30 The Implementation of Spatial Regional Plan Policy in Strategic

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International Journal of Management and Administrative Sciences (IJMAS) (ISSN: 2225-7225) Vol. 5, No. 01, (30-42) www.ijmas.org

The Implementation of Spatial Regional Plan Policy in Strategic Area of New City in Sidoarjo Regency

Eni Rustianingsih Candidate Doctor of Administrative Sciences, Faculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Brawijaya Soesilo Zauhar, Irwan Noor, Abdullah Said Faculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Brawijaya

Abstract Sidoarjo regency in territorial system of East Java Province has dominated by industrial activity, service trade, and service activity of regional government of East Java. Sidoarjo Regency was geographically close to Surabaya City as a development area with its role as a center of urban settlement. The main driving force of the development of Sidoarjo regency was not only from the economic interest but the position of Sidoarjo Regency as part of the development of Surabaya Metropolitan Area and the location of industrial activities, warehousing, trade and services as well as settlements. But unfortunately the growth of Sidoarjo regency was sporadically and tend to move wildly aggravated with the post disaster of Lapindo mudflow in Sidoarjo regency. The development of the new strategic area of the city as stipulated in Regional Regulation No. 6 of 2009 was a redevelopment scenario effort to answer the urban problem in Sidoarjo regency, by integrating the detailed spatial plan of city with comprehensive spatial arrangement so that the planning, utilization and controlling space in city area can be implemented effectively and efficiently. This research aims to examine how the implementation of the policy of Regional Regulation, obstacles and implementation strategy works so that a better implementation model can be found. Keywords: Policy Implementation, Spatial Plan, Strategic Area, Sidoarjo Regency

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International Journal of Management and Administrative Sciences (IJMAS) (ISSN: 2225-7225) Vol. 5, No. 01, (30-42) www.ijmas.org

1. INTRODUCTION Sidoarjo Regency in East Java Province's territorial system in Indonesia was the part of Gerbangkertosusila Plus Development Area which was dominated by industrial activities, service trade, and government service activities. In accordance with the potential of development center or urban settlement center in each development area, the function of urban settlement center has been established consisting of several smaller territorial units, with the intention of controlling the development of urban settlement areas on a large scale. Sidoarjo regency was included in the first ring of the scope of Surabaya Metropolitan Area which was the most advanced physical development (best infrastructure), economic and social area in East Java Province. Sidoarjo Regency was geographically close to Surabaya City as a development area with its role as a metropolitan city / urban settlement center. The main driving force of Sidoarjo regency development was not only from the economic interest but the position of Sidoarjo Regency as part of the development of Surabaya Metropolitan Area and relocation of industrial activities, warehousing, trading and services as well as the settlement of the Lapindo mud disaster. The increasing population of Sidoarjo regency from 2000 by 1,367,208 people to 1,563,015 in 2015 affecting the number and types of urban activities. The increase was caused due to the reason that many residents who worked in Surabaya chose to live in the region of Sidoarjo regency. Along with that, the need for residential support facilities also continue to grow and this phenomenon offset the economic activities of the growing and developing regions especially in the region of Sidoarjo district border area with Surabaya. But unfortunately the growth of Sidoarjo regency runs sporadically and tends to move wildly so that there were social and environmental problems because the city infrastructure and facilities were less accommodating to handle the urban system of Sidoarjo regency. As a result, the city’s management was ineffective and inefficient. Besides the waste of operational cost of infrastructure service, there were also new areas and floods. In addition to the urban problems mentioned above, exacerbated with post disaster of Lapindo in Sidoarjo district. The impact of the disasters of Lapindo mudflow on the Porong-Gempol toll road, it has to be closed along with the National Roads, Provincial and Districts Road Networks, and railways were disrupted. Pertamina gas pipeline was cut off, local water company of Surabaya’s pipes were also disrupted, and power lines in Porong area were submerged. Many farms and buildings were submerged like factories, schools, mosques and prayer buildings, offices, and houses with the highest proportion of more than 10,500 houses. Therefore to answer the Sidoarjo urban affairs, the local government of Sidoarjo regency revised the regional regulation number 16 year 2003 about the spatial plan of the district of Sidoarjo by stipulating the regional regulation No. 6 of 2009 which regulates the internal urban system of Sidoarjo including establishing strategic area of new city in Sidoarjo regency. The new city’s strategic spatial regional policy was a strategic step taken by local government in the effort of scenario redevelopment in Sidoarjo regency. The policy was a breakthrough of the government of Sidoarjo regency in overcoming urban development problems that tend to be sporadic due to the difference in relatively cheap prices of land in remote locations from the city center and the development of western Sidoarjo as relocation of industrial activities, housing, trade and services post-disaster lapindo mudflow. Besides the policy of the development of new strategic areas of the city intended to establish the function cities and their functional and spatial linkages in order to function optimally in the provision of social and economic services within the city and surrounding areas in the hierarchy of coverage of the provinces of East Java and Sidoarjo regency. Based on the above conditions, it was necessary to study about the implementation of spatial planning policy of Sidoarjo regency, especially in strategic area of new city according to regional regulation number 6 year 2009. The study on the implementation of the policy was needed because there were many government policies aimed to solve the problem of urban development impact that difficult to implement because there were hidden or special interests in it, especially development policies that were non-self executing (execution of policies by some stakeholders). Like the new city spatial strategic area policy when viewed the content and its nature it was necessary to use the right strategy to implement the policy. Based on the description, the purpose of this study was to analyze the implementation of spatial plan policy of the strategic area in the new city of Sidoarjo regency.

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2. TYPES OF RESEARCH This research used descriptive research type with qualitative approach because the objective of research was natural or natural setting and the data collected was dominant and the analysis was qualitative. Data collection techniques were done in triangulation or combined with guided facts in the field. The data analysis was done using inductive technique to build the hypothesis. 3. RESEARCH SITES The research location was in strategic area of new city Sidoarjo regency that is located in 6 sub districts, among others: part of Sidoarjo, Wonoayu, Krian, Taman, Buduran and all Sukodono district. 4. RESEARCH RESULT The development of new strategic areas of the city in Sidoarjo regency was based on an urban system, and has become a consideration in the spatial layout of the district of Sidoarjo (part of Surabaya metropolitan area). The development of strategic area of new city of Sidoarjo was intended to strengthen the function of city and its functional and special relation in order to function optimally in the provision of social and economic services within the city as well as to the surrounding area in the stage of national coverage, East Java province and Sidoarjo regency. It was also intended to utilize the land which can be used efficiently and controlled by the government. The development of new city in sidoarjowas functionally a strategic area with an economic, social and environmental approach, which has been translated into its land use. The strategic area of the new city in Sidoarjo regency developed by equipped with adequate infrastructure and facilities were expected to form a complete and independent environment of the city of capital. Independence of this new city area can be seen from the service of various needs of the people in this area and a place where people can work, plans will be developed in various infrastructure, city facilities and place of work in the same place. So that social facilities and public facilities and business activities will be very essential in the development of strategic areas of the new city of Sidoarjo. Completeness of new city components includes residential facilities of various classes, social service facilities and public services, environmental infrastructure such as roads, public utilities (clean water, environmental sanitation, drainage, maintenance lines, electricity, telephone, transportation service supporting facilities such as terminals, dismissal of public transport). The Implementation of Spatial Area Planning Policy The development of new strategic areas of the city was an effort of scenario redevelopment by integrating each urban spatial detail plan with comprehensive spatial arrangement so that planning, utilization, and spatial control in new city area can be implemented effectively and efficiently, therefore as to create integration between activities in the structure and spatial patterns embodied in the integration between regions, and make a new city independent of its capital city. Basically the administration of the new city in Sidoarjo regency, referring to the applicable laws and regulations such as: 1. Law Number 26 in 2007 on Spatial Planning 2. Law Number 1 in 2011 on Housing and Settlements 3. Long Term Development Plan of Sidoarjo Regency 2006-2026 (Local Regulation Number 5 in 2006) 4. Medium Term Development Plan of Sidoarjo Regency2010-2015 (Regional Regulation Number 12 in 2011) 5. Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 54 in 2010 on the Implementation of Government Regulation Number 8 in 2008 on Stages, Procedures for Formulating, Controlling, and Evaluating the Implementation of Regional Development Plans 6. Regent Regulation Number 20 of 2009 on the Procedure for Granting Site Permits 7. Regent Regulation Number 35 of 2015 on Real Site 8. Regional Regulation Number 6 of 2009 regarding Spatial Planning of the Region On the basis of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 26 of 2007 paragraph (1), namely implementing spatial planning by formulating the policy of General Spatial Plan. Sidoarjo regency government then issued the Regional Regulation number 6 of 2009 on spatial planning area which includes the spatial detail plan per section of development area with made a detailed plan of urban spatial as much as

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18 districts. Spatial structure of Sidoarjo Regency was developed into 5 parts of development area called sub unit of development area as follows: 1. Sub Unit of Development Area I, covering part of Waru Subdistrict, Taman District, Gedangan Subdistrict, Sukodono Sub-district and Sedati Subdistrict, with a center of activity located in Waru Subdistrict, with its function and role as residential, industrial, regional and national scale. With educational and tourism support activities 2. Sub Unit of Development Area II, covering part of Sidoarjo Sub-district, part of Buduran Sub-district, part of Candi District, with activity center located in Sidoarjo Sub-district. With the function and role of central government, trade and services with support activities settlements. 3. Sub Unit of Development Area III, covering Porong Sub-district, part of Jabon Sub-district, Tanggulangin Sub-district, Tulangan District and Krembung Sub-district. With an activity center located in Krembung District as the center of geological conservation area, industrial and agricultural area with supporting activities as regional trade. 4. Sub Unit of Development Area IV, covering Krian Sub-district, Balongbendo Sub-district, Tarik Subdistrict, Prambon Sub-district and Wonoayu Sub-district. The center was located in Krian District, with its function and role as a center for commercial, industrial, and residential conservation with low density housing and livestock support activities. 5. Sub Unit of Development Area V, part of Waru Subdistrict, part Sedati Subdistrict, part of Buduran Subdistrict, part of Sidoarjo Subdistrict, Candi District, part of Jabon Subdistrict, and part of Tanggulangin District. With an activity center located in Pond Area. Function and role as the development of aquaculture area with low density settlement support activities. Based on Regional Regulation Number 6 of 2009, the development of strategic areas of new city of Sidoarjo Regency was more focused in 6 subdistricts consisting of Sidoarjo, Sukodono, Buduran, Krian, Wonoayu and Taman which was part of Sub Unit of Development Area I, Sub Unit of Development Area II, and Sub Unit of Development Area IV Thus the Regional Government of Sidoarjo Regency has a clear target for the development effort of strategic area of new city.

Figure 1: Subdivision of Sub Unit of Development Area in Sidoarjo Regency

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The development of a new city was a central and provincial government initiative approved by the local government of Sidoarjo. The implementation was handed over to the private sector, with a consortium pattern controlled by the local government through the preparation of a new city masterplan jointly between private parties with the local government of Sidoarjo. In fact, the development in the strategic area of the new city of Sidoarjo Regency was still uneven for all functions of land use, still not ideal as the new urban design theory, because it has not got complete and intact urban elements. As presented in table 1, most of the road network infrastructure in the strategic area of the new city of Sidoarjo Regency has not been realized and has not been implemented in accordance with the plan. Therefore, the Regional Government of Sidoarjo Regency need to coordinate among the regional apparatuses that have authority over the success of the realization of an ideal city, an independent city and a sustainable city (taking into account environmental, social and economic aspects). Table 1. Realization of Road Infrastructure Development at Strategic Area of Barudi City of Sidoarjo Regency Road Number Dimensi Existing Existing Image Realization Masterplan Image on Plan The ROW of 60 condition Not yet A Meters was still realized unrealized

B

ROW of Meter

60

C

ROW of Meter

40

D

ROW of Meter

40

E

ROW of Meter

40

F

ROWof Meter

40

The condition was still unrealized

Not yet realized

The condition was still unrealized

Not yet realized

ROWof 6,6 Meter, good condition

Not yet realized

The condition was still unrealized

Not yet realized

ROWof 6,6 Meter, good condition

Not yet realized

ROW of 3,5 Meter, good condition Source: Research documentation (2016) G

ROW of Meter

20

Not yet realized

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In the process of implementation of new city strategic area development policy, there were constraints and obstacles, among others: a. Implementation of policies could fail because many stakeholders did not understand the content of the policy because there has not been much socialization intensively. b. Objectives were not detailed enough, the means and prioritization of policy programs were too general or absent. c. Lack of internal and external provisions of the content of the policy. There were no good regent for guarding and discussing the solution of the problems together regularly with both the regional apparatus and the general public and private. Escort by the regional apparatus associated with the promoted district head will increase the mutual commitment in realizing the new city independently by maximizing the existing resources and can be supervised from each element according to the predefined concept. d. Technical problems that are not enough or neglected. In applying the space utilization there were technical problems, especially the determination of Basic Building Coefficient, the provision of Green Land Space by 20% and the determination of non-building area was not as usual in the technical case, investors remain on the concept of spatial and architectural concepts that have been determined so that each investor dutifully took on masterplan of new strategic area of the city, there was difference in the application of site plan in the strategic area location and outside the strategic area happened to have different technical treatment, Investors were accustomed to exploring unrestricted business in the implementation of Building Permit and site plan and the type of business allowed so that many technical matters were committed violations. e. Infrastructure was not formed due to the lack of program synergy between planning documents as well as regional strategic plans, as well as budget documents (APBD) due to different time periods and different development actors between the private sector (building permit/location permit/ investment development) and Government (building infrastructure). f. Each regional apparatus already has standard regulations in the implementation of technical policy (technical studies in the provision of building permit) relating to the development of new urban areas using the main task glasses and local functions (sectorally) so that less attention to standard regulations and technical policy of new urban spatial planning g. Because the leadership style in Sidoarjo regency was populist or no sanction, more favorable to investor and good relationship with society so that there was no legal uncertainty and give opportunities to investors were available and local instrument was less obedient with new city policy which has been determined There were some obstacles in policies in the implementation of the the new city: 1. Law Number 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning. The lack of optimal spatial control instruments, licensing mechanisms referring to the Spatial Plan, and guidance on the implementation of sanctions against violators of the Spatial Plan. Inadequate quality of spatial planning arrangement and detailed plans, including the limited availability of basic and thematic maps, especially strategic areas. 2. Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 1 of 2008 on Urban Planning Guidelines. Normatively the rules support the efforts of Sidoarjo Regency to accommodate the people affected by Lapindo mudflow, and to develop integrated housing with other facilities and infrastructure. However, developers tend to avoid areas that serve as balancing and protection (conservation). 3. Law No. 1 of 2011 on Housing and Settlements. The law was described in article 146 that legal entities or individuals are prohibited from selling land for lease without houses and without public facilities. However, the Act is contrary to Regent Regulation No. 35 of 2015 which legalizes the lot without building so in its application tends to overlap. 4. Regulation of regent of Sidoarjo Number 20 of 2009 on Procedure of Issuance of Location Permit and Approval of Space Utilization in Sidoarjo Regency. These regulations were use as guidance for Planning and Regional Development, National Land Agency and Integrated Licensing Services Agency, but in its implementation there were obstacles due to differences in perceptions and interests and lack of coordination in licensing.

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Maximum land usage would be exercised if land stewardship can be done well. If the conception of land use was an integral part of spatial planning, the implementation of the spatial plan policy of the new city strategic area should not overlap with the policy related to the spatial plan. But in reality, some regional apparatus had different policy base in giving location permit for new city strategic area. Regional Planning and Development Agency was based on Law number 26 of 2007 and regional regulation number 6 of 2009, while the National Land Agency was guided by Minister Regulation Agrarian and Spatial number 5 of 2015. Policy overlap also occurs in the implementation of Act No. 1 of 2011 on Housing and Settlements by Regulation No. 35 of 2015 on Real Estate. Law No. 1 of 2011 was prohibiting from buying and selling land without homes and public and social facilities by both individuals and business entities, but in the Regulation of Regent number 35 of 2015 allows the activity of buying and selling land without homes and facilities, although there was a limited time that has been determined before 2015. In addition to policy overlap, there was no strong law enforcement from the Sidoarjo district government in case of spatial violations. The Strategy of Spatial Planning and Sectorial Development Program The Implementation of spatial area policy was difficult because of the inconsistency of central, provincial and local government authorities. The regency, provincial and national spatial policies were legally obliged to become a reference in the physical development activities, but in reality the local government builds an unplanned Krian - Legundi - Bunder toll road in the spatial and spatial planning documents of Sidoarjo. Sidoarjo dominant agricultural land will be affected, will gradually change into non-agricultural areas so that will indirectly change the structure and pattern of the district space of Sidoarjo as a whole. The synergy between sectoral planning and spatial planning was one of the principles of regional development planning. If the permit for the utilization of space acquired through the correct procedure but later proved to be inconsistent with the spatial plan, it can be canceled by the central government and local government in accordance with their authority. The Strategy of New Town's Strategic Areas Management Implementation of new urban area development policy when examined from public policy, it was necessary to document the policy of strategic management of new city strategic area of Sidoarjo regency completely by all parties involved in the management of the area. The document contains policies and strategies in realizing the objectives of spatial arrangement of clear and precisely integrated territory. The strategy of new strategic areas management of the city in Sidoarjo district as a pattern of the new city order allows to improve the quality of family and community life and create an atmosphere of harmony family life and social solidarity community. A new city as a complete settlement was not for a particular group of people. In the pattern of societies that still mingle between different socioeconomic groups then to achieve the goal of this policy a pattern of assimilation between various groups of society needs to be applied in the development in the settlement of a new city. The strategy of new strategic areas management of the city in Sidoarjo district was a form of balanced conception of residential housing for high income groups, middle and low income groups should not be a pattern that each other apart in a remote location so as not to cause the formation of a separate group (excusive enclave) Which are exclusive and separate from other larger environments. The application of this balanced conception of occupancy is a manifestation of the fact that the demand for housing from low-income groups constitutes a large proportion. Policies and strategies undertaken by Sidoarjo regency in realizing the spatial structure of Sidoarjo regency with the basic concept approach of spatial planning which has been adjusted to the conditions and characteristics of Sidoarjo regency, which was a combination between the concept of structure and comprehensive concept. Then regional structure plan, regional plan was divided into three groups: rural, urban and strategic areas. Policies and strategies for determining the function of rural areas were carried out with the development of rural areas as agricultural centers adapted to the characteristics of the village; Control of land conversion on productive land; Development of cooperation between urban and rural areas to reduce social and developmental disparities. The policies and strategies for the implementation of the establishment of urban systems in Sidoarjo Regency were aimed at the development of environmentally friendly industrial based settlements, services

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and trade in accordance with the carrying capacity of the region. Implementation of urban system development strategy, including: improvement of quantity and quality of urban infrastructure and facilities; Creating integrated infrastructure / utilities and inter-regional urban facilities, reducing sporadic developments and linier city growth. Strategic area implementation policies and strategies with the development of regional infrastructure to support urban and rural systems. Policies and strategies for the implementation of the development of transportation, utilities and telecommunications systems shall be carried out with the development and development of integrated transportation systems in accordance with local, regional, national and international land and sea transport systems and networks; Improved road function and construction of new road network and its equipments to facilitate the achievement of inter-regional and inter-region either in the Regency or from and to other areas; Improving the quality of public transport, the development of mass transit transportation to improve the use of public transport services and controlling the use of private transport; Development and development of drainage network system, domestic and industrial waste disposal system, and integrated waste management system in order to improve environmental quality; Improve services and construction of basic infrastructure networks such as electricity/water/gas in an integrated and equitable way to meet the needs of the community in each region; Improve the services and development of information systems and telecommunications to facilitate inter-regional communication networks both in the district, provincial and national levels. The policies and strategies based on the laws, government regulations and regional regulations have been prepared in the regional medium term development plan, spatial plan, spatial detail plan, space engineering plan, green open space in Sidoarjo district and other documents. These documents are an important component in the development of new strategic areas of the city in the independent district of Sidoarjo. Therefore, the document is used as a joint referral because there are guidelines/standard operational procedures (SOPs) and technical guidelines agreed by the local government along with stakeholders, so any development in the strategic area of the new city is obliged to follow the master plan or master plan of new urban development. However, if standard regulations and technical guidelines are implemented sectorally, then the development of new strategic areas of the new city could be hampered. 5. CONCLUSION 1. Policies related to the development of new strategic areas of the city in Sidoarjo regency were not implemented in harmony because in the process of implementation there were differences in policy basis, differences in perceptions and interests and even overlapping policies, consequently the goal of building an independent new city in Sidoarjo regency was not achieved. 2. Strategy of planning implementation in regional spatial plan document, medium-term development plan/sectorial development with strategic plan in each regional apparatus in development of strategic area of new city has not run in synergy either in substance, regulated sector, regional directive and commitment implementation. The lack of optimal spatial control instruments, licensing mechanisms referring to the spatial plan, and guidance on the implementation of sanctions against violators of the Spatial Plan. Inadequate quality of spatial planning arrangement and detailed plans, including the limited availability of basic and thematic maps, especially strategic areas. 3. The strategy of new strategic areas management in the city of Sidoarjo has been developed and established in the form of technical guidance and planning documents. However, the development of strategic areas was still running in sectorial due to standard regulations and technical guidance of local areas that were still sectorial by applying the policy based on the importance of their main tasks and functions without synergizing all the power of local area resources.

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6. SUGGESTION 1. Any development activities undertaken by investors and the general public and local government of Sidoarjo Regency located in the new city area should be guided by the applicable policy. therefore as to provide legal certainty and the realization of new strategic areas of an independent city. 2. The Government of Sidoarjo Regency should pay attention to other implementers and stakeholders involved in the implementation process of spatial policy in the region Strategic new city, it aims to establish communication and seek solutions from existing problems. 3. The basic policies of spatial policy should be implemented in harmony despite the overlapping substantiality. The socialization of policies and spatial plans will create a common perception of the people who implement in understanding policy in good faith to achieve the goal of building an independent new city in Sidoarjo regency. 4. The Government of Sidoarjo Regency in the development activities shall consider and consider the spatial plan of the region and the master plan of strategic areas as well as the regional medium term development plan for the development and maintenance shall be the joint responsibility of the government, the public and private parties. 6. The Better stakeholder coordination was required by taking into account the management hierarchy, establishing procedures, and translating the master plan into the main tasks and functions of each regulations with the support of information technology. In addition communication should be 2 (two) directions due to the existence of direct reciprocal currents and by minimizing sectoral self-interested.

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[11]. Rendy Andrian Diningrat 2014. Ketergantungan Kota Baru Harapan Indah terhadap Kota Jakarta dan Wilayah sekitarnya, Jurnal PWK, Vol 25, No 3. [12]. Rukmana, Deden. 2005. Urbanisasi dan Perubahan Perilaku Penduduk. Jurnal Info URDI Volume 19, Mei-September 2005. [13]. Sumaryana. 2011. Pengaruh Lingkungan Sosial terhadap Efektifitas Implementasi Kebijakan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah" (RTRW) Bandung. Univeritas Padjajaran. Bandung. [14]. Syahrudin. 2009. Implementasi Pengembangan Kawasan Industri Strategis di Karanwang. Fakultas Ilmu Administrasi Universitas Diponogoro. Semarang. [15]. Bappeda Kab. Sidoarjo. 2014. Analisa Kemiskinan Bidang Infrastruktur Dasar Kabupaten Sidoarjo Tahun 2014. Pemkab Sidoarjo. [16]. http://www.dprd-sidoarjokab.go.id/wp-content.,diakses pada tanggal 24 Agustus 2016. [17]. https://www.encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images.plan-102,diakses pada tanggal 24 Agustus 2016. [18]. https://www.encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images. plan-104,diakses pada tanggal 24 Agustus 2016.

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