste was investigated by applying low ultrasound power and high reaction time and vice versa. For this purpose, the experimental studies were carried out at relatively short reaction time (30-90 seconds) with the high ultrasonic power (150250 W) and long reaction time (10-60 minutes) with low ultrasonic power (20-100 W). In the pretreatment studies carried out at high ultrasound power ranges, the maximum increase in biogas production compared to untreated lignocellulosic waste was determined as 25% at the ultrasound power of 200 W with a reaction time of 60 second. On the other hand, the maximum increase in biogas production was observed as 39% at the ultrasound power of 20 W with a reaction time of 60 minutes in the pretreatment studies carried out at low ultrasound power ranges. These results indicated that the combination of low ultrasound power with long reaction time is more effective on the enhancement of biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, agricultural wastes, ultrasonic pretreatment

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Computational fluid dynamics approach to wind energy calculation and assessment of wind resource of Aegean region in Turkey Temiz Caner, Yavuz Veli, Deniz Ali Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

In this study, one of the problem that frequently encountered in the calculation of wind energy, calculation of complex fluid was examined by using CDF-based WindSim Software for Aegean region of Turkey. The scope of this work, the behavior of the wind on the field selected, calculated through WindSim Software and micro-positioning were performed on the region considering the IEC conditions and maximum annual energy production. After then, the maximum annual production of the turbine is calculated. WindSim is Computational Fluid Dynamics based software. This software, because of the infrastructure, especially in areas with rough terrain such as Turkey, which allow the calculation of more accurate and realistic behavior of the wind. At the same time, by the using of 3TIER data which based on so many years of data, the wind potential (wind speed, directional distributions, etc.) and temporal changes were examined. In addition, the capacity factor of the region comparing the results of WindPro (fluid-based software) and performance anaysis were made.

Keywords: wind energy calculation, CFD, WindSim, Turkey

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Comparison with linear and non-linear models in longterm wind energy production Temı̇z Caner1, Yavuz Veli1, Özdemir Emrah Tuncay2, Deniz Ali1 1

Department of Meteorological Engineering, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 General Directorate of Meteorology, Atatürk Airport Meteorology Office, Yeşilköy, Istanbul, Turkey

With the developing technology and increasing energy demand, the trends towards renewable energy sources is increasing rapidly throughout the world. Wind energy is that the most preferred source of renewable energy comes in first place in this context, and there is a lot of applications. Determination of wind energy potential subject is one of the most sensitive issues studied in this sense. In this study, long term wind data (1981-2015) of Izmir region were analyzed using with linear (WasP) and nonlinear (WindSim) models. Non linear models which analyze topography more precisely, were used, and high performance results has provided. WindSim is Computational Fluid Dynamics based software. This software, because of the infrastructure, especially in areas with rough terrain such as Turkey, which allow the calculation of more accurate and realistic behavior of the wind. According to preliminary results obtained, WindSim (Non-linear Model, CFD based) shows high performance more than WasP (Linear Model).

Keywords: wind energy, energy production, CFD, WasP, WindSim

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Energy, environment and sustainability

Change of enzyme activity of the catalase of the brown forest soil of the republic of Crimea after the influence of the alternating magnetic field and contamination by nickel Minnikova Tatyana, Trushkov Anatoly, Denisova Tatyana Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

In soil as in biodynamic system the special role belongs to enzymes. By researches of different authors it is established that activity of soil enzymes can serve as an additional diagnostic indicator of soil fertility and its change as result of anthropogenous influence. The role of a catalase is that it destroys hydrogen peroxide, toxical for living organisms. The catalase plays the leading role at oxidation-reduction reactions in the soil which are the main link in the course of synthesis of humic substances in the soil and an important indicator of their biological activity. Important characteristic of a catalase is activity at very wide range of acidity of soils (рН 410). The brown forest soil was object of researches. Samples (Atop soil, 0-25 cm) selected during the summer in 2014 near city Sympheropol’, the Republic of Crimea. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. Contamination by nickel was carried out in the form of oxide (II) concentration of 1 and 10 Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC). The fresh dried-up samples of the soil (200 g) placed in glass vessels, humidified with water (to 60% of a full moisture capacity) and placed in installation (solenoid). Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. Magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) as induction 50, 100 and 650 µT were chosen. The description of installation is submitted in our previous work. Laboratory and analytical researches carried out by the conventional procedure. It was established that the variation magnetic field as an independent factor had no impact on enzyme activity of a catalase while control excess was observed. The significant effect was observed for options of contamination of 1 MPC of Ni +50 µT, by 1 MPC of Ni + 100 µT and 1 MPC of Ni +650 µT for 94% (р
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18th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution - MESAEP

c/o Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1. 85764 Neuherberg Germany [email protected] – http://www.mesaep.org 18th International Symposi...

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