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Abbreviations

AA AC AC ACF ACHAP ACIA ACP ACS ACTS AD ADB ADHR ADL ADM AEW AFD AfDB AFES-PRESS AFREGS AGOA AI AIAS AIDS AIOC ALBA

ALIDES ALOS AltSEAN AMAP AMCEN ANAT ANN

ANWR AOA AOSIS AOYE AP I

Auswärtiges Amt [Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Germany] alternate current Arctic Council Australian Conservation Foundation African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Programme Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Africa – Caribbean – Pacific Association of Caribbean States African Centre for Technology Studies anno domini [after Christ] Asian Development Bank Arctic Human Development Report Amu Darya Lowlands Archer Daniels Midland aerial early warning Agence Française de Développement African Development Bank Peace Research and European Security Studies (international scientific NGO) Armed Forces Regression Study Africa Growth and Opportunity Act Amnesty International African Institute for Agrarian Studies Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Azerbaijan International Operating Company Alternativa Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América (Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas) Alianza para un Desarrollo Sostenible [Alliance for Sustainable Development] Advanced Land Observing Satellite (of JAXA) Alternative ASEAN Network Arctic Monitoring Assessment Programme African Ministerial Conference on the Environment Agence Nationale d’Aménagement du Territoire [National Agency for Territorial Management] Agence Nationale pour la Conservation de la Nature [National Agency for Nature Conservation] Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Agreement on Agriculture Association of Small Island States Arab Office for Youth and Environment Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts

AP II

APA APEC APFA API APN APPRA APR APROFEM

APWLD AR4 ARF ARIJ ARW ASALA ASEAN ASI ASPO ASS ATTAC AU AWEO AWW AZ B B.C. b/d BAR BASA BAU BBC BBC

bbl BC BCE bcm BCPR

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of NonInternational Armed Conflicts ASEAN People’s Assembly Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Accés à la Propriété Fonciére Agricole [Access to Agricultural Land] American Petroleum Institute Asia Pacific Network for Global Change Research Asian-Pacific Peace Research Association Asia-Pacific Roundtable Association pour la Promotion de la Femme et de l’Enfant au Mali [Association for the Promotion of Women and Children in Mali] Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development Fourth Assessment Report (of IPCC in 2007) ASEAN Regional Forum Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem Advanced Research Workshops Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia Association of Southeast Asian Nations Advanced Study Institutes (of NATO) Association for the Study of Peak Oil Africa Sub-Saharan Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Aid Citizens African Union Alternative World Energy Outlook African Water Week Arizona (USA) billion Before Christ barrels/day basins at risk Amazon Bank (in Brazil) business as usual British Broadcasting Company (conceptual work on vulnerability by) Bogardi/Birkmann (2004) and Cardona (1999/2001) barrel (1 barrel = 159 litres) before Christ before Christian era billion cubic metres Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (UNDP)

Abbreviations

1334 Bd BEAC BEAR BGR

BIG/CC BIISS BIOMASS BMBF

BMU

BMZ bn BOD boe BOO BOS BOTA BP BP yBP BPOA BPS BSC BSE BSEC Bt BTC BTU BUIS BVO BWO C CA CA CACILM CACM CAEC CAFTA CAIS cal BP

billion dollars Barents-Euro-Arctic Council Barents-Euro-Arctic Region Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe [German Federal Agency for Geosciences and Raw Material] Biomass Integrated Gasification/Combined Cycle Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies proposed P-band radar mission (of ESA) Bundesministerium f’ür Bildung und Forschung [German Ministry for Education and Research] Bundesministerium f’ür Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit [German Federal Ministry on the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety] Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit [German Federal Ministry for Development Cooperation] billion (in US and increasingly in the UK) or a thousand million: 109 Biochemical Oxygen Demand barrel oil equivalent built, own, operate Borneo Orang-Utan Survival Foundation Boru Hatlar ile Petrol Tama Anonim irketi (Petroleum Pipeline Corporation), Turkey British Petroleum company before present years before present Barbados Plan of Action Bureau of Statistics (in Indonesia) Black Sea Commission Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Black Sea Economic Co-operation bacillus Thuringensis Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline British thermal unit Basin Irrigation Systems Management Authority (in Uzbekistan) Basseynoe Vodnoe Ob’edinenie [River Basin Authority of Syr Darya and of Amu Darya] Basin Water Organization (in Central Asia) degree Celsius Central America Central Asia Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management Central American Common Market Central Asian Economic Community Central American Free Trade Agreement Central American Integration System calendar years before present (calibrated dating)

CAMRE CAPCO CAR CARE cat CBCP CBD CBI CBO CBR CBSS CCAMLR CCC CCGA CCMS CD CDA CDC CDM CDR CE CE CEDARE CEEAC

CEF CEG CEN CENAPRED CENTCOM CEO CEP CEPAL

CERES CERI CERM CERT CESR CEWARN CF

Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment Central African Power Corporation Central African Republic CARE International category Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Caribbean Basin Initiative community based organization crude birth rate Council of the Baltic Sea States Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources conventions, carbon cycle science and conservation of the environment Chicago Council on Global Affairs NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society UN Conference on Disarmament (in Geneva) Canada US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clean Development Mechanism crude death rate Christian era Central Eurasia Centre for Environment & Development for the Arab Region and Europe Communauté Economique des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale [Economic Community of Central African States] Country Environment Profile Contact Expert Group Comite Européen de Normalisation Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres [National Centre for Disaster Prevention in Mexico] U.S. Central Command Chief Executive Officer Caspian Environment Programme Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe [Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean] Centre for European Energy Strategy (Brussels) Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Internationales (Paris) Co-ordinated Emergency Response Measures (of the IEA) Citizen Emergency Response Training Centre for Economic and Social Rights Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism Conceptual Framework

Abbreviations CFA CFB CFR CFSP CGI CHGA CHP CHS CIA CICAD

CIDA CIE CIFP CIFTA

CILSS

CIMI CIR CIS CITES CLOC

cm CMP CNA CNAS CNN CNTS CO CO2 COE COERR COMELEC COP COP 13

Communauté Financière Africaine [African Financial Community] Circulating Fluidized Bed Council on Foreign Relations (New York) Common Foreign and Security Policy (of the EU) Clinton Global Initiative Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa Combined Heat and Power generation Commission on Human Security Central Intelligence Agency Comisión Interamericana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas [Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission] Canadian International Development Agency Comité Inter-Etats [Inter-State Committee of the riparian states of the Senegal River] Country Indicators for Foreign Policy Convención Interamericana contra la Fabricación y el Tráfico Ilícitos de Armas de Fuego, Municiones, Explosivas y Otros Materiales Relacionados [Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials] Comité Permanent Inter Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse au Sahel [Permanent Interstate Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel] Indian Missionary Council Indian Council of Roraima Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Consejo Latinoamericano de Organizaciones Campesinas [Latin American Peasants Organizations] centimetre Catchments Management Plan US Center of Naval Analysis Centre for a New American Security Cable News Network Centre National des Techniques Spatiales [National Centre for Spatial Techniques] carbon monoxide carbon dioxide costs of electricity Catholic Office for Emergency Relief and Refugees Comité Maghrébin d’Electricité [Maghreb Electricity Committee] Conference of Parties (of an international environmental regime, e.g. of UNFCCC) Conference of Parties (of UNFCC in December 2007 in Bali)

1335 CP CPCC CPDC CPIA CPR CPV CR CRED

CRHC CRIC CRIM CRSE CRU/UEA CSCAP CSD CSEC CSIR CSIS CSLP CSN CSP CSP CSS CSSDCA

DAC DANIDA DC DCI DDR DDT DENIX DEPI DESA

Conflict Prevention (office of UNDP) Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation Country Policy and Institutional Assessment Chantier Populaire de Reboisement [Peoples' Reforestation Sites] concentrator photovoltaic Caspian Region Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie des Désastres (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters), Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium Comprehensive Reproductive Health in Crises Committee for the Review of the Implementation (of UNCCD) Center for Multidisciplinary Studies (of UNAM, in Mexico) Commission de Régulation du Secteur de l’Electricité [Electricity Sector Regulation Commission] Climate Research Unit; University of East Anglia (in UK) Council for Security Cooperation in AsiaPacific (United Nations) Commission on Sustainable Development commercial sexual exploitation of children Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C., USA) Cadre Stratégique de Lutte Contre la Pauvreté National Security Council (Brasil) Country Strategy Paper Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Stations Center for Security Studies (ETH Zürich conference on security, stability, development and cooperation (in Kampala, Uganda in 1991) Development Assistance Committee (of OECD) Danish International Development Agency direct current Director of Central Intelligence disarmament, demobilization and reintegration dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane Defense Environmental Network & Information eXchange Disaster Management Branch (of UNEP) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Abbreviations

1336 DESTIN

Development Studies Institute (at LSE in London) DEWA Division of Early Warning and Assessment (of UNEP) DFAIT Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (Canada) DFID Department for International Development (UK) DIVERSITAS international research programme on biodiversity science DIWO Diverse Women for Diversity Dk Denmark DLDD desertification, land degradation and droughts DME dimethylester DoE Department of Energy DPRI Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DR-CAFTA Dominican Republic – Central American Free Trade Area DRMU/ Disaster Relief and Monitoring Unit – HRCSL Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka DRR disaster risk reduction DRS Défense et Restauration des Sols [Soil Protection and Restoration] DS Devlet Su leri [General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Turkey] DSR Driving Force-State-Response (model) DTI Department of Trade and Industry (UK) DTIE Ozone Action Program (of UNEP) DVPW Deutsche Vereinigung für Politikwissenschaft DWAF Department of Water Affairs DZD Algerian currency e.g. E3 scenarios EAC EADB EADI EAPP EBRD EC ECAFE ECE ECHO ECLAC ECOMAN

ECOMOG

for instance energy-economy-environment scenarios East Asian Community East African Development Bank European Association of Development Institutes East African Power Pool European Bank for Reconstruction and Development European Council U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far-East Economic Commission for Europe European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Environmental Change, Consensus Building and Resource Management in the Horn of Africa (research project, University of Zürich, Switzerland) Military Observer Groups (of ECOWAS, in West Africa)

ECONILE

ECOWAS ECPAT ECSP

ECU EDC EDM EEA EECCA EFA EgNDF EGS EIA EIA EIB EJ ELECTRONORTE EM-DAT EMM EMP ENCOP ENLA ENMOD

ENP ENSO ENVISAT ENVSEC EOLSS EORC EPA EPS EPS ERCRTC ERP ERS/USDA ERS-1 ES ESA

Environment and Cooperation in the Nile Basin (research project, University of Zürich, Switzerland) Economic Community of West African States End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes Environmental Change and Security Program (Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C., USA) European Currency Unit endocrine disrupting chemicals Electricité Du Mali [National Electricity Company of Mali] European Environment Agency (in Copenhagen, Denmark) Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Education for All Egyptian National Discourse Forum Environmental Goods and Services Energy Information Administration (US) Environmental Impact Assessment European Investment Bank exa loules Northern Brazil Electricity Board Emergency Events Database Emergency Management Manual (of the IEA) Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Environment and Conflicts Project (Zürich University – Swisspeace, Bern, Switzerland) Emergency Network Los Angeles Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques European Neighbourhood Policy El Niño-Southern Oscillation ESA satellite with C-band radar Environment and Security Initiative (of OSCE, UNDP, UNEP, NATO) Encyclopaedia for Life Support Systems (UNESCO) Earth Observation Research and Applications Centre (of JAXA) US Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Service (Israel) Ejército Popular Sandinista (Nicaragua) Emergency Response Caspian Region Thematic Centre Ejército Popular Revolucionario (Popular Revolutionary Army in Mexico) Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture ESA satellite with C-band radar environmental security European Space Agency

Abbreviations ESCAP ESDP ESS ESSP etc. ETIC ETS EU EU-GSP EUMENA EUSC EUWI EVI EWEA EWP EXACT EZLN FAL FAO FAOSTAT FAR FARC

FARN

FAST FBI FCFA FCO FCV FDA FDI FESS FEWER FFCT FFS FHS FINAM FLACSO

FLEGT

UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific European Security and Defence Policy European Security Strategy (of EU of 12 December 2003) Earth System Science Partnership etcetera Euphrates Tigris Initiative for Cooperation Emissions Trading Scheme European Union European Union – Generalized System of Preferences Europe, Middle East and North Africa EU Satellite Centre EU Water Initiative Environment Vulnerability Index European Wind Energy Association Egyptian Water Partnership Executive Action Team Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional [Zapata’s National Liberation Army] Frente Armado de Liberación (Armed Liberation Front, Guatemala) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (in Rome) FAO Statistics Forces Armées Rwandaises (Armed Forces of Rwanda) Frente Armado Revolucionario de Colombia (Armed Revolutionary Front in Colombia) Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Nicaragüenses (Nicaraguan Revolutionary Armed Forces) Frühanalyse von Spannungen und Tatsachenermittlung (Early Analysis of Tensions and Fact Finding) US Federal Bureau of Investigations Franc de la Communeauté financière africaine (Franc of the Financial Community of Africa) Foreign and Commonwealth Office (UK) fuel cell vehicles US Food and Drug Administration foreign direct investment Foundation for Environmental Security & Sustainability Forum on Early Warning and Early Response Flood Forecasting Core Team Forum on Food Security, Friends of Human Security Investment Fund for Amazônia (Brazil) Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales [Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences] EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

1337 FLN FMLN

Frente de Liberación Nacional (El Salvador) Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Party of El Salvador) FMMS Flood Management and Mitigation Strategy FOEME Friends of the Earth Middle East FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency FONDECYT Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico FPL Frente Popular de Liberacion (Popular Liberation Front) FPT feminist political theory FSC Forest Stewardship Council FSLN Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Sandinist Front of National Liberation, Nicaragua) FSS Forum for Social Studies (Ethiopia) FSU Former Soviet Union FT Fischer-Tropsch (synthetic hydrocarbons) FTA Free Trade Agreements FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas FüAk German Command and Staff College FUNAI National Indian Foundation (Brazil) FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia G&A G-7 G-77 G-8

GA GAD GAIN

GaN GAP

GATS GATT Gb GBFM GBV GCC GCC GDI GDN GDN GDP GEC GECHS GEF GEM

General and Administrative Group of seven major industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, US) Group of 77 Group of eight major industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US) United Nations General Assembly gender and development World Food Centre, Commission for Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture gallium nitride Güneydou Anadolu Projesi (Turkish acronym for the Southeastern Anatolian Irrigation Development Project) General Agreement on Trade in Services (of WTO) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade gigabarrel (109 barrel) Global Boreal Forest Mapping project gender-based violence Gulf Cooperation Council global climate change German Development Institute Gender and Disaster Network Green Development Network gross domestic product global environmental change Global Environmental Change and Human Security (project of IHDP) Global Environmental Facility Gender Empowerment Measure

Abbreviations

1338 GEO4 GFRM GGAP GGP Gha GHG GID GINI GIS GITEWS GLASS GLP GM GMES GMF GMO GNI GNP GOARN GoM GoSL GoZ GPA GPHIN GRAIN GS GSEII GSIS GtC Gtoe GTZ

GW GWh GWP GWp GWP-Med GWSP h H5N1 Ha HC HDI HDR HelCom HEP HEPR

Global Environmental Outlook, No. 4 (2007 by UNEP) Global Rain Forest Mapping project Guidelines for Global Action on Peatlands Gross Geographic Product gigahectare; 1000 million hectare. greenhouse gas Global Interactive Dialogue (of UNCCD) measure of inequality of income or wealth distribution Geographic Information System German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System Global Assessment of Environment and Security (project at Kassel University) Good Laboratory Practice gene modification Global Monitoring for Environment and Security German Marshall Fund genetically modified organism gross national income gross national product Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Gulf of Mexico Government of Sri Lanka Government of Zimbabwe Global Programme on AIDS Global Public Health Intelligence Network Genome Resources Action International gender security Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative Graduate School of International Politics (at Denver University) giga ton of carbon giga tons of oil equivalent (=109 tons) Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit [German Agency for Technical Cooperation] gigawatt (106 of kilowatt hour) gigawatt hours Global Water Partnership gigawatt peak Global Water Partnership, Mediterranean Global Water System Partnership hour H5N1 avian influenza virus strain hectares Hunger Commission Human Development Index Human Development Report Helsinki Commission Hydroelectric Power Production Hunger Eradication and Poverty Reduction Programme

HESP

Human and Environmental Security and Peace (book series) HH household HIIK Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (Heidelberg University, Germany) HIPC Highly Indebted Poor Country HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HMD hydro-meteorological data HPCR Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (Harvard University) HPI Human Poverty Index HPTR Helsinki Process Track Report HRC Human Rights Commission HRF higher rainfall area HRH His Royal Highness HRTW human right to water HRW Human Rights Watch HS human security HSN Human Security Network HSR Human Security Report HSU Human Security Unit (of UNOCHA) HSU/OCHA Human Security Unit, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs HSZs high security zones HUGE human, gender and environmental security HUMSEC Research Project funded by the 6th Project Framework Programme on Research (EU Commssion) HVDC high voltage direct current transmission lines HYV high yielding variety IAEA I-ANDS IBAMA

IBDF IBRD IBSFC ICAB ICAD ICAS ICC ICC ICG

ICG

International Atomic Energy Agency Interim Afghanistan National Development Strategy Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) Forestry Institute (Brazil) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission Interstate Council for the Aral Sea Basin Inter Agency Coalition on AIDS and Development Interstate Council for Addressing the Aral Sea Crisis International Criminal Court International Chamber of Commerce International Coordinating Group (on vaccine provision for epidemic meningitis control) International Crisis Group

Abbreviations ICISS ICJ ICKKU ICPD ICRC ICSU ICT ICTY ICWC IDB IDF IDNDR IDP IDRC IDS IDSA IEA IEA/NEA IELRC IEP IFAD IFAP IFAS IFI IFPRI IFRC IFRC-RCS IGAD IGBP IGCC IGO IHDP IHE IHI IHL IHP IHS

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty International Court of Justice Interstate Council for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in 1994 International Committee of the Red Cross International Council of Scientific Unions information and communication technology International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (Central Asia) Inter-American Development Bank Israel Defence Forces International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Internally Displaced Persons International Development Research Centre (Canada) Institute of Development Studies (Brighton, United Kingdom) Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (New Delhi, India) International Energy Agency International Energy Agency, Nuclear Energy Agency International Environmental Law Research Centre International Energy Programme International Fund for Agricultural Development International Food and Agriculture Programme International Fund for the Aral Sea international financial institution International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, D.C.) International Federation of the Red Cross International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Intergovernmental Authority on Development International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme integrated gasification combined-cycle international governmental organization International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme Institute for Water Education (UNESCO in Delft, The Netherlands) Index of Human Insecurity international humanitarian law International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO IHS-Energy (company name)

1339 IIASA

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (in Laxenburg, Austria) IIED International Institute for Environment and Development (London, UK) IIRR International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Philippines IISD International Institute for Sustainable Development (New York, NY, USA) IISS International Institute for Strategic Studies (London, UK) IITM Indian Institute of Technology Madras (Madras, India) IKMAS Institute of Malaysia and International Studies ILA International Law Association ILC International Law Commission ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund INC International Negotiating Committee on Climate Change INCD Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee INDREX Indonesian Radar Experiment (of ESA) INEF Institute for Development and Peace (Duisburg-Essen, Germany) INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática [National Institute for Statistics, Geography and Information] (Mexico) INERIS L'Institut National de l'environnement industriel et des risques [Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks] (Paris, France) INESG Institut National des Etudes de Stratégies Globales [National Institute for Global Strategies Studies] (Algeria) INFOTERRA International Network of Information Referral Systems INGOs international nongovernmental organizations INN Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zuribán [National Institute for Nutrition] (Mexico) INNSZ National Institute of Nutrition Salvador Zuribán (Mexico) INTERREG EU’s programme on inter-regional cooperation INWRDAM Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management IOM International Organization for Migration IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCRI Israel Palestine Center for Research and Information IPR Intellectual Property Rights IPY International Polar Year IR International Relations IRA Irish Republican Army IRBM International River Basin Management IRD integrated rural development

Abbreviations

1340 IRD-INSERM Université de la Méditerranée, Observatoire Régional de la Santé ISAF International Security Assistance Forces ISARM International Shared Aquifer Resource Management ISDR International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (of UN) ISIS Institute of Strategic and International Studies (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) ISO International Organization for Standardization ISRIC World Soil Information ISS Institute of Social Studies, The Hague ISS Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria (South Africa) ISSJ International Social Science Journal (UNESCO) ITC Indian Tobacco Company (previously Imperial Tobacco Company) ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group ITOPF The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Unlimited ITTO International Tropical Timber Organisation ITU International Telecommunications Union IUCN The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (World Conservation Union) IUED Graduate Institute of Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland IWBM Integrated Water Basin Management IWMI International Water Management Institute IWMI/SIC International Water Management Institute/ Scientific Information Centre IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management IYDD International Year of Deserts and Desertification JAXA JEEC JERS-1 JI JICA JNNURM JRC/GVMU JSSR JTC Jubilée 2000 K&C km2 KOGAMI KP KW kWh

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Joint Environmental Experts Committee JAXA satellite with L-band radar on ALOS satellite Joint Implementation Japan International Cooperation Agency Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Joint Research Centre, Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit Justice and Security Sector Reform (UNDP) Joint Technical Committee Jubilee Debt Campaign Kyoto & Carbon Initiative (of JAXA) square kilometre Komunitas Siaga Tsunami (NGO working on Tsunami in Indonesia] Kyoto Protocol kilowatts: a thousand (103) watts kilowatt hour

LA LA LA21 LAS LBST LDC LDCs LEAPs LEDs LGM LHWP LINV LIPI LNG LNMC LPG LPI LSE LTTE M m2 MA MA MAD mb mb/d mbd MCCA

Latin America Los Angeles Local Agenda 21 League of Arab States Ludwig-Bölkow Systemtechnik GmbH (company name) least developed country less developed countries Local Environment Agency Plans light-emitting diodes Last Glacial Maximum Lesotho Highlands Water Project lower irrigation investment Indonesian Science Institute liquefied natural gas Lao National Mekong Committee liquefied petroleum gas Living Planet Index London School of Economics and Political Science (London, UK) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

million square meter Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Mine Action mutual assured destruction million barrels million barrels/day million barrels per day Mercado Común Centroamericano (Central American Common Market) MCM million cubic metres MCM/Y million cubic meters/year MDC more developed country MDG UN Millennium Development Goals (adopted in 2000 by the UNGA) MEDA Mediterranean Development Assistance MED-CSP Mediterranean Concentrating Solar Power MENA Middle East and North Africa MEnA Palestinian Ministry of Environmental Affairs MENR Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey MERCOSUR Mercado Común del Cono Sur (Common Market in the South of Latin America) MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MMA Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources and Legal Amazon (Brazil) MMBTU Million British thermal units MNC multinational corporation MNE multinational enterprise MNEPR Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Program in the Russian Federation MNLF Moro National Liberation Force MoD British Ministry of Defence MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)

Abbreviations MOFAIC

MOLISA MOP MOPIC MoU MoW MRC MRCS MRF MRTPC Mscf MSS MST mt Mtoe MTP MunichRe MW MWRI NAC NACA NAFTA

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of Mali Vietnamese Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs Meeting of the Parties (e.g. of the Kyoto Protocol of UNFCCC) Palestinian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding (Iraqi) Ministry of Water Mekong River Commission Mekong River Commission Secretariat Munich Re Foundation Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission thousand cubic feet (~27 m³) multispectral scanner Movemento sem Terra [Movement of Landless Peasants in Brazil] million tonnes million tons of oil equivalents medium term plan Munich Reinsurance company megawatt Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation in Egypt

National AIDS Committee National AIDS Coordinating Agency North American Free Trade Agreement (of USA, Canada, Mexico) NAP National Action Programme NAP National Anti-AIDS Programmes NAS (US) National Academy of Science NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO-CCMS former NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society NBD Nile Basin Discourse NBI Nile Basin Initiative NC Nordic Council NCCR National Centre for Competence in Research (in Switzerland) NCCR/NS National Centre for Competence in Research, North-South (in Switzerland) NCM Nordic Council of Ministers NCP National Contingency Plan NCRFW National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women Nd no data NDEP Northern Dimension Environmental Partnership NDI Northern Dimension Initiative NEB National Energy Board (Canada) NEF/IIED New Economics Foundation/International Institute for Environment and Development NEFCO Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation NEMA National Environment Management Authority (Uganda)

1341 NEPAD NEPED NESCO NESDB NGO NHDR NIB NIC NIS NISAT NLD NOAA NOP NOx NPA NPD NPP NPP NPT NRVA NSA NTFP NWFP NZAID O&M OAPEC

New Partnership for Africa’s Development Nagaland Environmental Protection and Economic Development EU Network of Energy Correspondents National Economic and Social Development Board nongovernmental organization National Human Development Reports Nordic Investment Bank National Intelligence Council New Independent States Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers National League for Democracy US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Organic Program (in the USA) nitrous oxides New People’s Army National Petroleum Directorate (Norway) net primary production nuclear power plant Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty National Rural Vulnerability Assessment Nuclear Safety Account Non-Timber Forest Product North Western Frontier Province New Zealand Aid

Operation and Maintenance Organization for Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OAS Organization of American States OCAS Organization of Central American States OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ODA Overseas development assistance ODI Overseas Development Institute OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD/DAC Development Assistance Committee (of OECD) OEF Operation Enduring Freedom (in Afghanistan) OERS Organisation des Etats Riverains du Fleuve Sénégal (Organization of the Riparian States of the Senegal River) OFDA Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance OFDA/CRED Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID), Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters OKACOM Permanent Water Commission on the Okavango River Basin OMVS Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du Fleuve Sénégal (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River) OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,

Abbreviations

1342

OPT OSAA OSCE OSU PA PACD PACRIM 2 PAES Pagasa PALSAR PAS PASSIA PBC PCBS PCCP PCDMB PCIJ PCR PDAU PDD PDR PDVSA PEAC PECDAR PEISOR PENA PENGON PEPS PES PGC PHG PISPAL

PITF PKK PKO PLO

Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela) Occupied Palestinian Territories UN Office of the Special Adviser on Africa Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Oregon State University Palestinian Authority Plan of Action to Combat Desertification Pacific Rim 2 campaign and (of NASA) Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration L-band radar on ALOS satellite Partido Alternativa Socialdemócrata (Alternative Socialdemocratic Party) Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs Peacebuilding Commission Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential (UNESCO) UNEP’s Post Conflict and Disaster Management Branch Permanent International Court of Justice Polymerase Chain Reaction (laboratory diagnostic test) Plan d’Aménagement Urbain [Urban Management Plan] NATO’s Public Diplomacy Division People’s Democratic Republic (of Laos) Petróleos de Venezuela SA (oil company in Venezuela) Pool d’Electricité de l’Afrique Centrale [Central African Power Pool] Palestinian Economic Council for Development & Reconstruction pressure – effects – impacts – societal outcomes – response (model) Palestinian Environmental National Authority Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network Petroleum exploration and production statistics Palestinian Environmental Strategy Great Carajás Programme Palestinian Hydrology Group Programa de Investigaciones Sociales sobre Población en América Latina [Programme for Social Research on the People in Latin America] Political Instability Task Force Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan [Kurdistan Workers’ Party] Peace-Keeping Operations Palestine Liberation Organization

PMACI

PSFs PSI PSR PTA PTSD PV PWA

Project for the Protection of the Environment and the Indigenous Communities private military corporations Post-Ministerial Conference Palestine National Authority Palestine National Information Center Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement – Programme Alimentaire Mondial [United Nations Environment Programme – World Food Programme] Programme National de Valorisation Energétique de la Plante Pourghère [A National Programme for the Valorization of Pourghere] Persistent Organic Pollutants Plan d’Occupation des Sols [Soil Occupancy Plan] person per day parts per million by volume purchasing power parity Population Reference Bureau (Washington, D.C., USA) International Peace Research Institute (in Oslo, Norway) Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores Centroamericanos (Revolutionary Worker's Party of El Salvador) Provincial Reconstruction Teams Ejército Popular Sandinista (Popular Sandinist Army) private security forces Population Services International pressure-state-response (model of OECD) Phuket Tourist Association post traumatic stress disorder photovoltaic Palestinian Water Authority

QR

quantitative restrictions on imports

R&D R/P R2

Research and development reserve to production ratio statistical measure (or a scale 0-1) of goodness of fitting data Reconstruction and Development Agency Arab Network of Environment and Development Rural Advancement International Regional Alliance Against Mining and Large-Scale Commercial Logging Action Programmes at the regional level [of UNCCD] Rural Development Policy Institute Regional Environment Center for Central and Eastern Europe Radio Free Europe

PMC PMC PNA PNIC PNUE-PAM

PNVEP

POPs POS ppd ppmv PPP PRB PRIO PRSP PRTC

PRTs PSA

RADA RAED RAI RAMILCOR RAP RDPI REC RFE

Abbreviations RFSTE RIL RME RPTES RSA RTP RUSI RWGHR S &T SADC SADEM SADR SAE SAED

SALW SAN SAP SAP SAPP SAR SAR SARDC SARS SAT SAU SCAR SDC SDF SDNP SDWW SE Asia SEACSN SecF SEI SEMA SEMS SENELEC SEPA SEQ

Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (New Delhi, India) Reliance Industry Limited rapeseedmethylester (Biodiesel from rape seed) Regional Programme for the Traditional Energy Sector Republic of South Africa Responsibility to Protect Royal United Services Institute (London, UK) Regional Working Group on Human Rights Science and Technology Southern African Development Community Secretariat for National Defence (Brazil) Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos Secretariat for Strategic Affairs (Brazil) Société nationale d'Aménagement et d’Exploitation des terres du Delta du fleuve Sénégal et des vallées du fleuve Sénégal et de la Falémé (National Agency for the Agricultural Development of the Senegal River Delta and of the Senegal and Falémé River Valleys, Senegal) small arms and light weapons Save Andaman Network Salmon Action Plan Structural Adjustment Programme (of IMF) South African Power Pool Search and Rescue Synthetic aperture radar Southern African Research and Documentation Centre Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Science and technology Surface Agricole Utile [Usable Agricultural Surface] Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Self Defence Forces (Japan) Sustainable Development Networking Programme Women in Development Service, FAO Women and Population Division Southeast Asia Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network SecurityFirst (scenario of GEO-4 by UNEP, 2007) Stockholm Environment Institute Environment Secretariat (Brazil) Standard Emergency Management System Société Sénégalaise d’Electricité [Senegal Electricity Company) State Environmental Protection Administration Standing Group on Emergency Questions

1343 SHI Sib-TREES SICA SIDA SIDS SIE SIPAM SIPRI SITCEN SIVAM SIWI SL SLF SLM SLWM SNSF SNV SO2 SOC SONADER

SOT SPDC SPR SPREP SPVEA SRAP SREP SRES SSA SSARR SSF STD STI SUDAM

SUHAKAM SUKALA SustF t TA TACIS TAMA TanDEM-X

State Hydrological Institute in Russia Siberian Taiga Resources and Environmental Monitoring by Satellites Sistema de Integración Centroamericana [Central American Integration System] Swedish International Development Agency Small Island Developing States Systèmes d’Informations Energétiques du Sénégal Protection System for Amazonia (Brazil) Stockholm International Peace Research Institute EU Joint Situation Centre Sistema de Vigilãncia da Amazonia [Surveillance System for the Amazon] (Brazil) Stockholm International Water Institute sustainable livelihood Sustainable Livelihoods Framework sustainable land management sustainable land and water management Swiss National Science Foundation Netherlands Development Organization sulphur dioxide soil organic carbon Société nationale pour le développement rural (National Agency for Rural Development, Mauritania) solar thermal power plants State Peace and Development Council Strategic Petroleum Reserve South Pacific Regional Environment Programme Superintendence for the Economic Valorisation of the Amazon (Brazil) Sub-Regional Action Programme South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme Special Report on Emission Scenarios Sub-Saharan Africa Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation NATO’s Science Security Forum sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted infection Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia [Superintendent of Development of the Amazon] (Brazil) Malaysia Human Rights Commission Complexe Sucrier du Kala Supérieur SustainabilityFirst (scenario of GEO-4 by UNEP, 2007) ton technology assessment Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States There are many alternatives German satellite mission with X-band radar

Abbreviations

1344 TB Tcf TEEN TEA TEK TEMM TENs TERI TerraSAR-X TFDD TINA TNE TNK TNOCs toe TPAO TREC TRIPs TÜPRA TW TWh TW-MAE-W UAVs UBC UCC UCDP UCI UCIL UDSSR UEMOA

UIS UK UKM UMA UN UN DESA UN/ISDR UN/OCHA UNAIDS

tuberculosis tera cubic feet (= 1012 cubic feet) Tripartite Environmental Education Network Türkiye Elektrik letim Anonim irketi (Electricity Transmission Company of Turkey) traditional ecological knowledge Tripartite Environmental Ministers Meeting Trans European Networks The Energy and Resources Institute (New Delhi, India) German satellite mission with X-band radar Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database Margaret Thatcher: there is no alternative Transnational enterprise Tyumen Oil Company transnational oil corporations ton oil equivalent (1 toe = 7.1 boe) Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakl (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (WTO) Türkiye Petrol Rafinerileri Anonim irketi [Turkish Petroleum Refineries Corporation] terawatt or: a million million (1012) watts terrawatt hour (109 of kilowatt hour) Third World Movement Against the Exploitation of Women unmanned aerial vehicles University of British Columbia Union Carbide Corporation Uppsala Conflict Data Program University of California at Irvine Union Carbide India Limited Union of Socialist Soviet Republics Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine [West African Economic and Monetary Union: WAEMU] Irrigation Sub-System Management Authority (in Uzbekistan) United Kingdom Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia [National University of Malaysia] Union du Maghreb Arabe [Union of the Arab Maghreb] United Nations United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affaires United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/ AIDS

UNAM UNCCD

National University of Mexico (Mexico) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCHS United Nations Commission on Human Security UNCOD United Nations Conference on Desertification UNCRD United Nations Centre for Regional Development UNCSD United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development UNCT United Nations Country Team UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework UNDDA United Nations Department on Disarmament Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council UNEMG United Nations Environmental Management Group UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNEP FI United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative UNEP/GRID GRID Arendal collaborative centre, United Nations Environment Programme (in Arendal, Norway) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education of UNESCO (in Delft, The Netherlands) UNESCOUnited Nations Educational Scientific and WWAP Cultural Organization – World Water Assessment Programme UN-FAO United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGA United Nations General Assembly UN-Habitat United Nations Human Settlements Programme UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund UNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIFEM United Nations Fund for Women

Abbreviations UNISDR UNMAS UNMIK UNO UNOCHA UNODC UNOWA UNPD UNRG

UNRWA UNSC UNSCR UNSG UNSSD UNSTAT UNTFHS UNU UNU-CRIS

UNU-EHS

UNWFP UNWTO UPE US US HW US RSW US US$ USA USAID USCR USD USDA US-DoD USIP USSR VCJD VDBs VDI/VDE-IT VFA VID VLS-PV VMS

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Mine Action Service United Nations Mission in Kosovo United Nations Organisation United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UN Office on Drugs and Crime United Nations Office for West Africa United Nations Population Division Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity) United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East United Nations Security Council UN Security Council Resolution UN Secretary-General UN Summit on Sustainable Development (in Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002) UN Statistics Division United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security United Nations University United Nations University – Comparative Regional Integration Studies (in Bruge, Belgium) United Nations University – Environment and Human Security Institute (Bonn, Germany) United Nations World Food Programme United Nations World Tourism Organization universal primary education United States US hard wheat US red soft wheat United States (of America) United States dollars United States of America United States Agency for International Development United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants United States Dollar United States Department of Agriculture United States Department of Defense United States Institute for Peace Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (until 1991) Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Village Development Boards VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH (German technology company) Visiting Forces Agreement Vienna Institute of Demography very large scale photovoltaic vessel monitoring systems

1345 W WAEMU

WTO WUAs WW I WW II WWAP WWC WWF WWF WWF WWV

watts West African Economic and Monetary Union West African Gas Pipeline West Africa Gas Pipeline Company West African Power Pool World Bank World Business Council for Sustainable Development Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen [German Advisory Council on Global Change] World Commission on Dams World Conference on Disaster Reduction World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) World Climate Research Programme The World Conservation Strategy World Development Indicators weapons of mass destruction World Energy Outlook World Food Programme Working Group I of IPCC on the Physical Science Basis Working Group II of IPCC on the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Working Group III of IPCC on Mitigation of Climate Change World Health Organisation Women in Development World Income Inequality Database World Meteorological Organization DAC Working Party on Development Cooperation and Environment Working Party on Global and Structural Policies World Resources Institute (Washington, DC) World Social Forum World Summit on Sustainable Development (in Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002) World Trade Organization Water User Associations First World War (1914–1918) Second World War (1939–1945) World Water Assessment Programme World Water Council World Water Forum World Wildlife Fund (in the US only) World Wide Fund for Nature World Water Vision

X

solar magnification factor

y Y2K YOHO Yr

year year 2000 Youth Health Organization year

WAGP WAPCo WAPP WB WBCSD WBGU

WCD WCDR WCED WCRP WCS WDI WDM WEO WFP WG I WG II WG III WHO WID WIID WMO WP/ENV WPGSP WRI WSF WSSD

Abbreviations

1346 ZACPLAN

ZEE

Action Plan for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Common Zambezi River System Macro-Zoneamento Ecológico-Económico da Amazonia [Ecological - Economic Zoning in Amazonia]

ZEF ZOPFAN ZRA

Center for Development Research (Bonn, Germany) Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ASEAN concept) Zambezi River Authority

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Bibliography ventiva (Madrid: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional): 17-90. Brauch, Hans Günter, 1997a: “Causas a largo plazo de las migraciones desde el Norte de Africa a los países de la Unión Europea. El Factor Demográfico”, in: Marquina, Antonio (Ed.): Flujos Migratorios Norteafricanos Hacia La Union Europea. Asociacion y Diplomacia Preventiva (Madrid: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional): 241-333. Brauch, Hans Günter, 1997b: “Migration von Nordafrika nach Europa”, in: Spektrum der Wissenschaft (August): 56-61. Brauch, Hans Günter, 1997c: “Energieoptionen für eine langfristige Nord-Süd-Energiepartnerschaft im westlichen Mittelmeer”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter (Ed.): Energiepolitik – Technische Entwicklung, politische Strategien, Handlungskonzepte zu erneuerbaren Energien und zur rationellen Energienutzung (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 487-506. Brauch, Hans Günter, 1997d, 1997e: Energy Policy in North Africa (1950-2050): From Hydrocarbons to Renewables, UNISCI Papers 11-12 (Madrid: UNISCI/Marcial Pons, 1997). Brauch, Hans Günter, 1998: “Long-Term Security Challenges to the Survival of the North African Countries: Population Growth, Urbanisation, Soil Erosion, Water Scarcity, Food Production Deficits and Impact of Climate Change (2000-2050)”, in: Marquina, Antonio (Ed.): Perceptions mutuelles dans la Méditerranée – Unité et Diversité. Mutual Perceptions in the Mediterranean – Unity and Diversity, Collection Strademed 6 (Madrid: UNISCI/ Marcial Pons – Paris: Publisud – Mosbach: AFES-PRESS): 35-123. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2000: “Partnership Building Measures to deal with long-term non-military challenges affecting North-South relations”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Marquina, Antonio; Biad, Abdelwahab (Eds): Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for the 21st Century (London: Macmillan, New York, St. Martin Press): 284-296. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2000a: “Sustainable EU Energy Policy Between Market Liberalisation and Environmental Obligations. Implications for the Euro-Mediterranean Dialogue”, in: Marquina, Antonio; Brauch, Hans Günter (Eds.): Political Stability and Energy Cooperation in the Mediterranean, Collection Strademed 10 (Madrid: UNISCI - Mosbach: AFES-PRESS): 71-150. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2000b: “Un siècle de poisons. Usage et interdiction des armes chimique, neurotoxiques et herbicides au XXe siècle”, in: Jaeggi, Peter (Ed.): Quand mon enfant est ne, jíai ressenti une grande tristesse. Vietnam: quand les armes chimiques frappent a retardement (Basel: Lenos): 119-141. Brauch, Hans Günter, 200c: “Einsätze und Verbote von chemischen Waffen, Nervenkampfstoffen und Herbiziden. Ein Rückblick auf das 20. Jahrhundert”, in: Jaeggi, Peter (Ed.): Als mein Kind geboren wurde war ich sehr traurig. Spätfolgen des Chemiewaffen-Einsatzes im Vietnam-krieg (Basel: Lenos): 119-141.

Bibliography Brauch, Hans Günter, 2000d: “From Confidence to Partnership Building Measures in Europe and the Mediterranean: Conceptual and Political Efforts Revisited”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Marquina, Antonio; Biad, Abdelwahab (Eds.): Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for the 21st Century (London: Macmillan – New York: St. Martin's Press): 27-58. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2000-2001: “Environmental Degradation as Root Causes of Migration: Desertification and Climate Change. Long-Term Causes of Migration from North Africa to Europe”, in: Friedrich, Peter; Jutila, Sakari (Eds.): Policies of Regional Competition. Schriften zur öffentlichen Verwaltung und öffentlichen Wirtschaft, Vol. 161 (Baden-Baden: Nomos): 102-138. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2001: “The Mediterranean ‘Space’ Beyond Geopolitique and Globalization. Common Space – Divided Region”, in: Marquina, Antonio; Brauch, Hans Günter (Eds.): The Mediterranean Space ant its Borders. Geography, Politics, Economics and Environment. Collection Strademed 14 (Madrid: UNISCI – Mosbach: AFES-PRESS): 109-144. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2001a: “Euro-mediterrane Energiepartnerschaft: Von der Vision zur Realisierung”, in: Langniß, Ole; Pehnt, Martin (Eds.): Energie im Wandel. Politik, Technik und Szenarien einer nachhaltigen Energiewirtschaft. Joachim Nitsch zum 60. Geburtstag (Berlin: Springer): 31-52. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2002: “Climate Change, Environmental Stress and Conflict - AFES-PRESS Report for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety”, in: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Ed.): Climate Change and Conflict. Can climate change impacts increase conflict potentials? What is the relevance of this issue for the international process on climate change? (Berlin: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety): 9-112; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2002a: “A Survival Pact for the Mediterranean: Linking ‘virtual water’ and ‘virtual sun’”, in: Pachauri, R.K.; Vasudeva, Gurneeta (Eds.): Johannesburg and beyond. Towards concrete action. Proceedings of the Colloquium held on 24 March 2002 in New York, U.S.A. (New Delhi: Teri): 151-190. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2002b: “Disarmament”, in: Volger, Helmut (Ed.): Encyclopaedia of the United Nations (Dordrecht – Boston – London: Kluwer Academic Publishers): 82-99. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003: “Security and Environment Linkages in the Mediterranean: Three Phases of Research on Human and Environmental Security and Peace”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed El-Sayed (Eds.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 1 (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 35-143.

1367 Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003a: “Desertification - A New Security Challenge for the Mediterranean? Policy agenda for recognising and coping with fatal outcomes of global environmental change and potentially violent societal consequences”, Invited Lecture to NATO-Science Committee and CCMS, Valencia, 2-5 December; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003b: “Towards a Fourth Phase of Research on Human and Environmental Security and Peace: Conceptual Conclusions”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P. H.; Marquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed El-Sayed (Eds.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer 2003): 919-954. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003c: “War Impacts on the Environment in the Mediterrranean and Evolution of international Law”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed ElSayed (Eds.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 489-512. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003d: “Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean (1900-2001): From Disaster Response to Disaster Preparedness”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P.H.; Mrquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed El-Sayed (Hrsg.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 863-906. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003e: “Urbanization and Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean – Population Growth and Climate Change in the 21st Century”, in: Kreimer, Alcira; Arnold, Margaret; Carlin, Anne (Eds.): The Future of Disaster Risk: Building Safer Cities. December 2002. Conference Papers (Washington, D.C.: World Bank): 149164. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003f: “Missile Defence Programmes and Debates in the United States – Threat perceptions on the MENA Area: An assessment and Proposal”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed El-Sayed (Hrsg.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 1 (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 369-410. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003g: “Worldviews and Mindsets: American vs. European Perspectives on Mediterranean (Environmental) Security Policy”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, Antonio; Rogers, Paul; Selim, Mohammed El-Sayed (Eds.): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer): 237-266. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2004: “From a Hobbesian Security to a Grotian Survival Dilemma”, 40th Anniversary Conference of IPRA, Peace and Conflict in a Time of Globalisation,

1368 Sopron, Hungary, 5-9 July; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2004a: “Conceptual quartet: Security linkages with peace, development and environment”. Presentation at the Third AFES-PRESS-GMOSS workshop, 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, The Hague, The Netherlands, 8-11 September; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2004b: “Impacts of Global Warming and Non-Conventional Water Resources: A conceptual contribution to conflict resolution and long-term conflict avoidance”. Paper for the Second International Israeli Palestinian Conference: Water for Life in the Middle East, 10th - 14th October 2004, Porto Bello Hotel, Antalya, Turkey; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2004c: “Reconceptualising Security: A Contribution to the Fourth Phase of Research on Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP)”. Paper presented at the 45th ISA Convention in Montreal, Canada, 19 March; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2005: Environment and Human Security. Freedom from Hazard Impact, InterSecTions, 2/ 2005 (Bonn: UNU-EHS); at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2005a: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks in Environmental Human Security. Source, 1/2005 (Bonn: UNU-EHS); at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2005b: “Towards a mainstreaming of early warning of hazards and conflicts”, Fifth AFESPRESS Workshop on Reconceptualising Security at the Sixth Open Meeting of the Global Environmental Change Research Community, Bonn, Germany, October 9-13, 2005, “Gobal Environmental Change, Globalization and International Security”; at: . Brauch, Hans Gunter, 2006: “Desertification - A New Security Challenge for the Mediterranean? Policy agenda for recognising and coping with fatal outcomes of global environmental change and potentially violent societal consequences“, in: Kepner, William; Rubio, José L.; Mouat, David; Pedrazzini, Fausto (Eds.): Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue (Dordrecht: Springer): 11-85. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006a: “Potential of solar thermal desalination to defuse water as a conflict issue in the Middle East - Proposal for functional cooperation in the Gulf of Aqaba”, in: Linkov, Igor; Morel, Benoit (Eds.): Role of risk assessment in environmental security and emergency Preparedness in the Mediterranean Region (Dordrecht: Springer): 25-48. Brauch, Hans Gunter, 2006b: “Desertification and Climate Change: Challenges, Impacts and Policy Responses in the 21st Century for North African, Sahelian, Horn and

Bibliography Nile Basin Countries”, Training Course on the Role of Genebanks in Promoting the Use of Agricultural Biodiversity to Combat Desertification from 27 November – 7 December 2006 in Cairo, and El Arish, Sinai, Egypt, organized by the Desert Research Centre (DRC), Cairo, Egypt in cooperation with Biodiversity International, Rome; at: . Brauch, Hans Gunter, 2006c: “Desertification and Migration. From Almeria I to Almeria II: Achievements and Policy Tasks”, Address and paper for the International Symposium Desertification and Migration Almeria, Spain, 25-27 October 2006”; oral presentation at: and scientific paper at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006d: Destabilisierungs- und Konfliktpotential Prognostizierter Umweltveränderungen in der Region Südeuropa und Nordafrika bis 2020/2050. AFES-PRESS Studie für den Wissenschaftlichen Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU). Background Contract Study for WBGU (Mosbach, 14 June). Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006e: “Environmental threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks”, in: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (Paris: UNESCO; Oxford: EOLSS Publishers), online publication for subscribers. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006f: “Four Pillars of Human Security: Freedom from Fear, Freedom from Want, Freedom from Hazards Impacts and Freedom to Live in Dignity“, Presentation at the invitation of El Colegio de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, State Tlaxcala, México, 8 March 2006; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006g: “Towards a Fourth Pillar of Human Security: ’Freedom from Hazard Impacts’. Addressing Global Environmental Change, Environmental Stress and Natural Hazards”, Presentation at the International Symposium On Building and Synergizing Partnership for Global Human Security and Development, Bangkok, Thailand, 30-31 May 2006; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2006h: Conceptualizing the Environmental Dimension of Human Security within the United Nations. AFES-PRESS Study for the Social and Human Science Division of UNESCO (Mosbach: AFES-PRESS, July). Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007: “Reconceptualising Security from National to Environmental and Human Security”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Life Support System (Oxford: Oxford-EOLSS Publisher), vol. 39; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007a: “Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerability and Risks”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Life Support System (Oxford: OxfordEOLSS Publisher), vol. 39; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007b: “Four Phases of Research on Environment and Security”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula

Bibliography (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Life Support System (Oxford: Oxford-EOLSS Publisher), vol. 39; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007c: “The Model: Global Environmental Change, Political Process and Extreme Outcomes”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Life Support System (Oxford: Oxford-EOLSS Publisher), vol. 39; at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007d: “Global Environmental Change and Security for the People”. Opening Speech at ITKNET International Traditional Knowledge Network Conference: Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Conflicts and Migrations. An International Network of Experts on Traditional Knowledge for a Common Strategy, 28-29 June 2007, Florence, Italy, Sala Giunta Regione Toscana, Italy. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007e: “Global Change and Desertification: Scenarios and Social and Ecological Impact”. Keynote speech at a meeting of the Spanish Environment Ministry and the Fundacion Biodiversidad of Global Change and Desertification, Fuerteventura, Spain, 12 July 2007. Campus de la Excelencia; at: .: Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007f: “Impacts of Global Environmental Change for Water Resources of Israel and its Neighbors: New Security Dangers and Shifting perceptions”, in: Shuval, Hillel; Dweick, Hassan (Eds.): Water Resources in the Middle East. Israel-Palestinian Water Issues – From Conflict to Cooperation (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer): 357-378.: Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007g: “Environment and Security in the Middle East: Conceptualizing Environmental, Human, Water, Food, Health and Gender Security”, in: Lipchin, Clive; Pellant, Eric; Saranga, Danielle; Amster, Allyson (Eds.): Integrated Water Resources Management and Security in the Middle East (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007): 121-161. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007h: “Landscape Ecology and Environmental Security: Basic concepts and regional applications for the Mediterranean in the 21st Century”, in: Petrosillo, Irene; Müller, Felix; Jones, Bruce K.; Zurlini, Giovanni; Krauze, Kinga; Victorov, Sergey; Li, Bai-Lian; Kepner, William G. (Eds.): Use of Landscape Sciences for the Assessment of Environmental Security (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007): 21-42. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007i, 2007k: Regionalexpertise Destabilisierungs- und Konfliktpotential Prognostizierter Umweltveränderungen in der Region Südeuropa und Nordafrika bis 2020/2050. Externe Expertise für das WBGU-Hauptgutachten ‘Welt im Wandel: Sicherheitsrisiko Klimawandel’. WBGU Materialien (Berlin: WBGU); at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2007j: “Impact of Global Warming and Non-Conventional Water Resources: Potential of solar thermal desalination to defuse water as a conflict issue - A conceptual contribution to conflict resolution and long-term conflict avoidance”, in: Hillel Shuval; Hassan Dweik (Eds.): Israel-Palestinian Water Issues – from Con-

1369 flict to Cooperation (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer): 357-378. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008: “Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Grin, John; Dunay, Pal; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chourou, Béchir; KameriMbote, Patricia; Liotta, P.H. (Eds.): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 3 (Berlin - Heidelberg - New York: Springer-Verlag): 27-43. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008a: “Conceptual Quartet: Security and its Linkages with Peace, Development and Environment”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Grin, John; Dunay, Pal; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chourou, Béchir; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia; Liotta, P.H. (Eds.): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 3 (Berlin - Heidelberg - New York: Springer-Verlag): 65-98. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008b: “Securitization of Space and Referent Objects”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Grin, John; Dunay, Pal; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chourou, Béchir; KameriMbote, Patricia; Liotta, P.H. (Eds.): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 3 (Berlin - Heidelberg - New York: Springer-Verlag): 323-344. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008c: “From a Security towards a Survival Dilemma”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Grin, John; Dunay, Pal; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chourou, Béchir; KameriMbote, Patricia; Liotta, P.H. (Eds.): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 3 (Berlin - Heidelberg - New York: Springer-Verlag): 537-552. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008d: “Climate Change an International and Human Security Challenge and Opportunity for Multilateral Cooperation and Book Launch of Globalization and Environmental Challenges. Reconceptualization of Security in the 21st Century”. Presentation, 21 April 2008, Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, D.C., USA; download at: . Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008e: “Segurización de Espacio y Objeto de Referencia: Geopolítica Ecológica vs. GeoEcología Política”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Brauch, Hans Günter (Eds.): Reconceptualizar la Seguridad en el Siglo XXI (Mexico D.F. - Cuernavaca: UNAM/CRIM). Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008f: “Cuarteto Conceptual: Emergencia del Concepto de Seguridad y sus Relaciones Conceptuales con Paz, Desarrollo y Ambiente”, in: Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Brauch, Hans Günter (Eds.): Reconceptu-

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Biographies of Contributors

Editors Hans Günter Brauch (Germany): Dr. phil. habil, Adj. Prof. (Privatdozent) at the Faculty of Political Science and Social Sciences, Free University of Berlin; since 2005 fellow at the Institute for Environment and Human Security of the United Nations University (UNU-EHS) in Bonn; since 1987 chairman of Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS). He is the editor of the Hexagon Book Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP) with Springer-Verlag. He was guest professor of international relations at the universities of Frankfurt on Main, Leipzig and Greifswald and at the teachers training college in Erfurt. From 1976-1989 he was research associate at Heidelberg and Stuttgart universities, a research fellow at Harvard and Stanford University and he was also teaching at the universities of Darmstadt, Tübingen, Stuttgart and Heidelberg. Publications: He has published 65 books, studies and research reports in English and German; 144 book chapters, more than 78 articles in journals on security, armament, climate, energy and migration policies and on Mediterranean issues, and more than 80 internet publications of keynote speeches and conference presentations. His monographs include: (co-author with H. v.d. Graaf, J. Grin, W. Smit): Militärtechnikfolgenabschätzung und präventive Rüstungskontrolle, 1997; Klimapolitik der Schwellenstaaten Südkorea, Mexiko und Brasilien; Osterweiterung der Europäischen Union. Umwelt- und Energiepolitik der Tschechischen Republik, 2000. Books in English: (co-ed. with D.L. Clark): Decisionmaking for Arms Limitation - Assessments and Prospects, 1983; (ed.): Star Wars and European Defence Implications for Europe: Perceptions and Assessments, 1987; (co-author with R. Bulkeley): The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and World Security, 1988; (ed.): Military Technology, Armaments Dynamics and Disarmament, 1989; (co-ed. with R. Kennedy): Alternative Conventional Defense Postures in the European Theater, Vol. 1: The Military Balance and Domestic Constraints, 1990; Vol. 2: Political Change in Europe: Military Strategy and Technology, 1992; Vol. 3: Military Alternatives for Europe after the Cold War, 1993; (co-ed. with H.J. v.d. Graaf, J. Grin; W. Smit): Controlling the Development and Spread of Military Technology, 1992; (co-ed. with A. Marquina): Confidence Building and Partnership in the Western Mediterranean. Tasks for Preventive Diplomacy and Conflict Avoidance, 1994; Energy Policy in North Africa (1950-2050). From Hydrocarbon to Renewables, 1997; (co-ed. with A. Marquina, A. Bi-

ad): Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for the 21st Century, 2000; (co-ed. with A. Marquina): Political Stability and Energy Cooperation in the Mediterranean (2000); Liberalisation of the Energy Market for Electricity and Gas in the European Union: a Survey and implications for the Czech Republic, 2002; (co-ed. with P. Liotta, A, Marquina, P. Rogers, M. Selim): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts, 2003; Environmental Dimension of Human Security: Freedom from Hazard Impact, 2005; Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks in Environmental and Human Security, 2005; (co-ed. with U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, P. Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century, 2008; (co-ed. with U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Kameri-Mbote, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (forthcoming). Address: PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Alte Bergsteige 47, 74821 Mosbach, Germany. Email: . Website: and . Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), full time professor/researcher at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) in the Regional Multidisciplinary Research Center (CRIM) and first MunichRe Foundation Chair on Social Vulnerability at the United National University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) for 2005-2009. She was the founding Secretary General of El Colegio de Tlaxcala; General Attorney of Ecology in the State of Morelos (1992-1994) and National Delegate of the Federal General Attorney of Environment from 1994-1995. As Minister of Ecological Development in the State of Morelos (19941998) she planted over 30 million trees, promoted environmental education from childhood on and produced drinking water for the whole population with a reduction of 65% in infant mortality due to water-born illnesses. Between 1998 and 2000, she was President of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) and later General Secretary of the Latin-American Council for Peace Research (CLAIP, 2002-2006). She studied medicine, clinical psychology, anthropology, ecology, classical and modern languages and obtained her Ph.D from the University of Zürich

1504 (1978). For her scientific work she received the Price Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (2005), the Environmental Merit in Tlaxcala, Mexico (2005. 2006); the Price of Development of the UN in Geneva. She was recognized as Women Academic in UNAM (1990 and 2000); and Women of the Year (2000). She works on nonviolence and sustainable agriculture with groups of peasants and women and is the representative for Latin American of Diverse Women for Diversity. She has written 45 books and more than 328 scientific articles and book chapters on sustainability, water, gender, development, poverty, drug consumption, brain damage due to under-nourishment, peasantry, social vulnerability, genetic modified organisms, bioethics and human, gender and environmental security, peace and conflict resolution, democracy and conflict negotiation. Among her major publications are: (co-author with Rudolf Strahm): Why we are so poor? (translated into 17 languages, 1.5 million copies); Unterentwicklung als Folge von Abhängigkeit (Berne: Lang, 1978); Mercado y Dependencia (México, D.F.: Ed. Nueva Imagen, 1979); Piedras en el Surco (México, D.F.: UAM-X, 1983); Campesinos Protagonistas de su Historia: la Coalición de los Ejidos Colectivos de los Valles del Yaqui y Mayo, una Salida a la Cultura de la Pobreza (México, D.F.: UAM-X, 1986); Estrategias de Supervivencia en la Ciudad de México (Cuernavaca: CRIM/UNAM, 1991); Fuenteovejuna o Caos Ecológico (Cuernavaca: CRIM/ UNAM, 1999); (ed.): Peace Studies from a Global Perspective: Human Needs in a Cooperative World (New Delhi: Mbooks, 2000); (co-author with Mario Salinas): Gestión de Paz, Democracia y Seguridad en América Latina (México, D.F.: UNAM-CRIM/Coltlax, Böll, 2002); (ed.): El recurso agua en el Alto Balsas (México, D.F.: IGF, CRIM/UNAM, 2003); (Ed.): Soberanía y Desarrollo Regional. El México que queremos (México, D.F.: UNAM, 2003); (ed.): Resolución noviolenta de conflictos en sociedades indígenas y minorías (México, D.F.: CLAIP, IPRA & Böll Fundation, COLTLAX, 2004); El valor del agua: una visión socioeconómica de un Conflicto Ambiental (COLTLAX, CONACYT, 2005); (ed.): International Security, Peace, Development, and Environment, Book 39: Encyclopaedia on Life Support Systems (Paris: UNESCO - EOLSS, UK, online); Gender and Disasters (Bonn: UNU-EHS, 2008); (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, P. Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21 st Century, 2008; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Kameri-Mbote, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring, Priv. Río Bravo Núm.1, Col. Vistahermosa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62290 México. Email: and . Website: .

Editors John Grin (Netherlands) is professor at the Department of Political Science of the University of Amsterdam and scientific director of the Amsterdam School for Social science Research (ASSR; at: ). A physicist by training, his main interest throughout his career has been political judgment of and governance over socio-technological development, empirically focusing on military technology and security policy; agriculture, water management and biomedical technology. He co-established and is co-director of the transdisciplinary Dutch Knowledge Network for System Innovations and Transitions (KSI; ), in which some hundred researchers of ten different universities co-operate on major changes towards a sustainable society. His books include: Military-technological choices and political implications. Command and control in established NATO posture and a non-provocative defence (Amsterdam: VU University Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990); (co-ed. with Wim A. Smit, Lev Voronkov): Military-technological innovation and stability in a changing world. Politically assessing and influencing weapon innovation and military research and development (Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992); (co-ed. with Hans Günter Brauch, Henny van der Graaf, Wim Smit): Controlling the Development and Spread of Military Technology (Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992); (co-author with. Hans Günter Brauch, Henk van de Graaf, Wim Smit): Militärtechnikfolgenabschätzung und Präventive Rüstungskontrolle. Institutionen, Verfahren und Instrumente (Münster: LIT, 1997); (co-author with Henk van de Graaf, Rob Hoppe): Technology assessment through interaction: A guide (Den Haag: SDU, 1997); (co-ed. with Armin Grunwald): Vision Assessment: Shaping Technology in 21st century society. Towards a repertoire for Technology Assessment (Heidelberg: Springer, 2000); (co-ed. with Wytske Versteeg and Maarten Hajer): Meervoudige democratie – ervaringen met vernieuwend bestuur (Amsterdam: Aksant, 2006) and (co-author with Arienne van Staveren) Werken aan systeeminnovaties (Assen: van Grocum, 2007); (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, P. Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century, 2008; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, P. Kameri-Mbote, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. John Grin, Dept. of Political Science, University of Amsterdam OZ Achterburgwal 237, 1012 DL Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: . Website: and at: . Czeslaw Mesjasz (Poland): Dr habil., associate professor, Faculty of Management, Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, Poland. His research interests include applications of systems approach in management and in international relations, game theory, conflict resolution and negotiation, and the links between economics, finance and security. In 1992-1996 he was the convener of the Defence and Disar-

Biographies of Contributors mament Commission of IPRA (International Peace Research Association). In 1991-1992 he received a NATO Democratic Institutions Fellowship. In 1992-1993 he was a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Research in Copenhagen (later COPRI). He published some 180 works – two books in Polish, papers and book chapters in Polish and in English on management and international security. His major works in the fields associated with peace and security studies are: “Applications of Systems Modelling in Peace Research”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 25,3, 1988; “Eastern Post-Cold War Peace Dividend: A Preliminary Typology of Components”, in: Møller, Bjørn; Voronkov, Lev (Eds.): Defence Doctrines and Conversion (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1996): 123-133; “Reorganization of Commercial Debt: Negotiations between Poland and the London Club (1981-1994)”, in: Kremenyuk, Victor A.; Sjöstedt, Gunnar (Eds.): International Economic Negotiation: Models versus Reality (Cheltenham: Elgar, 2000): 149-174; “Economic and Financial Globalisation: Its Consequences for Security In the Early 21st Century”, in: Brauch, H.G; Liotta, P.H.; Marquina, A.; Rogers, P. F.; El-Sayed Selim, M. (Eds): Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin - Heidelberg - New York: Springer, 2003): 289-300; (co-author with Rogowski, Wojciech): “A Survey of Definitions of Financial Stability”, in: Mieczysaw, Dobija; Martin Susan (Eds.): General Accounting Theory. Towards Balanced Development (Cracow: Cracow University of Economics, 2005): 437-465; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, J .Grin, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, P. Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century, 2008; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, J.Grin, P. Kameri-Mbote, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (forthcoming). Address: Assoc. Prof. Czeslaw Mesjasz, Cracow University of Economics, Pl-31-510 Kraków, ul Rakowicka 27, Poland. Email: . Website: ; , and . Patricia Kameri-Mbote (Kenya), associate professor, School of Law, University of Nairobi, Chair, Department of Private Law and programme director for Africa, International Environmental Law Research Centre (IELRC), Nairobi. She studied law at the University of Nairobi, the University of Warwick, the University of Zimbabwe and pursued her doctoral studies at Stanford Law School, Stanford University. She is currently also an advocate of the High Court of Kenya. She has also taught international environmental law at the University of Kansas. She is a member of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law, a board member of the Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE-Uganda) and Women and Law in East Africa (WLEA). She has consulted for many international and national agencies including the World Bank, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Na-

1505 tions Development Programme (UNDP), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and the government of Kenya. She is also the Africa Editor of the Law, Environment and Development Journal (LEAD Journal), a peer-reviewed academic journal jointly published by IELRC and SOAS. She is also a member of the Editorial Board of the peer reviewed Journal of Global Environmental Politics (GEP). She has published widely in the areas of international law, environmental law, women’s rights and property rights. Her research interests include public international law, environment and natural resources law and policy, human rights, women’s rights, intellectual property rights, biotechnology policy and law and economic law. Among her major publications are: (co-author with N. Chalifour et al.: Land Use for Sustainable Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007); Property Rights and Biodiversity Management in Kenya (Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2002); The Making of a Framework Environmental Law in Kenya (Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2001); (co-author with C.O. Okidi): Coming to Life: Biotechnology in African Economic Recovery (1994); (co-author with Calestous Juma and John Mugabe): “Towards a Liability and Redress System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System”, in: East African Law Journal (2004); “Gender Dimensions of Law, Colonialism and Inheritance in East Africa: Kenyan Women’s Experiences”, in: VRÜ - Verfassung und Recht in Übersee – Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America (2002); (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Centur (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2008); Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementating the Framework of Law (Nairobi:. East African Educational Publishers, 2008); (coed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J.Grin, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag, forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. Patricia Kameri-Mbote International Environmental Law Research Centre, Kenya Office, PO Box 2394 KNH, 00202 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: . Website: . Navnita Chadha Behera (New Delhi), professor at the Nelson Mandela Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia. She has earlier served as a reader at Delhi University, an assistant research professor, Centre for Policy Research and, assistant director, Women in Security, Conflict Management and Peace. She was a visiting fellow at The Brookings Institution (2001-2002) and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1997-1998). Her books include: Demystifying Kashmir (Washington DC: Brookings Press, 2006 - New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2007); (ed.): Gender, Conflict and Migration (New Delhi: Sage, 2006); State, Identity and Violence: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (New Delhi: Manohar Publishers, 2000); (ed.): State, Peo-

1506 ple and Security: The South Asian Context (New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 2001); (co-ed with V.A. Pai Panandiker): Perspectives on South Asia (New Delhi: Konark, 2000); (co-author with V. Gunawardena, S. Kardar and R.A. Mahmood): People-to-People Dialogues in South Asia (New Delhi: Manohar Publishers, 2000); (co-author with Paul M. Evans and Gowher Rizvi): Beyond Boundaries: A Report on the State of Non-Official Dialogues on Peace, Security and Co-operation in South Asia (Toronto: Joint Center for Asia-Pacific Studies, University of Toronto, 1997); (ed.): International Relations in South Asia: Search for an Alternative Paradigm (New Delhi: Sage, 2007); (coed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Dunay, B. Chourou, P Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century, 2008. Address: Professor Dr. Navnita Chadha Behera, Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Maulana Mohamed Ali Jauhar Marg, New Delhi – 110025. Email: . Béchir Chourou (Tunisia): Ph.D. in political science from Northwestern University (USA). He has taught political science and international relations at various universities in the United States, Europe and in Tunisia, and is currently director of the University of Tunis-Carthage in Tunisia. Among his recent publications are: Promoting Human Security: Ethical, Normative and Educational Frameworks for the Arab States (Paris: UNESCO, 2005), “The Challenge of Democracy in North Africa”, in: Democratisation, 9/1 (Spring 2002): 17-39; “Mediterranean Relations: A Southern Perspective”, in: Foreign Service Journal, pp. 2430; “The (Ire)relevance of Security Issues in Euro-Mediterranean Relations”, Zürcher Beiträge, No. 61: 57-74; “Security Partnership and Democratisation: Perception of the Activities of Northern Security Institutions in the South”, in: H.G. Brauch, A. Marquina, A. Biad (Eds.): Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for the 21st Century (London: Macmillan, 2000). He also presented testimony on Euro-Mediterranean relations before the European Parliament and the House of Lords; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald

Editors Spring, C. Mesjasz, J .Grin, P. Dunay, N. Chadha Behera, P Kameri-Mbote, P.H. Liotta): Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21 st Century, 2008; (co-ed. with H.G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J.Grin, P. Dunay, J. Birkmann): Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, 2009 (forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. Béchir Chourou, 12 Avenue 7 Novembre, 1164 Hammam-Chatt, Tunisia; Fax 216-71-431871. E-mail: . Heinz Krummenacher (Switzerland) is the managing director of “swisspeace – the Swiss Peace Foundation” and head of its early warning unit. He is also the CEO of the Global Crisis Prevention Mechanism (GCPM), a joint project of the Washington based Alliance for Peacebuilding and swisspeace. Krummenacher started his professional career with the Swiss Defence Department, where he was a secretary of the interdepartmental risk analysis conference and head of the study group tasked with re-defining Swiss security policy (1985-1989). Between 1990 and 1992 he served as foreign editor with the Swiss daily newspaper Der Bund. Before joining swisspeace in 1998 he was vice director and head of the social research department at IHA-GfK, a leading Swiss market research institute (1992-1998). Krummenacher studied contemporary history, political science, and journalism at the University of Zürich. He received his PhD in political science in 1985. He has published primarily on the impact of international norms on state behaviour, security concepts, conflict prevention and management, and conflict early warning. Among his most recent publications are: “Computer Assisted Early Warning – the FAST Example” (2006), “Global Terrorism – Symptom of Local Conflicts” (2004), and “Prevention and Power Politics: Central Asia as a Show Case” (2001). Address: Dr. Heinz Krummenacher, swisspeace, Sonnenbergstrasse 17, P.O. Box, 3000 Bern 7, Switzerland. Email: . Website: .

Biographies of Contributors

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Authors of Forewords and Preface Essays Rajendra K. Pachauri (India) has been the chief executive of TERI since 1981, designated initially as Director and since April 2001 as Director-General. In April 2002 he was elected as Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988. IPCC along with former Vice President Al Gore has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the year 2007. Dr. Pachauri has a PhD in industrial engineering and a PhD in economics. He has been on several international and national committees including membership of the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, the Advisory Board on Energy (ABE) which reported directly to the Prime Minister of India, a senior advisor to the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and several others. He has been President (1988) and Chairman (1989-90) of the International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE). He has been President of the Asian Energy Institute since 1992. In April 1999, he was appointed member of the Board of Directors of the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan and continues to hold this appointment. He was awarded the ‘Padma Bhushan’ in 2001 by the President of India and he was also bestowed the ‘Officier De La Légion D’Honneur’ by the Government of France in 2006. He has been active in several international forums dealing with the subject of climate change and its policy dimensions. He was conferred with the ‘Padma Vibhushan’, second highest civilian award, for his services in the field of science and engineering in January 2008 by the President of India. Address: Prof. Dr. Rajendra K. Pachauri, Director-General, TERI, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India. Email: . Website: . Achim Steiner (Germany), Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UnderSecretary General of the United Nations. Following the nomination by the Secretary-General, the General Assembly, on 16 March 2006, elected Mr. Steiner unanimously as UNEP’s fifth Executive Director for a four-year term. Prior he was the Director-General of IUCN – the World Conservation Union – the world’s largest environmental network with over 1,000 members including states, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations in 140 countries. He has worked both at the grass-roots level and at the highest levels of international policymaking to address the interface between environmental sustainability, social equity, and economic development. His professional career has included assignments with governmental and non-governmental, as well as international organizations in different parts of the world. In Washington, where he was Senior Policy Adviser of the IUCN Global Policy Unit, he led the development of new partnerships between the environment

community and the World Bank and United Nations system. In South-East Asia, he worked as Chief Technical Adviser on a programme for sustainable management of Mekong River watersheds and community-based natural resources management. In 1998, he was appointed Secretary-General of the World Commission on Dams, based in South Africa, where he managed a global programme of work to bring together the public sector, civil society, and the private sector in a global policy process on dams and development. In 2001, he was appointed Director-General of the World Conservation Union, one of the most influential and highly respected organizations in the field of conservation, environment and natural resources management. As Chief Executive, he has held responsibility for the management and oversight of 1,000 staff located in 42 countries, implementing the Union’s global work programme. His professional track record in the fields of sustainable development policy and environmental management, his firsthand knowledge of civil society, governmental and international organizations, as well as his global experience spanning five continents make him an excellent choice to lead the United Nations Environment Programme. Mr. Steiner was born in Brazil in 1961 where he lived for 10 years. His educational background includes a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Oxford, as well as a Master of Arts from the University of London with specialization in development economics, regional planning, and international development and environment policy. He also studied at the German Development Institute in Berlin, as well as the Harvard Business School. He serves on a number of international advisory boards, including the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED). Address: Mr. Achim Steiner, Executive Director of UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme, Headquarters, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, PO Box 30552, 00100. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: Nick Nuttall, Spokesperson, Office of the Executive Director . Website: . U. Joy Ogwu (Nigeria), Ambassador, is the Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the United Nations. She was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria (2006-2007) and previously she served as Director General of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA), Nigeria, as chair of the Centre for Advanced Social Science in Port-Harcourt and as chairperson of the United Nations Secretary-Generalís Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters for 2006. She is a professor of political science and international relations. She obtained her BA and MA in political science fromRutgers University (USA) and a Ph.D. from the University of Lagos in Nigeria in 1977, when she joined the Institute of International Affairs at the University of Lagos. She lectured at the Nigerian National War College and the Nigerian Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), later she joined the NIIA as a lecturer,

1508 headed the research department on international politics before she became Director General of the NIIA. In her studies she focused on Latin America and on possibilities of a South-South relationship between Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. In her activities in the government as a member of the Presidential Advisory Council on International Relations she influenced the relationship of Nigeria with South America and she initiated the United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) funded programme for teaching human rights in Nigerian schools. Her publications include: (Ed.): Nigerian Foreign Policy: Alternative Futures (Macmillan 1986); (Ed.): Nigeriaís International Economic Relation; Dimensions of Dependence and Change (1988, rev. 2005; The Economic Diplomacy of the Nigerian State (1992, 2001); The Nigerian Navy and the South Atlantic (1995); (Ed.): New Horizons for Nigeria in World Affairs (2005). She has published extensively in scholarly journals and books and lectured on South-South and Latin Americaís foreign relations. Several publications appeared in Portuguese, Spanish, French and Croatian.s Address: Her Excellency Amb. Prof. Dr. Joy Ogwu, Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the United Nations, 828 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA. E-mail: . Website: . Stavros Dimas (Greece) has been European Commissioner for the Environment since November 2004 and from March 2004 – October 2004 he was European Commissioner for Employment and Social Affairs. Stavros C. Dimas has studied law and economics at the University of Athens in Greece and at New York University in the USA and has worked as a lawyer for the legal department of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) a branch of the World Bank (1970-1975) and Sullivan & Cromwell, a Wall Street law firm (1969-1970), and from 1975-1977 he was Deputy Governor of the Hellenic Industrial Development Bank. He has been elected to the Greek Parliament ten consecutive times since 1977-2004 representing the party of New Democracy and has held leading posts in Greek politics, among them as member of the negotiating committee for the accession of Greece to the EEC (1977); Deputy Minister of Economic Coordination (1977-1980); Minister of Trade (1980-1981); Parliamentary spokesperson for New Democracy (1985-1989); Minister of Agriculture (1989-1990); Minister of Industry, Energy and Technology (1990-1991); Secretary General of New Democracy (1995-2000); senior member of the Political Analysis Steering Committee of New Democracy (2000-2003); head of the New Democracy delegation, Council of Europe (2000-2004). Address: European Commissioner Stavros Dimas, European Commission, DG Environment, Cabinet of the Commissioner, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium. Email: . Website: .

Authors of Forewords and Preface Essays Luc Gnacadja (Benin) is the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). He is an architect by profession, having graduated from the African School of Architecture and Urbanism in Lome. He is also the successful CEO of a consultancy firm and an accomplished manager, honing his skills at the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government and the World Bank Training Institute. He was Minister of Environment, Housing and Urban Development of Benin (19992005). He gained first hand knowledge of the UNCCD process over several years as head of delegation to the Conference of the Parties to the UNCCD. He was also head of delegation to the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). His pronounced leadership qualities enabled him at the national level to initiate and build synergies between the Rio conventions, in conjunction with the National Commission on Sustainable Development. He has served as chairman of several international ministerial conferences, meetings and workshops related to the environment, urban and regional development, and sustainable development, including the African Ministers Conference on Environment and the Commission on Sustainable Development. In March 2003 Mr. Gnacadja was honoured with the “2002 Green Award” in Washington by the World Bank. Address: Mr. Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), UNCCD Secretariat, P.O. Box 260129, D-53153 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . Sálvano Briceño (Venezuela): Ph.D. (University of Paris II (Panthéon-Sorbonne), Paris, France). Sálvano Briceño was appointed the director of the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) in June 2001. His career spans over several decades and has focused on the management of environmental and sustainable development programmes at the United Nations, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the government of Venezuela. Prior to joining UN/ISDR, Mr. Briceño was the coordinator of the BIOTRADE and GHG Emissions Trading Initiatives of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Geneva (1999-2001). Before that, he was deputy executive secretary of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) secretariat (1996-1999), following several years as the coordinator of Intergovernmental and Institutional Support of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) where he was responsible for assisting the Executive Secretary with management, legal, information support, external relations and interagency relations of the organization (1991-1996). Further UN experience includes five years with UNEP's Caribbean Environment Programme at Kingston, Jamaica, where he collaborated closely with the Pan-Caribbean Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Programme (1987-1991). Earlier in his career, Mr. Briceño joined the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as the executive officer of IUCN’s Commission on Education, where he focused on environ-

Biographies of Contributors mental education programmes and coordinated a worldwide network of experts (1985-1987). During the 1980’s he worked as research associate at Harvard University’s Energy and Environment Policy Center, following an active career with the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources in Venezuela where he was Director General responsible for environmental education, professional development and international relations. Address: Dr. Sálvano Briceño, Director, Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Email: . Website: . Michael Zammit Cutajar (Malta) was executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1996-2002), after having set up and directed the secretariat supporting the UN’s climate change negotiations. He began his UN career in UNCTAD and returned in several senior capacities (1967-71, 1974-78, and 1986-91) and also worked for the UN Conference on the Human Environment and UNEP (1971-74)). Over the 1980’s, he joined the International Foundation for Development Alternatives and was a consultant to the UN Office for Emergency Operations in Africa and the Office for Special Political Affairs. He was born in Malta and educated there at St. Edward’s College and also at the University of London. Email: . Vandana Shiva (India) is a physicist, ecofeminist, environmental activist and author of over 300 papers in leading scientific and technical journals. She was trained as a physicist and received her Ph.D. in physics at the University of Western Ontario in 1978. She continued with interdisciplinary research in science, technology and environmental policy at the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore. In 1982, she founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology. She has fought for changes in the practice and paradigms of agriculture and food, intellectual property rights, biodiversity, biotechnology, bioethics and genetic engineering. She has assisted grassroots organizations of the green movement in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Ireland, Switzerland and Austria with campaigns against genetic engineering. She has served as an adviser to governments in India and abroad as well as to NGOs, including the International Forum on Globalisation, the Women's Environment & Development Organization and the Third World Network. She participated in the nonviolent Chipko movement during the 1970’s, and she established Navdanya, a movement for biodiversity conservation and farmers’ rights. She is a leader of the International Forum on Globalization, and of the alter-globalization movement. She has argued for traditional practices in her book Vedic Ecology. She received the Right Livelihood Award (Alternative Nobel Prize); the Global 500 Award of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) both in 1993, and the Earth Day International Award of the United Nations (UN). Additional awards include: Order of the Golden Ark, by his Royal Highness Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands

1509 (1993); VIDA SANA International Award, Spain; “Pride of the Doon” Award from Doon Citizen Council, Dehra Dun, India (1995); The Golden Plant Award, Denmark (1997); Alfonso Comin Award, Barcelona, Spain (1998), Commemorative Medal by Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand; Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic from the International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre at Rimini; Pellegrino Artusi Award, Italy (2000); HORIZON 3000 Award of Austria (2001). Among her major publications are: (co-authored with H.C. Sharatchandra, J. Banyopadhyay): Social Economic and Ecological Impact of Social Forestry in Kolar (Bangalore: Bangalore Indian Institute of Management, 1981); Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India (New Delhi: Zed Press, 1988); Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts Over Natural Resources in India (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1991); The Violence of the Green Revolution: Ecological degradation and political conflict in Punjab (New Delhi: Zed, 1992); (Ed.): Biodiversity: Social and Ecological Perspectives (London: Zed, 1992); (Ed.): Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections (New Delhi: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and Kali for Women, 1993); Monocultures of the Mind: Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Agriculture (New Delhi: Zed, 1993); (co-author with Maria Mies): Ecofeminism, (Halifax: Fernwood Publications, 1993); Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development Worldwide (London: Earthscan, 1994); (coauthor with: Ingunn Moser): Biopolitics (London: Zed, 1995); Biopiracy: the Plunder of Nature and Knowledge (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997); Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999); Tomorrow's Biodiversity (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000); Patents, Myths and Reality (New Delhi: Penguin India, 2001); Water Wars (Boston: South End Press, 2001); Vedic Ecology: Practical Wisdom for Surviving the 21st Century (Novato, CA: Mandala Publishing Group, 2002); Water Wars; Privatization, Pollution, and Profit (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2002); Globalization's New Wars: Seed, Water and Life Forms (New Delhi: Women Unlimited, 2005); Earth Democracy; Justice, Sustainability, and Peace (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2005). Address: Dr, Vandana Shiva, A-60, Hauz Khas, New Delhi110016, India; Tel.: 91-11-26535422, 26968077 E-mail: . Website: .

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Authors

Authors Emad Adly (Egypt), national coordinator of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Small Grants Programme of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Egypt since 1992. He obtained a bachelor degree from the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (1980) and a master degree from Paul Cezanne University, France (2006). He is chair and founder (in 1978) of the Arab Office for Youth and Environment (AOYE) in Cairo; general coordinator and founder (in 1990) of the Arab Network for Environment and Development (RAED) in Cairo; co-chair and founder (in 1996) of the Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE) in Athens; chairperson of the Steering Committee and founder (in 2001) of the Nile Basin Discourse (NBD) in Entebbe; board member of the Egyptian Water Partnership; member of the Governors’ Board of the Arab Water Council and member of other national, regional and international organizations, including as national coordinator of the Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment by UNDP (1993-2005). He is co-editor of: The Gulf of Aqaba” (Washington, DC: Environment Law Institute, 1991); he has supervised the Montada Al Biaa (Environment Forum) newsletter since 1989 and has been a co-editor of the Sustainable Mediterranean newsletter since 1997. He supervised many publications on environment and sustainable development in Egypt and in the Arab region. Address: Mr: Emad Adly, P.O.B 2 Magles Elshaab, Cairo, Egypt. Email: . Website: . Bastien Affeltranger (France) is a geographer in disaster mitigation with a focus on water-related hazards. As freelance consultant (1998-2005), he worked for municipalities, ministries (France; Quebec, Canada), river basin organizations (Mekong; Okavango) and U.N. agencies (UNESCO; WMO; WHO; UNU-EHS; UN/ISDR). Regions of activity include: Europe, Southern Africa and Southeast Asia. He has written papers on community-based risk reduction, with a focus on social evaluation of flood warning systems. He wrote a book on hydropolitics in the Mekong river basin. In 2005 he joined the national Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS, France) where he works on industrial and dam safety. Address: Dr. Bastien Affeltranger, INERIS, B.P. 2, Parc ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. Email: . Website: . Imtiaz Ahmed (Bangladesh) is a professor of international relations, University of Dhaka and also the executive director of the Centre for Alternatives. He is the editor of: Theoretical Perspectives: A Journal of Social Sciences and Arts and co-editor of Identity, Culture & Politics: An Afro-Asian Dialogue (Colombo – Dakar) and South Asian Refugee Watch (Colombo – Dhaka). Aside from numerous articles in national and international journals and several edited vol-

umes, his publications include: State and Foreign Policy: India’s Role in South Asia (New Delhi: Vikas, 1993); The Efficacy of the Nation State in South Asia: A Post-nationalist Critique (Colombo: ICES, 1998); The Construction of Diaspora: South Asians Living in Japan (Dhaka: UPL, 2000); (Ed.): Women, Bangladesh and International Security: Methods, Discourses and Policies (Dhaka: UPL, 2004); Futures Beyond Nationalism; (guest editor), Special issue of Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, 37,9 (November 2005); (Ed.): Understanding Terrorism in South Asia: Beyond Statist Discourses (New Delhi: Manohar Publishers – Colombo: Regional Centre for Strategic Studies, 2006). Address: Prof. Dr. Imtiaz Ahmed, House 13B, Helal Kutir, Road 117, Apt. 4B, Gulshan, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. Email: . Website: . Tarek A. Ahmed (Egypt) is a lead specialist of the project planning and management component, under the “Water Resources Planning and Management Project” of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) team in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He was associate professor at the National Water Research Center, Egypt, specializing in water distribution and management where he was responsible for managing the Nile Basin portfolio, under the supervision of the Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation of Egypt. Prior to the 3rd World Water Forum in Kyoto, Japan, he worked for the World Water Council in Marseilles, France, preparing and editing the main forum report ‘World Water Actions’. During a one-year post-doctoral programme at WEDC, Loughborough University, UK, he probed the responsibility of governments having to make decisions contradicting environmental and/or social criteria. In Egypt, he participated in a water policy reform programme studying the potential for transferring water management to stakeholders. He worked for consultancies where he developed work plans for water supply of the Republic of Sao Tomé e Principe, and coordinated multi-sectoral development efforts for the Ké-Macina area, Republic of Mali. He authored and co-authored more than ten research papers on various disciplines of water management. He studied state administration at: l’Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA) at Strasbourg, France. He graduated as a civil engineer from Cairo University, and obtained MSc and PhD degrees from Southampton University, UK in civil, environmental and irrigation engineering. Address: Dr Tarek A. Ahmed, Water Resources Planning & Management Project, Nile Basin Initiative, P.O.Box 60173, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: . Website:
Biographies of Contributors has also been working on ancient land use and ceramic technology, i.e. on indigenous technologies. He is also soil consultant of TEMA (The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestation and the Protection of Natural Habitats). His publications include: “Classification Systems, Indigenous”, in: Encyclopedia of Soil Science (New York: Marcel Dekker 2004): 254-257; “The Indigenous Technical Knowledge of Anatolia and GIS”, in: Journal of the Chamber of Turkish Architecture (April 2003): 28-33; “Differentiating the natural and man-made terraces of Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, utilizing earth science methods”, in: Journal Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management (February 2008): 83-93. His present research focuses on indigenous traditional knowledge for sustainable natural resource management. Address: Assistant Prof. Erhan Akça, Adiyaman University, Department of Technical Programs, 02400, Adiyaman, Turkey. Email: . Website: . Ali Ghazi (Algeria): engineer in agronomy from the National Institute Agronomique El Harrach in Algiers (1977). Since 1996 he has been Central Inspector of Environment in the Ministry of Town and Country Planning, Environment and Tourism; the local correspondent of FAO in the evaluation of worldwide forests; and since 2005 he is the focal point of the UNEP (FEM/PNUE) project on the selfassessment of national capacities for implementing the international conventions on biological diversity, combating desertification and climate change. He is a member of the council of the Algerian Society of Water. He previously held these positions: as director of fauna, flora and protected areas in the National Agency for Nature (ANN, 19911996); as sub-manager for reforestation and nursery gardens in the Ministry of Water, Environment and Forests (19851991); as national coordinator of a regional project by UNEP (PNUD/RAB) on the introduction of the Jojoba (1987-1990); as sub-manager for reforestation within the State Secretariat on Forests (1983-1985) and chief officer for reforestation (1980-1983). Among his publications (in French and Arabic) are: The choice of sorts of trees for the reforestation of the arid and semiarid area, thesis in engineering (Algiers: INA 1977); “The emphasis on saline soil in Algeria”, in: Technical Bulletin I.N.R.F. (Algiers: National Institute of Forest Research, 1985); Results of tests on the introduction of the Jojoba in Algeria (Algiers: Ministry of Water and Mines, 1988); Conception and use of the frame of reference on a large scale of the village of Murviel les Montpellier by remote sensing (Montpellier: INRA, 1991); The pistachios of the Atlas in a project on Algeria’s Northen green belt [in Arabic] (Tunis, 1991); Soil and biological means in Algeria by 2010 (Algiers: National Institute of Global and Strategy Studies (INESG) 1997); Genetic means: legislative and regulatory aspects (U.I.C.N, 1996); Biodiversity in Algeria: strategic importance (1999); For an integrated policy of development of the coastal region (Algiers: INESG, February 2006); “Problematique de la Desertification en Algerie: Etat et Mesure de Lutte pour la Protection des

1511 Ressources Naturelles”, in: Kepner, William; Rubio, José L.; Mouat, David; Pedrazzini, Fausto (Eds.): Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue (Dordrecht: Springer, 2006): 169-186. Address: M. Ali Ghazi, Ministère de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de l’Environnement et du Tourisme, Rue des Quatre canons, Alger, 16000, Algeria. Email: . Website: . Saleem H. Ali (Pakistan, United States) is associate dean for graduate education and associate professor of environmental planning at the University of Vermont’s Rubenstein School of Natural Resources, and on the adjunct faculty of Brown University’s Watson Institute for International Studies. His research has focused on the causes and consequences of environmental conflicts and on how ecological factors can promote peace. He is also a senior fellow at the United Nations mandated University for Peace (Costa Rica). Much of his empirical research has focused on environmental conflicts in the mineral sector. In September 2007, he was chosen as one of eight ‘revolutionary minds’ by Seed magazine. His publications include: (Ed.): Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007); Mining, the Environment and Indigenous Development Conflicts (Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press, 2004). He is a regular columnist for Pakistan’s Daily Times and has contributed op-ed pieces for The International Herald Tribune and The Boston Globe. He received his doctorate in environmental planning from MIT, a master in environmental studies from Yale University and a bachelor degree in chemistry from Tufts University. Address: Prof. Dr. Saleem H. Ali, University of Vermont, 153 S. Prospect St., Burlington, VT 05401, USA. Email: . Website: . Professor J. A. [Tony] Allan is a professor of geography in King’s College in the University of London. He gained a first degree at Durham University (1958) and his PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London (1971). His research focuses on water resources in water scarce regions. He coined the concept of ‘virtual water’ to explain the absence of armed conflict over water resources in the extremely water scarce Middle East and North Africa. He also promotes the importance of other political economy explanations and emphasizes the economic and political processes beyond the watershed that explain why economies can achieve water security. He also addresses the social and political contexts which influence and usually determine water use and policy, and has deployed a wide range of environmental, economic, social and political theory that takes into account the underlying fundamentals of water in the hydrological cycle and the impact of engineering interventions. The difficulties of scientists and professionals in gaining a place for their ‘knowledge’ in water policy discourses is his major current research theme. A major research focus is global water resource and the extent to which global resources will be sufficient to meet the needs of future populations. The rich diversity of the theorization

1512 is a feature of the international contribution of the Water Issues Research Group he founded at SOAS. His books include: (with Paul Howell): The Nile: Sharing a scarce resource (Cambridge: CUP, 1995); Water and peace in the Middle East: Negotiating resources in the Jordan Basin (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996); The water question in the Middle East: the second best works (London: I.B. Tauris, 2000). In 2008 he was awarded the Stockholm Water Prize for contributions to water science and particularly to the political economy of water. Address: Professor J A Allan, Room M70, Geography Department, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2, UK, and: SOAS, Thornhaugh Street, London WC1H 0XG, UK. Email: . Website: . Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandu (Sri Lanka) holds a MSc. in agricultural economics from the School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, UK, and a MSc. in agronomy from the Peoples Friendship University, Moscow, USSR. She has authored: Defeating Disasters; Ideas for Action (1999), co-authored (with M. Wickramasinghe): Gender Dimensions in Disaster Management – a Guide for South Asia (2004), which was translated into four South Asian languages: Hindi, Urdu, Tamil and Sinhalan; Disaster Communication – a Resource Kit for Media (1992); and (with A. Bhatti): Livelihood Centred Approach to Disaster Management – a Policy Framework for South Asia (2005); and co-edited (with P. Sahni): Disaster Risk Reduction in South Asia (2003), and authored numerous articles on the theme of political economy of development and disasters, including: “Sex, Gender and Gender Relations in Disasters”, in: Enarson, E.; Chakrabarti, D. (Eds.): Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives (forthcoming). She served as the national gender advisor and project manager for micro enterprise recovery in the Tsunami Recovery Unit, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sri Lanka (2005-2006). Before she was the programme manager, disaster mitigation, with ITDG South Asia (1997- 2005), and research and training officer at the Agrarian Research and Training Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka ( 1982-1992). She is the chairperson of Duryog Nivaran, a South Asia network for disaster mitigation. She was awarded the Mary Fran Myers Award in 2004, for “advancing women’s careers in emergency management and the academy and for promoting gendered disaster research”, by the Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) and the Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado, USA. She is currently programme officer for South Asia at the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR). Address: Ms. Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandu, UN/ISDR, International Environment House II, 7-9 Chemin de Balexert, CH 1219, Chatelaine, Geneva, Switzerland. Email: ,. Website: . Yacob Arsano (Ethiopia), assistant professor of political science and international relations at Addis Ababa Universi-

Authors ty. He received a PhD from University of Zürich in political science, specializing in hydropolitics; two MA degrees from Ohio University, in political science and in international affairs, and a BA in government affairs from Addis Ababa University. He has published articles and co-authored books on hydropolitics, conflict handling and comparative politics. His recent book (2007) is: Ethiopia and the Nile: Dilemmas of National and Regional Hydropolitics. He was a research fellow with the University of Bergen, Norway (1999-2000, 2007), with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (2000-2004), and with the National Center for Competence in Research - North-South, University of Bern (2004-to date). He was a research associate of the Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of Africa (1995-96). He served as regional vice secretary general of the World Herders Council (1997-2000). He is a founding member of Ethiopian Water Resources Association, founding member of Ethiopian Political Science Association and a member of several professional associations, including: Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Ethiopian Educational Researchers Association, International Water History Association and International Studies Association. He is chairman of Regional Scientific Advisory Board for North-South Research in the Horn of Africa and vice chairman for National Water Research and Development of Ethiopia. He received the 2005 Peter-Becker Junior Prize for peace and conflict research from the Philipps University of Marburg, Germany, with Simon Mason of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH). He has taught courses on hydropolitics in Northeastern Africa and the Middle East, politics in the Horn of Africa, comparative politics and African political systems. Currently he is dean of the College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Address: Prof. Dr. Yacob Arsano, 1176, College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: or . Peter Ashton (South Africa): PhD (aquatic ecology, Rhodes University, South Africa), is a principal scientist and divisional fellow specializing in integrated water resources management issues at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). He is also an honorary professor of water resources management at Pretoria University and is one of the ten founding members of the Universities Partnership for Transboundary Waters. He has worked on a variety of ecological and water resources research and consultancy projects in several African countries. His current research interests focus on the inclusion of ecological knowledge and good governance processes in decision-making, with special reference to the management of transboundary rivers in Africa. Major publications include: “Avoiding Conflicts Over Africa’s Water Resources”, in: Ambio, 31,3 (2002): 236-242; (co-author with V. Ramasar): “Water and HIV/AIDS: Some Strategic Considerations for Southern Africa”, in: Turton, Anthony; Henwood, Roland (Eds.): Hydropolitics in the Developing World: A Southern African Perspective (Pretoria: African Water Issues Research Unit, 2002): 217-235; “Water and Development: A Southern African Perspective”, in: Managing Water Resources Past and

Biographies of Contributors Present – The 2002 Linacre Lectures (Oxford University Press, 2004): 149-172; (co-author with M.J. Neal): “An Overview of Key Strategic Issues in the Okavango River Basin” in: Turton, Anthony; Ashton, Peter; Cloete, Eugene (Eds): Transboundary Rivers, Sovereignty and Development: Hydropolitical Drivers in the Okavango River Basin (Geneva: Green Cross International and Pretoria: African Water Issues Research Unit, 2003): 31-63. He has also contributed many chapters to books. Address: Dr Peter Ashton, Room S-255, Building 33, Environmentek, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, Republic of South Africa. Email: [email protected] Website: . Mustafa Aydin (Turkey): professor of international relations at the TOBB – University of Economics and Technology; as well as at the National Security Academy, Ankara. He was a research fellow at the Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan (1998); a UNESCO fellow at the Richardson Institute for Peace Studies, Lancaster University, UK (1999); a Fulbright Scholar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (2002); an Alexander S. Onassis Fellow at the University of Athens (2003); and a research fellow at the EU Institute for Security Studies, Paris (2003). Among others, he is the author of: Ten Years After: Turkey’s Gulf Policy Revisited (2002); Turkish Foreign Policy; Framework and Analysis (2004); (co-editor with K. Ifantis): Greek-Turkish Relations in the 21st Century: Escaping from the Security Dilemma in the Aegean (2002); (co-editor with C. Erhan): Turkish-American Relations; 200 Years of Divergence and Convergence (2002); (co-editor with T. Y. Ismael): Turkey’s Foreign Policy in the 21st Century: A Changing Role in World Politics; (co-editor with K. Ifantis): International Security Today: Understanding Change and Debating Strategy (2006); (Ed.): Central Asia in Global Politics (in Turkish, 2004); Turkey’s Eurasian Adventure (in Turkish, 2008). Address: Prof. Dr. Mustafa Aydin, TOBB-Economics and Technology University, Sogutozu Caddesi, No 43, Sogutozu, 06560, Ankara, Turkey. E-Mail: . Jon Barnett (Australia) is an Australian Research Council Fellow, Department of Resource Management and Geography, University of Melbourne. He has a PhD in resource management and environmental science from the Australian National University. Prior to joining Melbourne University he was a New Zealand Science and Technology Postdoctoral Fellow, Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Canterbury. He is a geographer whose research concerns theoretical and applied problems in development and environment, development and security, and environment and security. He has conducted research on the human dimensions of climate change in the Pacific Islands, including likely impacts, policy responses, and regional and global climate politics. In 2003 he led the first research project investigating the possible impacts of climate change in Timor Leste. He is currently conducting re-

1513 search on environmental security and climate change in the Pacific Islands, and on water resource problems in China. He has written one book and fifty peer-reviewed academic papers published in international books and journals. A selection of these include: “Peace and Development: Towards a New Synthesis”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 45; (co-author with Grant Walton): “The Ambiguities of Environmental Degradation and Violence: The Case of the Tolukuma Gold Mine”, in: Society and Natural Resources 21; “The Geopolitics of Climate Change”, in: Geography Compass, 1; (co-author with Neil Adger): “Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict”, in: Political Geography 26; “Adapting to Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: The Problem of Uncertainty”, in: World Development, 29; “Security and Climate Change”, in: Global Environmental Change 13; (co-author with Neil Adger): “Climate Dangers and Atoll Countries”, in: Climatic Change, 61; The Meaning of Environmental Security (London: Zed). Address: Dr. Jon Barnett, Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne 3010, Victoria, Australia. Email: . Website: . Navnita Chadha Behera (India), professor at the Nelson Mandela Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia. See: Biographies of editors. Sophia Benz (Germany): doctoral student at the Institute of Political Science, Department of International Relations, Peace and Conflict Research, University of Tübingen, Germany and visiting research scholar at the University of California at Berkeley, Department of International and Area Studies, Peace and Conflict Studies (2007-2009). Her current work focuses on the duration of civil wars and the ‘new wars’ hypothesis. In 2005 she obtained a masters degree in politics and management from the Faculty of Public Policy and Management, Konstanz University, Germany. In 2001 and 2002/2003 she worked with the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships in New York on child health, women and population issues and with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in Vienna on private sector fundraising. An earlier and extended version of this chapter was submitted to the University of Konstanz, Department of Public Policy and Management in partial fulfilment for the requirements of the MA degree in politics and management (see at: ). Papers on the linkage between HIV/AIDS and conflict have been presented at the Fifth Pan-European International Relations Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 9-11 September 2004, at the 11th EADI General Conference, Bonn, Germany, 21-24 September 2005 and at the DVPW Conference, Mannheim, Germany, 6-7 October 2005. Her first book analyses: The Killing of the Fittest: A Quantitative Analysis of HIV/AIDS and Conflict (Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag, 2008). Address: Ms. Sophia Benz, Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Abteilung Internationale Beziehungen – Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Zimmer 26, Melanchthonstrasse 36, 72072 Tübingen, Germany.

1514 Email: . Website: . Christine Bichsel (Switzerland) is a research fellow at the Department of Geography, University of Berne, Switzerland. She holds a PhD degree in geography from the University of Berne (2006). For her master’s thesis she spent four months conducting field research in Solukhumbu, Nepal. After completion of her degree in geography, she continued her Chinese language training at the Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (2000–2001). In 2002, she began her PhD studies with the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research (NCCR) North–South programme and joined swisspeace / Swiss Peace Foundation, Berne, Switzerland as a doctoral student. For her PhD thesis, she conducted field research totalling 14 months in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (2002, 2003, 2004, 2005). In 2007, she worked in Kyrgyzstan as a consultant for the German Technical Assistance (GTZ). As of March 2008, she is a visiting researcher at the Department of Geography, National University of Singapore. Her publications include: “In Search of Harmony: Repairing Infrastructure and Social Relations in the Ferghana Valley”, in: Central Asian Survey, 24,1; Conflict Transformation in Central Asia: Irrigation Disputes in the Ferghana Valley (London: Routledge, 2008). Address: Dr. Christine Bichsel, Department of Geography, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. E-Mail: . Website: . Jörn Birkmann (Germany) is academic officer and head of the Vulnerability Assessment Section at the United Nations University - Institute for Human Security and Environment (UNU-EHS). He holds a PhD in spatial planning from Dortmund University as well as a licence as an urban planner. He has broad working experience in the field of vulnerability, sustainable development and environmental assessment, being specialized in the area of the development of assessment methodologies and indicators to estimate and evaluate different socio-economic trends at the sub-national, local and household scale. His work experience also encompasses research activities and lectures around the globe, for example in London and Mexico. Besides research and training activities at UNU-EHS he also teaches at the Institute for Geography, University of Bonn. His current field of research is on the development of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to assess vulnerability. His latest edited book is: Measuring vulnerability to hazards of natural origin. Towards disaster resilient societies (Tokyo – New York: United Nations University Press, 2006). Address: Dr. Jörn Birkmann, UN Campus, Hermann-Ehlers Str. 10, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . David Black (Canada) is director of the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies and professor of political science and international development studies at Dalhousie University. His

Authors current research interests focus primarily on Canada and Sub-Saharan Africa, with emphases on human security, development assistance, multilateral diplomacy and extractive industry investment. His published work has also addressed human rights in Canadian and South African foreign policies, the role of post-apartheid South Africa in Africa, and on sport and world politics. Among his recent publications are an edited section of the: Canadian Journal of Development Studies (XXVIII, 2007) on: “Canadian Aid Policy in the new Millennium: Paradoxes and Tensions”; (co-ed. with Sandra MacLean and Timothy Shaw): A Decade of Human Security: Global Governance and New Multilateralisms (Ashgate 2006); (co-ed. with Janis van der Westhuizen): Special Issue of: Third World Quarterly (25, 2004) on “Global Games”. He is currently the president of the International Studies Association – Canada Section, a member of the Executive Council of the Canadian Consortium on Human Security (CCHS), and a member of the Editorial Board of the Canadian Foreign Policy journal. Address: Prof. Dr. David Black, Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4H6, Canada. Email: . Website: . Wolf Dieter Blümel (Germany): Dr. rer. nat. (Stuttgart University), professor of physical geography, Faculty of Geoand Bio-Sciences, University of Stuttgart. He mainly works on geomorphology, geoecology and paleoclimatology of drylands/deserts and polar regions. He was coordinator and leader of the interdisciplinary Geoscientific Spitsbergen Expedition (SPE 1989-1992) and was member in two longerlasting Antarctic research projects. His research activities in drylands focussed dominantly on Southwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Israel, SE-Spain, Mexico and the southwest of the USA. Additional focuses are environmental problems, geoarchaeology and landscape history of Central Europe. Most of his articles have been published in different national and international journals like: Geomorphology, Zeitschrift für of Geomorphologie, Palaeo, Catena, Die Erde, Geographische Rundschau, Nova Acta Leopoldina, Erdkunde, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences a.o. He is author of: Physische Geographie der Polargebiete (Stuttgart: Teubner, 1999); (co-author of): Der Süden Deutschlands – Eine Zeitreise vom Erdmittelalter zur Gegenwart (Heidelberg: Elsevier, 2007) and of other books. He edited several specific volumes of scientific journals. He is on the editorial board of the journal: Die Erde and Stuttgarter Geographische Studien. He was appointed as member of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (since July 2008: National Academy of Science) and belongs to the Commission for Geomorphology of the Bavarian Academy of Science. He works as a referee for the German Science Foundation (DFG), the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and as an evaluator of academic institutions and research projects. For decades he has been a member of several scientific associations like: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Polarforschung, Deuqua or Deutsche Bodenkundliche Gesellschaft.

Biographies of Contributors Address: Prof. Dr. Wolf Dieter Blümel, Institut für Geographie, Universität Stuttgart, Azenbergstrasse 12, D-70174 Stuttgart, Germany. Email: . Website: . Janos J. Bogardi (Hungary, Germany) graduated in civil engineering with special emphasis on water resources and agricultural water resources development at the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary. After obtaining a post graduate diploma on hydrology from the University of Padua, Italy, he earned his PhD in civil engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. He was honoured to receive the title of ‘Doctor Honoris Causa’ from the Agricultural University of Warsaw, Poland, the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary and the State University for Architecture and Civil Engineering, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation. After his activities as assistant professor at the Institute for Water Resources Management of the Technical University of Budapest, his professional activities took him as scientific staff member to the Federal Institute for Hydraulic Engineering in Karlsruhe, and the University of Karlsruhe, respectively. He alternated these posts with expert assignments for German consulting engineers in Darmstadt and Essen. In the following three years he was then seconded by the German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) to the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Bangkok, Thailand. Subsequently he became professor for hydraulics and general hydrology at the Agricultural University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, for almost eight years. His trajectory at the United Nations started at the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, France, as senior programme specialist and then chief of the Section on Sustainable Water Resources and Management. In 2003 he was appointed director of the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) in Bonn. In 2007 he was assigned Vice-Rector a.i. of United Nations University (UNU) in Europe. He has authored, co-authored, and edited more than 170 publications including books, journal papers, research reports, lecture notes, as well as numerous articles for the media. Address: Prof. Dr. Janos J. Bogardi, UN Campus, Hermann-Ehlers Str. 10, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . Hans-Georg Bohle (Germany): Ph.D. (Göttingen University), professor of geography, Geography Department, University of Bonn. He is chair of development geography at the Geography Department of Bonn University. At UNUEHS he is a Munich Re Foundation Chair on Social Vulnerability. His academic work is directed on issues of vulnerability, risk and human security, with special emphasis on food, water and health. His regional focus is on South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal Bangladesh, Sri Lanka). He serves in the Steering Committee of GECHS (Global Environmental Change and Human Security) and in the International Scientific Advisory Board of GECAFS (Global Environmental Change and Food Systems). He is a member of

1515 the European Academy of Science and of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Address: Prof. Dr. Hans-Georg Bohle, Geography Department, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 166, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . Maëlis Borghese (France), a political scientist who works as a regional coordinator for Southern Africa with Agence Française de Développement (AFD), Paris, France. She has graduated from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and from the Free University of Berlin (Dipl.-Pol.) before joining AFD. She has specialized in international relations, development economics and policy with a particular focus on natural resources management and transboundary water cooperation. From June 2005 to June 2007 she was responsible for the management of water supply projects as well as for the follow-up of general budget support programmes at the AFD office in Ghana. Since August 2007, she works for the Africa Department of AFD’s Headquarters in Paris, where she is responsible for the activities in Southern Africa. Her publications include: (with Jonathan Lautze and Mark Giordano): “Driving forces behind African transboundary water law: internal, external, and implications”, Paper for the International Workshop on African Water Laws of the International Water Management Institute, Johannesburg, 26-28 January 2005; (with Hélène Nieul, Marion Weinspach, Blandine Pons and Mathilde Renard): “Témoignage, Une génération en quête d’un nouvel engagement”, in: Henri Rouillé d’Orfeuil (Ed.): Les ONG dans la tempête mondiale (Paris: Editions Charles Léopold Mayer, 2004): 85-95. Address: Ms. Maëlis Borghese, 27 rue de la Cour des Noues, 75020 Paris, France. Email: . Rajeb Boulharouf (Algeria), a graduate of the Ecole Nationale D’Administration (ENA) with a specialization in diplomacy, was at the time of this article submission external relations and public information coordinator of the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). He was the spokesperson of the Secretariat in Bonn, Germany. He worked on multilateral issues covering scientific and environmental matters at the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and with the Permanent Mission of Algeria in New York. He joined the UNCED secretariat in the 1990’s where he was responsible for the development of chapter 12 of ‘Agenda 21’. In his past position at the UNCCD secretariat, he overlooked emerging issues and had over the last years concentrated on the social, economic and security ‘risks’ of desertification. He was directly responsible for the organization of the two UNCCD sponsored events on desertification and migrations in Almeria, Spain in 1994 and 2006. He is now in charge of the newly established Conference Services Unit of UNCCD. Other publications: Teachers’ Kit on Desertification (Paris: UNESCO, 2001); Desert Nights. Tales From

1516 the Desert. International Film Festival on Desertification (Rome: Tipographia Ostiense, 2006). Address: Mr. Rajeb Boulharouf, UN Campus, HermanEhlers-Strasse 10, D-53113 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), Privatdozent (adj. prof.) at the Faculty of Political Science and Social Sciences, Free University of Berlin, since 1987 chairman of Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS). See: Biographies of editors. Sálvano Briceño (Venezuela), director of the Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ ISDR) since June 2001. See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. Vicken Cheterian (Switzerland), head of research programmes at CIMERA, a Geneva based consultancy. He leads policy related studies on media and development, causes of conflicts, conflict resolution, and democratization processes. He studied the causes of conflicts, state collapse and the rise of nationalism in the Caucasus, and holds a Ph.D. in history and politics of international relations from the Graduate Institute of International Studies, University of Geneva. Before he worked as a journalist for major European papers such as Le Monde Diplomatique, and Neue Zürcher Zeitung reporting on conflicts and political developments from the Middle East, Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia, Ukraine, and Eastern Europe. Mandated by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, he led a three year long project for confidence building between journalists and political analysts in the Caucasus (1997-2000), and later mandated by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation he set-up the Caucasus Media Institute, a media training and research centre in Yerevan (2002-2004). He worked as a consultant for the Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC) launched by UNEP, UNDP, OSCE and NATO co-authoring two EnvSec reports on the South Caucasus and Eastern Europe. Among his publications are: Dialectics of Ethnic Conflicts and Oil Politics in the Caucasus (Geneva, 1997); Little Wars and a Great Game, Local Conflicts and International Competition in the Caucasus (Bern, 2001); (co-author with Nina Iskandaryan): Post-Soviet Media: From Propaganda to Journalism [in Russian] (Yerevan, 2006); War and Peace in the Caucasus, Trouble on Russia’s Frontier (London: Hurst, 2008). Address: Dr. Vicken Cheterian, CIMERA, rue de Vuache 1, Box 1242, 1211 Geneva 1, Switzerland. Email: Website: . Béchir Chourou (Tunisia), professor of international relations at the University of Tunis-Carthage in Tunisia. See: Biographies of editors. Mohammed Dajani Daoudi (Palestine), Ph.D. (1981), Ph.D (1984), is a professor of political science and founding director, American Studies Institute, Al-Quds University. He is a Jerusalem-born scholar and peace activist with two doc-

Authors torate degrees in government (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 1981; University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1984). He is founding director of the Wasatia moderate Islamic Initiative - Palestine; chairman, Board of Directors, House of Water and Environment; chairman, Board of Directors/IPCRI; member, Board of Directors, YMCA-West Jerusalem; consultant, Seeds of Peace; founding director, Jerusalem Studies and Research Institute and ISBN Palestine Agency, Al-Bireh, Palestine. He worked as founding director of the Palestinian Public Administration National Institute; senior consultant on public administration of the Palestinian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Between mid-1998 and 2004 he was director of the Technical Assistance and Training Department, Palestinian Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR), in charge of implementing a 23-million US$ World Bank Technical Assistance Trust Fund. Between 1995 and 1997 he was chief technical advisor, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People, providing training and consultancy services to the Palestinian Authority on public administration development and institution building. Between 1990 and 1995, he founded and acted as chairman of the Department of Political Science and Diplomacy, Applied Science University, Amman, Jordan. He frequently participates in local, regional and international conferences, and is author and coauthor of numerous academic books and articles in English and Arabic. Address: Prof. Dr. Mohammed Dajani Daoudi, P. O. Box 14085, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, Israel. Email: and: . Website: ; and: . Simon Dalby (Canada), Ph.D. (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver), professor of geography, environmental studies and political economy, Carleton University, Ottawa. His research work concerns critical geopolitics, environmental security and political ecology and increasingly how all these matters link up with contemporary discussions of empire, and modes of urban consumption in the metropoles of the global economy. His articles have appeared in diverse scholarly journals including: Alternatives, Antipode, Australian Journal of International Affairs, Geopolitics, Global Environmental Politics, Intelligence and National Security, Political Geography, Society and Space and Studies in Political Economy. He is author of: Creating the Second Cold War (London – New York: Pinter and Guilford, 1990) and Environmental Security (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002). He is co-editor of: Rethinking Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 1998) and of: The Geopolitics Reader (London: Routledge 11998, 22006; Security and Environmental Change (Oxford: Polity, 2009, forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. Simon Dalby, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S5B6 Canada. Email: . Website: .

Biographies of Contributors Philippe De Lombaerde (Belgium) has been a research fellow at the United Nations University - Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS) in Bruges since August 2002. Previously he worked as an associate professor of international economics at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá), as a researcher and lecturer at the University of Antwerp and as a researcher at the National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) (Bangkok). He has also been a visiting professor at the University for Peace, the University of Bonn and the Universidad de Los Andes. His current research interests include regional economic integration, monitoring tools and indicators, Latin American regionalism, and cross-border micro-regions. He recently (co-edited): Integración asimétrica y convergencia económica en las Américas (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2002); Assessment and Measurement of Regional Integration (London: Routledge, 2006); Multilateralism, Regionalism and Bilateralism in Trade and Investment. 2006 World Report on Regional Integration (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007); Governing Regional Integration for Development. Monitoring Experiences, Methods and Prospects (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008); Regionalisation and Global Governance: The Taming of Globalisation? (London: Routledge, 2008); Del regionalismo latinoamericano a la integración interregional (Madrid: Siglo XXI, 2008). He has published articles in: International Review of Economics and Business; Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; Journal of Policy Modeling; Economia Internazionale; The Journal of World Investment and Trade; Global Economic Review and in other journals. Address: Dr. Philippe De Lombaerde, UNU-CRIS; Potterierei, 72, 8000 Brugge, Belgium. E-mail: . Website: . Tobias Debiel (Germany) is chair in international relations and development policy, Institute of Political Science and director, Institute for Development and Peace (INEF), University of Duisburg-Essen. Before he moved to INEF, he worked from February 2003 to July 2004 as senior researcher and head of a research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, including two terms as interim professor of political and cultural change. His areas of research include: state failure and violent conflict as challenges for development, foreign and security policy; good governance and post-conflict peacebuilding in sub-Saharan Africa; human security and global governance. Selected Publications: (co-ed. with Axel Klein): Fragile Peace. State Failure, Violence and Development in Crisis Regions (London: ZED Books, 2002); “Strengthening the UN: Futile Attempt or Feasible Alternative?”, in: C. Uday Bhaskar/K. Santhanam/Uttam K. Sinha/Tasneem Meenai (Eds.): United Nations, Multilateralism and International Security (New Delhi: Shipra Publications 2005): 574-594; (co-ed. with Sascha Werthes): Human Security on Foreign Policy Agendas. Changes, Concepts and Cases. INEF-Report 80 (Duisburg: INEF, 2006); (co-ed. with Dirk Messner and Franz Nuscheler): Global Trends 2007. Vulnerability and Human Security in the 21st Century (Bonn: Development and Peace Foundation 2006).

1517 Address: Prof. Dr. Tobias Debiel, Institute for Development and Peace (INEF), Geibelstr. 41, D-47057 Duisburg, Germany. E-Mail: . Website: . Tom Deligiannis (Canada) is completing his Ph.D. in the Department of Political Science, University of Toronto, under the supervision of Thomas Homer-Dixon. His dissertation is building on the tradition of environmental conflict research at the University of Toronto through detailed field work in Peru, exploring the impacts of human-induced environmental and demographic change in Chuschi and Quispillacta, two communities in south-central Ayacucho, in Peru’s southern highlands. From 2005-2007, he was resident assistant professor in the Department of Environment, Peace and Security, at the UN mandated University for Peace, in Costa Rica. He was an adjunct professor at the UPEACE in the MA program on Environmental Security and Peace. He also teaches a module on environmental security as part of the University of Geneva/UNEP’s short course on environmental diplomacy. In 2006-2007, he was project director of UPEACE’s Climate Change and Adaptation project. Address: Mr. Tom Deligiannis, 23 Harrison Ave., Guelph, ON, N1H 5J9, Canada. Email: . Stavros Dimas (Greece) has been European Commissioner for the Environment since November 2004. See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. Fred Eboko (France) is a political scientist and sociologist. He obtained a Ph.D. from Université Montesquieu in Bordeaux (France) in 2002. He is senior research fellow at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD, formely ORSTOM, France), and has been working on public policy and youth in the fight against AIDS in Africa for more than a decade. He was on a IRD posting (2005-2008) to the Paul Ango Ela Foundation for geopolitics in Central Africa (FPAE) in Yaoundé, Cameroon. He is associate researcher at the Centre d’Etude d’Afrique Noire (CEAN) of the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Bordeaux. He has published over 30 articles on questions related to AIDS in Africa, among them: “Pouvoirs et maladie en Afrique: des maladies qui tuent aux maladies qui ‘sauvent’?”, in : Enjeux. Bulletin d’Analyses Géopolitiques pour l’Afrique Centrale (Yaoundé) No. 31 (April-June 2007): 7-8; “Patterns of Mobilization. Political Culture in the Fight Against AIDS. A Comparative Approach”, in: Amy Patterson (Ed.): The African States and the AIDS Crisis (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005): 37-58; “Law against morality? Access to anti-AIDS drugs in Africa”, in: International Social Science Journal, No. 186 (Paris: Unesco, 2005): 713-722 ; “Politique publique et sida en Afrique. De l’anthropologie à la science politique”, in: Cahiers d’études africaines, XLV, 178 (2004): 351-387; “De l’intime au politique. Le sida en Afrique, un objet en mouvement”, in: Vidal, L. (Ed.): “Les objets de la santé”, in: Autrepart, 29 (2004): 117-33.

1518 Address: Dr. Fred Eboko, UMR 912, IRD-INSERM-Université de la Méditerranée, SE4S, Observatoire Régional de la Santé, 23 rue Stanislas Torrents, 13006 Marseille, France. E-mail: and . Mersie Ejigu (Ethiopia), currently president and chief executive officer of the Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES) and senior fellow at the Foundation for Environmental Security & Sustainability (FESS). He is also visiting professor at the University for Peace, Department of Environmental Security and Peace, a former Assistant Director General for Programmes and Policy of IUCN – The World Conservation Union, He has served as Minister of Planning and Development of Ethiopia (1982-1991) and Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources (1991). He has been a consultant for UNDP, UNDESA, IMF, The World Bank and UNICEF in areas of strategic planning, finance and development policy, environmental policy, and programme formulation and evaluation. He pursued his undergraduate studies in agricultural economics at the Alemaya College of Agriculture, and graduate studies in economics at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. He initiated, designed and guided the project to study the link between environmental security and armed conflict in Burundi, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Uganda funded by the European Union. Among his most recent most relevant publications are: “Land, Forest, Insecurity and Conflict”, in: The International Forestry Review, Special Issue on Africa, 8,1 (2006): 72-77; “Grasping the Nettle”, in: Our Planet, The magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 16,3 (November 2005): 20-21, special issue on: “Energy, Finance and Climate Change”; “L’Afrique a besoin d’énergies renouvelables”, Point de vue, in: Le Monde, 22 June 2005; “Poverty, Deforestation, Environmental Insecurity, and Conflict in the Horn of Africa and Great Lakes Countries”, in: Forests and Conflicts, European Tropical Forest Research Network, No. 43-44 (Winter 2004-2005); Post Conflict Liberia: Environmental Security as a Strategy for Sustainable Peace and Development, FESS Working Paper, 2006. Address: Mr. Mersie Ejigu, 9015 Edgepark Rd, Vienna, VA 22182, USA. Email: . Website: . Fulya Ereker (Turkey), research assistant and PhD candidate at the Department of International Relations at Ankara University. She holds a BA in international relations from the Black Sea Technical University and a MA in international relations with a dissertation on “An Analysis of Turkish Foreign Policy Making and Decision-Makers”. She is working on a PhD dissertation on “Foreign Policy and Identity: The Case of Turkish Foreign Policy”. Among others, she published: “Just War Concept: From Antiquity Up to Present” (2004, Uluslararasý Iliskiler); “The Effect of the Political System on Turkish Foreign Policy” (2004, Istanbul Ticaret Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi), both in Turkish.

Authors Address: Ms. Fulya Ereker, Ankara University, Faculty of Political Science, Cebeci, 06590, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: . Website: . Hari Eswaran (USA) has worked on sustainable agriculture and global climate change since 2000. He organized a workshops on ‘Sustainable Land Management’ and on ‘Stressed Agro-ecosystems’. Based on twenty years of experience on global soil resources, he completed a 1:30M map of: ‘Soil Regions of the World’, published as a Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) document. As a former chairman of a Commission of the International Society of Soil Science, he coordinated international scientific efforts on soil genesis, classification, and resource assessment and monitoring. He chairs an International Task Force on Land Degradation of the International Society of Soil Science. He is co-author of: “Issues and challenges of dryland agriculture in Southern Asia”, in: Juo, A.S.R.; Freed, R.D. (Eds.): Agriculture and the Environment: Bridging Food Production and Environmental Protection in Developing Countries. ASA Special Publication No. 60 (Madison WI.: American Society of Agronomy, 1995): 161-180; “Global soil carbon resources”, in: Lal, R.; Kimble, J.; Levine, E.; Stewart, B.A. (Eds.): Soils and Global Change. Advances in Soil Science (Boca Raton: Lewis, 1995): 27-44. Address: Dr. Hari Eswaran, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Room 4250, South Building, 14th & Independence Ave, SW. Washington, DC 20250, USA. Email: . Website: . André P.C. Faaij (The Netherlands), associate professor at the Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development of Utrecht University; study of chemistry and environmental sciences, Ph.D. on energy production from biomass and wastes, visiting researcher at the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University and at King's College, London University. Main research experience: energy system scenario analysis and modelling, bio-energy and other renewables, land-use issues, international bio-energy trade, sustainability assessments of energy systems, alternative transport fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, capture and storage of CO2 (CCS), waste treatment, material and energy efficiency, technological learning, greenhouse gas balances and energy and research policies. He coordinates a research cluster on energy supply and system studies and is experienced in research and management in a multidisciplinary and international setting. He is a member of expert groups in bio-energy and energy policy, research and strategic planning. He advices governments, the EC, IEA, the UN, GEF, OECD, WEF, the energy sector and industry, NGOs, etc. He leads Task 40 of the IEA on Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade and acted as national representative in several other tasks. He advices the UN Biofuels Initiative and FAO's bioenergy activities, supported by the G8 Global Bio-energy Partnership. He recently joined the IPCC team to draft the Special Report on Renewable Energy, the new Global Energy Assessment (GEA) and he be-

Biographies of Contributors came member of the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Alternative Energies. He was lead author for the World Energy Assessment of the UN, the Worldwatch Institute's book on Biofuels for the 21st Century, the IPCC 4th assessment report and of the IEA's World Energy Outlook. He is board member and guest editor of the journal Biomass & Bioenergy and is reviewer for journals, scientific and government bodies. He published over 450 titles in scientific journals, reports, books and proceedings, (co-) organized a range of international workshops and conferences and is frequently lecturing across the globe. Address: Prof Dr. André P.C. Faaij, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Email: . Website: . David Faiman (Israel) is professor of physics and chairman of the Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics at Ben-Gurion University’s Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, in Sede Boqer where he is also director of Israel’s National Solar Energy Center. A physicist by training, he obtained his first degree from the University of London, and his second and third degrees from the University of Illinois. Between 1969 and 1976 he performed research in theoretical physics at Oxford University, CERN and the Weizmann Institute. In 1976 he joined the Ben-Gurion University where he participated in the establishment of the Blaustein Institutes, refocusing his research activities into the field of applied solar energy. He is widely published and has chaired or been a member of numerous international committees. At present he is Israel’s representative to the Task 8 Photovoltaic Specialist Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA), and has co-authored their latest book: Energy from the Desert: Practical Proposals for Very Large Scale Photovoltaic Systems (London: James & James, 2007). Address: Prof. Dr. David Faiman, Department of Solar Energy & Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990 Israel. Email: . Website: . Isabel Fischer (Germany): Dipl.-Ing. sc.agr., since 2003, doctorial student at the Institute of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Agricultural Development Theory and Policy and research associate in subproject F2.2 “Risk Management of Farm Households in Northern Vietnam“ of the so-called The Uplands Program (SFB 564): “Research for Sustainable Land Use and Rural Development in Mountainous Regions of Southeast Asia“ at the University of Hohenheim, Germany. Her current research focuses on vulnerability of rural households, risk management and microinsurance. From 1995 until 2002, she studied agricultural science at the University of Hohenheim, specializing in economics and social sciences in the tropics and subtropics. Her publications include: Media Supported Communication in Agricultural

1519 Extension and Participatory Rural Development in Northern Thailand. Research in Development Economics and Policy Discussion Paper No 4/2004 (Stuttgart: Grauer Verlag); Dufhues, T.; Lemke, U.; Fischer, I.: New ways for rural finance – Livestock insurance schemes in Vietnam. Research in Development Economics and Policy Discussion Paper No 5/2004 (Stuttgart: Grauer Verlag); Beuchelt, T.; Fischer, I.: “What do Vietnamese Farmers do when a Crisis Occurs? Covering Lack of Resources through Social Networks”, in: Buchenrieder, G.; Dufhues, T. (Eds.): Making rural households’ livelihoods more resilient. The importance of social capital and the underlying social networks. Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Central and Eastern Europe, vol. 34 (Halle: Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe, 2006): 45-57; Dufhues, T.; Buchenrieder, G.; Fischer, I.: Social capital and rural development: Literature review and current state of the art. Discussion Paper 96/2006 (Halle: Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO)); (co-author with G. Buchenrieder): Laptop, Livestock Drawings and Ricewine: A Demand Analysis for Livestock Insurance in Northern Vietnam. Research in Development Economics and Policy Discussion Paper No 3/ 2008 (Stuttgart: Grauer Verlag). Address: Ms. Isabel Fischer, University of Hohenheim, Dept. 490A, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. Email: . Website: . Dilrukshi Fonseka (Sri Lanka) holds an MSc in international relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), United Kingdom and earned her BA from Mount Holyoke College, USA. Between 2005 and 2006, she worked with the Tsunami Recovery Unit of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Sri Lanka, where she oversaw UNDP’s human rights and human rights-based approaches and initiatives. Before she worked for the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies and also for the International Center for Ethnic Studies in Sri Lanka. She serves on the faculties of several academic and professional courses on the topics of peace-building, human rights and gender. Currently she is Team Leader – Peace and Recovery at UNDP Sri Lanka. Address: Ms. Dilrukshi Fonseka, 362/2 High Level Road, Delkanda, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. Email: and . Jochen Froebrich (Germany), Dr.-Ing., team leader for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at Wageningen University, The Netherlands, was a senior scientist at the Institute of Water Quality and Waste Management, University of Hannover. He specialized in water stress management in arid and semi arid regions. He has worked on a variety of multidisciplinary projects in North Africa, Southern Europe and Central Asia. His current research interests focus on the inclusion of water quality aspects in water management under water scarcity. He is leading a number of international research teams in this field. Relevant examples are the EC-project tempQsim (EVK1-CT2002-00112) for im-

1520 proving water quality models and their applicability in dryland basins or the INCO-project Jayhun (INCO 516761) for developing risk management strategies in the Amu Darya basin in the view of future changes in water availability. Another important activity is research on best option combinations to mitigate water stress (within the integrated project (IP) AquaStress). Major publications include: Froebrich, J.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.; Normatov, I.; Petrov, G.: “Improved dam operation in the Amu Darya river basin including transboundary aspects”, in: Berga, L.; Buil, J.M.; Bofill, E.; De Cea, J.C.; Garcia Perez, J.A.; Mañueco, G.; Polimon, J.; Soriano, A.; Yagüe, J. (Eds.): International symposium on dams in the societies of the 21st century, ICOLD congress, Barcelona, 18 June 2006 (London: Taylor & Francis, 2006): 97-103; Froebrich, J.; Bauer, M.; Ikramova, M.; Olsson, O.: Water quantity and quality dynamics of the THC – Tuyamuyun Hydroengineering Complex and implications for reservoir operation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR), in: ESPR, 14,6 (2005): 435442; Froebrich, J.: “New Challenges in Lake and River Monitoring”, in: Freshwater Forum, 23 (2005), Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK; Froebrich, J.: “Enhanced reservoir operation – concept for improving water quality and water management in water stressed areas”, in: International Agricultural Engineering Journal, 14,4 (2005): 147-160. Address: Dr.-Ing. Jochen Froebrich, Division of Integrated Water Resources Management, Center for Water and Climate, Wageningen University, Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen; Building no. 104, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Email: . Website: . Claudia F. Fuentes Julio (Chile) is a PhD student in the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at Denver University and holds an MA in international relations from the University of Kent, England. She worked for five years as a researcher at the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO-Chile) on international politics and security issues in Latin America. She has been professor of international relations at Chilean universities and other academic centers. Her publications include: Rojas, Francisco; Fuentes, Claudia (Eds.): Promover la seguridad humana, marcos éticos, normativos y educacionales para América Latina y El Caribe (Paris: UNESCO, 2005). Address: Ms. Claudia F. Fuentes Julio, 1974 S. University Blvd. Apt., Denver, Colorado 80210, USA. E-mail: . Website: . Niklas Gebert (Germany) is research associate at the United Nations University - Institute for Human Security and Environment (UNU-EHS) and is currently conducting research on socio-economic vulnerability assessment in Indonesia within the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. He holds a M.Sc. in human geography from the University of Bonn (Germany). He specialized in geographical development research with emphasis on vulnerability assessment in Malawi. Prior to his en-

Authors gagement at UNU-EHS, he worked as a junior professional for the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) in the field of food security, HIV/AIDS in Africa and on capacity development for chemical management. Address: Mr. Niklas Gebert, UN Campus, Hermann-Ehlers Str. 10, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Website: . Email: . Luc Gnacadja (Benin) is the executive secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. John Grin (Netherlands) is professor at the Department of Political Science of the University of Amsterdam and scientific director of the Amsterdam School for Social science Research (ASSR). See: Biographies of editors. Tobias Hagmann (Switzerland), PhD in public administration (Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration IDHEAP). He has been a lecturer in political geography at the Department of Geography, University of Zürich since 2007. His main research focuses on conflict studies, the political sociology of the state, and on politics in the Horn of Africa. Between 1998 and 2006 he was a researcher at swisspeace, Bern, a research officer for ACORD Somalia, Nairobi in 2001 and a visiting researcher at the Institute of Ethiopian Studies at Addis Ababa University (2003-2005). He has published articles on environmental conflicts and politics in Ethiopia and Somalia in: African Affairs, Journal of Modern African Studies, Peace, Conflict and Development, and Politique Africaine. Address: Dr. Tobias Hagmann, Department of Geography, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland. E-Mail: . Website: . Bassam Ossama Hayek (Jordan), director of the Environmental Research Centre, Royal Scientific Society (RSS). He is a chemical engineer and obtained a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Swansea (UK) in 1994. He started his career in 1994 as a researcher in the environment field at the RSS. He has experience in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater; environment assessment; hazardous waste management and control. He has executed and supervised research projects and studies on the treatment of wastewater, industrial audits (pollution prevention and waste minimization and cleaner production), environmental assessment, and hazardous materials management. He participated as a member in national committees such as the Domestic Wastewater Management Committee and the Reclaimed Water Reuse Coordination Committee (Ministry of Water and Irrigation), the National Hazardous Material Management Committee and the AGENDA 21 task force (Ministry of Environment). He has written and supervised or co-authored some 20 publications of scientific papers and technical reports, including: Environment Sector in Jordan; Key Issues for Environmental Risk Assessment, International Risk Management Meet-

Biographies of Contributors ing, Italy 2001; Environmental and Economic Improvement through Implementation of Cleaner Production in Hospitality Sector in Jordan: Case Studies in Four Hotels, 2008. He supervised the following studies: Environmental Impact Assessment for Gas Transmission Project, 2004; Environmental Impact Assessment for Silica Sand Project, 2002; Environmental Impact Assessment for Kemira Arab Potash Co., 2000; Water Pollution Crises Management; A Case Study on Cryptosporidium Outbreak in Munshiyat Bani Hassan - Jordan, report submitted to the Ministry of Health, Jordan, November 2007. Address: Dr. Bassam Hayek, Director, Environment Research Centre, Royal Scientific Society, P.O. Box 1438, Al Jubeiha 11941, Amman, Jordan. Email: and . Website: . Dirk H. Hoekman (The Netherlands), Ph.D., associate professor in remote sensing at Wageningen University, with main interests in the physical aspects of remote sensing, microwave remote sensing and applications of remote sensing in forestry, agriculture, (agro-)hydrology, climate studies and environmental change. Co-founder of SarVision, an organization devoted to the development of operational monitoring systems. Co-ordinator for training and research programmes, including the NASA PACRIM-2 and ESA INDREX-1 and -2 campaigns, to support the realization of operational monitoring systems for sustainable forest management and nature conservation. Lead scientist for the JAXA Kyoto & Carbon Initiative for exploitation of the ALOS PALSAR satellite in the region Insular SE Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea). His major publications include: “Satellite radar observation of tropical peat swamp forest as a tool for hydrological modelling and environmental protection”, in: Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. Special edition on: Satellitebased radar – developing tools for wetlands management, 17 (2007): 265-275; (co-author with Tran, N.Thanh; Wehrens, Ron; Buydens, Lutgarde M.C.: “Initialization of Markov Random Field Clustering of Large Remote Sensing Images”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43,8 (2005): 1912-1919; (co-author with Quiñones, Marcela J.): “Exploration of factors limiting biomass estimation by polarimetric radar in tropical forests”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 42,1 (2004): 86-104; (co-author with Vissers, Martin A.M.): “A new polarimetric classification approach evaluated for agricultural crops”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41,12 (2003): 2881-2889; (co-author with Quiñones, Marcela J.,): “Biophysical Forest Type Characterisation in the Colombian Amazon by Airborne Polarimetric SAR”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 40,6 (2002): 1288-1300; (co-author with Varekamp, Chris): “Observation of tropical rain forest trees by airborne high resolution interferometric radar”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39,3 (2001): 584-594; (co-author with Quiñones, Marcela J.): “Land cover type and biomass classification using AirSAR data for evaluation of monitoring scenarios in the Colombi-

1521 an Amazon”, in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 38 (2000): 685-696. Address: Prof. Dr. Dirk Hoekman, Wageningen University, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Email: . Website: and Thomas Homer-Dixon (Canada) holds the CIGI Chair of Global Systems at the Balsillie School of International Affairs in Waterloo, Canada, and is a professor in the Centre for Environment and Business at the University of Waterloo. He was born in Victoria, British Columbia and received his B.A. in political science from Carleton University in 1980 and his Ph.D. from MIT in international relations and defence and arms control policy in 1989. He then moved to the University of Toronto to lead several research projects studying the links between environmental stress and violence in developing countries. Recently, his research has focused on threats to global security in the 21st century and on how societies adapt to complex economic, ecological, and technological change. His books include: The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization (New York: Knopf – Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006), The Ingenuity Gap (New York: Knopf, 2000), which won the 2001 Governor General’s Non-fiction Award, and Environment, Scarcity, and Violence (Princeton; Princeton University Press, 1999), which won the Caldwell Prize of the American Political Science Association. Address: Prof. Dr. Thomas Homer-Dixon, The Centre for International Governance Innovation, 57 Erb St. West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 6C2, Canada. Email: Website:. Gunhild Hoogensen (Norway) is associate professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Tromsø. Her main research interest is security studies, broadly speaking, and more specifically the relevance and application of the human security concept to the Arctic context and to military education (particularly in the field of civilmilitary cooperation or relations). She leads the Human Security Programme at the University of Tromsø, which includes such projects as the International Polar Year project GAPS (security and oil and gas activity in the Arctic) as well as MENSA (military education and the new security agenda). She is also academic coordinator for the Model UN programme and co-academic coordinator (political science) for various masters programmes offered to the Norwegian military. Her publications include the following books: Environmental Change and Human Security in the Arctic (London: Earthscan, 2008); International Relations, Security, and Jeremy Bentham (London: Routledge, 2005) and Women in Power: World Leaders Since 1960 (New York: Praeger, 2006), and articles in: Security Dialogue, Canadian Foreign Policy, and International Studies Review. Address: Prof. Dr. Gunhild Hoogensen, Department of Political Science, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Authors

1522 Email: . Website: .

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Arie S. Issar (Israel), professor emeritus at the J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, and the Geological Department of Ben Gurion University of the Negev. He founded and headed the Water Resources Center of the Institute for Desert Research since 1975 until his retirement in 1998. He received his Ph. D. at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1961. From 1980-1998 he was the holder of the Alain Poher Chair in Hydrogeology of Arid Zones. He received the following prizes: Ernest D. Bergmann Prize for Special Scientific Contributions to the Development of the Negev Desert (1985); Prize of the President of the International Association of Hydrogeologists for Outstanding International Contributions toward the Advancement of Hydrogeology (2003); Honorary Member of the Israeli Association for Water Resources (2005). His current research focuses on the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle and socio-economic systems; and developing conceptual models in order to mitigate the negative impact of global change on the water resources of the Middle East, including long term policies of sustainable development of the fossil aquifers of the region. He has published about hundred papers and co-edited five books and wrote five books in the fields of geology and hydrogeology. On the impact of climate changes on the hydrological cycle and on the environment he published these books: Water Shall flow from the Rock. Hydrogeology and Climate in the Lands of the Bible (Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990); Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003); (Co-ed. with Angelakis, Andreas N.): Diachronic Climatic Impacts on Water Resources (with Emphasis on the Mediterranean Region (NATO ASI Series. Springer-Verlag, 1996); (Co-ed. with Brown, Neville): Water, Environment and Society in Times of Climate Change (Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998); (Co-ed. with Zohar, Mattanyah): Climate Change – Environment and Civilization in the Middle East (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York : Springer 2004, 2007). Address: Prof. Dr. Arie S. Issar, ZIWR, BGU, Sede Boker Campus, 84990, Israel; Home: Hameshoreret Rachel St.13, Jerusalem, 96348, Israel. Email: [email protected] Website: . Klaus-Dietmar Jacoby (Germany) is a Ministerialrat in the German government. He was head of the Emergency Planning and Preparations Division in the Office of Oil Markets and Emergency Preparedness of the International Energy Agency (IEA) from 2001 to 2006. Since then he is working as a Seconded National Expert in the EU Commission to revise the existing oil emergency stockholding legislation. He has spent most of his working life in various sectors of the German government, principally in the Ministry of Economy and Technology and in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In his previous activities he was responsible for en-

ergy, scientific and technology policy and information, computer and communication policy. He holds an advanced degree in economics from Cologne University and studied at the Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA) in Paris. He is married and has one son. Address: Mr. Klaus-Dietmar Jacoby, European Commission, DG Energy, 301 Avenue de Tervuren, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Email: . Website: . Anders Jägerskog (Sweden): Ph.D. is project director at the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) where his work focuses on international water issues and in particular transboundary waters. Previously he has worked at the secretariat for the Expert Group on Development Issues (EGDI) at the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, at the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) with water resources in southern Africa and at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) with Middle Eastern security issues. In 2003 he finished his PhD on the water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, Sweden. He was a member of the Scientific Programme Committee at the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) from 2002-2006 and is currently a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Lakes Commission (ILEC). He has published over 60 scientific articles, book chapters, debate articles and reports. His publications include: Managing Transboudary Waters and: Water Scarcity Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Background Papers prepared for the Human Development Report 2006 (2006); “Water Sharing between Israel, Jordan and the Palestinians”, text box: in: State of the World 2005, Worldwatch Institute (2005); “Human Security – problems, opportunities and policy implications”, in: Conflict, Security and Development (2004); Why states cooperate over shared water? The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin, Linköping University, PhD Dissertation, Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, Sweden (2003); at: ; “Risk and uncertainty from a political perspective: cases from water negotiations”, in: Towards Catchment Hydrosolidarity in a world of Uncertainties, SIWI Proceedings 2003, Report 18, SIWI Seminar (Stockholm: Stockholm International Water Institute, 2003); “The power of the sanctioned discourse – a crucial factor in determining water policy”, in: Water, Science and Technology, 47,6 (2003); “Hydrosolidarity as seen from a political perspective – overcoming sanctioned discourse obstacles”, in: Balancing human security and ecological security interests in a catchment: Towards upstream/downstream hydrosolidarity, SIWI Proceedings 2002 SIWI Seminar (Stockholm: Stockholm International Water Institute, 2002); “Contributions of Regime Theory in Understanding Interstate Water Cooperation: Lessons Learned in the Jordan River Basin”, in: Turton, A.R.; Henwood, R. (Eds.): Hydropolitics in the Developing World: A Southern African Perspective (Pretoria: African Water Issues Research Unit (AWIRU), 2002).

Biographies of Contributors Address: Dr. Anders Jägerskog, Stockholm International Water Institute, Drottninggatan 33, SE-111 51 Stockholm, Sweden. Email: and . Website: . Patricia Kameri-Mbote (Kenya), is professor of law, University of Nairobi. See biographies of editors. Burcak Kapur (Turkey), research and teaching assistant at the Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Çukurova, Adana, Turkey. Mr. Kapur obtained a MSc degree from the International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies with a thesis on: “Climate Change, Climatic Water Balance and Crop Water Requirements: Investigation on the Next 100 Years for the Apuglia Region.” He is currently working as a project assistant on the “Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Production System in Arid Areas” in cooperation with the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan for his Ph.D. study. He contributed papers to: Global Climate Change and Effects on Soil, Crop Productivity and Water Resources. Proceedings of the International workshop for ICCAP; Land degradation and desertification in Turkey (Nato-CCMS and Science Committee Workshop). Address: Mr. Burcak Kapur, University of Çukurova, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 01330-Balcalý, Adana, Turkey. EMail: . Website: . Selim Kapur (Turkey), professor of soil science at the Faculty of Agriculture and chairman of the Department of Archaeometry, Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey. He was a European Council Higher Education Scholar in Aberdeen, Scotland (1973-1976), a research fellow at Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands (1978); and General Secretary of the Working Group on Land Degradation and Desertification of the International Union of Soil Sciences. He is a scientific committee member of the European Soil Bureau Network of the EU-Joint Research Centre, Institute of Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy. He has led and participated in link projects with the British Council, NATO and leading EU initiatives on land use and mitigation of land degradation caused by inappropriate use of land. He is coordinating a TEMA (Turkish acronym for the leading/renowned NGO in the country and abroad dealing with the mitigation of land degradation and desertification) – Mitsui (Japan) bilateral project in the Karapýnar (Konya) erosion control station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs seeking to develop a sustainable land management programme for the semi-arid regions allocated on terrestrial dunes and past lacustrine surfaces threatened by climate change and inappropriate use of soil and water. He authored numerous articles, published by the EU-JRC Institute of Environment and Sustainability (IES), in special issues and conference proceedings, of chapters in the proceedings of the International Working Group of Land Degradation and of papers on sustainable Land Manage-

1523 ment and Soil Development with special reference to Soil Micromorphology and indigenous land use published in international journals. His recent studies on the development of the ‘Anthroscape’ context within the IES frameworks are in progress. He is the key editor of the proceedings of the 13th International Meeting on Soil Micromorphology (to be published by Springer), co-editor of the International Board of the Encyclopedia of Soil Science (New York: Marcel Dekker), of the EU-MEDCOASTLAND Project proceedings, the 3rd and 7th volume of the International Meetings on Soils with a Mediterranean type of climate (Options Mediterraneennes, Catena, Elsevier) and principle editor of the proceedings of the 1st International Meeting on Land Degradation. Address: Prof. Dr. Selim Kapur, University of Çukurova, Departments of Soil Science and Archaeometry, 01330-Balcalý, Adana, Turkey. Email: . Website: . Mary Kay Kindhauser (USA, Switzerland) is a writer and policy analyst in the Office of the Director-General, World Health Organization. She previously worked as a science writer in the ‘communicable diseases’ cluster, contributing technical and public information on the SARS, avian influenza, and other outbreaks. She holds a BA degree from Louisiana State University and a MA from Yale University, and is a recipient of Danforth and Woodrow Wilson fellowships. Address: Ms Mary Kay Kindhauser, DGO, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Email: . Website: . Kithure Kindiki (Kenya) is currently associate dean and senior lecturer of international law, School of Law, University of Nairobi. He is an advocate of the High Court of Kenya. He holds a Ph.D degree in international law from the University of Pretoria, and has ten years of University teaching at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels. He has published many articles in peer-reviewed journals and has acted as a consultant for many governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. Among his major publications are: (co-ed. with Ambani, Osogo): The Anatomy of Bomas: Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress, 2005); Humanitarian intervention and State Sovereignty in Africa: The Changing Paradigms in International Law (Eldoret: Moi University Press, 2003): 1727-1746; “Broadening the Horizons: the Draft Constitution of Kenya and the Protection of Socio-economic Rights”, in: (co-ed. with Ambani, Osogo): The Anatomy of Bomas: Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress, 2005); “International Trade and Human Rights: Conceptual and Practical Linkages”, in: Pacific Rim Journal of International Law (2006); “The African Peace and Security Council and the Charter of the United Nations”, in: The Law Society of Kenya Journal, 1,1 (2005); “Europe and the Reconstruction of Somalia”, in: Forced Migration Review,

1524 23 (2005); “The Proposed Integration of the African Court of Justice and the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights: Legal Difficulties and Merits”, in: African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 15,1 (2007): 138146: “A People Betrayed – The Darfur Crisis and International Law: Rethinking Westphaliam Sovereignty in the 21st Century”, in: Bond Law Review, 19,2 (2007): 102-123; “International Law on Trial: The Darfur Crisis and the Responsibility to Protect Civilians”, in: International Community Law Review, 9,4 (2007): 445-473; “Synchronizing Kenya’s Energy Law with the Framework Environmental Law”, in: Okidi, Charles; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia; Akech, Migai (Eds,) Environmental Law After the Framework Law (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 2008). Address: Department of Public Law, School of Law, University of Nairobi, Parklands Law Campus, Junction Forest/ Limuru/Parklands Roads, PO BOX 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: and . Yannis Kinnas (Greece) holds a doctorate in political science from Athens Panteion University, and a Ph.D. in International Relations from London University. He was associate professor in Athens and has taught and lectured in the United States and Europe. In 1990 he was Radford Distinguished Visiting Professor at Baylor University (USA). From 1976 to 1997 he worked with the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs in charge of environmental and economic affairs. From 1987 to 1996 he served with the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva. There he also coordinated the Greek presidency in the European Union in 1988 and 1994. In 1994 he became Ambassador for Environment and Economic Affairs. Between 1964-1976 he worked with transnational banks as head of their foreign departments. Since his retirement in 1997 he has worked as a consultant with international NGOs on environmental policy and its application in the Millennium Environment Assessment (MEA). He has written on environmental issues and European integration, including nine books. His articles have appeared in learned journals and edited books in Belgium, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States. His latest co-edited book is in Greek on nuclear energy and proliferation (Athens 1996). He was member of the Advisory Board of the: Journal for Environment and Development, San Diego (USA) and he is a memeber of the AFES-PRESS Scientific Advisory Board in Germany. Address: Dr. Yannis Kinnas, 2 Akronos Street, Athens 116-33, Greece. Email: . Website: . Martin Kipping (Germany), political scientist; is 1st secretary for development cooperation, economic affairs and humanitarian aid at the German Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan; former water sector desk officer at the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Bonn. He graduated from the Institut

Authors d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and from Free University of Berlin (Dipl.-Pol.) before participating in a training programme for young professionals at the German Development Institute (DIE), Bonn. He has specialized in questions of international relations and development with a particular focus on conflict management, resource conflicts, transboundary water cooperation and water sector policy. He is currently preparing a PhD thesis on external state-building interventions at the Free University Berlin. His publications include: “Wasserkonflikte und Wasserkooperation am Senegalfluss”, in: Kipping, Martin; Lindemann, Stefan, 2005: Konflikte und Kooperation um Wasser – Wasserpolitik am Senegalfluss und internationales Flussmanagement im Südlichen Afrika (Münster: Lit-Verlag); (co-author with Elke Herrfahrdt, Tanja Pickardt, Mathias Polak, Caroline Rohrer and Carl Felix Wolff): Water Governance in the Kyrgyz Agricultural Sector – On its Way to Integrated Water Resources Management? (Bonn: DIE, 2006); “Conflits et coopération liés à l’eau du fleuve Sénégal”, in: Géocarrefour: La pénurie d’eau : donnée naturelle ou question sociale?, 80,4 (September 2005); “Challenges for German Development Cooperation in the Water Sector”, in: Neubert, Susanne; Scheumann, Waltina; Kipping, Martin (Eds.), 2008: Water Politics, Policies and Development Cooperation: Local Power Plays and Global Governance (Berlin - Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag). Address: Martin Kipping, Ravelsberger Str. 55, D-52146 Würselen, Germany. Email: . Wolfram Krewitt (Germany) is head of the Department Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, German Aerospace Center (DLR), he holds a diploma of mechanical engineering from the Technical University of Aachen, and a PhD in energy engineering from the University of Stuttgart. He is an energy engineer with professional experience in the application of renewable energy technologies in Latin America, and more than 15 years experience in the field energy system analysis. He worked with the University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, were he was heading the Department of Material Flows and Sustainable Development. He joined DLR 2001 as a project manager, and since 2006 is leading the Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment. He co-ordinated various national and international research projects, and has experience as a consultant in Eastern European countries and in South America. He worked as a consultant for the IAEA/IEA on the development of a system of sustainability indicators in the energy sector. Among his major publications and project reports are: (co-author with: Simon/Graus/Teske/Zervos/Schäfer): “The 2°C scenario – A sustainable world energy perspective”, in: Energy Policy, 35 (2007): 4969-4980; (co-author with Teske/Schäfer/Simon/Graus): “Energy [R]evolution – A Sustainable World Energy Outlook. Greenpeace International”, GPI REF JN 035 (Amsterdam, 2007); at: ; (co-author with: Nitsch/Fischedick/Pehnt/ Temming): “Market perspectives of stationary fuel cells in a sustainable energy supply system – long term scenarios for Germany”, in: Energy Policy, 34 (2006): 793-803; (co-author

Biographies of Contributors with: Nitsch/Reinhardt): “Renewable energies – between climate protection and nature conservation?”, in: International Journal for Global Energy Issues, 23,1 (2005): 29-42; (co-author with: J. Nitsch): “The German Renewable Energy Sources Act – an investment into the future pays off already today”, in: Renewable Energy, 28 (2003): 533-542; “External Costs of Energy – do the answers match the questions? Looking back at ten years of ExternE”, in: Energy Policy, 30 (2002): 839-848. Address: Dr. Wolfram Krewitt, Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany. Email: Website: . Heinz Krummenacher (Switzerland) is the managing director of swisspeace – the Swiss Peace Foundation and head of its early warning unit. See biographies of editors. Jennifer Leaning (USA) is professor of the practice of international health at the Harvard School of Public Health and associate professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and cordirector of the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Her research and policy interests include issues of public health, medical ethics, and early warning in response to war and disaster, human rights and international humanitarian law in crisis settings, and problems of human security in the context of forced migration and conflict. She has field experience in problems of public health assessment and human rights in a range of crisis situations (including Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Kosovo, the Middle East, former Soviet Union, Somalia, the Chad-Darfur border, and the African Great Lakes area) and has written widely on these issues. She also has extensive experience in clinical medicine and medical management, most recently (19921997) as the medical director of one of the largest group practices in Massachusetts, and currently chairs the Harvard University Student Health Coordinating Board. She currently serves on a number of non-profit boards, including the Board of Directors of the American Red Cross, Massachusetts Bay Chapter; Physicians for Human Rights; and The Humane Society of the United States. She received her A.B. degree from Radcliffe College, magna cum laude, a master’s degree in demography and public health from the Harvard School of Public Health, and her M.D. with honors from the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine. She trained in internal medicine and emergency medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and is board certified in both specialties. She is a member of the American College of Emergency Physicians. Among her recent publications on these issues are: (co-author with: VanRooyen, M.: “After the Tsunami - Facing the Public Health Challenges”, in: New England Journal of Medicine, 352 (2005): 435-438; (co-author with: Walker, P.: Wisner, B.; Minear, L.): “Smoke and mirrors: deficiencies in disaster funding”, in: BMJ, 330 (2005): 247-250; (co-author with: Lautze, S.; Raven-Roberts, A.; Kent, R.; Mazurana, D.: Assistance, protection, and governance networks in complex emergencies, in: Lancet, 364 (2004): 2134-2141; “Diagnosing Genocide – The Case of Darfur”, in: NEJM, 351 (19 August 2004): 735-

1525 738; (co-author with: Gingerich T.): The Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict in Darfur, Sudan, United States Agency for International Development (October 2004); at: ; (co-author with: Arie S.; Stites, E.): “Human Security in Crisis and Transition”, in: Praxis: