Abbreviations - Springer Link






Auswärtiges Amt [Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Germany] Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission ABM Antiballistic Missile Treaty (1972) Army Corps of Engineers Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Anno domini [after Christ] U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo - Kinshasa Peace Research and European Security Studies, international scientific NGO African Peace Research Association Arab Human Development Report Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Akademie für Krisenmanagement, Notfallplanung und Zivilschutz [German Academy for Crisis Management, Emergency Planning and Civil Defence] Bolivarian Alternative from the Americas African Union peacekeeping forces in Sudan Arab Maghreb Union Accord de Non-Aggression Et d’Assistance en Matiere de Defence [Nonaggression Agreement and Assistance on Defence Matters] Australian, New Zealand and US (military alliance) Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation Asian-Pacific Peace Research Association American Political Science Association Applied Research Centre in Human Security ASEAN Regional Forum Association of South-East Asian Nations Assembly of Social Movements in the World Social Forum (WSF) Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Aid Citizens African Union United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia Airborne Warning and Control System Bundesakademie für Sicherheitspolitik [Federal College for Security Policy Studies, Germany] Before Christ Before Christian Era Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery billion dollars Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg Broader Middle East-North Africa Initiative







Bundesministerium des Inneren [Federal Ministry of the Interior, Germany] Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit [Federal Ministry on the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany] Bundesministerium der Verteidigung [Federal Ministry of Defence, Germany] Ministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung [Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany] British Petroleum Brazil, Russia, India, China Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Comité pour l'Annulation de la Dette du Tiers Monde, Réseau International de Lutte pour l'Abolition de la Dette des Pays du Sud Central American Free Trade Agreement Comunidad Andina de Naciones Caribbean Common Market Complex Adaptive Systems Chinese Communist Party Conference on Disarmament Clean Development Mechanism in the context of Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC Council of Europe Communaute Economique de l’Afrique de l’Ouest [Economic Community of West Africa] Centro de Estudios de la Historia de México [Centre of Mexican History] Central Treaty Organization Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe [Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean] Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (signed on 19 November 1990) Common Foreign and Security Policy (of the EU) Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department, United Kingdom Chiefs of Defence Commission on Human Security Chittagong Hill Tracts (in Bangladesh) Central Intelligence Agency of the United States of America Inter-American Commission on the Control of Drug Abuse Inter-American Anti-Terrorism Committee Civil-Military Cooperation






Abbreviations Inter-American Committee for the Reduction of Natural Disasters Commonwealth of Independent States Latin American Council on Peace Research Consejo Latinoamericano de Organizaciones Campesinas [Council of Latin American Peasants’ Organizations] Center for Naval Analyses Corporation Cable News Network Coordinadora Nacional Plan de Ayala [National Independant Peasant Movement Plan de Ayala in Mexico] Central Obrera Boliviana [Workers’ Centre in Bolivia] document of the European Commission Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa Conference of Parties of environmental agreements (e.g. of UNFCCC) Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development in North America Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (since 2002 part of DIIS) Committee of permanent representatives (at the EU in Brussels) Conferences on Research on International Peace and Security Congress of South African Trade Unions Correlates of War Project Comprehensive Peace Agreement Canadian Peace Research Institute Civil Protection Unit, DG Environment, European Commission Centre for Geopolitical Research and Analysis at Paris University Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Louvain, Belgium Council of Regional Organizations [in the Pacific] Confidence- and Security-Building Measures Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe critical security studies Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Central Socialista Única de Trabajadores, Bolivia [Socialist Centre for Workers in Bolivia] Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Chemical Weapons Convention Development Assistance Committee and Development Co-operation Directorate of OECD Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration



dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (chemical, pesticide) Department for International Development (United Kingdom) Directorate General of the European Commission German Society for Peace and Conflict Research Danish Institute of International Studies international science programme on biodiversity US Department of Defense Department of Peacekeeping Operations (United Nations) Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of Congo German Foundation for Peace Research. European Defence Technological and Industrial Base for instance European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council European Bank for Reconstruction and Development European Community Economic Commission for Africa (UN) Economic Community of East African States Economic Commission for Europe (UN) European Community Humanitarian Aid Office European Court of Justice Economic Commission for Latin America Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group Economic and Social Council of the United Nations Economic Community of West African States The European Consortium for Political Research European Council for Refugees and Exiles European Defence Agency European Defence Community European Defence Equipment Market European Development Fund European Investment Bank Enhanced ISAAC (Irreducible SemiAutonomous Adaptive Combat) Neural Simulation Tool The International Disaster Database of CRED in Louvain. Belgium European Maritime Safety Agency





Environment and Conflicts Project (University of Zürich, Switzerland) European Nuclear Disarmament European Neighbourhood Policy (EU) Environment and Security Initiative of OSCE, UNDP, UNEP and NATO Encyclopaedia for Life Support System (UNESCO) European Parliament European Political Cooperation Ejército Popular Revolucionario [Revolutionary Popular Army] Ejército Popular Revolucionario Insurgente (a subgroup of ERP) Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia European Security and Defence Policy (EU) Escola Superior de Guerra [National War College, Brazil] European Security Strategy Earth System Science Partnership Basque terrorist group etcetera European Union European Union Force European Union Military Committee European Union Military Staff European Peace Research Association Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional [Zapatista Army of National Liberation] Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome Freedom Army of Rwanda Federation of Arab States Frente Armado Revolucionario de Colombia [Armed Revolutionary Front in Colombia] U.S. Food and Drug Administration foreign direct investment Friedenserhaltende Maßnahmen [Peacekeeping Measures] Forum Fisheries Agency La Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales [Latin American Faculty on Social Sciences] Fissile Materials’ Cut-off Treaty Former Republic of Yugoslavia Strategic Future Analysis Forum for Security Co-operation Free Trade Area of the Americas Financial year




Brazil, India, South Africa Group of seven major industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, US) Group of eight major industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US) General Assembly of the UN G8 Africa Action Plan Council for General Affairs and External Relations General Agreements on Trade and Services General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Global Business Associates Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product German Democratic Republic global environmental change Global Environmental Change and Human Security geographic information system Genetically modified organisms Gross National Income Grand National Party (in Korea) Gross National Product Global Public Goods Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit [German Agency for Technical Cooperation]


OSCE’s High Commissioner on National Minorities HDI Human Development Index HDR Human Development Report (of UNDP) HESP human and environmental security and peace HIV Human Immuno Virus HIV-AIDS Human Immune Deficiency Virus – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HRW Human Rights Watch HSFK (PRIF) Hessische Stiftung für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung HSN Human Security Network HSRP Human Security Report Project in Canada HUGE human, gender and environmental security concept (by Úrsula Oswald Spring) HYV high-yielding varieties IACHR IACWGE IAEA IBRD ICC ICG

Inter-American Court of Human Rights Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality International Atomic Energy Agency International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or World Bank International Criminal Court in The Hague, The Netherlands International Crisis Group (headquarter in Brussels, Belgium)



Abbreviations International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty International Court of Justice International Community of the Red Cross – Red Crescent Society International Council for Science Information and Communications Technologies Inter-American Bank of Development Internally Displaced Peoples International Energy Association Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen [Institute for Foreign Relations in Stuttgart] International Fund for Agricultural Development International Financial Institution International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements Implementation Force in BosniaHerzegovina Inter-Governmental Association Against Desertification Intergovernmental Authority on Development (in The Horn of Africa) International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Intergovernmental Conference international governmental orgnization International Human Dimensions Programme International Institute for Strategic Studies (in London,UK) International Labour Organization Institute for North America and Canada Studies (in Moscow, Russia) International Military Education and Training Programme International Monetary Fund International Maritime Organization Integrated Missions Task Force Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, Geografía y Informática [Mexican Institute for Statistics, Geography and Informatics] Intermediate Nuclear Forces International nongovernmental organizations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Peace Research Association The International Peace Research Newsletter international relations Irish Republican Army Institute of International Relations and Peace Research International Studies Association Irreducible Semi-Autonomous Adaptive Combat



International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN) Institute for Peace Research and Security Studies at the University Hamburg Interministerial Steering Group Civil Crisis Prevention international security studies World Conservation Union


Justice and Equality Movement Justice and Home Affairs Inter-American Defence Council Janatha Vimukti Perumena


Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre Kellog, Brown and Root Kansas Event Data System Kosovo Force



Latin America Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Low-Income Country Under Stress Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program Lord Resistance Army (in south of the Sudan) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (in Sri Lanka)

Mutual Assured Destruction Membership Action Plan Modified Brussels Treaty Millennium Development Goals (adopted in 2000 by the United Nations General Assembly) MENA Middle East and North Africa MEP Member of the European Parliament MERCOSUR Mercado Común del Cono Sur [Common Market of the Southern Cone] MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Japan) MIC Monitoring and Information Centre MINUSTAH United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA, USA) MLC Congolese Liberation Movement MMC National Congolese Lumumbist Movement MNE Multinational Enterprise MOMEP Military Observer Mission to Ecuador and Peru MOOTW Military Operations Other Than War MOP Conference of members of treaty parties (of Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC) MPLA Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola MST Movemento sem Terra [Landless Peasant Movement in Brazil]


Abbreviations MunichRe

Re-insurance company (in Munich, Germany)


North Atlantic Cooperation Council North American Free Trade Agreement (U.S., Canada and Mexico) Non-Aligned Movement Near Abroad Policy US National Academy of Sciences North Atlantic Treaty Organization no data Northeast Asia Security Cooperation Dialogue New Partnership for Africa’s Development New European Security Theory Non-governmental organization National Islamic Front Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Net National Income Non-proliferation Treaty New Regionalism Approach New Security Concept of China National Security Doctrine [ESG, q.v., Brazil] National Security Strategy of the United States of America Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact New York Times New York University


Official Assistance Organization of American States Organization of African Unity Office of the OSCE Co-ordinator of Economic and Environmental Activities UN Office Coordinating Humanitarian Affairs Official Development Assistances OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance Member State Operation Headquarters observed irreducible complexity Organization of Islamic Countries Operation Lifeline Sudan UN Operation in Congo Organ for Politics, Defence and Security of SADC Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE Parliamentary Assembly Palestinian Authority Partido de Acción Nacional [Party of National Action in Mexico] Pan-African Programme on Land and Resource Rights


Peacebuilding Commission Plan Colombia Post-Conflict Assessment Unit, UNEP peace and conflict impact assessments Peace and Conflict Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark PfP Partnership for Peace PIC Pacific Islands Conference [of Leaders] PIF Pacific Islands Forum PJSA The Peace and Justice Studies Association in North America PKO peacekeeping operation PPP Plan Puebla Panama PPP parity purchasing power PRC People’s Republic of China PRD Partido Revolucionario Democrático [Revolutionary Democratic Party in Mexico] PRI Partido Revolucionario Institutional [Party of the Institutionalized Revolution, Mexico] PRIF (HSFK) Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (Germany) PRIO International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (Norway) PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PRT Provincial Reconstruction Team PSA Peace Studies Association PSC Political and Security Committee PSS(I) Peace Science Society (International) PT Partido del Trabajo [Workers Party] QMV

Qualified Majority Voting


Research and Technology Responsibility to Protect Regional Assistance Program to the Solomon Islands Research and Development Congolese Democratic Rally Congolese Democratic Rally- Liberation Movement Russian Federation Resources for the Future radio frequency identification device Representative on Freedom of the Media of OSCE Republic of Korea Rapid Reaction Mechanism regional security complex theory


Stabilization and Association Agreements South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern African Development Community Southern African Development Coordinating Community School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC Structural Adjustment Programme



Abbreviations Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Security Council of the UN Supreme Commander of Allied Forces Shanghai Cooperation Organization Security Council Resolution Self-Defence Forces (Japan) Single European Act Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina Studies on the Armed Forces, Capabilities and Technology in the 21st Century (in Germany) Secretary-General of the United Nations Sistema de Integración Centroamericano [Central America Integration System] Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Sudan Liberation Army Social Network Analysis short-range nuclear forces South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission [Secretariat of the] Pacific Community Sudanese People’s Liberation Army South Pacific Regional Environmental Program Special Representative of the Secretary General Security Sector Reform Strategic Arms Reduction Talks I (treaty signed 31 July 1991) Strategic Arms Reduction Talks II (treaty signed on 3 January 1993) Strategic Arms Reduction Talks III (no agreement was reached until 2007) Strategic Arms Reduction Talks There are many alternatives Tampere Peace Research Institute . Treaty Establishing the European Community Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Recíproca [Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance] Treaty of Rio there is no alternative theatre missile defence Transnational Corporation Transnational Enterprise Terrorisme, Radicalisme, Extremisme et Violence Internationale Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights United Arab Republic University of California in Los Angeles


Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine[West African Economic and Monetary Union] UK United Kingdom UMA Union du Maghreb Arabe UN United Nations UN ECHA Core Group, as in UN Executive Committe on Humanitarian Affairs UNAMSIL United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992) UNCHE United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm (1972) UNDF United Nations Development Fund UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNDPA United Nations Department of Political Affairs UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNEP-GRID United Nations Environment Programme (Arendal research centre in Norway) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNESCO-IHE UNESCO, Institute for Water Education UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNITA Union for the Total Liberation of Angola UNMIK United Nations Mission in Kosovo UNMIL United Nations Mission in Liberia UNODOC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNOMIL United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia UNPP United Nations Populations Programme UNSC United Nations Security Council UNSSD United Nations Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (2002) UNTAET United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor UNU United Nations University UNU-EHS United Nations University, Environment and Human Security Institute UNU-WIDER United Nations University - World Institute for Development Economics Research UPDPS Union for Democracy and Social Progress US ACDA United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency US United States (of America) USA United States of America USAID United States Agency for International Development


Abbreviations USG USIP USP USSR

Under Secretary-General United States Institute of Peace University of the South Pacific Union of Socialist Soviet Republics



World Bank German Advisory Council on Global Change Wider Black Sea Region World Commission on Environment and Development World Climate Research Programme world direct investment World Disaster Report (International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Society) World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland Western European Union World Food Programme Working Group on Numerical Experimentation World Health Organization






Weapons of Mass Destruction World Maritime Organization War on terror Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty Organization World Social Forum World Summit on Sustainable Development World Trade Center Warsaw Treaty Organization World Trade Organization World Wildlife Fund Second World War (1939–1945) World Weather Research Program Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front Ziviler Friedensdienst [Civil Peace Service] Zentrum für Internationale Friedenseinsätze [Center for International Peace Operations] in Berlin Zivil-Militärische Zusammenarbeit Ausland [Civil-Military Cooperation Abroad]


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1089 Asia: Search for an Alternative Paradigm (New Delhi: Sage, 2007, forthcoming). Address: Prof. Dr. Navnita Chadha Behera, Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Maulana Mohamed Ali Jauhar Marg, New Delhi – 110025; private address: Prof. Dr. Navnita Chadha Behera, 993, Sector 40, Gurgaon (Haryana) – 122003, India. Email: . Béchir Chourou (Tunisia): Ph.D. in Political Science from Northwestern University (USA). He currently teaches International Relations at the University of Tunis-Carthage in Tunisia. Among his recent publications are: Promoting Human Security: Ethical, Normative and Educational Frameworks for the Arab States (Paris: UNESCO, 2005); “The Challenge of Democracy in North Africa”, in: Democratisation, 9/1 (Spring 2002): 17–39; "Mediterranean Relations: A Southern Perspective", Foreign Service Journal, pp. 24–30; “The (Ire)relevance of Security Issues in Euro-Mediterranean Relations”, in: Zürcher Beiträge, No. 61: 57-74; “Security Partnership and Democratisation: Perception of the Activities of Northern Security Institutions in the South”, in: Hans Günter Brauch, Antonio Marquina, Abdelwahab Biad (Eds.), Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for the 21st Century (London: Macmillan, 2000). He also presented testimony on Euro-Mediterranean relations before the European Parliament and the House of Lords. Address: Prof. Dr. Béchir Chourou, Professor of International Relations, 12 Avenue 7 Novembre, 1164 HammamChatt, Tunisia; Fax 216-71-431871. E-mail: . Patricia Kameri-Mbote (Kenya), Associate Professor, School of Law, University of Nairobi, Chair, Department of Private Law and Programme Director for Africa, International Environmental Law Research Centre (IELRC), Nairobi. She studied law at the University of Nairobi, the University of Warwick, the University of Zimbabwe and pursued her doctoral studies at Stanford Law School, Stanford University. She is currently also an Advocate of the High Court of Kenya. She has also taught international environmental law at the University of Kansas. She is a member of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law, a board member of the Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE-Uganda) and Women and Law in East Africa (WLEA). She has consulted for many international and national agencies including the World Bank, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and the government of Kenya. She is also the Africa Editor of the Law, Environment and Development Journal (LEAD Journal), a peer-reviewed academic journal jointly published by IELRC and SOAS. She has published widely in the areas of international law, environmental law, women's rights and property rights. Her research interests include public international law, environment and natural resources law and policy, human rights, women’s rights, intellectual property

1090 rights, biotechnology policy and law and economic law. Among her major publications are: (Co-author with N. Chalifour et al.) Land Use for Sustainable Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007); Property Rights and Biodiversity Management in Kenya (Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2002); The Making of a Framework Environmental Law in Kenya (Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2001); (Co-author with C.O. Okidi): Coming to Life: Biotechnology in African Economic Recovery (1994); (co-author with Calestous Juma and John Mugabe): “Towards a Liability and Redress System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System”, in: East African Law Journal (2004); “Gender Dimensions of Law, Colonialism and Inheritance in East Africa: Kenyan Women’s Experiences”, in: VRÜ - Verfassung und Recht in Übersee – Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America (2002). Address: Prof. Dr. Patricia Kameri-Mbote, International Environmental Law Research Centre, Kenya Office, PO Box 2394 KNH, 00202 Nairobi, Kenya.

Editors Email: . Website: . P. H. Liotta (USA), Professor of Humanities and Executive Director of the Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy, Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island. The author of seventeen books, he is also Adjunct Professor in Comparative Politics and International Relations in the Department of Social Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York and he was a reviewer of Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability of Climate Change) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Address: Prof. Dr. P. H. Liotta, Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy, Salve Regina University, 100 Ochre Point Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island, 028404129, USA. Email: . Website: .

Biographies of Contributors


Authors of Forewords and Preface Essays Stavros Dimas (Greece) has been European Commissioner for the Environment since November 2004 and from March 2004–October 2004 he was European Commissioner for Employment and Social Affairs. Stavros C. Dimas studied law and economics at the University of Athens (Greece) and at New York University (USA) and worked for the legal department of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a branch of the World Bank (1970– 1975), and for Sullivan & Cromwell, a Wall Street Law Firm (1969–1970), and he was Deputy Governor of the Hellenic Industrial Development Bank (1975–1977). He was elected ten times to the Greek Parliament (1977–2004) representing the party of New Democracy and held leading posts in Greek politics as Member of the negotiating committee for the accession of Greece to the EEC (1977); Deputy Minister of Economic Coordination (1977–1980); Minister of Trade (1980–1981); Parliamentary spokesperson for New Democracy (1985–1989); Minister of Agriculture (1989–1990); Minister of Industry, Energy and Technology (1990–1991); Secretary General of New Democracy (1995– 2000); Senior Member of the Political Analysis Steering Committee of New Democracy (2000–2003); Head of the New Democracy delegation, Council of Europe (2000– 2004). Address: European Commissioner Stavros Dimas, European Commission, DG Environment, Cabinet of the Commissioner, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium. Email: . Website: . Hans van Ginkel (The Netherlands) was Rector of the United Nations University and Under Secretary General of the United Nations (1997–2007). He was born in KotaRadjah (Bandar Acheh, Indonesia) in 1940. He obtained a M.Sc. from Utrecht University in human and physical geography, anthropology and history (1966) with a thesis on the morphology and functions of Southeast Asian cities in the early 17th century. His Ph.D. thesis was on “Suburbanization and recent residential environments, with a casestudy of the Green Heart of the Randstad”. He taught geography and history at the Thomas à Kempis College, Arnhem (1965–1968). From 1968–1985, he worked at Utrecht University in the Faculty of Geographical Sciences, since 1980, as full professor in human geography and planning; as Dean of the Faculty (1981–1985), as a member of the Executive Board (1985), as Rector Magnificus (1986– 1997). He was a member (now an honorary member) of the Commission on the History of Geographical Thought of the International Geographical Union (IGU), chair of the organizing committee of the 28th International Geographical Congress (The Hague, 1996: “Land, Sea and the Human Effort”), a Board Chair of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (1986–2000). He also chaired the National Science and Technology Week (1988–1998). He is interested in the application of geographical knowledge in society, urban and regional plan-

ning, public housing and housing markets, and public administration. He was chairman of the Regional Council of Utrecht (1988–1993); a board member of the Utrecht Network for Innovation and Economy (UNIE) (1994– 1997); Chair of the Coordinating Committee of Advisory Councils on Science Policy (COS) (1991–1997) and a member of the National Foresight Committee on Science Policy (1993). From 1994 to 1998, he has been a member of the European Science and Technology Assembly (Bruxelles) and in 1997–1998 member of the National Council for Science and Technology Policy (AWT). Hans van Ginkel has contributed to numerous international organizations: the governing board of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation at Enschede (President 1990–1998), the Board of the European Association of Universities (CRE, Vice-president 1994–1998), the Board of the International Association of Universities (IAU, Vice-president, 1995–2000, President, 2000–2004). He was Treasurer of the Netherlands Foundation for International Cooperation in Higher Education (NUFFIC) from 1986-1997. He also extended the cooperative links of Utrecht University towards Latin America (Costa Rica, Bolivia), Southern Africa and South-East Asia. In 1992, he became a member of the Governing Council of the United Nations University; in 1994 also of Unesco's Advisory Group for Higher Education and in 1996, member of the Steering Committee for Unesco's World Conference on Higher Education (Paris, 1998); Vice-chair of the Board of Trustees of the Asian Institute of Technology, AIT, Bangkok (1997 –2006). He has chaired the advisory board of the German Centre for Development Research (Zentrum fur Entwicklungsforschung, ZEF, in Bonn) since 2006 and became the chair of the Board of Supervisors of the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague in 2007. He was appointed to the Social Sciences Council of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW); Knighthood in the Order of the Netherlands’ Lion from Queen Beatrix (1994); highest medals of distinction of the City of Utrecht, the Chamber of Commerce and Utrecht University. He received honorary doctorates from the Universitatea Babes-Bolyai of Cluj in Romania (1997); State University of California (Sacramento, 2003); University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana (2005), Technical University of Zvolen, Slovakia (2006), and McMaster University, Ontario, Canada (2007). In 2001 he was appointed a member of the Academia Europaea (Social Sciences); and in 2005 he became associate fellow of TWAS (The Academy of Science of the Developing Countries). Email: . Klaus Töpfer (Germany) has been professor for environment and sustainable development at the Tongji University in Shanghai, PRC since 2 May 2007; he was Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Director-General of the United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON) from February 1998 until June 2006;

1092 Acting Executive Director of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (formerly UNCHS/Habitat, now UN Habitat) from July 1998 to August 2000; from 1994–1995 he was chairman of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). Before joining the UN, he held several posts in the Federal Government of Germany as Federal Minister of Regional Planning, Building and Urban Development as well as Coordinator of the Transfer of the Parliament and Federal Government to Berlin (1994–1998); as Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (1987–1994). Before he was State Minister of Environment and Health in Rhineland-Palatine (1985–1987) and State Secretary at the Ministry of Social Affairs, Health and Environment (1978–1985). He studied economics at the universities of Mainz, Frankfurt and Münster where he gradated as an economist (1964) and completed his Ph.D. in political science (1968). From 1965–1971 he was an Assistant at the Central Institute for Regional Research and Planning at the University of Münster, a teaching assistant at the Economic Academy Hagen and at the University of Bielefeld; he headed the department of economics at the Münster Central Institute for Regional Planning (1970–1971) and the department of planning and information at the chancellery of State of Saar (1971–1978), he was a lecturer at the University of Administrative Science in Speyer and an expert in developmental policy in Egypt, Malawi, Brazil and Jordan. Before his political career he was full professor at the University of Hannover where he directed the Institute of Regional Research and Development (1978–1979) and a member in the Council of Experts on Environmental Issues. He is the recipient of several honours including the Order of Merit (1986), the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit (1989), and the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit all of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1997–1998 he was Honorary Professor of Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; he received honorary doctorates of the Technical University of Brandenburg, Cottbus; Free University of Berlin and University of Essen (2002); University of Hannover (2003); Technical University Lausanne (2005); and of the Technical University Freiberg (2007). He was awarded the Bruno H. Schubert Environment Prize and the German Environment Prize (2002); the Theodor Heuss Price and the Dag-Hammarskjöld Honorary Medal of the German Society for the United Nations (2005). He spearheaded environmental policy as Minister of Environment in Germany where he introduced many environmental regulations and laws such as the law on the life-cycle economy and the packaging recycling system ‘Green dot’, to ban the use of environmentally harmful substances such as SO2 and ozone depleting substances. He actively contributed to the success of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (1992) as a forerunner in the negotiations for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the establishment of the Global

Authors of Forewords and Preface Essays Environment Facility (GEF). As Executive Director of UNEP he promoted the environment and sustainable development, and fought for the developing world. He restructured UNEP under five priority areas (environmental assessment and early warning, development of policy instruments, enhanced coordination with environmental conventions, technology transfer and industry, support to Africa). His vision is to make environment work to improve the lives of present and future generations. The environment should not be seen as an impediment for economic development. Protection of natural resources and regulations on the use of harmful substances trigger technology development and create new markets and jobs. He believes that environment policy is the peace policy of the future and he argued that it is crucial that “we create a culture of cooperation and mutual respect between north and south, rich and poor if we want to avoid ever growing tensions in a world where water and other vital resources can no longer be taken for granted.” Address: Prof. Dr. Klaus Töpfer, Grüne Mühle 52, 37671 Höxter, Germany. Email: . Jonathan Dean (United States of America): a former ambassador, is now adviser on Global Security Issues, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), one of the largest public interest organizations in the United States working on questions of environmental and international security. A graduate of the National War College, he holds a PhD in political science from George Washington University. During World War II, he saw combat infantry service from Normandy to the Elbe, before he joined the U.S. Foreign Service in 1949. In the Foreign Service, he worked mainly on issues of EastWest relations, disarmament, and international peacekeeping. In 1950 in Bonn he was liaison officer between the US High Commission and the Federal German government. Later he served as desk officer for East Germany in the Department of State and as first secretary at the American Embassy in Prague. In the early 1960’s, he was principal officer in Elisabethville, Katanga, during the Tshombe secession and the subsequent UN peacekeeping intervention, and deputy director of the Office of United Nations Political Affairs, Department of State, where he worked on peacekeeping and economic sanctions. In 1968 he returned to the American embassy in Bonn as deputy US negotiator for the 1971 quadripartite agreement on Berlin. He joined UCS in 1984, and now works on issues related to national and European security, arms control, and international peacekeeping. He is the author of Watershed in Europe (1987), Meeting Gorbachev's Challenge (1989), Ending Europe's Wars (1994), and co-author of The Nuclear Turning Point (Brookings, 1999). His views have also been published in the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe, Christian Science Monitor, Washington Post and Baltimore Sun, as well as in journals such as Foreign Policy, International Security and Foreign Affairs. Since 1990, he has served as chairman of the Advisory Board of AFES-PRESS. Address: Amb. Jonathan Dean, Union of Concerned Scientists, 1707 H Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 200063962, USA.

Biographies of Contributors Email: . Website: . Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), research professor at the National University of Mexico (UNAM), in the Regional Multidisciplinary Research Center (CRIM). See: Biographies of Editors. Vandana Shiva (India) is a physicist, ecofeminist, environmental activist and author of over 300 papers in scientific and technical journals. She was trained as a physicist and received her Ph.D. in physics at the University of Western Ontario in 1978. She later went on to interdisciplinary research in science, technology and environmental policy, at the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore. In 1982, she founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology. She has fought for sustainable agriculture and local food culture. In 1995 she co-founded Diverse Women for Diversity. She has contributed intellectually and through campaigns to the understanding of intellectual property rights, biodiversity, biotechnology, bioethics, and genetic engineering. She has assisted green grassroots organizations with campaigns against genetic engineering. She advised governments and NGOs and in 1970 she participated in the nonviolent Chipko movement and established Navdanya, a movement for biodiversity conservation and farmers’ rights. She is a leader of the International Forum on Globalization and of the alter-globalization movement. She has argued for the wisdom of traditional practices in her book Vedic Ecology. In 1993, she received the Right Livelihood Award (Alternative Nobel Prize) “for placing women and ecology at the heart of modern development discourse” and the Global 500 Award of UNEP; the Earth Day International Award of the UN; the Order of the Golden Ark by his Royal Highness Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands; VIDA SANA International Award in Spain; in 1995 the Pride of the Doon Award from Doon Citizen Council, Dehra Dun, India; in 1997 The Golden Plant Award in Denmark and the Alfonso Comin Award, Barcelona, Spain; in 1998 the Commemorative Medal by Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand in Bangkok; Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic from the International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre at Rimini, Italy and in 2000 the Pellegrino Artusi Award, Italy; in 2001 the HORIZON 3000 Award of Austria. All awards were for defending human rights, preservation of peace and sustainable development with a gender perspective for the vision of a world wide fair development. Among her major publications are: (Co-authored with): H.C. Sharatchandra, J. Banyopadhyay: Social Economic and Ecological Impact of Social Forestry in Kolar (Bangalore: Indian Institute of Management, 1981); Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India (New Delhi: Zed Press, 1988); Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts Over Natural Resources in India (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1991); The Violence of the Green Revolution: Ecological degradation and political conflict in Punjab (New Del-

1093 hi: Zed, 1992); (Ed.): Biodiversity: Social and Ecological Perspectives (London: Zed, 1992); (Ed.): Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections (New Delhi: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and Kali for Women, 1993); Monocultures of the Mind: Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Agriculture (New Delhi: Zed, 1993); (Co-author with Maria Mies): Ecofeminism (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, Fernwood Publications, 1993); Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development Worldwide (London: Earthscan, 1994); (Co-author with Ingunn Moser): Biopolitics (London: Zed, 1995); Biopiracy: the Plunder of Nature and Knowledge (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997); Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999); Tomorrow's Biodiversity (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000); Patents, Myths and Reality (Penguin India, 2001); Water Wars (Boston: South End Press, 2001); Vedic Ecology: Practical Wisdom for Surviving the 21st Century (Novato, CA: Mandala Publishing Group, 2002); Water Wars; Privatization, Pollution, and Profit (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2002); Globalization's New Wars: Seed, Water and Life Forms (New Delhi: Women Unlimited, 2005); Breakfast of Biodiversity: the Political Ecology of Rain Forest Destruction (2005); Earth Democracy; Justice, Sustainability, and Peace (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2005). Address: Dr. Vandana Shiva, A-60, Hauz Khas, New Delhi110016, India; Tel.: 91-11-26535422, 26968077. E-mail: . Website: . Narcís Serra (Spain) has been the President of the CIDOB Foundation since 2000. During this time, he has been the driving force behind the creation of the Barcelona Institute for International Studies (IBEI), which was founded with the desire to make Barcelona a centre of reference in the study of this discipline and where he is a Lecturer in International Peace and Security. Currently, he is also the President of Caixa Catalunya and Chairman of the Board of the National Museum of Art of Catalonia (MNAC). In 1977 he was named Catalan Minister of Town and Country Planning and Public Works and in April 1979, he was elected Mayor of Barcelona. In 1982, he was named Spanish Minister of Defence in the Government of Felipe González, and in 1991, he was named Vice President of the Spanish Government. From 1986 until 2004, he was a Deputy for Barcelona in the Spanish Congress. He earned a B.A. in Economics from the University of Barcelona, where he held the position of Teaching Assistant in the College of Economics. Between 1970 and 1972, he studied Monetary Economics as a Research Fellow at the London School of Economics. In 1973, he earned a Ph.D. in Economics from the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), and in 1976, he became a Senior Lecturer in Economic Theory, first at the University of Seville and then at the UAB. He has given numerous keynote addresses and lectures on issues of war and peace, defence, human security and on the democratic control of armed forces. On this issue, he has written the book: El Control Democrático de las Fuer-

1094 zas Armadas [Democratic Control of the Armed Forces] (Barcelona: Random House Mondadori, forthcoming). He is also co-editor with José Luis Machinea: Visiones sobre el Desarrollo en América Latina [Views on Development in Latin America] (Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation – Santiago de Chile: ECLAC, 2007); co-editor with Joseph Stiglitz: From the Washington Consensus Towards a New Global Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming); co-editor with Manuel Castells: Europa en construcción. Integración, identidades y seguridad [Europe Under Construction. Integration, Identities and Security] (Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation, 2004); co-editor with Manuel Castells: Guerra y paz en el siglo XXI. Una perspectiva Europea [War and Peace in the 21st Century. A European Perspective] (Barcelona: Kriterios Tusquets Editores, 2003). Among his major recent articles are “The Debate on Globalization: Two New Contributions”, in: David Held et al. (Eds.): Debating Globalization (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005): 118–125; and “One Year On: Lessons from Iraq”, in: Chaillot Paper 68 (Paris: European Institute for Security Studies, March 2004): 113–120. Among his most remarkable lectures and interventions in 2005–2007 are: “Seguridad

Authors of Forewords and Preface Essays Ciudadana y Gobierno Local en América Latina. Amenazas y Desafíos” [Citizen Security and Local Government in Latin America. Threats and Challenges], intervention in the 2nd Inter-American Forum on Security and Citizen Coexistence, Cities for Peace, Lima, 2 March 2007; “War and Peace in the 21st Century. Geopolitics of Energy”, intervention in the War & Peace Seminar, Barcelona, 20 January 2007; “Europa y el Nuevo Orden Internacional” [Europe and the New International Order], inaugural lecture for the 2006– 2007 academic year at the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, 20 September 2006; and “Del diálogo a la acción” [“From Dialogue to Action”], intervention in the seminar, “The ESDP and the Mediterranean. Prospects for Dialogue in the Area of Security and Defence in the Barcelona Process”, EU Institute for Strategic Studies, Paris, 10 May 2005. For a complete list of publications and interventions: see at: . Address: Dr. Narcís Serra, President of the CIDOB Foundation, Fundació CIDOB. C/ Elisabets, 12, 08001 Barcelona, Spain. Email: . Website: .

Biographies of Contributors


Authors Sinem Acikmese (Turkey) is a research fellow and a PhD candidate at the European Studies Program of Ankara University. She holds a BA in International Relations as well as an MA in European Studies – International Relations from Ankara University. As a Jean Monnet scholar, she studied at the European Institute of London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) for her MSc degree in European Studies. She is now working on her PhD on “Comparative Analysis of European Security through the Lens of the Copenhagen School and Traditional Security Studies.” Her selected publications are: “Has The Period of ‘Civilian Power Europe’ Come To An End”, in: Ankara Review of European Studies (2002); (Co-author with M. Aydin): “Waiting for December 2004: Turkish Blues for the EU”, in: The International Spectator (2004); “The Underlying Dynamics of the Common Foreign and Security Policy”, in: Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs (2004); “The Management of Security in EU’s New Neighborhood: Union’s Tactics Revisited”, in: Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs (2006). Address: Ms. Sinem Acikmese, Ankara University, EU Research Center, Cebeci, 06590, Ankara, Turkey. Email: . Ulrich Albrecht (Germany), professor of Peace and Conflict Studies em., Free University of Berlin (1972–2005). He was born in Leipzig in East Germany where he spent his childhood. He studied engineering at the Technical Universities of Aachen and Stuttgart (1960–1967). He graduated as an aeronautical engineer (Dipl. Ing.) at Stuttgart University where he also received a Dr. phil. degree in political science and economics (1970) with a study on the arms trade. He was a research associate with the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London (1970–1971) and in 1972 he became a professor at the Free University of Berlin; where he was a Vice President (1982–1983) and dean of the political science faculty (1987–1988). In 1973 he founded the study group on military policy of the German Pugwash group (VDW). He was chairman of the Council of Peace Researchers of the (now dissolved) German Society for Peace and Conflict Research (DGFK); an adviser and elected as a member of the German Commission of the Council of Churches for International Affairs (since 1975); a consultant to the Department of Disarmament Affairs at the UN HQ in New York (1983–85); head of planning, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, GDR (1990) after the fall of the Berlin wall and prior to unification where he participated in the 2+4 negotiations; chairman of the Society for Peace and Conflict Research (AFK) and a member of the Council of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. His work focused on armament processes, disarmament issues, arms trade, arms technology, conversion studies, security issues in Europe and worldwide, East-West integration, German foreign and defence policy. Among his recent books (see bibliography) are: Die Spezialisten. Die Migration deutscher Wissenschaftler in die UdSSR (1992); The History of the Soviet Armament Industry (1992); (Co-ed.

with Ulrike Beisiegel, Reiner Braun, Werner Buckel): Der Griff nach dem atomaren Feuer (1996); (Co-author with Helmut Volger): Lexikon der Internationalen Politik (1997); (Co-ed. with Mary Kaldor, Geneviève Schméder): The End of Military Fordism (1998); Internationale Politik. Einführung in das System internationaler Herrschaft (51999); (Co-ed. with Michael Kalmann, Paul Schäfer): Das Kosovo-Dilemma (2002); (Co-ed. with: Jörg Becker): Medien zwischen Krieg und Frieden (2002); (Co-author): A Human Security Doctrine for Europe. The Barcelona Report of the Study Group on European Capabilities (2004). Address: Prof. Dr. em. Ulrich Albrecht, Paulsenstraße 3-4, 12163 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Website:. J. F. [Frederik] M. Arends (The Netherlands): retired teacher (1973–2006) of Latin and ancient Greek at Bonaventura College, Leiden (The Netherlands). He studied classical philology and philosophy at the universities of Leiden (MA, 1968) and Heidelberg; was fellow of the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies (NIAS) at Wassenaar (1982– 1983). Ph.D. from Leiden University (1988). Guest lectures on Plato’s Republic at the Free University (V.U.) of Amsterdam (1984–1985) and at Leiden University (2002–2003). Publications on ancient Greek political philosophy include: Die Einheit der Polis. Eine Studie über Platon’s Staat. Ph.D. Dissertation (Leiden: Brill, 1988) and the following articles: “Could Plato be an Ally against the Decay of Democracy?”, in: Boudouris, K. (Ed.): Platonic Political Philosophy and Contemporary Democratic Theory (Athens 1997); “Plato as a Problem-Solver. The Unity of the Polis as a Key to the Interpretation of Plato’s Republic”, in: Ostenfeldt, E.N. (Ed.): Essays on Plato’s Republic (Aarhus U.P., 1998); “Survival, War and Unity of the Polis in Plato’s Statesman”, in: Polis 12 (1993): 154–83; “The Long March to Plato’s Statesman”, in: Polis 16 (1999): 93–125; “The Long March to Plato’s Statesman Continued”, in: Polis 18 (2001): 125–52; “Plato’s Anticipation of a Polis without an Outside: the Transformation of the Outside-Inside Problem”, in: Politeia, Politikos, Timaios and Nomoi”, in: Boudouris, K. (Ed.): Polis and Cosmopolis: Problems of a Global Era, Vol. II (Athens 2003); “Why Socrates came too late for Gorgias’ epideixis: Plato’s Gorgias as political philosophy”, in: Erler, M.; Brisson, L. (Eds.): Gorgias – Menon; Selected Papers from the Seventh Symposium Platonicum (Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2007). Address: Dr. J. F. M. Arends, Witte Singel 79, 2311 BP Leiden, The Netherlands. Email: . Mustafa Aydin (Turkey): Professor of International Relations at the TOBB-University of Economics and Technology; Director of the International Policy Research Institute (IPRI) of the Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey (TEPAV), Ankara. He was a Research Fellow at the

1096 Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan (1998); UNESCO Fellow at the Richardson Institute for Peace Studies, Lancaster University, UK (1999); Fulbright Scholar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (2002); Alexander S. Onassis Fellow at the University of Athens (2003); and Research Fellow at the EU Institute for Security Studies, Paris (2003). Among others, he is the author of: Turkish Foreign Policy During the Gulf War (1998); New Geopolitics of Central Asia and the Caucasus: Causes of Instability and Predicament (2000); Ten Years After: Turkey’s Gulf Policy Revisited (2002); Turkish Foreign Policy. Framework and Analysis (2004); (Ed.): Turkey at the Threshold of the 21st Century (1998); (Co-ed. with K. Ifantis): Greek-Turkish Relations in the 21st Century: Escaping from the Security Dilemma in the Aegean (2002); (Co-ed. with C. Erhan); Turkish-American Relations; 200 Years of Divergence and Convergence (2002); (Co-ed. with T.Y. Ismael): Turkey’s Foreign Policy in the 21st Century: A Changing Role in World Politics (2002); Central Asia in Global Politics (in Turkish, 2004): (Co-ed. with K. Ifantis) International Security Today; Understanding Change and Debating Strategy (2006). Address: Prof. Dr. Mustafa Aydin, TOBB-University of Economics and Technology, Sogutozu Caddesi, No 43, Sogutozu, 06560, Ankara, Turkey. E-Mail: . Jon Barnett (Australia) is an Australian Research Council Fellow in the School of Social and Environmental Enquiry at the University of Melbourne. Prior to this he was a Senior Lecturer in Development Studies at Melbourne University, and a New Zealand Science and Technology Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Canterbury. He has a PhD in Resource Management and Environmental Science from the Australian National University. He is a human geographer whose research concerns the impacts of environmental change on social systems. This includes research on climate change, environmental security, and water. His research draws on and contributes to a range of disciplines and fields of study including geography, development studies, environmental studies, and political science. In recent years he has conducted fieldwork in the South Pacific, China, and East Timor. He is the author of The Meaning of Environmental Security (Zed Books). Address: Dr. Jon Barnett, Social and Environmental Enquiry, The University of Melbourne 3010, Victoria, Australia. Email: . Website: http://>. John Baylis (United Kingdom) PhD, D.Litt., Professor of Politics and International Relations and Pro-Vice-Chancellor at Swansea University, Wales, UK. He was formerly a Professor in the International Politics Department at Aberystwyth where he was also Dean of Social Sciences. Until recently he was Head of the Politics and International Politics Department at Swansea. He has spent two periods as Visiting Professor at the University of Virginia in 1981 and Brigham Young University in Utah in 1987. During the early

Authors 1990’s he also spent a period as Academic Adviser to the National Defence College in London. He specializes in the fields of strategic and security studies, international relations and nuclear history. He is the author of more than 20 books, including: (Co-ed. with N. Rengger): Dilemmas of World Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992); Ambiguity and Deterrence (Oxford University Press, 1995) and (Co-ed. with Steve Smith): The Globalization of World Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 32005). Address: Prof. Dr. John Baylis, Vice-Chancellor’s Office, Singleton Park, Swansea. Wales. UK. SA3 8PP. Email: . Website: . Navnita Chadha Behera (New Delhi), Professor at the Nelson Mandela Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia. See: Biographies of Editors. Alberto Bin (Italy), Dr. is the Head of the Regional Affairs Section in the Political Affairs & Security Policy Division at NATO Headquarters in Brussels. In this capacity, he is responsible for NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative for the Broader Middle East, as well as for all the countries outside the Euro-Atlantic area including Argentina, Australia, China, Iraq, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Korea. Prior to joining NATO, he was Deputy Director of the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies at the University of Malta, where he held the Chair of international history. He was also Visiting Professor at the Department of Political Studies at the University of Catania, Italy. Prior to that, he spent several years working in the private sector including in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Dr. Bin’s undergraduate education was in history at the “La Sapienza” University in Rome, Italy. He received a Masters degree and a Ph.D. in international relations from the Graduate Institute of International Studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. He has published books and articles on international history, and Mediterranean and Middle East security. Address: Dr. Alberto Bin, Head, Regional Affairs & Mediterranean Dialogue/Istanbul Cooperation Initiative for the Broader Middle East, NATO Political Affairs & Security Policy Division, NATO Headquarters, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: . Website: . Sven Biscop (Belgium) obtained his PhD in political sciences from Ghent University in 2002. He is a senior research fellow at Egmont – The Royal Institute for International Relations in Brussels, where he focuses on the foreign, security and defence policies of the EU, and is editor in chief of the Institute’s journal ‘Studia Diplomatica’. He is visiting professor of European security at the College of Europe in Bruges and has lectured at Ghent University, the Université Libre de Bruxelles, the Université de Liège, Renmin University (Beijing) and Carleton University (Ottawa). With the Royal Defence College (Brussels) he co-organizes the ‘Higher Studies in Security and Defence’. He is a member of the Executive Academic Board of the EU’s European Se-

Biographies of Contributors curity and Defence College. His main publications include Euro-Mediterranean Security: A Search for Partnership (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2003), The European Security Strategy – A Global Agenda for Positive Power (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005) and (co-editor with Jan Joel Andersson): The EU and the European Security Strategy – Forging a Global Europe (London: Routledge, 2007). Address: Prof. Dr. Sven Biscop, Egmont – The Royal Institute for International Relations, Rue de Namur 69, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: . Website: . Michael Bothe (Germany), Professor emeritus, Dr.iur. He studied law at the Universities of Heidelberg and Hamburg and International Relations at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva. From 1964 to 1979, he was research assistant/fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International law, Heidelberg, 1968/69 also visiting scholar at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. He obtained two German law degrees (1961, 1966), a diploma of the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva (1966), a Dr. iur. (1967) and a “Habilitation” from Heidelberg (1974). He served as Professor of Public Law, in particular international law at the Universities of Heidelberg, Hannover and Frankfurt (1977–2003). He was visiting professor/lecturer at different universities in Europe, the United States and Australia. He directed and coordinated a number of major international research projects, among them the Tacis Project “Creation of an Institute of European Law at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations” (1996–2000). He was Vice-President and President, European Environmental Law Association 1993–1998; President, German Society for International Law 2001–2005. He is Chair, Commission for International Humanitarian Law, German Red Cross, and President of the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission. He also served as counsel in various cases before the International Court of Justice and the German Federal Constitutional Court. He is the author of numerous publications on international law and the use of force, international humanitarian law, international, European and comparative environmental law as well as comparative constitutional law, including: (Co-author with Partsch/Solf): New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts, Commentary on the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Den Haag/Boston/London 1982); (Co-ed. with Ronzitti/Rosas): The OSCE in the Maintenance of Peace and Security. Conflict Prevention, Crisis Management and Peaceful settlements of Disputes (Den Haag et al. 1997); (Co-ed. with Ronzitti/Rosas): The New Chemical Weapons Convention - Implementation and Prospects (Den Haag et al. 1998); (Ed.): Towards a Better Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (Berlin 2001). Address: Prof. Dr. em. Michael Bothe, Theodor Heuss Str. 6, 64625 Bensheim, Germany. Email: . Hans Günter Brauch (Germany): Dr. phil. habil, Privatdozent at the Faculty of Political Science and Social Sciences,

1097 Free University of Berlin, since 1987 chairman of Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS). See: Biographies of Editors. Casey Brown (United States of America), Ph.D., is Associate Research Scientist and Water Team Leader at the International Research Institute for Climate and Society of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. His research focuses on increasing the resilience of water systems to climate variability and change through the use of advanced climate science and hydrologic forecasting, in combination with decision theory and systems analysis. Another area of interest is the role of climate variability, investment and hydrologic risk in poverty reduction and economic development. He is PI and co-PI for several projects in the U.S. and abroad funded by NOAA, the World Bank and other agencies. He is Adjunct Assistant Professor in Columbia’s M.A. in Climate and Society program. Recent publications include “Water and Economic Development: the role of variability and a framework for resilience”, in: Natural Resources Forum (2006) and “Managing Hydroclimatologic Risk to Water Supply with Option Contracts and Reservoir Index Insurance” in: Water Resources Research (2007). He obtained his PhD in environmental engineering science as a National Science Foundation Fellow at Harvard University and is a licensed professional engineer in the state of Colorado, USA. Address: Dr. Casey Brown, Monell Building, 61 Rt. 9W, Palisades, New York, USA 10964. Email: . Website: . Michael von Brück (Germany), professor of Religious Studies at the University of Munich. He studied protestant theology, Sanskrit and Indian philosophy (1968–1973), was research student at the University of Rostock (1973–1975) where he obtained a Dr. theol. (1975) and a ‘habilitation’ (1982). He studied philosophy of the Mahayana-Buddhism at the Gaden Mahayana Monastic University (Karnataka) and in Dharamsala, India and Tibetan Buddhism in Ladakh, Zanskar und Sikkim (1983–1985). He was a visiting professor at the universities of Groningen (1978); Harvard Centre for the Study of World Religions, University of California (Santa Barbara) and Claremont College (1980); Hawaii Loa College, University of Hawaii, University of Lancaster (Religious Studies), Selly Oak Colleges, Birmingham and Teilhard-Centre (1983–1984); Gurukul Lutheran Theological College, Madras (India); He was a Research Fellow at the University of Madras (1981–1985); Hamburg University (1985), postdoctoral fellow at the ecumenical institute of Tübingen University (Prof. Dr. Hans Küng) with a research project on Buddhism and Christianity in dialogue; Visiting Associate Professor in Comparative Religion, Dept. of Religious Studies, Rice University, Houston, Tx. (spring 1988); from 1988–1991 he was professor of comparative religion at the University Regensburg and since June 1991 he has been professor for mission and religion at the protestant theological faculty, University of Munich. He published widely in German and English on Buddhism, Hinduism and intercultural dialogue. Among his major books in English are:

1098 (Ed.): Authentic Consciousness – Hope for the Future (Madras: Gurukul Publications, 1984); (Ed.): Emerging Consciousness for a New Humankind (Bangalore: Asian Trading Corporation, 1985); The Unity of Reality. God, GodExperience and Meditation in the Hindu-Christian Dialogue (New York: Paulist Press, 1991); English articles: “War and Peace in Hinduism”, in: Schmidt-Leukel, P. (Ed.): War and Peace in World Religions (London: SCM Press, 2004): 11–32; “Cross-Cultural Understanding and Dialogue: Principles, Methodology and Perspectives”; in: Chakma, Niru; Salahuddin, A.K.M. (Eds.): Inter-religious Dialogue: Chance for Peace (Dhaka: Goethe Institute, 2004); “Buddhist Concepts of Consciousness as a Basis for a Global Social Ethics”, in: Chappell, D.W. (Ed.): Socially Engaged Spirituality. Essays in Honour of Sulak Sivaraksa on His 70 th Birthday (Bangkok: Sathirakoses, 2003): 324–345; “Religious Identity and the Dialogue of Religions – Understanding the Social Construction of Alterity”, in: Cohen, N.; Heldrich, A. (Eds.): The Three Religions (München: Utz, 2002): 109–124; “The Quest for an Ethics in a CrossCultural Context”, in: Pohl, K.-H.; Müller, A.W. (Eds.): Chinese Ethics in a Global Context. Moral Bases of Contemporary Societies (Leiden: Brill 2002): 3–18; “The Contribution of Religious Studies to the Dialogue of the World Religions”, in: Koslowski, P. (Ed.): Philosophy Bridging the World Religions (Boston – London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003): 123–154; “The Buddhist Concepts of Prajna and Karuna in Relation to the Philosophy of Consciousness as Basis for a Global Social Ethics”, in: The 11 th International Conference on Buddhist Education and Culture (Taipei: Huafan University Press, 2000): 4–23; “Confrontation, Search for Identity and Integration: Historical and Hermeneutical Aspects of Buddhist-Christian Encounter in Sri Lanka”, in: Everding, U. (Ed.): Buddhism and Christianity. Interactions between East and West (Colombo: Goethe Institute, 1995): 214–232; “Sharing Religious Experience in Hindu-Christian Encounter”, in: Gort, J.D.; Vroom, H.; et al (Eds.): On Sharing Religious Experience. Possibilities of Interfaith Mutuality (Grand Rapids, MI.: Eerdmans Publ., 1992): 136–150; “Buddhist Shunyata and the Christian Trinity: The Emerging Holistic Paradigm. The Emerging Holistic Paradigma”, in: Corless, R.; Knitter, P. (Ed.): Buddhist Emptiness and Christian Trinity (New York: Paulist Press, 1990): 44–66. Address: Prof. Dr. Michael von Brück, Interfakultärer Studiengang Religionswissenschaft, Seminar für Religionswissenschaft und Philosophie der Religionen Europas, Ludwigstraße 31, room 203, 80539 München. Email: . Website:. Barry Buzan (UK) is a Professor of International Relations at the LSE, and honorary professor at Copenhagen University. From 1988 to 2002 he was Project Director at the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI). From 1995 to 2002 he was research Professor of International Studies at the University of Westminster, and before that Professor of International Studies at the University of Warwick. During 1993 he was visting professor at the International University

Authors of Japan, and in 1987– 1988 he was Olof Palme Visiting Professor in Sweden. He was Chairman of the British International Studies Association 1988 – 1990, Vice-President of the (North American) International Studies Association 1993 – 1994, and founding Secretary of the International Studies Coordinating Committee 1994– 1998. Since 1999 he has been the general coordinator of a project to reconvene the English school of International Relations, and from 2004 he is editor of the European Journal of International Relations. In 1998 he was elected a fellow of the British Academy, and in 2001 he was elected as an Academician of the Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences. His most recent books are: (Co-author with Richard Little): International Systems in World History: Remaking the Study of International Relations (2000); (Co-author with Ole Wæver): Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (2003); From International to World Society? English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation (2004); The United States and the Great Powers: World Politics in the Twenty-First Century (2004). Address: Prof. Dr. Barry Buzan, Department of International Relations, LSE, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK. Email: . Website: . Liu Cheng (People’s Republic of China), Dr., is Associate Professor of History at the History Department of Nanjing University, where his teaching specialization includes modern history and peace studies. He gained his PhD in 2001 for a thesis on the British Labour Party’s evolving policies on public ownership. Since 2001, he has been a leader of a British Council-funded programme of academic co-operation between Nanjing University and Coventry University, UK, in the field of peace studies. He was a visiting scholar at Coventry University’s Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies in 2003, and organizer of a major international symposium on peace studies at Nanjing University in 2005. With other colleagues in Nanjing, he is one of the pioneers to introduce peace studies as an academic discipline into Chinese universities and publications. His published works includes five books in Chinese, titles of which in translation are: Clause IV: Public Ownership and British Labour Party (2003); Britain: Transition from Great Power to EU Member-state, (2005) ; Wars and the Negotiations (2005); Peace Studies (2006); The Origin and Development of Social Democracy in Europe (2006). He has published many articles in journals, and is also a prolific translator, having recently published Chinese translations of works by Johan Galtung, Andrew Rigby, David P. Barash and Charles P. Webel. He is a member of the British History Association of China, the World Modern History Association of China and of the International Peace Research Association. Address: Dr. Liu Cheng, Department of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210093, China. Email: . Tarun Chhabra (United States) is a doctoral student in international relations at Merton College, University of Ox-

Biographies of Contributors ford. In 2004 and 2005 he worked at the United Nations on the research staff of the Secretary-General's High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, and in the Executive Office of the Secretary-General. He has been awarded Marshall, Clarendon and Fulbright (Russia) scholarships and holds a BA from Stanford University. Address: Tarun Chhabra, Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD, U.K. Email: . Béchir Chourou (Tunisia): Professor International Relations at the University of Tunis-Carthage in Tunisia. See: Biographies of Editors. Kevin P. Clements (New Zealand): is Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies and Foundation Director of the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Queensland, Australia. He was Secretary General of International Alert (1999–2003) when he was on the Board of the European Centre for Conflict Prevention and past President of the European Peace Building Liaison Office in Brussels. From 1994–2000 he was the Vernon and Minnie Lynch Chair of Conflict Resolution at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution at George Mason University (Virginia, USA) he directed from 1994–1999. Prior he was director of the Quaker United Nations Office in Geneva, head of the Peace Research Centre at the Australian National University in Canberra, a senior lecturer in Sociology and Co-ordinator of Peace Studies at Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand, lecturer in Sociology at Hong Kong University, and a post doctoral fellow at Oxford University. His career has been a combination of academic analysis and practice in the areas of peacebuilding and conflict transformation. He has been an advisor to the New Zealand, Australian, British, Swedish and Dutch governments on conflict prevention, peace, defence and security issues. He was a member of the New Zealand Government’s Defence Committee of Enquiry in 1985. From 1994–1998 he was President of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA), and from 1995–2000 he was President of the IPRA Foundation and from 1995–2000 he was Secretary General of the Asia Pacific Peace Research Association (APPRA). He has been a consultant to non governmental and intergovernmental organizations on disarmament, arms control, conflict resolution, development and regional security issues. He has written or edited 6 books and over 150 chapters and articles on conflict transformation, peacebuilding, preventive diplomacy and development. Address: Prof. Dr. Kevin P. Clements, Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia. Email:. Website: . Jean-Marc Coicaud (France) heads the United Nations University Office at the United Nations in New York. He was a Senior Academic Officer in the Peace and Governance Programme at UNU in Tokyo between 1996 and 2003. Before joining UNU, he served in the Executive Office of the Unit-

1099 ed Nations Secretary-General as a speechwriter for Dr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1992–1996). A former fellow at Harvard University (Center for International Affairs, Department of Philosophy and Harvard Law School 1986– 1992), Dr. Coicaud has held appointments as cultural attaché with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, legislative aide with the European Parliament (financial committee), Associate Professor at the University of Paris and visiting Professor at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. Dr. Coicaud holds a Ph.D. in political science, law from the Sorbonne and a Doctorat d'Etat in Philosophy from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques of Paris. He has been a Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace (Washington, D.C.), and a Global Research Fellow at New York University School of Law. He is the author of: L’introuvable democratie autoritaire (1996); Politics and Legitimacy. Contribution to the study of political right and responsibility” (2002), also available in Chinese, Japanese, French, Arabic and Spanish. He co-authored: Power in Transition: The Peaceful Change of International Order (2001), and co-edited: Ethics and International Affairs: Extent and Limits (2001), The Legitimacy of International Organizations (2001), The Globalization of Human Rights (2003). Address: United Nations University New York Office, 2 UN Plaza, DC2-2060, New York, New York, 100 17, USA. Email: . Website: . Naresh Dadhich (India), Ph.D. is a Professor of Political Science at the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, where he has been teaching post graduate classes since 1978. Since October 2006 he is Vice Chancellor of Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University at Kota (Rajasthan). He has worked on Gandhism and Peace Studies. His Ph.D. comparing Gandhi and existentialism is one of the earliest studies in comparative literature on Gandhi. He authored six books and numerous articles in scholarly journals, among them: Nonviolence, Peace and Politics:Understanding Gandhi (2003). His is the first book in Hindi on John Rawls's theory of Justice. He is a popular speaker and has travelled extensively in India and abroad for invited lectures. He is a referee for prestigious professional journals in the UK and in Australia and sits on the editorial board of the Journal of Peace Education (Taylor & Francis). He was the first Convener from Asia of the Peace Education Commission of the International Peace Research Association (2002–2006) and he published its newsletter: Peace Building. He received a prestigious Pell Fellowship of Salve Regina University (USA) in 2005. Prof. Dadhich was Director of the Center for Gandhian Studies at Rajasthan University (1996–2000) where he launched the publication of Gandhian Studies and organized national and international seminars and conferences. He has popularized Peace Studies and Peace Education in India through conferences, lectures and seminars. At Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University he has introduced a six month certificate one year diploma course on ‘Gandhian Theory of Nonviolent Conflict Resolution’ or Gandhigiri.



Address: prof. Dr. Naresh Dadhich, Vice Chancellor, Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota (Rajasthan) India; Permanent Address: 2-K-12, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 203004, India. Email: and: . Websites: ; and; .

ed in May 2007 for publication by SUNY Press, Albany, New York, and is expected to be published in spring 2008. He is married, lives with his wife in New York, and they have two children. Address: Prof. Dr. Juergen Dedring, 86-55 Pinto Street, Holliswood, NY 11423, USA. Email address: . Website: .

Simon Dalby (Canada) Ph.D. (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver); Professor of Geography, Environmental Studies and Political Economy, Carleton University, Ottawa. His research work concerns critical geopolitics, environmental security and political ecology and increasingly how all these matters link up with contemporary discussions of empire, and modes of urban consumption in the metropoles of the global economy. His articles have appeared in diverse scholarly journals including: Alternatives, Antipode, Australian Journal of International Affairs, Geopolitics, Global Environmental Politics, Intelligence and National Security, Political Geography, Society and Space and Studies in Political Economy. He is author of: Creating the Second Cold War (Pinter and Guilford, 1990) and Environmental Security (University of Minnesota Press, 2002). He is coeditor of: Rethinking Geopolitics (Routledge 11998, 22006) and of The Geopolitics Reader. Address: Prof. Dr. Simon Dalby, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S5B6 Canada. Email: . Website: .

Indra de Soysa (PhD) is Professor of Political Science at the Institute for Sociology and Political Science (ISS), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. He is also Associate at the Center for the Study of Civil War (CSCW) at the Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). He is the author of: Foreign Direct Investment, Democracy and Development: Assessing Contours, Correlates, and Concomitants of Globalization (London: Routledge, 2003). His scholarly publications appear in: International Studies Quarterly, International Organization, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Peace Research, World Development, Global Environmental Politics, American Sociological Review, and Comparative Sociology, among several others. He is currently researching the effects of the resource curse, the socio-political consequences of cultural diversity, the causes of political violence, and the political outcomes of foreign direct investment (FDI). Address: Prof. Dr. Indra de Soysa, ISS, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway. Email: . Website:.

Jonathan Dean (United States of America): a former ambassador, is now adviser on Global Security Issues, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays.

Jaap H. de Wilde (The Netherlands) is professor in International Relations and World Politics at the University of Groningen (August 2007). From 1995 till 2007 he worked at the Centre for European Studies at the University of Twente, which he combined with a professorship at the Department of Political Science of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam since 2001. Publications include: (Co-ed. with Monica den Boer) The Viability of Human Security: From Concept to Practice (2008); (Co-authored with Ole Wæver and Barry Buzan) Politics of Security (forthcoming); (Co-ed. with André W.M. Gerrits) Aan het slagveld ontsnapt: Over oorlogen die niet plaatsvonden (2000); (Co-authored with Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver) Security: A New Framework for Analysis (1998); (Co-authored with Wouter G. Werner) “The Endurance of Sovereignty”, in: The European Journal for International Relations, 7,3 (2001): 283–313; “Flagging Democracy”, in: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, 17,2 (2004): 211–227; “Orwellian Risks in European Conflict Prevention Discourse”, in: Global Society, 20,1 (2006): 87–99.

Juergen Dedring (United States/Germany), since 1996 adjunct professor on global affairs at CUNY, in particular at the Graduate Center and at the City College, as well as at NYU in the School of Continuing and Professional Studies. He was born in Essen, Germany in 1939, secondary education completed in 1959, studied German, history, political science at the University of Freiburg and at the Free University of Berlin where he obtained the degrees of a ‘DiplomPolitologe’ (MA equivalent) in 1965; an A.M. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1974 in government at Harvard University. He taught at Harvard University and at Dartmouth College; he was a research associate at UNITAR, New York, 1972–1974, and from January 1975 to August 1996 he was a political officer, at the UN Secretariat in New York where he chose early retirement in September 1996. He conducted research on international organizations, multilateralism, conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacemaking; on European studies, including the European Union. Among his numerous writings is a book on: Recent Advances in Peace and Conflict Research. A Critical Survey. A UNITAR Study (Beverly Hills-London: Sage, 1976) and many journal articles and book chapters. His book on the UN Security Council in the 1990s: Resurgence and Renewal was accept-

Address: Prof. Dr. Jaap H. de Wilde, Department of IR/IO, Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen, P.O.Box 716, NL9700 AS Groningen, The Netherlands. Email: . Stavros Dimas (Greece) has been European Commissioner for the Environment since November 2004. See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays.

Biographies of Contributors Eugenio Diniz (Brazil): Professor, International Relations Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC Minas), Belo Horizonte, Brazil; MSc (USP) and DSc. (Coppe/UFRJ). He currently chairs the Graduate Program on International Relations at PUC Minas and is the Executive Secretary of the Brazilian International Relations Association (ABRI). Member of the Group for Strategic Studies and of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS, London). Former Intelligence Officer, Brazilian Intelligence Agency (ABIN). Select Publications: (with D. Proença Jr): Política de Defesa no Brasil, uma análise crítica [Defense Policy in Brazil: a critical analysis], 1998; (with D. Proença Jr and Salvador Ghelfi Raza): Guia de Estudos de Estratégia [Guide for the Study of Strategy], 1999; “Compreendendo o fenômeno do Terrorismo” [Thinking Terrorism Through], in: Brigagão, Clovis; Proença Jr, Domicio (Eds.): Paz e Terrorismo [Peace and Terrorism] (São Paulo: Hucitec, 2005): 197–222. Address: Prof. Dr. Eugenio Diniz, Av. Itaú, 525, International Relations Program, 30850-035 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Email: . Pál Dunay (Hungary) is faculty member, Geneva Centre for Security Policy. See: Biographies of editors. Sebastian von Einsiedel (Germany) currently works as Political Affairs Officer with the UN Mission in Nepal (UNMIN). Previously, he served as Special Assistant to the President at the International Peace Academy (IPA), an independent think tank in New York working closely alongside the UN. In 2004 and 2005, he was a member of the research stuff of the UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change and subsequently worked on UN reform in the Office of the UN SecretaryGeneral. Prior to joining the UN, he served for two years as Senior Program Officer at IPA on issues related to political violence and statebuilding. He has also worked with the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in Brussels and as a member of the foreign affairs staff in the German Parliament. He holds Masters degrees in international affairs and political science from Columbia University and the University of Munich. Mr. von Einsiedel has published about UN statebuilding, UN reform as well as Security Council diplomacy. Address: Sebastian Graf von Einsiedel, Political Affairs Officer, UN Mission in Nepal (UNMIN), Kathmandu, Nepal. Office email: ; Personal Email: . Robert Eisen (United States of America) is Professor of Religion and Judaic Studies at George Washington University in Washington D.C. He received his B.A. at Yale University in 1983, and his Ph.D. in Jewish thought at Brandeis University in 1990. His areas of interest include medieval and modern Jewish philosophy, biblical interpretation, and comparative religion. He is author of two books: Gersonides on Providence, Covenant, and the Chosen People (SUNY Press, 1995) and The Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 2004). He is cur-

1101 rently editing a volume for the University of Maryland Press on philosophers and the Bible. He has also begun working on a book dealing with Jewish perspectives on violence and peace. He is active as a consultant on issues of religion and international conflict with a particular interest in fostering better relations between the West and the Islamic world. He has participated in a number of high-level dialogues and consultations in Washington and abroad concerning this issue. He sits on the advisory board of the Center for World Religions, Diplomacy, and Conflict Resolution at George Mason University. He has also worked with such organizations as the United Institute of Peace and Initiatives of Change formerly known as Moral Re-Armament. Address: Prof. Dr. Robert Eisen, Dept of Religion, GW University, 2106 G St NW, Washington DC 20052, USA. Email: . Magnus Ekengren (Sweden) PhD, Director EUROSEC (European Security Studies) and Senior Lecturer at the Swedish National Defence College. He was previously Deputy Director at the Policy Planning Unit of the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. His main research interest is in the fields of European foreign and security policy and the Europeanization of the nation-state. Recent publications include: The Time of European Governance, Manchester: MUP, 2002; (Co-author with B. Sundelius): ”Sweden”, in: B. Hocking; D. Spence (Eds.): Foreign Ministries in the European Union: Integrating Diplomats (London: Palgrave, 2002); “National Foreign Policy Co-ordination: the Swedish EU Presidency”, in: H. Sjursen; W. Carlsnaes; B. White (Eds.): Contemporary European Foreign Policy (London: Sage, 2004); “The Interface of External and Internal Security in the European Union and in Nordic Policies”, in: A. Bailes; G. Herolf; B. Sundelius (Eds.): The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy (Oxford: OUP, 2005); (Co-author with A. Boin; M. Rhinard): “The Commission and Crisis Management”, in: D. Spence (Ed.): The European Commission (London: John Harper, 2005); (Co-author with K. Engelbrekt): “The Impact of Enlargement on EU Actorness: Enhanced Capacity, Weakened Cohesiveness”, in: J. Hallenberg; H. Karlsson (Eds.): The New Strategic Triangle: the US, the EU and Russia (London: Routledge, 2005); (Co-ed. with A. Boin; M. Rhinard): “Special Issue: Protecting the Union: The Emergence of a New Policy Space”, in: Journal of European Integration, 28,5 (December) 2006. Address: Dr. Magnus Ekengren, Dept. of Security and Strategic Studies, National Defence College, Drottning Kristinas väg 37, Box 27 805, SE-115 93 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: . Reinhold Elges (Germany) holds a MA (Political Science, English and American Studies, Journalism and Communication Science) from the University of Potsdam (Germany). His studies focused on conflict and governance issues and especially on post-conflict statebuilding. He is currently with the Sector Programme Crisis Prevention and Conflict Transformation at: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (German Technical Cooperation, GTZ). He was a Fellow of the Postgraduate Programme in Inter-

1102 national Affairs of the Robert Bosch Foundation and of the German National Academic Foundation, in cooperation with the German Federal Foreign Office. He has worked before with the EastWest Institute in Brussels, UNDP in Cambodia, UNDP’s Democratic Governance Group in NY, the German Federal Foreign Office, Transparency International, and The Carter Center. His publications include: “International Statebuilding - Time to Reconsider”, in: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft, 34,2 (2005): 177–189; “From Dealing with the Past to Future Cooperation: Regional and Global Challenges of Reconciliation, Working Group on Southeast Asia,” Berlin/GTZ, 31 January - 2 February 2005; (Co-author with Philipp Krause): “Statebuilding in Post-Conflict Societies: Democracy vs. Security?”, paper for the 44th Annual ISA Convention in Portland (USA), 2003. Address: Reinhold Elges, Katzbachstr 12, 10965 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Wendy L. Foley (Australia): Ph.D., is currently a researcher in the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies where her research interests focus on the Pacific. She lived and worked in the Solomon Islands for seven years between 1979 and 1995. Address: Dr. Wendy L. Foley, Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia. Email:< [email protected] >. Website: . Hans van Ginkel (The Netherlands) was Rector of the United Nations University and Under Secretary General of the United Nations (1997– 2007). See: Biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. John Grin (Netherlands) is professor at the Department of Political Science of the University of Amsterdam and scientific director of the Amsterdam School for Social science Research. See: Biographies of editors. Thomaz Guedes da Costa (USA/Brazil): Ph.D., Columbia University. He is an educator, specialized in strategy, international and national security, environmental issues, and curriculum management. Currently, Dr. Costa is a Professor of National Security Affairs, at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, National Defense University, Washington, D.C. Dr. Costa was an analyst with Brazil’s National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq – 1980–1999). Early in his career, Dr. Costa worked for the Panama Canal Zone Library, Secretariat of the Organization of the American States (OAS), and for the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer (EMBRAER). He has served (1980–1997) in different functions in the Office of the Brazilian Presidency, Center for Strategic Studies, Secretariat for Strategic Affairs, as an analyst in international security, national defence, strategic planning, and foreign intelligence training. As coordinator, he led the evaluation system of scientific Centers of Excellence (PRONEX-1997-1999) in Brazil. He taught at the International Relations Department, University of Brasília (1990–1999) and has participa-

Authors ted in several international collaborative projects, including with the United Nations Development Program, FLACSOWoodrow Wilson Center, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Club of Madrid, and University of West Indies. He has published and lectured extensively in his areas of expertise. Address: Dr. Thomaz Guedes da Costa, 110 Rolling Trace, Falls Church, VA, 22066, USA. E-mail: . Hassan Hanafi Hassanien (Egypt), Ph.D. in philosophy, Sorbonne, Paris (1966), Professor of philosophy, Cairo University, Secretary General of the Egyptian Philosophical Society since 1976, Vice-president of the Arab Philosophical Society since 1983. The author of the huge project: Tradition and Modernism based on: I. Reconstruction of Islamic classical sciences: Theology, philosophy, law, mysticism and scriptural sciences. II. Foundation of the Science of Occidentalism to study the West. III. Theory of Reality as Hermeneutics. Author of 30 books in different languages: French, English, Arabic: Les méthodes d’exégèse; L’exégèse de la phenomenology; La Phénoménologie de L’exégèse; Islam in the modern world, 2 vols.; Cultures and Civilizations, conflict or Dialogue? 2 vols.; The anguish of the scholar and the citizen, 2 vols.; The generations dialogue, From dogma to revolution, 5 vols.; Introduction to Occidentalism. Religion, culture and politics in the Arab world, From transfer to creativity, 9 vols.; From Text to Reality, 2 vols.; The Besiege of Time, 2 vols.; Fichte, philosopher of Resistance, From Manhattan to Baghdad, Roots of Authoritarianism and Horizons of Freedom, Bergson, Philosopher of Life & Mohammad Iqbal, Philosopher of Subjectivity. Address: Prof. Dr. Hassan Hanafi Hassanien, 18 Lusaka St., off Ahmed Fakhry, Nasr City, Region 6, Cairo, 11371, Egypt. E-mail: . Vilho Harle (Finland): Dr. Soc.Sci. (IR), Professor of International Politics at the Department of Political Science of the University of Tampere, Finland. Formerly professor of Political Science at the University of Tampere, and of IR at the University of Lapland, and the University of Helsinki. His research has covered various topics in international theory, identity politics, and political geography. His current research focuses on critical theory, and theories and change of the international system. He is the author of several publications including: Ideas of Social Order in the Ancient World (Greenwood Press 1998); The Enemy with a Thousand Faces (Praeger 2000); “Critical Geopolitics of Northern Europe”, in: Geopolitics 8,1, 2003 (Special Issue edited in cooperation with Pami Aalto and Simon Dalby). Address: Prof. Dr. Vilho Harle, Department of Political Science, University of Tampere, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Finland. Email: . Ortwin Hennig (Germany), Ambassador, currently Vice President and Head of the Conflict Prevention Program, EastWest Institute. He studied Political Science at the Free University of Berlin and at the London School of Economics. Until spring 2006 he was Commissioner for Civilian

Biographies of Contributors Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Peace-Building of the German Federal Foreign Office. In his diplomatic career he specialized in arms control and security policy matters. He held diplomatic posts at the German embassies in Kabul, Afghanistan, and in Moscow, Russia (twice, second time as minister responsible for economic and scientific affairs); he served with the German Representation to the European Union in Brussels and with the German Representation to the OSCE in Vienna. He worked with the Office of the German Federal President as a foreign policy advisor. He is an alumnus of the NATO Defence College, Rome. He has published on arms control and OSCE questions. Address: Amb. Ortwin Hennig, EastWest Institute, Brussels Centre, 83-85 Rue de la Loi, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Email: . Website: . Björn Hettne (Sweden), Professor Emeritus at Padrigu (Department of Peace and Development Research, Göteborg University). From 1990 to 1993 he was Dean of the Social Science Faculty, Göteborg University. From 1996 to 2004 International Relations Advisor to the Vice-Chancellor. He was Co-ordinator of the United Nations University European Perspectives Project (1986 –1988) and from 1994– 1999 Co-ordinator of the UNU/WIDER project on the New Regionalism and the International System; member of the Executive Committee of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) throughout the eighties, and from 1990 to 1993 Vice President of the same. Member of the board of UNRISD until 2000. Member of the board of the Karl Polanyi Institute of Political Economy. President of the GARNET Research School from 2005. Recent publications include: Studies in the New Regionalism, Vol I - V (1999–2001, ed. with A. Inotai and O. Sunkel); Från Pax Romana till Pax Americana. Europa och världsordningen (From Pax Romana to Pax Americana: Europe and the World Order, 2005); Global Politics of Regionalism. Theory and Practice (2005, ed. with M Farrell and L van Langenhove). Address: Prof. Dr. em. Björn Hettne, School of Global Studies, Göteborg University, Box 700, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. Email: . Stefan Hintermeier (Germany): Dipl. Pol., born 1976, Consultant to the board of directors of the faction of the Social Democratic Party in the German Bundestag. His research interests comprise German and European foreign and security policy, theories of international relations as well as education and research policy. His diploma thesis analyzed the international conflict management efforts during the Kosovo Crisis. From 2000 to 2004 he worked for several members of Parliament in the German Bundestag. From 2003 to 2006 he was research associate at the Free University Berlin. Address: Stefan Hintermeier, Mainzer Straße 26A, D-10715 Berlin, Germany. Email: .

1103 Gunhild Hoogensen (Norway) is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Tromsø. Her main research interest is security studies, broadly speaking, and more specifically the relevance and application of the human security concept to the Arctic context and to military education (particularly in the field of civilmilitary cooperation or relations). She leads the Human Security Programme at the University of Tromsø, which includes such projects as the International Polar Year project GAPS (security and oil and gas activity in the Arctic) as well as MENSA (military education and the new security agenda). She is also Academic Coordinator for the Model UN programme and Co-Academic Coordinator (political science) for various masters programs offered to the Norwegian military. Her publications include the following books: International Relations, Security, and Jeremy Bentham (Routledge, 2005) and Women in Power: World Leaders Since 1960 (Praeger, 2006), and articles in: Security Dialogue, Canadian Foreign Policy, and International Studies Review. Address: Prof. Dr. Gunhild Hoogensen, Department of Political Science, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. Email: . Website: and . Alan Hunter (UK) is currently Associate Director of the Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies; and also Associate Director of a new Applied Research Centre for Human Security based in Coventry. He was previously Senior Lecturer in Chinese Studies at the University of Leeds. He has studied and worked in several capacities and locations in Asia, including South India, Hong Kong, Singapore and particularly the PRC, having working relations and projects with Fudan, Nanjing, and Zhejiang Universities. As well as academic research and teaching, he has worked on international educational partnerships, and also has extensive experience of distance learning by both internet-based and flying faculty delivery. He has published in both English and Chinese; books include: Protestantism in Contemporary China (1993); Wild Lily Prairie Fire: China’s Road to Democracy (1995); Contemporary China (1999); Peace Studies in the Chinese Century (2006). In Chinese academic journals he has published a series of articles on peace studies, as well as a short sociological study of Chinese Protestantism (1991) and a book discussing nineteenth century Asian responses to colonialism focusing on Swami Vivekananda’s writings and visits to the USA (2006). His current research interests include the cultural history of Sino-Indian relations; security issues in contemporary China including internet-based pressure-groups; and the emerging issue of human security. Address: Dr. Alan Hunter, Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK. Email: . Website: . Heinz Dieter Jopp (Germany), captain, German Navy, Federal Armed Forces Command and Staff College, head of

1104 the Department for Security Policy and Strategy. After joining the military service (1967), he was trained as a naval officer; he studied electronics at the Armed Forces University Munich (1971–1974); was technical officer at the Naval Air Wing 3 (1974–1976); squadron leader at the Naval Operations School (1976–1980); squadron leader of first line maintenance NAW 3 (1980–1982); admiral staff officer course at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College Hamburg (1982–1984); visiting fellow at the Research Institute for International Security and Politics (SWP) at Ebenhausen/Munich (1985–1987); deputy commanding officer of the technical group NAW 2, Tornado (1987–1989); Ministry of Defense, Armed Forces Staff, Arms Control Branch, multilateral arms control (UN/CD), naval arms control, international law in relation to armed conflicts (1989–1992); commanding officer technical group NAW 2, Tornado (1992–1994); lecturer security policy at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College Hamburg (1994–1996); military adviser to the Permanent Mission of Germany to the OSCE, Vienna (1996–2000); commander courses at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College (2000); chief of staff, Armed Forces Command and Staff College (2001– 2003); and since April 2003 head of the Department for Security Policy and Strategy, Armed Forces Command and Staff College. He is a member of: German Naval Institute, Clausewitz Society, U.S. Naval Institute. Among his major publications are: Marine 2000. Neue wehrtechnische Entwicklungen und ihr Einfluß auf die Seekriegführung (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1989); “Regionale Rüstungskontrolle in Europa: Die Rüstungskontrollvereinbarungen nach dem Abkommen von Dayton”, in: IFSH (Ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1999 (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1989): 389–395; “Sicherheitspolitische Herausforderungen zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts – Neue Aufgaben für die Streitkräfte”, in: Zetsche, Holger; Weber, Stephan (Eds.): Recht und Militär. 50 Jahre Rechtspflege der Bundeswehr (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2006): 19– 29; “La future intégration de forces armées dans le cadre de la ‘sécurité humaine’ – une vision allemande”, (forthcoming). Address: Captain Heinz Dieter Jopp, Meisenstraße 11, 25462 Rellingen, Germany. Email: . Roland Kaestner (Germany), colonel in the German Army; has served as a commanding and staff officer. He participated in the 30th General Staff training course at the Bundeswehr Academy (1987–1989), and was a military fellow at the Institute for Peace and Security Policy at Hamburg University (IFSH) from 1989–1991. He served as a battalion commander of the 252nd Paratroop Battalion from 1992– 1994 and worked in the headquarters staff of the German Army (Heer) from 1994–1995 as a technical officer in charge of the Army, Special Forces air mobility concept. In 1995 and 1997, he was an instructor in military policy at the Bundeswehr Academy. In 1998, he worked in the German parliament as an academic consultant, and from 1999– 2000, he supported the parliamentary faction of the German Green Party on security and defence policy issues. He headed the strategic future analysis department at the Bundeswehr Transformation Center (2001–2005) and since De-

Authors cember 2005 he has been a lecturer in strategy at the Bundeswehr Academy. He is a member of: Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker-Gesellschaft, Wissen und Verantwortung. Among his major publications are: “Überlegungen zu einer künftigen Wehrstruktur deutscher Streitkräfte”, in: Lutz, D.S. (Ed.) Gemeinsame Sicherheit, Kollektive Sicherheit, Gemeinsamer Frieden (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1990–1991); “‘Multinationale Streitkräfte’ – Internationale Konflikte und die Rolle multinationaler Streitkräfte”, in: Grundmann, Martin; Hummel, Hartwig (Eds.) Militär und Politik – Ende der Eindeutigkeit? (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1998); (Coauthor with Heinrich Buch and Reiner Huber): “Jenseits der ESVP: Anmerkungen zu einer transatlantischen Strategie”, in: Ehrhart, Hans-Georg (Ed.) Die Europäische Sicherheitspolitik, Positionen, Perzeptionen, Probleme, Perspektiven (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2002): (Co-author with Thorsten Kodalle): “The Security Political Challenges in the 21. Century”, in: Gustenau, Gustav E. (Ed.): Future Trends in Security Policy 2001. Schriftenreihe der Landesverteidigungsakademie; “Kriegsbilder im 21. Jahrhundert - Ein Analyseversuch im Geiste Baudissins”, in: Kutz, Martin (Ed.), Gesellschaft, Militär, Krieg und Frieden im Denken von Wolf Graf von Baudissin (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2004); (Co-author with Müller-Seedorf, Wolfgang): “Demografischer Wandel. Konsequenzen und Chancen für äußere Sicherheit und Verteidigung”, in: Frevel, Bernhard (Ed.) Herausforderung demografischer Wandel (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006); (Coauthor with Brust, Klaus-Markus; Föhrenbach, Gerd): “Strategische Zukunftsanalyse am Beispiel der Bundeswehrplanung”, in: Siedschlag, Alexander (Ed.): Methoden der sicherheitspolitischen Analyse – Lehrbuch (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006), Address: Col. Roland Kaestner, Windfeld 51, 22559 Hamburg. Email: . Patricia Kameri-Mbote (Kenya), is professor of law, University of Nairobi. See biographies of editors. Neslihan Kaptanoglu (Turkey) is a research associate at the International Policy Research Institute (IPRI) of the Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey (TEPAV), Ankara. She holds a BA in International Relations from Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey; and later studied at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies of Harvard University, Cambridge, USA, for her MA in Middle Eastern Studies. Before joining TEPAV, she worked at the Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia; the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, DC; and the Brookings Institution, Washington, DC., USA. Her work at TEPAV mainly focuses on the Middle Eastern politics and particularly its violent expressions. Address: Neslihan Kaptanoglu, Turkiye Ekonomi Politikalari Arastirma Vakfi (TEPAV), University of Economics and Technology, Sogutozu Cad. No. 43, Sogutozu, Ankara, 06560, Turkey. Email: . Bharat Karnad (India): M.A. (Political Science, Univ. of California, Los Angeles), B.A. (Univ. of California, Santa

Biographies of Contributors Barbara) is Research Professor in National Security Studies, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. He was formerly member of the (First) National Security Advisory Board, National Security Council, Government of India, and member of the Indian nuclear doctrine drafting group, and adviser on defence expenditure to the (Tenth) Finance Commission, India. Main research interests: nuclear deterrence, geopolitics and geostrategy, Indian nuclear policy, posture and force-planning, US South Asia policies, and Indian and Pakistani foreign and military policies. His publications include: Nuclear Weapons and Indian Security: The Realist Foundations of Strategy (New Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd., 2002, 22005); “South Asia: The Irrelevance of Classical Deterrence Theory”, in: Sridharan, E. (Ed.): The India-Pakistan Nuclear Relationship: Theories of Deterrence and International Relations (Abingdon, UK – New Delhi, Routledge 2007); “The India-United States Rapprochement, the Nuclear Deal and Indian National Interest”, in: Nanda, Prakash (Ed.): Rising India: Friends and Foes (New Delhi – Olympia Fields, IL: Lancer Publishers, 2007); “Deconstructing the Indian Nuclear Doctrine” in: Cheema, Pervaiz; Bokhari, Imtiaz H. (Eds.): Arms Race and Nuclear Developments in South Asia (Islamabad: Islamabad Policy Research Institute, 2004); “Minorities, Terrorism and Democratic Politics”, in: Current Domestic Policy: Challenges and Prospects in South Asia (Islamabad: Institute of Regional Studies, 2003); “India’s Force Planning Imperative: The Thermonuclear Option”, in: Sardesai, D.R.; Thomas, Raju G.C. (Eds.): Nuclear India in the Twenty-first Century (New York: Palgrave, 2002); (Ed.): Future Imperilled: India’s Security in the 1990s and Beyond (New Delhi: Viking, 1994). Address: Prof. Bharat Karnad, Centre for Policy Research; 21, Dharma Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021, India. Email: . Website:. Louka T. Katseli (Greece) is currently a State Member of the Greek Parliament for the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), on leave from the University of Athens, where she has served as Professor of Economics since 1987. From 2003 to 2007, she served as Director of the OECD Development Centre in Paris. Professor Katseli, having received a Doctorate in Development and International Economics from Princeton University (1978), served as a member of Faculty of Yale University as Assistant and Associate Professor of Economics (1977–1985). She has served as Director General of the Center of Planning and Economic Research (KEPE) in Athens (1982–1986), Special Economic Advisor to the Prime Minister of Greece (1993–1996), and Special Advisor to the Greek Minister of Education (1996– 1998). A member of several prominent international and European Committees including the European Commission’s Economic and Monetary Policy Committees, the “Comité des Sages” on the reform of the European Social Charter (1995–1997), and the Committee of Development Policy (CDP) of the UN; she has published over 50 articles in international journals and/or books, among them: (Coauthor with N. Glytsos): “Greek Migration: The Two Faces of Janus”, in: K. Zimmerman (Ed.): European Migra-

1105 tion:“What do We Know?” (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); “Giving Aid Teeth”, in: Development and Cooperation, 32,1, (January 2005); “From Conditionality to Mutual Accountability: Challenges and Policy Options”, in: The Role of Conditionality in Policy-based Lending (Berlin: InWEnt Development Policy Forum Report, April 2005). Her recent academic work has focused on international migration, development policy and development cooperation. Address: Prof. Dr. Louka T. Katseli, 23, Sina street, 106 80, Athens, Greece. Email: . Stephan Klingebiel (Germany) heads the department ‘Governance, Statehood, Security’ at the German Development Institute (Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik – DIE) in Bonn. His focus areas are crisis prevention and conflict management, interfaces between security and development, non-state armed groups, and new concepts of development cooperation. Recent publications include: (Ed.): New Interfaces between Security and Development: Changing Concepts and Approaches (Bonn: GDI, 2006); How much Weight for Military Capabilities? Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture and the Role of External Actors (Bonn: GDI, 2005). Address: Dr. Stephan Klingebiel, c/o German Development Institute (DIE), Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Email: . Website: . Jacek Kugler (United States) is the Elisabeth Helm Rosecrans Professor of World Politics at the School of Politics and Economics, Claremont Graduate University were he has also served as Dean and Chairman. Before that he was Professor of international politics at Vanderbilt University and Boston University. He is the co-founder of Sentia Group Incorporated. His publications in world politics and political economy are widely available in scholarly journals and as chapters in scholarly books. He is the co-author of: The War Ledger, Births, Deaths, and Taxes, and Power Transitions as well as the co-editor of: Parity and War, the Long Term Stability of Deterrence, and Political Capacity and Economic Behavior. He is the co-editor of: International Interactions. He is past President of the International Studies Association and Peace Science Society. His work is concerned with conflict, integration, as well as demographic and economic growth. He has also developed a number of formal tools designed for use by policy makers and executives. Address: Prof. Dr. Jacek Kugler, School for Politics and Economics, Claremont Graduate University, 170 E 10th Street, Claremont, California 91711-6163, USA. Email: . Website: . Eun-Jeung Lee (South Korea), PD Dr. habil., is an Associate Professor of political theory and history of political ideas, at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. From 1993 to 1994 she was a lecturer at Mokwon University, Deajeon, Korea. She was a Research Fellow at Martin-

1106 Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany (1995–2000), and at Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (2001–2002). From 2003 to 2005, she was Visiting Research Fellow at Chuo University, Tokyo. Her research work is centred on the intercultural impact of political ideas in East and West, new media and democracy, popular culture and nationalism, politics and culture in East Asia. She has published several books in German, among them: Korea im demokratischen Aufschwung [Korea in Democratic Transition] (Leipzig 2005); “Anti-Europa”. Die Geschichte der Rezeption des Konfuzianismus und der konfuzianischen Gesellschaft seit der frühen Aufklärung [Anti-Europe. History of Reception of Confucianism in Europe since Early Enlightenment] (Münster 2003) and Konfuzianismus und Kapitalismus [Confucianism and Capitalism] (Münster 1997). Address: PD Dr. Eun-Jeung Lee, Institute for Political Science, Martin-Luther-University of Halle, 06099 Halle, Germany. Email: . Website: . Len Le Roux (South Africa): served in the South African Department of Defence from 1964 to 2000. He obtained his B-Mil degree from the Military Academy in 1968 and completed the Joint Staff Course in 1992. During the period 1995 to 2000 he was involved in the development of the South African White Paper on Defence, the Defence Review and the DOD Transformation Project. After leaving the DOD (with the rank of Major General) in 2000, he remained active in the security debate in Africa through support for the programmes of various NGOs and universities. He specializes in the fields of defence transformation, civilmilitary relations, defence management and budgeting. He joined the Institute of Security Studies (ISS) in Pretoria, as head of its Defence Sector Programme (DSP) on 1 February 2003. Among his recent publications are: “Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa – Country Study South Africa”, in: Budgeting For The Military Sector In Africa: The Processes and Mechanisms of Control (SIPRI); “The Defence Sector and the Defence Budget – Minimising Costs and Maximising Benefits”, in: Civil-Military relations in Zambia: A review of Zambia’s contemporary CMR history and challenges to disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (Pretoria: ISS, 2004); “Challenges for Defence Management in Africa”, in: Guarding the Guardians: Parliamentary oversight and civil-military relations: the challenges for SADC (Pretoria: ISS 2004); “The South African National Defence Force and its involvement in the Defence Review process” in: Ourselves to Know: Civil-military relations and defence transformation in Southern Africa (Pretoria: ISS, 2003); “Defence Sector Transformation – Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa”, in: African Security Review, 12,3 (Pretoria: ISS, 2003). Address: Gen. Len Le Roux, Institute for Security Studies, PO Box 1787, Brooklyn Square, 0075, Pretoria, South Africa. Email: . Website: .

Authors P. H. Liotta (USA), Professor of Humanities and Executive Director of the Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy, Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island. See biographies of editors. Jacob Emmanuel Mabe (Germany/Cameroon) was born in 1959 in Cameroon. He holds two doctorates in political science from the University of Augsburg (1992) and in philosophy from the university of Munich (1995), and a habilitation from the Technical University in Berlin (2004). He has been teaching political science and philosophy at several universities in Germany. Since 2004 he teaches as Associate Professor for intercultural philosophy at the Technical University and at the Centre of French Studies of the Free University in Berlin. He was also a guest scientist at the Research Centre for European Enlightenment in Potsdam. He is the editor and co-author of the African lexicon, the most important contemporary encyclopaedia on all questions of Africa, as well as author of several books and articles. His recent published books are: Mündliche und schriftliche Formen philosophischen Denkens in Afrika - Grundzüge einer Konvergenzphilosophie (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2005); Wilhelm Anton Amo interkulturell gelesen (Nordhausen: Traugott Bautz, 2007). He is presently writing two new books on: Thinking with the body (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 2008) and La philosophie africaine et la pensée convergentialiste (Paris: L’Harmattan 2008). Address: PD Dr. Dr. Jacob Emmanuel Mabe, Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Philosophie, Wissenschaftstheorie, Technik- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Website: . Ann C. Mason (USA) is currently Director of the Fulbright Commission in Colombia and a Research Associate at the University of the Andes in Bogotá. From 1998–2005 she was Professor of Political Science at the same university, and was Chair of the Political Science Department from 2001–2005. Her research interests include state transformations, authority relations, security and regionalism, with special reference to Colombia and the Andean region. She is currently working on a security cartographic project with financing from the Ford Foundation and the Social Science Research Council. Her most recent publications include articles in: International Political Science Review, Security Dialogue, Alternatives, and SSRC’s: Items and Issues, as well as in the regional journals: Colombia Internacional Análisis Político, and Nueva Sociedad. She is coeditor of: La Crisis Política Colombiana, and a contributing author to the edited volumes: State and Society in Conflict: Comparative Perspectives on Andean Crises, and State Building. Address: Dr. Ann C. Mason, Fulbright Colombia, Calle 38 #13-37, Bogotá, Colombia. Email: and . Richard A. Matthew (USA), PhD from Princeton University, is Director of the Center for Unconventional Security Af-

Biographies of Contributors fairs ( and Associate Professor of International and Environmental Politics in the Schools of Social Ecology and Social Science at the University of California at Irvine. He is also the Senior Fellow for Security at the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD); a member of the World Conservation Union’s Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy; and a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council (Region 1). His research focuses on four themes: (1) the structure and dynamics of transnational threat systems such as global terrorism; (2) the relationship between demographic change and new security challenges in democracies; (3) the relationships among microfinance, security and sustainable development; and (4) the environmental dimensions of conflict, human security and peace-building in war-torn societies of the developing world, especially in South Asia and East Africa. He has collaborated with IISD to study environmental change in relation to the causes of conflict, conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sudan. His research explores ways in which conservation and sustainable development can be designed and implemented to reduce violence and insecurity in different settings. Recent books and coedited volumes include: Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics (SUNY Press, 1999); Dichotomy of Power: Nation versus State in World Politics (Lexington, 2002); Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (IISD: 2002); Reframing the Agenda: The Impact of NGO and Middle Power Cooperation in International Security Policy (Praeger, 2003); Landmines and Human Security: International Relations and War’s Hidden Legacy (SUNY Press, 2004). Address: Prof. Dr. Richard A. Matthew, School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA 926977075. Email: . Website: . Andreas Maurer (Germany) is head of the Research Unit EU-Integration at the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik in Berlin. He focuses on EU institutional reform issues, the parliamentary dimension of European integration, on International Trade Organizations, and on the development of justice and home affairs integration within the EU. His recent books and articles on issues of migration and security have appeared in the AEI-ECSA-series of Nomos Publishers: Parlamentarische Demokratie in der Europäischen Union. Der Beitrag des Europäischen Parlaments und der nationalen Parlamente and in: Journal of Common Market Studies. He received a PhD in Political Sciences from the University of Gießen (Germany) in 2002, an M.A. in European Political and Administrative Studies from the College of Europe in 1994, Bruges (Belgium) and a Diploma in Political Sciences from the University of Frankfurt on Main in 1993. Address: Dr. Andreas Maurer, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit, Ludwigkirchplatz 3-4, 10719 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Website: .

1107 Gordon McBean (Canada): Ph.D. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Professor of Geography and Political Science and Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, The University of Western Ontario, London. Previously: Assistant Deputy Minister, Meteorological Service of Environment Canada; Professor of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, The University of British Columbia. His research work has shifted from the studies of weather, climate and ocean systems to issues of environmental policy, natural hazards, weather and climate adaptation and policy issues, role of governments in hazard mitigation and weather and environmental prediction systems. He has published in the journals: Natural Hazards, Canadian Public Policy and Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the American Meteorological Society and the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. He is Chair of the International Council for Science (ICSU) Planning Group on Natural and Human-Induced Environmental Hazards and Disasters. Address: Prof. Dr. Gordon McBean, Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 2M1. Email: . Website: . Czeslaw Mesjasz (Poland): Dr hab., Associate Professor, Vice Dean, Faculty of Management, Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, Poland. See biographies of editors. James F. Miskel (USA) is a consultant to the defense consulting firm, Alidade Inc. In that capacity he is also the editor of: Information Age Warfare Quarterly. He received a PhD (1977) and M.A. from the State University of New York (1971) in history and a BA from Boston College (1968) in history and economics. He is widely published on U.S. national security and international security affairs. He is a former Professor of National Security Affairs and Associate Dean of Academics at the U.S. Naval War College. Since 2005 he has been teaching online courses for the Naval War College and other universities. He has served on the National Security Council under two presidential administrations. His most recent books are: Disaster Response and Homeland Security: What Works, What Doesn't (2006) and, as co-author: Fevered Crescent: Security and Insecurity in the Greater Near East (2006). Address: Dr. James F. Miskel, 122 Holman Street, Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 02871, USA. Email: . Sami Moisio (Finland): Ph.D., Docent of Political Geography and Academy of Finland senior research fellow at the Department of Geography of the University of Turku. He served formerly as assistant professor of IR at the University of Lapland and assistant professor of Human Geography at the Universities of Oulu and Turku. His research focuses on geopolitics, environmental politics, regional politics, and European integration. He is the author of several publications and articles on European integration, geopolitical theory, northern Europe and Finland. Among his key publica-



tions are: Geopolitical Struggle for Finland’s Membership in the EU (University of Turku, Finland, 2003) and “Back to Baltoscandia”, in: Geopolitics, 8,1, 2003. Address: Dr. Sami Moisio, Department of Geography, University of Turku, FIN-20014, Turku, Finland. Email: . Website: .

the economics of conflict, aid conditionality, political economy, macroeconomics and international economics. Address: Prof. Dr. Syed Mansoob Murshed, Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX, The Hague, The Netherlands; and: The Birmingham Business School University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. E-mail: .

Rolando Mosca Moschini (Italy), General, Italian Army Officer, is Military Advisor to the President of the Italian Republic and Secretary of the Supreme Defence Council. He attended several military schools, including the Academy, Staff College and the Defence Centre for High Studies in Rome. He obtained university degrees in strategic sciences, sociology, international and diplomatic sciences, and was awarded a Laurea Honoris Causa in Law by the University of Perugia. General Mosca Moschini commanded various military units at all levels, including the 3rd Italian Army Corps, and served in the Army General Staff. He was Deputy Secretary General of the Executive Committee for the Intelligence and Security Services (1991–1993). He served for two years at the headquarters of the United Kingdom Mobile Force, and for three years, as Military Attaché to the Italian Embassy in London. In 1993 he was appointed Military Advisor to the Italian Permanent Mission to the United Nations, where he took part in the 48th, 49th and 50th United Nations General Assemblies and was member of the Italian Delegation in the Security Council. From January 1997 to March 2001 he served as Commanding General of the “Guardia di Finanza” (Economic and Financial Police). From April 2001 to March 2004 General Mosca Moschini was Italian Armed Forces Chief of Defence and from April 2004 to November 2006 he chaired the European Union Military Committee in Brussels. In November 2006 he took over as Military Advisor to the President of the Italian Republic and Secretary of the Supreme Defence Council in Rome. Address: Gen. Rolando Mosca Meschini, Palazzo del Quirinale, Military Advisor's Office, General Rolando Mosca Moschini, Piazza del Quirinale, 00187 Rome, Italy, Phone: +39 6, Fax: +39 6 Email: . Website: .

Naison Ngoma (Zambia): Expert Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peace-Buuilding in the Peace and Security Department of the African Union Commission in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He also worked as Senior Researcher in the Defence Sector Programme, Institute of Security Studies (ISS) in Pretoria, South Africa. He is a retired Zambia Air Force Lieutenant Colonel and worked as a defence analyst for twenty-four years. He holds an MA in economics, and a PhD degree in regional security. Among his recent publications are: Prospects of a Security Community in Southern Africa (2005); “Civil-Military Relations: Searching for a conceptual framework with an African bias”, in: Civil-Military Relations in Zambia: A review of Zambia’s contemporary CMR history and challenges of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (Pretoria: ISS, 2004); “Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration: A Conceptual Discourse”: in: Civil-Military Relations in Zambia: A review of Zambia’s contemporary CMR history and challenges of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (Pretoria: ISS, 2004); “Caging the Lions”, in: Guarding the Guardians: Parliamentary Oversight and Civil-Military Relations: The Challenges for SADC (Pretoria: ISS, 2004); “SADC’s Mutual Defence Pact: A final move to a security community?”, in: The Round Table, 93,375 (2004); “Coups and Coup Attempts in Africa”, in: Africa Security Review, 12,3 (Pretoria: ISS, 2003): “SADC as a Security Community” in: African Security Review, 14,3 (Pretoria: ISS, 2004). Address: Dr. Naison Ngoma, Conflict Management Division, Peace and Security Department, PO Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: . Website: .

Syed Mansoob Murshed (Bangladesh) is professor of the Economics of Conflict and Peace at the Institute of Social Studies in the Netherlands and is also Professor of International Economics at the Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham in the UK. He was the first holder of the rotating Prince Claus Chair in Development and Equity in 2003. He was a Research Fellow at UNU/WIDER in Helsinki where he ran projects on globalization and vulnerable economies and why some countries avoid conflict, while others fail. He also ran a project on the two economies of Ireland, financed by the International Fund for Ireland at the Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre (NIERC), Belfast. Prior to that he worked at several British universities. He is the author of five books and 80 book chapters and journal articles. His research interests are in

Alfred G. Nhema (Zimbabwe), Ph.D, is the Executive Secretary of the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He has published on development issues in developing countries and is the author of: Democracy in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Liberalization (Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications, 2002); (Ed.): The Quest for Peace in Africa: Transformations, Democracy and Public Policy (Utrecht, Netherlands: International Books Publishers with OSSREA, 2004), and (Co-ed.): The Resolution of African Conflicts and The Roots of African Conflicts (London: James Currey Publishers, 2007. Address: Dr. Alfred G. Nhema, Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA), P.O. Box 31971, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: . Web: .

Biographies of Contributors Heiko Nitzschke (Germany) is desk officer for UN Peacekeeping and Security Council Affairs at the Federal Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. From 2002– 2004, he was senior programme officer at the International Peace Academy in New York, where he worked in the programme on ‘Economic Agendas in Civil Wars’. He holds Master Degrees in Public Administration and in International Affairs from the University of Potsdam, Germany, and the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) at Columbia University, New York. Among his publications are: (Co-ed. with Karen Ballentine): Profiting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimensions of Civil War (2006); (Co-author with Karen Ballentine): “Business and Armed Conflict: An Assessment of Issues and Options”, in: Die Friedens-Warte (2004); (Co-author with Simon Chesterman): “Les Nations Unies et la ‘Nation indispensable’ dans l’ombre de l’Iraq”, in: Le Banquet (2004); (Co-author with Karen Ballentine): “The Political Economy of Civil War and Conflict Transformation”, in: Berghof Handbook (2005); (Co-author with Kaysie Studdard): “Transforming War Economies” in: International Peacekeeping (2005); (Co-author with David M. Malone): Economic Agendas in Civil Wars: What We Know, What We Need to Know. UNU-WIDER discussion paper (2005); (Co-author with Peter Wittig): “UNFriedenssicherung: Herausforderungen an die deutsche Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik” in: Vereinte Nationen (2007). Address: Heiko Nitzschke, c/o Division VN01. German Foreign Office, Am Werderschen Markt 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Karen O’Brien (USA), Chair of the Project on Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS), is a professor in the Department of Sociology and Human Geography at the University of Oslo, Norway. She is interested in issues related to climate change vulnerability in the context of multiple stressors, and in understanding adaptation as a social process. Her research has focused on deforestation and climate change in southern Mexico; climate variability and the use of seasonal forecasts in southern Africa; and trade liberalization and climate change in India. She is a Lead Author on the adaptation chapter for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Fourth Assessment Report. Her publications include three books: Sacrificing the Forest: Environmental and Social Struggles in Chiapas (Westview, 1998), (Co-ed. with C. Vogel): Coping with Climate Variability: User Responses to Seasonal Forecasts in Southern Africa (Ashgate, 2003); (Co-author with R. Leichenko): Double Exposure: Global Environmental Change in an Era of Globalization (Oxford University Press, 2008). She has published articles in journals such as: Climatic Change, Global Environmental Change, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Climate Policy, Ambio, and the Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Address: Prof. Dr. Karen O’Brien, P.O. Box. 1129 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway. Email: . Website: .

1109 U. Joy Ogwu (Nigeria) was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria (2006–2007) and previously she served as Director General of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA), Nigeria, as chair of the Centre for Advanced Social Science in Port-Harcourt and as chairperson of the United Nations Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters for 2006. She is Professor of Political Science and International Relations. She obtained her BA and MA in Political Science from Rutgers University (USA) and a Ph.D. from the University of Lagos in Nigeria in 1977, when she joined the Institute of International Affairs at the University of Lagos. She lectured at the Nigerian National War College and the Nigerian Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), later she joined the NIIA as a lecturer, headed the research department on international politics before she became Director General of the NIIA. In her studies she focused on Latin America and on possibilities of a South-South relationship between Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. In her activities in the government as a member of the Presidential Advisory Council on International Relations she influenced the relationship of Nigeria with South America and she initiated the United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) funded programme for teaching human rights in Nigerian schools. Her publications include: (Ed.): Nigerian Foreign Policy: Alternative Futures (Macmillan 1986); (Ed.): Nigeria’s International Economic Relations; Dimensions of Dependence and Change (1988, rev. 2005; The Economic Diplomacy of the Nigerian State (1992, 2001); The Nigerian Navy and the South Atlantic (1995); (Ed.): New Horizons for Nigeria in World Affairs (2005). She has published extensively in scholarly journals and books and lectured on South-South and Latin America’s foreign relations. Several publications appeared in Portuguese, Spanish, French and Croatian. Address: Prof. Dr. U. Joy Ogwu, The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 13/15 Kofo Abayomi Street, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: . Website: . Mitsuo Okamoto (Japan), Professor Emeritus of Hiroshima Shudo University; Ph.D. in Ethics and Peace Studies from Kyoto University after studies in Tokyo, Philadelphia (USA), and Heidelberg (Germany). He was President of the Peace Studies Association of Japan and Member of the Science Council of Japan and Director of its Committee for Peace Research. Currently, he is Director of the Hiroshima Center for Nonviolence & Peace, President of the Photo Exhibition of Radiation Victims, Article Nine Society Hiroshima, and Co-Chair of the Hiroshima Alliance for Nuclear Weapons Abolition (HANWA). He was Visiting Fellow at Harvard Law School, Visiting Professor at Arizona State University (USA); University of Salzburg, European Peace University (Austria); Woodbrooke College and University of Birmingham (UK). He is author of: Heiwagaku wa Uttaeru [What Peace Studies Pleads] (Kyoto: Horitsu Bunka Sha, 2005); (Co-Ed. with Masaki Yokoyama): Heiwagaku no Ajenda [The Agenda of Peace Studies] (Kyoto: Horitsu Bunka Sha, 2005); Heiwagaku--Sono Kiseki to Tenkai

1110 [Peace Studies – Its History and Progress] (Kyoto: Horitsu Bunka Sha, 1999): (Co-Ed. with Masaki Yokoyama): Heiwagaku no Genzai [Peace Studies in the Making] (Kyoto: Horitsu Bunka Sha, 1999); Peace Studies in the Nuclear Age (Institute for Advanced Studies, Hiroshima Shudo University, 1996); Heiwagaku o Tsukuru-Koso, Rekishi, Kadai [Peace Studies for Beginners - Its Concept, History, and Tasks] (Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation, 1993); “An Overview of Global Peace Education Movement”, in: Cremin, Peadar (Ed.): Education for Peace (Dublin: Educational Studies Association of Ireland and the Irish Peace Institute, 1993); “Peace Studies and Christian Responsibility”, in: Matsuki, Suguru; Swain, David L. (Eds.): Called to be Peacemakers (Kyobunkan Pub. Co., 1989); “Euroshima between Hiroshima and Terrashima”, in: Abrecht, Paul; Koshy, Ninan (Eds.): Before It’s Too Late. The Challenge of Nuclear Disarmament. The Complete Hearing on Nuclear Weapons and Disarmament (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1983), and of many articles in Japanese, English and German, primarily in peace studies. Address: Prof. Dr. em., Mitsuo Okamoto, 3-10-37-2 Ozukanishi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-3167. Telephone: T/F +81-82-848-9054. E-mail: . Tamayo Okamoto (Japan), former Professor of Bioethics, Hiroshima Prefectural College of Health Sciences; Ph.D. in philosophy from Michigan State University. Her publications include: “Means and Ends”, in: Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict. (San Diego: Academic Press, 1999); “Dewey and Taisho Democracy”, in: Studies in Comparative Philosophy, No. 26 (Tokyo 2000); “Human Nature, Violence and Peaceful Coexistence. Humanity at the Turning Point”, in: Servomaa, Sonja (Ed.): Essays on Contemporary Philosophy (Helsinki: University of Helsinki Renvall Institute Publications 23, 2006). Address: Prof. Dr. Tamayo Okamoto, 3-10-37-2 Ozuka-nishi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-3167. Telephone: T/F +81-82848-9054. E-mail: . Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), research professor at the National University of Mexico, in the Regional Multidisciplinary Research Center (CRIM). See biographies of editors. Roderick Parkes (UK) is researcher at the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik in Berlin. He focuses on the development of justice and home affairs integration in the EU. Recent articles by Parkes on issues of migration and security have appeared in the: European Journal of Migration and Law and The Political Quarterly. He received an M.Phil in European Studies from Cambridge University in 2002 and is a PhD candidate at the University of Bonn. Address: Roderick Parkes, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit, Ludwigkirchplatz 3-4, 10719 Berlin, Germany. Email: . Website: .

Authors Heikki Patomäki (Finland) is professor of world politics at the University of Helsinki, Finland, and part-time innovation professor of globalization and global institutions at the RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. He is also the Research Director of NIGD, Network Institute for Global Democratisation, and Vice Director of the Centre of Excellence in Global Governance Research in Helsinki. His publications comprise 11 monographs; 9 edited or co-edited books and special issues; about 90 articles or book chapters; over 30 reviews, discussions and the like; and about 100 popular articles and columns. His recent books in English include: Democratising Globalisation. The Leverage of the Tobin Tax (London: Zed Books, 2001); After International Relations. Critical Realism and the (Re)Construction of World Politics (London: Routledge, 2002); (Co-author with Teivo Teivainen): A Possible World. Democratic Transformation of Global Institutions (London: Zed Books, 2004); The Political Economy of Global Security. War, Future Crises and Changes in Global Governance (London: Routledge, 2007). Address: Prof. Dr. Heikki Patomäki, Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, P.O. Box 4, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland, Tel +358-(0)9-191 24818, Fax +358-(0)9-191 24509; Street address: Fabianinkatu 24, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: . Website: . Domício Proença Júnior (Brazil): Professor, Production Engineering Programme, Coppe/UFRJ, University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro; Chairman, Group for Strategic Studies; M.Sc. and D.Sc. (Coppe/UFRJ); he is a graduate of: Escola Superior de Guerra [Brazilian National War College]. Awarded Brazilian Order of Merit for National Defense. Member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS, London). Former member of the Brazilian Ministry of Defence Council of Notables, Rio de Janeiro; State Governor’s Panel on Public Security. Select Publications: (Ed.): Uma Avaliação da Indústria Bélica Brasileira [An Assessment of the Brazilian Arms Industry] (1994) and Indústria Bélica Brasileira: ensaios [Brazilian Arms Industry Essays] (1994); (Co-author with Eugenio Diniz): Política de Defesa no Brasil, uma análise crítica [Defence Policy in Brazil: A critical analysis], 1998; (Co-author with Eugenio Diniz and Salvador Ghelfi Raza): Guia de Estudos de Estratégia [Guide for the Study of Strategy] (1999). Recent publications include: “The Theoretical Standing of Peacekeeping Operations”, in: Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement, 1 (2002); (Co-author with E.E. Duarte): “The Concept of Logistics Derived from Clausewitz: all that is required so that the fighting force can be taken as a given”, in: Journal of Strategic Studies, 3 (2005); (Co-ed. with Clóvis Brigagão): Paz & Terrorismo [Peace and Terrorism] (2005); (Co-author with Jacqueline Muniz): “‘Stop or I’ll call the police!’: The effects of police encounters over time or the idea of police”, in: British Journal of Criminology, 1 (2006). Address: Prof. Dr. Domício Proença Júnior, Cx. Postal 68507, PEP/Coppe/UFRJ, 21945-097 Cidade Universitária RJ, Brasil.

Biographies of Contributors Email: . Website: and personal biographical data: . Kurt Werner Radtke (Japan, Netherlands, Germany) has been Professor of Chinese and Japanese studies at the Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies at Waseda University, Tokyo since 1998. Between 1974 and 1978 he was Senior Lecturer in charge of the Department of Japanese at Waikato University (Hamilton, New Zealand). From 1978 to 1998 he occupied various positions at Leiden University (Netherlands) in the Chinese and Japanese Departments, since 1987 as Professor in the Faculty of Letters. Since 1979 he had visiting positions in Japan (Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo), China (Beijing University, Beijing Normal University, and the IIR in Taipeh), and taught summer courses on Chinese politics at Sophia University, Tokyo (1988–1997). He has widely published mainly in English, Chinese and Japanese on international (security) relations in East Asia, the history and current state of Sino-Japanese relations, as well as (comparative) culture and the literature of China and Japan. Books: Poetry of the Yuan Dynasty (Canberra: ANU, Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, 1984); China’s Relations with Japan, 1945 – 83: The role of Liao Chengzhi (1990); (Co-ed. with Tony Saich): China's Modernisation. Westernisation and Acculturation (1993); (Co-ed. with: J. Stam, J. Groenewegen, L.M. van der Mey): Dynamics in Pacific Asia: Conflict, Competition and Cooperation (1998); (Co-editor with Gert Teitler): The Reports on the Sino-Japanese War by De Fremery 1937 – 1939 (1999); (Co-ed. with R. Feddema): Comprehensive Security in Asia, views from Asia and the West on the changing Security Environment (2000); (Co-ed. with M.L. Wiesebron): Competing for Integration. Japan, Europe, Latin America, and Their Strategic Partners (2002). He is currently writing a book that deals with East Asia society, economics, politics and security in the general framework of neo-geopolitics, presenting a theory of globalization in East Asia. Address: Prof. Dr. Kurt Werner Radtke, Parelstraat 18, 2332 JK Leiden, The Netherlands. Email: . Website: . Katja Roehder (Germany) is senior project manager with Capacity Building International (InWEnt), Bonn, and an independent development consultant based in Frankfurt on Main. Since 2003 she works as an associate researcher with the German Development Institute (DIE), Bonn on crises prevention issues and development policy with regard to Africa. Recent publications include: Development-Military Interfaces. New Challenges in Crises and Post-conflict Situations (2004, with Stephan Klingebiel); Entwicklungspolitische Handlungsfelder im Kontext erodierender Staatlichkeit in Subsahara-Afrika (2004). Address: Katja Roehder, c/o German Development Institute (DIE), Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Email: .

1111 Francisco Rojas-Aravena (Chile): PhD in Political Science and Specialist in International Relations and International Security. From 1996 to 2004 he was Director of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences in Chile (FLACSOChile), and since 2004 he is the Secretary General of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO). Early in his career, he was professor of international relations, international cooperation, Latin America in world politics and US foreign policy towards Central America at the National University in Costa Rica (UNA). He has also served as Research Coordinator of the School of International Relations at the same university. He has taught at Stanford University in the Santiago de Chile Campus and was Fulbright professor at the Latin American and Caribbean Center of Florida International University (FIU) Miami (1986–1987). With some regularity, he has been invited to lecture at the MA and PhD programme in Latin American Studies at the Complutense University, and Ortega y Gasset University in Madrid. He has served as consultant of the United Nations programs of UNDP and ECLAC. He is also a member of the Latin American Advisory Board of the Open Society Institute (OSI), and of the Equitas Foundation. He has published extensively on political science, foreign policy, conflict resolutions and negotiations, defense and security matters of the Americas. His last two book are: La Seguridad en las Américas: Nuevos y Viejos Desafío (The Security in the Americas, New and Old Challenges); (Co-ed. with Klaus Bodemer): Iberoamerica (Madrid: Vervuert, 2005); (Co-author with Wilhelm Hofmeister, Luis Guillermo Solís): La percepción de Brasil en el contexto internacional: Perspectivas y desafíos, vol 1: América Latina; vol. 2: África, Asia y Europa [International Perception of Brazil. Book 1: Latin America; Book 2: Africa, Asia and Europe.] (Río de Janeiro: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 2007). Address: Prof. Dr. Francisco Rojas-Aravena, Secretary General of FLACSO, PO Box 5429. San José 1000. Costa Rica. Email: . Website: . Martin R. Rupiya (Zimbabwe): Senior Researcher, Defence Sector Programme (DSP) at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), based in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa. A retired Lieutenant Colonel from the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, has a PhD in Military History from the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) as well as an MA in War & Strategic Studies from King’s College, London. Since 1990, he has offered related African Security Courses at the Universities of Zimbabwe, Witwatersrand and Rhodes in South Africa. Amongst his more recent and relevant publications are: (Ed.): The Enemy Within: Southern African Militaries’ Quarter Century Battle with HIV & AIDS (Pretoria: ISS, 2006); (Ed.): Evolution & Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa (Pretoria: ISS, 2005); “A Critique of the Efficacy Towards Providing AID to Africa’s Peace & Security Agenda”, in: Reality of AIDS Report 2006 (Philippines: Reality of aid, 2006); “Zimbabwe in South Africa’s Foreign Policy: A Zimbabwean View”, in: South African Yearbook of International Affairs (Johannesburg: South African Institute for International Affairs (SAI-

1112 IA), 2003); “Eight Years of Tension, Misperception and Dependence, April 1994 to December 2002 – ZimbabweSouth Africa Foreign Relations”, in: Alternatives, Journal of International Relations, 1,4 (Winter) 2002: 158–175; “The Implications of Food Security in Africa”, in: African Security Review, 13,1 (2004): 83–89. Address: Dr. Martin R. Rupiya, Institute for Security Studies, P.O. Box 1787, Brooklyn Square, 0075, Pretoria, South Africa. Email: . Website: . Varun Sahni (India) is Professor in International Politics at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi and Chairperson of the Centre for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament (CIPOD). He is the Editor of South Asian Survey, and lectures at the Foreign Service Institute and the National Defence College in New Delhi. Before joining the JNU faculty in 1995, Varun Sahni was Junior Research Fellow in Politics and Junior Dean at Lincoln College, Oxford; Resident Fellow of the Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi and Reader in Latin American Politics at Goa University. He has held visiting fellowships/professorships at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1997), CIDE, Mexico City (1997–1999) and the National Defense University, Washington, DC (2003), the last under the Fulbright Military Academies Initiative. His has been “Personalité d’Avenir” at the French Foreign Ministry (1995) and a Member of Mexico’s Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (1999–2002). He serves on the editorial boards of: The Chinese Journal of International Politics (Oxford University Press), Asian Security Series (Stanford University Press) and Contemporary Politics (Taylor & Francis). Originally a student of military politics in Latin America, he now researches in the areas of International Relations theory, specifically focusing on great powers, emerging powers, nuclear deterrence issues and Asian security. His research articles have been published in: Current History, Contemporary South Asia and Journal of Latin American Studies. He is currently writing a text book on world politics for graduate students in South and Southeast Asian universities. He has recently been awarded a fellowship by the New India Foundation to write a book on India’s external security. Address: Prof. Dr. Varun Sahni, Room 215, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India. Email: and . Georgina Sánchez (Mexico): is an independent consultant graduated in political science at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (Mexico), has a M.A. in international relations from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, and has studied at the National Defense University (Washington). Her main areas of expertise are strategic planning and prospects for security, democracy, development and social cohesion in Latin America. She is the author and editor of: Les chemins incertains de la démocratie en Amérique latine: Strategies de transition et de consolidation politiques (Paris:

Authors L’Harmattan 1993); Estamos Unidos Mexicanos? Los límites de la cohesión social en México” (Mexico: Planeta 2001) for the Club of Rome. Among her publications are: “Small Arms in North America: a Threat to Hemispheric Security” (FLACSO 2007); “Mexico and Cuba relations” in: John Kirk, Carlos Alzugaray, Michael Erisman (Eds.): Cuba’s foreign relations (Florida: University of Florida, 2005); (Co-author with Raúl Benítez Manaut): “Avances y límites de la participación de México en la seguridad hemisférica en el siglo XXI”, in: Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (Washington: Defense National University, 2004); “Prospectiva de la seguridad de México” in: Ursula Oswald, Mario Salinas (Eds.), in: Culturas de Paz, Seguridad y Democracia en América Latina (Mexico: UNAM, 2002). She is Executive Director of the Colectivo de Análisis la Seguridad con Democracia, a non governmental organization. Address: Dr. Georgina Sánchez, Circuito Cuernavaca Mz. 1 Lote 2, Ahuacatepec, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Email: . Website:. John Saxe-Fernández (Mexico), Ph.D., professor at the Faculty of Political Science, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM); director, research programme: “El Mundo en el Siglo XXI”, of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in the Sciences and Humanities, UNAM; former director of: Proyecto Lázaro Cárdenas, sponsored by CONACYT, UNAM and PEMEX; he directed the ‘seminar on development theory’ at the Institute of Economic Research, UNAM, and the ‘project on the geo-economy and geopolitics of capital’ sponsored by DGAPA-UNAM. He studied at the Colegio San Luis Gonzaga, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR); B.A. in Sociology from Brandeis University, Massachusetts; M.A: in Sociology and Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis Missouri (WU); Ph.D. in Latin American Studies, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM). Honors: “Charles Darwin” Mención Honorífica, by UCR and the British Government; Wein International Fellowship at Brandeis; Pan American Union Fellowship at WU; Adlai E. Stevenson Fellowship at the United Nations, New York; Premio Universidad Nacional 2000, Jesus Silva Herzog prize by the Institute of Economic Research. Editorial adviser of: International Journal of Politics Culture and Society, New York, and of several professional journals in México and Latin America; former professor at Hofstra University, New York; California State University, Los Angeles; he lectured in México, Latin America, the U.S. and Canada. He published in professional journals in Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Cuba, USA, Canada, France, UK, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Spain. Among his major books are: Proyecciones Hemisféricas de la Pax Americana (Lima: Campodónico, 1971; Buenos Aires: Amorrortu, 1975); De la Seguridad Nacional (México, D.F.: Grijalbo, 1975); Ciencia Social y Política Exterior (México, D.F.: UNAM, 1978); Petróleo y Estrategia (México, D.F.: Siglo XXI, 1980); (Co-authored with Pablo González Casanova): El Mundo Actual (México, D.F.: Siglo XXI, 1996); Globalización: Crítica a un Paradigma (México, D.F. - Barcelona: Plaza &

Biographies of Contributors Janés, 1999, 2002, 2003); (Co-author with James Petras): Globalización, Imperialismo y Clase Social (Buenos Aires: Lúmen, 2001, 2004); La Compra-Venta de México (México, D.F. – Barcelona: Plaza & Janés, 2002, 2005); (Co-author with Gian Carlo Delgado): Banco Mundial y Desnacionalización Integral (México, D.F.: Ceiich-UNAM, 2003); (Co-author with Gian Carlo Delgado): El Imperialismo en América Latina (Habana: Marinelo, 2004); and: Imperialismo y Banco Mundial (Madrid: Popular 2004); and: El Imperialismo en México (México, D.F.: Random House-Mondadori, 2005); Terror e Imperio (México, D.F.: Random House-Mondadori, 2006); Estado de Excepción: EUA-México-Canadá (México, D.F.: Random House-Mondadori, forthcoming); (Co-ed with J. Morales): Imperialismo, Mundialización y Desarrollo (México, D.F.: IIec-UNAM). Over 1000 articles in: Excelsior and La Jornada. Address: Prof. Dr. John Saxe-Fernández, Programa “El Mundo en el Siglo XXI”, Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Ciencias y Humanidades, Torre II, Humanidades, 4 Piso, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F. E-Mail: . Ole Jacob Sending (Norway): Dr. polit, is senior researcher at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. His research focuses on international relations theory, on the role of the UN in global governance, and on the developmentsecurity nexus. His doctoral dissertation (2004) was entitled “How Does Knowledge Matter? The formation, content and change of international population policy” His publications include, among others, “Constitution, Choice and Change”, in: European Journal of International Relations (2002); “Governance to Governmentality: Analyzing NGOs, States, and Power”, in: International Studies Quarterly (forthcoming, 2006), “Policy Stories and Knowledgebased regimes”, in: Bøås, Morten; McNeill, Desmond (Eds.), 2004: Global Institutions and Development: Framing the World? (Routledge); Co-editor with Iver B. Neumann, 2003: Regjering I Norge. (Pax Forlag). Address: Dr. Ole Jacob Sending, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, PO Box 8159 DEP, 0033 Oslo, Norway, Fax: +22-4736-1987. Web: . Email: . Narcís Serra (Spain) has been the President of the CIDOB Foundation since 2000. See: biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. Laura J. Shepherd (UK) is Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Birmingham. She received her PhD from the University of Bristol in 2007, for her thesis that sought to answer a series of related questions pertaining to the discursive construction of international security and gender violence. A monograph based on her thesis, entitled Gender, Violence and Security: Discourse as Practice, will be published in early 2008. Other publications include articles in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, Millennium, and British Journal of Politics and International

1113 Relations. She has publications forthcoming in: Review of International Studies and International Studies Quarterly. Address: Dr. Laura J. Shepherd, Lecturer in International Relations, The Department of Politi-cal Science and International Studies, European Research Institute, Birmingham University, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom. E-mail: . Website: . Vandana Shiva (India) is a physicist, ecofeminist, environmental activist and author. See: biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. Arlene B. Tickner (U.S./Colombia) has been a Professor of the Political Science Department of the University of the Andes and the National University of Colombia, both in Bogotá, since 1991 and 1999, respectively. Her research interests include U.S.-Colombian relations, Colombian foreign policy, Andean security and international relations studies in Latin America and other third world contexts. Her most recent publications include: “Colombian Government and Politics,” in: Rexford Hudson (Ed.): Colombia: A Country Study (Washington: United States Library of Congress, 2006); (Co-author with Carlo Nasi): “Colombian Armed Conflict”, in: James V. De Fronzo (Ed.): Revolutionary Movements in World History (Denver: ABC-CLIO Company, 2006); (Co-author with Ann C. Mason): “A Transregional Security Cartography of the Andes”, in: Paul W. Drake; Eric Hershberg (Eds.): State and Society in Conflict: Comparative Perspectives on Andean Crises (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006); “U.S. Foreign Policy in Colombia: Bizarre Side-Effects of the ‘War on Drugs’”, in: Gustavo Gallón; Christopher Welna (Eds.): Democracy, Human Rights and Peace in Colombia (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006); (Co-author with Oscar Pardo; Diego Beltrán): ¿Qué diplomacia necesita Colombia? Situación, diagnóstico y perspectivas de la carrera diplomática y el servicio exterior (Bogotá: Uni Andes, Departamento de Ciencia Política-Ceso-Facultad de Administración, 2006); “La securitización de la crisis colombiana: bases conceptuales y tendencias generales”, in: Colombia Internacional, No. 60, July-December 2004; “Seeing IR Differently: Notes from the Third World”, in: Millennium, 32, 2 (2003); “Hearing Latin American Voices in IR”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 4,4 (2003); (Co-author with Ann C. Mason): “Mapping Transregional Security Structures in the Andean Region”, in: Alternatives, 28,3 (2003): 359–391; (Co-author with Rodrigo Pardo): “Estados Unidos, Colombia y sus vecinos. Los desafíos externos de la ‘seguridad democrática’”, in: Foreign Affairs en Español, 3, 4 ( 2003). Address: Prof. Dr. Arlene B. Tickner, Departamento de Ciencia Política, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 Este No. 18A-10, Bogotá, Colombia. Email: . Website: .

1114 Klaus Töpfer (Germany) was Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1998– 2006). See: biographies of authors of forewords and preface essays. Peter Uvin (USA) is the Henry J. Leir Professor of International Humanitarian Studies and the Director of the Institute for Human Security at the Fletcher School, Tufts University. He has written extensively on violence, governance and development in the African Great Lakes region, as well as on the intersection between human rights, development, and conflict resolution more generally. He is a frequent consultant to bilateral and multilateral agencies working in Burundi and Rwanda on these very same issues. His book: Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda (Kumarian Press, 1998) won the Herskovits Award for the most outstanding book on Africa. His most recent book is: Human Rights and Development (Kumarian Press, 2004). He is currently the holder of a Guggenheim Fellowship, living in Burundi and doing research on young people’s dreams and hopes at the end of the war. Address: Prof. Dr. Peter Uvin, The Fletcher School, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA. Email: . Website: . Ole Wæver (Denmark): Ph.D. (University of Copenhagen), Professor of International Relations, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen. Before he was a researcher (1985–1999) at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Research in Copenhagen (COPRI), and a short term lecturer or visiting scholar at EUI Florence (1991), University of California at Berkeley (1996–1997) and University of California, Santa Cruz (2005–2006), and he has been director of the Danish Ph.D. School in political science since June 2002. His main research interests are theories of international relations (including history and sociology of the discipline); conceptual history and IR (especially the concepts of security, sovereignty and Europe); theories of security (including the ‘Copenhagen School’ theory of securitization); religion, secularism and security; discourse analysis as foreign policy theory; regional security (the theory of regional security complexes and empirically especially Europe, Central Asia and the Americas); German national/ state identities and foreign policy; nationalism and other identities in a security perspective; conflict analysis and mediation. He has published more than 175 articles of which some appeared in international journals like: Journal of Peace Research, International Affairs, Cooperation and Conflict, Journal of International Affairs, Journal of Common Market Studies, Review of International Studies, International Organization and Millennium. His most recent book: (Co-author with Barry Buzan): Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003); (Co-author with Barry Buzan and Jaap de Wilde): Security: A Political Framework for Analysis (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1988, 2008).

Authors Address: Prof. Dr. Ole Wæver, Department of Political Science, CSS, Øster Farimagsgade 5, P.O. Box 2099, DK-1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark, Fax: (+45) 3532 3399, Direct phone: (+45) 3532 3431. Email: . Websites: and: . Jutta Weldes (UK) is a Reader in International Relations at the University of Bristol. She has also taught International Relations and Political Science at the University of Minnesota and at Kent State University (in the USA). Her major research interests are critical International Relations theory, U.S. foreign policy, popular culture and IR, and gender and IR. She is currently working on an ESRC-sponsored threeyear research project, entitled ‘Securitizing Terrorism in Europe: Representing Islam and North Africa in European Policy and the Media,’ within which she and Gennaro Gervasio are examining representations of terrorism, Islam and security issues in both mainstream and subaltern Muslim media in the UK and Morocco. She is the author of: Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis (University of Minnesota Press, 1999); (Co-ed.): Cultures of Insecurity: States, Communities, and the Production of Danger (University of Minnesota Press, 1999); (Ed.): To Seek Out New Worlds: Science Fiction and World Politics (Palgrave: 2003). Address: Dr. Jutta Weldes, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, 10 Priory Road, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 1TN, UK. Email: . Website: or . Monika Wohlfeld (Germany), Dr., has been the Deputy Director of the OSCE Conflict Prevention Centre and Head of the Policy Support Service since September 2004. She previously served as the Head of External Co-operation in the Office of the OSCE Secretary General. Prior to joining the OSCE, initially as Senior Diplomatic Adviser, she has been a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Security Studies of the Western European Union, and researcher at the Department for War Studies, King’s College London. Dr. Wohlfeld holds a B.A. (Honours) in Political Science and Soviet and East European Studies and a M.A. in Political Science and Strategic Studies from the University of Calgary, Canada, and a Ph.D. in War Studies from King’s College London. She has published widely on Central and Eastern Europe, European security, European integration, subregional co-operation, conflict prevention, conflict management and post-conflict rehabilitation, and on European organizations, inter alia in the Helsinki Monitor, OSCE Yearbook, Brassey’s Defence Yearbook, Chaillot Papers and Clingendael Papers. Address: OSCE Secretariat, Conflict Prevention Centre, Kaerntnerring 5-7, 1010, Vienna, Austria. Email: .


A Abbas, Mahmud 768 Abdel Malek 504 Abdullah Yusuf, Achmed 803 Abe, Shinzo 944 Aberystwyth school 29, 33, 514, 515 abiotic 85, 86 Abkhazia 722, 766, 772 Abu Ghraib 364 Accord de Non-Aggression et d’Assistance en Matière de Defense (ANAD) 796, 799 acculturation 285 action-reaction theorem 540 Adams, Gerry 444 Adelphi Papers 507 Aelvoet, Magda 16 Afghanistan 3, 23, 43, 121, 128, 155, 190, 284, 286, 287, 368, 415, 419, 462, 482, 493, 502, 551, 558, 565, 616, 625, 666, 671, 723, 744, 746–748, 758, 760, 767, 772, 868, 885, 945 Africa civil war/conflicts 134, 135 growth of GDP, 1820–1998 380 natural resource dependence and development 138, 139 oral tradition 289–291 post-colonial states 294, 295 security concepts 289–297 vital force role of 289–291, 295, 296 Africa, security concepts ancient Egypt and state in the philosophy 291, 292 contemporary thought and the state 294, 295 Enlightenment and selfpreservation 293, 294 ethnophilosophy and vitality 295, 296 life-unity 296 Middle Ages and belief in God 292, 293 modern philosophy and historical ideas 293–297 vital force and oral tradition 289– 291 well-being 296, 297 written philosophy and historical ideas 291–293

Africa Action Plan (GAA), G8 748, 749 African Peace Research Association (AFPREA) 11, 12 African Security Corps 114, 121 African Standby Force (ASF) 801, 809 African Union (AU) 123, 124, 327, 331, 406, 499, 653, 654, 738, 743, 760, 761, 791, 792, 800, 805, 810, 864, 945 African Common Defence and Security Policy 801 Peace and Security Council 801 Regional Economic and Security Communities (RECs) 801, 807, 809 African Union peacekeeping forces in Sudan (AMIS) 806 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries 671 Agadir Agreement 786 Agenda XXI 385 agricultural production/market climate change impact 910 crisis worldwide 396 use of scare water 882, 883 agricultural subsidies 139 agropecuario 373 ahimsa (nonviolence) 68, 114, 177– 180, 182, 190–193, 201, 248, 249, 402 Ahmad Khan, Shamshad 427 Ahuizotl 188 aircraft low US casualties during Gulf Wars 900 aircraft carriers 349 Akerlof, George A. 572 Akhenaton (Amenophi) 291, 292 al-Alam 281 al Bashir, Omar 806 Albania 626, 718, 722, 943 Albright, Madeleine 718 Alexander the Great 267 al-Farabi 281, 293 Algeria 23, 35, 285, 287, 417–419, 444, 552, 558, 779, 783, 786, 794, 852 al-Jihad 413 Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Kinshasa (AFDL) 812

alliance security 80, 81 al-Madani 417 al Mujtama 282 al-Qaeda 128, 133, 134, 413, 415, 419, 420, 423, 445, 482, 558, 559, 564, 624, 625, 804, 881 Altermundism 342, 386, 399–401 alternative defence 513, 522 alternative security 32, 72, 506, 517, 518, 520, 522 al Turabi, Hassan 417, 806 Amalekites 256 Amalrik, Andrei 897 Amazon 387, 399, 400, 601 Ambedkar, B. R. 250 American Founding Fathers 315 American Free Trade Area 870 American Peace Society, 1828 4 American Political Science Association (APSA) 507 American Presidential Summits 873 Americanization 286 Amin, Samir 291, 295, 401, 504 Amina (Arabic) 280 Amn (Arabic) 279, 281 Amnesty International 561 Amo, Anton 291, 293, 294 Amsterdam 678, 682, 686–690 Andean region drug trafficking and arms trade 452–456 non-state agents of insecurity 453– 456 poverty and inequality correlated with social discontent, violence and criminality 450, 451 security scenario 451, 452 transnational criminal flows and networks 452–456 transnational security approach 449–451, 456 Angola 122, 123, 130, 139, 152, 558, 560, 614, 624, 638, 813, 817 Annales 66 Annan, Kofi 30, 36, 124, 160, 176, 424, 525, 621, 627, 637–639, 734, 760, 811, 856 Antarctica 120, 601 Anthrax 701

1116 anthropocene 36, 141, 323, 324, 341, 344, 503, 947, 953 Anthroposphere 401 Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, 1972 944 anticipatory learning 43 anticipatory self-defence 484 anti-colonialism 556, 558 anti-globalization movement 353, 592 antipersonnel landmines 123, 358, 625, 873 Antipersonnel Landmines Convention, 1997 611 anzen-hosho (Japanese) 235 Apianus 292 applied ecology 85 Apuleius 291 Aquinas, Thomas 69, 184, 271 Arab American Institute 785 Arab Human Development Report (AHDR), 2003 768, 775, 776, 911 Arab League 124, 331, 769, 785 Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) 332, 785, 786, 801 Arab world 788 authoritarian regimes and lack of coveted commodity 779–782 democracy 783, 784 divided nation and fragmentation of 784–788 end of the cold war 944, 945 GDP 777 Human Development Index (HDI) 777, 778 human security 775–779, 788, 789 Palestine problem 286, 288, 782, 783, 789 political development since World War I 784–788 terrorism, reaction to 286–288 security concept in philosophy and Islamic thinking 279–282 social and economic indicators 777 Arab-Israeli War, 1967 885 Arafat, Yasser 444 Aral Sea 148 Argentina 35, 122, 304, 307, 313, 314, 372, 373, 377, 379, 390, 394, 395, 397, 399, 400, 406, 870–872, 944 Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo 393, 397 Aristide, Jean-Bertrand 481, 626 Aristotle 69, 183, 184, 267, 277, 281 Armed Islamic Group 413, 419 Armenia 773, 774 arms competition 953 arms control 72, 115, 498, 506, 507, 517, 541, 548, 553 arms exports 122, 123

Index arms race 8, 106, 314, 468, 498, 507, 541, 554 East Asia 834 nuclear 238 arms trade/trafficking 123, 125, 160, 650, 666, 771, 873 Latin America 452– 456 Army of God 413 Arnobius 292 Aron, Raymond 460, 507 Arrow, Kenneth J. 572 Arthashastra 199, 201, 244–246 Asahi Shimbun (Japanese journal) 241 Asanimi 175 Aschcroft, John 376 Ashoka 202 Ashton, John 545 Asia Pacific War, 1931–1945 235–238, 242 Asian Development Bank 19 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 332, 382, 834 Asia-Pacific Peace Research Association (APPRA) 11 asphaleia 265, 266, 267 Assembly of Social Movements (ASM) 379, 398, 401, 402 Associação Brasileira de Empresários pela Cidadania 398 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 332, 382, 406, 410, 499, 653, 834, 835, 846, 849, 864, 943, 945, 946 Regional Forum 835, 846 asylum policy European Union 677, 678, 683–694 international 684 asymmetric warfare 60, 61 ataraksia (Greek) 264, 268 Athens (ancient) 264–266 Atlantic Charter of 1941 34, 76, 275 Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) 239, 240 ATTAC 385, 397, 401 Augustinus 69, 103, 270 Augustus 270 Aurelius Augustine 291–293 Australia 35, 860, 864, 945 Australian, New Zealand and US (ANZUS) pact 331 Austria 611, 615, 688, 694 auto-centric development 84, 114, 392 Averroes 291, 293 AWACS 723 Axayacatl 188 Axworthy, Lloyd 605, 608, 609, 611 Aymara 175 Azerbaijan 609, 772, 774, 945 Aznar, José María 692 Aztec Empire 299, 301, 302, 308

B B-2 bombers 349 Bachelard, Gaston 305 Bächler, Günther 167 Baghdad Pact 331 Bahrain 728, 786 Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline 766 Bal Gangadhar Tilak 247 balance of power 220, 540 era 554, 555 power transition 457, 458, 459 thinking 207 Balkan conflict/wars 134, 406, 415, 885 Ban Ki-moon 547 Bangladesh 36, 125, 132, 373, 819, 822, 823, 824, 828 Bank for International Settlements (BIS) 578 Banyamulenge 812 Barcelona Declaration 22 Barcelona Process 21–23, 406, 773 Barlow, Maude 17 Barre, Mohammed Siad 152, 804, 945 basmati 16, 17 Basque terrorist group (ETA) 133, 286 Basques 415 Batista, Fulgencio 393 Bayt (Arabic) 281, 282 Bechtel 368 Beck, Ulrich 32, 43, 55, 76, 326, 330, 331, 595, 699, 889, 947, 953 Beckett, Margaret 545, 547 Begin, Menachem 444 Begriff (German) 66 Begriffsgeschichte (German) 100 behavioural ecology 85 Beijing Platform 115 Belarus 773, 774 Belgium 692, 699, 701 Belize 871 bellicists 70 Bemba, Jean-Pierre 812 Bentham, Jeremy 69 Bergson, Henri 305 Bergsten, Fred 399 Bertalanffy, Ludwig von 51 Bertram, Christoph 507 Bertrand, Romain 217 Bhagavad Gita 198, 200 Bhagavadgita 203 Bharadwaj 244 Bhave, Vinoba 250 Bhishmaparvan 198 Bhopal accident 16, 602 Bhutan 178 Biafra 122 Biggs, Ronald 564 biocoenosis 85


Index biodiversity 15–17, 89, 117, 118, 143, 144, 169, 355, 356, 358, 388, 396, 598, 601, 648 loss 124, 359 biological ecology 86 biological security 851 biological weapons 312, 849, 868 biopiracy basmati 16, 17 neem (azad darakht) 16 wheat 17 biosphere 87, 88 biotic 84–86 Bismarck, Otto von 365 Blackett, P.M.S. 507 Blackfoot Nation 441 Blaine, James G. 370 Blair, Anthony (Tony) 692, 811 Bloch, Marc 66 Blue Helmets 122, 123, 125, 760, 761 Boao Asian Forum, 2004 839 Bodh-Gaya (way of the middle, Buddhism) 178 Boeing 368, 369 Boer War 248 Bogotá Pact 874 Bolivar, Simon 287, 306 Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA) 332, 399 Bolivia 308, 314, 379, 383, 388, 393, 394, 397, 399, 450, 452, 454, 566, 852, 867, 870–872, 944 Bolton, John 856 Bosnia and Herzegovina (conflict/ wars) 424, 471, 558, 563, 608, 626, 671–673, 728, 774, 885 Botswana 489, 814–816 Boulding, Elise 10, 192, 505, 518 Boulding, Kenneth 10, 193, 505 Bourdieu, Pierre 515 Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 428 Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 36, 114, 121, 176, 407, 408, 624, 857 Boutroux, Emile 305 Bové, José 17, 401 Boxer Uprising, 1900 214 Bradford School of Peace Studies 521 brahmacharya 179 bramanas 244 Braudel, Fernand 30 Brazil 67, 148, 304, 307, 314, 357, 379, 388, 394, 395, 397–400, 406, 452, 453, 454, 547, 706, 852, 867, 870– 872, 874, 882, 944 Amazon and the security policy 310, 312, 313, 314, 318 climate change impacts 910 Defence Policy Document of 2005 311–313, 318–320 Dreadnought-type navy 316

Escola Superior de Guerra (ESG) 316, 317, 318 France 315 Germany 315 historical developments 313–316 multilateral forums 315, 316 National Security Doctrine 317, 318 security/foreign policy/ concepts 312–313, 316–320 United Nations 316, 319, 320 United Nations Mission to Haiti (MINUSTAH) participation 311, 316, 319 USA 314, 315, 316, 319 Breton, André 305 Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 84 BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China) 217, 942, 943, 946 Broader Middle East-North Africa Initiative (BMENA) of the USA 767– 769, 771, 772 Brundtland Report, 1987 83, 88, 89, 95, 96 Brzezinski, Zbigniew 378 BSE crisis 698–700 Buddhism 192, 205, 206, 227, 401 China 204 concept of dharma 196, 197, 201, 202 Japan 215, 216, 236, 237 Korea 214 peace concept 178, 179 security concept 195–197, 201, 202, 208 society of the samgha 202 Zen school 203 Bullard, Linda 16 Bulletin of Peace Proposals (journal) 522 Burkina Faso 794 Burma, see Myanmar Burundi 115, 121, 157, 162, 182, 426, 558, 814 gacaca tribunal 122, 123, 182 Bush Doctrine 349, 352 Bush, George 5, 108, 367 Bush, George W. 6, 29, 46, 108, 352, 377, 383, 399, 413, 420, 445, 758, 828, 868, 943, 944 axis of evil speech 558, 559 Buzan, Barry 107 C Cabral, Amilcar 295 Cairo Plan of Action 711 Calcutta 882 Calderón, Felipe 376 Cali drug cartel 452, 453 Calvin, Johannes 101, 271

Cambodia 157, 158, 356, 608, 623, 638, 945 Camus, Albert 305 Canada 138, 307, 377, 380, 395, 547, 861 Anglophones and Francophones relations, between 433, 434 climate change impacts 906, 909 foreign policy priorities 606 human security and initiatives in the UNSC 9, 91, 160, 605, 606, 608– 612, 617, 618, 625, 626, 880 Canadian Peace Research Institute (CPRI) 505 Canadian Security Intelligence Service 576 Cao Cao 203 capitalism 8, 9, 90, 95, 106, 114, 119, 128, 152, 166, 175, 183, 185–187, 286, 216, 218, 220, 286, 295, 306, 330, 331, 338, 342, 363, 365, 370, 382, 384, 391, 399, 416, 787, 872 caracoles 396 carbon tax 149 Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) 307 caritas (Latin) 192 Carnegie Endowment 897 Carr, Edward H. 77, 496, 509 Carson, Rachel 602 Silent Spring 117 Caspian Sea 772, 773 Castro, Fidel 393, 463 Catholicism 303, 304, 308 Center for Naval Analyses Corporation (CNA) 59 Central African Republic 114 Central America 300, 306, 307, 397, 867 Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) 386 Central Asia 155, 417, 762, 945 Central Obrera Boliviana (COB) 397 Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) 331 centre for geopolitical research and analysis (CRAG) at Paris University VIII 336 Centre for International Peace Missions 749 Centre for International Peace Operations (ZIF) 739 Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas del Sureste 372 certitudo (Latin) 101, 195, 263, 270, 271, 277 Césaire, Aimé 295 Ceuta and Melilla 287 Ch’eng Hao 227 Ch’eng I 227 Ch’oe Ik-hyon 203

1118 Ch’un-ch’iu Chan-kuo (722–221 BC) period, China 222–226, 230, 233 Ch’un-ch’ui 222 Chad 481, 558, 806 Chad oil pipeline 139 Chakmas 823, 828 Chandesvara 246 Chandragupta 200 chaos theory 898–900 Chávez, Hugo 399, 401 Che Guevara, Ernesto 393, 444, 446 Chechnya 128, 134, 286, 288, 433, 944 Cheikh Anta Diop 291 chemical weapons 312, 849, 868 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 944 Cheney, Dick 367, 368 Chernobyl accident 95, 148, 602 Chiapas 122, 357, 375, 435 agrarian and social structures 372, 373, 374 causes of rebellion 373, 374, 395– 397 Chigaku, Tanaka 216 Chihuahua 374 child soldiers 123, 160, 162, 611, 615, 616, 776, 795, 872 Chile 122, 145, 310, 314, 377, 379, 390, 394, 397, 399, 454, 611, 615, 867, 870–873, 944 military coups 388 China 7, 32, 35, 145, 161, 178, 182, 192, 238, 348, 397, 400, 406, 426, 430, 547, 556–558, 629, 759, 762, 767, 772, 779, 819, 829, 883, 945 Anti-Secession Law 833 armed forces 849 Buddhism 204 Ch’un-ch’iu Chan-kuo (722–221 BC) period 222–230, 233 Chin Dynasty (221–207 BC) 224, 226 Chou Dynasty 222–226, 228, 233 climate change impacts 906, 909, 911, 912 communities in the abroad 847, 848 Cultural Revolution, 1966–1976 209 economic expansion 599, 839, 840, 847 economic reforms 27, 844 environmental problems 599 Environment Protection Bureau 850 environmental pollution and measures 850–852 Falun Gong 205, 436 Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) 224–227 irregular Chinese migrants 848 Japanese occupation 843 215

Index Manchus 205, 212 Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) 205, 206, 213, 225 226, 228,–233 Mongol conquest of 208 natural disasters impact on environment and economy 850–852 NGOs 207 oil demand/use grow 852, 853 Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) 206, 209, 215, 226, 227, 230–233, 843 Song Dynasty (960–1279) 205 students and tourists in the abroad 847, 848 Taiping movement 214 Tang Dynasty (581–907) 830 tributary system in East Asia (pax sinica) 213, 214, 830, 831 China, foreign/security policy Africa 852 access to global resource and energy security 852, 853 balanced global order concept 220 century of humiliation (1840–1949) impact on 842, 843 Confucian philosophy in ancient China 203–215, 222–226 credible nuclear deterrent 849 diversification of international ties 847, 848 end of the Cold War 831, 833, 835– 837 European Union 846 evaluation and outlook 219, 220, 853, 854 foundations as global power, 1978– 2000 844–847 globalization 217, 218, 382 Greater Middle East 219 human security and poverty alleviation 399 international multilateralism 849 Japan 203–215, 832, 833, 834, 839, 843, 854 Korea 203–215, 227 Latin American 852, 853 Maoist security preoccupations, 1949–1978 843, 844 Middle East 780 military expenditure 848, 849 military technology 849 multilateralism and partnerships with the major world powers 219, 220, 846, 847 New Concept of Security of 1997 835, 846, 847 One China concept 839, 842 peaceful coexistence concept 218, 841, 844 Russia 846 Soviet Union 840, 841, 844, 845

Taiwan 833, 839, 842, 845, 854 USA 841, 842, 844, 845, 846, 849 Shanghai Communiqué of 1972 842 strategies in the Deng era 845, 846 South Korea 232, 233, 234 Sunzi’s Art of War impact on 181, 183, 203, 208, 840 Three Worlds concept 841, 844 traditional security perceptions of Taoism and Confucianism 180–183, 842 USA 219, 841, 842, 844–846, 849 war on terror 846 White Book for China’s National Defence 2000 833 world revolution and united front concept 840, 841 Chinese Century 382 Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 178, 216, 839, 840, 841, 843, 844 Chinese Diaspora 847, 848 Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) 823 ChoicePoint 462 Chông To-jôn 226–229 Chosôn-Dynastie (1392–1910), Korea 222, 226–234 Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Germany 741 Christian Social Union (CSU), Germany 741 Chu Hsi 221, 222, 224–227, 229–234 Chun Doo Hwan 234 Church of Rome 270, 271, 272 Cicero 75, 184, 264, 268, 269 civil global society 699 civil intervention 408 Civil Peace Service (ZFD) 739 civil society 33, 65, 67, 115, 123, 124, 126, 139, 147, 148, 153, 237, 243, 254, 384, 385, 395, 396, 560, 711, 737, 742, 816, 817, 864 civil violence 95, 127 civil war (conflict) 283, 326, 397, 558 annual average risk of 130, 131, 134 economic dimensions 490, 491, 493 game-theoretic model of 491 geographical location of 132, 133 identity-based 132–134 natural resource scarcity as cause 135–138 regional risk 131, 132 risk of systemic incidence 129, 130 violent insecurity 152 civilizational identities 415 Civil-Military Cooperation Abroad (ZMZA) 748 Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) 746, 748 Clarke, Charles 683


Index clash of civilizations 132, 219, 285, 286, 299, 413, 415, 420, 557, 559 Clausewitz, Carl von 59, 181, 895, 898 climate change 79, 97, 126, 149, 329, 334, 339, 387, 775, 788, 861, 882, 909, 951 anthropogenic 946 extreme weather events 903, 905, 908 geographic distribution of drought, water shortages, and tropical cyclones 910, 911 geographic distribution of the warming process 906 global average temperature is rising 903 global scenarios over this century 937 natural disasters 905, 908, 909 potential drought zones 906, 907, 909 predictions 935–937 regional and geographic consequences 906–909 research on 165 sea level rising 903 security linkages 544–548, 905, 906, 909– 913 security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities, and risks 548–550 social developments linkages 903, 904 sustainable development 933 UNSC 91, 98, 339, 947 climate security 522 Clinton, William J. 108, 119, 626 cloning 401 Club of Rome 599, 602 Limits of Growth 87 CNN 329 Coahuila 374 Coca-Cola 17, 18 Cold War ideological bipolarization between liberal democracy and communism 555, 556 nuclear weapons as the defining standard of military power 555, 556 peace and security concepts 104– 107 power structure change from multipolar to bipolar 555, 556 prediction in security-related research 896, 897, 919, 920 process of decolonization 555 security debate after the end of 3, 27, 30, 127–129, 763, 829, 830, 867, 875 collateral damage 192 collective defence 716, 721

collective security 31, 70, 77, 78, 102, 124, 275, 468, 540, 554, 621–623, 627, 630, 632, 635, 663 United Nations 129, 477, 484 Colombia 121, 130, 132, 308, 383, 388, 393, 395, 397, 406, 492, 493, 558, 565, 871, 872 internal conflict 449–455 Patriot Plan 867 colonialism 236, 285, 489, 490 COMECON 943 Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) 871 Commercial Sales 376 Commission on Global Governance, 1995 639 Commission on Human Security (CHS) 10, 360, 522, 531, 705 Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997 639 Commission on the Control of Drug Abuse (CICAD) 874 Committee for the Reduction of Natural Disasters (CIRDN) 874 commodity price index 135, 136 common and collaborative security 809 Common European Asylum System 692 Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), European Union 81, 651, 652, 659, 665, 668, 672, 700, 701, 709, 744, 749, 755, 761, 770 Special Representatives 670, 672 Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 801, 943 common security 78, 80, 100, 106, 241, 513 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 405, 758, 765, 766 Communauté économique de l’Afrique de L’Ouest (CEAO) 796 communication theory 208 Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) 52, 57, 59 complex humanitarian emergency 403, 405, 410 complex systems international security linkages 58, 59 military security/operations linkages 59–61 research 50–62 sustainable development implications 147, 148 sustainable development implications 143– 145 complexity theory 896, 898–900 prediction 898

comprehensive collective security 629, 630 comprehensive security 78, 326, 514 European Union 673 OSCE 405, 645 United Nations 856, 857 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) 821 computer simulation models 899, 900, 947 Comte, Auguste 304, 920 Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) 332 concept definition 66 formation 66 history 34 semantic level 67 conceptual history 34, 66, 67 conceptual mapping 67 Condorcet, M. J. de 883 Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) 124, 331, 834, 943 end of the Cold War 643–645 Helsinki Final Act 643, 644, 646, 648 process 669 security concept 643–645 Conference on Disarmament (CD) 944 confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) 541, 650 confidence-building defence 506, 522 conflict causes of 491 identity-based 132–134 identity-based and globalization 342, 414–416, 420 conflict management 333, 403, 493 elements for the analysis of 407– 410 regional dimension 404 regionalization of 410–412 conflict prevention 97, 125, 126, 153, 408, 606, 637, 639–641 development policy 159, 160, 161 institution quality and economic growth 135, 137, 493 Conflict Prevention Pools 749 conflict research 505 early warning system, based on analysis of social processes and structures 927 conflict resolution 193, 333, 358, 404, 409 definition 733 nonviolent 401 theoretical literature on sharing and division 492

1120 Confucianism 219, 221, 842 Japan 214, 236 Mencius school 216 security concept in ancient China 203–215, 222–226 Wang Yangming school 214 Confucius 116, 180, 181, 183, 192, 205, 221, 222, 224, 226, 228, 231, 830 Congo crisis 478 Congolese Democratic Rally (RCD) 812 Congolese Democratic Rally-Liberation Movement (RCD-ML) 812 Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC) 812 Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 813 Conmigo 375 Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development (COPRED) 11, 506 contextual change 34 contextual security 509 Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), 1990 719, 944 conventional warfare 349, 511 Conze, Werner 34, 75, 76, 100 cooperative security 4, 5, 78, 80, 631 COP13/MOP3 of UNFCCC meeting in Bali, 2007 547 Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI) 10, 104, 107, 523 Copenhagen School 498, 582 concept of securitization 28, 29, 33, 47, 102, 111, 431, 433, 434, 512–515, 523, 524, 660 economic security 576, 577 Cornell University 511 Cornucopian view 87, 88, 90, 92, 93 corporate globalization 15 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 139 Correlates of War Project (COW) 460 Cortés, Hernán 302 cosmic equilibrium 189 Costa Rica 871 Côte d’Ivoire 114, 121, 616, 795 Council for Security Cooperation in Asia-Pacific (CSCAP) 834 Council of Regional Organizations in the Pacific (CROP) 861 counter-insurgency 506 counter-terrorism 447, 630, 722 Covenant of Medina 282 crisis management 573, 671, 721, 723, 727, 736, 759 European Union 653, 654, 695, 697– 703 operations 755 regional 407

Index crisis prevention 668 definition 733 German Action Plan Civilian Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Peace-Building, 2004 733, 736–742 Critical Approaches to Security in Europe (CASE) 111, 523, 524 critical security studies (CSS) 111, 431, 514, 515, 523, 524 critical theory (Frankfurt school) 513 Croatia 718, 722, 774 Croce, Benedetto 305 crusades 416, 417 Crutzen, Paul 947 CSC/Dyn Corp 368 Cuba 130, 138, 304, 401, 463, 464, 852, 871 revolution 306, 388, 393 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 463, 464, 714 Cubas, Raúl 455 Cuiba 175 cultural diversity 192, 386 cultural peace 114 cultural security 116 cultural violence 384, 400 Cultures & Conflicts (journal) 515 cura (Latin) 46 Cuzco 300 cybernetics 51, 52 Cyprian 292 Cyprus 22 Cyrill 292 Czech Republic 701, 718 Czechoslovakia 27 Czempiel, Ernst-Otto 32, 71, 72, 97, 509, 521 D d’Eaubonne, Françoise 119 Da Costa, Luiz Fernando (alias Fernandinho) 454, 455 Dae-Jung, Kim 238 Damodar Valley Project, Bengal 825 Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS) 10 Daoism 205, 206, 219 Darfur 125, 432, 616, 744, 761 conflict and genocide 802, 805, 806, 810 UN peacekeeping missions 805, 806 UNSC resolutions 481 Darwin, Charles 82, 207, 543 data collection individual level 458–464 Dayton Peace Agreement, 1995 410, 716

de Gusmão, Alexandre 313 De Light, B. 248 de Vitoria, Francisco 70 deborderization 81, 326, 329, 334, 344, 505, 664 decision theory 462 decision-making process 72, 899 Declaration on Security in the Americas 873, 874 decolonization 82, 94, 131, 283, 284, 288, 555, 556 deep ecology 88, 116, 117, 118 deep green 87 defensive defence 32, 72, 522 deforestation 97, 385, 953 Delhi 15 water supply 19, 20 demarcation of maritime boundaries (EEZ) 219 Demobilization, Disarmament, and Reintegration (DDR) 158, 161, 162 Democratic Charter for the Americas, 2001 872 democratic governance 872 Democratic Peace Theory 312 democratic peace 71, 106, 108, 110, 515, 559, 667 theory of 915, 917–919, 927 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), see North Korea Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 114, 121, 139, 425, 490, 560, 614, 760, 811, 812, 814, 816, 885 Operation Artemis 761 democratization 677, 679, 683, 687, 689 European Union asylum policy 692–694 Deng Xiaoping 27, 504, 840, 843–845 Denmark 688 security and development policy linkages 155 dependencia theory 9, 32, 82, 84, 90, 114, 192, 380, 392, 504 depopulation 584 Derg 807 Derrida, Jacques 338 Desai, Lord Meghnad 577 Descartes, Rene 66, 181, 277 desecuritization 47, 353, 436, 437, 597, 602, 915 definition 553 ending of the Cold War 557 European Union 659 desertification 81, 97, 285, 329, 339, 548, 550, 788, 809, 810, 881, 946, 947, 951, 953 security implications 339 despatialization 334 determinism 893


Index deterritorialization 326, 329, 334, 338, 344, 505 Deutsch, Karl 43, 696, 921 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) 748, 749 Deutsche Welle (German Broadcasting cooperation) 739 developing countries 83, 942 determinants of economic growth 488–490, 493 GDP growth per capita 488 globlization impact on 135, 138 natural resource dependence and development 135–139 share of natural, produced, and human capital 135, 136 development (see also security, development linkages) defining the term 81 environment linkage 95, 96 object of social science research and theories 84, 90, 94, 95 peace linkage 94, 95 polity goal and area 83, 84 scientific concept 81–83 development assistance 83 development dilemma 539 development enterprise 151, 152, 157 development policy/aid 83 chances and risks of military cooperation 746, 747 changing relationship to military policy 744, 745 conditionality principle 157, 158 engagement in post-conflict situations and interest in coherent approaches 749, 750 good governance, human rights and democracy agenda 152, 153, 155 holistic and politicized view of 156, 157 humanitarian NGOs, 746 interfaces and overlaps with the military/security policy 746–749 Judaism 260 military missions in post-conflict situations as a precondition 745, 746 models and relationship to security policy and military actors 751, 752 principles of 750, 751 problematic areas of cooperation with the military sector 750 security linkages 151–163 development regionalism 405, 407, 411 Dhamir (Arabic) 281 dharma Buddhism 196, 197, 201, 202 Hinduism 195–200, 204, 243, 246, 250

dharmashastras 243, 244 Díaz, Porfirio 370, 375, 376 digital communication 567 digital security 861 dilemma origins and applications as scientific concept 538, 539 dioxin 699 Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) 799, 812, 813, 817 disaster increase of 9 management 931 new threats 125 risk management 931 disaster management definition 931 predictions 938 role of government 932 Diverse Women for Diversity 119 division of power 185, 186 Djibouti 801, 802, 809 Dominican Republic 306, 609, 870 Drago and Calvo Doctrines 429 drought 36, 329, 851, 946 Sahel zone 548, 551 drug cartels 327 drug trafficking (trade) 12, 122, 133, 307–309, 325–329, 376, 425, 562, 607, 623, 650, 666, 771, 867, 873, 882, 945 Latin America 452– 456 DynCorp 367 E Earth Covenant 519 earth policy (Erdpolitik) 550 earth sciences 359 Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) 33 earthly peace 191 earthquake 4, 19, 189, 211, 279, 301, 519, 550, 600, 602, 639, 698, 701, 851, 881, 929, 930, 933–935 East African Community (EAC) 801 East Asia 829, 830 climate change impacts 908 mass movements of the 19th century 214, 215 membership of countries in multilateral organizations 835 new industrial economies 371 re-emphasis of tradition and nationalism 208, 209, 218, 219 revival of history after end of the Cold War 831–834 risk of civil war 132

tributary system of China (pax sinica) 213, 214, 830, 831 East Asia, security concepts changes in the context of globalization 207, 208, 217–219 Cold War impacts 216, 217 context of East Asian civilization 209–215 crises of identity 208, 209 disorder as antonym for the concept security 204 European and US inroads in the 19th century 213, 215 foreign conquest and external threats 212, 213 future perspectives 836–838 historical, social, philosophical foundations 203–215 importance of ideological religious values 214, 215 land holding and concepts of property 211 multilateral security frameworks 834–836 physical geography impact 210, 211 research as comprehensive approach 208 symbiosis of political elites in China, Japan, and South Korea 211, 212 East Asian Union 836 East Military Tribunal of the Allied Forces 236 East Timor 158, 162, 560, 610, 624, 745 UNSC resolutions 480 Easter Islands 357 Eastern Europe climate change impacts 906 East-West conflict 27, 478, 713, 717, 720, 723 Echnaton 292 eco-authoritarianism 88 ecofascism 118 ecofeminism 88, 94, 116, 118–120 ecofeminist peace 94, 119, 120 ecological balance 73 ecological footprints 168, 169 ecological geopolitics 32, 334, 339, 340 ecological security 518, 519, 522 ecology definition of the term 84, 85 scientific concepts 85–88, 90, 92– 94 eco-marxism 118 economic meaning of 570 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP) 89 Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) 89

1122 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations 89, 612, 614, 622, 633, 639, 641 Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 89 Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 89 Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) 89 Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 801 Economic Community of East African States (ECAS) 792 Economic Community of Sahelo-Saharian States (CEN-SAD) 801 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 332, 406, 410, 642, 791, 792, 801, 943, 945 Authority of Heads of State and Government of Member States 797 Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials 796, 798, 799 Court of Justice and Parliament 799 Declaration of the Moratorium on the Importation, Exportation and Manufacture of Light Weapons of 1998 796 foundation 793, 794 mechanism for peace and security 796–798 Mediation and Security Council 797 problems and challenges 798–800 peace mission in Liberia 748 Protocol on Mutual Assistance in Defence of 1981 796 Protocol on Non-Aggression of 1978 796 Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution Peace-Keeping and Security, 1999 796–798 economic growth determinants of 488, 489 developing countries 488, 489, 490 environment linkage 146, 147, 149 importance of institutions/good governance 489, 490, 493 mineral-type natural resource endowment impact on 489, 490 sustainable development linkage 141, 144, 145, 149 economic insecurity 276 economic monopoly 192 economic security 49, 61, 401, 705 areas of the theoretical discourse 576–578 Copenhagen school 576, 577

Index core concept (features and objects) 575, 576 country or state area 576 definitions and approaches 569–573 framework of contemporary economic theory 569, 570, 580 globalization 578–580 history of the development of economic theory 571–573 living conditions of social groups and individuals 577 South Asia 826, 827 stability in finance 578 stability of market conditions 573– 575 systemic definitions 576, 577 economics of defence 506 economy of solidarity 386 ecopolitics 339 ecosystem 88, 188, 355, 359, 388 ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) 407, 793, 796, 797 Ecuador 379, 383, 388, 393, 394, 397, 399, 450–452, 454, 455, 867, 870– 872, 944 Egeland, Jan 616, 617, 808 Egypt 132, 151, 155, 417, 418, 419, 482, 726, 728, 776, 785, 786 ancient 291, 292 establishment of the first pyramid (Mer) 292 EINSTein (Enhanced ISAAC Neural Simulation Tool) 59 Einstein, Albert 458, 459 eirene (Greek) 68, 183, 192 Eisenhower, Dwight D. 76 Ejército Popular Revolucionario Insurgent (ERPI) 396 Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) 373, 393, 395, 396, 398, 435 ejido system 375, 402 El Salvador 9, 122, 151, 388, 397, 454, 566, 623, 638, 870 Elias, Norbert 902 encomienda system 388 ENCOP project 167, 168 Endangered Species Act 146 energy security 33, 81, 516 China 852, 853 enforcement measures 476 Engels, Friedrich 181, 186 Enron 383 Entwicklung (German) 82 environment conceptual reflections on 117–120 Cornucopian (optimist) approach 87, 88, 92, 93 definition of the term 84, 85

development and resource wars 170, 171 equity oriented pragmatist approach 88, 90, 92 human security 171 Neo-Malthusian (pessimist) approach 87, 88, 90, 92, 93 scientific concepts 85–88, 90, 92– 94 environment policy/protection 141 framework of the UN and international governance 88–90 sustainable development linkage 146, 147, 149 environmental conflicts 357 environmental degradation 160, 165, 166, 170, 340, 484, 518, 623, 628, 632, 636, 667 environmental destruction 395 environmental dilemma 539 environmental diplomacy 169 environmental impact assessment 87 environmental law 89 environmental movement 89 environmental peacemaking 168, 169, 170 environmental regime 89, 352 environmental scarcity 168 environmental security 29, 33, 61, 78, 79, 81, 111, 118, 141, 169, 171, 243, 339, 387, 399, 401, 522, 552, 669, 879, 880, 886, 943, 945 basic logic 598 China 850–852 cognitive dimension 601 conflict research 356, 357 declining interest 602 definition 598 development linkage 95, 96, 167, 168 development of the discourse 166, 600–602 fatalistic utopian literature 601 future research 171 international law 483, 484 limited institutionalization 602 peace linkage 91, 94 referent objects 597–600 relevance of prediction 900 security linkage 96, 165 securitization of risks 596 South Asia 827 stages on research 171, 172 summary of worldviews and standpoints 94 sustainable development 518 environmental warfare 518 environmentalism 86, 87 ENVSEC (Environment and Security Initiative) of OSCE, UNDP, UNEP and NATO 945


Index Epicurus 264, 267, 268 Eppawala Jayaganga (Sri Lanka) 824 equal security 78 Eritrea 801–803, 809, 810 conflict with Ethiopia 802, 806, 807, 810 Estonia 719 ETA 133, 286 eternal peace 70, 183, 186 ethical dilemma 953 Ethiopia 122, 396, 482, 706, 794, 801, 802– 805, 809, 810 conflict with Eritrea 802, 806, 807, 810 ethnic conflict 131, 507, 588 ethnic identity 414 ethnic nationalism 666 ethnicity 413, 415 ethnocentrism 97 ethnophilosophy 295, 296 etymology 65, 66 Eurabia 417 Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) 727 Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) 726 Eurocentrism 187 Eurojust 700 Euro-Mediterranean space 339 European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) 711 European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 83 European Central Bank (ECB) 578 European Commission Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management Unit, 2003 671 European Conference on International Relations (ECPR) 33, 43 European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) 688, 693 European Court of Justice (ECJ) 687– 689, 693, 694 European Defence Agency (EDA) 655, 755, 762 Research and Technology 656 European Defence Community 665 European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM) 655 European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB) 655 European Development Fund (EDF) 710, 748 European Investment Bank (EIB) 83 European Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) 700, 701 construction of a European security threat 677–680

democratization of asylum policy 692–694 Europeanization of asylum policy 680, 686–689, 694 externalization of the asylum policy 692, 694 laboratories and driving factors 677–679 new international relations since end of the Cold War 681–683 progressive communitarization of activities 679, 680 securitization 677–680, 683, 689– 691, 694 asylum policy after the 9/11 attack 689–691, 694 European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) 701 European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 665, 758, 769–772 European Parliament (EP) 687, 689, 769 asylum policy 679, 683, 687–689, 693, 694 Committee on Foreign Affairs 22 European Patent Office 16, 17 European Peace Research Association (EUPRA) 11 European Political Cooperation (EPC) 659, 665, 671 European Refugee Fund 690 European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), European Union 22, 24, 81, 651, 652, 654, 655, 659, 670, 671, 672, 674, 676, 695, 700, 701, 703, 709, 749, 755, 760, 761 comprehensive security 673 motives and objectives 672, 673 European Security Strategy (ESS), European Union 21, 22, 24, 36, 659, 709, 710, 736, 744, 755, 770 development of military requirements and capabilities 654–656 holistic approach 755–758, 762 key mechanisms 652–654, 655, 656 European Union (EU) 81, 83, 348, 458, 460, 726, 738, 802 Amsterdam Treaty, 1997 664, 677, 709, 755 anti-terrorism policy 699, 700, 702, 703 asylum policy 677, 678, 683–694 Centre for Disease Prevention and Control 701 climate change 550, 910–913 Commission 688, 689, 698, 700, 701, 703 Commission and its Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) 698 Operation Centre 654

Community Mechanism for civil protection 700 Constitutional Treaty 688, 694, 755, 762 Copenhagen criteria 671, 683 Cotonou in 2000 for ACP countries 712 deepening the integration process 667, 668 DG Environment 701 Directorate General of the Council Secretariat 701 enlargement/integration process 27, 116, 331, 332, 665, 943 European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders 700 European Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) 677–694 Framework Programme 109 Growth and Stability Pact 680 Hague Programme 688–692 Headline Goal 2010 672 Heads of State/Government 651 Helsinki European Council, 1999 672 integration process after the World War II 116 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) 688 Maastricht Treaty, 1992 659, 668, 682, 669, 671, 709, 755 model of supranational integration 857 (natural) disasters 698, 699, 700 Nice Treaty, 2003 688, 689, 709, 755 partnership agreements 712 Policy Coherence for Development paper, 2005 711 Political and Security Committee (PSC) 651, 700, 755 Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts 749 qualified majority voting (QMV) 687, 689 regional organization/ integration 403–406, 410 Schengen Agreements 326, 328, 678, 687 Service Component Level 655 Solidarity Clause in the draft Constitutional Treaty 699, 702, 703 Tampere Programme 688, 689 tightening of the external borders 329 Treaty of Rome, 1956 498 European Union (EU), security/foreign policy 652, 653, 667, 671–673 anti-terrorism policy and reaction to the 9/11 attack 665, 666, 673, 674

1124 asylum policy impacts 683–694 Balkans conflicts 553, 665, 668, 698, 703 Baltic States and former Eastern Europe 773, 774 Battle Groups 654 Berlin Plus agreement 655 Chiefs of Defence (CHODs) 651, 654 civilian orientation and counted on non-military instruments 675, 676 climate change/environmental policy impacts 666, 667, 911–913 Command and Control Cotonou Agreement 671 comprehensive, normative and cooperative security conception 674– 676 conceptions since 1990 661–674 Council for General Affairs and External Relations (GAERC) 651 crisis management capabilities 653, 654, 695, 697–703 Declaration on Combating Terrorism 770 definition of 696 development policy 157 development linkage 710–712 economic sanction 671 European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 23, 665, 758, 769–772 European Neighbourhood Policy Strategy Paper, 2004 769 Europeanization of 661–663 externalizing internal security since the End of the Cold War 681–683 functional security 698, 699 global risks and challenges 666, 667 globalization 667 Headline Goal 2010 654, 655 High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy 21 Human Security Doctrine for Europe 21 human rights and democracy promotion 666, 667, 668, 669, 670, 671 human security concept 21–24, 706, 708–712 humanitarian, peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions 672, 673, 682 individualization of 662, 663 integration and enlargement 667, 668 integration and European identity 663, 664 internal and external democracy promotion 682, 683 Kosovo crisis 672, 673

Index Lomé IV treaty 668 Long Term Vision 656 Macedonia 408 means and instruments 670–674 means and strategies 667–674 Mediterranean area dialogue 21–24, 406, 665, 773 member states as referent objects 663 Middle East 665, 666, 773, 774 migratory pressure from the Greater Middle East 910, 912 Military Committee 651, 655, 672, 700 military requirements and capabilities 654–656 Military Staff 672 military means and dimension 671– 673 multilateralism and international law 669, 670 NATO and cooperation 653, 654, 655, 657, 700, 758–762 new security identity 695, 696, 702, 703 North African states 665 objectives and principles 667–670 Operation Althea in Bosnia 654 organization overview 651, 652 OSCE and possibilities of cooperation 757, 758, 761, 762 Petersberg Tasks 672, 674, 761 political and economic instruments 670, 671 political sovereignty and territorial integrity 665 Rapid Reaction Force/ Mechanism 654, 671, 672, 700 referent object question 661, 662 regional instability and conflicts 665, 666 Russia 655, 911 secure European community 696, 697, 701, 702 security/military and development policy relationship 749, 750 Stabilization and Association Agreements (SAA) 774 Study Group on Europe’s Security Capabilities 21 sustainable development promotion 667, 669 transnational threats 666 United Nations and security cooperation 653, 654, 760, 761 USA 653–655, 657, 700, 758–760, 762 WEU 671, 672 Wider Black Sea Region (WBSR) 772

European Union Military Committee (EUMC) 651, 654, 656 Europeanization 286, 681, 683 definition 677 European Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) 680 European Union asylum policy 686–689, 694 European Union security/foreign policy/concepts 661–663 Europol 327, 700 Excess Defense Sales 376 external security 34, 75, 76, 103, 207, 214, 217, 231–233, 275, 326, 431, 441, 478, 515, 659, 661, 373, 678, 680–683, 692, 701, 797, 819, 855 externalization 681–683 definition 677 European Union asylum policy 692, 694 extreme weather events 36, 37, 79, 93, 329, 341, 400, 545, 546, 549, 551, 666, 850, 903, 905, 908, 946, 947, 952, 953 F Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) 12 failed states 8, 27, 154, 326, 406, 548, 558, 560, 565, 566, 624, 638, 757, 945 fair trade 386, 395 Falkland Islands conflict UNSC resolutions 477 Falun Gong 205, 436 Fanon, Frantz 295 favelas 565, 882 Febvre, Lucien 66 Federal College for Security Policy Studies 739 federalism 403, 404 Federation of Arab States (FAR) 785 FEM (Friedenserhaltende Maßnahmen, Peacekeeping Measures) 739 feminism 589 feminist theory 512 feral city syndrome 882 feudal system 326 Feuerbach, Ludwig 186 Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 34, 76 Fiji 858, 860, 861 Financial Institutions (IFIs) 139 Financial Stability Forum 578 First International 186 Fissile Materials Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) 821 Florestan Fernande Peasant University 398 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) 33, 81, 89, 392, 522, 803, 804


Index food insecurities 824 food production 89, 881 food production index 137 food security 33, 79, 81, 290, 297, 400, 516, 522, 577 food sovereignty 382, 387, 396, 402 Ford Foundation 511 foreign direct investment (FDI) 381 Foreign Military Sales 376 Forrestal, James V. 77 Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) 861, 862 Forum for the Future 768 Foucault, Michel 230, 338, 515 Fourier, Charles 69 Fourth World 8 Fox, Vicente 329, 376 France 128, 217, 315, 316, 416, 417, 457, 479, 617, 688, 689, 692, 717, 773, 783, 784, 906 Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) 332, 369, 370, 382, 386, 399, 406 freedom from fear 30, 36, 47, 49, 160, 487, 488, 490, 492, 577, 606, 608, 617, 622, 625, 756, 883 freedom from hazard impact 30 freedom from want 9, 30, 36, 47, 49, 160, 487, 488, 492, 577, 606, 608, 617, 622, 625, 756, 883 Freedom in the World ranking 783 freedom to live in dignity 30, 36 Freire, Paulo 187, 402 French Revolution, 1789 27, 31, 34, 75, 103, 183, 185, 186, 217, 287, 304 Frente Armado Revolucionario de Colombia (FARC) 393 Frente Farabundo Marti para La Liberacion Nacional (FMLN), El Salvador 455 Freud, Sigmund 192 Frieden (German) Friends of the Earth 602 Frontex 326, 327 Fukuyama, Francis 682 functional region 207 functional security 587, 696 functionalism 72, 403, 404 Fur 806 G G3/BISA 867 G-7 399, 526, 578, 719 G-8 379, 399, 400, 719, 726, 944 climate change 547 Edinburgh summit, 2005 849 Gleneagles summit in United Kingdom, 2005 547, 933

Heiligendamm summit in Germany, 2007 547 Humanitarian Eight (H-8) 611 Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the Region of the Broader Middle East and North Africa 768 Plan for Africa 748, 749 gacaca tribunal 122, 123, 182 Gaia hypothesis/approach 86, 87, 88, 116–118 Galtung, Johan 9, 32, 70, 71, 110, 114, 115, 392, 478, 505, 516, 520, 523, 918, 919 Gamaa Islamiyya 413, 419 game theory 491, 538 Gandhi, Mohandas K. 119, 423 peace/security concept of non violence 68, 179, 180, 182, 190, 201, 247–251 Garant, Ronald 368 Gassendi, Pierre 264, 272 gateway regions 335 Gaza Strip 445 Gell-Mann, Murray 45 gender discrimination 115, 126 gender equality 121, 361, 386 gender equity 94, 116, 122, 385, 397 gender security 79, 116, 358, 400, 401, 522, 524, 589 gender studies/theories 443 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 381, 371, 945 General Agreements on Trade and Services (GATS) 125, 386 General Dynamics 368 General Electric 368 genetically modified seeds (GMO) 396 genetics 401 Geneva Convention 5, 564, 609, 612, 684 Geneva Convention on Refugees 688, 692, 694 geo-culture 334 geo-ecology 340, 505 geo-economics 83, 334, 335, 337, 505 geographic information system (GIS) 948 geopolitics 32, 80, 329, 349, 351, 505 approaches 334–340 classical 334, 346, 335, 351 ecological 339, 340 large areas concept 378 US Geostrategy 335, 336 geopolitics, critical 80 approach 336–339 emphasize the discursive basis of world politics 346

hierarchic international system 346– 348 Geopolitik (German) 334, 335, 337 géopolitique (French) 80, 336, 325, 337, 339 George, Lloyd 504 Georgia 558, 720, 722, 766, 772 Georgia Train and Equip Program 772 geoscience 340 geostrategy 334, 335 Gephart, Richard 376 German Academy for Crisis Management, Emergency Planning and Civil Defence (AKNZ) 748 German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) 545 World in Transition – Climate Change as a Security Risk report 339 German Development Institute (GDI) 901, 905 German Military Staff College (Führungsakademie) 545 Germany 128, 417, 457, 545 Action Plan Civilian Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Postclimate change 544, 545, 547 Conflict Peace-Building 733, 736– 742 Bundeswehr 744, 749 Command and Staff College (Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr) 748 Commissioners for Civilian Crisis Prevention 738 defence white papers 30, 518 development policy 157 European asylum policy 688, 689, 691, 692 Federal College for Security Policy (BAKS) 748 Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) 748, 749 Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg) 748, 749 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) 545 Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) 739 Federal Security Council 748 flood of 2002 551 Foreign Office (AA) 738, 748, 749 Interministerial Steering Group for Civil Crisis Prevention 736, 738, 739, 740 NATO 717, 720 new infrastructure of crisis prevention 738–740

1126 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan 739, 740 reconceptualization security after the end of the Cold War 733, 734, 736–738 reconstruction efforts in the Kunduz Region of Afghanistan 745, 748, 749 securitization of migration 591 security/military and development policy relationship 744–749 Strategic Future Analysis of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) 901–903, 912, 913 unification 27 Ghana 182, 357, 794 Ghannouchi 417 Ghosh, Aurobindo 250 Global Business Associates (GBA) 168 global civil society 384, 560 global climate change 9, 135, 166 global cultural industries 330 global environmental change (GEC) 29, 30, 36, 79, 90, 124, 165, 167, 168, 323, 334, 341, 344, 346, 537 challenges for the survival of Diversitas programme 33 governments 548 hierarchic international system 351– 353 human security linkages 358–361 reconceptualization of research 355 security 941, 946, 947, 952, 953 social science analyses 87, 88 socio-economic effects 340 survival dilemma 550, 551 Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS) 167, 342, 355, 360, 361, 546 global environmental change community (IHDP) 516 global governance 346, 384, 549, 670, 756, 757 global peoples security 79 global population cultures and areas of high density 904, 905 growth 87, 145, 881, 882, 904, 908 growth and environmental change 356, 357 China 852 India 15 global public goods (GPG) 756 global security 127, 282, 471, 510, 695 changed after end of Cold War 733– 736 clash of civilizations 285, 286 colonialism and the occupation of territories 287 commen challenges confronting the world 285–288

Index concrete analytical scenarios based on explanatory models of contemporary realities 919–924, 927 conditions of and possibilities for in the 21st century 915 democratic peace theory 915, 917– 919, 927 economic power without justice 286 European Union 755 future-oriented global peace and security studies 920 human and people’s rights to self-determination and self-rule 287, 288 necessary of a world state 924, 927 one-polar system (globalization) 286 poverty and unequal resource distribution 287 violence called terrorism 286, 287, 288 Wagar’s A Short History of the Future scenario 916, 917, 924, 926, 927 global warming 32, 95, 141, 400 global world state 348 globalization 9, 29, 80, 128, 187, 190, 191, 203, 219, 260, 338–341, 382, 403, 497, 502, 503, 505, 518, 558, 584, 585, 592, 641, 652, 653, 827 accelerated the process of concentration of wealth 381 advantages and disadvantage 579, 580 aspects of 329, 330 Bretton Woods institutes impact on 381, 382, 399, 400, 945 condition of 138 corporate 15 cover-up of capitalism 286 cultural dimension 329, 330, 383, 384, 592 dangers of 426–428 decline of a naïve 399 definition 217, 330 developing countries and reducing risk 135, 138 economic 329, 330 economic security 578–580 empirical record of progressive 427 ethics 193 European Union 667 four separate but interrelated processes 787 global ideology of consumption 383, 384 identity-based threats 342, 414–416, 420 military 363 organized violence 379 positive 192

process is irreversible 330 reconceptualization of security linkages 941, 945–947 regressive 379, 381–384, 397, 400, 401 social movements protest 399–401 technology as a supposed facilitator of 427, 428 theoretical analyses of 329–331 Third World 427, 428 tightening of border controls and immigration policies 946 weakening/end of the nation state 325 women’s rights impact 15 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 82 good governance 126, 141, 147–149, 152, 153, 291, 328, 478, 490, 571, 625, 638, 671 Google 775 Gopal Krishna Gokhale 247 Gorbachev, Mikhail 27, 95, 500, 542 governance without government 325 Grahew, Oded 398 Gramsci, Antonio 346, 401 grass-root movements 176 Great Depression of 1929 578 Greater Middle East 910, 911 Greece 689, 691, 906 Green Cross 95 green revolution 396 Green, T. H. 249 Greenbelt movement 98 greenhouse effect 544 greenhouse gas emissions 148, 352, 355, 946, 647 Greenpeace 17, 596, 602 Gregorius the Great (Pope) 271 Grenada 284, 306 Gross Domestic Production (GDP) 427, 931 Arab world 777 developing countries per capita 488 North-South gap 8 regional growth 380 Gross National Income (GNI) 145, 146 Grossraum (German) 350 Grotius, Hugo 3, 4, 70, 78, 90, 97, 176, 183, 186, 187, 495, 499, 502–504, 506, 512, 523, 537, 541, 542, 548, 549, 552 Group of Rome 117 Guajardo, Jesus 375 Guantánamo jails 364, 368 Guarani 175 Guarani aquifers 399 Guatemala 9, 115, 124, 151, 306, 388, 397, 454, 871 Report Nunca Más 122


Index guerrilla movements 393 guerrilla wars 306, 397 Guinea 614, 791, 795 Guinea Bissau 795 Gujarat 15 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 728, 785, 786 Gulf War I (1980 –1988) 5, 129, 378, 459 Gulf War II (1990 –1991) 3, 129, 134 gun boat diplomacy 349 Guyana 871 Guzman, Loyola 446 H Haas, Ernst 404 Habermas, Jürgen 32 Haeckel, Ernst 82, 85 Hague Peace Conferences 5 Haile Mariam 807 Haile Selassie 807 Haiti 389, 396, 397, 401, 608, 626, 870, 872 UN peace enforcement mission 867 UNSC resolutions 481 Halakhah (Jewish law) 255 Halliburton 367, 368, 383 Halperin, Morton 498 Hamas 413, 419, 768, 782 Hammarskjold, Dag 114, 121 Hampate Bâ, Ahmadou 291, 296 Han Yü 227 Har’m El Sharif 492 Harding, James R. 376 Haruki, Wada 837 Harvard University 511 Haryana 15 Hassner, Pierre 507 Hausas 433, 882 Haushofer, Karl 335 Havel, Václav 424, 714 health security 33, 79, 81, 400, 516, 522, 577 heartland model 335 Hebrew Bible 253–256, 258, 259 Heer Ranjha 16 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 82, 925 Heidegger, Martin 285, 305 Heidelberger Institut für Internationale Konfliktforschung (HIIK) Heisenberg Principle 898 Helsinki Citizen’s Assembly 424 Hemchandra 246 Hemispheric Security 310 Herder, Johann Gottfried 82 Hérodote (journal) 336 Herz, John 97, 540, 541, 915, 925, 926 Hesiod 265

Hessische Stiftung für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (HSFK/ PRIF) 505, 506 Hibakusha 239, 240 Hidalgo, Miguel 304 high environmental vulnerability 551 high societal vulnerability 551 high-yielding varieties (HYV) of crops 824 himsa 192 Hinduism dharma concept 195–200, 204, 243, 246, 250 peace concept 176, 177, 180 political action in the Arthashastra 199–201, 244–246 rita concept 195, 198–200 security concept 195–202, 243–247 svadharma concept 197–199 Hirobumi, Ito 215 Hiroshima 235, 239, 242, 609, 836 Hiroshima University 505, 506 Hispanic World Order 31 history conceptual 66, 67 HIV/AIDS 8, 110, 160, 161, 358, 361, 380, 384, 400, 488, 606, 612, 624, 628, 666, 795, 873, 881 pandemic in Southern Africa 815, 816, 818 Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (The Party of Islamic Liberation) 413, 435 Hizballah 284, 413, 419, 782 Ho Chi Minh 840 Hobbes, Thomas 3, 34, 35, 71, 75, 77, 78, 90, 91, 97, 102, 103, 181, 183, 187, 204, 207, 218, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 272–275, 277, 304, 326, 495, 496, 504, 506, 537, 540, 548, 552, 558, 560, 565, 822, 831, 856, 895, 947, 953 Holistic University in Brazil 12 holocene 323, 324, 947, 953 Holy Roman Empire 213 Homeland Security Advisory System 60 Homer 265 Homer-Dixon, Thomas 166 Honduras 566, 870, 871 Hong Kong 842, 843, 854 Hoop Scheffer, Jaap de 727 Horn of Africa food situation and production 803, 804, 809 regional conflicts and environmental challenges 801–804, 809, 810 Horse Manure Crisis of 1894, New York City 143 Howard, Michael 103, 507 Höynck, Wilhelm 645, 650

Hsu Heng 227 Hu Jintao 839, 847, 849, 852 Huáscar Cápac 302 Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP) 37, 65 Human Development Index (HDI) 82, 168, 487, 547, 577 Arab world 777, 778 Human Development Report, 1994 21, 84, 251, 358, 360, 361, 561, 568, 577, 605, 607, 623, 625, 829, 883 human dilemma 880 human ecology 86 Human Genome project 464 human geography 324 human insecurity 138, 359 four sources of 706, 707 policies to reduce risks 707, 708 human rights 7, 22, 32, 72, 74, 75, 105, 120, 124, 125, 138, 148, 151, 158, 241, 287, 288, 310, 314, 325, 330, 358, 384, 385, 393, 403, 470, 481, 506, 557, 625, 649, 663, 682, 683, 685, 705, 735, 756, 778, 834, 837, 946 abuses 405, 424 Judaism 257–259, 261 movement 560 politcal security 562–565, 568 human security 7, 28, 29, 35, 36, 47, 48, 49, 61, 70, 72, 77–79, 95, 98, 100, 109, 116, 139, 165, 169, 224, 236, 243, 299, 323, 341, 355, 400, 424, 468, 507, 516, 522, 524, 531, 546, 552, 561, 570, 580, 600, 621, 622, 663, 669, 698, 734, 741, 752, 757, 875, 879, 885, 886, 945, 947 agenda for the Mediterranean region 23, 24 Arab world 775–779, 788, 789 Canada and initiatives in the UNSC 9, 91, 160, 605, 606, 608– 612, 617, 618, 625, 626, 872, 880 China 399 concept/definition 160, 440–443, 605–608, 872 concept of social science 357, 358 definition 623, 705, 706, 775, 829 development linkages 705, 706 development policy impact on 160 dilemma 884 dimension of 487 direct and indirect threats/ violence 776, 779 environment 171 European Union 21–24, 662, 706, 708–712 GECHS 360, 361 global environmental change 358– 361

1128 Human Development Report/ UNDP, 1994 9, 30, 84, 251, 358, 360, 361, 951 India 399 international law 483, 484 Israel 261 Japan 9, 160, 242, 943, 944 Judaism 253–257, 259–261 lack of economic growth impact on 488–490, 492, 493 Latin America 308 medical background 607 natural environment linkages 932 Norwegian initiatives in the UNSC 609, 611, 614, 615, 625 OSCE 645 Oxford Research Group 775–779 relevance of prediction 900 resistance linkages 442, 443 South Asia 825, 826 Thailand 160 United Nations debate 625, 626, 628, 629, 632, 635, 636. 638 UNSC debate/initiatives 548, 605– 618 violent civil conflicts 127 WBGU 339 Human Security Centre 95 Human Security Commission (CHS) 30, 33, 160, 242 Human Security Now 10, 872 Human Security Doctrine for Europe 525 human security index 160 Human Security Network (HSN) 30, 36, 43, 160, 161, 339, 546, 606, 611, 615, 618, 625, 789, 872, 943 Human Security Report 1994 741 Human Security Response Force 22 Human Security Volunteer Service 22 human survival 544 human trafficking 81, 122, 123, 325, 327, 531, 629, 666, 873 human, gender, and environmental security (HUGE) 13, 79, 387, 399– 401, 522 humanitarian aid 745 humanitarian disasters 545 humanitarian intervention 72, 327, 358, 407, 421, 430, 484, 626, 841 Humboldt, Wilhelm von 34, 76 Hume, David 186 Hungary 718 Huntington, Samuel P. 30, 38, 132, 182, 193, 219, 285, 343, 413, 415, 416, 422, 423, 557, 559, 948 Hurd, Douglas 499 Husserl, Edmund 184 hydropiracy 17

Index I Ibn Chaldun 291 Ibn Ishaq 293 Ibos 433 IFOR (Implementation Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina) 718, 721 Iliescu, Ion 718 Imhotep 291, 292 immigration 532, 678 rationalist/state-centric view 530 imperialism 84, 90, 236, 242, 364, 372 Inazo, Nitobe 215 Inca Empire 175, 187, 189, 299, 300, 302, 388 Independent National Peasant Movement Plan de Ayala (CNPA), Mexico 397 indeterminism 893 India 9, 35, 132, 145, 161, 182, 192, 218, 397, 400, 406, 426, 427, 430, 547, 558, 759, 779, 819, 823, 825, 827, 828, 845, 849, 867, 945 climate change impacts 906, 909, 911, 912 contemporary security concept 247–251 female feticide 15 globalization 382 human security and poverty alleviation 399 origins of nonviolence 176–180 peace concepts 176–180 peacekeeping mission in Sri Lanka, 1987 408 population growth 15 traditional/ancient security concept 195, 196, 243, 247 value system 196 indigenous congress in Chiapas, 1974 397 individual security 279 Indonesia 145, 158, 218, 242, 356, 400, 428, 434, 480, 493, 547, 558, 560, 845 earthquake, 2004 881 Pancasila doctrine 193 Industrial Revolution 187, 304 Information Age Warfare 60 information asymmetry 572, 574, 897 information, communications technologies (ICT) 652 informational security 47 INGOs 36, 123, 385, 401 insecurity 77, 97, 128, 152, 217, 468, 469, 492, 530, 532 Institute for Foreign Relations (IFA), Stuttgart 739

Institute for North America and Canada Studies (IMEMO), Moscow 507 Institute for Peace Research and Security Studies at the University Hamburg (ISFH) 505, 506 Institute for Peace Science 506 Institute of War and Peace Studies 505 integration (neo)functional concepts 659 intellectual property 15 Interaction Council 544 Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality (IACWGE) 79 Inter-American Anti-Terrorism Committee (CICTE) 874 Inter-American Defence Council (JID) 874 Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 373, 392 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) 366, 849 Intergovernment Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) 801, 803, 804 Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) 332, 801–810, 943 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 33, 903, 936, 942 Assessment Report, 2007 30, 947 Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) 498 Treaty, 1987 944 internal security 31, 34, 46, 47, 59, 75, 77, 81, 108, 184, 203, 212, 281, 308, 325–327, 403, 431, 509, 520, 590, 661, 674, 678, 681–683, 686, 687, 692, 694, 701, 703, 800, 803, 805, 809, 816, 821, 822, 828, 840, 844– 846, 895 internally displaced people (IDP) 615, 809, 812 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Executive Council 483 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 381 International Coffee Agreement 374 International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 629, 783, 886 The Responsibility to Protect report, 2001 22, 484, 621, 626, 635 International Community of the Red Cross (ICRC) 83, 608, 615 International Court of Justice (ICJ) 105, 124, 384 international crime 666, 670


Index International Criminal Court (ICC) 384, 564, 611, 615, 625, 626, 670, 802 International Disaster Database 930 International Energy Association (IEA) 33, 81, 522 International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) 16 International Financial Institutions (IFIs) 738 International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 79 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) 33 International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) 33, 360, 546 international humanitarian law 481, 946 International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) 933 International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) 503, 507, 516, 849 International Kosovo Commission 409 International Labour Organization (ILO) 89, 381 Social Security Department 577 international law 78, 203 collective self-defence right 479 European Union 669, 670 human/environmental security and access to raw materials 483, 484 legal norms and the notion of security 475, 476 peace concepts 70 permissible unilateral use of force and humanitarian intervention 327, 484, 485 United Nations Charter peace and security concept 35, 65, 73, 74, 90, 475–478 transnational crime 384 USA 350, 352 international law, UNSC resolutions Congo crisis 478 Darfur conflict 481 East Timor 480 Falkland Islands conflict 477 Haiti 481 internal situations 479–481 international terrorism 482, 483 inter-state armed conflict 477, 478 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 477–479, 484 Iraqi possession of WMD 483 Korea War 477 Kosovo crisis 481, 484, 485

Kurdish population in Northern Iraq 479 new (broader) concept of security after the end of the Cold War 74, 478–485 North Korea and nuclear weapons 483 Palestine conflict 477 proliferation of weapons of mass destruction 483 Rhodesia 477 Rwanda 479 Somalia 479 South Africa and Apartheid 477 Yugoslavia conflict 479, 480, 484 International Maritime Organization (IMO) 89 International Military Education and Training programme (IMET) 376 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 9, 125, 157, 217, 371–378, 381, 399, 400, 460, 578, 625, 738, 845, 945 Washington Consensus 394, 578, 579 International Peace Research Association (IPRA) 506 conferences 11, 12, 43, 517, 518 Ecology and Peace Commission 11 Food Study Group 11 founded in 1964 10 General Secretariat and Presidency 11, 12 Human Right to Food Group 11 regional peace research societies 11, 13 International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) 503, 505, 506 International Peace Research Newsletter (IPR-N) 10 International Political Economy 570, 577, 579 international regimes 81 international relation (IR) (see also security concepts, scientific approaches) analyzing globalization approach 505 behaviouralist approach 505 dilemma concept 538 constructivist approach 31, 32 globalist or transnationalist approach 505 Grotian (pragmatist/rationalist) approach 3, 4, 70, 78, 90, 97, 176, 183, 186, 187, 495, 499, 502–504, 506, 512, 523, 537, 541, 542, 548, 549, 552 Hobbesian (pessemist) approach 3. 71, 75, 78, 90, 91, 97, 102, 103, 187, 272–274, 304, 326, 495, 504, 506, 537, 540, 548, 552, 558, 560

humanitarianism and interventionism 682 idealist approach 31, 32, 335, 504, 505, 506 Kantian (optimist) approach 70, 72, 78, 90, 91, 97, 176, 183, 495, 496, 499, 500, 504, 539–541, 548, 549, 552 liberalism approach 31, 32 Marxist approaches 504 neoliberal approach 505 neorealist 72, 207, 208, 505 peace research and security studies as two distinct research programmes of 503 realist approach 31, 32, 72, 127, 128, 207, 347, 504, 505 spatial/geopolitics approach 505 scientific traditions and schools of 504, 505 security concepts 77–81, 495–502, 529–536 state-centric approach 505 systematic academic discipline after the First World War 31, 495, 504 territoriality concept 325 US scholars 32 World Conference in Istanbul, 2005 516 International Relations and Peace Research (IRIPAZ) in Guatemala 12 international security complex systems linkages 58, 59 increased politization and militarization of international economic exchanges 377 justice best guarantee for 469–474 limits of the prevailing model 467– 469 significant change occurred since 11 September 2001 328 International Security (journal) 33, 503, 511 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 327, 744, 760, 945 international security studies (ISS) 510 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) 929, 931 International Studies Association (ISA) 33, 43, 506, 507, 510, 516 Peace Studies Section 506 international system/order 353 anarchic 71, 72 critical geopolitics 346–348 gender, role of 589 global environmental politics 351– 353 hegemony of the USA 347 hierarchization of, after the end of the Cold War 345–353

1130 individual level data collection 458– 464 major changes for the past 500 years 31 new multipolar 345 ordering principle and functions of units 350, 351 post-Cold War world system 27, 30, 353, 421, 422, 425, 557, 558, 942–945 re-emergence of traditional militarytechno-territorial spaces of US military power 348–350, 353 unipolarity and hierarchical, after September 2001 345, 350 Westphalian anarchy of states before the end of the Cold War 345 international terrorism, see terrorism International Tribunal for the (former) Yugoslavia 480 International Union Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 169 International Year to Combat Desertification, 2006 339 internet 329, 461, 566, 567 Interpol 327 interregionalism 411 interstate war risk of systemic incidence 129, 130 Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research 461 intervention Afghanistan 422–425 Iraq 422–425 modes of external 408 perils for sovereignty 422–426 tackle terrorism 423 intervention state 327, 328, 941 IPAT equation 598 Iran 122, 378, 419, 420, 557, 558, 560, 767, 769, 773, 853 hostage crisis 671 Islamic Revolution 420 nuclear weapons 4, 425, 427 Iraq 23, 155, 162, 190, 283, 348, 435, 493, 557, 560, 608, 616, 625, 744, 747, 758, 785, 788, 852 civilian toll in 2006 367 existence of WMD 897 intervention 367, 368, 369, 422–425, 559, 868, 870, 884, 885 invasion of Kuwait in 1991 557, 623 possession of WMD and UNSC resolutions 483 Security Forces 729 US-led invasion of March 2003 3, 4, 129, 484, 485, 497, 558, 627, 721, 745, 789 Ireland 611, 615, 689 Irish Republican Army (IRA) 133, 445, 446, 455

Index iron triangle 366, 369 Irreducible Semi-Autonomous Adaptive Combat (ISAAC) 59 Islam classical Islamic disciplines 281 heterogeneous character of 418 identity-based groups and security threats 418–420 Muslim communities in Europe 417, 418 security concepts 279–282, 293 threat and religion connection 413, 416–418 Islamic fundamentalism 3, 133, 419, 420, 759 Islamic Jihad 413, 419, 420 Islamic Liberation Front 413 Islamic threat 413, 559 myth of 416–418 Islamist groups 435 Islamophobia 417 Israel 22, 132, 286, 348, 559, 726, 767, 768, 786 human security 261 invasion of Lebanon, 2006 22, 782 rights of Palestinians 261 Istanbul Cooperation Initiative 728– 732 Italy 457, 688, 906 Itzcóatl, 188 IUCN (World Conservation Union) 89 Ivory Coast 157 J Jahn, Egbert 107 Jainism 192, 201 peace concept 177–179 Jal Board 19 Jal Swaraj Yatra 20 Janatha Vimukti Perumena (JVP), Sri Lanka 825 Janjaweed 806 Japan 67, 161, 238, 371, 547, 557, 558, 609, 839, 846, 849, 884, 945 Bakufu/Edo Period (1600– 1868) 209, 211 Catholic Christianity banning 236 Buddhism 215, 216, 236, 237 bushi/samurai 215, 236 Charter Oath in 1889 237 chian-ijiho (Peace Preservation Act) 238 China 203–220, 237, 238, 832–834 Confucianism 214, 236 Constitution 220 development policy 157 different perceptions of the recent history 241, 242

Emperor System 211, 216 foreign/security policy after the end of the Cold War 831–837 globalization 382 Heian Period (794–1185) 236 human security (freedom from want) 9, 160, 242, 943, 944 Imperial Constitution 237 Korea 203–220, 237, 238 Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 241 Meiji government (1868–1912) 209, 212, 215, 237 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) 242 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 160 National Defence Program Guideline FY 2005 829, 832– 834 nationalism and uniqueness tendency in history 209, 218, 219, 235–238 Neo-Confucian 236 North Korea 217 nuclear weapons policy 235, 239– 242, 635 Peace Constitution 220, 235, 241, 941 Russia 212, 237 security/foreign policy concepts 203–220, 235, 238–242 Self-Defence Forces (SDF) 235, 240, 241, 833 Shintoism as state religion 215, 216, 237 South Korea 238 Tokugawa period 203, 209, 213, 214, 236 unequal treaties 213 USA 218, 220, 238, 241 Yamato Clan 236 Jean Paul II 304 Jefferson, Thomas 186 Jemaah Islamiyah 881 Jerusalem 416 Jiang Zemin 845, 847 jihad 134, 283, 287, 416, 417, 419, 420 Johnson, Lyndon B. 76, 363 Joint Working Group on Verification 933 Jordan 151, 155, 418, 419, 611, 728, 785, 786, 789, 885 Jordan Institute of Diplomacy Regional Human Security Centre 789 jornalerización 373 Journal of Peace Research 107, 503, 522 Journal of Strategic Studies 511 Juárez, Benito 192, 304 Jubilee 2000 385 Judaism 255, 257, 283


Index Hebrew Bible 253–256, 258, 259 human rights 257–259, 261 human security concept 253–257, 259–261 medieval 254, 258–260 rabbinic 255 treatment of the poor (poverty) 259 –261 Junta de Buen Gobierno 396 just war 283, 349 justice best guarantee for international security 469, 472–474 Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Sudan 806 justice-peace dilemma 539 K Kagame, Alexis 291, 296 Kaldor, Mary 21 Kamandaka 244–246 kamikaze 212 Kang Sang Jung 837 Kanghwa Treaty, 1876 213 Kanji, Ishiwara 216 Kansas Event Data System (KEDS) 463 Kant, Immanuel 31, 34, 35, 66, 70, 72, 76–78, 82, 90, 91, 97, 116, 138, 176, 180, 181, 183, 193, 277, 495, 496, 499, 504, 539–541, 548, 549, 552, 831, 902, 917, 918, 925 Karachi 882 Kargil crisis, 1999 820 karma 176–182 Karman 195, 196 Kashmir 286–288, 434, 666, 820, 823, 828 Kaunda, Kenneth 32 Kautilya 200, 244–246 Kazakhstan 945 Kellog, Brown and Root (KBR) 367, 368 Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 503 Kennedy, John F. 76, 463 Kenya 157, 413, 417, 419, 794, 801–804, 809 constitutional crisis 809 Kepler, Johannes 57 Ketchua 175 Keynes, John Maynard 187 Keynesianism 137, 366 KFOR (Kosovo Force) 721, 760 Khaled, Leila 446 Khomeini, Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah 417, 420 Kim Ilsong 204 Kim Jongil 204

King, David 544 King, Martin Luther 9, 176, 182, 192 King’s College, Department of War Studies 506 Kissinger, Henry 852 Kjellén, Rudolf 334 Knight, Frank 890, 891, 893 Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) 748, 749 Kohl, Helmut 152 Koizumi, Junichiro 238 Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) 237 Kongfuzi, see Confucius Kongmin-wang 228 Kongzi, see Confucius Koran 279 Korea 238 Buddhism 214 China 203–220, 227 Chosôn-Dynasty/Yi Dynasty (1392– 1910) 209, 214, 222, 226, 228–234 Japan 203–220 Japanese invasion, 1591 230, 232,– 234 Koryô-Dynasty (918–1392) 222, 226–230, 233 nationalism 219 Neo-Confucianism as a ruling ideology in the Chosôn Dynasty 227–231 Neo-Confucianism security concept in Chosôn Dynasty 214, 226–234 sadae relation to ancient China 228–232, 233 security concepts 203–220 Tonghak movement 214 Korean War, 1950–1953 129, 219, 233, 836 UNSC resolutions 477 Korny, Joseph 807 Koryô-Dynastie 222, 226–230, 233 Koselleck, Reinhart 34, 66, 67, 100 Kosovo 162, 348, 610, 624, 715, 721, 728, 744, 745, 885 intervention 430 UNSC resolutions 481, 484, 485 War, 1999 129, 626 Kozyrev, Andrei 719, 765 kremlinologists 897 Krishna 198 Krishnan, A 17 Kuan-Hsing, Chen 837 Kublai Khan 227 Kuhne, Helmut 22 Kulturnation (German) 225 Kuna 175 Kung-Lung 181 Kurdistan 441 Kurds 433

Kurile Islands 832 Kuwait 348, 419, 728, 786, 852 Iraqi invasion and UNSC resolutions 477–479, 484 Iraqi invasion of 3, 129, 418 Kuznets curve 146, 147 Kwanghaegun 231 Kyoto Protocol 168, 430, 670 refusal of the USA 352 Kyrgyzstan 772, 945 L labour security 400 Lacoste, Yves 32, 336, 338 Laghvarhanniti 246 Lagos 882 Lagos-Cairo-Karachi-Jakarta arc 881, 882, 886 Lancet (journal) 367 Landfrieden (German) 69, 326 Landless Peasant Movement (MST), in Brazil 379, 386, 387, 395, 397, 398, 402 Lao Tse 116, 180, 181, 183, 192 Laos 945 Latin America 867, 875 civil and guerrilla wars 397, 873 confidence in institutions 394 conquest of the indigenous civilizations by Spain and Portugal 31, 175, 189, 302, 303, 388 deforestation 308 deindustrialization policies in the 1980’s 377 democratization process 307, 393, 944 development of philosophy 302– 305 discriminated indigenous populations 393, 394 GDP growth, 1820–1998 380 health conditions 392 important policy problems 389 independence movements in the early 19th century 304 international terrorism 307, 308 lack of governance, instability, weak democratic institutionality 9, 10, 872, 875 military coup and dictatorship 397 nationalism and the reason of the nation state 305, 306, 309 oil reserves 383 poverty since 1990’s 9, 10, 188, 308, 389–392 Pre-Columbian period of cosmogonies and religion 299–303 repeated economic crises since 1970’s 389

1132 risk of civil war 132, 133 satisfaction with the government and democracy 394, 395 social inequality/high income gap 188, 308, 391, 392 social movements 386, 392–395, 397, 398 socialism and the emergence of opposition movements 306 traditional conflicts 871 traditional division of labour 391 traditions of Pre-Hispanic and Hispanic 187, 188 undernourished population 390 urban violence 871 USA 306, 309, 310, 388 wars of liberation 31 Latin America, security/peace concepts cosmogonies founded in the harmony with nature 303 cultural transformations 299 denuclearization and status as an inter-state Peace Zone 868, 875 end of the Cold War and the 9/11 attack impact on 307, 308 European philosophies influence 304, 305 evaluation and outlook 308–310 human security 308 international/global security role 307, 308, 867–870, 875 peace concept of Pre-Hispanic cosmovision 188–190 peace concept of the colonial and Catholic heritage 189, 190, 388 post-Colonial period 305–307 Pre-Hispanic and Colonial period 302, 303 security trilogy 874, 875 state security 303, 870–872, 875 threats and defining new concepts for security 873–875 Latin American Council of Peace Research (CLAIP) 11–13, 517 Latinoamericanismo 306 Latinobarómetro 394 Latvia 719 Laws of Manu 201 Le Monde diplomatique 397 League of Nations 5, 31, 70, 186, 275, 315, 316, 495, 502, 540, 555 Covenant 72, 77, 116, 503, 622 Leahy, Patrick 364 Least Developed Countries 427 Lebanon 22, 23, 132, 284, 420, 558, 761, 782, 785, 885 Lebensraum (German) concept 335 Lenin, Wladimir Iljitsch Uljanow 8 Lentz, Theodore 505

Index Lesotho 816 Levin, Carl 369 lex artis 475 Lexis/Nexis 462 Li Zhaoxing 847, 849 Liberation Theology 192, 304, 393, 401 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 436 Liberia 27, 114, 121, 356, 406, 558, 560, 614, 616, 666, 744, 748, 750, 791, 793, 795, 796 Libya 284, 419, 420, 482, 692, 785, 786, 852 Liddle Hart, Basil 507 Limited Test Ban Treaty, 1963 602 Lincoln, Abraham 363 Lippmann, Walter 509 Lithuania 719 livelihood security 33, 34, 79, 81, 516, 547 Livio 184 Locke, John 35, 77, 186, 187 Lockheed Martin 368 London Peace Society, 1816 4 London School of Economics 21, 577 Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), Uganda 803, 807, 808 Low-Income Country Under Stress (LICUS) 154 Lu Xun 208 Lucretius 75, 264, 268, 272, 277 Ludford, Sarah 693 Lugar, Richard G. 716 Luhmann, Niklas 32, 53, 276 Lula da Silva, Luiz Ignacio 398, 400, 401 Lumumba, Francois 812 Lumumba, Patrice 478 Lunugamvehera projects (Sri Lanka) 824 Luther, Martin 101, 271 Luxembourg 692 Luxemburg, Rosa 181, 183, 186 Lysøen Declaration for a joint Partnership for Action, 1998 611 M Maa (master of oneself) 296 Maastricht 687, 688 Maât 291, 292 Macao 842, 843, 854 Macedonia 558, 718, 722, 774, 885 Machiavelli, Niccolò 78, 91, 183, 186, 272, 496, 504, 953 Mackinder, Halford 335, 336 macroeconomic effects 382 macro-securitization 554, 557, 559 magga 178 Maghreb 23, 777

Mahabharata 198–200 Mahan, Alfred 335, 336 Mahaparinirvana Sutra 201 Mahavir 177 Mahayana 197, 201 Maine, Sir Henry 103 Malawi 816 Malaysia 35, 242, 399, 433, 845 Maldives 819 Mali 794 Malthus, Thomas Robert 87, 92, 143, 356, 357, 920 Malthusian trap 135 Manchester School 138 Mandela, Nelson 12, 192, 444 Mandongmyo 232 Manhattan District Project 239 Manu 201, 245, 246 Mao Zedong 27, 204, 216, 220, 400, 444, 839, 840, 843, 844 Maoism 840, 843 Mapuche 175 maras gangs of Central America 566, 867, 871, March of Women 2005 385, 394 Marcus Cornelius Fronto 292 Marcuse, Herbert 365 Marshall Plan 151 Marx, Karl 82, 181, 183, 186, 268, 305, 920 Marxism 66, 186, 840 Marxism-Leninism 105, 504 Massachusetts Peace Society, 1814 4 Massaleit 806 mathematical model 53, 54, 898–900. 947 Matthai, Wangari 98 Mauritania 726, 777, 785, 786 Mauritius 816 Max-Planck-Institute of Meteorology 908 Mayas 175, 187, 188, 300, 302, 388 Mayi Mayi 812 McCain, John 369 Medellín drug cartel 452, 453 Medicare 369 Mediterranean area/region 699, 719 climate change impact on 548, 550 European security dialogue 21–24, 773 human security agenda 23, 24 Istanbul Cooperation Initiative 728–732 NATO 725–729 Mediterranean space 325 Meinicke, Friedrich 77 Melanesia 858–860 Mencius 205, 221, 222, 224, 226, 230, 233 Menem, Carlos 399


Index Mengzi, see Mencius mercantilism 571 Mercosur 307, 313, 332, 382, 406, 867 Merkel, Angela 720 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 305 Mesa, Carlos 867 Mesoamerica 10, 115, 188, 287, 302, 948 Mexica 175, 187, 188, 189, 388 Mexican Revolution, 1910 –1919 8, 372, 375, 388 Mexico 119, 161, 188, 300, 301, 306, 307, 388, 393, 395, 401, 454, 547, 548, 867, 870, 873, 883 agrarian reforms and privatization and its social implications 375, 376, 395 bank savings 392 civil wars since 1911 370 constitutional modifications 375, 376 domestic market opening and privatization of important economic sectors (neoporfiriato) 372, 374–377 IMF and World Bank influence 371–377, 395 incomes decline in the 1980’s and 1990’s 373, 374, 395, 396 legal reforms by Benito Juárez 304 military and police budgets increase 376 migrants to the USA 395 oil reserves 383 Plan de Ayal 375 public investment declined in the 1980’s and 1990’s 374 social and political consequences of the Porfirian laissez-faire policy 370, 371 social expenditures cutting in the 1980’s and 1990’s 374 social gap 391, 392 student massacre in Tlatelolco, 1968 397 Supreme Electoral Tribunal and election of 2006 396 USA 943 Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas 357, 395–397, 435 Mexico City 395 micro-business/credits/enterprise 125, 386 Micronesia 858, 859 Middle Ages 65, 103, 104, 292, 293, 326 Middle East 406, 415, 719 civil war risk 132 climate change impacts 910, 911 conflict 945 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) 778, 780, 911

Middle East peace process Madrid Accords 286 Oslo Agreements 286 Middle East Quartet 774 Middle East War, 1973 787 Migration migration 9, 97, 662 causes 684 environmentally-induced 339 from China 848 securitization of in Europe 591 significant increase since end of the Cold War 329 societal security 584, 590–592 Southern Africa 814 milieu (French) 285 militarism 120, 242 militarization 151, 309, 310 military agenda 554 Military Balance (journal) 507 military deglobalization 426 military deterrence 427 military expenditures/spending China 848, 849 development aid linkage 157 East Asia 834, 837 Latin America/Caribbean 868 USA 348, 848, 849, 868 military geography 348 military-industrial complex 34, 363 Military Observer Mission to Ecuador and Peru (MOMEP) 871 military operations different types of mandate 745 Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) 61 military security 46, 207, 208, 323, 573, 581, 675, 885, 899, 948 balance of power era (1648– 1945) 554, 555 complex systems linkages 59, 61 mixed set of actors and referent objects 559, 560 rebirth after the 9/11 attack through US reaction 345, 353, 943, 944 securitization theory analyse 553 USA 345, 350 military technology 328, 557, 775 Millennium Challenge Account 156 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 10, 125, 156, 157, 170, 342, 356, 361, 384, 547, 631, 632, 751, 752, 931, 946, 953 Millennium Round 191 Milosevic, Slobodan 918 Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), China 205, 206, 213, 225 226, 228 – 233 MINUSTAH 319 mir (Russian) 68

missile defence system 325, 349 Missile Technology Control Regime 427 MIT 511 Mitchell, John 545 Mitrany, David 404 Mobutu, Sese Seko 152 Moctezuma I and II 188 moksha 196, 200 Moldova 773, 774 Mongolia 212, 842 Monroe Doctrine, 1823 175, 190, 306, 314, 370 Monsanto 17 Montenegro 671, 774 Montesinos, Vladimiro 454 Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat 138, 185, 186 Moore, G.E. 305 Morales, Evo 399 More, Thomas 69 Morelos 304 Morgenstern, Oskar 891, 894 Morgenthau, Hans 31, 78, 104, 496, 530, 915, 925, 926, 953 Morocco 23, 287, 418, 726, 728, 785, 786, 794 Möser, Justus 82 Mozambique 623, 638, 812, 816 Mugabe, Robert 560, 813 Mujtama 281 Müller, Adam 82 multilateralism 312, 399, 653, 667, 669, 670, 756, 757 multinational enterprises (MNE) 9, 381 multiregionalism 411 mundialization 381 Murdoch, Robert 329 Museveni, Yoweri 803, 807 Muskaweh 281 Muslim Brotherhood 419 Muslim world (see also Arab world) backwardness and underdevelopment 284 dismantling of 283, 284 diversity of political positions 418 injustice behind violence and disturbance 282–285 internal oppression and dictatorial regimes 283, 419 international terrorism 419, 420 islamic fundamentalism 419, 420 lack of mass-mobilization for a project of a global Renaissance 284 occupation of the land as a remnant of the colonial era 283 peace/security concepts and the contemporary realities 282–285

1134 polarity between rich and poor inside societies 283 Westernization and the threats to cultural identity 284 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 7, 459, 517, 622 mutual security 78, 80, 279 Myanmar 201, 560, 945 Myrdal, Alva 10 Myrdal, Gunnar 10, 505 N Nagasaki 235, 239, 242, 609, 836 Nagorno-Karabakh 766, 772 Naher el Bared Palestinian refugee camp 22 Nahuas 299–301 Nair, Balakrishnana 18 Namibia 623, 812, 814–816 Nanjing massacre 836 nano technology 401 Napoleonic wars 3, 4, 326 Narain, Jaiprakash 250 Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) 148 NASA 366 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 504 nation state 326, 343 National Congolese Lumumbist Movement (MNC) 812 National Geographic Society 881 National Islamic Front (NIF), Sudan 805 National Resistance Movement (NRM), Uganda 807, 809 national security 7, 29, 31, 67, 79, 81, 100, 102, 104, 206, 329, 358, 376, 377, 496, 498, 500, 501, 506, 507, 509, 510, 517, 532, 623, 663, 698, 802, 872, 875, 879, 883, 886 Cold War period 555–557 evolution of the concept in the USA in the 1940’s 34, 76, 77, 102 post 9/11 period 558, 559, 943, 944 post-Cold War period 557, 558 National Security Advisor 279 National Security Council 279 national security state 34 national sovereignty 325 national space 325 nationalism 837 East Asia 208, 209, 218, 219 Japan 209, 218, 219, 235–238 Latin America 305, 306, 309 sub 433–437 nation-building 654, 744 NATO 28, 81, 123, 238, 327, 331, 405, 499, 664, 738, 943

Index analysis problems and prediction after the end of the Cold War 720– 723 capabilities and institutional structures adaptation after the end of the Cold War 714–717, 723, 943 Afghanistan 327, 558, 559, 721, 722 945 Allied Chiefs of Defence Staff 728 Balkans wars 626, 715, 721, 728, 793 broader Middle East 725–729 Caucasus and Central Asia 945 Civil Emergency Planning 727 command structure 715 Comprehensive Political Guidance 715, 716 Defence Capabilities Initiative 715 Defense College in Rome 728 desertification conference in Valencia, 2003 339 enlargement of 108, 717–720, 722 EU and cooperation 653, 654, 655, 657, 700, 720, 721, 758–762 Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) 727 Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) 726 homeland security dimension 722 Istanbul Cooperation Initiative 650, 728–732 international terrorism 715, 716, 718, 721–723 Istanbul Summit, 2004 650, 715, 726–729 London Summit, 1990 715 maritime Operation Active Endeavour 727 Mediterranean Dialogue 725–729 members reaction to US-led invasion of Iraq 721 Membership Action Plan (MAP) 718 Military Committee 715 modernize allied defence 716 New Strategic Concept 484 North Atlantic Council 726, 727, 729 nuclear weapons 719 Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism 727 Partnership for Peace (PfP) 718, 726–728 peacekeeping mission in Kosovo 793 peacekeeping operations in the Balkans 728 Prague Summit, 2002 715, 726 reconceptualization of security in the post-Cold War years 713–717, 722, 723

Response Force 721 Riga Summit, 2006 715, 759 Russia 719, 720, 722 School in Oberammergau 728 Soviet Union 714, 715, 717 Standing Naval Forces 728 Strategic Commands 728 Strategic Concept of 1999 715, 725, 726 Training and Doctrine Centre at Ar Rustamiya near Baghdad 729 transatlantic security consultation 720, 721 US nuclear guarantee to Europe 714 USA 715–718, 720–722 Washington Summit, 1999 718, 725, 726 Washington Treaty of 1949 721 weapons of mass destruction proliferation (WMD) 715, 716 Work Programme 727, 728 NATO-Russia Council 719 natural disasters 4, 5, 65, 127, 135, 168, 301, 308, 340, 401, 467, 551, 666, 667, 697, 851, 904, 873 China 850–852 climate change 905, 908, 909 cooperative security responses 4 development linkages 931 economic costs 930, 931 European Union reaction 698–700 frequency of recorded rising 929, 930 human-induced 548 management 931 predictions 934, 935 natural gas reserves 779 natural resource scarcity as explanatory factor of civil wars 135–138 Nauru 860, 861 Nazi Germany 8, 782 Near Abroad Policy (NAP) 405, 764– 767, 771, 772 Near and Middle East climate change impacts 906 neem (azad darakht) 16 negative peace 70–72, 103, 104, 106, 115, 116, 478, 506, 516 Nehru, Jawahar Lal 250 Neo-Confucianism Japan 236 orthodoxy in China 212, 214 security concepts in East Asia 205, 214 security concept in Chosôn Dynasty of Korea 214, 226–234 Neo-Darwinian 86 neofunctionalism 403, 404


Index neoliberalism 118, 187 Neo-Malthusian 82, 87, 88, 90, 93, 127, 135, 138, 167, 552 Neo-Platonism 184 neoporfiriato 372, 374, 375, 377 Neo-taoism 181 Nepal 132, 356, 492, 493, 558, 616, 819, 823, 828 Nero 269 Net National Income 145 Netherlands 611 Neumann, John von 891, 894 New Caledonia 858, 861 New Deal 34, 76 New European Security Theory (NEST) 29, 523 New International Economic Order 105 New Orleans 4, 932 New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 711 new regionalism 329, 333, 334, 339, 340, 344, 403, 404, 410, 411, 763, 859 New Regionalism Approach (NRA) 332, 333 new wars 27 New World Order 108 New York City 143 New York Peace Society, 1815 4 New Zealand 859, 860, 864, 945 Newton, Isaac 57, 933 Nezahualcóyotl 188 Nezahualpilli 188 NGOs (non-governmental organizations) 72, 90, 123, 161, 162, 207, 330, 385, 401, 426, 596, 611, 617, 625, 638, 644, 648, 649, 678, 689, 690, 693, 739, 745, 813, 838, 875 Nicaragua 9, 130, 379, 394, 399, 454, 623, 870, 871, 944 Nichiren 212 Nichirenism 216 Niebuhr, H. Richard 884 Nietzsche, Friedrich 70, 181 Nigeria 122, 139, 406, 407, 433, 852, 882 Nihonshoki (Chronicles of Japan) 237 nirvana 178, 182 Nissan corporation 170 Nitisara 244–246 Nitivakyamitram 246 Nixon, Richard 842 Niyazov, Saparmurat 846 Njoh-Mouelle, Ebenezer 291, 296, 297 Nkruma, Kwame 32, 182, 295, 504, 813 No Muhyon 220 Noahide code 258

non-offensive defence 106, 107, 506, 518, 522, 553 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 238, 285, 425, 497 Review Conference 633, 635 non-provocative defence 506, 522 Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact (NSWP) 718 nonviolent conflict resolution 401 North Africa 341 climate change impacts 906 North Africa and the Middle East (MENA) 943 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 307, 326, 330, 332, 369, 370, 372, 374–376, 379, 382, 386, 395, 943 North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) 717 North Atlantic Council 726, 727, 729 North Korea 204, 216–219, 239, 477, 557, 558, 560, 623, 829, 945 missile launch over Japan in 1998 833 nuclear weapons 425, 427, 635, 944 nuclear weapons and UNSC resolutions 483 Six Party Talks 220, 835 Northeast Asia security situation 219, 238, 239 traditional worldview 830, 831 Northeast Asia Security Cooperation Dialogue (NEACD) 834 Northeast Asia Security Dialogue 836 Northern Europe climate change impacts 909 Northern Ireland 415, 433 Northrop Grumman 368 Norway 9, 138 human security initiatives in the UNSC 609, 611, 614, 615, 625 security and development policy linkages 155, 158 nuclear deterrence 30, 32, 81, 127, 128, 459, 506, 507, 522, 553, 556 autistic syndrome 106 theory 511 China 849 nuclear geostrategy 335, 337 Nuclear Suppliers Group 427 nuclear war 128, 557, 623 nuclear weapons 8, 312, 506, 555, 557, 559 biological and medical effects of 239, 240 China 849 deployment of new 106, 459 global monopoly of legitimate violence 915, 925 inhuman nature of 239, 240 Iran 4

Japan 235, 239–242, 635 NATO 719 (non)proliferation policy 556, 459, 623, 670 North Korea 238, 239, 635, 944 securitization of 556 South Asia 819, 821 testing in the Pacific 861 warheads 459 Nyerere, Julius 32, 182, 295, 428, 504 O Obasanjo, Olusegun 806 observed irreducible complexity (OIC) 52 Obuchi, Keizo 160 Occidentalization 303 Official Development Assistance (ODA) 242, 710–712, 744, 752 Ogata, Sadako 608 oil imports of the USA 782 mayor consumers 781 production and consumption worldwide 780, 781 reserves, production and consumption worldwide 383, 779 world net exporters 780 Okinawa 238, 242 old age security 290, 297 Olmeca 175 Om sect 286 Oman 728, 786, 852 Ondeo Degremont 19 Oomoto 216 Opium War, 1839–1842 213, 843 Optional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights of Women in Africa 119 Organ for Politics Defence and Security (OPDS) 813, 816, 817 Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 29, 33, 36, 81, 83, 89, 96, 151, 153, 159, 779, 909, 912, 918, 920, 946 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 705, 706, 744 good donorship 156 Guidelines on Peace, Conflict and Development Centre 711 Development Cooperation 158 Organisation internationale de la Francophonie 434 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 70, 81, 123, 124, 327, 331, 405, 499, 550, 726, 738, 757, 758, 761, 762, 943, 945

1136 Annual Security Review Conference 646 Budapest Summit, 1994 646 Code of Conduct on politico-military aspects of security 646 Conflict Prevention Centre 646 Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities 648 Economic and Environmental SubCommittee of the Permanent Council 648 Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC) 648 Forum for Security Co-operation (FSC) 646, 649 High Commissioner on National Minorities 647 Human Dimension Implementation Meeting 647 Ministerial Council in Maastricht, 2003 645, 648, 649 Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) 647 Office for Free Elections 647 Panel of Eminent Persons 650, 758 Parliamentary Assembly (PA) 648 Permanent Council 647–649 principles 718 Representative on Freedom of the Media (RFM) 647 Strategy Document for the Economic and Environmental Dimension 648, 649 Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century 644, 645 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), security concept changes since end of the Cold War 643–645 comprehensive security 645 economic and environmental dimension 648, 649 evaluation 649, 650 human dimension 647, 648 human security 645 Human Security Network 645 politico-military dimension 646, 647 Organization of African Unity (OAU) 123, 124, 331, 429, 743, 792, 794, 795 Organization of American States (OAS) 124, 190, 306, 327, 331, 332, 388, 943, 944 Charter 874 Conference on Security 310 Declaration of the Organization of American States 36

Index organized crime 9, 12, 21, 59, 108, 119, 122, 125, 154, 160, 191, 307–309. 323, 325–327, 329, 389, 515, 525, 529, 548, 560, 565,–567, 606, 624, 628, 629, 646, 650, 652, 674, 708, 734, 737, 770–772, 848, 867, 871, 873, 912, 946 Organski, Kenneth 457, 458, 460, 461, 464 Origen 292 Osama bin Laden 417, 420, 444, 471, 482, 559 Osborn, Fairfield 356 Osgood, Charles E. 66 Oshima, Kenzo 547, 612– 616 Ottoman Empire 418, 784 Otunnu, Olara 608 Oujda Treaty, 1984 785 overseas development assistance (ODA) 706 Oxford Research Group 775–779 ozone depletion 359, 946 P pace (Italian) 68 Pachacuti 189 Pacific Islands Conference of Leaders (PIC) 861, 862 Pacific Islands Development Programme 861 Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) 859, 861– 865 Aitutaki Declaration on Regional Security Cooperation, 1997 861 Biketawa Declaration, 2000 861, 862, 863 Eminent Persons Group 863 Forum Security Committee 863 Honiara Declaration on Law Enforcement Cooperation, 1992 863 Nasonini Declaration on Regional Security, 2002 862 Pacific Plan For Strengthening Regional Cooperation and Integration 863, 864 Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) 863 pacifism 70, 115, 238 Padroado system 313 paix (French) 68 Pakistan 9, 132, 155, 157, 348, 356, 417, 418, 547, 565, 767, 819, 824, 828, 945 sub-nationalisms 436, 437 Palestine (conflict) 283, 287, 288, 445, 614, 768, 782, 788 Occupied Territories 782 UNSC resolutions 477 Palestinian Authority 22, 286 Paley, William 576

Pali Canon 201 Panama 397, 452, 454, 547 Pancasila 193 panchayat 18 Panchen Lama 178 Papua New Guinea 547, 858, 860, 861 Paracel and Spratly islands 854 Paraguay 313, 395, 397, 566, 867, 872 parallel globalization 875 Pareto criterion/efficiency 142, 487 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness 711 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law, 1856 5 Paris school 29, 33, 111, 515 parity purchasing power (PPP) 777 Partido de Acción Nacional (PAN), Mexico 375, 396 Partido del Trabajo (PT), Brazil 398 Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI), Mexico 375, 396 Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD), Mexico 396 Patkar, Medha 148 patriarchy 185 pax (Latin) 68, 69 pax aeterna 103 Pax Americana 70, 366, 371 Pax Augusta 184 Pax Britannica 70 Pax Christiana 69, 75 pax divina 69 pax falsa 103 pax humana 69 Pax Romana 75, 103, 183, 184, 270, 517 pax sinica 830 pax temporalis 103 pax vera 103 paz (Spanish and Portuguese) 68 peace conceptual history 69 conceptual reflections 113–116 definition 68–70 etymology 68 peace and conflict impact assessments (PCIA) 407 Peace and Conflict Research Institute (PCRI) 505 Peace and Justice Studies Association (PJSA) 11, 506 peace and security policy beyond deterrenc 522 peace concepts 106, 107 Arabic/Islamic thinking 281, 282 Buddhism 178, 179 Christian thinking in the Middle Ages 69, 103, 184, 185 Cold War period 104–107 collective social efforts 192


Index comparison of thinking in the Oriental, Occidental, and Latin American 190–193 colonial and Catholic heritage in Latin America 189, 190, 388 Confucius and Lao Tse 180, 181, 183 development linkage 94, 95 enlightenment 103 environment linkage 91, 94 Galtung 70, 71 Gandhi 68, 179, 180, 182, 190, 201 Greek philosophy 69, 183, 184 history until 1945 103, 104 Hinduism 176, 177, 180 India 176–180 institutionalized patterned process of no-war 72 modern European thought 185–187 Jainism 177–179 Kant’s Eternal Peace 70, 97, 186, 187 Oriental thinking impact in the Occident 182, 183 peace research 71–73 post-Cold War period 31, 108–111 Pre-Hispanic Cosmovision/culture in Latin America 68, 188–190 Roman 69, 103, 183, 184 scientific concept 70 security linkage 91, 279 summary of worldviews and standpoints 93 United Nations framework 73, 74 Peace Conference in Versailles, 1919 31, 70, 503, 504 peace dilemma 538 peace education 11, 13, 73 peace enforcement (measures) 609, 755 dilemma 538 peace learning 11 peace movement 11, 32, 106, 107, 176 peace of Münster and Osnabrück, 1648 31 peace research 28, 32, 33, 72, 89, 94, 99, 503 crisis of 110, 111 critical 106, 506, 517, 523 disputes with securities studies 507, 508 early warning system, based on analysis of social processes and structures 927 evolution and review of the different security concepts 516–525 Northern Europe and Germany 106, 107 peace as basic value and goal 71–73 peace tools 72, 73

research centres, academic programmes, private institutes established since 1945 10, 505, 506 security concepts debate conclusions 524, 525 Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) 10, 95 Peace Research Laboratory 505 Peace Science Society 506 Peace Settlement of Vienna, 1815 5, 31 Peace Studies Association (PSA) 11, 506 peace support and governance operation 745 peace-building 358, 401 definition 733 development 158 indivisibility of territory, symbols, or revenue as a major impediment 492 post-conflict 736, 737 peace-enforcement dilemma 538 peacekeeping (missions) 70, 72, 124, 411, 507, 518, 553, 609, 654, 723, 745, 746, 755, 869 China 849 Indian mission in Sri Lanka, 1987 408 regional 403 robust 745 types 745 UN mission in Darfur 805, 806 UN mission in Somalia 801, 803– 805, 809 Paek Yong-s 837 Peloponnesian War 266 Penn, William 69 Pepsi-Cola 18 Perestroika 27 Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier 35 permanent peace 496 perpetual peace 103 Peru 188, 302, 394, 395, 397, 450–452, 454, 547, 558, 566, 867, 870–872, 944 Peruvian-Jordanian arms scandal of 2000 454, 455 Petersberg Tasks 672, 674, 761 Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) 367 Philip of Macedon 267 Philippines 235, 242, 558, 845, 854 Philopones 292 physical security 208, 756 physical violence 114, 236, 384, 400, 478, 516 physiological ecology 85 Picht, Georg 70 Pinochet, Augusto 564 Pitt, William the Younger 5 Plachimada Declaration 17, 18

Plan Puebla Panama (PPP) 369 Plato 69, 183, 192, 267, 269, 276, 277, 281 Plotin 291 Poland 145, 718 Polanyi, Karl 571 Polemological Institute 505 political ecology 167, 339 political geoecology 32, 334, 339, 340 political geography 334, 338 political insecurity 276 political science policy, politics and polity context 34 political security 274–276, 514, 563, 577 566 definition/concept of UNDP 561, 562 democracy 562 failed states 565, 566 genocide 562–564 global war on terrorism 563, 564 human rights relevance 562–565, 568 rendition 562, 563, 564, 565 South Asia 827, 828 ungoverned privacy and political insecurity 566–568 universal application of judicial norms/universal rule of law 562– 565, 568 politicization 596, 602 politics spatial dimension of 325, 326 Polk, James 363 Polynesia 858, 859 Pontífica Universidad Católica, Peru 12 Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 813 population ecology 85 population growth 87, 388, 401, 947 Porfiriato 364, 371 pork-barrel politics 366, 367 Portillo, López 374 Portugal 313, 314, 480, 689, 691 Portuguese Overseas Council 313 positive peace 70–72, 103, 105, 106, 114– 116, 478, 516 post-conflict assistance 158, 161–163 post-conflict reconstruction 409, 410, 411 postmodernism 898, 899 poverty alleviation 126 Powell, Colin 445 power-security dilemma 510 predictability 57, 469, 892, 893, 899 limits 893, 894 prediction 45, 573

1138 collapse of the Soviet Union 896, 897, 899 computer simulation models 899, 900 conceptualization of security 895– 900 definition 929 distinguishing between forecast, and predictability 892, 893 economic security 575 economics and social sciences 894, 895 epistemological determinants 897– 899 failure of security-related research during the Cold War 896, 897, 919, 920 human, weather, and climate interactions 935–937 human knowledge 892–894 limits 893, 894 mathematical models 898–900 methods of 49, 50 natural and social sciences 933, 934 natural hazard 934, 935 social theory 56, 57, 892–895 socio-political barriers 900 socio-political determinants 896, 897 sustainable development and disaster management 938 predictive politics 462 pre-emptive strike/attack 353, 421, 422, 555 Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space 849 preventive diplomacy 114, 121, 124, 407, 408 preventive intervention 408 preventive security 631 preventive war (strategy) 70, 377, 421 Primakov, Evgeny 719 Procampo 375, 376 Prodi, Romano 769 Project Global 2000 519 Prophet Mohammed 416 provention 407, 408, 411 Prussia 5, 102, 217, 185, 217, 237, 457, 539 Prussia–France war, 1870 457 Ptahhotep 291, 292 public security 245 Pufendorf, Samuel Baron von 34, 70, 75, 274, 275 Punjab 15, 286 Putin, Wladimir 207, 719

Index Q Qatar 348, 547, 728, 786 Qian Qichen 845, 846 Qin Shihuang 842 Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), China 206, 209, 215, 226, 227, 230–233, 843 Quechua-Aymara language 300 Quetzalcoatl 188, 300–302 Quiches 300 Qutb, Sayed 281 R rabbinic Judaism 255 radio frequency identification device (RFID) 568 radioactive wastes 355 Rajnitiratnakara 246 Ramrajya 250 RAND (Research and Development) Corporation 59, 506, 848 Ranis, Gustav 577 Rapid Reaction Mechanism (RRM) 710 Ratzel, Friedrich 335, 338 Rawls, John 487, 884 Raytheon 368 Realpolitik (German) 182, 836 re-borderization 80, 329 Rechtssicherheit (German) 34, 35 Rechtsstaat (German) 34, 76 regional conflict future of management 410–412 global pattern 405–407, 411 regional multilateralism 412 regional security 507 American continent 873, 874 concept of 441, 442 different approaches in the literature 763 East Asia 831–838 Horn of Africa 801–804, 809, 810 North East Asia 238, 239 South Asia 819–828 South Pacific 855, 857–859 UNU-WIDER approach 333 West Africa 791–796, 799, 800 regional security complex theory (RSCT) 333, 334, 344 regionalism 213, 331, 332, 339, 403, 404, 791, 856, 859, 860 concepts 331–334 definition 763 New Regionalism Approach (NRA) 332, 333 regional security complex theory (RSCT) 333, 334, 344 UNU/Wider approach 332, 334 regionalization 331, 342, 771

concepts 331–334 definition 763 expanded concept in the post Cold War era 764 hegemonic state and the regional states 764 shortcomings of traditional approaches 332 regionness 333, 403 regressive globalization 187, 379, 381– 384, 397, 400, 401 Reichardt, Rolf 100 Reid, John 544 relational security 509 religion definition 587 religious fundamentalism 387, 401 religious identity 415 rendition 562–565 Republic of Korea (ROK), see South Korea Research Foundation 17 resource scarcity 882 resource wars 169, 170 resource wealth greed-driven conflict 135, 137 Resources for the Future (RFF) 576 Respuesta para la Paz in Argentina 12 reterritorialization 338 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 453–455 revolving door 366, 367 Rhodesia 477 RiceTec 16, 17 Richardson Institute 505 Richardson, Lewis F. 71, 505, 540 Rig Veda 195 Rini, Synder 863 Rio Branco, Baron of 314, 319 Rio de Janeiro 565, 867, 882 Rio Treaty (TIAR), 1948 306 risk 893 definition 889–892 theoretical approaches 890, 891 risk assessment 595, 596 risk concept 108 risk coping 707, 711 risk mitigation 707, 711 risk prevention 707, 710 risk society 55, 108, 699, 889 risk theory 109 River Plate 313, 318 Robinson, Mary 610, 612 rogue states 129, 353, 483 Roh Moo-hyun 219, 234 Röling, Bert 10 Roman Empire 69, 170, 243, 264, 270, 271, 277 Romania 35, 157, 718, 774 Rome Statute 563, 564, 615


Index Roosevelt, Franklin D. 34, 76, 275, 363, 622 Rosen, Robert 53 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 35, 77, 181, 186, 469, 472, 496 Roy, M. N. 250 Royal Military College, Canada 506 Rühe, Volker 717 Rühl, Lothar 507 Rumsfeld, Donald 369 Russell, Bertrand 305 Russell-Einstein Manifesto, 1955 239 Russia 67, 108, 128, 134, 207, 284, 348, 352, 380, 395, 405, 406, 433, 547, 558, 726, 849, 944, 946 Baltic States and former Eastern Europe 773, 774 Central Asia 772–774 climate change impacts 910 Duma 765 East Asia 829 European Union 911 Foreign Policy Concept of June 2000 765, 766 Middle East 773, 774 Military Doctrine of April 2000 765, 766 NATO 719, 720, 722 Near Abroad Policy (NAP) 764– 767, 771, 772 OSCE 758 Wider Black Sea Region (WBSR) 772 Russia Bolshevik Revolution 4, 8 Rwanda 122, 125, 182, 356, 357, 557, 558, 560, 563, 608, 610, 616, 624, 638, 812 Council of the International Tribunal 625 genocide of 1984 121, 129, 153, 407, 426, 628, 885 humanitarian operations 153 UNSC resolutions 479 S Sachs, Jeffrey 811 sadae principle 222, 227–234 Saddam Hussein 129, 418, 435, 469, 559, 884 Sahel zone 36, 548, 551 Saint-Pierre, Abbé de 69 Saint-Simon, Henri de 69 Sakamoto, Yoshikazu, 837 Sakuma Shozan 207 salam (Arabic) 68 Salinas, Carlos 374–376 samgha 202 samhitas 244 Sang Jung 837

Sant Vallabhacharya 18 Santa Fe Institute 52 Sardar Sarovar dam project 148 Sartre, Jean-Paul 305 Satyagraha 248, 250 Saudi Arabia 137, 283, 419, 425, 728, 785, 786, 853 Savigny, Friedrich Carl von 82 Savimbi, Jonas 152 Schelling, Thomas 498 Schengen Agreements 326, 328, 678, 687 Schiller, Friedrich 82 Schmidt, Helmut 182 Schmitt, Carl 350, 351, 523 Scholastics 303, 304 School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University (SAIS) 507 School of the Americas 388 Schröder, Gerhard 718, 720 Science Applications International Corporations 368 Sebrenica 610 Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) 861, 862 sectoral security 400 securitas (Latin) 195, 267, 277 evolution of the term and the concept 263–272 Pax Romana 270 Roman philosophy 268–270 sécurité (French) 75, 101 securitization 29, 46, 65, 77, 81, 310, 334, 353, 437, 557–559, 581, 583, 588, 589, 602, 664, 684, 686, 870, 889, 899, 915, 920 Copenhagen School 28, 29, 33, 47, 102, 111, 431, 433, 434, 512–515, 523, 524, 660 definition/concept 323, 512, 553, 582, 677 development 752 economic sector 572–574, 579 environmental dimension 339 European asylum policy 689–691, 693, 694 European Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) 678, 680 globalization of 559 migration policy in Europe 591 military security 553 positive 523 self-referential practice of 79 theory 595–597 universalist macro 554, 557 war on terror (WoT) 559 security aspects 879–881

attributes/property of social systems 49–51, 699 common meaning 879 complex systems research 50–62 conceptual history 75, 76 conceptual mapping 67, 76, 77 core concept of disturbance/perception/collectivity 47–49 defined as a primary right 467–469 definitions 35, 77, 467–469, 595, 660, 886 etymology 46, 74, 75 evolution of the concept 46, 47 interpretations 45–50 Latin roots (securitas) 263, 264 legal relevance in international law 475, 476 philosophy linkages 34, 35 relations of 440–443 responsible ethics 883–886 rethinking the meaning of 883, 884 societal word symbol 275, 276 sovereignty impact on 343, 421–430 spatial referent objects 340, 344 stages of analysis 440–443 state, society, and modernity interrelationship 431–433 sub-nationalism/sub-national actors 433–437 conceptual mapping 76, 77 systemic framework 51 systemic interpretation 49, 50 vertical levels and horizontal dimensions 28 security community 333, 659, 663 definition 696, 697 security complex 695 security concepts 106, 107 Africa 289–297 Arab/Islamic Classical thinking 279–281 Arab/Islamic contemporary thinking 281, 282 Cold war period 104–107 environment linkages 96, 165 history until 1945 100–104 identity-based threats as referent objects 342, 343 internationalization of the new thinking 525 Latin America 299, 303–310 national to the postnational transition constellation 326–329 peace linkages 91, 279 post-Cold war period 108–111, 829, 830, 867, 875 relevance of prediction and 895– 900 responsibility to protect 734, 735

1140 Third World perspective approach 519 United Nations 29, 35, 36 security concept, Asia Buddhism 195–197, 201, 202 Confucian philosophy in ancient China 203–220, 222–226 East Asia 203–220 Gandhi and non violence 247–251 Hinduism 195–202, 243–247 India 195, 196, 243, 247–251 Japan 203–220, 235, 238–242 Korea 203–220 Korea and Neo-Confucianism 214, 226–234 security concept, European tradition Christian thinking and the Middle Ages 101, 270, 271, 272 Greek roots 264–268 Hobbes 3, 75, 187, 272–274, 326 Homer and Thucydides 265–268 Roman 101, 270, 271 security concept, scientific approaches (see also international relations (IR)) Aberystwyth school 29, 33, 514, 515 alternative defence/security 499– 501 constructivist 28, 77, 80, 128, 513, 514, 525, 533, 534 Copenhagen school 28, 29, 33, 47, 102, 111, 431, 512–515, 523, 524, 660 critical 28, 29, 500, 501, 513, 514, 525, 533, 534 Critical Approaches to Security in Europe (CASE) 111, 523, 524 critical security studies (CSS) 80, 111, 514, 515, 523, 524 deconstructivist 80 debate in peace research and in the security studies conclusions 524, 525 discursive 532–536 drivers and centres of conceptual innovation 32, 33 English School 78, 80, 91 evaluation and comparison of the different post-Cold War approaches 502 expanded approach 29, 79, 341, 513, 514, 522, 525 feminist 500, 513, 523 four pillars of a widened 96–98 geopolitical 334–340 globalization impact 80 human, gender, and environmental (HUGE) 79, 522, 387, 399–401 liberal 78, 80 liberal institutionalism 499 neoinstitutionalist 80

Index neo-realist 78, 91, 496–499, 501, 502, 509, 511, 513, 523, 524, 554, 822 New European Security Theory (NEST) 523 Paris school 29, 33, 111, 515 peace research and their different approaches 516–525 postmodernist 80 post-national constellation 522 post-positivist, social constructivists 499, 500, 501, 512, 523 post-structural 513, 534–536 rationalist/state-centred 28–30, 79, 243, 343, 509, 511, 513, 522, 529, 530, 663, 743 realist 23, 78, 80, 91, 496–499, 501, 502, 509, 511, 513, 524, 554, 822 redefining and repositioning in the 1980’s 106, 107 referent objectives 28, 341–343, 530– 532 regionalism and regionalization 331– 334, 342, 343 sceptic of an extension (militarization) of 518–520, 523 sectorialization of 28, 328, 344, 522, 524, 941, 942 security dilemma 97, 98 security studies and their different approaches 78, 507–516, 522–525 six linkage concepts in relation to peace, environment, and development 91–96, 98 social constructivists 659, 660 social sciences 27, 28, 77–81 spatial dimension and implications 80, 324–329, 340–344 summary of worldviews and standpoints 93, 94 survival dilemma 97, 98, 542–552 traditionalists military 79, 80, 523, 948 transdisciplinary 952 wider and deeper 28, 79, 323, 400, 401, 496, 497, 513, 514, 522, 525, 530, 900, 941, 942, 944 Security Dialogue (journal) 503, 522 security dilemma 33, 90, 97, 98, 333, 499, 500, 502, 530, 537, 548, 553, 819, 821, 822, 880 conceptualization by Herz 540, 541 genealogy and use 539–542 security governance 696 security paradox 97 security partnership 80, 106 security regionalism 333 conceptualization and debates 403, 404 dimensions 404, 405

future of conflict management 410– 412 security research individual level data collection 458– 464 security scenarios planning tool for armed forces and society 901–903, 913 security sector reform (SSR) 158, 812, 816, 818 security studies 99, 503 agenda for future studies 510 disputes with peace and conflict research 507, 508 conclusions from the security concepts debate 524, 525 definition 506 emergence of new schools 431 evolution and review of the different security concepts 78, 507–516, 522– 525 multi-disciplinarity in the next phase of theory 109 security threats 79 state and society 327 transboundary 326 security, development linkages 8, 9, 91– 96, 98, 109, 523, 552, 625, 637 –642, 653, 705 –707, 710, 743–745 aid as means to support states during the Cold War 151, 152, 155 conflict prevention 159–161 DDR and SSR 158 Denmark 155 do no harm principle 159 engage in domestic processes related to governance and conflict after 1989 152–154, 155 evaluation and critique 161–163 human security 160 instrumentalized in the war on terrorism since 9/11 attack 154, 155 military spending/expenditures 157 Norway 155, 158 post-conflict assistance 158, 161–163 United Kingdom 154, 159, 160 USA 154–156 security, reconceptualizing of alternative concepts for the future 42, 951 cultural, philosophical, ethical, and religious diversity 38, 39, 948, 949 different perceptions of the changes in North and South 942, 943 dimensions 40, 41, 949, 950 global contextual change in the international order 941, 943–945 global environmental change (GEC) 941, 946, 947, 952, 953 globalization 941, 945–947


Index institutional challenges 950 institutional security concepts revisited for the 21st Century 41 methodological considerations for research 951, 952 need for scientific research 951–954 regional security 42, 950, 951 scientific disciplines 40, 949 scientific relevance 951 security, peace, development and environment linkage 38 security to a survival dilemma shift 952–954 spatial context and diverse social actors 39, 40, 949 transdisciplinary approach 952 widening, deepening and sectoralization of 941, 942, 951, 954 securus (Latin) 46, 75, 101, 243 segurança (Portuguese) 75 seguridad (Spanish) 75 Sen, Amartya 147, 156, 242, 251, 358, 360, 487, 577, 705, 706 Sendero Luminoso 455 Seneca 269, 270 Senegal 795 Senghaas, Dieter 9, 32, 70, 110, 114, 191, 392, 523, 953 Senghor, Léopold Sédar 295 Senkaku (Diaoyu) islands 854 Serbia 558, 671, 718, 774, 885, 918 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 629, 701, 881 SFOR (Stabilization Force in BosniaHerzegovina) 718, 721 shadow state 137 Shalikashvili, John 718 shalom (Hebrew) 68 Shamanism 205, 206, 216, 219 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) 834, 835, 849 Shanghai Institute for International Studies 834 Shariah law 293, 803, 805 Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys 803 Sheikh Hassan Aweys 804 shih-ta principle 181, 222–225, 230, 233 shih-ta-ism 222 Shining Path 393 Shintaro, Ishihara 832 Shinto, Yoshida 215 Shintoism 205, 215, 219, 237 Shiva, Vandana 119, 827 Shui-bian, Chen 833 Siberia climate change impacts 906, 907, 909–911 Sicherheit (German) 34, 35, 275, 276 etymology 75, 77 sicurezza (Italian) 75

Siddhartha 177 Sierra Leone 114, 121, 558, 560, 563, 610, 614, 791, 793, 795 Sikhs 286 Silent Spring (Rachel Carson) 602 Silk Road 175, 182 Singapore 614, 845, 848 Single European Act (SEA), 1987 664, 665, 668, 687 Sinhala nationalism 822 Sino-centrism 225, 226, 228, 231 Sistema de Integración Centroamericano (SICA) 307 Skinner, B.F. 100 Slovakia 718 Slovenia 609, 611, 718 Smith, Adam 31, 144, 315, 883, 902 social contract 187, 491 Social Darwinism 207, 554 Social Democratic Party (SPD), Germany 741 social ecology 88, 94, 118 social justice sustainable linkage 147–149 social learning 87, 126 social movements 65, 67, 342, 379, 385, 396, 397 different phases and agendas 385, 386 independence from traditional parties and governmental organizations 387 Latin America 386, 392–395, 397, 398 propose alternatives and traditional rejectionists 386 protests against globalization 399– 401 world protest against the Iraq War 384, 399 Social Movements World Network 402 Social Network Analysis (SNA) 61 social peace 115 social sciences conceptual mapping 34 individual level data collection 458– 464 security concepts 27, 28, 77–81 social security 34, 35, 77, 79, 195, 243, 510 emergence in the 20th century 274– 276 social solidarity networks 402 social theory prediction, role of 892–895 social vulnerability 339 Social-Darwinist 831 societal denationalization 326

societal security 29, 47, 49, 61, 79, 111, 148, 401, 497 changes and trends 590–593 concept of 440–443, 581–584 depopulation 584 end of the Cold War and 9/11 terrorist attacks 590–593 gender 588–590 horizontal/vertical competition 584 main issues of the agenda 584–587 migration 584, 590–592 relevance of prediction 900 religion 587, 588 societal welfare 487 Socrates 183, 269 soft power 352, 353 soil degradation 909, 911, 946 soil erosion 548, 850, 881, 882 Sokal Hoax 54 Solana, Javier 21, 672, 674, 700, 719, 761, 770 solidarity support economy 386 Solomon Islands 858–860, 863 Somadeva 246 Somalia 27, 83, 129, 151, 152, 471, 493, 548, 551, 557, 558, 560, 608, 626, 638, 666, 794, 801, 802, 809, 810, 885, 945 security assessment 804, 805 Transitional Federal Government (TFG) 803, 804 UN peacekeeping mission 801, 803–805, 809 UNSC resolutions 479 Sommaruga, Cornelio 608 Song Si-yôl 226, 230–232 sophism 69 Sophocles 265 Sorel, Georges 70 South Africa 123, 161, 547, 611, 812, 814–816, 867, 882 Apartheid 180, 182, 258, 477 Commissions of Truth 124 complex peace/transition process 7, 9, 115, 121, 122 defence management 817 Truth Commissions 11 South America climate change impacts 908–910, 912 Drago and Calvo Doctrines 429 South American Strategic Area 867 South Asia armed confrontations and conflicts 132, 819–823, 828 economic development and environmental problems interrelationship 824–828 economic security 826, 827 environmental security 827

1142 gender-aware/feminist analyses of security 823 human security 825, 826 international terrorism 827, 828 national question and secessionist movements 823 neo-Marxist analyses of security 823 nuclear weapons 819, 821 political security 827, 828 state as a source of security or insecurity 821–826 traditional, state-centric notion of security/(neo-) realist world view 819–821, 826 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 332, 943 South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) 388 South Korea 151, 207, 216, 219, 238, 371, 477, 493, 609, 612, 837, 848, 945 China 220, 232 Grand National Party (GNP) 232 Japan 220, 238 North Korea 835, 836 political developments after the end of the Cold War 831, 836 USA 220, 232 South Ossetia 722, 766, 772 South Pacific armed conflicts 858 environmental, economic, and political challenges 860 political status of the Pacific states 859 regional organizations 861–865 security situation 855, 857–859 South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) 861, 862 South Pacific Chiefs of Police Conference 861 South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone 861 South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) 861, 862 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) 331 Southern African Development Community (SADC) 332, 406, 410, 792, 801, 943 civil-military relations 816, 817 defence management 817 democracy and governance 813 environment and water issues 814, 815 HIV/Aids pandemic 815, 816, 818 international and sub-regional migration 814 intra and inter-state violence 811, 812

Index Mutual Defence Pact 814, 817 post-conflict challenge 812, 813 Protocol on Free Movement 814 Protocol on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation 814, 817 Protocol on Shared Watercourse System 815 regional institutional structures 813, 814 security sector reform 816 sub-regional conflicts 811–813 Southern Europe climate change impacts 906, 909, 910 sovereignty 664 differential 343 friend/enemy dichotomy 350, 351 globalization impact on 421, 426– 429 insurgent nationalism impact on 428–430 intervention impact on 422–426 security 343 territorial principle 326 Third World countries 422 United Nation debate 626, 629, 630 Soviet Union 35, 217, 275, 329, 380, 477, 497 dissolution of 5, 30, 557, 896, 897, 899 NATO 714, 715, 717 sovietologists 897 space concept of 324 territorial category 324 space ordering 346 space-based weapons systems 849 Spain 133, 286, 313, 415, 564, 689, 692, 698, 906 Sparta 266 spatial analysis 324, 325 spatial order 325 Special Conference on Security in the Americas in Mexico, 2003 872, 873 Spencer, Herbert 304, 543 Speyer, James 370 spirituality 193 Sports Utility Vehicles 170 Sputnik launch, 1957 8 Spykman, Nicholas 335 Sri Lanka 132, 178, 201, 493, 558, 819, 820, 824, 825 Tamil conflict 286, 433, 434, 436, 822, 823, 828 Staatsraison (German) 741 stability definition 574 Stalin, Josef 8 Stanford University 511

state concept of ancient Egypt 291, 292 dimensions of the modern intervention 327, 328 European nation 432, 822 fragmentation of multi-ethnic 329 security or insecurity source in South Asia 821–826 security threats and tasks 327 society, security, and modernity interrelationship 431–433 sub-nationalilsm/sub-national actors 433–437 state of exception 350 state security 509, 622, 663, 734, 870– 872, 875 Statewatch 691 stealth bombers 856 Stédile, Pedro 398 Stiglitz, Joseph 571, 572, 579 Stimson Center 640 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 10, 95, 460, 505, 506, 520, 848, 849 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) I, II 497, 498, 944 Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ (SIPO) 813, 817 strategic studies (see security studies) Strategic Survey (journal) 507 string theory 459 Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) of IMF/World Bank 125, 191, 364, 372– 375, 382, 389, 394, 395, 399, 400 structural imperialism 114, 392 structural violence 70, 71, 250, 400, 516, 518 Study Group on Europe’s Security Capabilities 522 Suárez, Francisco 70 sub-nationalism 327, 343, 421, 433–437 Sub-Saharan Africa 8, 131, 132, 152, 155, 139, 425, 945 climate change impacts 908, 911 Sudan 122, 417, 481, 482, 558, 563, 614, 625, 801, 802, 809, 810, 852 Comprehensive Peace Agreements (CPA), 2005 802, 803, 805, 806 security assessment 805, 806 Sudanese Peoples Liberation Movement/Army (SPLAM/A) 803, 805–808 Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux Water Division 19 Sukarno, Achmed 218 Sun Tzu 895 Sunshine Policy 238 Sunzi 181, 183, 840 Suphamongkhon, Kantathi 160


Index supranational governance 326 supranationalization 328, 689 Supreme Commander of Allied Forces (SCAP) 239 Suriname 452 Survival (journal) 503 survival dilemma 33, 36, 78, 113, 323, 341, 344, 540 definition of the concept 91, 542– 544 definitions and debate in the international relations literature 540– 542 global environmental change 550, 551 human-centred 550–552, 947, 952– 954 Kant’s Eternal Peaces 539–541 people-centred 97, 98 state-centred 548–550 survival strategies 552 survival hexagon 598 survival pacts 341 survival society 543, 544, 550 survival strategies 344, 392, 400 sustainable development 81, 84, 86, 90, 91, 94, 95, 98, 113, 115, 122, 124, 125, 176, 299, 385, 396, 402, 537, 542, 550, 552, 599, 607, 613, 663 climate change 933 complex systems and the implications 143–145, 147, 148 concept/definition 141, 142, 929 economic growth linkage 141, 144, 145, 149 economic security 576 environment protection linkage 146, 147, 149 European Union 667, 669 fundamentals 142, 143 key concepts 83 natural disasters 931, 932, 937 predictions 938 sustainable energy 126 sustainable livelihood 399, 402 sustainable peace 91, 94, 193, 310, 552 conclusions for the future in the South 124–126 definition of 120, 121 goals and elements 126 negotiating stages and instruments 122–124 theoretical and political challenge 120–122 United Nations 113 sustainable subsistence practice 119 svadharma 197–199 Swaziland 816 Sweden 35, 689, 692 Swisspeace 506

Switzerland 193, 417, 548, 611, 615 Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 785 Syria 785 systems thinking 50–52, 61 T Tablighi Jama’at (Preaching Party) 435 Tacitus 270 Taino 175 Taiping 207 Taisho Democracy movement (Japan) 237 Taiwan 207, 209, 213, 219, 238, 239, 371, 493, 831–833, 839, 842, 843, 845, 846, 849 Tajikistan 558, 766, 774, 945 Taliban 423, 482, 558, 564, 666, 772 Talmud 253, 255, 256 TAMA (There Are Many Alternatives) 385, 386 Tampere Peace Research Institute (TAPRI) 10, 505 Tanzania 182, 295, 413, 417, 419, 803, 816 Taoism 115, 180, 181, 842 Tehri Dam 19, 20 Tempels, Placide 295, 296 Temple Mount in Jerusalem 492 Tenochtitlán 188 Teotihuacan 175 Terreo 60 territoriality 80, 325, 328 terrorism 32, 59, 190, 325, 326, 358, 387, 401, 412, 413, 497, 548, 559, 560, 662, 873 act of resistance 443, 444 combating and complex system theory 60, 61 creation of hyper-identities and impact on 439, 442–447 definition and features 439, 444 dominance and non-dominance relationship 447 global security impact 286–288 human and societal security 440, 443–447 Islamic attacks 413, 419, 420 Middle East 445, 446 NATO reaction 715, 716, 718, 721– 723, 727 non-state actors 439 South Asia 827, 828 state-based security approach 439 strategy to combat 491, 492 UNSC resolutions 482, 483 terrorist networks 329, 532, 946 Tertullianus 270, 292 Texcoco 188 Thailand 201, 399, 400, 611, 845, 848

human security concept 160 Ministry on Social Development and Human Security 160 Thatcher, Margret 152, 385 theatre missile defence (TMD) USA and Japan joint project 238, 239 Theravada-Buddhism 201 Third World 128, 154, 160, 161, 218, 287, 380, 385, 422, 427, 428, 557 Thirty Years War (1618– 1648) 31, 326 THORPEX 935 threat 65, 81, 326, 530, 776, 879, 880, 885 clusters 628 identity-based and globalization 342, 414–416, 420 perception 714 Thucydides 78, 183, 263, 265– 267, 272, 273, 275, 953 Tibet 178, 842 Tickell, Sir Crispin 545 TINA (There Is No Alternative) 385 Tizoc 188 Tlacopan 188 Tlamatinime 301, 310 TNE 125 Tobin tax 397, 401 Togo 794 Tokugawa Shogun 236 Tolba, Mostafa 89 Toltecs 188, 300 Tonantzin 189 Tonghak 207 Torah 254 Toshimichi, Ookubo 215 totalitarianism 106 Toyotomi Hideyoshi 230 Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) 16, 125, 381, 386 Trade Union of Workers and Peasants (CSUT-CB), Bolivia 397 transboundary water Southern Africa 815 Transnational Enterprise (TNE) 381– 388, 394, 396 transnational organized crime 160, 384, 662 transnational society 328 transnational space of solidarity 402 transnational states 330 transnationalization 328 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 450, 451 transregional security approach for Andean region 449– 451, 456 transregionalism 411, 450 Treaty of Madrid, 1750 313, 314

1144 Treaty of Rio (TIAR) 874 Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 313 Treitschke, Heinrich von 70 TREVI (Terrorisme, Radicalisme, Extremisme et Violence Internationale) 678, 686 tropical cyclones global distribution 910, 911 risk for urban environment 908 Truman, Harry S. 76, 239 Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, Etienne 812 Tunisia 417–419, 726, 785, 786 Túpac Katari 397 Turkey 155, 283, 417, 558, 698, 767, 774 Turkmenistan 846, 945 Tuvalu 860 Tzun Tzu 181, 183, 193, 953 U ubunto 182, 402 Udawalawe projects (Sri Lanka) 824 Uexküll, Jakob Johann von 85 Uganda 35, 801–803, 809, 810, 812 Northern conflict 807–810 Ujamaa doctrine 182, 295, 402 Ukraine 128, 157, 720, 722, 726, 773 ul Haq, Mahbub 33, 577, 605 Umwelt (German) 285 uncertainty 893 definition 889–892 underdevelopment 82, 95 natural resource dependence 135– 139 Union Carbide 16 Union du Maghreb Arabe (UMA) 332, 785, 786, 801 Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) 799 Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UPDPS) 812 Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 813 Union of Concerned Scientists Task Force Report 426 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 728, 777, 785, 786, United Kingdom (UK) 457, 616, 717, 773, 784, 849 climate change 544, 545, 547 Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department (CHAD) 749 Department for International Development (DFID) 158, 159, 740, 749 European asylum policy 689, 691, 692, 694 Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) 159, 160, 169 immigration policy 533, 535

Index International Strategy to Manage Risks of Instability and Improve Crisis Response report 154 Ministry of Defence 159 security/military and development policy relationship 154, 159, 160, 746, 749 securitization of migration 591 United Nations 5, 8, 28, 73, 74, 128, 311, 411, 460, 470, 540, 563, 746, 946 Action Plan for the Human Environment 73 Agenda for Peace, 1992 153, 158, 407, 624, 626, 635, 857 A more secure world – our shared responsibility report 627–632, 634, 636, 642 Annan’s reform-initiative 637 Brahimi Report 640, 746 bureaucratic organization 637, 639– 641 Capacity Study of 1969 640 Chapultepec Conference, 1945 31, 306 climate change 547, 548, 550 Concepts of Security, 1986 35 coordination of security and development policy 639–642 Dumbarton Oaks Conference, 1944 31 environmental protection activities 73, 74 European Union and security cooperation 653, 654, 760, 761 In Larger Freedom report 36, 160, 161, 525, 622, 631, 632, 642, 856 Integrated Mission Task Forces (IMTFs) 640 Interdepartemental Framework for Coordination on Early Warning and Preventive Action 641 international terrorism 110, 624, 625, 629 –631, 633 Millennium Summit, 2000 612, 626 Millennium Plus Five Summit in September 2005 626, 632, 636, 637, 642, 734, 760, 847, 868 peace and security policy 470, 471, 548 peacebuilding operations/strategies 316, 425, 521, 610, 614, 624, 630, 634, 638– 642, 735, 745, 746, 759, 760 precarious financial situation 125 Proclamation of the International Year of Peace 73 reform process 384, 640, 642, 735, 870

Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 760, 761 San Francisco Conference, 1945 31, 316 United Nations, security concepts 35, 36, 621 bridging collective and human security 628, 629, 632, 635, 636 changes in the understanding of threats 623–625 collective security 129, 477, 484, 622, 623, 627 comprehensive security 856, 857 defining the threats 628, 629 expanded to international peace and security 99, 109, 110 human security debate 625, 626, 638 limits of self-protection 629 new security environment after the end of the Cold War 623–627, 638 prevention of armed conflict 638– 641 security development linkages 637– 642 sovereignty and the responsibility to protect 626, 629, 630 tackling terrorism and weapons of mass destruction 630, 633–636 United Nations Charter 7, 72, 77, 81, 116, 120, 124, 176, 179, 187, 190, 282, 316, 318, 331, 408, 411, 424, 503, 507, 516, 525, 537, 605, 621–623, 626, 735, 737, 760, 761, 791, 801, 874, 943 environment reference 88 exercising self-defence under Article 51 564 non-intervention legal principle 306 peace missions 745 peace and security concept 35, 65, 73, 74, 90, 99, 104, 105, 109, 110, 475– 478 United Nations Conference on Disarmament 849 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972 88 United Nations Commission on Human Rights 615, 633 United Nations Commission on Human Security 883, 884 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 1992 88, 89, 95, 124, 144, 356, 359 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), Stockholm, 1972 7, 88, 602 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 83


Index United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 34, 76, 116, 275, 287, 705, 737 United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 613, 752 United Nations Department of Political Affairs (UNDPA) 640 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 9, 21, 81, 162, 522, 561, 562, 605, 608, 617, 625, 641, 648, 735, 775, 825, 860, 872, 945 Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery 639, 640 category of medium human development 777 Emergency Response Division on humanitarian crises 639 New Dimensions to Human Security Report of 2004 870 United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) 793 United Nations Emergency Force of Suez of 1956 (UNEF I) 316 United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) 81, 89, 170, 522, 602, 648, 945, 947 Governing Council 73, 89 regional seas programme 89 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 33, 89, 160, 516, 522, 789, 944 Medium-Term Strategy 776 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) 933 United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) 428, 430, 605, 847, 849, 947 United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 610, 612, 633, 634 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 608, 678, 690, 691 United Nations High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change 521, 525, 618, 621, 627–633, 635, 636, 641, 642 United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC) 633–635 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 83 United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) 760 United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 608, 641

United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) 480 United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UN-MIK) 624 United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 793 United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 793 United Nations Mission to Haiti (MINUSTAH) 311, 316, 319 United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) 483 United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) 407 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 612–614 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODOC) World Drug Report, 2005 452 United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) 633, 634, 635, 642, 741, 743 United Nations Population Division (UNDP) 881 United Nations Representative on Children and Armed Conflict 608 United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Representative (SRSG) 640, 641 United Nations Security Council (UNSC) 8, 70, 99, 105, 109, 110, 124, 161, 316, 319, 327, 384, 412, 547, 564, 621, 605, 626, 628, 630, 638, 639, 642, 672, 745, 755, 757, 760, 761, 782, 802, 805–807, 828, 849, 867, 868, 870 climate change 91, 98, 339, 947 international peace and security 109 human security debate/ initiatives 548, 605–618 Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict 605, 608, 610 – 618 resolution 1325 115, 120 resolutions and notions of threat to the peace 74, 475–483 United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) 483 United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 624 United Nations University (UNU) 30, 33, 507, 522 United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) 171 United Nations Undersecretary General for Humanitarian Affairs and

Emergency Relief Coordinator 612, 613, 615, 616, 617 United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC) 453, 454, 455 United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 154 United States Air Force 369 United States Armed Services Committees and Defense Appropriations Subcommittee 366, 369 United States Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) 367, 368 United States Atomic Energy Commission 239 United States Center of Naval Analysis 545 United States Department of Agriculture 16 United States Departments of Defense 32, 168, 366–369, 376, 511, 545, 849, 868, United States Department of Defense Control and Command Research Program 59 United States Department of Energy, Homeland Security 366 United States Governmental Accountings Office (GAO) 367 United States House and Senate Committees on Energy and Natural Resources 366 United States Immigration and Naturalization Service 376 United States Institute of Peace 506 United States Internal Revenue Service 369 United States Justice Department 376 United States National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 239 United States National Guard 364 United States National Research Council 240 United States of America (USA) atomic bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki 235, 239, 240, 242 Base Structure Report 348 BMENA 767–769, 771, 772 Broader Middle East-North Africa Bush administration 4, 5, 168, 369, 377, 468, 497, 635, 720 China 557, 842, 845 climate change 545, 908, 909, 912 Central Asia 772–774 Civil Rights Movement 176, 182, 258 climate change impacts 906 Clinton Administration 944 cooperative to unilateral security policy shift 5, 6 conventional military power 348, 349

1146 covert operations to overthrow democratically elected regimes 918 Declaration of Independence, 1776 (USA) 185 Economic Security Act, 1996 576 European Union 653–655, 657, 700, 758–760, 762 hegemonic position in military affairs 348–351 hegemonic political leader in the globalized world 347, 350 Homeland Security Act 46 homeland security policy 34, 599, 944 illegal Mexican migration 376, 377 immigration policy 946 imperial presidency and Iraq 366– 369, 378 imperial presidency and Mexico 369– 377 imperial presidency and monopoly capital 364–366 imperial presidency and World Bank’s rural modernization 375, 376 imperial presidency, definition of 364 industrial and agricultural system 370 Insurrection Act 364 international environmental politics 351–353 international law 350, 352 intervention in Iraq, 2003 367–369, 445, 868, 870, 884, 885 intervention and pre-emptive strikes policy after 9/11 attack 347, 377, 378, 421, 867, 868, 870, 943, 946 intervention policy 422–425, 427 interventionist foreign policy 349, 350, 352, 422–425, 427 Iran 378 Iraq war costs 367 Iraq-related contracts in the Middle East 368, 369 Japan 218, 220, 238, 241 John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2007 364 Kyoto Protocol 352 Latin America 306, 307, 309, 370, 388, 393, 867, 870, 873, 874 Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) 367, 368 Louisiana Purchase, 1803 363 Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, Project Albert 58, 61 Materials Policy Commission, 1952 576 Mediterranean region 773 Middle East 773, 774, 780, 782, 783, 788, 789

Index migration policy 395 military bases worldwide 348, 349 military budget/expenditures 33, 348, 557, 848, 849, 868, 944 Military Commissions Act 364 military contracts cost overruns 367–369 military-industrial complex 34 National Intelligence Council’s Global Trends 2015 881 National Security Act, 1947 77, 507 National Security Strategy (NSS), 2002 154, 168, 348, 350, 559, 631, 768 NATO 715–718, 720–722 oil imports/reserves 383, 782 OSCE 758 Partnership for Prosperity and Security with Canada and Mexico 377 Patriot Act 364, 366, 387 Posse Comitatus Act, 1878 364, 377 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan 748, 749 Reagan administration 152, 367 Rome Statute 564 security and development policy linkages 154–156 security as goal of foreign policy 275 security/military and development policy relationship 746, 748, 749 Social Security Act, 1935 275 Somalia 803 South Korea 232–234 Soviet Union 132, 555, 556 techno-territorial military complex 349 war on terror (WoT) policy after the 9/11 attack 133, 348, 350, 351, 353, 377, 445, 471, 558, 564, 559, 788 threat deficit after the end of the Cold War 557, 558 Wider Black Sea Region (WBSR) 772 United States Senate 352 United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee 378 United States State Department 369 United Technologies 368 Universal Declaration of People’s Rights, Algiers, 1971 287 universal peace 104 universal security 78 University of Brasilia 12 University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) 511 University of Peace in Costa Rica 12 University of the South Pacific (USP) 861, 862 UNU-WIDER project 332, 333 Upanishads 200

urbanization 9, 117, 381, 385, 388, 395, 881, 882, 948, 953 Uruguay 307, 313, 373, 379, 390, 394, 397, 399, 867, 870, 944 uti possidetis de facto principle 313, 314 Utopia 69 Uttar Pradesh 20 Uttaranchal 20 Uzbekistan 348, 435, 772, 945 V Vanuatu 858, 860, 861 Vatavyadhi 245 Venezuela 35, 145, 379, 383, 394, 397, 399, 401, 450, 452, 454, 455, 466, 852, 867, 870–872, 944 Via Campesina 385, 386, 398, 402 Vietnam 130, 138, 151, 207, 377, 844, 845, 854, 945 Vietnam War 43, 129, 365, 463, 553 Villa, Francisco 388 Viracocha 189 Virgilio 184 virtual water 399 vital force 289–291, 295, 296 Vollebæk, Knut 611 Voltaire, François Marie Arouet 186 vulnerability 65, 879, 880, 885 national space 325 W W.R. Grace 16 Wal-Mart 462 Waltz, Kenneth 31, 79, 347, 353, 495, 497, 498, 510, 530 war 105 economic dimensions 490, 491, 493 gaming 900 peace 255–257 physical violence as cause of 114 prevention 105 Wang Hui 837 Wang Xiaoshu 834 war on terror (WoT) 30, 31, 33, 108, 130, 133, 134, 155, 176, 286, 350, 351, 364, 369, 387, 413, 423, 446, 468, 491, 497, 502, 508, 514, 558–560, 563, 564, 567, 674, 803, 828, 846, 944–946 war studies 506, 507 warfare theories 59–61 warlords 8, 548, 560 Warner, John 369 Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) 30, 331, 505, 714, 717– 719, 943, 953


Index waste radioactive 355 re-use and recycling 387 water international cooperation 357 water management 89 water scarcity 97, 329, 356, 881, 908 agriculture production 882, 883 China 850 Delhi 19, 20 global distribution 910, 911 water security 33, 79, 400, 516, 522, 947 Wayuu 175 weak governance 125, 565, 568 weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 3, 8, 79, 192, 235, 308, 325, 349, 424, 559, 560, 727, 728, 768, 775, 873 global monopoly of legitimate violence 915, 925 Iraq 884 prediction of existence in Iraq 897 proliferation 32, 507, 510, 624, 625, 629, 630, 633, 635, 636, 652, 674, 756, 770–772, 773, 868 proliferation and NATO 715, 716 proliferation and UNSC resolutions 483 Weber, Max 78, 210, 326, 920, 941 Weberian world state 916, 926 Weco cult 286 Weidenbaum, Murray 368 Wells, H.G. 920, 925 Weltanschauung (German) 9, 178 Weltbild (German) 182 WeltTrends (German journal) 337 Wen Jiabao 833, 839 West Africa population density 795 regional institutions 794 security situation 791–796, 799, 800 West Bank 261 West European Union (WEU) 331, 499, 664, 671, 672 Western Sahara 22 Westernization 284, 286, 332, 567 Westphalia Peace Treaty 1648 31, 69, 114, 185, 496 Westphalian order/states system 176, 324, 328, 329, 409, 422, 692 Westphalian state 326, 345, 562, 822, 823, 941 Wiberg, Håkan 107 Wider Black Sea Region (WBSR) 772 Wight, Martin 78 Wilson, Woodrow 70, 275, 335, 370 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 45, 305 Wolfenson, James 531 Wolfers, Arnold 77, 509

Wolff, Christian Freiherr von 35, 77 Wolfowitz, Paul 20 Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) 10 World Bank 9, 19, 20, 83, 96, 125, 145, 148, 151, 152, 154, 157, 162, 217, 371, 378, 381, 399, 400, 427, 460, 531, 625, 629, 738, 826, 845, 945, 946 Breaking the Conflict Trap 744 Green Accounting programme 135 Operational Directive on conflict prevention 161 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) 156 privatization programme of the agrarian sector in Mexico 375, 376 World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) 33 World Commission on Dams 148 World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) 144, 165 Our Common Future report 356 World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, 2005 931, 934 world consumer society 384 World Development Report 826 World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos 379, 398, 399 World Economic Outlook 157 World Food Programme (WFP) 33, 522, 641 World Forum of Alternatives 397 World Health Organization (WHO) 4, 33, 89, 641 World Income Inequality Database (WIID) 191 World Maritime Organization (WMO) 947 world politics, see international system/order world risk society 330, 947, 953 World Social Forum (WSF) 342, 379, 386, 397–401, 515 Mumbai, 2003 400 Nairobi, 2007 400, 401 open space to mobilize forces from bottom-up 401 Porto Alegre, 2001/2003 398, 400 world state 924–927 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, 2002 88, 95, 124, 144, 931, 934 World Trade Organization (WTO) 9, 125, 191, 217, 371, 381, 382, 400, 574, 827, 845, 946 conferences 385, 399 Charter 286 World War I 4, 5, 8, 459, 554

World War II 5, 8, 236, 457, 459, 555, 885 World War III scenario 378 World Water Conference, 2004 17 World Water Day 20 World Water Forum 947 World Women’s March 397 Worldcom 383 worst case scenarios 900 Wright, Quincy 71, 505 Wuppertal Institute 168 X Xie Zhenhua 850 Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan) 842 Xunzi 205 Y Yalta Conference, 1945 8, 31 Yamunastakam 18 Yasukuni Shrine 206, 238 Yelstin, Boris 846 Yemen 132, 777, 785 Yi I 226, 228 Yi Saek 226, 227 Yi Sông-gye 228, 229 Yorubas 433, 882 Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), China 225– 228 Yugoslavia 27, 35, 128, 286, 329, 497, 557, 568, 638, 665, 715 Council of the International Tribunal 625 UNSC resolutions 479, 480, 484 Yulgok Yi I 230 Yunus, Muhammad 125 Yushchenko, Victor 722 Z Zaghawa 806 Zaire 151, 152, 153 Zambia 816 Zapata, Emiliano 375, 388 Zapatista Rebellion 373, 374, 395–397 Zedillo, Ernesto 376 Zeng Qinghong 852 Zentrum für Internationale Friedenseinsätze (ZIF), Berlin 749 Zhou Enlai 841 Zhu Tingchang 219 Zhu Xi 205, 214 Zhuge Liang 203 Zimbabwe 560, 706, 812–814, 817 Zimbabwe African Union Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) 813 Zionism 261, 286, 287, 782 Zogby, James 785 Zulu 248


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