ACE-3105, ACE-3205 - Rycom

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INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL

ACE-3105, ACE3205 Cell-Site Gateways Version 6.1

The Access Company

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Cell-Site Gateways Version 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual Notice This manual contains information that is proprietary to RAD Data Communications Ltd. ("RAD"). No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without prior written approval by RAD Data Communications. Right, title and interest, all information, copyrights, patents, know-how, trade secrets and other intellectual property or other proprietary rights relating to this manual and to the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and any software components contained therein are proprietary products of RAD protected under international copyright law and shall be and remain solely with RAD. The ACE-3105, ACE-3205 product name is owned by RAD. No right, license, or interest to such trademark is granted hereunder, and you agree that no such right, license, or interest shall be asserted by you with respect to such trademark. The RAD name, logo, logotype, and the terms EtherAccess, TDMoIP and TDMoIP Driven, and the product names Optimux and IPmux, are registered trademarks of RAD Data Communications Ltd. All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders. You shall not copy, reverse compile or reverse assemble all or any portion of the Manual or the ACE-3105, ACE-3205. You are prohibited from, and shall not, directly or indirectly, develop, market, distribute, license, or sell any product that supports substantially similar functionality as the ACE-3105, ACE-3205, based on or derived in any way from the ACE-3105, ACE-3205. Your undertaking in this paragraph shall survive the termination of this Agreement. This Agreement is effective upon your opening of the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 package and shall continue until terminated. RAD may terminate this Agreement upon the breach by you of any term hereof. Upon such termination by RAD, you agree to return to RAD the ACE-3105, ACE3205 and all copies and portions thereof. This product is manufactured and sold under license to U.S. Patent Re. 36,633. For further information contact RAD at the address below or contact your local distributor.

International Headquarters RAD Data Communications Ltd.

North America Headquarters RAD Data Communications Inc.

24 Raoul Wallenberg Street Tel Aviv 69719, Israel Tel: 972-3-6458181 Fax: 972-3-6498250, 6474436 E-mail: [email protected]

900 Corporate Drive Mahwah, NJ 07430, USA Tel: (201) 5291100, Toll free: 1-800-4447234 Fax: (201) 5295777 E-mail: [email protected]

© 1998–2011 RAD Data Communications Ltd.

Publication No. 355-205-05/11

Limited Warranty RAD warrants to DISTRIBUTOR that the hardware in the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to be delivered hereunder shall be free of defects in material and workmanship under normal use and service for a period of twelve (12) months following the date of shipment to DISTRIBUTOR. If, during the warranty period, any component part of the equipment becomes defective by reason of material or workmanship, and DISTRIBUTOR immediately notifies RAD of such defect, RAD shall have the option to choose the appropriate corrective action: a) supply a replacement part, or b) request return of equipment to its plant for repair, or c) perform necessary repair at the equipment's location. In the event that RAD requests the return of equipment, each party shall pay one-way shipping costs. RAD shall be released from all obligations under its warranty in the event that the equipment has been subjected to misuse, neglect, accident or improper installation, or if repairs or modifications were made by persons other than RAD's own authorized service personnel, unless such repairs by others were made with the written consent of RAD. The above warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied. There are no warranties which extend beyond the face hereof, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, and in no event shall RAD be liable for consequential damages. RAD shall not be liable to any person for any special or indirect damages, including, but not limited to, lost profits from any cause whatsoever arising from or in any way connected with the manufacture, sale, handling, repair, maintenance or use of the ACE-3105, ACE-3205, and in no event shall RAD's liability exceed the purchase price of the ACE-3105, ACE-3205. DISTRIBUTOR shall be responsible to its customers for any and all warranties which it makes relating to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and for ensuring that replacements and other adjustments required in connection with the said warranties are satisfactory. Software components in the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 are provided "as is" and without warranty of any kind. RAD disclaims all warranties including the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. RAD shall not be liable for any loss of use, interruption of business or indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages of any kind. In spite of the above RAD shall do its best to provide error-free software products and shall offer free Software updates during the warranty period under this Agreement. RAD's cumulative liability to you or any other party for any loss or damages resulting from any claims, demands, or actions arising out of or relating to this Agreement and the ACE-3105, ACE3205 shall not exceed the sum paid to RAD for the purchase of the ACE-3105, ACE-3205. In no event shall RAD be liable for any indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damages or lost profits, even if RAD has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This Agreement shall be construed and governed in accordance with the laws of the State of Israel.

Product Disposal To facilitate the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of waste equipment in protecting the environment, the owner of this RAD product is required to refrain from disposing of this product as unsorted municipal waste at the end of its life cycle. Upon termination of the unit’s use, customers should provide for its collection for reuse, recycling or other form of environmentally conscientious disposal.

General Safety Instructions The following instructions serve as a general guide for the safe installation and operation of telecommunications products. Additional instructions, if applicable, are included inside the manual.

Safety Symbols This symbol may appear on the equipment or in the text. It indicates potential safety hazards regarding product operation or maintenance to operator or service personnel.

Warning

Danger of electric shock! Avoid any contact with the marked surface while the product is energized or connected to outdoor telecommunication lines.

Protective ground: the marked lug or terminal should be connected to the building protective ground bus.

Warning

Some products may be equipped with a laser diode. In such cases, a label with the laser class and other warnings as applicable will be attached near the optical transmitter. The laser warning symbol may be also attached. Please observe the following precautions: •

Before turning on the equipment, make sure that the fiber optic cable is intact and is connected to the transmitter.



Do not attempt to adjust the laser drive current.



Do not use broken or unterminated fiber-optic cables/connectors or look straight at the laser beam.



The use of optical devices with the equipment will increase eye hazard.



Use of controls, adjustments or performing procedures other than those specified herein, may result in hazardous radiation exposure. ATTENTION: The laser beam may be invisible! In some cases, the users may insert their own SFP laser transceivers into the product. Users are alerted that RAD cannot be held responsible for any damage that may result if non-compliant transceivers are used. In particular, users are warned to use only agency approved products that comply with the local laser safety regulations for Class 1 laser products. Always observe standard safety precautions during installation, operation and maintenance of this product. Only qualified and authorized service personnel should carry out adjustment, maintenance or repairs to this product. No installation, adjustment, maintenance or repairs should be performed by either the operator or the user.

Handling Energized Products General Safety Practices Do not touch or tamper with the power supply when the power cord is connected. Line voltages may be present inside certain products even when the power switch (if installed) is in the OFF position or a fuse is blown. For DC-powered products, although the voltages levels are usually not hazardous, energy hazards may still exist. Before working on equipment connected to power lines or telecommunication lines, remove jewelry or any other metallic object that may come into contact with energized parts. Unless otherwise specified, all products are intended to be grounded during normal use. Grounding is provided by connecting the mains plug to a wall socket with a protective ground terminal. If a ground lug is provided on the product, it should be connected to the protective ground at all times, by a wire with a diameter of 18 AWG or wider. Rack-mounted equipment should be mounted only in grounded racks and cabinets. Always make the ground connection first and disconnect it last. Do not connect telecommunication cables to ungrounded equipment. Make sure that all other cables are disconnected before disconnecting the ground. Some products may have panels secured by thumbscrews with a slotted head. These panels may cover hazardous circuits or parts, such as power supplies. These thumbscrews should therefore always be tightened securely with a screwdriver after both initial installation and subsequent access to the panels.

Connecting AC Mains Make sure that the electrical installation complies with local codes. Always connect the AC plug to a wall socket with a protective ground. The maximum permissible current capability of the branch distribution circuit that supplies power to the product is 16A (20A for USA and Canada). The circuit breaker in the building installation should have high breaking capacity and must operate at short-circuit current exceeding 35A (40A for USA and Canada). Always connect the power cord first to the equipment and then to the wall socket. If a power switch is provided in the equipment, set it to the OFF position. If the power cord cannot be readily disconnected in case of emergency, make sure that a readily accessible circuit breaker or emergency switch is installed in the building installation. In cases when the power distribution system is IT type, the switch must disconnect both poles simultaneously.

Connecting DC Power Unless otherwise specified in the manual, the DC input to the equipment is floating in reference to the ground. Any single pole can be externally grounded. Due to the high current capability of DC power systems, care should be taken when connecting the DC supply to avoid short-circuits and fire hazards. Make sure that the DC power supply is electrically isolated from any AC source and that the installation complies with the local codes.

The maximum permissible current capability of the branch distribution circuit that supplies power to the product is 16A (20A for USA and Canada). The circuit breaker in the building installation should have high breaking capacity and must operate at short-circuit current exceeding 35A (40A for USA and Canada). Before connecting the DC supply wires, ensure that power is removed from the DC circuit. Locate the circuit breaker of the panel board that services the equipment and switch it to the OFF position. When connecting the DC supply wires, first connect the ground wire to the corresponding terminal, then the positive pole and last the negative pole. Switch the circuit breaker back to the ON position. A readily accessible disconnect device that is suitably rated and approved should be incorporated in the building installation. If the DC power supply is floating, the switch must disconnect both poles simultaneously.

Connecting Data and Telecommunications Cables Data and telecommunication interfaces are classified according to their safety status. The following table lists the status of several standard interfaces. If the status of a given port differs from the standard one, a notice will be given in the manual.

Ports

Safety Status

V.11, V.28, V.35, V.36, RS-530, X.21, 10 BaseT, 100 BaseT, Unbalanced E1, E2, E3, STM, DS-2, DS-3, S-Interface ISDN, Analog voice E&M

SELV

xDSL (without feeding voltage), Balanced E1, T1, Sub E1/T1

TNV-1 Telecommunication Network Voltage-1: Ports whose normal operating voltage is within the limits of SELV, on which overvoltages from telecommunications networks are possible.

FXS (Foreign Exchange Subscriber)

TNV-2 Telecommunication Network Voltage-2: Ports whose normal operating voltage exceeds the limits of SELV (usually up to 120 VDC or telephone ringing voltages), on which overvoltages from telecommunication networks are not possible. These ports are not permitted to be directly connected to external telephone and data lines.

FXO (Foreign Exchange Office), xDSL (with feeding voltage), U-Interface ISDN

TNV-3 Telecommunication Network Voltage-3: Ports whose normal operating voltage exceeds the limits of SELV (usually up to 120 VDC or telephone ringing voltages), on which overvoltages from telecommunication networks are possible.

Safety Extra Low Voltage: Ports which do not present a safety hazard. Usually up to 30 VAC or 60 VDC.

Always connect a given port to a port of the same safety status. If in doubt, seek the assistance of a qualified safety engineer. Always make sure that the equipment is grounded before connecting telecommunication cables. Do not disconnect the ground connection before disconnecting all telecommunications cables. Some SELV and non-SELV circuits use the same connectors. Use caution when connecting cables. Extra caution should be exercised during thunderstorms.

When using shielded or coaxial cables, verify that there is a good ground connection at both ends. The grounding and bonding of the ground connections should comply with the local codes. The telecommunication wiring in the building may be damaged or present a fire hazard in case of contact between exposed external wires and the AC power lines. In order to reduce the risk, there are restrictions on the diameter of wires in the telecom cables, between the equipment and the mating connectors.

Caution

To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger telecommunication line cords.

Attention

Pour réduire les risques s’incendie, utiliser seulement des conducteurs de télécommunications 26 AWG ou de section supérieure.

Some ports are suitable for connection to intra-building or non-exposed wiring or cabling only. In such cases, a notice will be given in the installation instructions. Do not attempt to tamper with any carrier-provided equipment or connection hardware.

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) The equipment is designed and approved to comply with the electromagnetic regulations of major regulatory bodies. The following instructions may enhance the performance of the equipment and will provide better protection against excessive emission and better immunity against disturbances. A good ground connection is essential. When installing the equipment in a rack, make sure to remove all traces of paint from the mounting points. Use suitable lock-washers and torque. If an external grounding lug is provided, connect it to the ground bus using braided wire as short as possible. The equipment is designed to comply with EMC requirements when connecting it with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables. However, the use of shielded wires is always recommended, especially for high-rate data. In some cases, when unshielded wires are used, ferrite cores should be installed on certain cables. In such cases, special instructions are provided in the manual. Disconnect all wires which are not in permanent use, such as cables used for one-time configuration. The compliance of the equipment with the regulations for conducted emission on the data lines is dependent on the cable quality. The emission is tested for UTP with 80 dB longitudinal conversion loss (LCL). Unless otherwise specified or described in the manual, TNV-1 and TNV-3 ports provide secondary protection against surges on the data lines. Primary protectors should be provided in the building installation. The equipment is designed to provide adequate protection against electro-static discharge (ESD). However, it is good working practice to use caution when connecting cables terminated with plastic connectors (without a grounded metal hood, such as flat cables) to sensitive data lines. Before connecting such cables, discharge yourself by touching ground or wear an ESD preventive wrist strap.

FCC-15 User Information This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits of the Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the Installation and Operation manual, may cause harmful interference to the radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

Canadian Emission Requirements This Class A digital apparatus meets all the requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulation. Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur du Canada.

Warning per EN 55022 (CISPR-22) Warning

Avertissement

Achtung

This is a class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user will be required to take adequate measures. Cet appareil est un appareil de Classe A. Dans un environnement résidentiel, cet appareil peut provoquer des brouillages radioélectriques. Dans ces cas, il peut être demandé à l’utilisateur de prendre les mesures appropriées. Das vorliegende Gerät fällt unter die Funkstörgrenzwertklasse A. In Wohngebieten können beim Betrieb dieses Gerätes Rundfunkströrungen auftreten, für deren Behebung der Benutzer verantwortlich ist.

Français

Mise au rebut du produit Afin de faciliter la réutilisation, le recyclage ainsi que d'autres formes de récupération d'équipement mis au rebut dans le cadre de la protection de l'environnement, il est demandé au propriétaire de ce produit RAD de ne pas mettre ce dernier au rebut en tant que déchet municipal non trié, une fois que le produit est arrivé en fin de cycle de vie. Le client devrait proposer des solutions de réutilisation, de recyclage ou toute autre forme de mise au rebut de cette unité dans un esprit de protection de l'environnement, lorsqu'il aura fini de l'utiliser.

Instructions générales de sécurité Les instructions suivantes servent de guide général d'installation et d'opération sécurisées des produits de télécommunications. Des instructions supplémentaires sont éventuellement indiquées dans le manuel.

Symboles de sécurité Ce symbole peut apparaitre sur l'équipement ou dans le texte. Il indique des risques potentiels de sécurité pour l'opérateur ou le personnel de service, quant à l'opération du produit ou à sa maintenance.

Avertissement Danger de choc électrique ! Evitez tout contact avec la surface marquée tant que le produit est sous tension ou connecté à des lignes externes de télécommunications.

Mise à la terre de protection : la cosse ou la borne marquée devrait être connectée à la prise de terre de protection du bâtiment.



Avant la mise en marche de l'équipement, assurez-vous que le câble de fibre optique est intact et qu'il est connecté au transmetteur.



Ne tentez pas d'ajuster le courant de la commande laser.



N'utilisez pas des câbles ou connecteurs de fibre optique cassés ou sans terminaison et n'observez pas directement un rayon laser.



L'usage de périphériques optiques avec l'équipement augmentera le risque pour les yeux.



L'usage de contrôles, ajustages ou procédures autres que celles spécifiées ici pourrait résulter en une dangereuse exposition aux radiations. ATTENTION : Le rayon laser peut être invisible !

Les utilisateurs pourront, dans certains cas, insérer leurs propres émetteurs-récepteurs Laser SFP dans le produit. Les utilisateurs sont avertis que RAD ne pourra pas être tenue responsable de tout dommage pouvant résulter de l'utilisation d'émetteurs-récepteurs non conformes. Plus particulièrement, les utilisateurs sont avertis de n'utiliser que des produits approuvés par l'agence et conformes à la réglementation locale de sécurité laser pour les produits laser de classe 1. Respectez toujours les précautions standards de sécurité durant l'installation, l'opération et la maintenance de ce produit. Seul le personnel de service qualifié et autorisé devrait effectuer l'ajustage, la maintenance ou les réparations de ce produit. Aucune opération d'installation, d'ajustage, de maintenance ou de réparation ne devrait être effectuée par l'opérateur ou l'utilisateur.

Manipuler des produits sous tension Règles générales de sécurité Ne pas toucher ou altérer l'alimentation en courant lorsque le câble d'alimentation est branché. Des tensions de lignes peuvent être présentes dans certains produits, même lorsque le commutateur (s'il est installé) est en position OFF ou si le fusible est rompu. Pour les produits alimentés par CC, les niveaux de tension ne sont généralement pas dangereux mais des risques de courant peuvent toujours exister. Avant de travailler sur un équipement connecté aux lignes de tension ou de télécommunications, retirez vos bijoux ou tout autre objet métallique pouvant venir en contact avec les pièces sous tension. Sauf s'il en est autrement indiqué, tous les produits sont destinés à être mis à la terre durant l'usage normal. La mise à la terre est fournie par la connexion de la fiche principale à une prise murale équipée d'une borne protectrice de mise à la terre. Si une cosse de mise à la terre est fournie avec le produit, elle devrait être connectée à tout moment à une mise à la terre de protection par un conducteur de diamètre 18 AWG ou plus. L'équipement monté en châssis ne devrait être monté que sur des châssis et dans des armoires mises à la terre. Branchez toujours la mise à la terre en premier et débranchez-la en dernier. Ne branchez pas des câbles de télécommunications à un équipement qui n'est pas mis à la terre. Assurez-vous que tous les autres câbles sont débranchés avant de déconnecter la mise à la terre.

Français

Certains produits peuvent être équipés d'une diode laser. Dans de tels cas, une étiquette indiquant la classe laser ainsi que d'autres avertissements, le cas échéant, sera jointe près du transmetteur optique. Le symbole d'avertissement laser peut aussi être joint. Avertissement Veuillez observer les précautions suivantes :

Français

Connexion au courant du secteur Assurez-vous que l'installation électrique est conforme à la réglementation locale. Branchez toujours la fiche de secteur à une prise murale équipée d'une borne protectrice de mise à la terre. La capacité maximale permissible en courant du circuit de distribution de la connexion alimentant le produit est de 16A (20A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Le coupe-circuit dans l'installation du bâtiment devrait avoir une capacité élevée de rupture et devrait fonctionner sur courant de court-circuit dépassant 35A (40A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Branchez toujours le câble d'alimentation en premier à l'équipement puis à la prise murale. Si un commutateur est fourni avec l'équipement, fixez-le en position OFF. Si le câble d'alimentation ne peut pas être facilement débranché en cas d'urgence, assurez-vous qu'un coupe-circuit ou un disjoncteur d'urgence facilement accessible est installé dans l'installation du bâtiment. Le disjoncteur devrait déconnecter simultanément les deux pôles si le système de distribution de courant est de type IT.

Connexion d'alimentation CC Sauf s'il en est autrement spécifié dans le manuel, l'entrée CC de l'équipement est flottante par rapport à la mise à la terre. Tout pôle doit être mis à la terre en externe. A cause de la capacité de courant des systèmes à alimentation CC, des précautions devraient être prises lors de la connexion de l'alimentation CC pour éviter des courts-circuits et des risques d'incendie. Assurez-vous que l'alimentation CC est isolée de toute source de courant CA (secteur) et que l'installation est conforme à la réglementation locale. La capacité maximale permissible en courant du circuit de distribution de la connexion alimentant le produit est de 16A (20A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Le coupe-circuit dans l'installation du bâtiment devrait avoir une capacité élevée de rupture et devrait fonctionner sur courant de court-circuit dépassant 35A (40A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Avant la connexion des câbles d'alimentation en courant CC, assurez-vous que le circuit CC n'est pas sous tension. Localisez le coupe-circuit dans le tableau desservant l'équipement et fixez-le en position OFF. Lors de la connexion de câbles d'alimentation CC, connectez d'abord le conducteur de mise à la terre à la borne correspondante, puis le pôle positif et en dernier, le pôle négatif. Remettez le coupe-circuit en position ON. Un disjoncteur facilement accessible, adapté et approuvé devrait être intégré à l'installation du bâtiment. Le disjoncteur devrait déconnecter simultanément les deux pôles si l'alimentation en courant CC est flottante.

Declaration of Conformity Manufacturer's Name:

RAD Data Communications Ltd.

Manufacturer's Address:

24 Raoul Wallenberg St., Tel Aviv 69719, Israel

Declares that the product: Product Name:

ACE-3105

Conforms to the following standard(s) or other normative document(s): EMC:

Safety:

EN 55022:2006

Information technology equipment – Radio disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement

EN 55024:1998 + A1:2001, A2:2003

Information technology equipment – Immunity characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement

EN 61000-3-2:2000 + A2:2005

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-2: Limits Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current up to and including 16A per phase)

EN 61000-3-3:1995 + A1:2001

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-3: Limits Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤ 16A per phase and not subject to conditional connection

EN 60950-1:2001 + A11:2004

Information technology equipment – Safety – Part 1: General requirements

Supplementary Information: The product herewith complies with the requirements of the EMC Directive 2004/108/EC, the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and the R&TTE Directive 99/5/EC for wired equipment. The product was tested in a typical configuration. Tel Aviv, 30 October 2008

Haim Karshen VP Quality

European Contact:

RAD Data Communications GmbH, Otto-Hahn-Str. 28-30, 85521 Ottobrunn-Riemerling, Germany

Declaration of Conformity Manufacturer's Name:

RAD Data Communications Ltd.

Manufacturer's Address:

24 Raoul Wallenberg St., Tel Aviv 69719, Israel

Declares that the product: Product Name:

ACE-3205

Conforms to the following standard(s) or other normative document(s): EMC:

Safety:

EN 55022:2006

Information technology equipment – Radio disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement

EN 55024:1998 + A1:2001, A2:2003

Information technology equipment – Immunity characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement

EN 61000-3-2:2000 + A2:2005

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-2: Limits Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current up to and including 16A per phase)

EN 61000-3-3:1995 + A1:2001

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-3: Limits Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤ 16A per phase and not subject to conditional connection

EN 60950-1:2001 + A11:2004

Information technology equipment – Safety – Part 1: General requirements

Supplementary Information: The product herewith complies with the requirements of the EMC Directive 2004/108/EC, the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and the R&TTE Directive 99/5/EC for wired equipment. The product was tested in a typical configuration. Tel Aviv, 20 August 2008

Haim Karshen VP Quality

European Contact:

RAD Data Communications GmbH, Otto-Hahn-Str. 28-30, 85521 Ottobrunn-Riemerling, Germany

Glossary Abis

This is a GSM term for an interface linking the BTS (base transceiver station) and the BSC (base station controller). Other GSM interfaces are the A between the BSC and the MSC (mobile switching center), and the E between the MSC and the PSTN.

Address

A coded representation of the origin or destination of data.

Agent

In SNMP, this refers to the managed system.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

Attenuation

Signal power loss through equipment, lines or other transmission devices. Measured in decibels.

AWG

The American Wire Gauge System, which specifies wire width.

Backhaul

Transporting traffic between distributed sites (typically access points) and more centralized points of presence. See Cellular Backhaul.

Balanced

A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are equal in magnitude, but opposite in polarity, with respect to ground.

Bandwidth

The range of frequencies passing through a given circuit. The greater the bandwidth, the more information can be sent through the circuit in a given amount of time.

Baud

Unit of signaling speed equivalent to the number of discrete conditions or events per second. If each signal event represents only one bit condition, baud rate equals bps (bits per second).

Bipolar

Signaling method in E1/T1 representing a binary “1” by alternating positive and negative pulses, and a binary “0” by absence of pulses.

Bit

The smallest unit of information in a binary system. Represents either a one or zero (“1” or “0”).

Bridge

A device interconnecting local area networks at the OSI data link layer, filtering and forwarding frames according to media access control (MAC) addresses.

Buffer

A storage device. Commonly used to compensate for differences in data rates or event timing when transmitting from one device to another. Also used to remove jitter.

Byte

A group of bits (normally 8 bits in length).

Cell

The 53-byte basic information unit within an ATM network. The user traffic is segmented into cells at the source and reassembled at the destination. An ATM cell consists of a 5-byte ATM header and a 48-byte ATM payload, which contains the user data.

Channel

A path for electrical transmission between two or more points. Also called a link, line, circuit or facility.

Circuit Emulation

In ATM, a connection over a virtual circuit-based network providing service to the end users that is indistinguishable from a real pointto point, fixed-bandwidth circuit.

Circuit Emulation Service

New technology for offering circuit emulation services over packet-switched networks. The service offers traditional TDM trunking (at n x 64 kbps, fractional E1/T1, E1/T1 or E3/T3) over a range of transport protocols, including Internet Protocol (IP), MPLS and Ethernet.

Clock

A term for the source(s) of timing signals used in synchronous transmission.

Compression

Any of several techniques that reduce the number of bits required to represent information in data transmission or storage, thereby conserving bandwidth and/or memory.

Concentrator

Device that serves as a wiring hub in a star-topology network. Sometimes refers to a device containing multiple modules of network equipment.

Congestion

A state in which the network is overloaded and starts to discard user data (frames, cells or packets).

Congestion Control

A resource and traffic management mechanism to avoid and/or prevent excessive situations (buffer overflow, insufficient bandwidth) that can cause the network to collapse. In ATM networks, congestion control schemes may be based on fields within the ATM cell header (CLP, EFCI within the PTI) or may be based on a more sophisticated mechanism between the ATM endsystem and ATM switches. The ATM Forum has developed a mechanism based on rate control for ABR-type traffic. In Frame Relay networks, congestion is handled by the FECN, BECN and DE bits.

CORBA

The acronym for Common Object Request Broker Architecture, OMG's open, vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure that computer applications use to work together over networks. One of its most important uses is in servers that must handle large number of clients, at high hit rates, with high reliability, such as network management systems.

Current Loop

Method of data transmission. A mark (binary “1”) is represented by current on the line, and a space (binary “0”) is represented by the absence of current.

Data

Information represented in digital form, including voice, text, facsimile and video.

dBm

A measure of power in communications: the decibel in reference to one milliwatt (0 dBm = 1 milliwatt and -30 dBm = .001 milliwatt).

Diagnostics

The detection and isolation of a malfunction or mistake in a communications device, network or system.

Differential Delay

Differential delay is caused when traffic is split over different lines that may traverse shorter and longer paths. Products like the RAD IMX-2T1/E1 inverse multiplexer compensate for any differential delay (up to 64 msec) between the T1 lines, to properly reconstruct the original stream.

E1 Line

A 2.048 Mbps line, common in Europe, that supports thirty-two 64 kbps channels, each of which can transmit and receive data or digitized voice. The line uses framing and signaling to achieve synchronous and reliable transmission. The most common configurations for E1 lines are E1 PRI, and unchannelized E1.

Encapsulation

Encapsulating data is a technique used by layered protocols in which a low level protocol accepts a message from a higher level protocol, then places it in the data portion of the lower-level frame. The logistics of encapsulation require that packets traveling over a physical network contain a sequence of headers.

Ethernet

A local area network (LAN) technology which has extended into the wide area networks. Ethernet operates at many speeds, including data rates of 10 Mbps (Ethernet), 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet), 1,000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet), 10 Gbps, 40 Gbps, and 100 Gbps.

Frame

A logical grouping of information sent as a link-layer unit over a transmission medium. The terms packet, datagram, segment, and message are also used to describe logical information groupings.

Framing

At the physical and data link layers of the OSI model, bits are fit into units called frames. Frames contain source and destination information, flags to designate the start and end of the frame, plus information about the integrity of the frame. All other information, such as network protocols and the actual payload of data, is encapsulated in a packet, which is encapsulated in the frame.

Full Duplex

A circuit or device permitting transmission in two directions (sending and receiving) at the same time.

G.703

An ITU standard for the physical and electrical characteristics of various digital interfaces, including those at 64 kbps and 2.048 Mbps.

Gateway

Gateways are points of entrance and exit from a communications network. Viewed as a physical entity, a gateway is that node that translates between two otherwise incompatible networks or network segments. Gateways perform code and protocol conversion to facilitate traffic between data highways of differing architecture.

GRE

GRE stands for Generic Routing Encapsulation. It is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco that can encapsulate packets associated with various network layer protocols inside IP tunnels, thus creating virtual poin-to-point links to Cisco routers at remote points over IP.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)

Pronounced “gooey,” this software interface is based on pictorial representations and menus of operations and files. Opposite of command line interface.

Half Duplex

A circuit or device capable of transmitting in two directions, but not at the same time.

IMA (Inverse Multiplexing over ATM)

A method to pass ATM traffic over multiple E1/T1 links while keeping the ATM’s Quality of Service and optimization of bandwidth usage.

Impedance

The combined effect of resistance, inductance and capacitance on a transmitted signal. Impedance varies at different frequencies.

Interface

A shared boundary, defined by common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and meanings of exchanged signals.

Inverse Multiplexing

A method in which the inverse multiplexer slices the data stream into equal portions and transmits each portion over an available circuit. The receiving end adjusts for network-induced delay and reassembles the data packets into their proper order. Therefore, an inverse multiplexer allows lower speed channels across a network to be combined into a single, higher speed data stream.

IP Address

Also known as an Internet address. A unique string of numbers that identifies a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers from 0 to 255, separated by periods (for example, 1.0.255.123).

Jitter

The deviation of a transmission signal in time or phase. It can introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high speed synchronous communications.

Laser

A device that transmits an extremely narrow and coherent beam of electromagnetic energy in the visible light spectrum. Used as a light source for fiber optic transmission (generally more expensive, shorter lived, single mode only, for greater distances than LED).

Loopback

A type of diagnostic test in which the transmitted signal is returned to the sending device after passing through all or part of a communications link or network.

Manager

An application that receives Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) information from an agent. An agent and manager share a database of information, called the Management Information Base (MIB). An agent can use a message called a traps-PDU to send unsolicited information to the manager. A manager that uses the RADview MIB can query the RAD device, set parameters, sound alarms when certain conditions appear, and perform other administrative tasks.

Master Clock

The source of timing signals (or the signals themselves) that all network stations use for synchronization.

Modular

Modular interfaces enable field-changeable conversion.

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)

A standards-approved technology that allows core network routers to operate at higher speeds without needing to examine each packet in detail, and allows more complex services to be developed, enabling discrimination on a QoS basis. MPLS speeds up network traffic flow by bringing Layer 2 information to Layer 3 (IP) and facilitating network management. It forwards traffic using a label that instructs the routers and the switches in the network where to forward the packets based on pre-established IP routing information. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with TDM, Ethernet, IP, ATM, and Frame Relay network protocols.

Network

(1) An interconnected group of nodes. (2) A series of points, nodes, or stations connected by communications channels; the collection of equipment through which connections are made between data stations.

NMS (Network Management System)

The system that controls the network configuration, fault and performance management, and diagnostic analysis.

Node

A point of interconnection to a network.

Packet

An ordered group of data and control signals transmitted through a network, as a subset of a larger message.

Payload

The 48-byte segment of the ATM cell containing user data. Any adaptation of user data via the AAL will take place within the payload.

Physical Layer

Layer 1 of the OSI model. The layer concerned with electrical, mechanical, and handshaking procedures over the interface connecting a device to the transmission medium.

Policing

A method for verifying that the incoming VC complies with the user’s service contract.

Port

The physical interface to a computer or multiplexer, for connection of terminals and modems.

Protocol

A formal set of conventions governing the formatting and relative timing of message exchange between two communicating systems.

Pseudowire

Point-to-point connections set up to emulate (typically Layer 2) native services like ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, TDM, or SONET/SDH over an underlying common packet-switched network (Ethernet, MPLS or IP) core. Pseudowires are defined by the IETF PWE3 (pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge) working group.

Router

An interconnection device that connects individual LANs. Unlike bridges, which logically connect at OSI Layer 2, routers provide logical paths at OSI Layer 3. Like bridges, remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs.

Routing

The process of selecting the most efficient circuit path for a message.

Silence Suppression

In a telephone conversation, only about 50% of the full duplex connection is used at any given time. This is generally because only one person talks while the other person listens. In addition, voice packets are not sent during interword pauses and natural pauses in the conversation, reducing the required bandwidth by another 10%. Silence suppression frees this 60% of bandwidth on the full duplex link for other voice or data transmissions.

Single Mode

Describing an optical wave-guide or fiber that is designed to propagate light of only a single wavelength (typically 5-10 microns in diameter).

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

The Internet standard protocol for managing nodes on an IP network.

Sync

See Synchronous Transmission.

T1

A digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544 Mbps used in North America. Typically channelized into 24 DS0s, each capable of carrying a single voice conversation or data stream. Uses two pairs of twisted pair wires.

Telnet

The virtual terminal protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. It lets users on one host access another host and work as terminal users of that remote host. Instead of dialing into the computer, the user connects to it over the Internet using Telnet. When issuing a Telnet session, it connects to the Telnet host and logs in. The connection enables the user to work with the remote machine as though a terminal was connected to it.

Timeslot

A portion of a serial multiplex of timeslot information dedicated to a single channel. In E1 and T1, one timeslot typically represents one 64 kbps channel.

Traffic Policing

Mechanism whereby any traffic which violates the traffic contract agreed to at connection setup, is detected and discarded.

Traffic Shaping

A method for smoothing the bursty traffic rate that might arrive on an access virtual circuit so as to present a more uniform traffic rate on the network.

Trunk

A single circuit between two points, both of which are switching centers or individual distribution points. A trunk usually handles many channels simultaneously.

VLAN-Aware

A device that is doing the Layer 2 bridging according to the VLAN tag in addition to the standard bridging parameters. A VLAN-aware device will not strip or add any VLAN header.

VLAN Stacking

A technique that lets carriers offer multiple virtual LANs over a single circuit. In essence, the carrier creates an Ethernet virtual private network to tunnel customer VLANs across its WAN; this helps avoid name conflicts among customers of service providers who connect to the carrier. Stacking works by assigning two VLAN IDs to each frame header. One is a "backbone" VLAN ID used by the service provider; the other one has up to 4,096 unique 802.1Q VLAN tags.

Quick Start Guide Only an experienced technician should carry out the installation of ACE-3105, ACE-3205. If you are familiar with ACE-3105, ACE-3205, use this quick guide to prepare the unit for operation.

1.

Installing ACE-3105, ACE-3205

1. Determine the required configuration of ACE-3105, ACE-3205, according to your application. 2. Insert the desired modular interfaces into the slots to the left. 3. Connect the user/network ports as required for the application. 4. Connect the ASCII terminal to the RS-232 control port. 5. Connect power to the unit.

Connecting the Interfaces ³

To connect the interfaces: 1. Insert the SFP modules into the relevant SFP-based Ethernet ports (FE and/or GbE), and then connect the optical cables. 2. Connect the appropriate cables to the ADSL, SHDSL, ATM-155 and E1/T1 ports.

Note

• The number and type of available ports depend on the chassis you purchased. • Lock the wire latch of each SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks into place.

For additional information, refer to Chapter 2.

Connecting to a Terminal ³

To connect the unit to a terminal: 1. Connect the standard DB-9 flat cable to the unit's 9-pin connector, designated 'CONTROL'. 2. Connect the other side of the cable to the ASCII terminal equipment.

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Connecting the Power ³

To connect the power: 1. Connect the power cable to the AC power connector on the unit's front panel. 2. Connect the power cable to mains outlet. The unit will be turned on automatically upon connection to the mains.

2.

Configuring ACE-3105, ACE-3205

Configure ACE-3105, ACE-3205 using a local ASCII-based terminal or a network management station.

Starting a Terminal Session for the First Time ³

To start the terminal session: 1. Connect an ASCII terminal to the CONTROL port. 2. Configure the ASCII terminal to the settings listed below and then set the terminal emulator to VT100 emulation for optimal view of system menus. ƒ

Baud Rate:

9,600 bps

ƒ

Data bits:

8

ƒ

Parity:

None

ƒ

Stop bits:

1

ƒ

Flow control:

None.

3. Power up the unit. Verify that the power supply LEDs on the front panel are on. 4. If you are using HyperTerminal, set the terminal mode to 132-column mode for optimal view of system menus (Properties> Settings> Terminal Setup> 132 column mode). 5. Verify that ACE-3105, ACE-3205 properly starts up by observing the state of the PS LED(s) as follows: •

On:

Power supply is on



Off:

Power supply is off.

6. Check the RDY (green) LED on the front panel of the unit:

2



Blinking:

Self-test failed (display the self-test results to check the failure source)



On:

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is ready for operation.

Configuring ACE-3105, ACE-3205

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Quick Start Guide

7. Check the ALM red LED on the front panel of the unit: •

Blinking:

One or more alarms are active



Off:

No alarms.

Logging In According to your user privileges, you may log in as super user, technician or user. To configure ACE-3105, ACE-3205, you have to log in as ‘super user’. ³

To login as a super user (su): 1. While connected to the terminal, press to enter the login screen. 2. Enter your user name (su for full configuration and monitoring access) and your password when prompted, and then press .

Configuring the Physical Ports The type and the number of available ports depend on the hardware configuration you ordered. Configure the physical layer parameters for:

³



ADSL2+ ports



SHDSL ports



PCS



E1/T1 ports



Fast Ethernet ports

To configure the ADSL2+ ports: •

³

To configure the SHDSL ports: •

³

At the config>port prompt, enter pcs 1 and then bind the desired SHDSL wires to it in order to create a logical Ethernet port.

To configure the E1/T1 ports: •

³

At the config>port>shdsl prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.

To configure the PCS: •

³

At the config>port>adsl2 prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.

At the config>port>e1/t1 prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.

To configure the Fast Ethernet ports: •

At the config>port>eth prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.

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Configuring the Router Parameters To enable cross-network management, you have to first configure the router parameters as follows: •

At the config prompt, enter router 1 and then enter the network access parameters.

Configuring ATM Parameters ³

To configure ATM related parameters: •

³

To configure an IMA group: •

³

At the config>port>atm prompt, enter the ATM related parameters.

At the config>port>atm prompt, enter ima-group and then configure the related parameters.

To configure an ATM uplink: 1. At the config>port>atm prompt, enter bind . 2. At the config>router>interface prompt, enter bind vc llc-snap-encapsulation bridged-pdu

³

To configure the ATM descriptor: •

³

At the config>qos>atm prompt, enter the relevant parameters.

To configure ATM OAM: •

At the config>oam>atm prompt, enter the relevant parameters.

Configuring Bridge Parameters ³

To configure a bridge: •

At the config>bridge prompt, specify the related parameters.

Configuring Flows Flows are needed for Ethernet pseudowires. The flows are uni-directional, therefore separate flows have to be configured for both directions (ingress and egress flows). Ingress and egress flows require a switched virtual interface (SVI). ³

4

To configure switched virtual interface (SVI): •

At the config>port prompt, specify an SVI interface that will act as egress (network) port for flows.



At the config>flows prompt, define the classifier profile and the ingress and egress flows.

Configuring ACE-3105, ACE-3205

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Quick Start Guide

Configuring Ethernet OAM ³

To configure OAM for Ethernet at the First Mile (EFM): •

At the config>oam>efm prompt, define a descriptor and specify the rate limit for OAM EFM frames.



At the config>port>eth prompt, link the descriptor to an Ethernet port.

Configuring the Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) BFD detects errors between two device engines and is part of Ethernet OAM. ³

To enable and define a BFD descriptor: •

At the config>oam prompt, enter bfd-descriptor <1..32> and then configure the relevant parameters.

Configuring Cross Connections You can establish the following cross connections:

³



ATM-VP



ATM-VP



ATM-CES



PW-VP



PW-VC



PW-TDM



PW-ETH

To configure a cross connection: 1. At the config prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc prompt appears. 2. Specify and define the desired cross connection.

Setting the Clock Source Set the source from which the unit should derive its timing. ³

To set the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock prompt, specify the type of source and then set the relevant parameters.

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Adding/Removing a Manager To add or remove a manager to/from the manager list, do the following: ³

To add a manager IP: 1. At the config prompt, enter management. The config>mngmnt prompt appears. 2. At the config>mngmnt prompt, enter manager . The respective management station is added to the managers list and may access the unit with read/write access.

³

To mask traps for a specific manager: •

At the config>mngmnt>manager> prompt, enter mask . The relevant trap(s) will not be displayed when logged on from the specified management station.

³

To unmask traps for a specific manager •

At the config>mngmnt>manager> prompt, enter no mask . The relevant trap(s) will be displayed when logged on from the specified management station.

³

To remove a manager IP: •

At the config>mngmnt prompt, enter no manager . The respective management station is removed from the managers list.

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Configuring ACE-3105, ACE-3205

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Contents Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1

1.2 1.3 1.4

Overview.................................................................................................................... 1-1 Device Options ....................................................................................................... 1-2 ADSL2+ Interfaces .............................................................................................. 1-2 SHDSL Interfaces................................................................................................ 1-2 E1/T1 Interfaces ................................................................................................. 1-3 Fast Ethernet Interfaces ..................................................................................... 1-3 Power Supply ..................................................................................................... 1-3 Clock Synchronization ........................................................................................ 1-3 License Packs ..................................................................................................... 1-4 Applications ............................................................................................................ 1-4 Features ................................................................................................................. 1-5 Cellular Backhauling over DSL ............................................................................. 1-5 Pseudowire Capabilities over PSN ....................................................................... 1-5 Bridging Capabilities ........................................................................................... 1-6 PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Virtual MAC Addresses ........................................ 1-7 ATM Switching and Policing Capabilities .............................................................. 1-7 Quality of Service (QoS) over PSN....................................................................... 1-7 Clock Synchronization ........................................................................................ 1-7 OAM and Diagnostics ......................................................................................... 1-8 Performance Monitoring ..................................................................................... 1-9 Management ...................................................................................................... 1-9 DHCP Client ...................................................................................................... 1-10 Security ........................................................................................................... 1-10 What’s New In This Version ...................................................................................... 1-11 Physical Description ................................................................................................. 1-12 Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 1-12 Technical Specifications............................................................................................ 1-13

Chapter 2. Installation and Setup 2.1 2.2 2.3

Site Requirements and Prerequisites .......................................................................... 2-1 Package Contents ...................................................................................................... 2-2 Required Equipment ................................................................................................... 2-2 Power Cable............................................................................................................ 2-2 Interface Cables ...................................................................................................... 2-3 2.4 Mounting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 .................................................................................. 2-3 2.5 Connecting to PDH Equipment.................................................................................... 2-3 2.6 Connecting to DSL Network Equipment ...................................................................... 2-4 Using DSL Interfaces ............................................................................................... 2-4 2.7 Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks ................................................................... 2-5 Using Fiber Optic Ethernet Interface ........................................................................ 2-5 Using Electrical Ethernet Interfaces ......................................................................... 2-7 2.8 Connecting to ATM Network Equipment...................................................................... 2-7 2.9 Connecting to a Terminal ........................................................................................... 2-8 2.10 Connecting to a Network Management Station ........................................................... 2-8 2.11 Connecting to Power .................................................................................................. 2-9 Connecting to AC Power.......................................................................................... 2-9 Connecting to DC Power ......................................................................................... 2-9

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Chapter 3. Operation 3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4

3.5 3.6

Turning On the Unit ................................................................................................... 3-1 Indicators .................................................................................................................. 3-2 Configuration and Management Alternatives .............................................................. 3-3 Working with Terminal ............................................................................................ 3-4 Connecting to the Control Port ........................................................................... 3-4 Login ................................................................................................................. 3-7 Using the CLI ...................................................................................................... 3-7 Command Tree ..................................................................................................... 3-10 Working with RADview .......................................................................................... 3-27 Startup .................................................................................................................... 3-27 Configuration Files ................................................................................................ 3-27 Loading Sequence ................................................................................................. 3-28 Using a Custom Configuration File ............................................................................ 3-29 Turning Off the Unit ................................................................................................. 3-29

Chapter 4. Configuration 4.1

4.2

4.3 4.4 4.5

ii

Terminal Control ........................................................................................................ 4-1 Factory Defaults ..................................................................................................... 4-1 Configuring the Terminal Connection ....................................................................... 4-1 Example .................................................................................................................. 4-2 User Access Levels ..................................................................................................... 4-2 Defining Users and Passwords ................................................................................ 4-2 Example .................................................................................................................. 4-3 Viewing Connected Users ........................................................................................ 4-4 Managers ................................................................................................................... 4-5 Configuring a Manager ............................................................................................ 4-5 Access ....................................................................................................................... 4-6 Configuring Access .................................................................................................. 4-7 SNMP Management .................................................................................................... 4-8 Standards ............................................................................................................... 4-8 Benefits.................................................................................................................. 4-9 Functional Description ............................................................................................ 4-9 SNMP Message Formats ................................................................................... 4-10 The SNMPv3 Mechanism ................................................................................... 4-14 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-15 Configuring for SNMP Management ....................................................................... 4-15 Specifying an SNMPv3 Engine ........................................................................... 4-15 Enabling SNMPv3 .............................................................................................. 4-16 Specifying an SNMPv3 User .............................................................................. 4-16 Defining User (Access) Groups.......................................................................... 4-17 Setting up a View ............................................................................................. 4-18 Mapping SNMPv1 to SNMPv3 ............................................................................ 4-19 Configuring Targets .......................................................................................... 4-20 Binding Managers to a Trap Synchronization Group........................................... 4-22 Viewing the Current Trap Synchronization Settings ........................................... 4-23 Configuring SNMP Communities for SNMPv1 ..................................................... 4-23 Adding SNMPv3 Notification Entries .................................................................. 4-24 Configuring a Notification Filter ........................................................................ 4-25 Configuring a Notification Filter Profile ............................................................. 4-26 Linking User (Access) Groups to an Access Control Policy .................................. 4-26 Configuring OpenView Severity ......................................................................... 4-27 Example ........................................................................................................... 4-27 ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11 4.12

4.13

Table of Contents

Authentication via RADIUS Server ............................................................................. 4-27 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-27 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-27 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-28 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-28 Configuring the RADIUS Server .............................................................................. 4-28 Viewing the RADIUS Server Profile’s Status ............................................................ 4-29 Viewing RADIUS Statistics...................................................................................... 4-29 Out-Of-Band Ethernet Control .................................................................................. 4-30 What is the Out-Of-Band Ethernet Port? ............................................................... 4-30 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-30 Configuring the Out-Of-Band Management Port .................................................... 4-30 Ethernet Ports ......................................................................................................... 4-30 Configuring an Ethernet Port ................................................................................. 4-31 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-31 Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Status ......................................................................... 4-32 Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Statistics ..................................................................... 4-32 Bridge ...................................................................................................................... 4-34 What is a LAN-to-LAN Bridge ................................................................................ 4-34 What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge? .............................................................................. 4-35 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-35 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-35 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-35 LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM Bridging .............................................................. 4-36 LAN-to-ATM Bridging ........................................................................................ 4-36 MAC Table Handling in Bridge Mode .................................................................. 4-36 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-37 Configuring a Bridge ............................................................................................. 4-37 Viewing Bridge Port Statistics ........................................................................... 4-39 Associating a Bridge Port with a VLAN .............................................................. 4-40 Quality of Service for Bridges ................................................................................... 4-41 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-41 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-41 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-41 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-42 Configuring a Queue Map Profile ........................................................................... 4-42 The Service Virtual Interface ..................................................................................... 4-43 Configuring the Service Virtual Interface ................................................................ 4-43 Flows ....................................................................................................................... 4-44 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-44 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-44 VLAN ID............................................................................................................ 4-45 VLAN ID + P-Bits ............................................................................................... 4-46 Destination IP .................................................................................................. 4-47 Destination IP and IP Precedence...................................................................... 4-47 Destination IP and DSCP ................................................................................... 4-48 Egress Flows .................................................................................................... 4-49 Configuring Flows ................................................................................................. 4-50 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-53 Configuring the Classifier Profile ....................................................................... 4-53 Configuring the User-Network Flow .................................................................. 4-53 Configuring the Network-User Flow .................................................................. 4-54 Viewing the Flow Summary ................................................................................... 4-54 Ethernet OAM .......................................................................................................... 4-55

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4.15

4.16

4.17

4.18

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Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-55 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-55 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-55 Ethernet OAM Discovery Process ...................................................................... 4-56 Ethernet OAM with Traffic ................................................................................ 4-56 Timers.............................................................................................................. 4-56 Remote Failure Indication ................................................................................. 4-57 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-57 Configuring Ethernet OAM..................................................................................... 4-57 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-57 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ........................................................................... 4-58 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-58 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-58 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-59 Configuring Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ..................................................... 4-59 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-60 E1 Ports ................................................................................................................... 4-60 What is E1 ............................................................................................................ 4-60 Standards and MIBs .............................................................................................. 4-60 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-61 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-61 Physical Loopback Tests ................................................................................... 4-61 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-62 Configuring an E1 Port .......................................................................................... 4-62 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-64 Viewing an E1 Port’s Status................................................................................... 4-65 Viewing an E1 Port’s Statistics .............................................................................. 4-65 T1 Ports ................................................................................................................... 4-68 What is T1 ............................................................................................................ 4-68 Standards and MIBs .............................................................................................. 4-68 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-68 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-68 Physical Loopback Tests ................................................................................... 4-68 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-68 Configuring a T1 Port ............................................................................................ 4-69 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-72 Viewing a T1 Port’s Status..................................................................................... 4-72 Viewing a T1 Port’s Statistics ................................................................................ 4-72 ADSL2+ Ports ........................................................................................................... 4-75 What is ADSL2+ .................................................................................................... 4-75 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-75 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-75 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-76 Configuring the ADSL2+ Port ................................................................................. 4-76 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-76 Viewing an ADSL2+ Port’s Status........................................................................... 4-76 Viewing an ADSL2+ Port’s Statistics ...................................................................... 4-77 SHDSL Ports ............................................................................................................. 4-79 What is SHDSL ...................................................................................................... 4-79 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-79 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-79 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-79 Configuring the SHDSL Port ................................................................................... 4-80 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-80 ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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4.20

4.21

4.22

4.23

4.24

4.25

Table of Contents

Viewing an SHDSL Port’s Status............................................................................. 4-80 Viewing SHDSL Port Statistics ................................................................................ 4-81 The PCS Interface ..................................................................................................... 4-83 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-83 Configuring the PCS .............................................................................................. 4-83 Viewing the PCS Port Status .................................................................................. 4-83 Viewing PCS Port Statistics .................................................................................... 4-83 ATM Traffic Descriptor.............................................................................................. 4-85 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-85 Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-85 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-85 Service Categories ............................................................................................ 4-85 Traffic Parameters ............................................................................................ 4-86 ATM Traffic Shaping ......................................................................................... 4-87 ATM Cell Scheduling.......................................................................................... 4-87 ATM Policing..................................................................................................... 4-88 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-88 Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor .................................................................. 4-89 Example ................................................................................................................ 4-90 ATM OAM ................................................................................................................. 4-91 Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-91 Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-91 VP Intermediate Point....................................................................................... 4-91 VC Intermediate Point....................................................................................... 4-93 VP Segment Point............................................................................................. 4-94 VC Segment Point............................................................................................. 4-97 VC End-to-End Point ......................................................................................... 4-99 OAM Loopback ............................................................................................... 4-101 Configuring ATM OAM ......................................................................................... 4-102 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-103 ATM Cell Tests ........................................................................................................ 4-103 Configuring an ATM Cell Test ............................................................................... 4-103 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-105 ATM Uplink ............................................................................................................. 4-105 Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-105 Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-105 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-105 Configuring an ATM Uplink .................................................................................. 4-105 IMA Groups ............................................................................................................ 4-106 Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-106 Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-106 Configuring an IMA Group ................................................................................... 4-107 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-108 Viewing the Status of an IMA Group .................................................................... 4-109 Viewing the Status of a Link within an IMA Group ................................................ 4-110 Viewing IMA Group Statistics ............................................................................... 4-111 Viewing Statistics of an Entire IMA Group........................................................ 4-111 Viewing Statistics of a Link in an IMA Group .................................................... 4-113 Router ................................................................................................................... 4-115 What is the Router in ACE-3105, ACE-3205? ....................................................... 4-115 Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-115 Factory Default ................................................................................................... 4-115 Configuring the Router........................................................................................ 4-115 Configuring a Remote Peer ............................................................................. 4-119

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Configuring a Static Route .............................................................................. 4-120 Configuring an MPLS Path ............................................................................... 4-120 Example on Configuring a Router Interface .......................................................... 4-126 Viewing the Router Status................................................................................... 4-127 VPL and VCL Interfaces ........................................................................................... 4-128 Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-128 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-128 Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces ..................................................................... 4-128 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-130 Viewing VPL Statistics ......................................................................................... 4-131 Viewing VCL Statistics ......................................................................................... 4-132 Point to Point over Ethernet ................................................................................... 4-134 Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-134 Functional Description ........................................................................................ 4-134 Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-135 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-135 Configuring PPPoE ............................................................................................... 4-135 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-137 Viewing the PPP (PPPoE) Status........................................................................... 4-138 Pseudowires .......................................................................................................... 4-139 Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-139 Functional Description ........................................................................................ 4-140 Basic Pseudowire (PW) Encapsulation ............................................................. 4-140 Encapsulation over Different PSN Types ......................................................... 4-140 ATM Service Encapsulation ............................................................................. 4-147 TDM Service Encapsulation ............................................................................. 4-150 Ethernet Service Encapsulation ....................................................................... 4-153 Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-155 Configuring Pseudowires ..................................................................................... 4-155 Viewing the Pseudowire Status ........................................................................... 4-161 Cross Connections ................................................................................................. 4-162 Configuring a Cross Connection ........................................................................... 4-162 Example .............................................................................................................. 4-172 Administration ....................................................................................................... 4-172 Specifying Administrative Information ................................................................. 4-172 Configuring the Clocks ........................................................................................ 4-173 Clock Domain ................................................................................................. 4-173 Clock Domain –ACE-3205 ............................................................................... 4-179 Recovered Clock ............................................................................................. 4-180 Setting the Date and the Time ............................................................................ 4-184 Linking to a Network Time Server ................................................................... 4-185 Setting the Syslog Parameters ............................................................................ 4-186 Viewing the Hardware and Software Profile ......................................................... 4-187 File Operations ................................................................................................... 4-188 Downloading/Uploading Files .......................................................................... 4-189 Using CLI to Download/Upload Files ................................................................ 4-191 Copying Files Within ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ...................................................... 4-192 Displaying Files Within ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ................................................... 4-192 Swapping Files ............................................................................................... 4-193 Deleting Files ................................................................................................. 4-193 Saving the Configuration ..................................................................................... 4-193

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Resetting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ........................................................................... 4-194 Resetting to Factory Defaults ......................................................................... 4-194 Resetting to User Defaults ............................................................................. 4-194 Restarting the Unit ......................................................................................... 4-195 Global Commands ............................................................................................... 4-195 Chapter 5. Monitoring and Diagnostics 5.1

5.2

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Detecting Problems .................................................................................................... 5-1 Self-Test ................................................................................................................. 5-1 LEDs ....................................................................................................................... 5-2 Alarms and Traps .................................................................................................... 5-3 Statistic Counters ................................................................................................... 5-4 Configuring Error Messages ..................................................................................... 5-4 Handling Events ......................................................................................................... 5-5 Dealing with Alarms and Traps ................................................................................ 5-6 List of Alarms and Events ................................................................................... 5-6 Corrective Measures ........................................................................................... 5-9 Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................... 5-9 Troubleshooting Chart ............................................................................................ 5-9 Performing Diagnostic Tests ..................................................................................... 5-20 IP Connectivity Tests ............................................................................................. 5-20 Frequently Asked Questions ..................................................................................... 5-21 Technical Support .................................................................................................... 5-23

Chapter 6. Software Upgrade 6.1 6.2 6.3

6.4

6.5

Impact ....................................................................................................................... 6-1 Software Upgrade Options ......................................................................................... 6-1 Prerequisites .............................................................................................................. 6-1 Software Files ......................................................................................................... 6-1 System Requirements ............................................................................................. 6-2 Upgrading Software using the CLI ............................................................................... 6-2 Using TFTP .............................................................................................................. 6-2 Verifying the IP Settings ..................................................................................... 6-3 Activating the TFTP Server .................................................................................. 6-3 Downloading the New Software Release File to the Unit ..................................... 6-4 Using XMODEM ....................................................................................................... 6-4 Copying the New Software Release File to the Unit............................................. 6-4 Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu ...................................................................... 6-6 Preparing for Downloading an Application File ......................................................... 6-7 Using TFTP .............................................................................................................. 6-8 Downloading via TFTP......................................................................................... 6-8 Using XMODEM ..................................................................................................... 6-10 Managing the File System ..................................................................................... 6-11

Appendix A. Connection Data

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Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1

Overview

RAD’s ACE-3105, ACE-3205 multiservice cell site gateway is specifically designed to accommodate the rapid expansion in cellular backhaul traffic resulting from the widespread deployment of new mobile broadband services. It simplifies service provisioning and control by enabling simultaneous delivery of GSM, UMTS and next-generation 3GPP/LTE Wimax traffic over the same transport network. Working opposite the ACE-340x, ACE-3600 or third-party aggregation site gateways, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 minimizes capital investments and shortens service rollout times by leveraging available ATM SDH/SONET infrastructure to access high-capacity, economical packet-switched transport networks. Typically located at the BTS or Node B site (cell site), ACE-3105, ACE-3205 aggregates traffic from E1/T1 and Ethernet interfaces, and transmits the traffic over or Ethernet uplinks. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides different aggregation/switching abilities over different types of networks: •

Over DSL – backhauling data and voice traffic over two separate transports DSL networks, using the dual uplink in order to backhaul voice (RT–delay sensitive) traffic over bonded SHDSL.bis and/or data traffic (HSDPA) over ADSL2+.



Over packet-switched networks (PSNs) – aggregating multiservice protocols (ATM and TDM) over packet-switched networks, such as Ethernet, MPLS and IP networks, by utilizing pseudowire (PW) connections that are established by ACE-3105, ACE-3205 over the PSN. These virtual pseudowires comprise uniquely-formatted Ethernet packets, which provide complete emulation of ATM/TDM services (UNI/IMA/CES/SAT) over all types of packet-switched networks.

Since traffic timing synchronization plays a critical role in cellular backhaul applications, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can distribute the timing in adaptive mode over packet-switched networks. In addition, and more typically, an optional hardware component allows ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to recover the timing from a dedicated PW clock stream received from the PSN. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is ready to implement the IEEE 1588-2008 standard for precision clock synchronization. Additional features of ACE-3105, ACE-3205 include the following: •

Advanced pseudowire connectivity verification using VCCV-BFD messages



Advanced pseudowire QoS



End-to-end fault propagation between legacy and packet-switched networks

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A choice of clock synchronization modes



Various bridging modes such as LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM



MPLS capabilities such as LDP



Transmission of HSDPA over ADSL2/ADSL2+ and voice over SHDSL simultaneously



Full OAM and statistics collection



Self-diagnostic tools



Inband and out-of-band management via various management access types and user interfaces



Clock Synchronization



Robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes include:



NTR clock recovery – ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports clock synchronization via NTR over SHDSL. In this case, the DSLAM provides the clock reference via the DSL connection.



Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers.



Multicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed towards the PSN using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host).



The two 100BaseT/SFP interfaces support 1599 V2 and Synchronous Ethernet.



Interoperability with third-party aggregation multiservice products from manufacturers such as Cisco Nortel and Alcatel.

Device Options ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is a standalone, fully assembled non-modular unit.

ADSL2+ Interfaces The one or two modular ADSL2+ interfaces (per module) support ADSL2+ over POTS (Annex A) and ADSL2+ over ISDN (Annex B), as well as auto-mode synchronization to ADSL/ ADSL2/ ADSL2+ (complying with G.992.1/ G.992.3/ G.992.5).

SHDSL Interfaces The up to four modular SHDSL.bis interfaces support SHDSL Annex A (in North America), Annex B (in Europ1) and SHDSL.bis Annex F & G. In addition, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses the Ethernet First Mile protocol (RFC 5066 and 802.3 sec. 5) to implement SHDSL EFM. SHDSL EFM is always CPE. For ACE-3105, the SHDSL EFM is available as CO as an ordering option.

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PCS The SHDSL EFM supports a single PCS, which binds all SHDSL wires together into one bridge port.

E1/T1 Interfaces ACE-3205 includes 8 or 16 E1 or T1 multiservice ports while ACE-3105 includes 4 or no E1 or T1 ports. The E1/T1 ports can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions. The E1 ports are available with balanced or unbalanced interfaces (via an optional RJ-45 to BNC adapter cable).

Fast Ethernet Interfaces ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes two Fast Ethernet RJ-45 or SFP ports, used for pseudowire (PW) connectivity, user connections and inband management access. The Ethernet ports are also used for out of band management in applications that do not utilize an Ethernet uplink. The Ethernet interfaces can be ordered as electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports. The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs, which are identical in structure to the STM1/OC-3c SFPs.

Power Supply ACE-3205 is supplied with one or two power supplies at the front, which can be either AC-powered (100–240 VAC) or DC-powered (24/-48/-60 VDC). ACE-3105 is supplied with one power supply at the rear, which can be either AC-powered (100–240 VAC) or DC-powered (24/-48/-60 VDC).

Clock Synchronization ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes, including: •

Clock recovery – a dedicated clock recovery module (optional) allows ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to adaptively recover the clock from a source device that distributes the clock signal over a packet-switched network. High precision clock recovery is performed according to the IEEE 1588-2008 requirements. Synchronization over packet transport networks (Sync-E) as performed according to the ITU-T G.8261/G.8262 requirements.



NTR clock recovery – ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports clock synchronization via NTR over SHDSL. In this case, the DSLAM provides the clock reference via the DSL connection.



Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers via pseudowire connections.

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Multicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed towards the PSN using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host) via pseudowire connections.



1588-2008 and Sync-E synchronization.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be ordered with clock recovery hardware components as specified below. Activating the clock recovery hardware requires P2 or P3 as software license packs. P2 includes the functionalities of license packs P1 and P3 – P5. These license packs support specific functionalities as listed under License Packs and can be ordered separately at a later stage.

Clock Recovery Hardware Components A

Clock recovery hardware component

AS

Synchronization over Packet Synchronous Ethernet hardware component

S

Synchronous Ethernet hardware component

License Packs Available software license packs are: P1

ATM and PSN functionality, not including clock recovery over packet

P2

Complete functionality, including clock recovery over packet

P3

ATM and PSN uplink including software support for synchronization over packet, and MPLS LDP software functionality

P4

ATM and PSN uplink, including MPLS LDP software functionality, not including clock recovery over packet

P5

MPLS LDP software functionality only

Applications In a typical 3G over PSN application, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 receives ATM-based traffic from the Node B unit and TDM-based traffic from the BTS. HSDPA traffic is transmitted over ADSL2+ and voice traffic over SHDSL using pseudowire connections. The traffic is then received at the central site by ACE-3400/3402 or ACE-3600, which transmits it towards the RNC and BSC units, by using STM1/OC-3c, N  E1 (IMA), N  E1/T1 TDM and Fast Ethernet traffic bridged over DSL or Gigabit Ethernet. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses either an ADSL2+ or an SHDSL uplink, as shown in the following figure:

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Figure 1-1. Hybrid Solution based on ACE-3105, ACE-3205

Features Cellular Backhauling over DSL ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses DSL links as follows: •

For voice traffic (2G, RT99) backhauling – SHDSL links are used



For data traffic (HSDPA) backhauling – SHDSL or ADSL2+ links are used.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 aggregates both data and voice traffic simultaneously using the SHDSL and ADSL2+ interfaces together.

Pseudowire Capabilities over PSN The device enables operators to converge multi-generation traffic over an all-IP RAN by using ATM over PSN (ATMoPSN), TDM over PSN (TDMoPSN) or IP over PSN (IPoPSN). For additional information, refer to Pseudowires in Chapter 4.

ATM over PSN ACE-3105, ACE-3205 utilizes up to 32 pseudowire connections to emulate ATM services over packet-switched networks. Three encapsulation methods are supported according to RFC 4717: •

1:1 (one-to-one) VC/VP encapsulation – Each VCC/VPC is mapped to a single pseudowire (PW) connection.



N:1 (N-to-one) VC/VP encapsulation – Several VCs or VPs are encapsulated to a single PW connection.



AAL5 SDU – Each VCC is mapped to a single pseudowire connection

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 allows single or multiple cells to be encapsulated per frame.

TDM over PSN TDM pseudowire connections can be established over PSN according to IETF RFC 5086 (CESoPSN/ SAToP). SAToP complies with IETF RFC 4553.

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Ethernet over PSN Ethernet pseudowire encapsulation is used to carry Ethernet/802.3 traffic over an MPLS network. Ethernet PW operation complies with IETF RFC 4448.

Supported PSN Formats ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the following PSN formats: •

MPLS



MPLS over IP



MPLS over GRE



PPPoE



UDP over IP.

Bridging Capabilities ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the bridging capabilities listed below. For additional information, refer to Bridge in Chapter 4.

LAN-to-LAN Bridging In addition to ATM and TDM over DSL backhauling, LAN-to-LAN bridging facilitates backhauling of Ethernet traffic originating from the cellular site/IP Node B towards the PSN.

LDP, PHP and MPLS over GRE ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses the MPLS label distribution protocol (LDP) to define and distribute pseudowires and tunnel labels between up to 32 MPLS peers. Traffic arrives to the device in pseudowires and above the tunnel label and not as raw IP data.

Note

The LDP functionality requires a software license. Additionally, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports advanced MPLS label handling using Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP), a packet-level modification process in which the label switched router (LSR) removes the last label of MPLS packets before they are passed to an adjacent label edge router (LER). Lastly, MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) can be used over generic routing encapsulation (GRE) to establish point-to-point tunnel connection over an IP network. This tunneling service is used to transfer MPLS packets over an IP network without using the IP addressing scheme. For additional information, refer to Encapsulation over Different PSN Types under Pseudowires in Chapter 4.

GRE Keep Alive GRE Keep Alive is a mechanism that ‘monitors’ the status of a GRE tunnel by sending Keep Alive messages. In case that an interface on one of the GRE

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tunnel’s endpoints fails and the Keep Alive message cannot be sent anymore, the system can switch to a redundant path.

PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Virtual MAC Addresses To allow HSDPA connectivity in a variety of DSL-based cellular backhaul applications, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 initiates PPPoE sessions for acquiring IP addresses for all data, voice and management connections. Two PPPoE sessions can be established – one for management traffic and one for data flow. When working with multiple sessions of PPPoE or other dynamic entities, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides virtual MAC addresses in addition to the standard ones that are provided for each physical port. For additional information, refer to Point-to-Point-over-Ethernet in Chapter 4.

ATM Switching and Policing Capabilities ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides full ATM switching capabilities, including scheduling and shaping of ATM-based traffic. It is possible to assign each virtual connection (VC) or virtual path (VP) to a service class, define the QoS parameters and shape the ATM egress traffic according to CBR, VBR and UBR+. Up to 128 VP and VC connections can be established with full UNI/NNI VPI and VCI ranges. ATM traffic policing allows operators to discard, tag or count non-conformant cells per configuration. In addition, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) versions 1.0 and 1.1, allowing users to define up to 8/16 IMA groups. Each of the unit's E1/T1 ports can be configured to work in ATM IMA, ATM UNI or TDM over ATM mode (structured/unstructured CES). Up to 8 CES bundles per port and a total of 32 CES bundles are supported over ATM. For additional information, refer to ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.

Quality of Service (QoS) over PSN Over packet-switched networks, QoS is provided according to the network type: •

Layer-2 network – outgoing pseudowire packets are assigned a dedicated VLAN ID according to 802.1Q and marked for priority using 802.1p bits (see Quality of Service for Bridges in Chapter 4).



MPLS network – outgoing pseudowire packets are assigned to a specific MPLS tunnel and marked for priority using EXP bits (see Pseudowires in Chapter 4)



IP network – outgoing pseudowire packets are marked for priority using ToS or DSCP bits (see Pseudowires in Chapter 4).

Clock Synchronization Robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes include the following: •

Clock recovery – a dedicated clock recovery module (optional; requires a software license) allows ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to adaptively recover the clock from a source device that distributes the ATM clock over a packet-switched

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network, designed to meet the G.8261 requirements and depending on the network's SLA. For additional information, refer to •

Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers



Multicast clock distribution – The master clock is distributed towards the PSN using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host)



1588-2008 and Synchronous-Ethernet



2 MHz-bit interface clock for external synchronization support.

The adaptive clock signal is generated at a rate of 100 PPS for every remote site. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Clocks under Administration in Chapter 4.

OAM and Diagnostics Operation and Maintenance (OAM) is implemented as detailed below for the various network types.

Ethernet ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides comprehensive monitoring and diagnostic capabilities on Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet interfaces according to 802.3ah, which include: •

User configurable active and passive mode



Remote failure indications ƒ

Remote OAM link event – link fault

ƒ

Remote OAM link event – dying gasp



OAM loopback (initiation/reacting in Active mode and reacting in Passive mode)



The link OAM (802.3ah) is a trigger for alarm (fault) propagation towards the ATM\TDM network.



When working with Ethernet redundancy, a remote link fault event will trigger a port switch.

For additional information, refer to Ethernet OAM in Chapter 4.

Pseudowires ACE-3105, ACE-3205 periodically verifies the connectivity status of pseudowire connections, using VCCV-BFD messages according to the 'draft-ietf-bfd-base' requirements. If a failure is detected, a notification is sent to both the remote peer and the ATM/TDM connection of the specific PW. This allows complete monitoring over the pseudowire connections in real-time.

1-8



External and internal physical loopbacks on the E1/T1 ports (user-configurable) as explained in Physical Loopback Tests under E1 Ports and T1 Ports in Chapter 4.



Cell test towards the ATM ports as explained under ATM Cell Tests in Chapter 4.

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ATM/TDM In addition, ATM/TDM and PSN port alarms are propagated over the packet-switched network from end to end, towards both the BTS/Node B side and the BSC/RNC side. This includes the mapping of: •

Packet-switched network alarms to ATM/TDM alarms



ATM/TDM alarms over the PSN to the remote customer equipment (CE)



Physical failures of ATM/TDM ports, over the packet-switched network towards both the local and remote CE.

ATM Cross-Connects For conventional ATM cross-connects (XCs), OAM is supported according to ITU I.610 requirements: •

F4 and F5 OAM



Configurable OAM mode per connection point



Segment/intermediate mode for user connections and end-to-end mode for the management connection



AIS and RDI cell detection and generation upon physical layer and ATM layer failures



CC cell generation and LOC state detection per VP/VC



Loopback location ID and configurable loopback source ID per device. For detailed information about the ATM OAM functionality, refer to ATM OAM in Chapter 4.

Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by Ethernet and IP-layer network condition statistics, such as packet sequence errors (loss or misorder) and packet delay variation (jitter), which are monitored and stored by the device. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 collects statistics per physical port and per connection for 15-minute intervals. Statistics for the last 6 hours are stored in the device and can be retrieved at the network management station. For additional information, refer to the Statistics section for the relevant port in Chapter 4, for example Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Statistics under Ethernet Ports . ACE-3105, ACE-3205 maintains a cyclic event log file that stores up to 2000 time-stamped events. In addition, an internal system log agent can send all reported events to a centralized repository or remote server. For additional information, refer to Alarms and Traps in Chapter 5

Management ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be managed using different access methods, via: •

The dedicated RS-232 or 10/100BaseT ports (out-of-band, when the port is not used for Ethernet traffic or clock recovery)



Ethernet uplink port, using IP-based connection (raw IP or over PW).

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Command Line Interface – management via a local ASCII-based terminal connection or a Telnet/SSH (Secure Shell Client) connection, accessible via an IP-based connection. Instead of sending plain-text ASCII-based commands and login requests over the network, SSH provides a secure communication channel



RADview-EMS – RAD’s CORBA-based element management system, providing a dedicated PC/Unix-based GUI for controlling and monitoring the unit from a network management station. It also includes northbound CORBA interface for integration into any third-party NMS (network management system). For additional information, refer to the RADview-EMS User's Manual.

For more information about configuration alternatives, refer to Configuration and

Management Alternatives in Chapter 3. The unit can be managed by and report to up to 16 different users simultaneously. Accounts of existing and new users can be defined/changed remotely, using a dedicated RADIUS server as explained under Authentication via RADIUS Server in Chapter 4. In addition, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 allows retrieval of the current date and time from a centralized location, by synchronizing with an SNTP (System Network Timing Protocol) server as explained under Linking to a Network Time Server in Chapter 4. Software upgrades and preset configuration files can be downloaded/uploaded to/from ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via TFTP or XMODEM. For more information and instructions, refer to Chapter 6

DHCP Client One DHCP client can be enabled for a router interface defined over an Ethernet interface or a VC operating in bridged PDU mode.

Security ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol for enabling secure Web access to the unit. If enabled, the SSL protocol encrypts the data between the TCP and HTTP Web layers. Telnet-like management can be secured using a Secure Shell (SSH) client/server program. Instead of sending plain-text ASCII-based commands and login requests over the network, SSH provides a secure communication channel. User access to the unit is restricted via user name and password. For more information, refer to Access in Chapter 4. In addition, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports SNMP version 3, providing secure access to the device by authenticating and encrypting packets transmitted over the network. For more information, refer to The SNMPv3 Mechanism in Chapter 4.

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This section lists functionalities added since Version 5.2. •

Command line interface. Users type commands using a specific syntax. Configuration files are text-based and can be edited offline. This enables users to import configurations into large scale applications. For additional information on importing configuration files, refer to File Operations in Chapter 4.



GRE Keep-Alive. Refers to a proprietary functionality developed by Cisco. It monitors the status of a GRE tunnel by sending keep-alive messages. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Router in Chapter 4.



IP-BFD. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) refers to a network protocol that is used to detect errors between two devices engines connected by a link. For additional information, refer to Bidirectional Forwarding Detection in Chapter 4.



Path Redundancy based on GRE-Keep-Alive. You configure two routes to the same destination (peer) with each route assigned a different priority. If an interface fails or a Keep Alive message cannot be sent anymore, the system switches to the redundant route as explained under Configuring the Router in Chapter 4.



Ethernet over ATM. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can map an Ethernet flow into an ATM VCC in compliance with RFC 1483. This functionality is also referred to as LAN-to-ATM bridge. For additional information, refer to What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge in Chapter 4.



Ethernet Pseudowire. Ethernet pseudowires allow backhauling Ethernet/IP traffic coming from Node B/RNC over IP/MPLS networks. For additional information, refer to Ethernet Service Encapsulation under Pseudowires in Chapter 4.



DHCP support. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports DHCP, which can be enabled on a router interface above an Ethernet port or above DSL VC operating in bridged PDU mode. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Router in Chapter 4.



SHDSL.bis EFM Bonding. ACE-3105 can increase the bandwidth by bundling SHDSL links via PCS and describe these bonded SHDSL links as Ethernet uplink. For additional information, refer to The PCS Interface in Chapter 4.



IEEE 1588 Slave. ACE-3105 supports the 1588 protocol, which synchronizes independent clocks running on separate nodes at a high degree of accuracy and precision. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Clocks in Chapter 4.



SFTP. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the Secure File Transfer Protocol, which provides secure file transfer over a reliable data stream. The SFTP protocol runs over an already secure channel usually based on SSH. For additional information, refer to Using an SFTP Application in Chapter 4.



Ethernet OAM according to 802.3ah. Ethernet OAM is supported in both active and passive modes. For additional information, refer to Ethernet OAM in Chapter 4.

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Virtual IP addresses. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports up to four system addresses available for use as follows: ƒ

In receive direction, every control packet whose destination IP is one of the system addresses is allowed to access the unit. In other router interfaces, it depends on the management access configuration.

ƒ

As LDP ID.

ƒ

As a source IP for a GRE tunnel.

1.3

Physical Description

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is a compact unit, 1U high and 17.5" wide, which can be mounted in a 19-inch rack or used as a desktop unit. The relevant data sheets show a 3D view of ACE-3105, ACE-3205. The unit is fully accessible from the front panel, which includes the interface ports, control connector and LED indicators. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has one or two power connectors on its front panel. For information about the initial installation and required cable connections, refer to Chapter 2. For information about the unit's operation and LED indicators, refer to Chapter 3.

Interfaces ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is equipped with Fast Ethernet and E1/T1. •

SFP interface is inserted,

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes 8 or 16 E1 or T1 multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions. The E1 ports are available with balanced or unbalanced interfaces (via an optional RJ-45 to BNC adapter cable). For detailed specifications and compliance of the E1/T1 interfaces, refer to Technical Specifications. For the connector pinouts, refer to Appendix A. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes two Fast Ethernet RJ-45 or SFP ports, used for pseudowire (PW) connectivity, user connections and inband management access. The Ethernet ports are also used for out of band management in applications that do not utilize an Ethernet uplink. The Ethernet interfaces can be ordered as electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports. The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs.

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RS-232/V.24 Terminal Control Interface An RS-232/V.24 DCE interface with a D-Type, 9-pin connector is available in ACE-3105, ACE-3205 for out-of-band ASCII terminal access. The interface supports 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 57.6, and 115.2 kbps data rates. For more information about the terminal connection, refer to Chapter 2. For the connector pinout, refer to Appendix A.

1.4 E1 Interfaces

Technical Specifications Number of Ports

• ACE-3105: 4 or None (as ordered) • ACE-3205: 8 or 16 (as ordered)

Data Rate

2048 Kbps

Compliance

G.703, G.704, G.732

Framing

• MF, CRC-4 enabled • MF, CRC-4 disabled • Unframed

Line Code

HDB3

Operation Mode

ATM UNI, ATM IMA or TDM

Jitter Performance

• Output and tolerance according to G.823 • Transfer according to G.705

LIU Support

Short haul

Line Impedance

• 120Ω, balanced • 75Ω, unbalanced (via an adapter cable)

Connectors

• Balanced: RJ-45 • Unbalanced: BNC coaxial, via an adapter cable

Input Signal

• Short haul: 0 to -10 dB

Signal Level

• ±3 V (±10%), balanced • ±2.37 V (±10%), unbalanced

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Technical Specifications

1-13

Chapter 1 Introduction

T1 Interfaces

Installation and Operation Manual

Number of Ports

• ACE-3105: 4 or None (as ordered) • ACE-3205: 8 or 16 (as ordered)

Data Rate

1544 kbps

Compliance

G.703, ANSI T1.403

Jitter Performance

According to AT&T PB-62411

Operation Mode

ATM UNI, ATM IMA or TDM

Line Code

B8ZS

Line Mode

DSU

Framing

• ESF • Unframed

Fast Ethernet Interfaces

1-14

CRC-6 Calculation

According to G.704

Line Impedance

100Ω

Connectors

RJ-45

Signal Levels

Voltage: 3.0 V ±10%, adjustable, measured in range 0 to 655 feet in DSU mode

Number of Ports

2

Interface Type

10/100BaseTx, RJ-45 or fiber optic, based on RAD SFPs

Operation Mode

Full or half-duplex, autonegotiation

Data Rate

10 Mbps, 100 Mbps

Max. Frame Size

1600 Bytes

Compliance

Relevant sections of IEEE 802.3ah

Connector

RJ-45 or via SFP transceiver

Range

RJ-45: 100 meters/328 feet on UTP Cat 5 cable

Fiber Optic Interface Type

Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP); refer to the SFP datasheet

Connector

Refer to the SFP datasheet.

Technical Specifications

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Terminal Control Port

Physical Loopbacks

Chapter 1 Introduction

Interface Type

RS-232/V.24 (DCE asynchronous)

Bit Rate

9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 57.6 or 115.2 kbps, user-configurable

Connector

9-pin, D-type, female

Type

Internal, external

Supported Interfaces

E1, T1 and ADSL2+ (DELT mode)

ATM Connections

Up to 128 VP/VC connections

Max. Data PW Links

32

Max. Remote PSN Peers

32

Power Supply

Number of Units

• ACE-3105: 1 on the rear panel • ACE-3205: 1 or 2 (as ordered) on the front panel

Type

• ACE-3105: AC/DC: 100–240 VAC or -40/-60 VDC (wide range) • ACE-3205: AC: 100 to 240 VAC (±10%), 50/60 Hz DC: -48 VDC nominal (-41 to -71 VDC) or 24 VDC nominal (20 to 36 VDC)

Power Consumption

• ACE-3105: 33VA max • ACE-3205: 85VA max

Internal Fans

• ACE-3105/3105H: 1 • ACE-3205: 2

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Technical Specifications

1-15

Chapter 1 Introduction

ACE-3205 Physical

ACE-3105 Physical

Environment

1-16

Installation and Operation Manual

Height

4.37 cm

(1.72 in / 1U)

Width

44.0 cm

(17.5 in)

Depth

24.0 cm

(9.4 in)

Weight (with 16 E1/T1 ports)

3.68 kg

(8.11 lb)

Height

4.37 cm

(1.72 in / 1U)

Width

21.5 cm

(8.4 in)

Depth

24.0 cm

(9.4 in)

Weight

2.4 kg

(5.2 lb)

Operating

ACE-3105, ACE-3205:

0°–50°C (32°–122°F)

ACE-3105/H, ACE-3205/H:

-20°–65°C (-4°–149°F)

Storage

-20°–70°C (-4°–158°F)

Humidity

Up to 90%, non-condensing

Technical Specifications

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup This chapter describes the physical installation and setup of ACE-3105, ACE-3205, and includes the following topics:

Warning



Site Requirements and Prerequisites



Package Contents



Required Equipment



Mounting ACE-3105, ACE-3205



Connecting to PDH Equipment



Connecting to DSL Network Equipment



Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks



Connecting to ATM Network Equipment



Connecting to a Terminal



Connecting to Power.

• No internal settings, adjustment, maintenance and repairs should be performed by either the operator or the user. Such activities must be performed only by skilled personnel who are aware of the hazards involved. Always observe standard safety precautions during installation, operation and maintenance of this product. • A grounding cable must be connected to the dedicated grounding screw, located next to the power supply outlet(s) at the front. The other end of the cable must be connected to a proper grounding (Earth) point.

2.1

Site Requirements and Prerequisites

AC-powered ACE-3105, ACE-3205 units should be installed within 1.5 meters (5 feet) of an easily accessible grounded AC outlet capable of furnishing the required supply voltage, in the range of 100 to 240 VAC, 50 or 60 Hz. Allow at least 15 cm of frontal clearance for operator access. For cable connections and continuous product operation, allow at least 15 cm of frontal clearance and at least 15 cm at the rear of the unit. ACE-3105 has one internal fan and ACE-3205 has two internal fans. The normal ambient operating temperature is 0°–50° C (32°–122°F), at a relative humidity of up to 90%, non-condensing.

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Site Requirements and Prerequisites

2-1

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

Note

Installation and Operation Manual

Since ACE-3105, ACE-3205 units or other devices in use generate their own heat, the actual ambient temperature may be higher than the room temperature if several units are placed next to or on top of each other (such placement is allowed as long as the ambient temperature does not exceed the specified above).

2.2

Package Contents

The ACE-3105, ACE-3205 package contains the following items: •

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit



AC power cord or DC connection kit



CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X – adapter cable for unbalanced E1 interface (if ordered)



RM-34 (for ACE-3205, supplied) or RM-35 (for ACE-3105, if ordered) rack mounting kit



WM-34 (for ACE-3205) or WM-35 (for ACE-3105) – hardware kit for mounting one unit on a wall (if ordered)



Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) modules (if ordered)



Technical documentation CD – Contains the relevant PDF documents for ACE-3105, ACE-3205, including the DC power connection supplements and the relevant RADview manuals.

2.3

Required Equipment

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is a standalone unit, designed for desktop or bench installation and is delivered fully assembled. No provisions are made for bolting the unit to a tabletop. Mounting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 in a 19-inch rack, however, requires a 3 mm Phillips screwdriver and an RM-34 or RM-35 kit (RM-34 for ACE-3205; RM-35 for ACE-3105; two ACE-3105 units can be installed on a single rack). For the rack installation instructions, refer to the Rack Mounting Kit for 19-inch Racks guide that comes with the RM kit.

Power Cable AC-powered ACE-3105, ACE-3205 units are equipped with an appropriate power cord (country or region dependent). It is used to connect the power socket of the power supply unit to the mains. The power socket is accessible from the front panel. DC-powered ACE-3105, ACE-3205 units are equipped with an appropriate DC connection kit, which should be used for preparing the DC cable connection.

2-2

Required Equipment

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

Interface Cables Refer to the following table to determine what cables and connectors are required for installation. Appendix A specifies the wiring of all connector pinouts.

Table 2-1. Required Interface Cables Interface

Cable Type

Terminal Control

DB-9 to DB-9, RS-232/V.24 compliant cable (CBL-DB9F-DB9M-STR) for ASCII-based terminal control. This cable is optional and must be ordered separately.

Fast Ethernet



Electrical - Cat. 5, RJ-45 to RJ-45, IEEE 802.3 compliant cable.



Fiber optic - Fiber optic cable that matches the ordered interface type. For more information, see Chapter 1.

See Connecting to PDH Equipment.

E1/T1

2.4

Mounting ACE-3105, ACE-3205

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can serve as a desktop unit, or be mounted in a 19" rack. •

For rack mounting instructions, refer to the RM-34 Installation Kit Manual.



For wall mounting instructions, refer to the WM-34 Installation Kit Manual.



For rack- and wall mounting instructions for ACE-3105, refer to the RM-35 and WM-35 Installation Kit Manuals respectively.



If ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is to be used as a desktop unit, place and secure the unit on a stable, non-movable surface.

Refer to the clearance and temperature requirements in Site Requirements and

Prerequisites.

2.5

Connecting to PDH Equipment

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can serve as a desktop unit, or be mounted in a 19" rack. •

For rack mounting instructions, refer to the RM-36 Installation Kit Manual.



If ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is to be used as a desktop unit, place and secure the unit on a stable, non-movable surface.

Refer to the clearance and temperature requirements in Site Requirements and Prerequisites. The PDH interfaces allow traffic to be received/transmitted over E1/T1 circuit lines. The unit's balanced E1 and T1 interfaces terminate in RJ-45 connectors designated E1 or T1. An unbalanced E1 interface is provided via the CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X adapter cable. See Appendix A for the cable wiring diagram.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Connecting to PDH Equipment

2-3

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

³

Installation and Operation Manual

To connect a balanced E1 or T1 interface: •

Connect the E1 or T1 line to the RJ-45 connector designated E1 or T1, using a 4-wire cable (pins 1, 2, 4, 5).

Figure 2-1. ACE-3105 - E1/T1 Ports

Figure 2-2. ACE-3205 - E1/T1 Ports ³

To connect an unbalanced E1 interface: 1. Connect the RJ-45 connector of the adapter cable to the RJ-45 port designated E1. 2. Connect the transmit cable to the red coaxial connector of the adapter cable marked "→" (see Figure 2-3). 3. Connect the receive cable to the green coaxial connector of the adapter cable marked "←" (see Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-3. RJ-45 to 2BNC Adapter Cable Note

E1 interfaces can be configured to operate in Balanced or Unbalanced mode. For additional information, refer to Configuring an E1 Port in Chapter 4.

2.6

Connecting to DSL Network Equipment

The DSL ports can be used to efficiently receive/transmit pseudowire traffic over PSN.

Using DSL Interfaces DSL interfaces enable cellular backhauling over IP DSLAM. DSL interfaces terminate in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector.

2-4

Connecting to DSL Network Equipment

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Note ³

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

ACE-3105 is equipped with ADSL2+ or SHDSL interfaces (as ordered). To connect the ADSL2+ interface: 1. Connect standard straight UTP cables to the RJ-45 connector of the ADSL ports. 2. Connect the other end of the cable to a DSLAM, connected to the PSN.

Figure 2-4. ACE-3105 - ADSL2+ Ports

Figure 2-5. ACE-3205 - ADSL2+ Ports ³

To connect the SHDSL interface: 1. Use the SHDSL cable (ACE CBL-ACE-SHDSL/B) and connect the two RJ 45 connectors on the SHDSL side to the SHDSL ports. 2. Connect the RJ-45 connector on the other end of the cable to a DSLAM connected to the PSN.

Figure 2-6. ACE-3105 - SHDSL Ports

Figure 2-7. ACE-3205 - SHDSL Ports

2.7

Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks

Using Fiber Optic Ethernet Interface If fiber optic interfaces were ordered, there are two empty SFP slots.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

Installation and Operation Manual

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:

Warning

• Do not look directly into the optical connectors (ATM-155) while the unit is operating. The laser beams are invisible. Use of controls or performing procedures other than those specified herein may result in hazardous radiation exposure.

³

To install the fiber optic Ethernet interface (using SFP modules): 1. Lock the wire latch of each pluggable SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks into place, as illustrated below.

Note

The SFP you are installing may have a different wire latch or closing mechanism. If this is the case, refer to its manufacturer instructions.

Figure 2-8. Locking the SFP Wire Latch 2. Carefully remove the dust covers from the SFP module. 3. Install the required SFP module by inserting it into the appropriate module slot until it clicks into place.

Figure 2-9. ACE-3205 – Optical Fast Ethernet (FE) Ports If the SFP module does not click into place, remove the SFP, lock it properly and then re-insert the SFP module into the port. ³

To disconnect the fiber optic interface: 1. Disconnect the fiber optic cables from the SFP module. 2. Unlock the wire latch by lowering it downwards (opposite of locking). 3. Hold the wire latch and gently pull the SFP module out of the port.

2-6

Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

Using Electrical Ethernet Interfaces The electrical Ethernet interfaces terminate in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector (for connector pinouts, see Appendix A) and support Auto MDI/MDIX. ³

To connect the electrical Ethernet interface: 1. Connect Cat. 5 cables to the relevant RJ-45 connectors of the Fast Ethernet ports.

Figure 2-10. ACE-3105 – Electrical Fast Ethernet Ports

Figure 2-11. ACE-3205 – Electrical Fast Ethernet Ports 2. Connect the other end of each cable to the relevant packet-switched network equipment.

2.8

Connecting to ATM Network Equipment

To transmit traffic over ATM networks, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be ordered with fiber optic STM-1/OC-3c ATM port, which utilizes various types of SFP (Small Form-Factor Pluggable) modules (transceivers) that are fitted into the empty cage of the ATM port. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:

Warning

• Do not look directly into the optical connectors (ATM-155) while the unit is operating. The laser beams are invisible. Use of controls or performing procedures other than those specified herein may result in hazardous radiation exposure. ³

To install the fiber optic STM-1/OC-3c interface (using SFP modules):

1. Lock the wire latch of each pluggable SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks into place, as illustrated in Figure 2-8. 2. Carefully remove the dust cover from the SFP module. 3. Install the required SFP module by inserting it into the appropriate module slot until it clicks into place.

Note

If the SFP you are installing has a different wire latch or closing mechanism, refer to its manufacturer instructions.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Connecting to ATM Network Equipment

2-7

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

2.9

Installation and Operation Manual

Connecting to a Terminal

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be managed out-of-band via the RS-232/V.24 (DCE) terminal control port, which has a 9-pin, D-type, female connector.

Figure 2-12. ACE-3105 - Control Port

Figure 2-13. ACE-3205 - Control Port ³

To connect the terminal control cable: 1. Connect the standard DB-9 to DB-9 control cable (CBL-DB9F-DB9M-STR) to the 9-pin DTE connector of the management station. 2. Connect the other end of the control cable to the DB-9 connector designated CONTROL in ACE-3105, ACE-3205.

Caution Terminal cables must have a frame ground connection. Use ungrounded cables when connecting a supervisory terminal to a DC-powered unit with floating ground. Using improper terminal cable may result in damage to supervisory terminal port.

2.10 Connecting to a Network Management Station The ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ethernet interface terminates in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector (for connector pinouts, see Appendix A). The Ethernet (100BaseTX) port can be used for out-of-band management access only. ³

To connect the Ethernet control interface: 1. Connect one end of an Ethernet cable (not supplied) to the control device or the network management station's hub. 2. Connect the other end of the Ethernet cable to the RJ-45 connector labeled 10/100 BaseT 1 or ETH 1, depending on the respective unit in use.

2-8

Connecting to a Network Management Station

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

2.11 Connecting to Power ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has either AC or DC power supply (as ordered), provided via one or two integrated power supply units. A standard power cable is supplied with the unit.

Connecting to AC Power AC power is supplied to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via a 3-prong plug. AC power should be supplied through the 1.5m (5 ft) standard power cable terminated by a 3prong plug. The cable is provided with the unit. In ACE-3105, ACE-3205, two power cables may be connected to the unit simultaneously. Before connecting to power or disconnecting any other cable, the protective earth terminals of this unit must be connected to the protective ground conductor of the mains power cord. If you are using an extension cord (power cable), make sure it is grounded as well. A grounding cable must be connected to the dedicated grounding screw, located in next to the power supply outlet(s).

Warning ³

Any interruption of the protective (grounding) conductor (inside or outside the instrument) or disconnecting of the protective earth terminal can make this unit dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited. To connect ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to AC power: 1. Connect the power cable to the AC power connector on the front panel. 2. Connect the power cable to the mains outlet. The unit automatically turns on.

Connecting to DC Power ³

To connect ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to DC power: •

Refer to the DC power supply connection supplement, located on the Technical Documentation CD or at the back of the official printed version of this manual. Also, refer to the safety instructions at the beginning of this manual.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Connecting to Power

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

2-10

Connecting to Power

Installation and Operation Manual

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Chapter 3 Operation This chapter describes the following: •

Explains power-on and power-off procedures



Describes the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 front panel LED indicators and their function



Lists configuration alternatives – the different management access options available for ACE-3105, ACE-3205



Provides a CLI command tree.

For detailed explanations of options and parameters, see Chapter 4.

3.1 ³

Turning On the Unit

To turn the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit on: •

Connect the unit's power cable(s) to the mains. The power supply indicator lights up and remains lit as long as ACE-3105, ACE-3205 receives power.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:

Warning

• Do not look directly into the optical connectors while the unit is operating. The laser beams are invisible. • Do not attempt to adjust the laser drive current. Once turned on, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 requires no operator attention, with the exception of occasional monitoring of front panel indicators. Intervention is required only when: •

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 must be configured to its operational requirements.



The Alarm LED indicator indicates an alarm.



Diagnostic tests are performed.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Turning On the Unit

3-1

Chapter 3 Operation

3.2

Installation and Operation Manual

Indicators

The front panel of ACE-3105, ACE-3205 incorporates LED indicators that show the current operating status of the unit and its different ports. Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2 illustrate the ACE-3105 and ACE-3205 front panel respectively:

Figure 3-1. ACE-3105 Front Panel – with SHDSL Ports

Figure 3-2. ACE-3205 Front Panel The following table summarizes the function of all LED indicators in ACE-3105, ACE-3205.

Table 3-1. System LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

PS1/PS2

Green

On: Power supply is on Off: Power supply is off

ALM

Red

On: One or more alarms are active. Refer to list of alarms in Chapter 5 Off: No active alarms

RDY

Green

On: Self-test ended successfully Off: Self-test not started/ended Blinking: Self-test failed

Table 3-2. DSL Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (ADSL2 ports)

Green

On: Synchronizing and transmitting data Off: No DSL link Blinking: Red and green, initializing

Red

On: ADSL2 link is not detected Off: ADSL2 link is detected Blinking: Read and green, initializing

3-2

Indicators

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (SHDSL ports)

Green

On: Synchronizing and transmitting data Off: No data or no SHDSL link

Red

On: SHDSL link is not detected Off: SHDSL link is detected Blinking: Read and green, SHDSL is training in

Table 3-3. Ethernet Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

LINK

Green

On: Ethernet link is detected Off: Ethernet link is not detected

ACT

Yellow

On: ETH frames are received or transmitted Off: ETH frames are not received and transmitted

Table 3-4. E1/T1 Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (E1/T1 ports)

Green

On: The physical layer is synchronized Off: The physical layer is not synchronized Blinking: RAI alarm was detected

3.3

Configuration and Management Alternatives

Once installed, there are no special operating procedures for ACE-3105, ACE3205. The unit operates automatically after it has started up. The unit’s operational status can be constantly monitored. If required, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be configured via the following ports and applications: •

Local management via an ASCII terminal connected to the RS-232 port. Usually, preliminary configuration of the system parameters is performed via ASCII terminal. Once at least one router interface and IP parameters have been configured, it is possible to access it via Telnet, SSH or SNMP for further configuration.



Remote inband management via one of the Ethernet ports or out-of-band via the out-of-band port. Remote management via Telnet or SNMP. Alternatively, you may manage ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via a third-party SNMP-based NMS. Refer to Dealing with Alarms and Traps in Chapter 5 for a trap list.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

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Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

The following functions are supported by the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 management software: •

Viewing system information



Modifying configuration and mode of operation, including setting system default values and resetting the unit



Monitoring ACE-3105, ACE-3205 performance



Initiating connectivity tests



Uploading and downloading software and configuration files.

Working with Terminal ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has a V.24/RS-232 asynchronous DCE port, designated CONTROL and terminated in a 9-pin D-type female connector. The control port continuously monitors the incoming data stream and immediately responds to any input string received through this port.

Connecting to the Control Port ³

To set up terminal control: 1. Verify that all the cables are properly connected. For more information, refer to Chapter 2. 2. Connect ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to a PC equipped with HyperTerminal. Refer to Connecting to a Terminal in Chapter 2 for additional information on connecting to the control port. 3. Turn on the control terminal or start the PC terminal emulation. To do so, go to Start> All Programs> Accessories> Communications> HyperTerminal to create a new terminal connection. The HyperTerminal application opens, and the Connection Description dialog box is displayed.

Figure 3-3. HyperTerminal, Connection Description Dialog Box

3-4

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

4. Enter a name for the terminal connection. 5. Select an icon to represent the terminal connection, or leave the default icon selected. 6. Click . The Connect To dialog appears.

Figure 3-4. Connect To Dialog Box 7. Select a PC COM port to be used to communicate with ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and click . The COM Properties dialog appears.

Figure 3-5. Properties Dialog Box

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Configuration and Management Alternatives

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Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

8. Configure the communication port parameters as follows: ƒ

Bits per second: 9,600

ƒ

Data bits: 8

ƒ

Parity: None

ƒ

Stop bits: 1

ƒ

Flow control: None.

9. Click . HyperTerminal is now ready for communication with the unit. 10. Power-up the unit by connecting the power cable. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 boots up and self-test results appear on the terminal screen. The RDY LED on the left-hand side of the front panel becomes green once the test was completed successfully. You are prompted to press to receive the login prompt.

Figure 3-6. HyperTerminal Window 11. Press until the login prompt appears. Refer to the next section for details on logging on.

3-6

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Login To access the unit's management/configuration/monitoring options, you must log in. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports two access levels

Note

³



Superuser can perform all the activities supported by the ACE-3105, ACE3205 management facility, including defining new users.



User’s access rights (full control or read only) are defined by the superuser. Users are not allowed to create new users.

It is recommended to change default passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the unit. To enter as Superuser: 1. At the User prompt (user>), Enter su and press . The Password prompt (password>) appears. 2. Enter 1234 as password and press . The base prompt ACE-3105# or ACE-3205# appears. Superuser allows you to configure all parameters of ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and to change the su and user passwords.

³

To enter as User: 1. Enter user as user name and press . 2. Enter 1234 for password. The base prompt ACE-3105# or ACE-3205# appears.

Using the CLI The CLI consists of commands organized in a tree structure, starting at the base prompt ACE-3105# or ACE-3205#. The base prompt is the device name, which can be configured on the system level (refer to Specifying Administrative Information in Chapter 4). By default the device name is ACE-3105 or ACE-3205. Commands that are not global are available only at their specific tree location. To find out what commands are available at the current location, type ?.. To navigate down the tree, type the name of the next level. To navigate up, type exit. To navigate all the way up to the base prompt, type exit all. At the prompt, one or more level names separated by space can be typed, followed (or not) by a command. If only level names are typed, the prompt changes to reflect the current location in the tree. In the example below the levels and command were typed together and therefore no navigation was performed, so the prompt has not changed.

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Configuration and Management Alternatives

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Installation and Operation Manual

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# ACE-3105, ACE-3205# configure port ethernet 1 loopback local ACE-3105, ACE-3205# show configure port ethernet 1 loopback Loopback : Local Forever ACE-3105, ACE-3205#

Figure 3-7. Commands Without Level Navigation In the example below, the levels were typed separately and the navigation is reflected by the changing prompt.

Note

Level names are abbreviated in the prompt. You can type only as many letters of the level or command as required by the system to identify the level or command, for example you can enter config manage to navigate to the management level. In addition to being the default prompt, the # symbol also indicates a static entity (such as a port) or already configured entity. The $ symbol indicates a new dynamic entity (such as a flow) that takes several commands to configure. The dynamic entity is created as inactive. After the configuration is completed, it is activated by using the no shutdown command, as shown in the example below. ACE-3105, ACE-3205# ACE-3105, ACE-3205# configure ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config# port ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port# ethernet 1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# loopback local ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# show loopback Loopback : Local Forever ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)#

Figure 3-8. Commands With Level Navigation The shutdown command is also used to deactivate/disable a hardware element (such as a port), while no shutdown enables/activates it. CLI commands have the following basic format: command [parameter]{ value1 | value2 | … | valuen } [ optional parameter ] where: {}

Indicates that one of the values must be selected

[]

Indicates an optional parameter

<>

Indicates a value to be replaced by user text

The following keys are available at any time:

3-8

?

Lists all commands available at the current level



Command autocomplete



Logs out

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation



Erases the line



Displays the previous command



Displays the next command



Deletes character



Interrupts current command



Returns to the device prompt (root)

The following commands are available at any level: echo []

Echoes the specified text

exec [echo]

Executes a file, optionally echoing the commands

help [hotkeys] [globals]

Displays general help, or optionally just the hotkeys and/or global commands

history

Displays the command history for the current session (by default the history contains the last 10 commands)

info [detail]

Displays information on the current configuration

tree [detail]

Displays all lower command levels and commands accessible from the current context level

CLI commands can be gathered into text files called scripts. They can be created using a text editor, by recording the user commands or by saving the current configuration. The scripts can be imported from and exported to RAD devices via file transfer protocols.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-9

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command Tree At the CLI root, the following categories are available: •

version



self-test



admin



file



configure

Each category is detailed in the tables below.

Table 3-5. Global commands Command

Description

GlobalCommands |

exit

Return to previous level in the commands hierarchy

|

tree

Display commands hierarchy from current context

|

help

Display help

|

history

Display commands history

|

echo

Echo the text that is typed in

|

exec

Execute a file

|

logout

Log out this system

|

info

print configuration info

|

change-mode

Switch to Menus

|

ping

Verify the reachability of a remote host

|

trace-route

Determine the route to a destination address

|

save

|

mpls-ping

Sends a ping request over MPLS to verify the reachability of a remote device

|

mpls-trace-route

Checks the path connectivity to a remote device over MPLS

Table 3-6. Commands in the version category Command

Description

version

Displays SW and configuration version numbers

3-10

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Table 3-7. Commands in the self-test category Command

Description

show self-test

Displays self test results

Table 3-8. Commands in the admin category Command

Description

admin

Adminstrative commands

|

reboot

Reboots the card

|

reboot

Reboots the device

|

factory-default

Loads factory default configuration

|

user-default

Loads user default configuration

Table 3-9. Commands in the file category Command

Description

file

Initiates file operations

|

copy

Copies files within device or uploads/downloads files to/from remote locations

|

swap

Exchanges two files in the device

|

delete

Deletes a file from the device

|

dir

Lists all files in the device

|

show version

Software Versions on the device

|

show transfer-status

Displays the upload/download status

Table 3-10. Commands in the configure category Command

Description

configure

Changes configurable parameters of the device

|

terminal

|

|

baud-rate

|

|

timeout

|

|

length

|

oam

Defines OAM parameters

|

|

atm

Defines OAM for ATM

|

|

|

descriptor

Enables/disables the OAM descriptor

|

|

|

loopback

Defines the loopback test

|

|

bfd-descriptor

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Rows number that will be printed before more

BFD descriptor configuration

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-11

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

|

min-interval

Defines/removes min. interval of packets (Rx/Tx)

|

|

|

detection-multiplier

Specifies number of lost packets before session defined down

|

|

efm

Defines OAM for Ethernet in the access network

|

|

|

descriptor

Defines an OAM EFM descriptor

|

|

|

descriptor

Cancels the OAM EFM descriptor

|

|

efm-descriptor

Defines OAM for Ethernet in the access network

|

|

|

Actions in Passive upon receiving Loopback Request

|

qos

Quality of service

|

|

atm

ATM quality of service

|

|

|

ATM traffic descriptor configuration

|

|

queue-map-profile

|

|

|

|

port

Enables, disables and defines ports

|

|

e1

Specifies E1 parameters

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively disables/enables the port

|

|

|

tx-clock-source

Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock

|

|

|

idle-code

Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in E1 frames

|

|

|

out-of-service

Transmits out of service signal for all services

|

|

|

functional-mode

The mode in which the E1 interface operates

|

|

|

trail-mode

Controls the propagation of alarm indications

|

|

|

line-type

Specifies the E1 framing mode

|

|

|

fractional

Enables/disables using fraction of E1 port bandwidth.

|

|

|

oam-cell-generator

Generates OAM cells if physical layer fails

|

|

|

loopback

Enables/disables loopback mode for the port

|

|

|

rx-sensitivity

Sets the attenuation level of the receive signal

|

|

|

tx-ssm

Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this port.

|

|

|

show status

Displays the E1 port's status

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays the ATM statistics of an E1 port

|

|

t1

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively disables/enables the port

|

|

|

tx-clock-source

Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock

|

|

|

line-code

Line code and zero suppression used by port

3-12

loopback-operation

traffic-descriptor

map

Specifies T1 parameters

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Command

Description

|

|

|

idle-code

Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in T1 frames

|

|

|

line-interface

Specifies the T1 operation mode

|

|

|

line-length

Specifies the length of the T1 line in DSU mode

|

|

|

line-buildout

Specifying the line build-out (relative output transmit level of the port).

|

|

|

restoration-time

Time req. for port to resume normal oper after LOF

|

|

|

line-length

|

|

|

out-of-service

Transmits out of service signal for all services

|

|

|

functional-mode

The mode in which the T1 interface operates

|

|

|

trail-mode

Controls the propagation of alarm indications

|

|

|

line-type

Specifies the T1 framing mode

|

|

|

fractional

Enables/disables using fraction of T1 port bandw.

|

|

|

oam-cell-generator

Creates OAM cells in case of physical layer error

|

|

|

loopback

Enables/disables loopback mode for the port

|

|

|

scrambler

Enables/disables ATM cell payload scrambling mode

|

|

|

tx-ssm

Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this port.

|

|

|

show status

Displays the T1 port's status

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays the ATM statistics of a T1 port

|

|

j1

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively disables/enables the port

|

|

|

tx-clock-source

Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock

|

|

|

line-code

Variety of Zero Code Suppression used on port

|

|

|

idle-code

Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in J1 frames

|

|

|

line-interface

Specifies the J1 operation mode

|

|

|

line-length

Specifies the length of the J1 line in DSU mode

|

|

|

line-buildout

Specifies the line build out

|

|

|

restoration-time

Time req. for port to resume normal oper after LOF

|

|

|

line-length

|

|

|

out-of-service

Transmits out of service signal for all services

|

|

|

functional-mode

The mode in which the J1 interface operates

|

|

|

trail-mode

Controls the propagation of alarm indications

|

|

|

line-type

Specifies the J1 framing mode

|

|

|

oam-cell-generator

Generates OAM cells in case of physical error

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

Specifies J1 parameters

3-13

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

|

loopback

Enables/disables loopback mode for the port

|

|

|

scrambler

Enables/disables ATM cell payload scrambling mode

|

|

|

tx-ssm

Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this port.

|

|

|

show status

Displays the J1 port's status

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays the ATM statistics of a J1 port

|

|

ethernet

Specifies Ethernet parameters

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively disables/enables the port

|

|

|

media-type

Specifies the interface to operate in combo ports

|

|

|

auto-negotiation

Enables/disables automatically adjusting the speed

|

|

|

max-capability

Identifies the set of capabilities advertised by the local autonegotiation entity

|

|

|

speed-duplex

Specifies speed and duplex mode when autonegotiation is disabled

|

|

|

efm

Enables/disables OAM (EFM) on the Ethernet port

|

|

|

output-rate-limit

Specifies/cancels the bandwidth limit

|

|

|

tx-ssm

Enables/disables Synchronous Status Messages transmission

|

|

|

show status

Displays the Ethernet port status

|

|

|

show statistics

Specifies time increments of statistics for display

|

|

|

show oam-efm

EFM OAM (ah)

|

|

|

show oam-efm-statistics

Display statistics counters

|

|

shdsl

Defines an SHDSL port

|

|

|

shutdown

Enables/disables the SHDSL port

|

|

|

tc

Specifies the TC layer and functional mode

|

|

|

wires

Specifies number of wires for M-pair group or IMA

|

|

|

4w-mode

Sets 4W mode for GSPN-enhanced or standard DSLAM

|

|

|

stu

Setting the port operation mode: CO or CPE

|

|

|

transmission-mode

Defines region-dependant standard sets

|

|

|

power-backoff

Time of reduced power to counter magnetic fields

|

|

|

line-prob

Enables/disables Power Measurement Modulation Session

|

|

|

data-rate

Setting the SHDSL port data rate

|

|

|

loop-attenuation-threshold

Specifies the loop attenuation threshold in db

|

|

|

snr-margin-threshold

Sets the current signal-to-noise margin

3-14

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Command

Description

|

|

|

tx-clock-source

Specifies the transmit clock source

|

|

|

handshake

Specifies the handshake procedure

|

|

|

current-margin

get margin for the measured signal to noise ratio relative to the current noise level

|

|

|

worst-margin

get margin for the measured SNR to reference worst case near-end crosstalk noise

|

|

|

tx-ssm

Enables/disables source specific multicast transmission

|

|

|

show status

Displays the status of an SHDSL interface

|

|

|

show statistics

Specifies the ATM statistics of an SHDSL interface

|

|

|

show bind-show

Displays an overview of interfaces bound to ATM

|

|

adsl2plus

Defines an ADSL2+ interface

|

|

|

shutdown

Enables/disables the ADSL2+ port

|

|

|

restart

Initiates/cancels restarting the synchronization

|

|

|

show status

Displays the status of an ADSL2+ interface

|

|

|

show statistics

ATM statistics of an ADSL2+ interface

|

|

abis-ater

Defines/cancels Abis optimization

|

|

|

shutdown

The no form of this command enables a port.

|

|

|

tx-direction

Specifies the uplink transmit direction

|

|

|

optimization

Specifies the optimization mode

|

|

|

byte-reversal

Defines whether the BTS/BSC reverses the traffic bytes

|

|

|

idle-trau

Defines the idle mode type for TRAU/GPRS timeslots

|

|

|

tx-jitter

Sets size of transmit jitter towards the BTS/BSC

|

|

|

silence-suppression

Suppression rate of silent frames during voice call

|

|

|

silence-trau

Specifies the type of generated silence TRAU frames

|

|

|

gprs-frame

Specifies General Packet Radio Service frames

|

|

|

unknown-frame-optimization

Optimizes unspecified frames

|

|

|

spd-threshold

Sets threshold to discard packets

|

|

|

timeout

Specifies when a timeout is declared

|

|

|

mtu

Defines the max. transmission unit

|

|

|

bind

Binds a physical port to Abis

|

|

|

time-slots

Specifies time slots associated with the Abis port

|

|

|

interface-mode

Specifies the interface mode

|

|

|

clear-statistics

Clears the displayed statistics

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-15

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

|

show status

Displays operational and administrative status

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays Rx and Tx statistics

|

|

atm

Defines ATM parameters

|

|

|

ima-group

Create / Delete an IMA group

|

|

|

|

minimum-links

Min number of Rx/Tx links required

|

|

|

|

group-id

IMA group ID

|

|

|

|

tx-frame-length

Tx frame length

|

|

|

|

max-differential-delay

max link delay tolerated

|

|

|

|

ima-version

Valid IMA version

|

|

|

|

tx-clock-source

Tx clock source for current IMA group

|

|

|

|

ctc-source

Group Tx clock source

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Enable/disable the IMA group

|

|

|

|

blocking

Blocks IMA group

|

|

|

|

oam-cell-generation

Generates ATM OAM cells if an IMA group fails

|

|

|

|

restart

Restart the IMA group

|

|

|

|

bind

Adds/removes links to/from an IMA group

|

|

|

|

show status

Displays status of the current IMA group

|

|

|

|

show statistics

IMA group statistics

|

|

|

vpl

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

vcl

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

max-vpi-bits

Specifies the max VPI bits

|

|

|

cell-test

Defines parameters for ATM cell test

|

|

logical-mac

|

|

|

bind

|

|

|

show oam-efm

|

|

|

show oam-efm-statistics

|

|

svi

|

|

|

|

|

ppp

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

bind

|

|

|

authentication

3-16

Enables/disables a virtual path link show statistics

Display VPL statistics Enables/disables a virtual channel link

show statistics

Display VCL statistics

Create/delete service virtual interface shutdown

Configuration and Management Alternatives

Administrtavly enable/disable the SVI port

Enable/disable the port

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Chapter 3 Operation

Description

|

|

|

access-authentication

|

|

|

pppoe

|

|

|

|

ac-name

|

|

|

|

service-name

|

|

|

|

scheduled-restart

|

|

|

|

backoff-random-range

|

|

|

|

vlan

|

|

|

show status

|

|

pcs

Specifies physical coding sublayer parameters

|

|

|

shutdown

Enable/disable the port

|

|

|

bind

Bind ports to PCS bundle

|

|

|

show status

Displays the PCS port status

|

|

|

show statistics

Specifies time increments of statistics for display

|

|

|

show oam-efm

|

|

|

show oam-efm-statistics

|

bridge

Defines bridge parameters.

|

|

vlan-aware

Enable/Disable Layer 2 bridging according to the VLAN tag

|

|

aging-time

Enable/Disable period for entries to age in the MAC table.

|

|

port

Defines the behavior and attributes of bridge ports.

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively enable/disable the bridge port.

|

|

|

bind

Binds Bridge to a device (physical/logical) port.

|

|

|

ingress-filtering

Enable/Disable ingress filtering mode behavior.

|

|

|

accept-frame-type

Enable/Disable frame admission rule for the bridge port.

|

|

|

pvid

PVID assigned to untagged frames or priority-tagged frames.

|

|

|

egress-tag

Enable/Disable egress VLAN Tag handling behavior.

|

|

|

ingress-tag

Enable/Disable ingress VLAN Tag handling behavior.

|

|

|

maximum-mac-addresses

Maximum number of total supported MAC Addresses.

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays the bridge port statistics

|

|

vlan

Enables/disables VLAN membership specifications.

|

|

|

Add/Remove bridge port as VLAN egress tagged member.

tagged-egress

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-17

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

show mac-address-table

Displays MAC addresses; adds/removes static MAC address.

|

|

show vlans

Display VLAN members.

|

|

clear-mac-table

Clear MAC addresses.

|

protection

Defines protection mechanisms

|

router

Configures router parameters

|

|

interface

Adds router interface

|

|

|

dhcp

Enables/disables DHCP client

|

|

|

address

Router interface IP and mask

|

|

|

name

Router interface name

|

|

|

bind

Binds router interface to device port, PVC or GRE tunnel

|

|

|

vlan

VLAN tagging control

|

|

|

management-access

Managment access control

|

|

|

llc-snap-encapsulation

LLC/SNAP encapsulation type

|

|

|

dhcp-client

DHCP client configuration

|

|

|

|

class-id

String that is passed on to the DHCP server for authentication

|

|

|

|

lease

DHCP requested lease time

|

|

|

shutdown

Enables/disables the router interface

|

|

|

show status

Router interface status

|

|

static-route

Creates/deletes static route entities

|

|

default-gateway

Default gateway for the router

|

|

loopback-address

Maximum number of loopback addresses is 4

|

|

arp-timeout

Address aging function

|

|

gre-tunnel

Specifies GRE tunnel

|

|

|

shutdown

Enable/disables the GRE tunnel

|

|

|

keepalive

Enable/disable GRE Keep Alive session

|

|

|

show status

|

|

peer

Peer configuration

|

|

show arp-table

Displays the router ARP table

|

|

show routing-table

Displays the routing table

|

|

path-verification

Configures path-verification parameters

|

|

|

ip-bfd

Enables/disables bidirectional forward detection

|

|

|

|

Enable/disable IP-BFD session

3-18

shutdown

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Chapter 3 Operation

Description

|

|

|

|

address

Specifies IP-BFD session address

|

|

|

|

bfd-descriptor

Assign BFD descriptor to the configured session

|

|

|

|

show status

|

|

mpls

MPLS configuration

|

|

|

php

Enables/disables php

|

|

|

label-range

Defines the static and dynamic label range

|

|

|

ldp

LDP configuration

|

|

|

|

ldp-id

The LDP identifier for the device

|

|

|

|

hello-timer

Time between consequent hello messages

|

|

|

|

keep-alive-timer

time between consequent keep-alive messages

|

|

|

|

router-interface

LDP configuration of existing router interfaces

|

|

|

|

targeted-peers

Enables/disables LDP targeted peers

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Enables/disables the LDP

|

|

|

|

show hello-table

Displays LDP hello table

|

|

|

|

show session

Displays active LDP sessions status

|

|

|

ingress-tunnel

Ingress tunnel configuration

|

|

|

egress-tunnel

Egress tunnel configuration

|

management

Defines management parameters

|

|

snmp

Defines SNMP settings

|

|

|

server

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

snmp-engine-id

|

|

|

snmp-engine-id-string

|

|

|

snmpv3

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

user

|

|

|

|

authentication

|

|

|

|

privacy

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

access-group

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

context-match

|

|

|

|

read-view

trap-source-address

Text, administratively assigned. Maximum remaining length 27

show information

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-19

Chapter 3 Operation

Command

Description

|

|

|

|

write-view

|

|

|

|

notify-view

|

|

|

security-to-group

|

|

|

|

group-name

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

view

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

mask

|

|

|

|

type

|

|

|

community

|

|

|

|

name

|

|

|

|

sec-name

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

tag

|

|

|

target-params

|

|

|

|

message-processing-model

|

|

|

|

version

|

|

|

|

security

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

target

|

|

|

|

target-params

|

|

|

|

address

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

tag-list

|

|

|

|

trap-sync-group

|

|

|

notify

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

tag

|

|

|

|

bind

|

|

|

notify-filter

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

|

type

|

|

|

|

mask

|

|

|

notify-filter-profile

3-20

Installation and Operation Manual

Configuration and Management Alternatives

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Chapter 3 Operation

Description

|

|

|

|

profile-name

|

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

show trap-sync

|

|

|

trap-sync-group

|

|

|

|

target-params

|

|

|

|

tag-list

|

|

|

community

|

|

|

ov-severity-in-traps

|

|

manager

|

|

|

|

|

access

|

|

|

telnet

Configure telnet access

|

|

|

ssh

Configure SSH access

|

|

|

snmp

Configure SNMP access

|

|

|

auth-policy

Assign policy of authentication

|

|

radius

Set RADIUS parameters

|

|

|

server

Set RADIUS server parameters

|

|

|

|

address

Set address of RADIUS server

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Administratively enable/disable RADIUS server

|

|

|

|

key

Set client and RADIUS server shared secret

|

|

|

|

retry

Set number of requests attempts from RADIUS server

|

|

|

|

timeout

Set timeout for a response from RADIUS server

|

|

|

|

auth-port

Set RADIUS server authentication port number

|

|

|

show status

Display status parameters

|

|

|

show statistics

Display statistics counters

|

|

|

clear-statistics

Clear statistics counters

|

|

show users

|

|

user

Create/delete user and assign user password

|

|

user

Assign user password

|

flows

|

|

classifier-profile

|

|

|

Managers configuration.Maximum number of managers 16

trap-mask

match

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Configuration and Management Alternatives

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Command

Installation and Operation Manual

Description

|

|

flow

|

|

|

shutdown

|

|

|

classifier

|

|

|

mark

|

|

|

|

vlan

|

|

|

|

p-bit

|

|

|

vlan-tag

|

|

|

ingress-port

|

|

|

egress-port

|

|

show summary

|

pwe

Create/delete Psaudo-wire

|

|

atm-parameters

ATM parameters which relevant to all PWs

|

|

mtu

MTU size configuration

|

|

df-bit-cleared

Enable/disable clear the DF bit for PW traffic (interop command)

|

|

mtu-tlv-sent

Enable/disable adding MTU TLV to TDM PW (interop command)

|

|

pw

Create/delete Pseudo-wire

|

|

|

name

Create/delete PW name

|

|

|

peer

The number of the remote peer which terminated this PW

|

|

|

label

The PW label used in the inbound /outbound direction

|

|

|

ldp-pw-id

The PW ID in LDP mode

|

|

|

control-word

Enable/disable control word existance in the packet heder

|

|

|

sequence-number

Enable/disable sequence number existance in the packet heder

|

|

|

tx-queue

The TX queue level for this PW

|

|

|

oam

Enable/disable OAM protocol for this PW

|

|

|

vlan

Enable/disable VLAN tag on every transmitted packet for this PW

|

|

|

exp-bits

Indicate the MPLS EXP bits for this PW

|

|

|

tos

TOS byte value in the outgoing traffic

|

|

|

tunnel-index

Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for this PW

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Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Command

Description

|

|

|

tunnel-index

Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for this PW

|

|

|

tunnel-index

Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for this PW

|

|

|

atm-payload

ATM payload parameters for this PW

|

|

|

aal5-termination

AAL5 SDU termination mode

|

|

|

tdm-payload

TDM payload parameters

|

|

|

tdm-payload

TDM payload configuration

|

|

|

jitter-buffer

Jitter buffer size

|

|

|

shutdown

Administrativly enable/disable the current PW

|

|

|

show status

Dispaly PW status parameters

|

|

|

show statistics

Dispaly PW statistics counters

|

|

show pw-summary

|

cross-connect

Cross connect of ATM, PW, or TDM (DS0,DS1,DS3,SDH/SONET)

|

|

atm-vp

Create / Delete an ATM VP cross connect

|

|

atm-vc

Create / Delete an ATM VC cross connect

|

|

atm-ces

CES cross connect

|

|

pw-vp

ATM attachment circuit

|

|

pw-vc

ATM attachment circuit

|

|

pw-tdm

TDM virtual circuit cross connect

|

|

pw-eth

Ethernet virtual circuit cross connect

|

system

|

|

product-name

|

|

name

Assigns/removes a name to the device

|

|

contact

Specifies/removes a contact person

|

|

location

Specifies/removes the location of a device

|

|

inventory

Specifies device inventory parameters

|

|

|

alias

Assigns/removes an alias to/from the device inventory

|

|

|

show status

Displays the status of a device

|

|

show device-information

Displays device information

|

|

show inventory-summary

Displays a list with installed hardware and software

|

|

show event-log

Displays the event log

|

|

clear-event-log

Clears the event log

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Dispaly PWs summary

Defines system parameters

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-23

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

show alarms

Displays alarms

|

|

tftp

|

|

sftp

|

|

date-and-time

Date and time parameters

|

|

|

date

System date

|

|

|

time

System time

|

|

|

zone

Time zone and offset

|

|

|

summer

Configure summer time (daylight savings time)

|

|

|

sntp

Sets Simple Network Time Protocol parameters

|

|

|

|

broadcast

Enables/disables broadcast client mode for SNTP

|

|

|

|

poll-interval

Interval between SNTP update requests

|

|

|

|

server

Defines an SNTP time server

|

|

|

|

|

Specifies the SNTP time server's IP address

|

|

|

|

send-request

|

|

show date-and-time

Displays current system data and time

|

|

clock

Clock configuration

|

|

|

recovered

Create/delete recovered clock

|

|

|

|

pw

Associate PW number to recovered clock

|

|

|

|

peer

Associate master peer number to recovered clock

|

|

|

|

source-quality

Source quality of the recovered clock

|

|

|

|

network-type

Network type of the recovered clock

|

|

|

|

source-port-identity

Identifier number of the master clock

|

|

|

|

sync-rate

Transmit rate of the clock packets

|

|

|

|

clock-quality

Clock quality of the master

|

|

|

|

multicast

Multicast IP address

|

|

|

|

source-address

Second IP address for receiving clock

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Enable/disable recovered clock

|

|

|

|

show statistics

Display statistics counters

|

|

|

|

show status

Display status parameters

|

|

|

|

debug

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-mode

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-logger

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-acqusition-switch

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-smart-delta-switch

3-24

address

Configuration and Management Alternatives

Sends SNTP request in addition to periodic request

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Chapter 3 Operation

Description

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-smart-self-test

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-smart-delta-timeout

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-bw-adaptive-switch

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-const-delay-change

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-freeze-system

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-bw-adapter-lower-level

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-bw-adapter-upper-level

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-adaptive-jb-reset

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-adaptive-sw-reset

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-cdc-threshold-track1

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-cdc-threshold-track2

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-frequency-deflection

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-threshold-exit-slip

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-sdt-threshold

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-sdt-threshold-hysteresis

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-sliding-window

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-pvd-adev-target

|

|

|

|

|

dbg-pvd-adev-trg-indf-zone

|

|

|

|

|

show dbg-counters

|

|

|

station

Enable/disable station clock

|

|

|

|

interface-type

Assign station clock interface type

|

|

|

|

interface-type

Assign station clock interface type

|

|

|

distributed

Create/delete distributed clock

|

|

|

|

source-port-identity

Identifier number of the master clock

|

|

|

|

sync-rate

Transmit rate of the clock packets

|

|

|

|

priority-bit

VLAN priority associated to distributed clock

|

|

|

|

tos-dscp

Associate IP service type to the distributed clock

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Enable/disable distributed clock

|

|

|

|

stream

Create/delete distribured clock stream

|

|

|

|

|

shutdown

Administrtavly enable/disable distributed clock stream

|

|

|

|

|

peer

Associate slave peer number to distributed clock

|

|

|

|

|

name

Associate name to the distributed stream

|

|

|

|

show statistics

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Display statistics counters

Configuration and Management Alternatives

3-25

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Command

Description

|

|

|

domain

Clock domain configuration

|

|

|

|

master

Create/delete master clock

|

|

|

|

fallback

Create/delete fallback clock

|

|

|

|

revertive

Enable/disable revertive mode

|

|

|

|

show status

Display status parameters

|

|

|

domain

Clock domain number

|

|

|

|

sync-network-type

The synchronous digital hierarchy type

|

|

|

|

quality

Clock Quality Level (QL)

|

|

|

|

quality

Clock Quality Level (QL)

|

|

|

|

max-frequency-deviation

Max. allowed frequency error compared to PRC

|

|

|

|

mode

Auto or Free Run

|

|

|

|

force

Forced selection of any configured Clock Source

|

|

|

|

manual

Manual selection of any configured Clock Source

|

|

|

|

clear

Clear the Forced or Manual selection

|

|

|

|

clear-statistics

Clear statistics for all Clock Sources

|

|

|

|

source

Clock Source parameters

|

|

|

|

|

priority

Clock Source priority

|

|

|

|

|

quality-level

QL of the Clock Source

|

|

|

|

|

wait-to-restore

De-bouncing timeout for Clock Source failure recovery

|

|

|

|

|

hold-off

De-bouncing timeout for Clock Source failure

|

|

|

|

|

clear-wait-to-restore

One-time reset of running WTR

|

|

|

|

|

show status

Display status parameters

|

|

|

|

|

show statistics

Display statistics counters

|

|

|

|

show status

|

|

show license

Shows the License support

|

|

syslog

Sets Syslog server to log events on server instead of internally

|

|

|

address

Specifies the Syslog server's IP address

|

|

|

shutdown

Opens/closes the connection to the Syslog server

|

|

|

facility

Identifies facility to send Syslog messages from

|

|

|

severity-level

Specifies the severity level of Syslog messages to be sent

|

|

|

port

Defines the UDP port for device or server, depending on the mode that the Syslog server operates at

3-26

Configuration and Management Alternatives

Display status parameters

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Command

Description

|

|

|

show statistics

Displays Syslog statistics

|

|

|

clear-statistics

Clears the Syslog statistics

Working with RADview RADview is a user-friendly and powerful SNMP-based element management system (EMS), used for planning, provisioning and managing heterogeneous networks. RADview provides a dedicated graphical user interface (GUI) for monitoring RAD products via their SNMP agents. RADview for ACE-3105, ACE3205 is bundled in the RADview package for PC (Windows-based) or Unix. For more details about this network management software, and for detailed instructions on how to install, set-up and use RADview – contact your local distributor or refer to the RADview User's Manual, located on the Technical Documentation CD or on RAD's Web site.

3.4

Startup

Configuration Files The following files contain configuration settings:

Note



factory-default – Contains the manufacturer default settings



running-config – Contains the current configuration that is different from the default configuration



startup-config – Contains saved non-default user configuration. This file is not automatically created. You can use the save or copy command to create it.



user-default-config – Contains default user configuration. This file is not automatically created. You can use the copy command to create it.



main-sw – Contains the active software image.



Refer to File Operations in Chapter 4 for details on file operations.

The save command is used to save the user configuration. Some commands that reset the device also erase the saved user configuration by copying another file to it before the reset. Refer to Figure 3-9for details.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Startup

3-27

Chapter 3 Operation

Installation and Operation Manual

Figure 3-9. Commands That Reset Device/Copy Configuration Files

Loading Sequence At startup, the device boots from the startup-config file, the user-default file, or the factory-default file, in the sequence shown in Figure 3-10 . If none of these files exist, the device boots using hard-coded defaults. If the loading of startup-config or the user-default file fails, the loading failure event is registered in the event log. To display the parameter values after startup, use the info [detail] command.

3-28

Startup

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 3 Operation

Figure 3-10. Loading Sequence

3.5

Using a Custom Configuration File

In large deployments, often a central network administrator sends configuration scripts to the remote locations and all that remains for the local technician to do is to replace the IP address in the script or other similar minor changes (using any text editor), and then download the file to the device. To download the configuration file, use the copy command. It is recommended to copy the file to both startup-config and the user-default file. After downloading the configuration file, the unit must be reset in order to execute the file. After the unit completes its startup, the custom configuration is complete.

3.6 ³

Turning Off the Unit

To turn the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit off: •

Disconnect the power cord from the power source.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Turning Off the Unit

3-29

Chapter 3 Operation

3-30

Turning Off the Unit

Installation and Operation Manual

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Chapter 4 Configuration This chapter explains in detail the different configuration options available for ACE-3105, ACE-3205. It is possible to use previously saved configurations by resetting the unit to the user defaults. For additional information, refer to Resetting to User Defaults. In addition, it is possible to use a standard configuration file that has been generated on a different ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit with identical hardware profile. For instructions, refer to File Operations.

4.1

Terminal Control

You use a terminal connection to connect a PC to the ACE unit’s control port and configure a router and a router interface to make the unit available from a management station on the network. The terminal control parameters determine the control port's baud rate, password used for each control session, and availability of the fixed security timeout.

Factory Defaults The table below lists the factory defaults of the terminal connection. Description

Default Value

baud rate (bps)

9600

Security timeout (minutes)

10

Note

Terminal parameters can only be configured when using a terminal connection.

Configuring the Terminal Connection ³

To configure the terminal parameters: •

At the Terminal config>terminal# prompt, enter the necessary parameters according to the table below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Terminal Control

4-1

Chapter 4 Configuration

Installation and Operation Manual

Task

Command

Comments

Setting the baud rate (bps)

baud-rate {9600bps|19200bps|38400bps|57800bps|115200bps}

Enabling and defining a security timeout (in minutes)

timeout limited 10

Disabling the security timeout

timeout forever

Example The example below illustrates how to set up a terminal connection. ³

To set up a terminal connection at 19200 kbps with timeout after 10 minutes: •

Set up the baud rate to 19200 kbps and make sure that the same rate is selected in HyperTerminal for any future HyperTerminal connections.



Set the security timeout to 10 minutes.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>terminal# baud-rate 19200bps ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>terminal# timeout-limited 10

Figure 4-1. Configuring a Terminal Connection

4.2

User Access Levels

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 allows you to define new users, their management and access rights. Only superusers (su) can create new users, the regular users are limited to changing their current passwords, even if they were given full management and access rights. You can specify a user’s password as a text string. You can add a second user with the same password using the hash function as explained below.

Defining Users and Passwords Follow the instructions below to add users and assign passwords.

Notes

• User passwords are stored in a database so that the system can perform

password verification when a user attempts to log in. To preserve confidentiality of system passwords, the password verification data is typically stored after a one-way hash function is applied to the password, in combination with other data. When a user attempts to log in by entering a password, the same function is applied to the entered value and the result is compared with the stored value.

• A cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an

arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the (cryptographic) hash value, such that any change to the data changes the hash value.

4-2

User Access Levels

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

³

Chapter 4 Configuration

To add a user with a text password: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter user [level ] [password ]. The user name, the associated user level and the password are defined.

³

To change the text password of an existing user: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter user [level ] [password ]. specifies the user name associated with the desired existing user. specifies the new password. The new password for the existing user is changed.

Note

³

To add a user or change the password of an existing user, you must be logged on as a super user. To add an additional user with the same password using the hash function: 1. At the user prompt config>mngmnt> prompt, enter info detail and press until you get to the first user’s password hash value as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# info detail user "staff1" level user password "3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash 2. Define another user with the hashed password obtained from the info output. The second user is added and can log on with the text password defined in step 1. ³

To delete an existing user: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter no user . The specified user is deleted.

Example ³

To add a super user with a text password: •

Specify the user name staff for the user level su.



Assign the password 1234.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# user staff level su password 1234 # Password is encrypted successfully ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt#

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

User Access Levels 4-3

Chapter 4 Configuration

³

Installation and Operation Manual

To add two new users with identical passwords using the hash function: •

Assign the user name staff1.



Assign the password 4222.



Assign the user name staff2.



Assign the same password 4222 to staff2 by linking the hash output to staff2.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# user staff1 level user password 4222 # Password is encrypted successfully ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# info user "staff1" level user password "3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash user "su"

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# user staff2 level user password 3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef hash ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# info user "staff1" level user password "3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash user "staff2" level user password "3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash user "su"

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# logout CLI session is closed user>staff2 password>4222 ACE-3105, ACE-3205#

Viewing Connected Users This section explains how to view users currently logged on to the unit. ³

To view all connected users: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter show users. A list of all connected users is displayed, showing their access level, the type of connection, and the IP address from which they are connected.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# configure management ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt# show users User Access Level Source IP-address ----------------------------------------------------------------------------su SU Terminal 172.4.3.3 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt#

4-4

User Access Levels

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

4.3

Chapter 4 Configuration

Managers

This section explains how to add and remove managers and mask traps associated with the respective manager.

Configuring a Manager This section explains how to add and remove managers. You can add up to 16 managers. In addition, you can mask and unmask all traps or specific ones for a specific manager. ³

To add a manager: 1. At the config# prompt, enter management. The config>mngmnt# prompt appears. 2. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>. The specified manager has been added and the config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt appears displaying the IP address of the manager you just added.

³

To mask traps for a specific manager using SNMPv1: •

At the config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter trap-mask {all|adsl-tx-rate|agent-status|atm-lcd|atm-line-ais|atm-line-bip|atmline-febe|atm-line-rdi|atm-lof|atm-lop|atm-los|atm-path-ais|atm-path-bip|atmpath-febe|atm-path-rdi|atm-section-bip|atm-slm|atm-vc-ais-reception|atm-vccontinuity-loss|atm-vc-loopback|atm-vc-rdi-reception|atm-vp-aisreception|atm-vp-continuity-loss|atm-vp-loopback|atm-vp-rdireception|authentication-failure|bfd-session-up-down|cold-start|fanfailure|ima-group-status|ldp-session-up-down|license-update|link-updown|port-status|power-failure|pw-up-down|recovered-clock-frequencyalarm|recovered-clock-state|self-test-result|sonet-line-ais|sonet-linerdi|sonet-lof|sonet-los|sonet-path-ais|sonet-path-rdi|station-clockfailure|tftp-status|upload-data|csm-domain-state|csm-source-status} The included traps will not be displayed to the respective manager.

³

To unmask traps (that have been previously masked) for a specific manager: •

At the config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter no trap-mask {all|adsl-tx-rate|agent-status|atm-lcd|atm-line-ais|atm-linefebe|atm-line-rdi|atm-lof|atm-lop|atm-los|atm-path-ais|atm-path-rdi|atmsection-bip|atm-slm|atm-vc-ais-reception|atm-vc-continuity-loss|atm-vcloopback|atm-vc-rdi-reception|atm-vp-ais-reception|atm-vp-continuityloss|atm-vp-loopback|atm-vp-rdi-reception|authentication-failure|bfd-sessionup-down|cold-start|fan-failure|ima-group-status|ldp-session-up-down|licenseupdate|link-up-down|port-status|power-failure|pw-up-down|recovered-clockfrequency-alarm|recovered-clock-state|self-test-result|sonet-line-ais|sonetline-rdi|sonet-lof|sonet-los|sonet-path-ais|sonet-path-rdi|station-clockfailure|tftp-status|upload-data|csm-domain-state|csm-source-status} The included traps will be displayed to the respective manager.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Managers 4-5

Chapter 4 Configuration

³

Installation and Operation Manual

To delete a manager: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter no manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>. The specified manager has been removed.

4.4

Access

You can enable or disable access to the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 management system via Telnet, SSH, or SNMP applications for a specific router interface. By disabling Telnet, SSH, or SNMP, you prevent unauthorized access to the system when security of the associated IP address has been compromised. When Telnet, SSH, and SNMP are disabled, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 cannot be managed using the relevant router interface. If Telnet, SSH and SNMP are disabled for all router interfaces, the unit can be managed via an ASCII terminal only. In addition, you can limit access to the device to only the defined management stations. In addition, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can use up to four RADIUS servers to facilitate remote authentication. Introducing a RADIUS server allows configuring up to two authentication protocols according to a user-configured order. If the first authentication method is unavailable or the user is not found, the next method is used. The table below lists management access implementation, according to the defined management access and whether network managers are defined. Access Method

Telnet Access

SSH Access (Secure Shell)

SNMP Access

4-6

Access

Mode

Allowed to Access ACE-3105, ACE-3205 If Network Manager(s) Defined

If Network Manager(s) not Defined

Enable

Anybody

Anybody

Disable

Nobody

Nobody

Managers Only

Only defined network managers

Nobody

Enable

Anybody

Anybody

Disable

Nobody

Nobody

Managers Only

Only defined network managers

Nobody

Enable

Anybody

Anybody

Disable

Nobody

Nobody

Managers Only

Only defined network managers

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Configuring Access Follow the instructions below to enable/disable access via Telnet, SSH or SNMP. In addition, you have to configure the access policy ³

To enable or disable access via management protocols: 1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter access. The config>mngmnt>access# prompt appears. 2. Configure as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Enabling access via Telnet

telnet

Enabling access via Telnet for managers only

telnet managers-only

Disabling acess via Telnet

no telnet

Enabling access via Secure Shell (SSH)

ssh

Enabling access via Secure Shell (SSH) for managers only

ssh managers-only

Disabling access via SSH

no ssh

Enabling access via SNMP

snmp

Enabling access via SNMP for managers only

snmp managers-only

Disabling access via SNMP

no snmp

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Comments

To allow Telnet access to pre-defined managers only, you have to first block Telnet access if Telnet access is curently allowed to everybody.

To allow SSH access to pre-defined managers only, you have to first block SSH access if SSH access is curently allowed to everybody.

To allow SNMP access to pre-defined managers only, you have to first block SNMP access if SNMP access is curently allowed to everybody.

To define the access policy: •

At the config>mngmnt>access# prompt, configure the access levels as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Authenticating access queries via the locally stored data base

auth-policy 1st-level local

A second level can be configured only if the 1st level is set to Radius.

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Task

Command

Comments

Authenticating access queries via the RADIUS server.

auth-policy 1st-level radius 2nd-level {local|none}



radius. Authentication via RADIUS server.



local. If the RADIUS server is unavailable, the system authenticates via the locally stored database.



none. Only the 1st level is available. If the RADIUS server is unavailable, the user cannot access ACE-3105, ACE-3205.

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st

SNMP Management

SNMP stands for ‘Simple Network Management Protocol’ and is an application layer protocol that provides a message format for the communication between managers and agents. SNMP systems consist of an SNMP manager, an SNMP agent and a MIB. The NMS can be part of a management network system. To configure SNMP, you have to define the relationship between the manager and the agent. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports SNMPv3, the latest SNMP version to date. SNMPv3 provides secure access to devices in the network such as ACE units by using authentication and data encryption.

Standards This section states the standards that the supported SNMP versions are based on.

4-8



RFC 1901, Introduction to Community-Based SNMPv2. SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1902, Structure of Management Information for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1903, Textual Conventions for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1904, Conformance Statements for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1905, Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1906, Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2).



RFC 1907, Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.



RFC 1908, Coexistence between Version 1 and Version 2 of the Internetstandard Network Management Framework. SNMPv2 Working Group.

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RFC 2104, Keyed Hashing for Message Authentication.



RFC 2271, Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks.



RFC 2272, message processing and dispatching for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).



RFC 2273, SNMPv3 Applications.



RFC 2274, User-Based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3).



RFC 2275, View-Based Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).



RFC 3412, Version 3 Message Processing and Dispatching.



RFC 3414, User-based Security Model for SNMPv3



RFC 3416, Update for RFC 1904.

Benefits The SNMP protocol allows you to remotely manage multiple units from a central work station using RADview EMS. RADview EMS offers a graphical user interface that resembles the front panel of your unit with its interfaces and LEDs. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports SNMPv3, which allows data to be collected securely from SNMP devices. Confidential information such as SNMP commands can thus be encrypted to prevent unauthorized parties from being able to access them.

Functional Description In an SNMP configuration, one or more administrative computers manage a group of hosts or devices. Each managed system continuously executes a software component called agent, which reports information via SNMP back to the managing systems.

Figure 4-2. SNMP Network Scheme The SNMP agent contains MIB variables whose values the SNMP manager can request or change. A manager receives/transmits a value from/to an agent. The ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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agent gathers data from the MIB (Management Information Base). A MIB module is actually the ‘store’ for data on network and device parameters. In addition, the agent may set or get data according to manager commands. Commands are used to send and receive data as follows: •

get. Retrieving specific management information.



get-next. Retrieving management information via traversal



set. Manipulating management information.



get-response. Sent by an agent to respond to any of the above.



trap. Messages on events such as improper authentication, link status, loss/restoration of connections etc, sent by the agent to notify the manager of the current conditions.

SNMP Message Formats ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports SNMPv1, SNMPv2c and SNMPv3. The SNMP message formats of those three standards are illustrated below. Additional SNMPv2 formats exist, but are not supported by ACE-3105, ACE-3205.

SNMPv1 Message Format The SNMP general message format was originally used to define the format of messages in the original SNMP Protocol (SNMPv1), and was therefore relatively straight-forward. The general message format in SNMPv1 is a wrapper that consists of a small header and an encapsulated PDU as illustrated and explained below. There are not many header fields needed in SNMPv1 because of the simple nature of the community-based security method in SNMPv1.

Table 4-1. SNMPv1 Header Fields Field Name

Syntax

Size (Bytes)

Description

Version

Integer

4

Version Number. Describes the SNMP version number of this message; used for ensuring compatibility between versions. For SNMPv1, this value is 0.

Community

Octet string

Variable

Community String. Identifies the SNMP community in which the sender and recipient of this message are located. This is used to implement the simple SNMP community-based security mechanism.

PDU

--

Variable

Protocol Data Unit. The PDU is communicated at the body of the message.

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0

16

32

Version Number = 0

Community String

PDU Control Fields

Message Body (PDU) PDU Variable Bindings

Figure 4-3. SNMPv1 General Message Format

SNMPv2c Message Format Amongst various approaches to introduce SNMPv2, SNMPv2c was the most accepted one. Its architecture is identical to SNMPv1 except for the version number, which is 1 instead of 0. 0 is the version number for SNMPv1.

SNMPv3 Message Format SNMPv3 adds security methods and parameters and completes the respective approach that has been started with SNMPv2, but did not lead to a common standard. This standard has been established with SNMPv3. The significant changes made in SNMPv3 include a more flexible way of defining security methods and parameters, to allow the coexistence of multiple security techniques The general message format for SNMPv3 still follows the idea of an overall message “wrapper” that contains a header and an encapsulated PDU, but it has been significantly refined. The fields in the header have been divided into those dealing with security and those not dealing with security. The ’non-security’ fields are common to all SNMPv3 implementations, while the use of the ‘security’ fields can be tailored by each SNMPv3 security model, and processed by the module in an SNMP entity that deals with security. The entire processing in SNMPv3 is described in RFC 3412. For a detailed illustration and explanation, refer to the figure and the table below.

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0

16

32

Message Version Number = 3 Message Identifier Maximum Message Size Message Security Model (bytes 1 to 3)

Message Flags Message Security Model (byte 4)

Message Security Parameters

Context Engine ID

Context Name

Scoped PDU PDU Control Fields

Message Body (PDU) PDU Variable Bindings

0

8

4 Reserved

Reportable Flag

Privacy Flag (Priv)

Authentication Flag (Auth)

Figure 4-4. SNMPv3 General Message Format

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Table 4-2. SNMPv3 General Message Format Field Name

Syntax

Size (Bytes)

Description

Msg Version

Integer

4

Message Version Number. Describes the SNMP version number of this message; used for ensuring compatibility between versions. For SNMPv3, this value is 3.

Msg ID

Integer

4

Message Identifier. A number used to identify an SNMPv3 message and to match response messages to request messages. This field was created to allow the matching at the message processing level to protect against certain security attacks regardless of the PDU content. Thus, Msg ID and Request ID are used independently.

Msg Max Size

Integer

4

Maximum Message Size. The maximum size of message that the sender of this message can receive. Minimum value of this field is 484.

Msg Flags

Octet String

1

Message Flags. A set of flags tcontrols processing the message. the substructure of this field is illustrated in Table 4-3.

Msg Security Model

Integer

4

Message Security Model. An integer value indicating which security model was used for this message. For the userbased security model (default), this value is 3.

Msg Security Parameter

--

Variable

Message Security Parameters. A set of fields that contain parameters required to implement the respective security model for this message. The contents of this field are specified in every document that describes an SNMPv3 security model. For example, the parameters for the userbased model are defined in RFC 3414.

Scoped PDU

--

Variable

Scoped PDU. Contains the PDU to be transmitted along with parameters that identify an SNMP context, which describes a set of management information accessible by a particular entity. The PDU is referred to as ‘scoped’ because it is applied within the scope of this context. This field may or may not be encrypted, depending on the value of the Private Flag. The structure of the PDU field is illustrated in Table 4-4.

Table 4-3. SNMPv3 Message Flag Substructure Field Name

Size (Bytes)

Reserved

5/8 (5 bits)

Reserved. For future use

Reportable Flag

1/8 (1 bit)

Reportable Flag. If set to 1, a device receiving this message has to return a Report-PDU whenever conditions arise that require such a PDU to be generated.

Priv Flag

1/8 (1 bit)

Privacy Flag. If set to 1, it indicates that the message was encrypted to ensure its privacy.

Auth Flag

1/8 (1 bit)

Authentication Flag. If set to 1, it indicates that authentication was used to protect the authenticity of this message.

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Table 4-4. Structure of the PDU Field Field Name

Syntax

Size (Bytes)

Description

Context Engine ID

Octet String

Variable

Context Engine ID. Used to identify to which application the PDU will be sent for processing.

Context Name

Octet String

Variable

Context Name. An object identifier specifying the particular context associated with this PDU.

PDU

--

Variable

PDU. The protocol data unit being transmitted.

The SNMPv3 Mechanism SNMPv3 uses the basic SNMP protocol and adds the following security functionalities: •

Message integrity. Ensuring that the package has not been tempered with during transmission.



Authentication. Verifying that the message comes from a valid source.



Encryption. Preventing snooping by unauthorized sources.

SNMPv3 does not refer to managers and agents, but to SNMP entities. Each entity consists of an SNMP engine and one or more SNMP components. The new concepts define an architecture that separates different components of the SNMP system in order to make a secure implementation possible. The SNMPv3 components are explained in the following sections.

The SNMPv3 Engine The SNMPv3 engine consists of four subsystems that address authentication and access authorization. •

Dispatcher. Sending and receiving messages. It tries to determine the SNMP version of each message (SNMPv1, SNMPv2c or SNMPv3) once it is handed over to the message processing subsystem.



Message processing subsystem. Prepares messages to be sent and extracts data from received messages.



Security subsystem. Provides authentication and privacy services. The authentication uses either community strings to support SNMP Versions 1 and 2, or user-based authentication for SNMPv3. SNMPv3 user-based authentication uses the MD5 or SHA algorithms to authenticate users without sending a clear password. The privacy service uses the DES algorithm to encrypt and decrypt SNMP messages. Currently, DES is the only algorithm used, though others may be added in the future.



Access control system. Managing the access control to MIB objects. You can define objects that a user can access as well as operations that a user is allowed to perform on those objects. For example, you may grant read-write access to certain parts of the MIB-2 tree, while allowing read-only access to the remaining parts of the tree.

SNMPv3 Components SNMPv3 consists of components that deal with receiving/issuing requests, generating traps etc. These commands are listed and explained below. 4-14

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Command generator. Generates the Get, Get-Next, Get-Bulk requests, Set requests, and processes the responses. This application is implemented by an NMS to issue queries and set requests against entities on routers, switches, Unix hosts etc.



Command responder. Responds to Get, Get-Next, Get-Bulk requests. The command responder is implemented by the SNMP agent.



Notification originator. Generates SNMP traps and notifications. This application is implemented by an entity on a router or host.



Proxy forwarder. Facilitates the passing of messages between entities.

RFC 2571 allows additional applications to be defined over time, which is a significant advantage over the older SNMP versions. The figure below illustrates how the components fit together creating an entity.

Figure 4-5. SNMPv3 Entity

Factory Defaults By default, SNMPv1 is enabled. SNMPv2c and SNMPv3 are disabled.

Configuring for SNMP Management Before configuring SNMPv3, you should specify an SNMPv3 engine.

Specifying an SNMPv3 Engine By default, the SNMPv3 engine ID config type is set to MAC-address. To use a different ID config type, refer to the instructions below.

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To specify the SNMP engine ID config type: 1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter snmp. The config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt appears. 2. At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter snmp-engine-id {mac|ip4 |text }. The SNMP engine ID config type ID is specified.

³

To enter the SNMP engine ID string: •

At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter snmp-engine-id-string . The SNMP engine ID is specified and SNMPv3 can be enabled and configured.

Enabling SNMPv3 ³

To enable/disable SNMPv3: •

To enable the SNMPv3 engine, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter snmpv3. The SNMPv3 engine is enabled.



To disable the SNMPv3 engine, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no snmpv3. The SNMPv3 engine is disabled.

Specifying an SNMPv3 User ³

To specify an SNMPv3 user: •

After SNMPv3 has been enabled, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter the following, depending on the SNMPv3 authentication protocol used:

Task

Command

Comments

Adding a user who authenticates using the MD5 protocol.

user [md5-auth [{des|none}]]



security name. The user specific security name, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.



md5-auth. MD5 authentication protocol.



des. Using the DES privacy protocol.



none. No privacy protocol used.

Adding a user who authenticates using the SHA protocol.

user [sha-auth [{des|none}]]



sha-auth. SHA authentication protocol.

Adding a user who does not authenticate.

user [none-auth]



none-auth. No authentication performed.

Removing a user

no user

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To deactivate a user: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter user . The config>mngmnt>snmp>user()# prompt appears. 2. Enter shutdown. The user is deactivated but remains available.

Defining User (Access) Groups ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports up to 10 SNMPv3 managers with different authorization and privacy tributes. ³

To define and remove an SNMP access group: •

At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, add an access group as specified in the table below. The config>mngmnt>snmp>access-group(//)# prompt appears.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining an access group

access-group {snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm} {no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}



group name. Identifies the access group.



snmpv1, snmpv2c, usm. Security model for the SNMP messages.



usm. User based security model



no-auth-no-priv. Authorization and privacy are disabled, lowest level of security for generating SNMP messages.



auth-no-priv. Authorization enabled, privacy disabled.



auth- priv. Authorization and privacy enabled, highest level of security for generating SNMP messages.

³

To configure the access criteria for the SNMP access group: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp>access-group(//)# prompt, enter the following:

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining access matching criteria

context-match {exact|prefix}



exact. In order to gain access rights, the group name must match exactly the value of the instance of this project.



prefix. The group name must match partially the value of the instance of this project.

Specifying the read view of the access group

read-view

Specifying the write view of the access group

write-view

Specifying the notify view of the access group

notify-view

³

To define the access control policy for users: •

At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter the following:

Task

Command

Comments

Linking a user to a security model

security-to-group {any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm} sec-name {security-name}



security name. The user specific security name.



snmpv1, snmpv2c, usm. Security model for the SNMP messages as explained previously.



any. Any security model is allowed for the relevant access group.

Removing the link of a user to a security model

³

no security-to-group {any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm} sec-name {security-name}

To remove an access group: •

At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no access-group {snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm} {no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}. The specified access group is removed.

Setting up a View ³

To define a view: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below. The mngmnt>snmp>view(/)# prompt appears.

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Task

Command

Assigning a name and an object ID to the view

view

Removing the view

no view

³

Comments

To configure the view you previously defined: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp>view(/)# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the view

no shutdown

Disabling the view

shutdown

The view is disabled, but remains available.

Masking a view

mask

subtree OID mask (for example, the standard mask 1.1.1 converts 1.3.6.7.8 OID to 1.3.6)

Including, excluding the view.

type {included|excluded}

Mapping SNMPv1 to SNMPv3 ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports coexistence of different SNMP versions by mapping SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community names to the SNMPv3 security name values. The mapping is performed according to the RFC 3584 requirements. ³

To set up an SNMPv3 community: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below. The config>mngmnt>snmp>community()# prompt appears.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining a community

community

community-index. Free text, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.

Removing a community

no community

³

To map an SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community to SNMPv3: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp>community()# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community name for which the information is presented.

name

community-string. Free text, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the SNMPv3 security name to be mapped to the SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community name

sec-name

sec-name. Free text, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric characters

Activating the community

no shutdown

De-activating the community

shutdown

The community is de-activated, but remains available.

Specifying a set of the transport endpoints that are used in either of the following methods:

tag

As defined for each target



Specifying the transport endpoints from which an SNMP entity accepts management requests.



Specifying the transport endpoints to which a notification may be sent, using the community string matching the corresponding instance of community name.

Configuring Targets A target is a network management station to which ACE-3105, ACE-3205 should send trap notifications over SNMPv3. A set of parameters must be configured and assigned to each target. Then, each target must have a valid IP address and IP mask. In addition, a previously configured parameter set and notification tags must be assigned to the target. To configure a target, you have to first configure a parameter set that you will have to attach to the relevant target when it is being configured. ³

To configure a target parameter set: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target-params . The config>mngmnt>snmp>target()# prompt appears and the target parameters can be set as illustrated and explained below. The target parameter set you configure must be attached to the relevant target as explained on the next page.

Task

Command

Defining the message preprocessing model to be used when generating SNMP messages.

message-processing-model {snmpv1|snmpv2|snmpv3}

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the security level to be used when generating SNMP messages.

security [name ][level {no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}]



security-name. Free text, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.



no-auth-no-priv. No authentication, no privacy



auth-no-priv. Authentication, no privacy



auth-priv. Authentication and privacy



usm. User based security model

Specifying the SNMP version (security model)

³

version {snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm}

To configure the target: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target . The config>mngmnt>snmp>target()# prompt appears and the target parameters can be set as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Identifying the target NMS

address udp-domain <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

You have to enter the domain and the IP address or the OAM port, depending on whether the target NMS belongs to a UDP domain or an OAM domain.

Linking the target to a set of target parameters

target-params

Activating the transmission of SNMP message to the target NMS

address oam-domain

You use a target parameter set configured as explained in the previous section.

no shutdown

Deactivating the transmission of SNMP message to the target NMS

shutdown

Selecting a tag from the list of previously defined notification tags.

tag-list

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining a trap synchronization group

trap-sync-group

Binding Managers to a Trap Synchronization Group In order to activate trap synchronization on a manager, it must be member of a trap synchronization group. This section explains how to associate managers with trap synchronization groups.

Note

• A manager can be associated with one trap synchronization group only. • A trap synchronization group is created once the first manager is added and

deleted once the last manager is removed from it.

• Managers being added to an existing trap synchronization group require

identical parameters such as the same target parameter set, tag list etc.

³

To configure a trap mask for SNMPv1: •

At the config>mngmnt>manager<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying traps to be part of the trap mask in the trap syny group.

trap-mask {all|list-of-trap-names}



all. All traps are included.



list-of-trap-names. Traps that are listed on the list of trap names are included.

Removing trap masks.

no trap-mask {all|list-of-trap-names}

³

To configure a trap sync group for SNMPv3: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target . The config>mngmnt>snmp>target()# prompt appears. 2. At the config>mngmnt>snmp>target()# prompt, enter parameters as explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Adding a trap synchronization goup

trap-sync-group

Enables trap synchronization for the specified target.

Removing a trap synchronization goup

no trap-sync-group

Disables trap synchronization for the specified target.

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To configure a trap mask for SNMPv3: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target . The config>mngmnt>snmp>target()# prompt appears. 2. At the config>mngmnt> snmp>target()# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Linking the target to a tag list.

tag-list

Remove the link to the tag list

no tag-list

Comments

Viewing the Current Trap Synchronization Settings ³

To view the previously defined trap synchronization groups: •

At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter show trap-sync-group. The previously configure trap sync groups appear listed as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# show trap-sync Group ID Member ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 test1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp#

Configuring SNMP Communities for SNMPv1 This section instructs you on setting up read-, write-, and trap communities for SNMPv1. ³

To set up communities: •

Make sure that SNMPv3 is disabled and at the ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, define the desired community as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining a read community

community read

Assign a name consisting of up to 20 alphanumerical characters.

Defining a write community

community write

Assign a name consisting of up to 20 alphanumerical characters.

Defining a trap community

community trap

Assign a name consisting of up to 20 alphanumerical characters.

Note ooOpti

The names you assign to the communities are case sensitive.

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Adding SNMPv3 Notification Entries You can define which types of notification will be sent to previously configured target management stations as explained under Configuring Targets. ³

To define and enable a notification entry: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter notify . The config>mngmnt>snmp>notify()# prompt appears. 2. Configure the notification entries as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Assigning a single tag value to the notification used to identify the notification entry when configuring the target

tag

Associating traps with the notification entry

bind {agnPowerFailureTrap|agnStatusChangeTrap| agnUploadDataTrap|atmAceAlarmLineAIS|atmAceAlarmLi neBIP|atmAceAlarmLineFEBE|atmAceAlarmLineRDI|atmAc eAlarmLOF|atmAceAlarmLCD|atmAceAlarmSLM|atmAceAl armLOP|atmAceAlarmLOS|atmAceAlarmPathAIS|atmAceAl armPathBIP|atmAceAlarmPathFEBE|atmAceAlarmPathRDI| atmAceAlarmSectionBIP|atmAceAlarmVcAISReception|at mAceAlarmVcContinuityLoss|atmAceAlarmVcLoopback|at mAceAlarmVcRDIReception|atmAceAlarmVpAISReception| atmAceAlarmVpContinuityLoss|atmAceAlarmVpLoopback| atmAceAlarmVpRDIReception|atmAceModuleChangeTrap| atmImaGroupStatusChangeTrap|tftpStatusChangeTrap|pr tStatusChangeTrap|agnFanFailureTrap|agnStationClkFailu reTrap|atmAceModuleMismatchTrap|sysRedundancyStat usTrap|sysRedundancyActiveCardTrap|sonetAlarmLOS|so netAlarmLOF|sonetAlarmOOF|sonetAlarmLineAIS|sonetAl armLineEED|sonetAlarmLineRDI|sonetAlarmLineSD|sonet AlarmPathLOP|sonetAlarmPathAIS|sonetAlarmPathEED|so netAlarmPathSLM|sonetAlarmPathLOMF|sonetAlarmPath RDI|sonetAlarmPathSD|sonetAlarmVtLOP|sonetAlarmVtAI S|sonetAlarmVtEED|sonetAlarmVtSLM|sonetAlarmVtRDI|s onetAlarmVtSD|authenticationFailure|coldStart|linkDown| linkUp|mplsLdpSessionUp|mplsLdpSessionDown|apsActiv eChannelTrap|sysRedundancyActivePortTrap|licenseUpda teTrap|agnClkSrcStateChangeTrap|agnSelfTestResultCha ngeTrap|agnClkSrcFrequencyAlarmTrap|csmDomainState Change|csmSourceStatusChange|pwDown|pwUp|bfdSess Up|bfdSessDown|adslAturRateChangeTrap|dot3OamOper StatusChange|dot3OamPeerEvent|hardSyncTrap}

Activating the notification entry

no shutdown

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Comments

You can associate one or more traps to the notification entry.

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Task

Command

De-activating the notification entry

shutdown

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Comments

To disable notification: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no notify . The notification is disabled.

Configuring a Notification Filter You can customize a notification filter view as explained below. ³

To set up a notification filter: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, define a notification filter and assign a name and an object ID (sub-tree-oid) to it by entering notify-filter . The config>mngmnt>snmp>notify-filter(/) prompt appears. ƒ

name. Refers to the name of the notify filter.

ƒ

sub-tree-oid. Refers to the MIB subtree, which defines a family of subtrees included in or excluded from the filter profile, if combined with the corresponding instance of snmpNotifyFilterMask.

2. Configure the notification filter as illustrated and explained in the table below. Task

Command

Activating the notification filter

no shutdown

De-activating the notification filter

shutdown

Defining if the notification filter includes or excludes specific notifications.

type {included|excluded}

Masking the notification filter

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Comments



included. The subtrees defined by sub-tree-oid are included in the notification profile.



excluded. The listed subtrees by sub-tree-oid excluded from the notification profile.

mask

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Configuring a Notification Filter Profile You can customize the notification view as explained below. ³

To define a notification filter profile: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter notify-filter-profile . The config>mngmnt>snmp>filter-profile# prompt appears. params-name. refers to the name of the profile notification parameter set. 2. Configure the notification filter profile as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning a name to the notification profile

profile-name

Refers to the name of the profile itself

Enabling the notification filter profile

no shutdown

Disabling the notification filter profile

shutdown

Linking User (Access) Groups to an Access Control Policy ³

To create a user group linked to a specific access control policy: 1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter security-to-group sec-name . The config>mngmnt>snmp>security-togroup(/)# prompt appears. 2. Enter group-name . The current user is linked to the group. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for another user with the same security-to-group setting. A user group consisting of two users linked to the same security model has been created.

³

To disable a user group: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(/ )# prompt, enter shutdown. The user group is disabled.

³

To enable a user group again: •

At the config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(/ )# prompt, enter no shutdown. The user group is enabled.

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Configuring OpenView Severity This section instructs you on attaching the OpenView severity to the alarm traps. ³

To attach OpenView severity to the alarm traps: •

At the ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter ovseverity-in-traps. The OpenView severity will be attached to the alarm traps.

³

To detach OpenView severity from the alarm traps: •

At the ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no ov-severity-in-traps. The OpenView severity will be not be attached to the alarm traps.

Example This example illustrates how to define an access control policy for two users and link these two users to a user group. ACE-3105, ACE-3105, group ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, group ACE-3105, shutdown

ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# security-to-group any sec-name test ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test)# group-name ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test)# exit ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp# security-to-group any sec-name test1 ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test1)$ group-name ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test1)$ no

4.6

Authentication via RADIUS Server

RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service and represents a networking protocol that provides remote (centralized) authentication and authorization for devices connected to the respective network.

Standards RFC 2865, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS). RFC 2618, RADIUS Authentication Client MIB.

Benefits The RADIUS protocol allows centralized authentication and access control, avoiding the need of maintaining a local user data base on each device on the network. Because of its generic nature, the RADIUS protocol can easily be used by service providers and enterprises to manage access to the Internet, internal networks,

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wireless networks, and integrated e-mail services. These networks may incorporate DSL, access points, VPNs, network ports etc.

Functional Description A work station attempts to log on to an ACE unit, which in turn submits an authentication request to the RADIUS server. The password is not transmitted over the network. A hash code is generated over it instead and a previously defined shared secret (string of free text) between RADIUS server and ACE unit is transmitted.

Figure 4-6. RADIUS Server Operation Scheme The RADIUS server verifies the user information against a database stored at the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server replies in one of the following ways: •

Access Rejected. Access to all resources denied.



Access Accepted. Access to the requested network resources granted.

Factory Defaults Description

Default Value

The max number of authentication attempts.

2

Time interval between two authentication attempts.

2 seconds

UDP port used for the authentication channel

1812

Configuring the RADIUS Server ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides connectivity to up to four Radius authentication servers. You have to specify access parameters such as assigning Radius server IDs, specifying the associated server IP addresses and the number of retries. This section explains how to define and configure a RADIUS server, activate and de-activate it.

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To define a Radius server: 1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter radius. The config>mngmnt>radius# prompt appears. 2. Enter server <1..4>. The config>mngmnt>radius>server <1..4># prompt appears. 3. Define the parameters for the relevant Radius server as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Assigning an IP address to the server

address <1.1.1.1..255.255.255.255>

Defining a non-disclosed string (shared secret) used to encrypt the user password.

key

Changing the number of authentication request attempts

retry <0..10>

Changing the time interval between two authentication attempts (in seconds).

timeout <1..5>

Changing the UDP port used for the authentication channel

auth-port <1.. 65535>

Viewing the RADIUS Server Profile’s Status This section explains how to display the status of the RADIUS servers. ³

To display the RADIUS server profile’s status: •

At the config>mngmnt>radius# prompt, enter show status. The status of the four RADIUS server entries appears regardless if they are configured and enabled or not.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>radius# show status Server IP Address Access Status ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 172.17.143.3 Enable Connected 2. 0.0.0.0 Disable Not connected 3. 0.0.0.0 Disable Not connected 4. 0.0.0.0 Disable Not connected ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>radius#

Viewing RADIUS Statistics This section explains how to display RADIUS sever statistics. ³

To display RADIUS statistics: •

At the config>mngmnt>radius# prompt, enter show statistics. RADIUS statistics appear as illustrated below.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>mngmnt>radius# show statistics Server1 Server2 Server3 Server4 --------------------------------------------------------------Access Requests : 0 0 0 0 Access Retransmits : 0 0 0 0 Access Accepts : 0 0 0 0 Access Rejects : 0 0 0 0 Access Challenges : 0 0 0 0 Malformed Response : 0 0 0 0 Bad Authenticators : 0 0 0 0 Pending Requests : 0 0 0 0 Timeouts : 0 0 0 0 Unknown Types : 0 0 0 0 Packets Dropped : 0 0 0 0

4.7

Out-Of-Band Ethernet Control

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be managed via an independent LAN connection that does not interconnect with the PW connectivity network.

What is the Out-Of-Band Ethernet Port? The out-of-band Ethernet port is an Ethernet port dedicated to management traffic.

Benefits Configuring a dedicate management port eliminates the possibility that management traffic reduces bandwidth and/or causes interruptions in the traffic flow caused by the management.

Configuring the Out-Of-Band Management Port Follow the instructions under Ethernet Port.

4.8

Ethernet Ports

Depending on the hardware profile, ACE units are equipped with two or four Fast Ethernet electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports. Ethernet ports are used for Ethernet pseudowire connectivity, bridge configurations and inband management access. Ethernet ports may also be used for out of band management in applications that do not utilize an Ethernet uplink. The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs, which are identical in structure to the STM1/OC-3c SFPs.

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When configuring a flow over an Ethernet port, you cannot configure the respective port to be the uplink port of a PW or bridge port.

Configuring an Ethernet Port These instructions apply to all Ethernet ports on the unit. Parameters you set depend on their purpose (inband, out-of-band) and their respective spec (SFP, RJ45 etc.) ³

To configure the Ethernet control port: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter Ethernet 1 for the Ethernet port labeled ETH-1. The config>port>eth (1)# prompt appears. 2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Task

Command

Administratively enabling the port

no shutdown

Enabling the auto negotiation mode

auto-negotiation

Disabling auto negotiation

no auto-negotiation

Canceling the bandwidth limit

no output-rate-limit

Enabling Ethernet OAM EFM

efm {}

Comments

Can only be set if the port is enabled.



descriptor. Enter the descriptor of the OAM EFM descriptor you added as explained under

Configuring Ethernet OAM. Enabling the transmission of synchronization status messages

tx-ssm

Disabling the transmission of synchronization status messages

no tx-ssm

Note

To configure IP addresses for remote addresses, you have to set up a router interface and bind the desired Ethernet pot to it as explained under Router.

Example The following section explains how to configure the Fast Ethernet port labeled 1 on the front panel, and one of the Gigabit Ethernet combo ports. This Ethernet ports are administratively enabled by default.

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To configure the Ethernet port at 100 Mbps with auto negotiation enabled: •

Enable auto negotiation.



Set the max capability to 100 Mbps Full Duplex.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# auto-negotiation ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# max-capability 100-full-duplex ³

To configure the Ethernet port at 100 Mbps with auto negotiation disabled: •

Disable auto-negotiation.



Set the Ethernet port’s default rate to 100 Mbps and the duplex mode to Full Duplex.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# no auto-negotiation ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# speed-duplex 100-full-duplex

Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the management port’s status as an example. ³

To view the management port status; •

At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as explained and illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# show status Administrative Status Operational Status Connector Type Speed And Duplex (RJ-45) MAC Address

: : : : :

Up Up RJ45 100 Full Duplex 00-20-D2-AA-BB-04

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)#

Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display. ³

To view the current statistics: •

At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

The time (in seconds) since the port was enabled

Interval Number

In case of show-statistics <1..24>. Displays the results for the time interval you chose. You can select interval 1 till 24. In case of show-statistics interval-all or show-statistics all. Displays the

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Parameter

Chapter 4 Configuration

Comments results all intervals. The system displays the results for one interval at the time. For the next interval, press .

Start Date

The date you start recording statistics for a specific interval or all of them.

Start Time

The time you start recording the statistics for a specific interval or all of them.

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed

Total Frames

The total number of frames sent or received

Total Bytes

The total number of bytes sent or received

FCS Errors

The number of frames that failed the FCS test

Alignment Errors

The number of frames without an integral numbers octet

Congestion Drop

The number of frames dropped due to incompatibility with one of the defined classification flows related to the port. This counter is relevant if the port is connected to flows

Unclassified Drop

The number of frames dropped to other reasons than congestion

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# show statistics current Current ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (sec) 205 Valid Intervals 24

Total Frames Total Bytes

Rx 96 8100

Tx 20608 2263868

FCS Errors Alignment Errors Length Errors Congestion Drop Unclassified Drop

0 0 0 0 0

---0 --

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>eth(1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

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To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>eth (1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the Ethernet prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>eth (1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>eth (1)# prompt appears again.

4.9

Bridge

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM bridges.

What is a LAN-to-LAN Bridge A LAN-to-LAN bridge is a data link layer protocol that connects network segments on Layer 2 (according to the OSI model) and is used as a forwarding technique in packet-switched computer networks besides routing. The difference to routing, which is also a forwarding technique, is that no assumptions are made about the location of a device associated with a specific address. Bridging locates unknown devices by flooding and examining source MAC addresses in received packet headers. Once located, the relevant device’s location is recorded in a table where the MAC address is stored. The figure below illustrates how ACE units provide LAN-to-LAN bridging between LAN networks.

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Figure 4-7. Layer-2 Interconnection Bridges

What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge? A LAN-to-ATM bridge facilitates the transmission of Ethernet traffic over ATM using the AAL5 layer according to RFC 1483 (multiprotocol encapsulation over ATM). The Ethernet frames are transferred using LLC/SNAP encapsulation.

Standards LAN-to-LAN: RFC 1493 and RFC 2674 LAN-to-ATM: RFC 1483.

Benefits Allows extending the network reach as necessary. Allows for scaling the total traffic without introducing severe congestion problems.

Functional Description ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM bridging to allow backhauling of Ethernet traffic originating from the cellular site/Node B. Accordingly, the bridge port can consist of Fast Ethernet, a Gigabit Ethernet, VC over E1/T1, VC over ATM-155, VC over IMA Group, ADSL2+ or SHDSL ports as available with your respective hardware configuration and unit. The bridge functionality includes support for a VLAN aware bridge in IVL mode, configurable VLAN tag ingress stacking, VLAN tag egress stripping, learned MAC addresses (up to 512), configurable aging time, and mapping of the VLAN priority versus four Ethernet transmit queues.

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LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM Bridging Bridges consist of two main processes and operate according to IEEE802.1d. The two main processes are outlined below. •

Forwarding Process. Forwards received VLAN tagged frames based on information contained in the MAC table data base.



Learning Process. Observes the source addresses and the VLAN ID of frames received on every port and updates the MAC table accordingly.

LAN-to-ATM Bridging ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the transfer of Ethernet traffic over ATM networks using the AAL5 layer. The Ethernet frames are transferred using LLC/SNAP encapsulation.

Figure 4-8 illustrates the structure of the AAL5 CPCS PDU payload field used to carry Ethernet frames using the LLC/SNAP encapsulation method. AAL5 CPCS-PDU (with LLC-SNAP Field) Payload

DSAP SSAP Control OUI (AA) (AA) (03) 00-80-C2 (1B)

(1B)

LLC Header

(1B)

(3B)

PID (2B)

Padding (00 as required)

Destination MAC Address (6B)

SNAP Header

Remainder of MAC Frame

LAN FCS (4B)

Only when CRC use is enabled

Figure 4-8. Structure of Payload Field of AAL5 CPCS PDU Frame The payload field includes the original LLC and SNAP headers. The PID field in the SNAP header can assume two values: •

0001 (hexa) to indicate the bridged IEEE 802.3 protocol, with end-to-end transmission of the FCS field of the Ethernet frame.



0007 (hexa) to indicate the bridged IEEE 802.3 protocol, without end-to-end transmission of the FCS field.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports both FCS transmission options, the selection being made by the user. After the SNAP header, the AAL5 CPCS PDU includes optional padding bytes (0 through 47, as required to ensure that the length of the payload field is an integer multiple of 48 bytes (the ATM cell payload length), the destination MAC address and then the other parts of the MAC frame. When the PID is 0001, the AAL5 CPCS PDU also includes the 4 bytes of the LAN frame FCS field.

MAC Table Handling in Bridge Mode Bridges support learned MAC addresses. Since VLAN-aware bridges operate in IVL mode, the MAC table consists of MAC addresses + VIDs. The maximum number of MAC addresses kept in the MAC table is 512. 4-36

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205 allows configuring the maximal number of learned MAC addresses per bridge port. New MAC addresses received by the bridge are transferred to the host through a dedicated learning queue. The host samples this queue and configures the bridge accordingly. Unused learned MAC addresses are deleted from the MAC table in the MAC aging process. A MAC address is regarded unused if no frames from that address were received for a specified period of time. This time is the ‘aging time’ configurable parameter.

Factory Defaults Description

Default Value

Specifying the period in seconds for entries to age in the MAC table

300

Specifying a bridge port

1

Configuring a Bridge ACE-3105, ACE-3205 currently supports one bridge. This section explains how to configure it.

Note

• An Ethernet port cannot be configured as an uplink port of a bridge if a flow is

already configured over the respective Ethernet port.

• The priority of traffic that passes the bridge is configured using the Queue

Map Profile function as explained under Configuring a Queue Map Profile.

³

To define and configure a bridge: 1. At the config# prompt, enter bridge 1. The new bridge is defined and the config>bridge(1)# prompt appears. 2. Configure the bridge as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the period in seconds for entries to age in the MAC table

aging-time <300..1000>

If no frame is received from a specific MAC address, the address is deleted from the MAC table onc the specified period expires.

Deleting all learned MAC addresses from the MAC table

clear-mac-table

Specifying a bridge port

port <1..39>

³

To define and configure a port for the bridge: 1. At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter port <1..39>. The config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears. 2. Configure the new bridge port and bind it to the bridge as illustrated and explained in the table below.

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Task

Command

Comments

Binding a physical or logical port to the bridge port.

bind [{host|ethernet < port>|logical-mac |pcs 1}] [<1..39>]

For instructions on configuring a Logical MAC port, refer to Configuring an ATM Uplink.

Setting the bridge port to discard incoming frames whose VID is not included in the member set.

ingress-filtering



The VLAN membership of the port is set using the vlan command.



Not relevant for the host bridge port



all. All frames will be accepted.



vlan-only. Untagged received frames are discarded



Not relevant for the host bridge port.



pvid. VLAN ID



priority. The priority that the frame will receive by default.

Setting the bridge port to ignore the VID of the incoming frames.

no ingress-filtering

Setting the bridge port to accept all frames or VLAN-tagged frames only.

accept-frame-type {all|vlan-only}

Assigning a VLAN ID and defining the priority to untagged frames received on a VLAN Aware bridge, or for use for stacking on tagged frames.

pvid <0..4094> priority <0..7>

Stripping the higher layer (external) VLAN tag before the frame exits the bridge port.

egress-tag pop vlan

Leaving the VLAN tag in egress direction as is.

no egress-tag

Adding an extra VLAN tag to the frame and specifying the priority

ingress-tag push vlan p-bit {fixed|copy}

Leaving the VLAN tag in ingress direction as is

no ingress-tag

Specifying the max number of MAC addresses that are kept for the bridge port in the MAC table

maximum-mac-addresses <0..512>

Administratively enabling the bridge port

no shutdown

Administratively disabling the bridge port

shutdown

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Not relevant for the host bridge port.



copy. Copying the priority tag associated with the original VLAN tag of the frame.



fixed. Using the priority tag of the pvid configured on the port.



Not relevant for the host bridge port

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To remove a port from the bridge: •

At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter no port <1..39>. The port is removed from the bridge.

Viewing Bridge Port Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display. ³

To view the current statistics: •

At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

The time (in seconds) since the port was enabled

Interval Number

In case of show-statistics <1..24>. Displays the results for the time interval you chose. You can select interval 1 till 24. In case of show-statistics all-intervals or show-statistics all. Displays the results all intervals. The system displays the results for one interval at the time. For the next interval, press .

Start Date

The date you start recording statistics for a specific interval or all of them.

Start Time

The time you start recording the statistics for a specific interval or all of them.

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed

Rx Correct Frames

Correct frames received

Tx Correct Frames

Correct frames transmitted

Rx Broadcast Frames

Broadcast frames received

Tx Broadcast Frames

Broadcast frames transmitted

Rx Multicast Frames

Multicast frames received

Tx Multicast Frames

Multicast frames transmitted

Tx Drop Frames

Dropped frames

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>bridge(1)>port(1)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Elapsed Time : 420 Rx Correct Frames Broadcast Frames Multicast Frames Drop Frames

: 0 : 0 : 0 :

Tx 0 0 0 0

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>bridge(1)>port(1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics allintervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears again.

Associating a Bridge Port with a VLAN To associate a bridge port, you navigate to the desired bridge, navigate to the desired VLAN and then list the relevant bridge port as egress port. ³

To associate the current bridge port with a VLAN: 1. At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter VLAN <1..4059>. The config>bridge(1)>VLAN(<1..4095>)# prompt appears. 2. To associate a bridge port of the selected bridge with the selected VLAN, enter tagged-egress <1..39>.

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To remove the current bridge port from a VLAN: •

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At the config>bridge(1)>VLAN(<1..4095>)# prompt, enter no tagged-egress <1..39>.

To view a list of VLANs associated with the current bridge port: •

At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter show vlans. The associated VLANs appear listed.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>bridge(1)# show vlans Vlan ID : 1 Tagged Ports : 1,3 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>bridge(1)# ³

To view a list of MAC addresses associated with ports bound to the bridge: •

At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter show mac-address-table. A list of MAC addresses associated with ports and VLANs appears.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>bridge(1)# show mac-address-table Total MAC Addresses : 0 Dynamic MAC Addresses : 0 Static Mac Addresses : 0 VLAN ID MAC Address Port Status ----------------------------------------------------------------------------ACE-3220>config>bridge(1)#

4.10 Quality of Service for Bridges Quality of Service (QoS) is a resource reservation control mechanism and allows providing different priorities to different applications, users, or data flows. It lets you guarantee a certain level of performance for a specific data flow.

Standards IEEE 802.1p

Benefits QoS allows you to optimize bandwidth and ensure traffic flow while avoiding the need of allocating excessive bandwidth to facilitate the necessary bandwidth for traffic at different requirements for speed and quality.

Functional Description To differentiate traffic, the IEEE 802.1p standard specifies eight classes of service per queue map profile you define. These classes of service are associated with priority values between 0 and 7, using the 3-bit user priority field in an IEEE ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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802.1Q header added to VLAN-tagged frames within an Ethernet frame header. The way traffic is treated when assigned to a specific priority value is only generally defined and left to implementation. The general definitions are as follows:

Table 4-5. User Priorities User Priority

Traffic Type

0

Best effort

1

Background

2

Spare

3

Excellent effort

4

Controlled load

5

Video

6

Voice

7

Network control

Factory Defaults All 7 priority levels are mapped to priority queue 3 as illustrated below: ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# info map 0 to-queue 3 map 1 to-queue 3 map 2 to-queue 3 map 3 to-queue 3 map 4 to-queue 3 map 5 to-queue 3 map 6 to-queue 3 map 7 to-queue 3 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)#

Configuring a Queue Map Profile A queue map profile is configured on the configuration level and is associated only with the bridge traffic. It defines the mapping of the VLAN priority to the transmit queue. This section explains how to define a queue map profile and map to it. For information on ATM Quality of Service, refer to ATM Traffic Descriptor.

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To define a queue map profile and assign a name to it: •

At the config>qos# prompt, enter queue-map-profile [name], for example enter queue-map-profile test. The config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# prompt appears according to the example.

Note ³

You can create one queue map profile only. To map a priority (class value) to a queue: •

At the config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# prompt, enter map <0..7> to-queue . The priority value is attached to a queue and associated with the queue map profile you created. The queue ID can be values between 0 and 3.

4.11 The Service Virtual Interface The service virtual interface is a logical port that terminates ingress flows and starts egress flows in order to facilitate Ethernet pseudowires. For additional information, refer to Flows.

Configuring the Service Virtual Interface You can enable and operate a service virtual interface as explained below. ³

To define an SVI port: •

At the config>port# prompt, enter svi <1..16>. The config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt appears and the relevant SVI port is defined.

³

To administratively enable an SVI port: •

At the config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt, enter no shutdown. The SVI port is administratively enabled.

³

To administratively disable an SVI port: •

At the config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt, enter shutdown. The SVI port is administratively disabled.

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4.12 Flows Flows are used to define classified stream of packets received on Ethernet ports and can be used to facilitate attachment circuits (AC) over a specified Ethernet port, which in turn are required for configuring Ethernet pseudowires. In case of Ethernet to ATM, packets related to a flow are transmitted to predefined ATM VCs. Flows are uni-directional. To support bi-directional traffic, you have to create two flows, an ingress flow (user -> network) and an egress flow (network -> user).

Standards IEEE 802.3x

Functional Description Packets can be identified and classified by means of their VLAN IDs, their destination IP addresses, their class of service (CoS) or their ingress or egress interfaces. Ingress user traffic is mapped to Ethernet flows using the per-port classification criteria listed below and explained in the sections below. In the classifications, the term VLAN refers to the service provider VLAN as outer VLAN while the customer entity VLAN is referred to as inner VLAN. •

VLAN ID



VLAN ID + P-Bits



DST IP



DST IP + IP-Precedence (values are 0-7)



DST IP + DSCP (DSCP values are 0-63)

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports up to 32 flows. An ingress flow is defined by the following objects: •

Ingress port. User interface (Ethernet port number)



Classifier. Group of classification rules that distinguish user traffic from flows



Marking. To change the user VLAN and priority bit within the original frame



Vlan Tag. Adding or removing a VLAN and priority bit from the original frame



Egress port. Service Virtual Interface (SVI). Information on the SVI is available under The Service Virtual Interface.

The objects for the egress flow are listed under Egress Flows. Classification types are relevant to ingress flows.

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VLAN ID Every VLAN is mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below. Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

Flow 1

VLAN ID 1

Flow 2

VLAN ID 2

Flow 3

VLAN ID 3

Classifier

SVI 1

SVI 2

Pseudowire 1

Pseudowire 2

SVI 3

PSN

Pseudowire 3

Cross Connect

(distinguishes user traffic from flows)

Ingress Flow (User

Network)

Figure 4-9. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLANs

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VLAN ID + P-Bits VLANs associated with a priority bit (p-bit) are mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below. Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

VLAN ID 1 + pbit <1..7>

Flow 1

VLAN ID 2 + pbit <1..7>

Flow 2

VLAN ID 3 + pbit <1..7>

Flow 3

Classifier

SVI 1

SVI 2

Pseudowire 1

PSN

Pseudowire 2

SVI 3

Pseudowire 3

Cross Connect

(distinguishes user traffic from flows)

Ingress Flow (User

Network)

Figure 4-10. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLAN and p-bits

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Destination IP The destination IP address may be associated with a specific device or a broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended service. The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) is mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below. Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

Flow 1

DST IP 1

Flow 2

DST IP 2

Flow 3

DST IP 3

SVI 1

Pseudowire 1

SVI 2

DST IP 1

Pseudowire 2

SVI 3

Pseudowire 3

DST IP 2

DST IP 3

PSN Classifier

Cross Connect

(distinguishes user traffic from flows)

Ingress Flow (User

Network)

Figure 4-11. Ingress Flows Mapped to the Destination IP Address

Destination IP and IP Precedence The destination IP address (DST IP) can be associated with an IP Precedence bit to define a specific priority, which is usually associated with a specific service. The IP Precedence bits are the first three bits in the ToS byte as illustrated and explained below.

Figure 4-12. ToS Byte •

P2, P1, P0: IP Precedence bits



T2, T1, T0: Delay, throughput and reliability bits



CU1, CU0: Currently unused bits.

This concept has been replaced by DSCP, but is still being used by legacy system. The destination IP address may be associated with a specific device or a broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended service. The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) associated with a Precedence bit is mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below.

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Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

DST IP 1 + IP Precedence <1..7>

Flow 1

DST IP 2 + IP Precedence <1..7>

Flow 2

DST IP 3 + IP Precedence <1..7>

SVI 1

Pseudowire 1

SVI 2

Flow 3

Pseudowire 2

SVI 3

Pseudowire 3

DST IP 1

DST IP 2

DST IP 3

PSN Classifier

Cross Connect

(distinguishes user traffic from flows)

Ingress Flow (User

Network)

Figure 4-13. Ingress Flows Mapped to the Destination IP associated with the precedence bits

Destination IP and DSCP The destination IP address (DST IP) can be associated with DSCP bits to define a specific priority, which is usually associated with a specific service. DSCP is a 6-bit field in the IP header as illustrated below.

Figure 4-14. DiffServ Field •

DS5, DS4, DS3, S2, DS1, DS0: DSCP bits



ECN: Two ECN bits

DSCP replaces IP Precedence. The destination IP address may be associated with a specific device or a broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended service. The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) associated with DSCP bit is mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below.

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Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

DST IP 1 + DSCP <0..63>

Flow 1

DST IP 2 + DSCP <0..63>

Flow 2

DST IP 3 + DSCP <0..63>

Flow 3

SVI 1

SVI 2

Pseudowire 1

Pseudowire 2

SVI 3

Pseudowire 3

DST IP 1

DST IP 2

DST IP 3

PSN Classifier

Cross Connect

(distinguishes user traffic from flows)

Ingress Flow (User

Network)

Figure 4-15. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLANs

Egress Flows An egress flow carries traffic in network Æ user direction. It is defined by the following objects: •

Ingress port. The same SVI?logical MAC used as the egress port for the ingress flow (user -> network)



Classifier. NA



Marking. NA



Egress port. The Ethernet interface and priority queue on the user side

The following figure illustrates the egress flow:

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Ingress (User) Port

Egress (Network Port)

(Ethernet port)

(SVI)

Flow 1

Flow 3

SVI 3

Egress Flow

PSN

Pseudowire 2

SVI 2

Flow 2

(Network

Pseudowire 1

SVI 1

Pseudowire 3

Cross Connect

User )

Figure 4-16. Egress Flows

Configuring Flows In order to configure Ethernet pseudowires, you have to configure an attachment circuit (AC) over the relevant Ethernet port, only then they can be bound to a cross connection (XC). An attachment circuit (AC) over Ethernet will be facilitated by an ingress flow (user -> network) and an egress flow (network -> user) configured over the relevant port. For additional information and objects that define the ingress and egress flows, refer to the previous sections in this chapter. The Ethernet pseudowire cross connection (PW XC) is created by mapping the pseudowire to the SVI. In N:1 mode, multiple flows will terminate at the same SVI and this SVI will be mapped to a single pseudowire, so that different flows will be directed to the same pseudowire. ³

To configure a classifier profile: 1. At the config# prompt, enter flows. The config>flows# prompt appears. 2. Enter classifier-profile match-any. The config>flows>classifier-profile()$ prompt appears. Any classifier profile associated with one of the combinations below will be mapped to the flow that you define. 3. Specify the match criteria for the classifier profile as specified below. Layer-2 and Layer-3 classifications must not be combined. The combinations listed below are the only ones allowed.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying a VLAN classifier profile.

match [vlan <0..4094>]

Packets belonging to the defined VLAN range will be mapped to the flow.

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying a VLAN + Pbit classifier profile.

match [vlan <0..4094>] {p-bit <0..7>}

Packets belonging to the defined VLAN range and the defined priority bits will be mapped to the flow.

Specifying a Dest IP classifier profile.

match [dst-ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>]

Packets transmitting to the defined range of destination IP addresses will be mapped to the flow.

Specifying a Dest IP + IP Precedence classifier profile.

match [ip-precedence <0..7>] [dst-ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip <0.0.0.0.255.255.255.255>]

Packets transmitting to the defined range of destination IP addresses and IP precedence will be mapped to the flow.

Specifying a Dest IP + DSCP classifier profile.

match [ip-dscp <0..63>] [dst-ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>]

Packets transmitting to the defined range of destination IP addresses and IP DSCPs will be mapped to the flow.

Specifying a classifier profile that maps all packets to the flow.

match all

All packets will be mappd to the flow.

³

To remove a classifier profile: •

At the config>flows# prompt, enter no classifier-profile . The relevant classifier profile is removed.

³

To configure a user-network (ingress) flow: 1. At the config>flows# prompt, enter flow . The config>flows>flow()$ appears and the new flow has been added. 2. Specify the flow as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Mapping the previously configured classifier profile to the flow.

classifier

Removing the classifier profile

no classifier

If you want to map a different classifier profile to the flow, you have to first remove the current one.

Enabling marking op tions on the flow

mark all

You have to add the marking configuration.

Disabling marking options on the flow

no mark all

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Task

Command

Specifying the VLAN ID that will replace the first VLAN tag in the user frame.

mark vlan <0..4094>

Not replacing the first VLAN tag

no mark vlan <0..4094>

Replacing the original VLAN priority bit (pbit) with a new one or defining a new one, if no pbit was previously defined

mark pbit <0..7>

Not replacing the VLAN priority in the first VLAN tag

no mark pbit <0..7>

Manipulating the outer VLAN.

vlan-tag {push|pop} [{vlan} p-bit {fixed |copy}]

The original VLAN either becomes the inner VLAN or is removed without anything being added instead.

Comments



push. The original outer VLAN becomes the inner VLAN or adding an outer VLAN to the frame. If an other VLAN already exists, the original outer VLAN of the frame becomes the inner VLAN



pop. The original outer VLAN is removed.



sp-vlan. The VLAN



p-bit. Priority bit for each VLAN

If adding a new VLAN and the original outer VLAN becomes the inner VLAN, a new pbit must be defined, which can be copied from the original or a new value.

Removing the VLAN tag configuration.

no vlan-tag

Specifying the user interface

ingress-port

Removing the user interface

no ingress-port

Specifying the network interface (SVI/Logical MAC)

egress-port [queue ]

Removing the network interface (SVI/Logical MAC)

no egress-port

Activating the flow

no shutdown

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Once activated, a flow cannot be deactivated.

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To configure a network-user (egress) flow: 1. At the config>flows# prompt, enter flow . The config>flows>flow()$ appears and the new flow has been added. 2. Specify the flow as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Specifying the network interface (SVI/Logical MAC)

ingress-port

Removing the network interface (SVI/Logical MAC)

no ingress-port

Specifying the user interface

egress-port

Removing the user interface

no egress-port

Activating the flow

no shutdown

Comments

The network-user flow cannot be de-ativated.

Example This section illustrates creating a classifier profile, an ingress flow and the corresponding egress flow.

Configuring the Classifier Profile Use the parameters listed below for a VLAN + Pbit classifier profile. •

Use my_test as name for the classifier profile.



Choose a VLAN range of 1 to 100.



Choose the priority bit 3.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>flows# classifier-profile my_test match-any ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>flows>classifier-profile( my_test)$ ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>flows>classifier-profile( my_test)$ match vlan 1..100 pbit 3

Configuring the User-Network Flow Use the parameters listed below for the user-network flow. •

Name the new flow test_ingress.



Use the classifier profile my_test.



Attach the marker using the Mark All command.



Specify 200 as the VLAN ID to replace the first VLAN tag in the user frame.



Use pbit 5 to replace the original pbit in the user frame.



Choose to remove the outer VLAN with VLAN 100.

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Use the Gigabit Ethernet port ethernet 1 as ingress port if the Gigabit Ethernet module is installed in slot 1, otherwise use any other Fixed Ethernet port.



Use the previously configured SVI port SVI 1 as egress port.



Activate the flow.

ACE-3205>config>flows# flow test_ingress ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$ ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$

classifier my_test mark all mark vlan 200 mark pbit 5 vlan-tag pop 100 ingress-port ethernet 1 egress-port SVI 1 no shutdown

Configuring the Network-User Flow Use the parameters listed below for the user-network flow. •

Name the new flow test_egress.



Use the previously configured SVI port SVI 1 as ingress port.



Use a Fast Ethernet port as egress port. You have to use the same Ethernet port that was used as ingress port for the user-network flow. You may choose to configure a priority queue for this Ethernet port.

• ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, queue 3 ACE-3105,

Activate the flow.

ACE-3205>config>flows# flow test_egress ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ ingress-port SVI 1 ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ egress-port ethernet 1 ACE-3205>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ no shutdown

Viewing the Flow Summary You can view a summary of the flows you just configured. ³

To view the flows summary: •

At the config>flows# prompt, enter show summary. The summary of all configured flows appears.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>flows# show summary Name Admin Status Oper Status Classifier Ingress Port

: : : : :

test_ingress Up Up my_test ethernet-1

Egress port

: SVI 1

Name Admin Status Oper Status Ingress Port

: : : :

test_egress Up Up SVI 1

Egress port

: ethernet-1/1

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>flows#

4.13 Ethernet OAM OAM refers to Operation and Management/Maintenance and defines mechanisms for monitoring and troubleshooting links and connections. This section covers the monitoring of the Ethernet access links using OAM EFM (OAM at the Ethernet at the First Mile).

Standards The Ethernet OAM in use complies with the following standards: •

Ethernet at the First Mile (EFM) according to the OAM Tutorial (Revision 3, June 2004)



IEEE 802.3ah OAM specification.



Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM MIB according to the Internet Draft (draft-ietf-hubmib-efm-mib-03.txt), March 2005.

Benefits Ethernet OAM monitors channels and links using the following capabilities:

Functional Description IEEE 802.3ah specifies the Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) standard that includes an Operation & Management/Maintenance (OAM) sublayer to the Data Link layer (Layer 2). OAM facilitates monitoring, testing, and reporting abilities that enables a link's QoS to handle voice, video, and data.

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Figure 4-17. OAM Sublayer on Layer 2 The OAM sublayer (Figure 4-17) enables Ethernet nodes to monitor a link's service quality between two adjacent network elements such as a DSL modem and a DSLAM. OAM EFM (802.3ah) is not an end-to-end network protocol, enabling both copper and fiber network elements to send link information encapsulated in ‘slow’ frames that pass at a rate of about one frame per second. Thus, OAM adds little overhead to a link while adding link monitoring, remotefailure indication, and remote-loopback testing capabilities. The EFM OAM supports the capabilities explained below.

Ethernet OAM Discovery Process The discovery process allows a local data terminating entity (DTE) to detect Ethernet OAM capabilities on a remote DTE. Once Ethernet OAM support is detected, both ends of the link exchange state and configuration information, such as mode, PDU size, loopback support etc. If both DTEs are satisfied with the settings, OAM is enabled on the link. However, the loss of a link or a failure to receive OAMPDUs for five seconds may cause the discovery process to restart. DTEs may either be in active or passive mode. DTEs in active mode initiate the ETH-OAM communications and can issue queries and commands to a remote device. DTEs in passive mode generally wait for the peer device to initiate OAM communications and respond to commands and queries, but do not start them.

Ethernet OAM with Traffic The operation of OAM on an Ethernet interface does not adversely affect data traffic as OAM is a slow protocol with very limited bandwidth potential, and it is not required for normal link operation. By utilizing the slow protocol MAC address, OAM frames are intercepted by the MAC sublayer and cannot propagate across multiple hops in an Ethernet network. This implementation assures that OAMPDUs only affect the operation of the OAM protocol itself and not user data traffic.

Timers Two timers drive this protocol, one, which controls how frequently OAMPDUs must be sent, and the other one which controls how frequently OAMPDUs must be received to maintain the adjacency between devices. OAMPDUs must be sent at least once per second. If there is no other OAMPDU to be sent within one second, an Information OAMPDU must be sent. Similarly, OAMPDUs must be received at least once every 5 seconds. When the timer

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expires, the local OAM entity assumes that the remote OAM entity is nonoperational and resets its state machine. The standard ensures that by defining OAM protocol as a slow protocol, where the OAM client is not allowed to send more than 10 frames per second.

Remote Failure Indication A flag in the OAMPDU allows an OAM entity to convey failure conditions to its peer. The supported failure condition is Link Fault. Link Fault refers to the loss of signal detected by the receiver; A Link Fault report is sent once per second with the Information OAMPDU.

Factory Defaults Ethernet OAM is disabled by default.

Configuring Ethernet OAM This section explains how to configure the OAM for Ethernet at the First Mile. You will later link this OAM descriptor to the desired port as explained under Configuring an Ethernet Port. ³

To configure EFM OAM: 1. At the config>oam# prompt, enter efm. The config>oam>efm# prompt appears. 2. Enter the parameters as explained below.

Task

Command

Enabling and defining an OAM EFM descriptor

descriptor {active|passive}

Specifying the rate limit for OAM EFM frames

descriptor {rate limit <1..10>}

Disabling a specific OAM EFM descriptor

no descriptor

Comments

Example The following section illustrates how to enable and specify an OAM descriptor. ³

To enable and configure the first OAM EFM descriptor in the system: •

Define an active descriptor and assign the ID# 1 to it.



Set the rate limit of descriptor 1 to 5 frames per second.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>efm# descriptor 1 active ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>efm# descriptor 1 rate-limit 5

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To disable the first OAM EFM descriptor: •

Disable the OAM EFM descriptor previously configured.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>efm# no descriptor 1

4.14 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) refers to a network protocol that is used to detect errors between two devices engines connected by a link. It provides error detection creating low overhead even on physical media that does not support any error detection such as Ethernet, virtual circuits, tunnels and MPLS Label Switched Paths.

Standards The BFD protocol standardization process is in draft stage at the IETF working group. Internet drafts define the BFD protocol as follows: •

draft-ietf-bdf-base-08 covers the BFD session initialization, the negotiation process, the packet format etc.



draft-ietf-bfd-v4v6-1hop-08 covers the use of BFD to track IPv4/IPv6 connectivity between directly connected systems.

Functional Description BFD establishes a session between two endpoints over a particular link. If more than one link exists between two systems, multiple BFD sessions may be established to monitor each one of them. The session is established with a threeway handshake, and will be removed the same way. The session usually passes the following stages:

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Down. The session is down or has just been created. A session remains down until the remote system sends a BFD packet in Down or Init state. By that, it indicates that the session is down on the other side as well. If this packet indicates a Down state, the session advances to the Init state. If the packet signals an Init state, the session moves to the Up state.



Init. The remote system is communicating and the local system requests to enable the session, but the remote system does not yet realize it. A session will remain in Init state until either a BFD Control packet is received, indicating an Init or Up state (in which case the session advances to up state) or until the detection time expires, which means that communication with the remote system has been lost. In this case the session moves to the Down state.



Up. The BFD session has been successfully established, and implies that connectivity between the systems is working. The session will remain in the Up state until either the connectivity fails or the session is administratively disabled. If either the remote system signals a Down state, or the detection time expires, the session moves to the Down state.

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AdminDown. The session is administratively disabled, which causes the remote system to move to the Down state, and remain there until the local system exits the AdminDown state.

Factory Defaults The following defaults apply for BFD sessions. Description

Default Value

The minimum interval (in microseconds) to receive or transmit bfd-descriptor packets



Tx/Rx. 1000000



Echo-Rx. 500000

The number of lost packets before the session is defined down

5

Configuring Bidirectional Forwarding Detection This section explains how to enable and define a Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) descriptor. ³

To enable and specify a BFD descriptor: 1. At the config# prompt, enter oam. The config>oam# prompt appears. 2. Enter bfd-descriptor <1..32> to enable and define the BFD descriptor. The config>oam>bfd-descriptor <1..32>$ appears. 3. At the config>oam>bfd-descriptor <1..32>$, define the parameters as explained and illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the minimum interval (in microseconds) to receive or transmit bfd-descriptor packets

min-interval [tx <50000..5000000>] [rx <50000..5000000>] [echo-rx <0|50000..5000000>]



Tx/Rx. Specifies the interval of transmitted/ received BFD cotrol packets respectively.



Echo-Rx. Specifies the interval of received echo packets. To disable echo packets, enter 0.

Specifying the number of lost packets before the session is defined down.

³

detection-multiplier <2..60>

To remove a specific BFD descriptor: •

At the config>oam# prompt, enter no bfd-descriptor <1..32>. The relevant BFD descriptor is removed.

Note

Make sure that the BFD descriptor is not in use when trying to remove it.

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Example The following section explains how to configure a Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ³

ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, echo-rx 0 ACE-3105,

To configure the BFD descriptor: •

Define the first BFD descriptor (with ID# 1).



Set the minimum interval to 500000 microseconds for transmitting and receiving BFD descriptor packets.



Disable the echo packets.



Allow up to 30 packets to be lost before the session would be declared as failed.

ACE-3205>config>oam# ACE-3205>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$ ACE-3205>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$min-interval tx 500000 rx 500000 ACE-3205>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$detection-multiplier 30

4.15 E1 Ports Depending on the unit I use and your hardware profile, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 may include 4, 8 or 16 multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.

What is E1 The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) standardized the E-Carrier system, which revised the already existing TCarrier system. After being adopted by the International Union Telecommunication Standardization sector (ITU-T), the E-Carrier system is used in almost all countries outside the USA, Canada and Japan. The most commonly used versions are E1 and E3. E1 circuits are very common in most telephone exchanges and used to connect medium and large companies to remote exchanges. In many cases, E1 connects exchanges with each other. E1 ports allow you to perform loopback tests as explained Physical Loopback Tests.

Standards and MIBs The original CEPT standard G.703 specifies several options for the physical transmission. In practice, mostly the HDB3 format is used.

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Benefits E1 ports serve as multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.

Functional Description An E1 link operates over a twisted pair of cables. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity changes. The line data rate is 2.048 Mbps at full duplex, which means 2.048 Mbps for downstream and 2.048 Mbps for upstream. The E1 signal splits into 32 timeslots each which is being allocated 8 bits. Each timeslot sends and receives an 8-bit sample 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 32 = 2,048,000), which is ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at that data rate and restored at the other end. The timeslots are numbered from 0 to 31. One timeslot (TS0) is reserved for framing purposes, and alternately transmits a fixed pattern. This allows the receiver to lock onto the start of each frame and match up each channel in turn. The standards allow a full cyclic redundancy check to be performed across all bits transmitted in each frame, to detect if the circuit is losing bits (information), but this is not always used. Another timeslot (TS16) is often reserved for signaling purposes to control setting up and ending a transmission according to one of several standard telecommunications protocols.

Physical Loopback Tests ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports two types of user-defined physical loopback operations on ATM ports: •

Local loopback – returns the transmitted data at the physical layer to the receive path. The internal physical loopback includes a configurable timeout mechanism that ends the loopback operation after expiry of the user-defined period.



Remote loopback – returns the received data at the physical layer to the transmit path.

PHY

ATM

User Port

ATM

PHY

Network Port

Data path in internal loopback mode

Figure 4-18. Data Path in Local Loopback Mode

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PHY

ATM

User Port

ATM

PHY

Network Port

Figure 4-19. Data Path in Remote Loopback Mode The physical loopback includes a configurable timeout mechanism to terminate the loopback operation upon expiry of the assigned period. In addition, the loopback test can be disabled before the configured timeout.

Factory Defaults ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ships with all E1 ports enabled. Description

Default Value

The byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the E1 idle timeslots (idle code).

7E

The E1 line type that implements this circuit.

732n-crc

The type of circuit affects the number of bits per second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well as the usage interpretation and the error statistics. The attenuation level of the received signal, compensated for by the interface receive path

Short-haul

Configuring an E1 Port ³

To configure an E1 port: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter e1 <1–4/8/16> for the E1 port labeled 1– 4/8/16 respectively. The config>port>e1(<1–4/8/16>) prompt appears. 2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Task

Command

Administratively enabling the port

no shutdown

Specifying the byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the E1 idle timeslots (idle code).

idle-code {<0x00..0xFF>}

Transmitting an out of service signal for all services

out-of-service-all

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Comments

Will be generated towards the TDM port in case of failure.

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Task

Command

Comments

Controlling the propagation and specifying the conditions of alarm indications

trail-mode {terminated|extended}



terminated. TDM channel defects are translated to trunk conditions on the specific bundle of the TDM port. The trunk condition pattern is associated with the value specified under out-of-service-all.



extended. TDM channel defects are extended\regenerated as TDM defect (AIS\RAI) on the entire TDM port. This setting is suitable only for cases where a pseudowire is connected to the TDM interface.



The CES mode can be either over PSN or ATM.



The mode cannot be changed while IMA groups or VP/VC XC or a CES connection are configured.



unframed. E1 line type set to Unframed

Specifying the mode in which the E1 interface operates

Specifying the E1 line type that implements this circuit.

functional-mode {ima|uni|ces-atm|ces-psn}

line-type {unframed|g732n| g732n-crc}

Note:

The type of circuit affects the number of bits per second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well as the usage interpretation and the error statistics.



In UNI/IMA mode, Unframed is not valid.



g732n. G.732.N with CRC disabled.



In CES-ATM mode, the line type cannot be changed from g732n-crc/g732n to Unframed and vice versa as long as CES XC is active on the relevant port.



g732n-crc. G.732.N with CRC enabled.

Generating OAM cells in case of a physical layer failure

oam-cell-generator

Disabling OAM

no oam-cell-generator

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Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the loopback mode for the E1 port. The duration is expressed in minutes.

loopback {remote|local} [duration <1..300>]



local. Returns the transmitted data at the physical layer to the receiving path. The local physical loopback includes a configurable timeout mechanism that ends the loopback operation after a userdefined duration.



remote. Returns the received data at the physical layer to the transmitting path.



short-haul. Low sensitiviy



long-haul. High sensitivity

Disabling the loopback mode for the E1 port

no loopback

Specifying the attenuation level of the received signal, compensated for by the interface receive path

rx-sensitivity {short-haul|long-haul}

Enabling the transmission of a source-specific multicast stream from this port.

tx-ssm

Disabling the transmission of a source-specific multicast stream from this port.

no tx-ssm

Example The following section illustrates how to configure the E1 port labeled 1 for use in IMA mode as follows:

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Set the transmit (Tx) clock type to Domain and use domain 1.



Set the Functional mode to IMA.



Set the idle code to 0xFF.



Enable OAM.



Administratively enable the port.



Leave all other parameters disabled or at their defaults.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105,

ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)#

Chapter 4 Configuration

tx-clock-source domain 1 functional mode ima idle-code 0xFF oam-cell-generator no shutdown

Viewing an E1 Port’s Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the E1 port labeled 1 as an example. ³

To view the E1 port status; •

At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# show status Administrative Status : Up Operation Status : Down Connector Type : RJ45 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)#

Viewing an E1 Port’s Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display. ³

To view the current statistics: •

At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen images. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed (Sec)

The elapsed time since the beginning of the current interval

Valid Intervals

The number of intervals saved

LOS

Number of seconds during which Loss Of Signal was detected

LOF

Number of seconds during which Loss Of Frame was detected.

Note: LOF is not available in Unframed mode. LCD

Number of seconds during which Loss of Cell Delineation was detected.

Note: LCD is not available in E1/T1 CES mode. RAI

Number of seconds during which Remote Alarm Indication was detected.

Note: RAI is not available in Unframed E1/T1 mode. AIS

Number of seconds during which Alarm Indication Signal was detected.

FEBE

Number of Far End Block Error, i.e. seconds during which an MF-CRC4 error indication is received from the remote E1 device.

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Parameter

Installation and Operation Manual

Comments

Note: FEBE is not available in Unframed mode. ES

Number of Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which CRC, SEF (Severely Errored Frame) or AIS errors have occurred.

SES

Number of Severely Errored Second, i.e. seconds during which 320 or more CRC error events with at least one SEF or AIS have occurred.

UAS

Number of Unavailable Seconds, i.e. seconds counted in the period after 10 consecutive SES occurrences. UAS state is deactivated after 10 consecutive seconds without SES occurrences.

Rx Frames Slip

Increments when the framer’s buffer is full

BES

Number of Burst Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which 2 to 319 CRC error events with no AIS or SEF have occurred

DM

Number of Degraded Minutes, i.e. the minutes during which at least 15 errored seconds have occurred on a T1 line, or at least 20 errored seconds on an E1 line

LVC

Number of code violations, i.e. the times when both a BPV (Bipolar Violation) and an EXZ error have occurred in one second

Rx Cells

Number of cells received without HEC error

Tx Cells

Number of cells transmitted

Uncorrected HEC Cells

Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have been dropped.

Note: Invisible for IMA groups.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 11 Valid Intervals : 7 LOS LOF LCD RAI

: : : :

10 0 0 0

AIS FEBE

: 0 : 0

ES SES UAS Rx Frames Slip BES

: : : : :

0 0 10 0 0

DM LCV

: 0 : 0

ATM ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rx Cells : Tx Cells : Uncorrected HEC Cells : ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>e1(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>e1(1)# prompt appears again.

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4.16 T1 Ports Depending on the unit I use and your hardware profile, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 may include 4, 8 or 16 multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.

What is T1 T1, also referred to as DS-1 is a T-carrier signaling scheme devised by Bell Labs and a widely used standard in telecommunications in the USA, Canada and Japan to transmit voice and data between devices.

Standards and MIBs The G.703 standard specifies several options for the physical transmission. In practice, mostly the B8ZS format is used.

Benefits T1 ports serve as multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.

Functional Description A T1 link operates over a twisted pair of cables. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity changes. The line data rate is 1.544 Mbps at full duplex, which means 1.544 Mbps for downstream and 1.544 Mbps for upstream. The T1 signal splits into 32 timeslots each which is being allocated 8 bits. Each timeslot sends and receives an 8-bit sample 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 24 = 1,544,000), which is ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at that data rate and restored at the other end. The timeslots are numbered from 0 to 24.

Physical Loopback Tests T1 ports allow you to perform loopback tests as explained under Physical Loopback Tests (Functional Description for E1 ports).

Factory Defaults ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ships with all T1 ports enabled. Description

Default Value

The byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the E1 idle timeslots (idle code).

7E

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Description

Default Value

The length of the T1 line in DSU format (in feet).

0–133

The type of circuit affects the number of bits per second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well as the usage interpretation and the error statistics. The T1 line type

ESF

Configuring a T1 Port ³

To configure a T1 port: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter T1 <1–4/8/16> for the T1 port labeled 1– 4/8/16 respectively. The config>port>t1(<1–4/8/16>) prompt appears. 2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Task

Command

Administratively enabling the port

no shutdown

Specifying the variety of zero code suppression used for this port.

line-code b8zs

Specifying the byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the T1 idle timeslots (idle code).

idle-code {<0x00..0xFF>}

Specifies the length of the T1 line in DSU mode (in feet)

line-length {0–133|134–266|267–399| 400–533|534–655}

Specifying the time (in seconds) used to modify the synchronization algorithms and reduce the time required for the port to return to normal operation after a local loss of synchronization (LOF event).

restoration-time {1sec|10sec}

Transmitting an out of service signal for all services

out-of-service-all

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Comments

b8zs. Bipolar with Eight-zero substitution

Will be generated towards the TDM port in case of failure

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Task

Command

Comments

Controlling the propagation and specifying the conditions of alarm indications

trail-mode {terminated|extended}



terminated. TDM channel defects are translated to trunk conditions on the specific bundle of the TDM port. The trunk condition pattern is associated with the value specified under out-of-service-all.



extended. TDM channel defects are extended\regenerated as TDM defect (AIS\RAI) on the entire TDM port. This setting is suitable only for cases where a pseudowire is connected to the TDM interface.



The CES mode can be either over PSN or ATM.



The mode cannot be changed while IMA groups or VP/VC XC or a CES connection are configured on units equipped wit DSP



unframed. T1 line type set to Unframed



esf. Extended Super Frame (24 T1 frames)

Specifying the mode in which the T1 interface operates

Specifying the T1 line type that implements this circuit.

functional-mode {ima|uni|ces-atm|ces-psn}

line-type {unframed|esf}

Note:

The type of circuit affects the number of bits per second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well as the usage interpretation and the error statistics.



In UNI/IMA mode, Unframed is not valid.



In CES-ATM mode, the line type cannot be changed to Unframed and vice versa as long as CES XC is active on the relevant port.

Generates OAM cells in case of a physical layer failure

oam-cell-generator

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Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the loopback mode for the T1 port. The duration is expressed in minutes.

loopback {remote|local} [duration <1..300>]



local. Returns the transmitted data at the physical layer to the receiving path. The local physical loopback includes a configurable timeout mechanism that ends the loopback operation after a userdefined duration.



remote. Returns the received data at the physical layer to the transmitting path.

Disables the loopback mode for the T1 port

no loopback

Enables the ATM cell payload scrambling mode

scrambler

The scrambler cannot be changed for a link in an IMA group. Not available in CESATM/CES-PSN modes.

Disables the ATM cell payload scrambling mode

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

no scrambler

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Example The following section illustrates how to configure the T1 port labeled 1 for use in IMA mode as follows:

ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105,



Set the transmit (Tx) clock type to Domain and use domain 1.



Set the Functional mode to IMA.



Set the idle code to 0xFF.



Enable OAM.



Administratively enable the port.



Leave all other parameters disabled or at their defaults.

ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)#

tx-clock-source domain 1 functional mode ima idle-code 0xFF oam-cell-generator no shutdown

Viewing a T1 Port’s Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the T1 port labeled 1 as an example. ³

To view the T1 port status; •

At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# show status Administrative Status : Up Operation Status : Down Connector Type : RJ45 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)#

Viewing a T1 Port’s Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.

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³

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To view the current statistics: •

At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed (Sec)

The elapsed time since the beginning of the current interval

Valid Intervals

The number of intervals saved

LOS

Number of seconds during which Loss Of Signal was detected

LOF

Number of seconds during which Loss Of Frame was detected.

Note: LOF is not available in Unframed mode. LCD

Number of seconds during which Loss of Cell Delineation was detected.

Note: LCD is not available in E1/T1 CES mode. RAI

Number of seconds during which Remote Alarm Indication was detected.

Note: RAI is not available in Unframed E1/T1 mode. AIS

Number of seconds during which Alarm Indication Signal was detected.

FEBE

Number of Far End Block Error, i.e. seconds during which an MF-CRC4 error indication is received from the remote E1 device.

Note: FEBE is not available in Unframed mode. ES

Number of Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which CRC, SEF (Severely Errored Frame) or AIS errors have occurred.

SES

Number of Severely Errored Second, i.e. seconds during which 320 or more CRC error events with at least one SEF or AIS have occurred.

UAS

Number of Unavailable Seconds, i.e. seconds counted in the period after 10 consecutive SES occurrences. UAS state is deactivated after 10 consecutive seconds without SES occurrences.

Rx Frames Slip

Increments when the framer’s buffer is full

BES

Number of Burst Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which 2 to 319 CRC error events with no AIS or SEF have occurred

DM

Number of Degraded Minutes, i.e. the minutes during which at least 15 errored seconds have occurred on a T1 line, or at least 20 errored seconds on an E1 line

LVC

Number of code violations, i.e. the times when both a BPV (Bipolar Violation) and an EXZ error have occurred in one second

Rx Cells

Number of cells received without HEC error

Tx Cells

Number of cells transmitted

Uncorrected HEC Cells

Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have been dropped

Note: Invisible for IMA groups.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 11 Valid Intervals : 7 LOS LOF LCD RAI

: : : :

10 0 0 0

AIS FEBE

: 0 : 0

ES SES UAS Rx Frames Slip BES

: : : : :

0 0 10 0 0

DM LCV

: 0 : 0

ATM ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rx Cells : Tx Cells : Uncorrected HEC Cells : ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>t1(1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>t1(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>t1(1)# prompt appears again.

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4.17 ADSL2+ Ports ACE-3105 is available with two ADSL2+ interfaces (Annex A or Annex B; as ordered). ACE-3205 is equipped with two ADSL2+ interfaces (Annex A or Annex B; as ordered).

What is ADSL2+ ADSL stands for Asymmetric digital subscriber line and is a form of DSL. It is a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper lines than a conventional modem can provide by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call. A splitter allows a single connection to support both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. ADSL2+ is capable of doubling the frequency band of typical ADSL connections from 1.1 MHz to 2.2 MHz, doubling the downstream data rates of the previous ADSL2 standard from 12 Mbps to up to 24 Mbps.

Standards The modular ADSL2+ interfaces support ADSL2+ over POTS (Annex A) and ADSL2+ over ISDN (Annex B), as well as auto-mode synchronization to ADSL/ ADSL2/ ADSL2+ (complying with G.992.1/ G.992.3/ G.992.5).

Benefits ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can aggregate all ATM, TDM, Ethernet and management traffic over SHDSL.bis and ADSL2+ links as illustrated below.

Figure 4-20. Multiservice Traffic Aggregation over xDSL

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Factory Defaults The ADSL2+ port is enabled by default.

Configuring the ADSL2+ Port ACE-3105 is equipped with two SHDSL or ADSL2+ ports. ³

To configure an ADSL2+ port: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter adsl2plus 1 or adsl2plus 2 for the ADSL2+ port labeled 1-2 respectively, assuming the module is installed in the left slot. The config>port>adsl2plus# prompt appears. 2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Example The following section illustrates how to enable the ADSL2+ port labeled 1: •

Administratively enable the port.



Set the port to restart after synchronization is completed.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>adsl2plus(1)# no shutdown ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>adsl2plus(1)# restart

Viewing an ADSL2+ Port’s Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the ADSL2+ port labeled 1 as an example. ³

To view the ADSL2+ port status: •

At the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below.

Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

Line State

Current operational state of the ADSL line.

Idle Handshake Full init Data.

Full init represents one of the following states: Discovery, Training or Analysis Transmission mode

Transmission mode, selected by the system while synchronizing.

Downstream rate

Current downstream synchronization rate in kbps

Upstream rate

Current upstream synchronization rate in kbps

SNR Margin

Current signal-to-noise margin in db

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ADSL2+ Annex A ADSL2+ Annex B ADSL2 Annex A ADSL2 Annex B ADSL Annex A ADSL Annex B

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Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

Loop Attenuation

Current loop attenuation in db

Transmit Power

Current transmission power in dbm

Interleave delay

Interleave delay in msec

MAC Address

The MAC address of the selected ADSL2+ port

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>adsl2plus(1)# show status Line state Transmission mode Downstream rate Upstream rate SNR margin Loop attenuation Transmit power Interleave delay MAC address

(Data) (ADSL2+ Annex A) 0 Kbps 0 Kbps 16 dB 0.4 dB 8.5 dBm (-) (00-20-02-2A-78-96)

ACE-3105, ACE-3205> config>port>adsl2plus(1)#

Viewing an ADSL2+ Port’s Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display. ³

To view the current statistics: •

At the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen images. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>adsl2plus(1)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 11 Valid Intervals : 7 LOSS LOFS ES SES UAS FEC CRC

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

ATM ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rx Cells : Tx Cells : Uncorrected HEC Cells : ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port> adsl2plus (1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>adsl2plus(1)# prompt appears again.

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4.18 SHDSL Ports ACE-3105 is available with four SHDSL.bis interfaces that support both Annex A and Annex B. ACE-3205 is equipped with four SHDSL.bis interfaces that support both Annex A and Annex B.

What is SHDSL SHDSL stands for Single-Pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line. It is a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voice band modem can provide. Compared to ADSL, SHDSL employs frequencies that include those used by traditional POTS telephone services to provide equal data rates to transmit and receive. As such, a telephone line cannot be used by both an SHDSL service and a POTS service at the same time. Support of symmetric data rates has made SHDSL a popular choice by businesses for PBX, VPN, web hosting and other data services.

Standards The industry standard for SHDSL is defined by ITU-T recommendation G.991.2. This was first published in February 2001. SHDSL equipment is also known by the standard's draft name of G.SHDSL. Major updates to G.991.2 were released in December 2003. Equipment conforming to the 2003 version of G.991.2 is often referred to by the standard's draft name of G.SHDSL.bis or just SHDSL.bis. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports SHDSL Annex A (in North America), Annex B (in Europe) and SHDSL.bis Annex F & G.

Benefits ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can aggregate all ATM, TDM, Ethernet and management traffic over SHDSL.bis and ADSL2+ links as illustrated in Figure 4-20.

Factory Defaults The SHDSL port is enabled by default. For default settings of parameters, refer to the table below. Description

Default Value

The TC layer and functional mode

ATM-IMA

The number of wires bound to an M-Pair group

2

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Configuring the SHDSL Port ACE-3105 is equipped with either two SHDSL or two ADSL-2+ ports. ³

To configure an SHDSL port: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter shdsl 1 for the SHDSL port labeled 1 respectively. The config>port>shdsl(1) prompt appears. 2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Example The following section illustrates how to enable the SHDSL port labeled 1:

ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105, ACE-3105,



Administratively enable the port.



Set the TC layer to ATM.



Set the number of wires for the M-pair group to 4.



For Globespan based DSLAMs, set the 4w wire mode to Enhanced.



Leave all other parameters at their default values.

ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)#

no shutdown tc atm wires 4 4w-mode enhanced

Viewing an SHDSL Port’s Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the SHDSL port labeled 1 as an example. ³

To view the SHDSL port status: •

At the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below.

Status - SHDSL Port Parameter

Comment

Operation Status

Up Down

Wires

The wire mode specified

MAC Address

The MAC address of the port

Transmission Mode

The region specific transmission set you specified

Payload Rate

The actual data rate within the max and min data rates you may have specified

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Possible Values

2, 4, 8

A-F B-G

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Status - Active SHDSL Wire Pair Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

State

Current state of the physical wire pair.

Pre-activation (idle) Activation Data

SNR Margin (db) (signal to noise ratio)

Currently measured SNR on the Rx signal of the physical wire pair.

Current SNR

Loop Attnuation (db)

Currently measured attenuation on the Rx signal of the physical wire pair.

Current attenuation

Tx power (dBm)

Currently measured transmission power

Transmission power

PSD Mask

Current power spectral density (PSD) mask used for transmission of the physical wire pair.

Symmetric Assymetric

Power Backoff (db)

Effective power backoff value used in order to attenuate the modem Tx power of the physical wire pair

Current power backoff

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# show status Name Operation Status Wires MAC Address Transmission Mode Payload Rate (Kbps)

1/4128 SHDSL-1 Down 2 00-20-02-2A-78-96 B-G 0

Wires -----------------------------------------------------------------------State SNR Loop Tx PSD Power Margin Attenuation Power Mask Backoff (db) (db) (dBm) -----------------------------------------------------------------------Pre-Activation 0 0 0.0 Symmetric 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)#

Viewing SHDSL Port Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval for every wire pair. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display. ³

To view the current statistics for the first wire pair: •

At the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt, enter show statistics 1 current. Statistics for the first wire pair and the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen images. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

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Parameter

Comments

ES

Number of Errored Seconds where one or more CRC error events or one or more LOSW error events have been detected. This parameter is inhibited during UAS state.

SES

Number of Severely Errored Seconds where 50 or more CRC error events or one or more LOSW error events have been detected. This parameter is inhibited during UAS state.

UAS

Number of ‘Unavailable Seconds’. This state begins after 10 consecutive severelyerrored seconds, and ends after 10 consecutive error-free seconds.

LOSWS

Number of seconds where Loss Of Sync Word events have been detected.

CRC Annomalies

Number of errors detected by cyclic redundancy checks.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# show statistics 1 current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 657 Valid Intervals : 24 ES SES UAS FEC CRC

: : : : :

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

LOSWS CRC Anomalies

: (0) : (0)

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>shdsl(1)# ³

To view the statistics for the first wire pair at interval 20: •

At the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt, enter show statistics 1 interval 20. Statistics for the specified wire pair (1) and interval (20) appear.

³

To view the statistics for the first wire pair and all intervals: 1. At the config>port> shdsl(1)# prompt, enter show statistics 1 all. Statistics for specified wire pair (1) and the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt, enter show statistics 1 all. The accumulated statistics for specified wire pair (1) appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the first wire pair and interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>shdsl(1)# prompt appears again.

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4.19 The PCS Interface PCS stands for Physical Coding Sublayer and bundles SHDSL wires to a logical Ethernet port. A PCS interface can be configured if the unit is equipped with SHDSL ports.

Factory Defaults The PCS is administratively disabled by default.

Configuring the PCS ³

To configure and activate the PCS port: 1. Verify that the TC layer on the SHDSL port is set to 64-65-octets as explained under Configuring the SHDSL Port. 2. At the config>port# prompt, enter pcs 1 for the PCS port labeled. The config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt appears. 3. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.

Viewing the PCS Port Status ³

To configure an SHDSL port: •

At the config> pcs(1)$ prompt, enter show status. The system indicates the PCS port’s operational status, which can be one of the following: ƒ

Up

ƒ

Down

ƒ

Testing

ƒ

Unknown

ƒ

Dormant

ƒ

Not present

ƒ

Lower Layer Down

Viewing PCS Port Statistics You can view statistics of the PCS port. ³

To view the current statistics for the PCS port: •

At the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the PCS port appear as illustrated below.

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Parameter

Comments

Rx Total Frames

The total number of received frames

Rx FCS Errors

Number of received frames that did not pass the FCS check

Tx Total Frames

The total number of transmitted frames

Tx FCS Errors

Number of transmitted frames that did not pass the FCS check

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>pcs(1)$ show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 124 Rx Tx Total Frames 0 0 FCS Errors 0 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>pcs(1)$ ³

To view the statistics for the PCS port at interval 5: •

At the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt, enter show statistics interval 5. Statistics for the PCS port at interval 5 appear as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>pcs(1)$ show statistics current Interval Number : 5 Start Time: : 2009-11-10 Start Time: : 10:30:00 Rx Tx Total Frames 0 0 FCS Errors 0 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>pcs(1)$ ³

To view the statistics for the PCS port for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt, enter show statistics all-intervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt appears again.

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To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt, enter show statistics all. Statistics for all intervals appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>pcs(1)$ prompt appears again.

4.20 ATM Traffic Descriptor ATM traffic descriptors represent the ‘quality of service’ concept for ATM networks and determine the ATM traffic’s service category, shaping mode and other distinct parameters. Traffic descriptors are individually configured as ATM application parameters via the Traffic Descriptor command.

Standards ITU-T I.371 (ATM transfer capability definition)

Benefits The ATM Traffic Descriptor divides traffic into priority queues, thus allowing the transmission of traffic according to specified service categories and priorities.

Functional Description A traffic descriptor consists of the following: •

Service categories



Traffic parameters of each data flow in both directions



ATM Traffic shaping



ATM cell scheduling



ATM policing.

The traffic descriptor parameters and their functionalities are explained in the sections below.

Service Categories Services are divided into four service categories, which define the methods to correlate traffic characteristics and QoS requirements with network behavior. The service categories and levels are listed in Table 4-6. The concept distinguishes real-time services such as CBR and VBR and non-real-time services such as UBR+/UBR. The service categories are listed and explained in the subsections below.

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Table 4-6. Traffic Service Categories ATM Service Category

Typical Use

Constant Bit-rate (CBR)

Real-time, QoS guarantees

Variable Bit-rate (VBR)

Real-time, statistical mux

Unspecified Bit-rate (UBR+)

Best effort, no guarantees

Unspecified Bit-rate (UBR)

Best effort, no guarantees

Constant Bit-Rate The CBR service category serves connections at constant bit-rates. This option can be used in cases where synchronization between the source and the destination is highly reliable. The CBR is geared towards data for which a predictable response time and constant bandwidth capacity are required at the end points. The amount of bandwidth is characterized by the peak cell rate (PCR).

Real-Time Variable Bit-Rate The VBR service category serves traffic at variable bit-rates that relies on accurate timing between the traffic source and destination. An example for traffic that requires this service type is the transmission of video streams. Sources that use VBR connections are expected to transmit at a rate that varies with time such as bursty video streams. VBR connections can be characterized by a peak cell rate (PCR), sustained cell rate (SCR) and a maximum burst size (MBS).

Unspecified Bit-Rate The UBR service category serves connections, which transport variable bit-rate traffic that does not rely on synchronization between the traffic source and its destination. UBR is used for applications that are most tolerant against delays and losses. The system works on reaching a specified minimum cell rate (MCR), but commits only to best effort. UBR+ guarantees the MCR you specify.

Traffic Parameters Traffic parameters describe the traffic characteristics of the source. Traffic parameters are the following:

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PCR. Refers to the peak cell rate, which defines the highest rate at which cells can be transported along a connection in the ATM network. PCR determines how often cells are sent during a given time increment in an effort to minimize jitter. PCR is usually coupled with the cell delay variation tolerance (CDVT) parameter, which indicates how much jitter can be allowed.



SCR. Refers to the sustainable cell rate, which defines the average long-term cell rate allowed on a specific ATM connection.



MBS. Refers to the maximum burst size, which defines the burst size of cells allowed for transmission contiguously on a particular connection.



MCR. Refers to the minimum cell rate, which defines the minimum rate allowed for transmission along an ATM connection.

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ATM Traffic Shaping ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has a built-in shaper and controls ATM traffic transmitted to the public network based on the single/dual leaky bucket protocol. The traffic shaping improves ATM services by smoothing bursty traffic and enabling flexible and accurate traffic adaption for the required service. Traffic shaping prevents network congestion and achieves increased network utilization. The traffic descriptor assigned to a VC specifies both the connection priority according to strict priority queues and the shaping parameters. Each side of a VC/VP cross connection can be either shaped or unshaped according to its traffic descriptor. The shaping can be set to one of the following service categories, which define the shaping parameters as listed in Table 4-7.

Table 4-7. Service Categories and associated Shaping Parameters Service Category

Shaping Parameters

CBR Shaped

PCR, CDVT

VBR1 shaped

PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBP

UBR+ shaped

PCR, CDVT, MDCR

PCR/SCR granularity is up to 0.39% (worst case) and the min PCR/SCR supports up to 100 cells per second.

ATM Cell Scheduling Each port's egress ATM cell traffic is associated with a service category and hierarchically matched to four strict-priority queues. The traffic is transmitted according to the four outbound queue levels of priority as listed in Table 4-8, which is referred to as ATM Cell Scheduling:

Table 4-8. ATM Cell Scheduling Priority Queue

Egress ATM Cell Traffic

First

CBR-Shaped, CBR Unshaped

Second

VBR

Third

UBR+

Fourth

UBR

Figure 4-21. ATM Queues Priority

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ATM Policing The ATM Policing mechanism defines which non-conformant ATM cells should be discarded, tagged or counted by ACE-3105, ACE-3205 per user configuration. The following policing modes (listed below) are supported according to ATMF TM4.1: •

CBR.1



VBR.1



VBR.2



VBR.3



UBR.1



UBR.2

The policing is configurable per received channel. Multiple channels can be mapped to a single policing policy (group policing). The granularity of the CDVT is 10 ns. The minimum CDVT depends on the port type as follows: Port Type

Minimum CDVT

TDM

1 cell time at line rate

UPI multi-PHY

4 cell time at line rate

UPI single-PHY

16 cell time at line rate

IMA

1 cell time at minimum IMA group rate

Equal-rate-slow-PHY (ERSP)

1 cell time at line rate

The ATM policing functionality is based on a single/double leaky bucket mechanism. Any cells that do not confirm with these parameters are either dropped or tagged as follows: Policing

Bucket 1 Parameters – PCR, CDVT

Bucket 2 Parameters – SCR, MBS

CBR

CLP 0+1, drop

VBR.1

CLP 0+1, drop

CLP 0+1, drop

VBR.2

CLP 0+1, drop

CLP 0, drop

VBR.3

CLP 0+1, drop

CLP 0, tag

UBR.1

CLP 0+1, drop

UBR.2

CLP 0+1, tag

Factory Defaults By default, the ATM descriptor is not activated.

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Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor Follow the instructions below to configure the traffic descriptor. ³

To configure the ATM descriptor: 1. At the config>qos# prompt, enter atm. The config>qos>atm# prompt appears. 2. Enter parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below. • The shaping parameters' availability depends on the traffic descriptor's service

category.

• The max number of possible ATM traffic descriptors equals

{MAX ATM XC} x 2 + {MAX ATM PW}.

• A traffic descriptor cannot be deleted or modified while a VP/VC is using it. Task

Command

Creating an ATM descriptor for a stream transmitted at constant bit-rate (CBR).

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr scheduling

Comments

CBR streams are transmitted at the highest priority. Creating an ATM descriptor for a shaped CBR stream.

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>]



pcr. Peak cell rate (cells per second, cps).



cdvt. Cell delay variation tolerance (microseconds, usec).

Creating an ATM descriptor for a policed CBR stream.

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>]



Policing. This function determines which non-conformant cells should be discarded or marked as discardable according to the traffic contract.

Creating an ATM descriptor for a shaped stream transmitted at variable bit-rate.

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr1 shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs <1..8388608>]



vbr1 shaping-scheduling. Shaping stands for smoothening the stream and limit its burstiness. vbr stands for variable bit-rate.



scr. Sustainable cell rate (cells per second, cps).



mbs. Max burst size (cells). Enter the value that reflects the requirement according to the traffic contract.



vbr1. Variable bit-rate, set to transmit at best effort.

VBR streams are transmitted at the second highest priority.

Creating an ATM descriptor for a policed VBR stream

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr1 policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs <1..8388608>]

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Task

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Command

Comments

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr2 policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs <1..8388608>] traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr3 policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs <1..8388608>] Creating an ATM descriptor for a stream transmitted at an unspecified bit-rate (UBR).

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr scheduling

UBR streams are transmitted at the lowest priority Creating an ATM descriptor for a policed UBR stream

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr1 policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>]



ubr1. Unspecified bit-rate, set to transmit at best effort.

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr2 policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] Creating an ATM descriptor for a shaped UBR+ stream.

traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr-plus shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>]

UBR+ streams are transmitted at third priority.

Example This example illustrates how to configure a traffic descriptor for a CBR stream. Use the following parameters:

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Set the descriptor up for a shaped-scheduled stream



Choose Traffic Descriptor #2



Set the peak cell rate (PCR) to 10.000 cells per second.



Set the cell delay variation tolerance (CDVT) to 4000 usec.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>qos>atm# traffic-descriptor 2 cbr shaping-scheduling pcr 10000 cdvt 4000 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>efm#

4.21 ATM OAM ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides F4/F5 OAM support that complies with ITU-I.610 (AIS, RDI and CC). OAM cells are inserted into the VP/VC cell stream ahead of the shaper, enabling accurate conformance to shaping parameters. Four operating modes are supported: •

End-to-end (for a host only)



Segment



Intermediate



Loopback – OAM loopback cells are used to determine connectivity at specific points in a network or between networks. OAM cells are part of the F4 and F5 OAM service, which allows fault management for VPs and VCs. Loopback cells can be defined as Segment or End-to-End.

Standards ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides F4 and F5 ATM OAM support that complies with ITU-I.610.

Functional Description OAM can operate over ATM networks in five different modes: •

VP Intermediate Point



VC Intermediate Point



VP Segment Point



VC Segment Point



VC End-to-End Point.

VP Intermediate Point When a VP connection point (CP) is set as an intermediate point, it operates as follows: •

If the other side of the VP XC is also set as an intermediate point: ƒ

F4 segment, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC.

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Figure 4-22. VP Intermediate Point – Case A ƒ

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F4 segment AIS and end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.

Figure 4-23. VP Intermediate Point – Case B •

If the other side of the VP XC is set as a segment point: ƒ

F4 end-to-end, F5 segment and F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream, while F4 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are counted.

Figure 4-24. VP Intermediate Point – Case C ƒ

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.

Figure 4-25. VP Intermediate Point – Case D

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For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines the loopback state:

Figure 4-26. VP Intermediate Point – Case E

VC Intermediate Point When a VC connection point is set as an intermediate point, it operates as follows: •

If the other side of the VC XC is also set as an intermediate point: ƒ

F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream.

Figure 4-27. VC Intermediate Point – Case A ƒ

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F5 segment AIS together with end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.

Figure 4-28. VC Intermediate Point – Case B •

If the other side of the VC XC is set as a segment point:

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ƒ

F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment and end-to-end and F5 segment OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream.

Figure 4-29. VC Intermediate Point – Case C •

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F5 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.

Figure 4-30. VC Intermediate Point – Case D •

For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines the loopback state:

Figure 4-31. VC Intermediate Point – Case E

VP Segment Point When a VP connection point is set as a segment point, it operates as follows: •

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F4 end-to-end, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream, while F4 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.

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Figure 4-32. VP Segment Point – Case A •

When F4 segment AIS cells are received on the connection point, AIS state is declared. F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F4 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-33. VP Segment Point – Case B •

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared. F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F4 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-34. VP Segment Point – Case C •

When a VP segment point is set as a CC source point, F4 segment CC cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-35. VP Segment Point – Case D •

When a VP segment point is set as a CC sink point, F4 segment CC cells are expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during

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the last 3.5 seconds, an AIS state is declared, F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction and F4 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-36. VP Segment Point – Case E •

When a VP segment point is set as CC both, it behaves both as source and sink point.



For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines the loopback state (see Figure 4-37), and delays are calculated if the loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see Figure 4-38):

Figure 4-37. VP Segment Point – Case F

Figure 4-38. VP Segment Point – Case G

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VC Segment Point When a VC connection point is set as a segment point, it operates as follows: •

F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream, while F5 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.

Figure 4-39. VC Segment Point – Case A •

When F5 segment AIS cells are received, AIS state is declared. F5 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F5 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-40. VC Segment Point – Case B •

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared. F5 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F5 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-41. VC Segment Point – Case C

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When a VC segment point is set as a CC source point, F5 segment CC cells are generated towards the backward direction every second.

Figure 4-42. VC Segment Point – Case D •

When a VC segment point is set as a CC sink point, F5 segment CC cells are expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during the last 3.5 seconds, AIS state is declared. F5 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F5 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-43. VC Segment Point – Case E •

When a VC segment point is set as CC both, it functions both as a source and a sink point.



For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines the loopback state (see Figure 4-44), and delays are calculated if the loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see Figure 4-45):

Figure 4-44. VC Segment Point – Case F

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Figure 4-45. VC Segment Point – Case G

VC End-to-End Point When a VC connection point is set as an endpoint (end-to-end), it operates as follows: •

F4 and F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped from the cell stream. F5 end-to-end AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.

Figure 4-46. VC Endpoint – Case A •

When F5 end-to-end AIS cells are received, AIS state is declared and F5 end-to-end RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-47. VC Endpoint – Case B •

When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F5 end-to-end RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

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Figure 4-48. VC Endpoint – Case C •

When a VC endpoint is set as a CC source point, F5 end-to-end CC cells are generated towards the backward direction every second.

Figure 4-49. VC Endpoint – Case D •

When a VC endpoint is set as a CC sink point, F5 end-to-end CC cells are expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during the last 3.5 seconds, AIS state is declared and F5 end-to-end RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.

Figure 4-50. VC Endpoint – Case D

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When a VC end point is set as CC both, it functions both as a source and a sink point.



For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines the loopback state (see Figure 4-51), and delays are calculated if the loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see Figure 4-52):

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Figure 4-51. VC End Point – Case E

Figure 4-52. VC End Point – Case F Note

Only an ATM host connection can be set as a VC endpoint.

OAM Loopback OAM loopback cells are used to determine connectivity at specific points in a network or between networks. OAM cells are part of the F4 and F5 OAM service, which allows fault management for VPs and VCs. Loopback cells can be defined as Segment or End-to-End. OAM loopback support includes the following functionality: •

OAM loopback cell generation – If OAM loopback generation is enabled for a VC/VP at a certain CP, a loopback cell is sent for this VC/VP once every 5 seconds. The loopback cell is inserted towards the uplink (Tx) direction and must be looped through another CP back to the origin point, all within no more than 5 seconds.



OAM loopback reply – Each CP must: ƒ

Have the ability to receive OAM LB cells that are addressed to it, regardless of whether the OAM LB generation is enabled

ƒ

Loop the cells back towards the originator according to the standard definitions.

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Min/max/average delay statistics – loopback statistics is updated for each VP/VC that generates OAM loopback, upon each time a loopback cell completes a roundtrip before the 5 seconds loopback cycle period is over. Statistics are available for both current and previous intervals.

Configuring ATM OAM For ATM OAM, you can define up to 256 OAM descriptors and the OAM loopback parameters. ³

To configure the ATM OAM descriptor: 1. At the config>oam# prompt, enter atm. The config>oam>atm# prompt appears. 2. Enter one of the strings in the table below for the desired configuration.

Note

To add or modify a parameter, you have to re-enter the entire string covering all relevant descriptor parameters at the config>oam>atm# prompt.

Task

Command

Comments

Adding a descriptor with OAM mode set to End-toEnd, loopback enabled and a loopback destination address defined

descriptor <1..256> end-to-end [cc-direction {source|sink|both|off}] [loopback on lb-destaddr <00–FFx16>]



OAM Descriptor 1, 2 and 3 are default OAM descriptors and cannot be deleted or modified.



OAM descriptors cannot be modified while being used by connections.



CC-Direction stands for the OAM continuity check.

Adding a descriptor with OAM mode set to End-toEnd, loopback disabled

descriptor <1..256> end-to-end [cc-direction {source|sink|both|off}] [loopback off]

Adding a descriptor with OAM mode set to Segment, loopback enabled and a loopback destination address defined

descriptor <1..256> segment [cc-direction {source|sink|both|off}] [loopback on lb-destaddr <00–FFx16>]

Adding a descriptor with OAM mode set to Segment, loopback disabled

descriptor <1..256> segment [cc-direction {source|sink|both|off}] [loopback off]

Adding a descriptor with OAM mode set to Intermediate, loopback disabled

descriptor <1..256> intermediate [cc-direction {source|sink|both|off}]

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If set to Intermediate, Loopback is unavailable.

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Task

Command

Disabling the ATM OAM descriptor

no descriptor <1..256>

³

Comments

To configure the ATM OAM loopback: •

At the config>oam>atm# prompt, enter the Loopback string as explained below.

Task

Command

Specifying the loopback address and the number of lost loopback cells required before a loopback failure state is declared.

loopback [source-addr <00–FFx16>] [fail-threshold <1..16>]

Example The following section illustrates how to enable and configure the first ATM OAM descriptor that can be modified and set up a loopback. •

Set the descriptor to 4.



Choose end-to-end for the OAM mode.



Set the Loopback destination address to FF and the source address to 00.



Set the threshold of lost loopback packets to 8.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>atm# descriptor 4 end-to-end cc-direction source loopback on lb-dest-addr FF ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>oam>atm# loopback source-addr 00 fail-threshold 8

4.22 ATM Cell Tests ‘ATM Cell Test’ refers to the insertion of test cells into ATM streams. They are generated and inserted into an ATM combined data stream in such a manner that a desired average insertion rate is maintained. The desired average insertion rate is obtained by enabling the generation and insertion of test cells into each idle cell of the ATM combined data stream as long as the number of test cell inserted does not exceed a number that should have been inserted.

Configuring an ATM Cell Test ATM cell tests can be specified and manually invoked as explained below. You can define a cell test for cells without OAM information, for cells with Segment OAM, and cells with End-to-End OAM.

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To specify the ATM cell test: •

Note

Installation and Operation Manual

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter one of the strings in the table below.

To add or modify a parameter, you have to re-enter the entire string covering all relevant cell-test parameters at the config>port>atm# prompt.

Task

Command

Comments

Configuring and running a cell test for cells without OAM information

cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} vc <0..4095>/<0..65535> [user-cell {clp {clp0|clp1}] [payload <0x00..0xFF>] [noof-cells <1..10000>]]



e1. E1 port



t1. T1 port



ima-group. Logical port, grouping SHDSL or E1 ports



shdsl. SHDSL port



adsl2-plus. ADSL2+ port



sdh-sonet. ATM-155 port



slot/port. Slot, port or group number.



port. Port or group number



vc. Virtual circuit, defined by the virtual path identifier (vpi = 0..4095) and the virtual circuit identifier (vci = 0..65535)



user-cell. Cell without OAM information.



clp0. Cell always passes.



clp1. Cell passes if bandwidth sufficient.



payload. Payload content of the ATM cell.



no-of-cells. Number of cells to be sent.



oam-segment. Cell with OAM information.



oam. OAM type.



ais. Alarm indication signal.



rdi. Remote defect indication signal.



cc. Continuity cell.



oam-end-to-end. Cell with OAM end-to-end information.

Configuring and running a cell test for cells with OAM information

Configuring and running a cell test for cells with Endto-End OAM information

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cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} vc <0..4095>/<0.. 65535> [oam-segment {clp {clp0|clp1}] [oam {ais|rdi|cc}] [no-ofcells <1..10000>]]

cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} < port> vc <0..4095>/<0.. 65535> [oam-end-to-end {clp {clp0|clp1}] [oam {ais|rdi|cc} [no-ofcells <1..10000>]]

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Example The example below illustrates how to set up and run an ATM cell test for ATM cells with segmented OAM information over E1 ports. •

Choose the E1 port labeled 1 as the desired port.



Set VPI to 4095 and VCI to 65535.



Choose the OAM cells that are always forwarded (CLP0).



Use cells with OAM information of OAM type AIS.



Set the number of cells to be sent for this test to 5000.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm# cell-test e1 1 vc 4095/65535 oam-segment clp clp0 oam ais no-of-cells 5000 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm#

4.23 ATM Uplink ATM Uplink stands for the ability to carry pseudowire payloads over an AAL5 virtual channel (VC) over any ATM port such as STM-1, E1/T1, xDSL, UNI or IMA. The use of an ATM uplink requires a virtual MAC address bound to relevant port as explained below.

Standards The encapsulation and transport of multiprotocol data over ATM over AAL5 is specified in RFC1483.

Benefits The ATM uplink extends the ability of carrying pseudowires over DSL to the ability of carrying pseudowires over other physical and logical ATM ports.

Factory Defaults By default, no virtual MAC addresses are bound to ATM ports (E1/T1).

Configuring an ATM Uplink The configuration of an ATM uplink is identical to creating an uplink interface over ADSL or SHDSL ports.

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To create a logical port by assigning a virtual MAC address to the relevant ATM port: 1. Create the VCL of the type vcl_interface as explained under Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces. You may use physical interfaces (E1) or logical ones (IMA group). 2. Create a router bound to the VCL, setting llc-snap-encapsulation to bridgedpdu. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Router.

Task

Command

Comments

Creating an ATM uplink interface

At the config>port>atm# prompt:



A VCL must be configured before binding it to an ATM uplink router interface.



The encapsulation of AAL5 VC is available in Bridged PDU mode only.



The total number of router interfaces defined for the ATM uplink is limited to 8.

bind {e1|t1|ima} {port index} {group index} [vc {vc index}] [type vcl-interface] At the config>router(1)>interface(1)# prompt: bind {e1|t1|ima} {slot|port} {group index} [vc {vc index}] [llc-snap-encapsulation bridged-pdu]

4.24 IMA Groups Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a standardized technology and is used to transport ATM traffic over a bundle of up to 8/16 T1 or E1 lines. This bundle is referred to as IMA Group. The maximum number of lines that define an IMA Group is 32, enabling transmission at an accumulated data rate of about 64 Mbps. ACE3105, ACE-3205 supports up to 8/16 IMA groups. The IMA inverse multiplexing functionality requires some overhead (ICP or IMA control protocol cells, typically one ICP cell in every IMA frame, commonly 128 cells in length, and in CTC (Common Transmit Clock) mode, an ICP stuff cell must be inserted after every 2048 cells and an IMA sublayer on the physical layer.

Standards The standard specification (version 1.0) was initially approved by The ATM Forum in July 1997 and updated to version 1.1 in March 1999.

Benefits The IMA protocol allows ‘breaking up’ ATM traffic and transmit over several links combined to one logical link, thus increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 8/16, depending on the number of E1/T1 ports belonging to the IMA group.

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Configuring an IMA Group ACE-3105, ACE-3205 allows the creation of up to 8/16 IMA groups for E1/T1 or SHDSL ports. To configure the IMA groups, follow the instructions below. ³

To define an IMA group and the physical port type: 1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter ima-group {e1|t1|shdsl}. The config>port>atm>ima-group(<1–8/16>)$ prompt appears. 2. Configure the IMA group as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the minum number of required Rx and Tx links.

minimum-links {rx <1..8/16>} {tx <1..8/16>} Default: 1 for Rx and Tx

The required min number of links must be the same for Rx and Tx links.

Specifying the IMA group ID.

group-id <0..255> Default: 0

Specifying the Tx frame length used by the IMA group.

tx-frame-length {32cells|64cells|128cells|256cells}

Specifying the maximum link delay that can be tolerated (in ms).

max-differential-delay <1..100>

Default: 128cells

Default: 25

Specifying the supported IMA spec according to the ATM forum.

ima-version {1.0|1.1}

Specifying the transmit clock source used by the near-end IMA group.

tx-clock-source {ctc|itc}

Default: 1.1

Default: ctc

Specifying the IMA group’s Tx clock source

ctc-source {internal|system}

Administratively disabling the IMA group

shutdown

Administratively enabling the IMA group

no shutdown

Blocking the IMA group for any reason other than an insufficient number of links

blocking

Unblocking the IMA group

no blocking

Generating ATM OAM cells in case of Near End or Far End operational state failures.

oam-cell-generation

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Task

Command

Cancelling the generation of ATM OAM cells.

no oam-cell-generation

Resetting and restarting the IMA group

restart

³

Comments

This option is visible and operational if the blocking mode is disabled.

To remove an IMA group: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter no ima-group {e1|t1|shdsl}. The IMA group is removed.

Example The example below illustrates how to create and configure an IMA group over the first E1 port and bind more to it. Set parameters as follows:

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Set the functional mode of the first E1 port labeled 1 on the front panel to IMA.



Specify IMA group 1 and enter the first E1 port (the one labeled 1 at the front panel) as the physical port.



Assign 1 as ID for the IMA group.



Set the Tx frame length to 32 cells.



Set the max differential delay to 50 ms.



Associate the IMA group with IMA version 1.1.



Use CTC as the Tx clock source.



Choose the internal oscillator as CTC source.



Set the min number of Tx and Rx links to 16.



Bind the first E1 port (the one labeled 1 at the front panel) to the IMA group.



Administratively enable the IMA group.

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ACE-3205>config>port# e1 1 ACE-3205>config>port>e1(1)# functional-mode ima ACE-3205>config>port>atm# ima-group 1 E1 ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# group-id 1 ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# tx-frame-length 32cells ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# max-differential-delay 50 ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ima-version 1.1 ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# tx-clock-source ctc ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ctc-clock-source internal ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# minimum-links rx 16 tx 16 ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# no shutdown ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# bind 1

Viewing the Status of an IMA Group Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of IMA group 1. ³

To view an IMA group’s status: •

At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)$ prompt, enter show status group. The IMA group status information appears as illustrated below.

Parameter

Comment

Near End/Far End State

Current state of the near/far end group state engine

Near End Tx Clock

Clock mode of near-end IMA group, CTC only

Far End Tx Clock

Clock mode of far-end IMA group, either CTC or ITC.

Rx/Tx IMA ID

The received/transmitted IMA ID

Rx/Tx Frame Length

IMA frame length in cells of tranmitted/received frames

Rx/Tx Active Links

Number of active receiving/transmitting links

Rx/Tx Available Cell Rate

Current cell rate provided by the IMA group in receiving/transmitting direction

Rx Time Reference Links

The index of the received timing reference link used by the near end for IMA data cell clock recovery toward the ATM layer.

Tx Time Reference Links

The index of the transmitted timing reference link used by the near end to indicate the far end on IMA data cell clock recovery from the ATM layer.

Rx/Tx Configured Links

Number of links that are configured to receive/transmit in a group.

Failure Status

Current failure status of the IMA group

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Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

Last Change

Date and time when IMA has changed its state last.

Max Observed Differential Delay

The maximum differential delay observed (in milliseconds) between the links having the least and most link propagation delay

Least Delay Link

Index of the link with the shortest propagation delay

GSMT Running Seconds

Number of seconds since IMA group has been in operational state.

Numerical

Numerical

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show status group Near End Far End State Start Up Start Up TX Clock CTC CTC

IMA ID Frame Length Active Links Available Cell Rate Time Reference Link Configured Links

Rx 0 32 0 0 0 0

Failure Status Last Change Max Observed Differential Delay Least delay Link GSMT Running Seconds

Tx 1 32 0 0 0 0 NE Start Up 2009-11-22 21:25:20 0 0 0

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>atm>ima-group(1)$

Viewing the Status of a Link within an IMA Group Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of a link as part of IMA group 1. ³

To view the status of a link as part of an IMA group: 1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show status link. The status information for the first link that is part of the IMA group appears as illustrated below. 2. Press to view the status information on the next link and so on.

Parameter

Comment

Rx Link ID

The link ID used by the far end

Tx Link ID

The link ID used by the near end

Near End Rx State

Current state of near end receiving link state machine

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Parameter

Comment

Near End Tx State

Current state of near end transmitting link state machine

Near End Rx Failure

Current link failure status of the near end receive link

Far End Rx State

Current state of far end receiving link state machine

Far End Tx State

Current state of far end transmitting link state machine

Far End Rx Failure

Current link failure status of the far end receive link

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show status link E1-1 Rx Tx IMA ID 0 1 Frame Length 32 32 Active Links 0 0 Available Cell Rate 0 0 Time Reference Link 0 0 Configured Links 0 0 Failure Status Last Change Max Observed Differential Delay Least delay Link GSMT Running Seconds

NE Start Up 2009-11-22 21:25:20 0 0 0

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)$

Viewing IMA Group Statistics You can view statistics of an entire IMA group or individual links that are part of an IMA group.

Viewing Statistics of an Entire IMA Group You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals. ³

To view the current statistics for IMA group 1: •

At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

Time that has elapsed since the IMA group has been administratively enabled

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed

Rx Cells

Recived cells

Tx Cells

Transmitted cells

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Parameter

Comments

Group UAS

Number of one second intervals during which the IMA group traffic state machine is down

NE Failures

Number of times when a near end group failure has occured due to aborting the configuration or insufficient links.

FE Failures

Number of times when a far end group failure has occurred such as start-up, aborting the cofiguration, insufficient links or blocking.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show statistics group current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed : 632 Valid Intervals : 24 Rx Cells : 0 Tx Cells : 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205> config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group interval . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group all-intervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.

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Viewing Statistics of a Link in an IMA Group You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals. ³

To view the current statistics for a link: •

At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

Time that has elapsed since the IMA group has been administratively enabled.

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed.

IMA Link

The link for whichstatistics are recorded.

Violation

Number of ICP cells that are in error, invalid or missing (except during seconds when a SES or UAS-IMA condition is reported).

OIF

Number of OIF (Out of IMA Frame) irregularities (except during SES or UAS IMA at the near end).

Near End SES

Number of one-second intervals containing one of the following at the near end: •

More than 30% of ICP cells are IV-IMA (invalid IMA).



One or more of the following link errors: LOS, OOF/LOF, AIS, LCD.



LIF (Loss of IMA Frame) error.



LODS (Link Out of Delay Synchronization) error.

Far End SES

Number of one-second intervals containing one or more RDI IMA errors (except during UAS IMA at the far end).

Near End/Far End UAS

Number of unavailable seconds (UAS) at the near/far end respectively. A status of unavailable is initiated when there are 10 consecutive IMA near/far end SES occurrences; the status ends when there are 10 consecutive seconds with no IMA near/far end SES occurrences.

Near End/Far End Tx UUS

Number of unusable seconds at the near/far end transmission LSM (Link State Machine) respectively.

Near End/Far End Rx UUS

Number of unusable seconds at the near/far end receiving LSM.

Near End/Far End Rx Fail

Number of occurrences of a near/far end receiving failure, causing an alarm condition on this link

Far End Tx Fail

Number of occurrences of a far end transmission failure causing an alarm condition on this link.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show statistics link current Current ---------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed 651 Valid Intervals 24 IMA Link 1 Violation 0 OIF 0 Near End Far End SES 0 0 UAS 651 0 TX UUS 0 0 RX UUS 651 0 RX Fail 0 0 TX Fail N/A 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>atm>ima-group(1)$ ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link interval . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link allintervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.

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4.25 Router What is the Router in ACE-3105, ACE-3205? The internal router is an interconnection device that connects individual LANs and makes ACE-3105, ACE-3205 accessible from up to 256 access points (router interfaces) that you may define. Unlike bridges, which logically connect at OSI Layer 2, routers provide logical paths at OSI Layer 3. Like bridges, remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs.

Benefits Router interfaces enables users to assign up to 8 IP addresses to a single ACE3105, ACE-3205 unit using various protocols.

Factory Default By default, no router interface is enabled. Initially, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 must be accessed via a local craft connection using a terminal application such as HyperTerminal. Description

Default Value

ARP timeout (in seconds)

1200

Configuring the Router The router functionality allows ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to establish a link over IP or ATM with the management station(s), and allows management traffic to be carried through the unit towards specified targets, over pseudowire connections or other channels. ³

To set up the router: 1. At the config> prompt, enter router 1. The config>router(1)# prompt appears. 2. Configure the router specified below.

Task

Command

Specifying the period in seconds to pass before address resolution protocol entries are discarded (ARP timeout in seconds)

arp-timeout <300..100000>

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying an IP address that represents the device.

loopback-address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>



This IP address is also referred to as system address.



Cannot be included in the subnet of one of the interfaces.



Cannot be changed when the LDP ID has the same address.

³

To define a router interface and assign IP settings to it: 1. At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter config>router(1)>interface <1..8>. The config>router(1)>interface(<1..8>)# prompt appears. 2. At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..8>)# prompt, enable the DHCP or specify the IP settings as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the DHCP client

dhcp



If DHCP is enabled, you may configure the DHCP client as explained below.



You can configure a single DHCP client over every Ethernet port.



If DHCP is enabled over a specific port, you cannot configure another router interface over the same port.

Disabling the DHCP client

no dhcp

Assigning an IP address and a subnet mask to the router interface

address

Assigning a name to the router interface

name

³

To define a default gateway for the router: •

At the config>router(1)# , enter all necessary information as outlined below.

Task

Command

Specifying a default gateway

default-gateway address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

Using a router interface as default gateway

default-gateway interface <1..8>

Disabling the default gateway

no default-gateway

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Only if DHCP disabled.

Comments

This option requires a router interface to be configured.

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Note

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To configure the DHCP client:

The DHCP client can only be configured if DHCP is enabled. 1. At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..8>)# prompt, enter dhcp-client. The config>router(1)>interface(<1..8>)>dhcp-client# prompt appears. 2. Configure the DHCP Client parameters as illustrated in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the vendor class identifier

class-id

The vendor class identifier is a string that is passed on to the DHCP server for authentication.

Setting the lease time

lease

The DHCP requested lease time

³

To bind interfaces to a router interface: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, bind the desired interfaces as illustrated in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Binding an E1 interface

bind e1 <1..16> vc {<0..4095>/<0..65535>}

You must have a VCL inteface configured as explained under

Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces. Binding an IMA group of ports

bind ima-group <1..4/8/16> vc {<0..4095>/<0..65535>}



The number of possible IMA group depends on your hardware profile.



You must have a VCL inteface configured as explained under

Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces. Binding a pseudowire

bind pw <1..162>

You must have a pseudowire configured as explained under Configuring Pseudowires.

Binding a PPP connection

bind ppp <1..4>

You must have PPP configured as explained under Configuring PPPoE.

Binding the bridge

bind bridge 1

You must have a bridge configured as explained under Configuring a Bridge.

Binding an SHDSL port

bind shdsl {1..4}{1/1..1/4}

You must have a VCL inteface configured as explained under

Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces. Binding an ADSL2+ port

bind adsl {1|2}{1/1|1/2}

You must have a VCL inteface configured as explained under

Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.

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Task

Command

Comments

Binding a GRE tunel

bind gre-tunnel <1..4>

For instructions on defining a GRE tunnel, refer to the section below.

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To define a GRE tunnel •

At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter the syntax illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining a GRE tunnel

gre-tunnel source <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> destination <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>



gre-tunnel tunnel-id. Up to four GRE tunnels can be defined.



source. The GRE tunnel source address must either be a loopback address or one of the configured router interfaces.



The tunnel source address may consist of all zeros (0.0.0.0) if the GRE source is configured by DHCP.



destination. The GRE tunnel destination address must be associated with a known route, originated in the tunnel source address

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To configure the GRE Keep Alive •

At the config>router(1)>gre-tunnel<1..4># prompt, enable and define Keep Alive as explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining and enabling Keep Alive

keepalive [interval <1..32767>] [retries <1..255>



Disabling Keep Alive

no keepalive

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To enable/disable VLAN tagging: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the VLAN tagging as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Enabling VLAN tagging and assigning a VLAN ID and a priority

vlan <1..4094> priority <0..7>

Disabling VLAN tagging

no vlan

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keepalive. Enables and specifies the interval at which keep alive messages will be sent, and the number of keep alive messages to be sent.

Comments

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To enable/disable management access control: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the management access control as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling management access for SNMP, Telnet and SSH via this router interface.

management-access

The device can be accessed for management only if management access is enabled via this router interface.

Disabling management access via this router interface.

no management-access

If management access is disabled, settings can only be viewed by any user via the relevant router interface.

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To define the LLC/SNAP encapsulation: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the LLC/SNAP encapsulation as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Setting the LLC/SNAP encapsulation used with the AAL5 frame

llc-snap-encapsualtion {routedpdu|bridged-pdu}

Relevant and available only for E1, IMA group, , ADSL, SHDSL.

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To enable a router interface: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter no shutdown. The router interface is active.

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To display the status of the DHCP client: •

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At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter show status. ƒ

If DHCP disabled. A summary of the router interface settings appear.

ƒ

If DHCP enabled: A summary of the current DHCP settings appears.

To disable the router interface: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter shutdown. The router interface is disabled.

Configuring a Remote Peer Pseudowires and targeted LDP sessions require a remote peer device as destination. To enable path redundancy, you have to configure two routes at different priorities to the same peer. A redundant path will be used if Keep Alive identifies an error.

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To specify a remote peer: •

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At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter peer <1..32> ip <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> {name } to assign an ID, a name and specify its IP address.

The remote peer’s IP address must be associated with a known route

Configuring a Static Route For remote manager IP addresses and peers that are located in a subnet different than that of the router interface, you need to assign static route parameters as explained in this section. ³

To configure a static route: •

At the config>router(1)# prompt, configure the required parameter as explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the static route and the next gateway (next hop) using the next hop’s IP address

static-route address priority <1..2>



static-route. The next hop must be a subnet of one of the router interfaces.



The IP addresses and the mask may range between 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255.



address. Multicast, broadcast or all ones address is not allowed.



priority. The default is 1.

Enabling the static route and the router interface number towards which the destination subnet is to be routed.

static-route interface [priority <1..2>]

Disabling the static route and the next hop using the next hop’s IP address.

no static-route address

Disabling the static route and the router interface number towards which the destination subnet was to be routed.

no static-route interface

Configuring an MPLS Path Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in telecommunication networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next. MPLS makes it easy to create "virtual links" between distant nodes. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. You can do the following:

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Enabling Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)



Defining a Label Distribution Protocol



Defining an Ingress Tunnel



Defining an Egress Tunnel

To configure the MPLS path: 1. At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter mpls. The config>router(1)>mpls# prompt appears. 2. Configure the MPLS parameters as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)

php

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 advertises an implicit null label (a reserved label value of 3) for directly connected routes. This implicit null label causes the previous hop (penultimate) router to pop the most outer label before transmitting the packet to the LER. Thus, the packet arriving at the device through this port will not carry a tunnel label

Disabling Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)

no php

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 advertises an actual label value to the previous hop. After the tunnel label is established, all traffic arriving at the device from the previous hop through this port, will arrive above the tunnel label. This includes IP control traffic (such as LDP, PING etc…) that will be transmitted over a tunnel label and not as a raw IP address. The PHP mode cannot be disabled when there are PWs configured without tunnel label

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining the dynamic label range

label-range dynamic {0– 0|10000–65534}



Relevant only for incoming traffic. These settings have no effect on outgoing traffic.



Cannot be changed when the LDP signaling protocol is enabled.



The range setting is rejected if there are static PW connections or tunnels configured with labels that are included in the dynamic range.



The range is relevant to both tunnel and0020PW labels.



The static range is automatically determined according to the dynamic range selection,



A static label cannot be allocated in the range allocated only for dynamic labels.



0–0. To be set if no dynamic label range is used.



10000–65534. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports a single dynamic label range of up to 4094 labels within the range of 10000 and 65534. For example, the label range may be set to 20000–24094.

Default: 10000–14095

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Defining the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) This section explains how to configure the Label Distribution Protocol as part of the MPLS path on the router interface. ³

To define and configure the LDP: 1. At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, enter ldp. The config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt appears. 2. Configure the LDP parameters as illustrated below.

Task

Command

Comments

Associating an interface with the LDP.

ldp-id <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>



The LDP identifier to be used in all LDP sessions established with the unit.



The IP address must match one of the interface IP addresses or loopback addresses.



Cannot be changed when LDP is enabled.



LDP Hello messages enable LDP nodes to discover each other and to detect the failure of an LDP node or the link to it.



LDP Hello messages are sent periodically on all interfaces where LDP is enabled.



The Hello timer cannot be modified when the the LDP mode is enabled.



The Keep Alive timer cannot be modified when the the LDP mode is enabled.



basic-hello. Activates LDP Basic Hello on the selected interface.



For instructions on defining a remote, refer to Configuring a Remote Peer.

Removing the LDP identifier

no ldp-id

Defining the required interval between two consecutive Hello messages (in seconds).

hello-timer <0..65535> Default: 45

Defining the time after which a keep alive is sent (in seconds) for periods of inactivity

keep-alive-timer <1..65535>

Activating LDP on the selected router interface.

router-interface <1..32> [basic-hello {disable|enable}]

Removing the router interface associated with LDP.

no router-interface <1..32>

Specifying a previously defined remote peer to establish an LDP session with.

targeted peers <1..32>

Activating the LDP

no shutdown

De-activating the LDP

shutdown

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To display the Hello table: •

At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show hello-table. The Hello Table appears.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# show hello-table LDP ID Peer LDP ID Type Interval Time left (sec) (sec) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------ACE-3220>config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# ³

To display all LDP session: •

At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show session all. The LDP sessions appear listed.

³

To display a specific LDP session: •

At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show session [options [ldpid <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [peer-ldp-id <1..32>]]. The specified LDP session appears listed.

Configuring an Ingress Tunnel MPLS pseudowire connections require an ingress tunnel label. Follow the instructions below. ³

To configure or remove an ingress tunnel: •

At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, configure as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Configuring the ingress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to Manual

ingress-tunnel <1..32> manual [label <16..65534>] [name ]



1..32. Ingress Tunnel index



manual. Tunnel assignment mode. The tunnel assignment mode cannot be changed dynamically (on-the-fly)



label. ID of the label within the static label range. This value can only be set if the tunnel assignment mode is set to Manual.



name. Name of the ingress tunnel connection.

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Task

Command

Comments

Configuring the ingress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to LDP

ingress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name ]



ldp. Indicates whether the Tunnel Assignment mode is manual or LDP-assigned. If LDP-assigned, only one ingress tunnel can be configured. The tunnel assignment mode cannot be changed dynamically (on-the-fly)



A label-binding message is not published over an LDP session created with targeted peers, meaning that tunnel labels are never created with targeted peers.



Only one ingress tunnel is possible in LDP mode.

Removing the ingress tunnel.

no ingress-tunnel <1..32>

Configuring an Egress Tunnel To configure an egress tunnel, refer to the instructions below. ³

To configure or remove an egress tunnel: •

At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, configure as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Configuring the egress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to Manual and the EXP bits mode set to Static.

egress-tunnel <1..32> manual [label <16..1048575>] [name ] [static-exp <0..7>]



1..32. Egress Tunnel index



manual. Tunnel assignment mode. The tunnel assignment mode cannot be changed dynamically (on-the-fly)



label. ID of the label within the static label range. This value can only be set if the tunnel assignment mode is set to Manual.



name. Name of the egress tunnel connection.



static-exp. The EXP biots mode is set to static and the EXP bits have to be specified.

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Task

Command

Comments

Configuring the egress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to Manual and the EXP bits mode set to copy the EXP bit from the pseudowire.

egress-tunnel <1..32> manual [label <16..1048575>] [name ] copy-expfrom-pw



copy-exp-from-pw. The EXP bits are copied from the PSN parameters of the specific pseudowire.

Configuring the egress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to LDP and the EXP bits mode set to Static.

egress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name ] [static-exp <0..7>]



ldp. Indicates whether the Tunnel Assignment mode is manual or LDP-assigned. The tunnel assignment mode cannot be changed dynamically (on-the-fly).

Configuring the egress tunnel with the provisioning mode set to LDP and the EXP bits mode set to copy the EXP bit from the pseudowire.

egress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name ] copy-exp-from-pw

Removing the egress tunnel.

no egress-tunnel <1..32>

Example on Configuring a Router Interface The following section illustrates how to configure a router and define a router interface and bind the out-of-band Management Ethernet port to it for remote management. ³

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To configure the router and a router interface for the Ethernet port: •

Don’t specify a system address. You use the IP address of the to-beconfigured router interface to access ACE-3105, ACE-3205.



Define the first router interface (router interface 1) as follows: ƒ

Assign 172.17.180.153 or any desired IP address and 24 as the prefix for the 24-bit prefix of the mask. Leave DHCP disabled.

ƒ

Assign Ethernet port 1 (to reflect the port in use) as name to identify the router interface.

ƒ

Enable the router interface using the no shutdown command.



Configure a static route, setting the static route’s IP address to 172.17.181.100, the next gateway (hop) to 172.17.180.200 and the priority to 1.



Define a default gateway, for example 172.17.180.1.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)# arp-timeout 1200 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>interface(1)# address 172.17.180.153/24 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>interface(1)# name ETH-01 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>interface(1)# bind ethernet 1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>interface(1)# management-access ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)>interface(1)# no shutdown ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)# static-route 172.17.181.100/24 address 172.17.180.1 priority 1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)# default-gateway 172.17.180.1

Viewing the Router Status You can view the following status overviews: •

Routing table



Address resolution protocol



Routing interface table.

To view the relevant status reports, follow the instructions below. ³

To view the routing table: •

At the config>router(1) # prompt, enter show routing-table. A list of routes appears.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)> show routing-table Num IP Address/Mask Next Hop Protocol ----------------------------------------------------------------------------³

To view the address resolution protocol (ARP) table: •

At the config>router(1) # prompt, enter show arp-table. The table appears displaying the original MAC addresses and the associated (resolved) IP addresses.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)> show ARP-table Num IP Address MAC Address ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 66.66.66.66 00-1D-71-98-A8-40 ³

To view a router interface without DHCP: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(1)$ prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below for the example.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)># interface(1)$ show status IP Address: 172.17.180.153/24 configured

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To view a router interface with DHCP: •

At the config>router(1)>interface(1)$ prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below for the example.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)># interface(1)$ show status IP Address : 172.17.180.127/24 DHCP DHCP Client Information -------------------------------------------------------------------------Status : Holding Lease Server IP

: 192.114.24.10

Gateway IP

: 172.17.180.1

Lease Obtained Time : 2010-01-12 16:17:33 Lease Expire Time : 2010-02-11 16:17:33 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>router(1)># interface(1)$

4.26 VPL and VCL Interfaces ATM operates as a channel-based transport layer using virtual path connections (VPCs) and virtual channel connections (VCCs), which consist of a series of virtual links forming a path between two end points. These virtual links are called virtual path links (VPL) and virtual channel links (VCL), which are defined by virtual paths (VPs) and virtual channels using the 8- or 12-bit virtual path identifier (VPI) and the 16-bit virtual channel identifier (VCI) in the ATM header.

Standards VCCs/VPCs and VCLs/VPLs are defined in RFC1695.

Factory Defaults No VCL or VPL interfaces are defined by default.

Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces Follow the instructions below to configure VCL and VPL interfaces over SDHSONET, E1/T1, ADSL, SHDSL or IMA groups. ³

To add and configure a VPL interface: •

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Task

Command

Comments

Configuring a VPL interface over E1

vpl e1 < port> vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw} [out-traffic-descriptor <1..99999>] [in-trafficdescriptor <0..99999>] [oam-descriptor <1..256>]



VP: Virtual path, states the virtual path index (VPI).



Type: Specifies if the VPL interface is associated with a pseudowire or an ATM cross connection.



Out traffic descriptor: Specifies the channel’s Out-TD.



In traffic descriptor: Specifies the channel’s In-TD.

Configuring a VPL interface over an IMA group

³

vpl ima-group vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw} [out-traffic-descriptor <1..99999>] [in-traffic-descriptor <0..99999>] [oamdescriptor <1..2048>]

To delete a VPL interface: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, specify the relevant VPL by entering the relevant syntax as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Deleting a VPL interface over E1

no vpl e1 < port> vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw}

Deleting a VPL interface over an IMA group

no vpl ima-group vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw}

³

To add and configure a VCL interface: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter the relevant syntax as illustrated and explained below, depending on the ATM interface used.

Task

Command

Comments

Configuring a VCL interface over E1

vcl e1 < port> vc <0..4095/0..65535> type {atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router} [outtraffic-descriptor <1..99999>] [in-trafficdescriptor <0..99999>] [oam-descriptor <1..256>]



VC: Virtual channel, states the virtual path index and the virtual channel index (VPI/VCI).



CES-VC: CES virtual connection



VCL-Interface: Virtual channel link interface



Router. Router interface. VCL interfaces must be configured before configuring an ATM router interface.

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Task

Command

Configuring a VCL interface over an IMA group

vcl ima-group vc <0..4095/0..65535> type {atmxc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router} [out-trafficdescriptor <1..99999>] [in-traffic-descriptor <0..99999>] [oam-descriptor <1..2048>]

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Comments

To delete a VCL interface: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, specify the relevant VPL by entering the relevant syntax as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Disabling a VCL interface over E1

no vcl e1 < port> vc <0..4095/0..65535> type {atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router}

Disabling a VCL interface over an IMA group

no vcl ima-group vc <0..4095/0..65535> type {atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router}

³

To specify the max number of VPI bits: 1. Make sure that no logical connections exist, otherwise an error is returned. 2. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter max-vpi-bits {8-bits|12-bits} The max number of VPI bits is set to 8 bits or 12 bits respectively.

Example The example below illustrates how to create and configure a VCL interface over the first E1 interface and an ATM cross-connection. Use the following parameters: •

For the virtual channel (VC), use 4095 for the VPI and 65535 for the VCI.



Set the type to ATM-XC (ATM cross connection).



Set the outbound traffic descriptor to 1.



Set the inbound traffic descriptor to 1.



Set the OAM descriptor to 1.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm# vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535 type atm-xc outtraffic-descriptor 1 in-traffic-descriptor 1 oam-descriptor 1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm#

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Viewing VPL Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals. ³

To view the current statistics for a VPL (over the second E1 port and VP set to 4095): •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show e1 2 vp 4095 statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm# show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics current E1-UNI 1 VP 4095 Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) 403 Valid Intervals 24

Rx Cells(CLP 0+1) Rx Cells(CLP 0) Policing Discard(CLP 0+1) Policing Discard(CLP 0) Tagged Cells Tx Cells(CLP 0+1) Tx Cells(CLP 0) Congestion Discard (CLP 0+1) Congestion Discard (CLP0) OAM Rx AIS OAM Rx RDI OAM Tx RDI

ATM-155 1 VP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

E1-UNI 2 VP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

LOC FM SES FM UAS Loopback Loopback Loopback Loopback Loopback

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Avrg.Delay (usec) Min.Delay (usec) Max.Delay (usec) CDV Errored Session

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm# ³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics interval . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

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To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics allintervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm# prompt appears again.

³

To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm# prompt appears again.

Viewing VCL Statistics You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals. ³

To view the current statistics for a VCL (over the first E1 port and VC set to 4095/65535): •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535 statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are illustrated below.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>atm# show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535 statistics current E1-UNI 1 VC 4095/65535 Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) 447 Valid Intervals 24

Rx Cells(CLP 0+1) Rx Cells(CLP 0) Policing Discard(CLP 0+1) Policing Discard(CLP 0) Tagged Cells Tx Cells(CLP 0+1) Tx Cells(CLP 0) Congestion Discard (CLP0) Congestion Discard (CLP 0+1) OAM Rx AIS OAM Rx RDI OAM Tx RDI LOC

ATM-155 1 VC 32 4468564 0 457 0 0 2024336 0 0 2443773 0 0 0 0

FM SES FM UAS Loopback Loopback Loopback Loopback Loopback

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Avrg.Delay (usec) Min.Delay (usec) Max.Delay (usec) CDV Errored Session ³

E1-UNI 1 VC 32 2024338 0 0 0 0 2024338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335 statistics interval . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

³

To view the statistics for all intervals: 1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335 statistics all-intervals. Statistics for the first interval appear. 2. Press . The statistics for the next interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm# prompt appears again.

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To view all statistics: 1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335 statistics all. The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals. 2. Press . The statistics for the first interval appear. 3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm# prompt appears again.

4.27 Point to Point over Ethernet At the logical layer you can configure the PPPoE (Point to Point over Ethernet) protocol, if such features are used and required in your application. The PPPoE protocol allows retrieving IP addresses of all data, voice and management sources in order to ensure HSDPA connectivity in a variety of DSL-based cellular backhaul applications.

Standards RFC 2516.

Functional Description PPPoE stands for Point-to-Point over Ethernet. It is a protocol that encapsulates PPP frames inside Ethernet frames and is used mainly with DSL services where individual users connect to the DSL modem over Ethernet. Up to four PPPoE sessions can be initiated for acquiring IP addresses of all data/voice and management connections. When working with multiple sessions of PPPoE or other dynamic entities, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 provides virtual MAC addresses in addition to the standard ones that are provided for each physical port. Once the virtual MAC file is loaded, it is used by PPPoE entities and bridge ports, if such are configured. In addition:

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When a VCL is defined for DSL ports, several PPPoE sessions can be defined on the same VCL



Two PPPoE sessions can be established over the same ADSL2+ interface.



One PPPoE session is used to carry OAM traffic directed towards/from ACE-3105, ACE-3205, and the second PPPoE session is used to carry all the traffic to/from the Node B (a single PPPoE session is used for both data and OAM traffic of the Node B)



Each PPPoE session uses a different virtual source MAC address, and allocates a dynamic IP address from the LNS. The allocated IP address does not change, and another IP interface is defined statically on the Ethernet port

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that communicates with the Node B, to allow ARP processing between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the Node B.

Figure 4-53. Example for Implementing two PPPoE Sessions

Benefits The PPPoE protocol allows point-to-point connections over Ethernet while Ethernet networks themselves are packet-based and have no concept of a connection or circuit.

Factory Defaults By default, PPPoE is disabled.

Configuring PPPoE Some parameters apply to point-to-point (PPP) protocols in general while others specifically apply to the point-to-point over Ethernet (PPPoE). Therefore parameters are available under PPP and PPPoE. You can enable and operate up to four PPP ports as explained below. ³

To administratively enable and configure a PPP connection: 1. At the config>port# prompt, enter ppp <1..4> ethernet. The config>port>ppp(<1..4>)# prompt appears and the relevant PPPoE port is administratively enabled. 2. Additional commands and parameters are explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Binding an Ethernet port or an ATM uplink to the PPP port.

bind {ethernet < port>|logical-mac }

For instructions on configuring a Logical MAC port, refer to Configuring an ATM Uplink.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining the authentication and the minimum authentication level used by the PPP session.

authentication chap [minimum {pap|chap}}



pap. Simple password authentication, no encryption prior to transmission



chap. Secure authentication protocol that does not transmit passwords over the networks.

Default: chap, minimum authentication level: pap

Specifying a user name and a password for authentication

access-authentication [username ] [password ]

Administratively enabling the PPP

no shutdown

Administratively disabling the PPP

shutdown

³

To configure PPPoE: 1. At the config>port>ppp(<1..4>)# prompt, enter pppoe. The config>port>ppp(<1..4>)>pppoe# prompt appears. 2. Configure the PPPoE settings as illustrated and explained.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning a name to the access concentrator (AC)

ac-name {free text]

Defining the name of a specific service that may be requested during the PPPoE session.

service-name {free text]

If the the access concentrator does not support the requested service, the session will not be enabled.

Scheduling the time at around which the PPPoE session should restart.

scheduled-restart {random-range [0..3600]}

Changing the random range triggers the re-selection of a random value.

A random time range can be defined during to which the scheduled restart will occur. Cancelling the the time at which the PPPoE session should start.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining the range from which a random back-off value will be chosen.

backoff-random-range {0..600}

Changing the random range triggers the re-selection of a random value.

The random value is the number of delay seconds, applied before the initialization of each PPPoE session. This means that the PPPoE initialization packet (PADI) is not sent until the defied delay expires. Cancelling the backoff random range.

no backoff-random-range

Enabling the VLAN tag being inserted into the Tx frames and specifying the VLAN ID and the VLAN priority bits carried with the VLAN tag.

vlan {1..4095} [priority {0..7}]

Disabling VLAN tagging

no vlan

Example The following section illustrates how to enable and configure a PPP port and the PPPoE: •

Bind Gigabit Ethernet port labeled 1 (port 1) to the PPP.



Set the authentication level to CHAP and the minimum authentication level to PAP.



Specify test as user name and 1234 as password for authentication.



Administratively enable the PPP.



Enable and configure the PPPoE. ƒ

Assign conc-1 as AC name.

ƒ

Assign serv-1 as service name.

ƒ

Schedule 7:00:00 as restart time and provide a random range of 600 s.

ƒ

Do not define a backoff random range.

ƒ

Do not enable VLAN tagging.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# bind ethernet 1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# authentication chap minimum pap ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# access-authorization username test password 1234 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# no shutdown ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# pppoe ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# ac-name conc-1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# service-name serv-1 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# scheduled-restart 07:00:00 random-range 600 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# backoff-random-range 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# no vlan

Viewing the PPP (PPPoE) Status Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the PPP (PPPoE) port labeled 1 as an example. ³

To view the status: •

At the config>port>ppp(1)#prompt, enter show status. The status information appears as illustrated below.

Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

LCP

Indicates whether the LCP of the PPP session is currently up or down.

Not applicable Up Down

IPCP

Indicates whether the IPCP of the PPP session is currently up or down

Not applicable Up Down

Authentication

The authentication method used for the PPP session

None PAP Chap

Remote MRU

Value of the remote MRU (maximum receive unit)

Numerical

Local IP

IP address allocated to the ACE unit by IPCP

Valid IP address

PPPoE

ID of the PPPoE entity

ID of a previously defined PPPoE entity

Session Status

Indicates whether the PPPoE session is currently up or down.

Up Down

Session ID

ID # assigned to the PPPoE session by the access concentrator

Numerical

Remote MAC

MAC address of the access concentrator with which the PPPoE session is associated.

XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (hexadecima)

Local MAC

Displays the MAC address associated with the PPPoE session.

XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (hexadecima)

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Parameter

Comment

Possible Values

Backoff Time

The actual delay in seconds before every PPPoE initialization process (not including a scheduled restart). If the first PPPoE packet is not sent, this delay expires.

Number of seconds

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port>ppp(1)# show status LCP : Up IPCP Authentication : CHAP Remote MRU : 1500 Local IP : 172.17.143.91 PPPoE Session Status Remote MAC Backoff Time (Sec) Scheduled Restart

: : : : :

UP 00-20-D2-20-51-CD 0 07:08:17

Session ID Local MAC

: Up

: 1 : 00-20-D2-22-AB-60

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>port> ppp(1)#

4.28 Pseudowires Pseudowires are an emulation of Layer-2 point-to-point connection-oriented services over packet-switching networks (PSN). Services are carried over pseudowires over PSN such as ATM, Ethernet or TDM, while the PSN may either be MPLS (Multi-protocol label switching) or IP.

Standards RFC 4448 - Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over MPLS Networks RFC 4447 - Pseudowire Setup and Maintenance - Using the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) RFC 4553 - Structure-Agnostic Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) over Packet (SAToP) RFC 4717 - Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over MPLS Networks RFC 5086 - Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) RFC 5287 - Control Protocol Extensions for the Setup of Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Pseudowires in MPLS Networks. Y.1411 - ATM pseudowires Y.1412 - AAL5 pseudowires Y.1413 - TDM pseudowires

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Y.1414 - Voice Services pseudowires Y.1415 - Ethernet pseudowires Y.1418 - Pseudowire Layer Networks Y.1452 - Voice Services over IP Y.1453 - TDM over IP

Functional Description This section illustrates and explains the pseudowire structure for Ethernet, ATM and TDM pseudowires.

Basic Pseudowire (PW) Encapsulation A pseudowire (PW) packet comprises the following data components (see Figure 4-54): •

Ethernet header – contains the DA (destination MAC address), SA (local MAC address) and Ethernet network type.



PSN header – defines the PSN transport type: MPLS, UDP over IP, MPLS over IP, MPLS over GRE and PPPoE.



Control Word – a data control as defined in the relevant IETF RFCs and drafts.



Payload – the service payload (ATM or TDM payload), which contains the actual traffic data. Ethernet header PSN Header Control Word Payload

Figure 4-54. Basic PW Structure

Encapsulation over Different PSN Types Pseudowire connections may be encapsulated in different formats, depending on the type of PSN used in the application. The supported formats are: MPLS/Layer-2, MPLS over IP, MPLS over GRE, UDP over IP, and PPPoE.

MPLS/Layer-2 Packet Format The following figure illustrates the MPLS or Layer-2 encapsulation format: DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 8847

Tunnel label

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-55. MPLS/Layer-2 Encapsulation Format

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Table 4-9. MPLS/Layer-2 Encapsulation Parameters

Optiona

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 8847

MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.

Tunnel label

Label of the PW tunnel between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the PE. This parameter is manually configured per PW/peer and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Optional

A different value is possible for the RX and TX directions (tunnel in/out). PW label

Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined per PW and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

MPLS over IP Packet Format The following figure illustrates the MPLS over IP encapsulation format: DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 800

IP header

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-56. MPLS over IP Encapsulation Format Table 4-10. MPLS over IP Parameters

Optional

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per

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Parameter Name

Purpose PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 800

IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.

IP header

The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set to 137 (MPLS in IP). 20 bytes long.

PW label

Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined per PW and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

MPLS over GRE Packet Format The following figure illustrates the MPLS over GRE encapsulation format: DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 800

IP header

GRE header

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-57. MPLS over GRE Encapsulation Format Table 4-11. MPLS over GRE Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

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Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 800

IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.

IP header

The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set to 47 (GRE). 20 bytes long.

GRE header

The Protocol Type field of the GRE header is set to 0x8847 (MPLS). 4 bytes long.

PW Label

Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined per PW and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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Parameter Name

Purpose depending on the PW type.

MPLS Packet with/without PHP The following figures illustrate the MPLS packet format with and without PHP (for more information, refer to Chapter 1). PHP Disabled – Control Packet DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 8847

Tunnel label

IP header

UDP

LDP

Figure 4-58. MPLS Control Packet when PHP is Disabled Table 4-12. Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 8847

MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.

Tunnel label

Label of the PW tunnel between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the PE. This parameter is manually configured per PW/peer and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long. A different value is possible for the Rx and Tx directions (tunnel in/out).

IP header

The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.

UDP

UDP bytes

LDP

LDP bytes

PHP Disabled – Data Packet DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 8847

Tunnel label

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-59. MPLS Data Packet when PHP is Disabled

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Table 4-13. Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 8847

MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.

Tunnel label

Label of the PW tunnel between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the PE. This parameter is manually configured per PW/peer and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long. A different value is possible for the Rx and Tx directions (tunnel in/out).

PW label

Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined per PW and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

PHP Enabled – Control Packet DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 800

IP header

UDP

LDP

Figure 4-60. MPLS Control Packet when PHP is Enabled Table 4-14. Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

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Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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Parameter Name

Purpose

Type 800

MPLS packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.

IP header

The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.

UDP

UDP bytes

LDP

LDP bytes

PHP Enabled – Data Packet DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 8847

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-61. MPLS Data Packet when PHP is Enabled Table 4-15. Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 8847

MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.

PW label

Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined per PW and per direction, or dynamically learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

UDP over IP Packet Format The following figure illustrates the UDP over IP encapsulation format: DA

SA

Type 8100

VLAN tag

Type 800

IP header

UDP header

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-62. UDP over IP Encapsulation Format

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Table 4-16. UDP over IP Encapsulation Parameters

Optional

Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the remote peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.

SA

MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.

Type 8100

If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.

VLAN tag

If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per PW. 2 bytes long.

Type 800

IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.

IP header

The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.

UDP header

8 bytes long; contains the details of: •

UDP source port – identifies the PW label of the destination unit



UDP destination Port – uses TDMoIP protocol number: 0x85E (2142)

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

PPPoE Packet Format A PPPoE encapsulation can be either of the following two formats: DA

SA

Type 8864

PPPoE header

PPP header

IP header

UDP header

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-63. PPPoE Encapsulation Format – with UDP Header DA

SA

Type 8864

PPPoE header

PPP header

IP header

PW label

Control Word

Payload

Figure 4-64. PPPoE Encapsulation Format –with MPLS in IP Table 4-17. PPPoE Encapsulation Parameters Parameter Name

Purpose

DA

Destination MAC address of the access concentrator which was learned in the PPPoE session. 6 bytes long.

SA

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Parameter Name

Purpose

Type 8864

Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8864, which indicates that it is a PPPoE data frame. 2 bytes long.

PPPoE header

Contains the PPPoE session ID. 6 bytes long.

PPP header

Identifies the PPP payload and set to 0x21 to indicate an IP frame. 2 bytes long.

IP header

20 bytes long and contains:

UDP header



Source IP of the device, as was learned by the PPP/IPCP session



Destination IP of the remote peer (configured manually)



Protocol field of the IP header; can be either UDP (17) or MPLS in IP (137), depending on the PW configuration.

Used only for UDP traffic. 8 bytes long and contains:

PW Label



UDP source port – identifies the PW label of the destination unit



UDP destination Port – uses TDMoIP protocol number: 0x85E (2142)

Used only for MPLS in IP mode. Manually defined per PW and per direction. 4 bytes long.

Control Word

Contains the sequence number and control bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes long.

Payload

The service data carried on the frame, depending on the PW type.

ATM Service Encapsulation ATM traffic is encapsulated in either the one-to-one or N-to-1 mode.

One-to-One (1:1) ATM PW Encapsulation In the one-to-one (1:1) ATM PW mapping mode (selectable), one ATM VCC/VPC is mapped to a single pseudowire link. The following figure illustrates the packet format in 1:1 mode: ATM Control

0

0

0

0

Reserved (4 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes) Cell Header

M

V

Reserved

PTI

C

VCI (2 bytes)

Figure 4-65. 1:1 Encapsulation Structure ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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Table 4-18. 1:1 Encapsulation Parameters Parameter Name

Purpose

Sequence number

An unsigned 16-bit rounded number for guaranteeing an ordered packet delivery.

M

Transport mode bit of the control byte; indicates whether the packet contains an ATM cell or a frame payload (cell mode = 0; frame mode = 1).

V

Indicates whether the VCI field is present in the packet; its value is either 0 or 1.

PTI

The 3-bit Payload Type Identifier (PTI) value; copied form the PTI bits of the encapsulated ATM cell header.

C

Indicates the CLP (Cell Loss Priority) value of the encapsulated cell; copied from the encapsulated ATM cell header.

VCI

The 16-bit Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI). Valid only if V=1 (see above).

The following figure illustrates the multiple cells concatenation in 1:1 mode:

ATM Control

0

0

0

0

Reserved (4 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes) Cell Header

M

V

Reserved

PTI

C

PTI

C

PTI

C

VCI (2 bytes) Payload (48 bytes)

Cell Header

M

V

Reserved VCI (2 bytes) Payload (48 bytes)

Cell Header

M

V

Reserved VCI (2 bytes) Payload (48 bytes)

Figure 4-66. Multiple Cells Concatenation in 1:1 Encapsulation Mode

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N-to-One (N:1) ATM PW Encapsulation In N-to-one (N:1) mapping mode (selectable), one or more ATM VCCs/VPCs are mapped to a pseudowire link. The following figure illustrates the packet format in N:1 mode: 0 ATM Control

0

0

0

Reserved

flags (4 bits) length (6 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes) VPI (12 bits) 4 bytes Cell Header

VCI (16 bits) PTI/CLP

Figure 4-67. N:1 Encapsulation Structure The following figure illustrates the multiple cells concatenation in N:1 mode: 0 ATM Control

0

0

0

Reserved

flags (4 bits) length (6 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes) 4 bytes cell header Payload (48 bytes) 4 bytes cell header Payload (48 bytes)

Figure 4-68. Multiple Cells Concatenation in 1:1 Encapsulation Mode

AAL5-SDU ATM PW Encapsulation The AAL5-SDU control word for an ATM PW has the following structure: 0

0

Reserved

0

0

T

E

C

U

length (6 bits) Sequence number (2 bytes)

Figure 4-69. AAL5-SDU Control Word Structure

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Table 4-19. AAL5-SDU Control Word Parameters Parameter Name

Purpose

Reserved

Reserved for future use; assigned with 0 value.

T

Transport type bit. If set to 1, the packet contains an ATM admin cell. If not set, the PDU contains an AAL5 payload.

E

EFCI bit. Set to 1 if the EFCI bit of one or more cells in the AAL5 CPCS-SDU is set also to 1. Otherwise, it is set to 0.

C

CLP bit. Set to 1 if the CLP bit of one or more cells in the AAL5 CPCS-SDU is set also to 1. Otherwise, it is set to 0.

U

Command/response field bit. Set to 0.

Sequence number

A 16 bits, unsigned and rounded number that can be used to guarantee ordered packet delivery.

TDM Service Encapsulation TDM traffic can be encapsulated over PSN in two modes: •

CESoPSN – CES (Circuit Emulation Services) over PSN



SAToP – Structure-Agnostic over Packet.

Accordingly, the TDM Control Word frame is structured differently for each encapsulation mode. For the TDM payload illustration, see TDM Payload.

CESoPSN Control Word The following figure illustrates the structure of the CESoPSN Control Word: 0

0

0

0

L

R

M

FRG

LEN (6 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes)

Figure 4-70. CESoPSN Control Word Structure Table 4-20. CESoPSN Control Word Parameters

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Parameter Name

Purpose

Bits 0–3

Structure bits that their value must be zero

L

If set, indicates that the TDM data carried in the payload in invalid due to a TDM circuit failure

R

Remote receive failure (PSN RDI) on the PSN side

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Parameter Name

Purpose

M

A 2-bit modifier field that further defines the failure if the L parameter was set: •

L|M=000 means no failure; the payload must be processed as received



L|M=100 means TDM failure; the TDM data is invalid



L|M=010 means RDI state of the TDM attachment circuit (AC)

FRG

Fragmentation field for services with CAS

LEN

Used to specify the length of the CESoPSN packet (CESoPSN header size + the payload size) if it is less than 64 bytes. If the total length is 64 bytes or more, the LEN value is set to zero.

Sequence number

Used to provide the common PW sequencing functions, as well as the detection of lost packets

SAToP Control Word The following figure illustrates the structure of the SAToPSN Control Word: 0

0

0

0

L

R

RSV

FRG

LEN (6 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes)

Figure 4-71. SAToP Control Word Structure Table 4-21. SAToP Control Word Parameters Parameter Name

Purpose

Bits 0–3

Structure bits that their value must be zero

L

If set, indicates that the TDM data carried in the payload in invalid due to a TDM circuit failure

R

Remote receive failure (PSN RDI)

RSV

Reserved; must be set to zero

FRG

Fragmentation; must be set to zero

LEN

Used to specify the length of the SAToP packet (SAToP header size + the payload size) if it is less than 64 bytes. If the total length is 64 bytes or more, the LEN value is set to zero.

Sequence number

Used to provide the common PW sequencing functions, as well as the detection of lost packets

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TDM Payload The following figure illustrates the structure of the TDM payload: Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Up to N timeslots in a bundle

Timeslot N Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Up to N timeslots in a bundle

Payload – Up to M TDM frames

Timeslot N Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Timeslot N

Figure 4-72. TDM Payload The TDM payload illustrated above consists of the following parameters: •

N – number of timeslots in a bundle



M – number of bundles in a packet



L – the packet payload size in bytes (up to 512 bytes), calculated by multiplying N by M (N¯M)



D – the packetization delay in milliseconds, calculated by dividing L by N¯8 (L / N¯8).

Clock Encapsulation ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can encapsulate and distribute an adaptive clock, based on the CESoPSN format, explained and illustrated under CESoPSN Control Word. The maximum payload size is 512 bytes. ACE units at the desired destination receive the adaptive clock by setting the recovered clock to Adaptive as explained under Recovered Clock.

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Ethernet header PSN Header 0

0

0

0

L

R

M

FRG

LEN (6 bits)

Sequence number (2 bytes) Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Up to N timeslots in a bundle

Timeslot N Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Up to N timeslots in a bundle

Payload – Up to M TDM frames

Timeslot N Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2

Timeslot N

Figure 4-73. Clock Encapsulation

Ethernet Service Encapsulation The Ethernet pseudowire allows ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to backhaul Ethernet traffic originating from a Node B or an RNC over IP/MPLS networks and can be used together with TDM and ATM pseudowire mechanisms if 2G BTS and 3G node are located on the same site. The Ethernet pseudowire mechanism uses the same signaling mechanism as the TDM and ATM signaling mechanisms. The Ethernet pseudowire mechanism can operate on Layer 2 or Layer 3 and uses the following classification methods: •

VLAN ID (Layer 2)



VLAN ID + P bits (Layer 2)



DST IP (Layer 3)



DST IP + IP Precedence (Layer 3)



DST IP + DSCP (Layer 3)



All.

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Each port can only operate in one classification mode. The mode of a port is determined by the mode of the first flow configured on that specific Ethernet port. The Ethernet pseudowire cross connection (PW XC) is created by mapping the pseudowire to the SVI. In N:1 mode, multiple flows will terminate at the same SVI and this SVI will be mapped to a single pseudowire, so that different flows will be directed to the same pseudowire

VLAN ID The RNC differentiates the traffic to several Node Bs by assigning an individual VLAN ID to every Node B. A single pseudowire is created per assigned VLAN ID.

VLAN ID + P Bits The RNC differentiates the traffic to several Node Bs by assigning a different VLAN ID to every Node B. Different traffic classes such as signaling, voice and data are separated by defining a different priority for every class. A single pseudowire is created per combination of VLAN ID and priority.

DST IP The RNC differentiates traffic directed to several Node Bs by assigning a different IP address to every Node B. A single pseudowire is created per destination (Node B) IP address or range of destination IP addresses.

DST IP + IP Precedence The RNC differentiates traffic to several Node Bs by assigning a different IP address to every Node B. Different traffic classes such as signaling, voice and data are separated by defining a different priority for every class. A single pseudowire is created per combination of destination IP address and IP Precedence bit or per range of destination IP addresses and IP Precedence bits.

DST IP + DSCP This option is similar to the previous one. The difference is that the priorities are marked by DSCP bits instead of IP Precedence bits.

Raw/Tagged Mode In both modes, VLAN Manipulation (push, pop, swap) is supported in user to network direction. It is not supported in network to user direction. The only difference between the two modes is that if the Ethernet pseudowire is configured with LDP enabled, the Ethernet pseudowire is bound to a single flow over a single VLAN. This VLAN is published via LDP packets.

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Factory Defaults By default, no pseudowires are configured. If you configure a pseudowire, the following default values are set. Description

Default Value

Specifying the misorder window size (atm-parameters window-size)

4

Enabling/disabling the PW reordering mechanism (atm-parameters reordering)

disable

The number of an existing peer device to which to assign the current pseudowire.

Next higher number after the the last peer device you defined

Tx queue level (SAToP and Basic CES-PSN)

High

Tx queue level (ATM VP 1 to 1, ATM VC 1 to 1, ATM VP N to 1, ATM VC N to 1 and AAL5-SDU)

Low

VLAN tagging on every transmitted packet

As configured for the matching router interface

ToS byte used on outbound traffic

0

Ingress and egress tunnel indices

0

Specifying if AAL5-SDU frames are forwarded to an ATM-VCC or a router

router

Configuring Pseudowires To configure pseudowires, you have to configure the ATM parameters, clear the DF bit (if required), set the MTU settings (if required) and then select the pseudowire type.

Note

³

An Ethernet port cannot be configured as an uplink port of a pseudowire if a flow is already configured over the respective Ethernet port. To configure ATM parameters for ATM pseudowires: 1. At the config# prompt, enter pwe. The config>pwe# prompt appears. 2. Configure the desired pseudowire as explained and illustrated in the table below.

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the misorder window size

atm-parameters [window-size {0|1|2|4|8|16|32}]

In packet-switched traffic, some packets are not received according to their predefined sequence number. The misorder window size defines the number of packets in the window, in which ACE3105, ACE-3205 tries to correct the packet sequence misorder errors.

Note: Cannot be changed if pseudowires already exist. Enabling/disabling the PW reordering mechanism

atm-parameters [reordering {disable|enable}]

To allow proper de-capsulation of ATM traffic, ACE-3105, ACE3205 has a mechanism that corrects misorders by re-ordering the received packets.

Note: Cannot be changed if pseudowires already exist.

³

Note

To disable/enable the defragmentation of packets over pseudowires:

This parameter is relevant only if you use certain Cisco routers as pseudowire peers. •

At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the following:

Task

Command

Comments

Disabling the defragmentation of packets transmitted over the pseudowire

df-bit-cleared

This setting is required when transmitting over ATM pseudowires over Cisco routers such as the 7600 Series. df-bit stands for defragmentation bit.

Enabling the defragmentation of packets

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no df-bit-cleared

This setting is the default and should not be changed except when using Cisco routers such as the 7600 Series.

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Note

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To add/remove the MTU type-length-value:

This parameter is relevant only if you use certain Cisco routers as pseudowire peers. •

At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the following:

Task

Command

Comments

Enabling the MTU type length value.

mtu-tlv-sent

The MTU type length value must be enabled for transmitting LDP TDM pseudowires over Cisco routers.

Defining the MTU size

mtu-size

Disabling the MTU type length value.

no mtu-tlv-sent

³

The MTU type length value should be disabled for all other configurations.

To define and configure a pseudowire: 1. At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the syntax illustrated in the table below. The config>pwe>pw(<1..26>)# prompt appears.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning the pseudowire number and type, and specifying the PSN.

pw <1..26> [type {atm-vc-1-to-1|atm-vp-1-to1|atm-vc-n-to-1|atm-vp-n-to-1|ces-psn-data|cespsn-distribution-clock|e1satop|aal5-sdu|ethraw|eth-tagged}] [psn {mpls|udp-over-ip|mplsover-ip|mpls-over-gre}] [{manually|ldp}]



type. Specifies the pseudowire type.



psn. Specifies the PSN type.



manually/ldp. Specifies the provisoning mode, i.e. whether the pseudowire is manually established or using signaling.

2. At the config>pwe>pw(<1..26>)# prompt, enter the parameters specified in the table below. Task

Command

Assigning a name to the pseudowire

name

Specifying the number of an existing peer device to which the current pseudowire is assigned.

peer <1..8>

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A peer with a multicast IP address can be set only for a clock distribution or a clock recovery PW.



A peer that is routed through a PPPoE router interface cannot be set for MPLS over GRE.



The peer number cannot be changed dynamicaly (on-the-fly).

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the PW label used in the inbound direction.

label in <1..4095>, if the PSN type is UDPoIP (udpover-ip).



Not relevant for clock distribution



If defined manually and the PSN type is MPLS (mpls), MPLSoIP (mpls-over-ip) or MPLSoGRE (mpls-over-gre), the PW value range must be within the static label range.

label in <16..655345> for all other PSN types Specifying the pseudowire ID

ldp-pw-id <1..4294967295>

The pseudowire ID is a unique number that must be defined identically on both the local and remote unit. This ID is used to identify the PW connection when labels are exchanged with LDP.

Enabling the use of a control word on this pseudowire

control-word

The control word can be disabled only in the following pseudowire types: •

ATM VP 1 to 1 (atm-vp-1-to-1)



ATM VC 1 to 1 (atm-vc-1-to-1)



ATM VP N to 1 (atm-vp-n-to-1)



ATM VC N to 1 (atm-vc-n-to-1)



Ethernet PW

Disabling the use of a control word on this pseudowire

no control-word

Enabling sequence numbering

sequence-number

The AAL5-SDU and Ethernet pseudowire types do not support sequence numbering.

Disabling sequence numbering

no sequence-number

When disabled, the Sequence bit in the control word equals zero (0), relevant only if the control word is enabled. Sequence numbering can only be disabled in the following PW types:

Selecting the Tx queue level

tx-queue {high|medium|low}



ATM VP 1 to 1 (atm-vp-1-to-1)



ATM VC 1 to 1 (atm-vc-1-to-1)



ATM VP N to 1 (atm-vp-n-to-1)



ATM VC N to 1 (atm-vc-n-to-1)



Ethernet pseudowire

Specifies the priority of the pseudowire in the outbound direction via the Ethernet port. Not relevant when the pseudowire subtype is clock recovery.

Note: For clock distribution pseudowires, the priority level is assigned automatically and cannot be changed.

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Task

Command

Comments

Enabling and configuring the OAM VCCV-BFD protocol

oam vccv-bfd [{multiplier <2..60} {tx-minimum <1000000..4294967295>} {rx-minimum <1000000..4294967295>}]

Not relevant for SAToP, Basic CES PSN or AAL5-SDU pseudowires

Disabling the OAM VCCV-BFD protocol

oam disable

Eabling and configuring VLAN tagging on every transmitted packet

vlan [id <0..4094>] [priority <0..7>]

The VLAN ID and priority are indicated to every transmitted packet of the relevant pseudowire.

Assigning the EXP bits to be used on the pseudowire label and the tunnel label.

exp-bits <0..7>

Applies only to MPLS-based PSNs such as MPLS, MPLSoIP, MPLSoGRE and only if the PW subtype is data or clock distribution.

Specifying the value for the ToS byte used on outbound traffic

tos <0..255>

Applies if the PSN type is UDP over IP, MPLS over IP, or MPLS over GRE.

Specifying the ingress and egress tunnel indices

tunnel-index [ingress {0|<1..8>}] [egress {0|<1..8>}]



Relevant for MPLS based PSNs only



Ingress tunnel, ot relevant for clock distribution



Cannot be modified dynamically (on the fly)



The ingress tunnel provisioning mode (manual or LDP driven) must be the same as the egress tunnel provisioning mode



0 – the tunnel label is not used.

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Task

Command

Comments

Configuring the ATM service parameters (ATM payload)

atm-payload [max-cells <1..29>] [aal5-mode {enable|disable}] [timeout-mode enable timeout <100..5000000>}



max-cells. Refers to the max number of ATM cells concentrated in a single Ethernet frame for this pseudowire. An Ethernet frame is sent only if the max number of cells has been reached, if an ATM cell indicating the end of AAL5-PDU has been received (LBS in PTI field = 1), if the timeout for this pseudowire has expired.



aal5-mode. Enables or disables the AAL5 mode for the relevant psudowire. When enabled, reciving a cell with PTI=1 triggers a frame transmission. This parameter is not relevant for AAL5-SDU pseudowires.



timeout-mode. Enables or disables the timeout mechanism for the relevant pseudowire and specifies the timeout in usec, if enabled. This parameter is not relevant for the AAL5-SDU pseudowire type.



Relevant if the selected pseudowire type is AAL5-SDU.



Cannot be changed dynamically (on the fly).



size. The payload size in bytes. It is multiplied with the number of timeslots in the bundle.



rate. The number of time slots for each frame in the packet. The value of size/rate should be 2 to 256.



size. The payload size in bytes, The payload size is multiplied with 32.



rate. The number of time slots for each frame in the packet. The value of size/rate should be 2 to 256.

atm-payload [max-cells <1..29>] [aal5-mode {enable|disable}] [timeout-mode disable}

Specifying whether AAL5-SDU frames received from the PSN are forwarded to the router or an ATM VCC.

aal5-termination {atm|router}

Configuring the TDM payload for CES over PSN.

tdm-payload [size <34..512>] [rate <1..31>]

Configuring the TDM payload for SAToP.

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the jitter buffer’s delay towards the transmit direction in usec.

jitter-buffer <1000..32000>

The jitter buffer compensates for the packet delay variation tolerance (PDVT) and general network jitter.

Activating the current pseudowire

Note

The minimum value cannot be lower than the packetization delay, which is calculated as follows: •

For E1/T1 CES PSN packetization delay – the payload size (frames in packet) is doubled by 125 microseconds.



For T1 SAToP packetization delay – the payload size (frames in packet) is multiplied with 32. The result is divided by 24 and then multiplied with 125 microseconds: {[payload size x 32] : 24} x 125 usecs.

no shutdown

Once activated, a pseudowire cannot be deactivated (shut down).

Viewing the Pseudowire Status 1. At the config#pwe prompt, enter the desired pseudowire (pw ). The config>pwe>pw()$ prompt appears. 2. Enter show status. The status screen appears. For information on the displayed parameters and settings, refer to the table above.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>pwe>pw(5)$ show status PW : 5 Name PW Type PSN Type Operational Status Local Status Remote Status Active Router IF Out Label Out Tunnel Label In Label In Tunnel Label

: : : : : : : : : : :

PW-5 SAToP MPLS Forwarding N/A 0 0 0 0

ACE-3220>config>pwe>pw(5)$

4.29 Cross Connections Cross connections are internal connections of two streams that are transmitted over the same port or two different ports. In this case, these two streams can be two ATM streams or an Ethernet stream over ATM with an ATM stream.

Configuring a Cross Connection ³

To configure an ATM-VP cross connection: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream of one VP received over E1/T1 and to be cross-connected with a stream of another VP to be transmitted over the same or a different E1/T1 port.

atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. ‘Port 1’, carrying the stream to be cross connected with the stream on ‘port 2’



vp. Virtual path of the stream on ‘port 1’.



e1/t1. ‘Port 2’



vp. Virtual path of the stream on ‘port 2’



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over E1 (port 1) to the stream that transmits over E1 (port 2).

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream received of one VP over E1 and to be crossconnected with a stream of another VP to be transmitted over IMA.

atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [ima-group ] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over the IMA group. The number of available E1 ports depends on your hardware profile



vp. Virtual path of the stream on E1.



ima-group. IMA group



vp. Virtual path of the stream transmitted over the IMA group.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received via E1 to the stream that transmits over the IMA group.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream received over E1/T1 and to be crossconnected with a stream to be transmitted over SHDSL.

atm-vp [{e1|1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over SHDSL. The number of availabble E1 ports depends on your hardware profile.



vp. Virtual path of the stream on E1.



shdsl. SHDSL port



vp. Virtual path of the stream transmitted over SHDSL.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over E1 to the stream that transmits over SHDSL.



ima-group. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over E1.



vp. Virtual path of the stream transmitted over the IMA group.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



vp. Virtual path of the stream transmitted over E1.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received via E1/T1 to the stream that transmits over E1/T1.

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream received over IMA and to be cross-connected with a stream to be transmitted over E1/T1.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream received over IMA and to be cross-connected with a stream to be transmitted over a different IMA group.

atm-vp [ima-group ] [vp <0..4095>] [ima-group ] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}



ima-goup. ‘Port 1’, carrying the stream to be cross connected with the stream on ‘port 2’



vp. Virtual path of the stream on ‘port 1’.



ima-group. ‘Port 2’



vp. Virtual path of the stream on ‘port 2’



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over the IMA group (port 1) to the stream that transmits over the IMA group (port 2).



shdsl. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over E1.



vp. Virtual path of the stream on SHDSL.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



vp. Virtual path of the stream transmitted over E1.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over SHDSL to the stream that transmits over E1.

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for a stream received over SHDSL and to be crossconnected with a stream to be transmitted over E1/T1.

Removing a VP cross connection for ATM VPs.

³

atm-vp [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vp <0..4095>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}

no atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>]

Modify the syntax for removing cross connections over other ports accordingly.

To configure an ATM-VC cross connection: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over E1/T1 and to be crossconnected with a stream to be transmitted over a different E1/T1 port.

atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. ‘Port 1’, carrying the stream to be cross connected with the stream on ‘port 2’



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 1’.



e1/t1. ‘Port 2’



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 2’



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over E1/T1 (port 1) to the stream that transmits over E1/T1 (port 2).

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over E1/T1 and to be crossconnected with a stream to be transmitted over IMA.

atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over the IMA group.



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on E1/T1.



ima-group. IMA group



vc. Virtual channel of the stream transmitted over the IMA group.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received via E1/T1 to the stream that transmits over the IMA group.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over E1 and to be cross-connected with a stream to be transmitted over SHDSL.

atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}



e1/t1. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over SHDSL



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on E1/T1.



shdsl. SHDSL port



vc. Virtual channel of the stream transmitted over SHDSL.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over E1/T1 to the stream that transmits over SHDSL.



The number of E1/T1 ports and the availability of SHDSL interfaces depend on your hardware configuration.



ima-group. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over E1/T1.



vc. Virtual channel of the stream transmitted over the IMA group.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



vc. Virtual channel of the stream transmitted over E1/T1.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received via E1/T1 to the stream that transmits over E1.

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over IMA and to be cross-connected with a stream to be transmitted over E1/T1.

atm-vc [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over IMA and to be cross-connected with a stream to be transmitted over a different IMA group.

atm-vc [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}



ima-goup. ‘Port 1’, carrying the stream to be cross connected with the stream on ‘port 2’



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 1’.



ima-group. ‘Port 2’



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 2’



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over the IMA group (port 1) to the stream that transmits over the IMA group (port 2).



shdsl. Carries the stream to be cross connected with the stream transmitted over E1/T1.



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on SHDSL.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



vc. Virtual channel of the stream transmitted over E1/T1.



name. Name of the cross connection that attaches the stream received over SHDSL to the stream that transmits over E1/T1.

Defining an ATMVC cross connection for a stream received over SHDSL and to be crossconnected with a stream to be transmitted over E1/T1.

Removing a VP cross connection for ATM VPs over E1/T1 ports.

³

atm-vc [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}

no atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]

Modify the syntax for removing cross connections over other ports accordingly.

To configure an ATM-CES cross connection: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining an ATMCES cross connection for ATM VPs over IMA group and E1/T1.

atm-ces [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [time-slots <0..31>] [jitter-buffer <1..32>} [name {name}}



ima-group. Carries the stream to be crossconnected with the E1 stream.



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 1’.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



time-slots. The CES bundle’s time slot.



jitter-buffer. CDVT buffer delay in milliseconds towards the transmit direction (ATM to TDM).



name. Name of the cross connection.



shdsl. Carries the stream to be crossconnected with the E1 stream.



vc. Virtual channel of the stream on ‘port 1’.



e1/t1. E1/T1 port



time-slots. The CES bundle’s time slot.



jitter-buffer. CDVT buffer delay in milliseconds towards the transmit direction (ATM to TDM).



name. Name of the cross connection.

Defining an ATMVP cross connection for ATM VPs over IMA groups.

atm-ces [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/1/16>] [time-slots <0..31>] [jitter-buffer <1..32>} [name {name}}

Removing the ATM-CES cross connection for ATM VPs over IMA group and E1/T1

no atm-ces [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>]

Removing the ATM-CES cross connection for ATM VPs over IMA groups.

no atm-ces [shdsl {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8}] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>]

³

To configure pseudowire VPL cross-connections: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears.

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2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces. Task

Command

Comments

Defining a pseudowire cross connection over E1 between two PSNs.

pw-vp [pw ] [e1 <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn <0..4095>]



pw-vp. A previously configured pseudowire



e1/t1. The port used by the pseudowire



to-psn. VP carried towards the target PSN



from-psn. VP carried towards the PSN that carries the PW.



pw-vp. A previously configured pseudowire



ima-group. A previously configured pseudowire



to-psn. VP carried towards the target PSN



from-psn. VP carried towards the PSN that carries the PW.



pw-vp. A previously configured pseudowire



e1/t1. The port used by the pseudowire



to-psn. VP carried towards the target PSN



from-psn. VP carried towards the PSN that carries the PW.

Defining a pseudowire cross connection over IMA between two PSNs.

pw-vp [pw ] [ima-group ] [vp <0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn <0..4095>]

Removing a pseudowire cross connection over E1/T1.

no pw-vp [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>]

Defining a pseudowire cross connection over E1 between two PSNs.

pw-vp [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn <0..4095>]

³

To configure pseudowire VCL cross-connections: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining a pseudowire cross connection over E1 between two PSNs.

pw-vc [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [to-psn <0..4095/0..65535>] [from-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]



pw-vc. A previously configured pseudowire



e1/t1. The port used by the pseudowire



to-psn. VC carried towards the target PSN



from-psn. VC carried towards the PSN that carries the PW.



pw-vc. A previously configured pseudowire



ima-group. A previously configured pseudowire



to-psn. VC carried towards the target PSN



from-psn. VC carried towards the PSN that carries the PW.

Defining a pseudowire cross connection over IMA between two PSNs.

pw-vc [pw ] [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [to-psn <0..4095/0..65535>] [from-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]

Removing a pseudowire cross connection over E1/T1.

no pw-vc [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]

Removing a pseudowire cross connection over IMA.

no pw-vc [pw ] [ima-group ] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]

³

To configure a pseudowire TDM cross connection: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the pseudowire as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining a TDM pseudowire cross connection over E1/T1

pw-tdm [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>] [timeslots <0..31>]



pw-tdm. A previously configured TDM pseudowire



e1/t1. The port used by the pseudowire



time-slots. The designated time slots at the destination

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Task

Command

Removing a TDM pseudowire cross connection over E1/T1

no pw-tdm [pw ] [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>]

³

Comments

To configure an Ethernet cross conection: 1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect. The config>xc# prompt appears. 2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the various interfaces.

Task

Command

Comments

Defining an Ethernet pseudowire cross connection over SVI.

pw-eth [pw ] [svi <1..8>]



pw-eth. A previously configured Ethernet pseudowire



SVI. A previopusly configured service virtual interface.

no pw-eth [pw ] [svi <0/1..8>]

Example This section provides an example on creating a TDM pseudowire cross connection using the following parameters: •

Use pseudowire (pw) 1.



Use E1 port 4.



Set the time slot to 10.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>xc# pw-tdm pw 1 e1 4 time-slots 10 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>xc#

4.30 Administration This section covers administrative tasks such as entering contact info, viewing inventory, defining the clock source, adjusting the system clock, file management, operating a remote system slog (Syslog) server etc. In addition, this section instructs you on resetting the unit. It also contains the global commands, which are available from any level.

Specifying Administrative Information You can assign a name to ACE-3105, ACE-3205, specify information on its location and whom to contact if necessary. In addition, you can modify the 4-172

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timeout and number of retries for file transfers to the unit and view the inventory. ³

To enter information and set administrative parameters: •

At the config>system# prompt, specify the unit’s details as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning a name to the unit.

name

Removing the name from the unit

no name

Specifying a contact person in charge for this unit

contact

Removing the contact person

no contact

Specifying the location of this unit.

location

Removing the location

no location

Specifying the interval for retrying file transfers and the timeout after unsuccessful attempts (in seconds).

tftp timeout <1..1000> retry-timeout 10

In this case, TFTP refers to file transfers not related to upgrades.

Assigning an alias name for the physical entity as specified by a network manager.

inventory alias

Refer to Viewing the Hardware and Software Profile for additional information.

Clearing the event log

clear-event-log

Configuring the Clocks ACE-3105, ACE-3205 requires a distinct clock source and a defined clock domain in order to fulfill its purpose in a given backhauling application. All ACE units allow you to configure an adaptive master clock that you may recover from another ACE unit. The adaptive master clock is encapsulated and distributed over a TDM pseudowire as explained under Clock Encapsulation (TDM Service Encapsulation). This master clock is then retrieved (recovered) by another ACE unit in the network. This section instructs you on configuring ACE-3105 to recover a master clock that complies with the IEEE-1588 Precision Time protocol. Additional information is available under Recovered Clock.

Clock Domain Before you can configure the distributed and recovered clocks respectively, you have to define and configure the clock domain. ACE units only support one clock domain at present.

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To configure a clock domain: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter clock. The config>system>clock# appears. 2. Enter domain 1 to specify a clock domain. The config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt appears. 3. Configure the clock domain as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Synchronizing the clock domain with the local network type.

sync-network-type {1|2|3}



1. Europe



2. N/A



3. Japan

Enabling the Quality mode.

quality

If the Quality mode is enabled, the clock source is first selected according to the Clock Source quality. Only if the quality levels are equal, the clock source is selected according to the configured clock source priority.

Disabling the the Quality mode

no quality

The clock source is selected according to the configured clock source priority.

Specifying whether the clock is selected automatically.

mode {auto|free-run}



auto. Automatic clock selection according to G.781.



Free Run. No clock selection

Force-selecting a specified clock source.

force

Manually selecting a specified clock source

manual

Clearing the clock selection (force selected or manually selected)

clear

Clearing the statistics for all clock sources.

clear-statistics

³

To define a clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, enter source [<1..2> source type}. The config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt appears. For an overview of source types, refer to the table below.

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Port

Syntax of ‘source type’

Ethernet port, 1000 Mbps

rx-port ethernet

E1 port

rx-port e1

SHDSL port

rx-port shdsl

IMA group

rx-port ima

Station clock

station

Recovered clock

recovered

³

To specify the priority for the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, assign the priority as explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning a priority to the specific clock source.

priority <1..2>

The number of priority levels corresponds to the number of clock sources in the domain, which can be up to 2 at present. 1 assigns the highest priority to the current clock source and the highest number assigns the lowest priority.

Disabling the priority for the current clock source

no priority

No priority is given to the current clock source.

³

To specify the quality level for the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, specify the quality level of the clock source as explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Assigning a quality level that corresponds to the clock types detailed in the Comments section to the right.

quality-level {prc|ssu-a|ssu-b|sec|dnu|ssmbased|prs|stu|st2|tnc|st3e|st3|smc|st4|dus|ss m-based(type2)|prov|unk|sec(type3)|dnu(typ e3)|ssm-based(type3)}



prc. primary reference clock defined by Recommendation G.811.



ssu-a. Type I or Type V slave clock defined by Recommendation G.812.



ssu-b. Type VI slave clock defined by Recommendation G.812



sec. Synchronous equipment clock



dnu. Not usable for synchronization.



ssm-based. The quality level is received via synchronous status messages.



prs. PRS traceable, defined by Recommendation G.811.



stu. Synchronized -

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Task

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Command

Comments Traceability Unknown

³



st2. Traceable to Stratum 2 according to Recommendation G.812, Type II.



tnc. Traceable to the Transit Node Clock according to Recommendation G.812, Type V.



st3e. Traceable to Stratum 3E according to Recommendation G.812, Type III.



st3. Traceable to Stratum 3 according to Recommendation G.812, Type IV.



smc. Traceable to SONET Clock Self Timed according to Recommendation G.813 or G.8262, Option II.



st4. Traceable to Stratum 4 Freerun.



dus. Not usable for synchronization.



ssm-based(type2). Quality level received via synchronous status messages.



prov. provided by the network operator.



unk. Unknown clock source.



sec(type3). Synchronous equipment clock



dnu(type3). Not usable for synchronization.



ssm-based(type3). Quality level received via synchronous status messages.

To specify the waiting time to recover a clock source in case of failure: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, enter the following:

Task

Command

Entering the time in seconds that the system waits to recover the clock source after it has been restored upon failure.

wait-to-restore <0..720>

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To reset the waiting time to recover the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, enter clearwait-to-restore. The waiting time to restore the clock source has been reset. For example, if the waiting time has been changed to 120 seconds from a different value, running clear-wait-to-restore resets the waiting time to the new value, for example 120 seconds.

³

To specify the time after which a clock error is declared a failure: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, enter the following:

Task

Command

Entering the time in milliseconds that the system waits until a clock error is declared a failure.

hold-off <300..1800>

³

Default: 300

To view the status of the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, enter show status. The clock source status is displayed as illustrated below.

Parameter

Values

Comments

Status

OK



OK. The clock source is operating properly and synchronized.



Physical Fail. The clock source port encountered a harware error.



Monitoring Fail. The clock source cannot be monitored due to a hardware error.



ESMC Fail. The ESMC protocol failed. No ESMC messages were received for 5 seconds.

Physical Fail Monitoring Fail ESMC Fail

Tx/Rx Quality

Displays the quality level of the clock source as on the receiving and transmitting ports as specified and explained above.

ESMC State

Locked

The status of the ESMC process.

Unlocked

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(1)# show status Status : OK Tx Quality : DNU Rx Quality : SSM Based ESMC State : Unlocked ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(1)# ³

To view the statistics of the clock source: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(<1..2>)# prompt, enter show statistics. The clock source statistics are displayed as illustrated below.

Parameter

Comments

ESMC Failure Counter

The number of EMSC failures. An EMSC failure is declared, if no ESMC messages were received for 5 seconds.

Rx/Tx ESMC Events

The number of received/transmitted event messages.

Rx/Tx ESMC Information

The number of received/transmitted info messages.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(1)# show statistics ESMC Failure Counter : 0 Rx Tx ESMC Events : 0 0 ESMC Information : 0 0 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)>source(1)# ³

To view the status of the clock domain: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, enter show status. The clock domain status appears as illustrated below.

Parameter

Values

Comments

System Clock Source

0, 1 or 2

The value is 0 if the internal clock is used.

State

Freerun



Freerun. Not locked/attached to any PSN clock source. The internal oscillator generates the clock.



Holdover. An idle timing mode in which the internal clock chip reinstates the timing of the previously active master/fallback clock source.



Locked. Locked/attached to the system clock source.

Holdover Locked

Quality

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)# show status System Clock Source : 0 State : Freerun Quality : SEC ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>domain(1)#

Clock Domain –ACE-3205 You have to select the clock source type, as well as the port of the master system clock, which will be used as the source for all other E1/T1 ports. You may also select a fallback clock that takes over in case the master clock fails. In addition, you can enable/disable the system to revert to the master clock after an error has been resolved that caused the master clock to become unavailable causing the system to switch to the fallback clock. ³

To configure a clock domain: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter clock. The config>system>clock# appears. 2. Enter domain 1 to specify a clock domain. The config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt appears. 3. Configure the clock domain as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the master clock source

master rx-port [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>| shdsl 1|ima-group <1..5>/9/17>]

Specifies the port via which to transmit the master clock source.

Specifying the recovered master clock

master recovered 1

Removing the master clock

no master

³

To configure the master clock: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, configure the master clock as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the fallback clock source

fallback rx-port [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>| sdh-sonet <1..2>|shdsl 1|ima-group <1..5>/9/17>]



Specifies the port via which to transmit the fallback clock source.



You should use the same port as for the master clock.

Specifying the master fallback clock

fallback master 1

Removing the fallback clock

no fallback

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To configure the fallback clock: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, configure the fallback clock as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the fallback clock source

fallback rx-port [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>| sdh-sonet <1..2>|shdsl 1|ima-group <1..5>/9/17>]



Specifies the port via which to transmit the fallback clock source.



You should use the same port as for the master clock.

Specifying the master fallback clock

fallback master 1

Removing the fallback clock

no fallback

³

To enable/disable the Revertive mode: •

At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, enter revertive <0..720> (in seconds).



To disable the Revertive mode, enter no revertive.

Recovered Clock ACE-3105 units can recover the Precision Time Protocol IEEE-1588 clock distributed by ACE-3220. In addition, you can recover a clock transmitted over TDM pseudowire by any ACE unit. ACE-3200 and ACE-3205 units can recover a clock transmitted over TDM pseudowire by any ACE unit.

Note ³

The IEEE-1588 clock capability requires an additional software license. To configure a recovered clock: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter clock. The config>system>clock# appears. 2. Enter recovered 1 {adaptive|1588}. The config>system>clock>recovered(1/)# prompt appears. 3. Configure the recovered clock as illustrated and explained below.

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ƒ

If you recover the clock distributed over a TDM pseudowire, use the parameters associated with the adaptive.

ƒ

If you recover a Precision Time Protocol IEEE-1588 clock distributed by another ACE-3220 unit, use the parameters associated with 1588.

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Recovered Clock - Adaptive Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the type of the PSN from which the clock is recovered

network-type



type-a. Networks with low jitter (“low noise”) and low PDV. Compatible only with the Stratum 1 and Stratum 2 clock type.



type-b. Networks with high jitter (“high noise”). Compatible with all clock types.



type-c. Networks in DSL-based backhaul applications.



type-d. Applies to SHDSL links only.



type-a. Networks with low jitter (“low noise”) and low PDV. Compatible only with the Stratum 1 and Stratum 2 clock type.



type-c. Networks in DSL-based backhaul applications.

Specifying the type of the PSN from which the clock is recovered

Default: type-b

network-type Default: type-a

Specifying the pseudowire on which the clock stream is carried.

pw <1..26>

Enabling the recovered clock

no shutdown

Disabling the recovered clock

shutdown

Specifying the second IP address for receiving the clock.

source-address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

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Must be one of the preconfigured loopbackaddresses.

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Task

Command

Comments

Defining the required accuracy level of the recovered clock source

source-quality



stratum1. Servers connected to atomic or GPS clocks. Synchronizes at an accuracy of 1x10E-11 frames.

Default: stratum1



stratum2. Servers that send NTP requests to Stratum 1 servers. Synchronizes at an accuracy of 1.6x10E-8 frames.



stratum3. Like Stratum 2, but operates over a larger range. Synchronizes at an accuracy of 4.6x10E-6 frames.



stratum3e. Standard created as a result of SONET equipment requirements. Synchronizes at an accuracy of 1.0x10E6 frames



stratum4. Like Stratum 2 and 3, but operates over a larger range and does not have a holdover capability. Synchronizes at an accuracy of 3.2x10E5 frames.



The source quality cannot be changed if the clock recovery is active.

Recovered Clock – 1558 Task

Command

Specifying the clock quality using hexagonal values.

clock-quality log-variance <1..ffff>

Recovering the clock from a multicast address.

multicast <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

Specifying the type of the PSN from which the clock is recovered

network-type

peer

Enabling the recovered clock

no shutdown

Disabling the recovered clock

shutdown

Second IP address for receiving the clock

source-address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

Administration



type-a. Networks with low jitter (“low noise”) and low PDV. Compatible only with the Stratum 1 and Stratum 2 clock type.



type-c. Networks in DSL-based backhaul applications.

Default: type-a

Specifying the peer device that transmits the master clock signal.

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Task

Command

Comments

Specifying the source-portidentity using hexagonal values.

source-port-identity clock id <0000000000000001..fffffffff ffffffe> port <0001..fffe>

Specifying the synchronization rate

sync-rate <32pps|64pps|128pps>

Displaying Statistics for the Recovered Clock You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals. ³

To view current statistics: •

At the config>system>clock>recovered(1/)# prompt, enter show statistics current. Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below for the Adaptive clock and the Precision Time Protocol IEEE 1588 clock.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) 685 Valid Intervals 3 Rx Packets Lost Packets Out of Order

Packets

0 0 0

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)#

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

Time that has elapsed since the beginning of he current interval .

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed.

Rx Packets

Number of received packets from the clock source

Lost Packets

Number of lost packets

Out of Order Packets

Number of packets that arrived in the wrong order

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>recovered(1/1588)# show statistics current Current ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) 677 Valid Intervals 5 Rx Sync Packets Rx Follow Up Packets Lost Packets Out of Order Packets

0 0 0 0

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>clock>recovered(1/1588)#

Parameter

Comments

Time Elapsed

Time that has elapsed since the beginning of the current interval.

Valid Intervals

Intervals that account for the statistics displayed.

Rx Sync Packets

Number of synchronized packets from the clock source

Rx Follow Up Packets

Number of follow-up packets

Lost Packets

Number of lost packets

Out of Order Packets

Number of packets that arrived in the wrong order

³

To view the statistics for a specific interval: •

At the config>system>clock>recovered(1/)# prompt, enter show statistics . Statistics for the specified interval appear.

Setting the Date and the Time You can adjust the time and the date, set the unit to summer time or link the system clock to a network time server to receive the network time. ³

To specify the system date and time and daylight saving time options: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter date-and-time. The config>system>date-time# prompt appears. 2. Specify the date and time and associated parameters as illustrated and explained below.

Task

Command

Specifying the system date

date

Specifying the system time

time

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Task

Command

Specifying the time zone of the unit’s location

zone utc <-12:00..+12:00>

Defining the summer time to recur annually during a specified period defined by a the xth week on a given weekday in a given week.

summer recurring start {1st|2nd|3rd|4rd|last} {sunday|monday|tuesday|wednesday|thursday|friday|saturday} {january|february|march|april|may|june|july|august|september|october|november| december} end {1st|2nd|3rd|4rd|last} {sunday|monday|tuesday|wednesday|thursday|friday|saturday} {january|february|march|april|may|june|july|august|september|october|november| december} offset <0..600>

Defining the summer time according to specified dates.

summer date start end offset <0..600>

Disabling summer time

no summer

³

Default: +0.00

To view the date and time settings: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter show date-and-time. The date, time and the time zone are displayed.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# show date-and-time 2009-12-22 19:52:23 UTC +02:00

Linking to a Network Time Server This section explains how to link configure ACE-3105, ACE-3205 in order to receive the network time Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) server. ³

To set the SNTP parameters: 1. At the config>system>date-time# prompt, enter sntp. The config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt appears. 2. Specify the SNTP parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Setting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to operate in SNTP Broadcast mode

broadcast

Setting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to operate in SNTP Unicast mode

no broadcast

Specifying the required delay between automatic SNTP requests (in minutes)

poll-interval interval <1..1440>

³

Default: 60

To specify the SNTP sever: 1. At the config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt, enter server 1. The config>system>date-time>sntp>server(1) prompt appears.

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2. To assign an IP address to the SNTP server, at the config>system>datetime>sntp>server(1)# prompt, enter address <1.1.1.1..255.255.255.255>. The IP address is assigned to the SNTP server. ³

To send a single SNTP request to the SNTP server: •

At the config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt, enter send-request. A single request is sent to the SNTP server.

Setting the Syslog Parameters ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses the Syslog protocol to generate and transport event notification messages over IP networks to a syslog server. The Syslog operation is compliant with the RFC 3164 requirements. You have to configure a syslog server and additional syslog parameters on the ACE unit (device) to enable it to communicate with the syslog server. ³

To specify and configure a syslog server: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter syslog server <1..5>. The config>system>syslog(server/<1..5>) prompt appears. 2. Specify the syslog server parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Specifying the IP address of the relevant syslog server.

address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

Specifying the UDP port on the server that receives the syslog messages.

port <1..65535>

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Default: 514

To configure the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 (device): 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter syslog device. The config>system>syslog(device)# prompt appears. 2. Specify the device parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.

Task

Command

Specifying the module, task or function from which syslog messages are sent.

facility {local1|local2|local3|local4|local5|local6|local7}

Specifying the UDP port that transmits syslog messages

port <1..65535>

Setting to send events whose severity equals or exceeds the selected severity level.

severity-level {critical|major|minor|warning|event|info|debug}

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Default: 514

Default: major

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To view the syslog statistics: •

At the config>system>syslog(device) prompt, enter show statistics. Syslog statistics appear as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>syslog(device)# show statistics Total Tx Messages : 356 Non-queued Dropped Messages : 265 ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system>syslog(device)#

Parameter

Description

Total Tx Messages

The total number of transmitted syslog messages

Non- queued Dropped Messages

The total number of syslog messages that were dropped before being queued.

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To clear the syslog statistics: •

At the config>system>syslog(device) prompt, enter clear statistics. The statistics are reset.

Viewing the Hardware and Software Profile You are able to view the hardware and software inventory. ³

To view the system info: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter show device-info. The system info appears as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# show device-info Description : ACE-3105, ACE-3205 HW: 1.1 Name : ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Location : The location of this device Contact : Name of contact person MAC Address : 00-20-D2-FF-98-D2 System Up Time : 08:12:16 Configuration Version : 6.10A9

SW: 6.10A9

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# ³

To view the inventory: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter show inventory. The hardware and software inventory appears as illustrated below. The unit used for the example below is equipped with E1 ports.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# show inventory Index Physical Class Name HW Ver SW Ver FW Ver ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1001 Chassis ACE-3105 1.0-D\1.1 6.10A9/Boot-2.0A1 0\1 4001 Power Supply PS 1/AC A 7004 Port E1 port 1 7005 Port E1 port 2 7006 Port E1 port 3 7007 Port E1 port 4 7008 Port ETH port 1 7009 Port ETH port 2 7012 Port SHDSL port 1 7013 Port SHDSL port 2 7014 Port SHDSL port 3 7015 Port SHDSL port 4 7016 Port Control Port 8001 CPU MIPS ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# ³

To show the status of a specific item in the inventory: 1. At the config>system# prompt, enter inventory . The config>system>inventory()# appears. (Index# 1001). 2. At the config>system>inventory()# prompt, enter show status. The status info on the selected inventory item (for example chassis, index# 1001) appears as illustrated below.

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To assign an alias to the chassis item in the inventory list: •

At the config>system>inventory(1001)# prompt (the inventory entry of the chassis), enter inventory alias . The alias is assigned to the chassis item in the inventory list.

File Operations You can do the following: •

Transfer files via SFTP, TFTP or XMODEM



Copy files within the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit



Display files



Swap files



Delete files.

You can copy files using the copy command, or via the commands shown in Table 4-22. As shown in the table, some commands that reset the device also erase the saved user configuration by copying another file to it before the reset.

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Table 4-22. Commands That Copy Files Command

Level

Copies…

Impact

Manual Section

factory-default

admin

factory-default to startup-config

Unit resets after copying

Resetting to Factory Defaults

user-default

admin

user-default-config to startup-config

Unit resets after copying

Resetting to User Defaults

save

global

running-config to startup-config

None

Saving the Configuration

Downloading/Uploading Files You can download or upload files to the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit via SFTP. Normally the types of files copied are configuration files and software files. Software files can also be downloaded to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via the Boot Manager, using XMODEM or TFTP. For details on upgrading the device software and additional information on TFTP and XMODEM, refer to Chapter 6.

Note

TFTP is available only when downloading a software image via the Boot Manager. When you copy files using the copy command, you have to use SFTP.

Using an SFTP Application The SFTP protocol is used to provide secure file transfers via the product's Ethernet interface. SFTP is a version of FTP that encrypts commands and data transfers, keeping your data secure and your session private. For SFTP file transfers, an SFTP server application must be installed on the local or a remote computer. A variety of third-party applications offer SFTP server software. For more information, refer to the documentation of these applications.

Figure 4-74. Downloading a Software Application File via SFTP Setting up a SFTP Server If you use a local laptop and SFTP is the preferred transfer method, an SFTP server application must be installed on it. As mentioned above, third-party applications are available. For additional information, refer to the associated setup documentation.

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Checking the Firewall Settings SFTP file transfers are carried out through TCP port 22. You should check that the firewall you are using on the server computer allows communication through this port. ³

To allow communication through port 22 in Windows XP: 1. Double-click the My Network Places icon, located on the desktop. The My Network Places window appears. 2. On the Network Tasks sidebar, click View network connections. The available network connections are displayed.

Figure 4-75. Viewing Network Connections 3. On the Network Tasks sidebar, click Change Windows Firewall settings. The Windows Firewall dialog box appears.

Figure 4-76. Changing Firewall Settings 4. Click the Exceptions tab.

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Figure 4-77. Windows Firewall Dialog Box – Exceptions Tab 5. Check whether port 22 appears on the exceptions list. If it does not, click Add Port and add it to the list of exceptions.

Note

Different firewall types require different configuration. Refer to your firewall's documentation to check how SFTP file transfers can be allowed to pass through it using TCP port 22.

Using CLI to Download/Upload Files You use the copy command in the file context to download/upload files. While the SFTP transfer requires user credentials, you may choose an ‘unsecure’ TFTP connection. ³

To download a file via SFTP: •

At the file# prompt, enter: copy sftp://:@/ .

For example: •

SFTP server address – 192.20.20.20

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SFTP user name – admin



SFTP password – 1234



Source file name –ACE-3105, ACE-3205.img



Destination file name –ACE-3105, ACE-3205.img.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# file ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# copy sftp://:<1234>@192.20.20.20/ACE-3105, ACE3205.img ACE-3105, ACE-3205.img ³

To upload a file via SFTP: •

At the file# prompt, enter: copy sftp://:@/.

For example: •

SFTP server address – 192.20.20.20



SFTP user name – admin



SFTP password – 1234



Source file name – db1conf.log



Destination file name – db1conf.cfg.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# file ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# copy db1conf.log sftp://:<1234>@192.20.20.20/db1conf.cfg

Copying Files Within ACE-3105, ACE-3205 You can copy files within the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit with the copy command. ³

To copy files within the device: •

At the file# prompt, enter: copy .

For example: •

Source file name – running-config



Destination file name – startup-config.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# file ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# copy running-config startup-config

Displaying Files Within ACE-3105, ACE-3205 The dir command is used to display the files within the device. ³

To display the files: •

At the file# prompt, enter dir. A list of the file names and types is displayed.

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For example: ACE-3105, ACE-3205# file ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# dir Path Type Name ----------------------------------------------------------------------------tffs:1 Software ACE-3105, ACE-3205-backup.hex tffs:1 Software ACE-3105, ACE-3205-main.hex tffs:1 License Licenses.cfg tffs:1 Event Log LOGFILE.cfg tffs:1 MAC mac.txt tffs:1/config Configuration db.0 tffs:1/config Configuration db.1 tffs:1/config Configuration factDef.0 tffs:1/config Configuration startup.0

Swapping Files You can swap local files, for example the main and backup configurations. ³

To swap the files: •

At the file# prompt, enter the swap command in one of the following forms, according to where the files are located.



To swap with , enter swap .

Deleting Files You can delete the user default configuration or the license. Before deleting a file, make sure that it is not in use. For additional information on configuration files and the consequences of deleting, refer to Configuration Files and Loading Sequence in Chapter 3. ³

To delete a file: 1. At the file# prompt, enter delete {user-default|license}. You are asked to confirm the deletion. 2. Confirm the deletion. The unit reverts to the factory default. For example:

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# file ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# delete user-default File will be erased. Are you sure?? [yes/no] _yes

Saving the Configuration You must save your configuration if you wish to have it available, as it is not saved automatically. You can save your configuration as outlined below. Additional information on config files is available under Configuration Files in Chapter 3.

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To save your current configuration in the startup-config file: •

At any level, enter save.



At the file# prompt enter: copy running-config startup-config.

To save your current configuration in the user-default-config: •

To save the user default configuration in user-default-config, at the file# prompt enter: copy running-config user-default-config.

Resetting ACE-3105, ACE-3205 ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports the following types of reset: •

Reset to factory defaults



Reset to user defaults



Overall reset (restart) of the device.

Resetting to Factory Defaults ³

To reset ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to factory defaults: 1. At the device prompt, enter admin. The admin> prompt appears. 2. Enter factory-default. A confirmation message is displayed: Current configuration will be erased and device will reboot with factory default configuration. Are you sure?? [yes/no] 3. Enter yes to confirm resetting to factory defaults. The factory-default file is copied to the startup-config file. The unit resets, and after it completes its startup the factory defaults are loaded.

Resetting to User Defaults ³

To reset ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to user defaults: 1. At the device prompt, enter admin. The admin> prompt appears. 2. Enter user-default. A confirmation message is displayed: Current configuration will be erased and device will reboot with user default configuration. Are you sure?? [yes/no] 3. Enter yes to confirm the reset to user defaults. The user-default-config file is copied to the startup-config file. The unit resets, and after it completes its startup the user defaults are loaded.

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Restarting the Unit If necessary, you can restart ACE-3105, ACE-3205 without interrupting the power supply. ³

To restart ACE-3105, ACE-3205: 1. At the device prompt, enter admin. The admin> prompt appears. 2. Enter reboot. A confirmation message is displayed: Device will reboot. Are you sure?? [yes/no] 3. Enter yes to confirm the reset. The unit restarts.

Global Commands Global commands are general commands that let you ping different devices, display the tree of the current level etc. For a list of those commands, refer to the table below. Task

Command

Echoing the text that is typed in

echo

Excecuting a file

exec [echo]

Returning to the previous level in the commands hierarchy

exit

Returning to the device prompt

exit all

Displaying help

help

Printing the history of the last 10 commands

history

Printing configuration info

info

Logging out

logout

Saving the current configuration

save

Displaying the command tree from your current level down.

tree

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Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics This chapter covers methods to monitor the unit, detect errors. It also suggests trouble-shooting methods.

5.1

Detecting Problems

Problems can be detected on the hardware level, for example by running the self test and monitoring the LED behavior. On the software level, you can follow statistical counters and events and errors returned by the system.

Self-Test ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be tested in order to diagnose possible setbacks as explained below. ³

To run the self-test: •

At the Device prompt, enter show self-test. The self-test results are displayed. ƒ

PASS indicates that the self-test completed successfully.

ƒ

FAIL indicates a failure. In case of a modular interface, replace the relevant interface module. Otherwise, send the entire unit for repair. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 – RAD Data Communications

ACE-3105, ACE-3205# show self-test Index Module Result --------------------------------------------------------------1 Host memory PASS 2 Packet memory PASS 3 Flash memory PASS 4 Fast Ethernet access PASS 5 E1/T1 framer access PASS 6 TOD access PASS

Figure 5-1. Self-Test Results

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LEDs This section lists the LED statuses for the system and the various ports and explains what they indicate.

Table 5-1. System LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

PS1/PS2

Green

On: Power supply is on Off: Power supply is off

ALM

Red

On: One or more alarms are active. Refer to list of alarms under Alarms and Traps. Off: No active alarms

RDY

Green

On: Self-test ended successfully Off: Self-test not started/ended Blinking: Self-test failed

Table 5-2. ATM-155 Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

ATM

Green

On: At least one cell received or transmitted within the last second without any HEC errors. Off: No cells were transmitted or received within the last second

SYNC

Green

On: ATM-155 port is synchronized and no alarm is detected Off: LOS, LOF, LOP, or Line /Path AIS were detected. Additional information is available under Alarms and Traps. Blinking: Line or path RDI was detected

Table 5-3. DSL Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (ADSL2 ports)

Green

On: Synchronizing and transmitting data Off: No DSL link Blinking: Red and green, initializing

Red

On: ADSL2 link is not detected Off: ADSL2 link is detected Blinking: Read and green, initializing

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Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (SHDSL ports)

Green

On: Synchronizing and transmitting data Off: No data or no SHDSL link

Red

On: SHDSL link is not detected Off: SHDSL link is detected Blinking: Read and green, SHDSL is training in

Table 5-4. Ethernet Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

LINK

Green

On: Ethernet link is detected Off: Ethernet link is not detected

ACT

Yellow

On: ETH frames are received or transmitted Off: ETH frames are not received and transmitted

Table 5-5. E1/T1 Port LED Indicators Name

LED Color

Function

SYNC (E1/T1 ports)

Green

On: The physical layer is synchronized Off: The physical layer is not synchronized Blinking: RAI alarm was detected. This error is listed in Table 5-7.

Alarms and Traps Instructions on viewing alarms and events can be found below. Lists of possible alarms and events can be found under List of Alarms and Events. ³

To view the event log: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter show event-log. The event log appears. The image below illustrates a section of a possible event log display.

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# show event-log … 2009-12-28 16:46:34 | Cold start 2009-12-27 16:31:57 | Login Valid 2009-12-27 16:31:53 | Login Invalid 2009-12-27 10:32:16 | Login Valid 2009-12-27 10:32:12 | Login Invalid 2009-12-24 09:46:23 | Station clock OK 2009-12-24 09:46:13 | Source 2 status changed to PHYSICAL FAIL 2009-12-24 09:46:13 | Station clock Fail 2009-12-24 09:27:35 | Domain source changed to number 0 … ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# ³

To clear the event log: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter clear event-log. The event log is cleared.

³

To view a list of alarms: •

At the config>system# prompt, enter show alarms. A list of alarms appears as illustrated below.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# show alarms System ----------------------------------------------------------------------------ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system# ACE-3105, ACE-3205>config>system#

Statistic Counters Statistic counters provide information on possible abnormal behavior and failures. You can collect statistics of the following: •

RADIUS server



Physical ports such as Ethernet, E1/T1, DSL, SDH/SONET etc.



IMA groups



VPL and VCL connections.

For further information, refer to the relevant sections in Chapter 4 and the relevant sections in the troubleshooting chart.

Configuring Error Messages ACE-3105, ACE-3205 maintains a cyclic event log file that stores up to 2000 events. All stored events are time-stamped. The event log file contents may be viewed on the ASCII terminal or on a Network Management Station (NMS), and it may be cleared at any time using the clear event-log command as explained under Alarms and Traps in the Detecting Problems section.

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To detect and resolve faults/errors in ACE-3105, ACE-3205, the following options are available: •



Check for active alarms as follows: ƒ

View current alarms as explained under Alarms and Traps.

ƒ

For a full list of alarms and associated traps, refer to Table 5-14.

Review the events recorded in the event log: ƒ



View current events as explained under Alarms and Traps.

For the complete list of possible events, refer to the relevant tables as follows: ƒ

Table 5-6 for system events

ƒ

Table 5-7 for E1/T1 port events

ƒ

Table 5-8 for Ethernet port events

ƒ

Table 5-9 for OAM events

ƒ

Table 5-10 for BFD (pseudowire connectivity) events

ƒ

Table 5-11 for pseudowire events

ƒ

Table 5-12 for TDM pseudowire alarm forwarding events

ƒ

Table 5-13 for LDP events.



Perform loopback tests as explained in the relevant sections of Chapter 4.



Perform cell tests, in which a predefined cell is sent towards the ATM link. Refer to ATM Cell Test in Chapter 4 for additional information.



Review the troubleshooting charts (Table 5-15), based on LED indications or additional indicators.

5.2

Handling Events

Reported events can be events, traps and alarms. The difference between them is as follows: •

Events. Any change of status in a managed object in the network. SNMP equipment can generate traps for many different kinds of events, not all of which are important for telemetry. The ability to filter unimportant events is essential for high-quality SNMP alarm management.



Trap. An SNMP message issued by an agent that reports an event



Alarm. An SNMP message issued by an agent that reports a failure.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 includes a configurable mechanism of detecting and reporting alarms. Once an alarm is triggered, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 sends or does not send an alarm trap to the relevant network manager, depending on whether the relevant trap has been masked or activated. For additional information on masking traps, which renders them invisible to a given manager, refer to Configuring a Manager in Chapter 4.

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Even though masked traps are not sent, all alarms are recorded in the system event log once they are triggered.

Dealing with Alarms and Traps The trap masking command can be executed from the Manager prompt (config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>). For additional information, refer to Configuring Alarm Traps in Chapter 4.

List of Alarms and Events Refer to Table 5-14 for all the alarm traps that are implemented in ACE-3105, ACE-3205. Refer to the tables below for the full list of system, port and OAM events.

Note

Not all events and alarms may be relevant for you specific configuration. Relevant alarms and events depend on your hardware configuration. Table 5-6. System Events List No.

5-6

Event string

Status/Entity Type/Entity #

1.

Cold start

2.

Device reset

3.

Software watchdog reset

4.

Login

Valid/Invalid

5.

Authentication

Fail

6.

Power supply #n

Active/ Not Active

7.

Fan #n

OK/ Fail

8.

Software download

Ended OK/ Failed

9.

Configuration download

Ended OK/ Failed

10.

Configuration upload

Ended OK/ Failed

11.

Fatal error

File: , line:

12.

Exception

PC=<0xXXXXXXXX>, CAUSE=<0xYYYYYYYY>

13.

Master clock is active

14.

Fallback clock is active

15.

No reference clock is active

16.

Recovered clock

Handling Events

Free run/Frequency acquisition/Rapid phase lock/Fine phase lock/Hold over #n

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Table 5-7 E1/T1 Port Events List No.

Event String

Status

Port Type/Port #

1.

LOS*

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

2.

LOF

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

3.

AIS

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

4.

RAI

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

5.

FEBE

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

6.

LCD

Start/End

E1/T1 #n

Table 5-8 Ethernet Port Events List No.

Event String

Status

Port Type/Port #

1.

Link

Up/Down

Ethernet - #n

2.

Ethernet port is active

Ethernet - #n

Table 5-9. OAM Events List No.

Event String

Status

Port Type/Port #

VPI/VCI

1.

Rx RDI

Start/End

E1 #n

VPI #X, VCI #Y

2.

Tx RDI

Start/End

T1 #n

VPI #X, VCI #Y

3.

Loopback

Active/Failed

E1 #n

VPI #X, VCI #Y

Table 5-10. BFD (PW Connectivity) Events List No.

Event String

Status

PW #

1.

BFD Up

No diagnostic

PW #n

2.

BFD Down

No diagnostic

PW #n

3.

BFD Down

Control detection time expired

PW #n

4.

BFD Down

Neighbor signaled session down

PW #n

Table 5-11. PW Events List No.

Event String

Status

PW #

1.

PW Up

No diagnostic

PW #n

2.

PW Down

No diagnostic

PW #n

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Table 5-12. TDM PW Alarm Forwarding Events List No.

Event String

Status

PW #

1.

Rx L|M='100'

Start/End

PW #n

2.

Rx R=L

Start/End

PW #n

3.

Underrun

Start/End

PW #n

Table 5-13. LDP Events List No.

Event String

Status

ID

1.

LDP Session Up

Peer LDP

#

2.

LDP Session Down

Peer LDP

#

Table 5-14. List of Alarm Traps

5-8

Number

Trap Name

1.

Cold Start

2.

Agent Status

3.

TFTP status

4.

Authentication failure

5.

Power failure

6.

Fan failure

7.

Upload data

8.

Self test result

9.

Port status

10.

Link up/down (only for Ethernet ports)

11.

LOS (Loss of signal)*

12.

LOF (Loss of frame)*

13.

LCD (Loss of ATM Cell Delineation)

14.

Line AIS

15.

Line RDI

16.

Line FEBE

17.

VP AIS reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

18.

VC AIS reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

19.

VP RDI reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

20.

VP continuity loss (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

21.

VC continuity loss (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

Handling Events

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Number

Trap Name

22.

VP loopback failure (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

23.

VC loopback failure (Fault Management in ATM layer)*

24.

IMA group status

25.

PW up/down

26.

BFD session up/down

27.

LDP session up/down

* Also implemented as an active alarm.

Corrective Measures Depending on the reported alarm and its severity, change the unit’s configuration or check the integrity of ports, connections or standalone devices (such as switches, routers, etc.) that are part of the particular application. If the alarm/problem persists, refer to Troubleshooting or Technical Support.

5.3

Troubleshooting

This section provides you with a general troubleshooting chart that lists possible failures and provides workarounds. In addition, failure scenarios with instructions on testing and resolving these issues are provided.

Troubleshooting Chart The following troubleshooting chart is based on LED indications or other inputs. Use this chart to identify the cause of a problem that may arise during operation. For detailed description of the LED indicators functions, refer to Chapter 3. To correct the reported problem, perform the suggested corrective actions. If a problem cannot be resolved by performing the suggested action, please contact Technical Support.

Table 5-15. Troubleshooting Chart Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

The unit is “dead” (POWER LED is off)

No power



Verify that both ends of the power cable are properly connected.

Blown fuse



Disconnect the power cable from both ends and replace the fuse with another fuse of proper rating.

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

SYSTEM RDY LED blinks

Self test failed



Run the self test as explained under Self-Test.



If a component indicates a failure, restart the unit.



If the error persists, send the unit for repair.



View the inventory file by entering show inventory at the config>system prompt.



Restart the unit.



In case of failure, replace the entire unit.



Using a local serial connection, enable the relevant management access type by entering telnet, snmp and/or ssh at the config>mngmnt>access prompt.



View the list of enabled management access types and settings by entering info at the config>mngmnt prompt.



In case of SNMP, verify that the read, write and trap communities match the setting (public, private) of your management station.



Verify that the management station’s IP address is included in the manager list. To do so, try to add the desired management station’s IP address using the command manager at the config>mngmnt prompt. The manager is added to the list if it was not already listed. You may also try to delete a manager by entering no manager . If the manager was not listed, an error is returned.



Verify that the router interface in use is enabled for management. To do so, enter management-access at the config>router>interface prompt.

The log file reports a fan or power supply error.

The unit is unreachable

5-10

Troubleshooting

Incorrect management settings

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Fault/Problem

Physical link fails to respond

SDH/SONET SYNC LED is off

SDH/SONET SYNC LED blinks

Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

Management path disconnected



In case of remote management, analyze this issue using a local serial connection.



At the current prompt, check whether the desired unit responds by entering ping .



Check network connectivity issues and firewall settings.



Verify that the router interface is properly configured and that the correct routes are defined. To do so, enter info under config>router.



Follow the procedure for Physical link fails to respond.



Administratively enable the link at the relevant port prompt, for example config>port>eth.



In case of Ethernet links, make sure that the autonegotiation, speed and duplex modes match the configured values on the access switch/router.



Run the self test as explained under Self-Test. If a component returns FAIL, the relevant interface module must be replaced. If associated with a fixed interface, the unit must be sent in for repair.



Check the SONET/SDH statistics by entering show statistics all at the relevant config>port>sdh-sonet prompt.



In case of AIS, check the remote unit’s status



Check the fiber or cable and Rx levels, as well as the remote unit’s Tx level.



Check the SONET/SDH to verify that RDI is received.



Check the Tx optical power it is in the allowed range. If it is out of range, send it for repair.



Check the fiber optic connections.

Link may be administratively disabled.

SONET/SDH Rx path failure

SONET/SDH Tx path failure

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

Ethernet LINK LED is off

Ethernet cable problem



Check the Ethernet cable to see whether a cross or straight cable is needed.



Check/replace Ethernet cable.



Verify that the range is within the limits.



Check the port by connecting the remote end of the cable to a different switch.



Send the unit for repair.



Check the SONET/SDH statistics by entering show statistics all at the relevant config>port>sdh-sonet prompt.



Follow the suggestions for corrective action listed under SONET/SDH SYNC LED is off and SONET/SDH SYNC LED blinks.



Check the ATM OAM statistics. If AIS or RDI is received, check ATM network modes.



Use CC to check ATM connection integrity.



To monitor Rx, Tx and HEC cells, perform a physical loopback test. To do so, enter loopback at the prompt associated with the relevant ATM port, for example config>port>e1.



Check whether the relevant interface reports an LCD error. To do so, navigate to the relevant port prompt and use the show statistics command. For further information, refer to the sections associated with the physical ATM ports.



Replace the cable.



Replace the ACE unit.

ATM service problems

Physical layer problems

ATM layer problems

Loss of ATM cells

5-12

Troubleshooting

Physical line errors (CRC errors). Cells discarded due to bad HEC.

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Fault/Problem

Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

Policy/shaping issues. It is possible that the error is related to the shaping settings.



Monitor the number of policing discarded frames. To do so, enter show statistics current at the config>port>atm prompt. If the number of policing discarded frames is increasing, the policy mechanism settings may cause the cell loss. For additional information, refer to the Statistics section under Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.

Rx congestions – can be caused in networks that carry PW packets.



To view if cells have been lost, view the PW statistics by entering show statistics all at the config>pwe>pw prompt of the relevant pseudowire.

Packet loss/misorder - can be caused in networks that carry PW packets. The most common causes are congestions, bandwidth bottlenecks and poor queuing performance etc.



To verify that packets have been lost or misordered, view the PW statistics and monitor the Packet Loss Event counter or the Mis-order Dropped Packet counter respectively.



Make sure to correct the network performance.



Verify that the QoS is active for traffic transmitted towards the PSN.



Increase the Misorder window size by entering the atm-parameters windowsize command at the config>pwe prompt. For additional information, refer to Configuring Pseudowires in Chapter 4.



Packets can be reordered by the system. To do so, enable the packet reordering by entering atm-parameters reordering enable at the config>pwe prompt.



To reduce the chance of misordered packets, you may increase the timeout and/or the max cell per packet by entering atm-payload max-cells <1..29> at the config>pwe>pw prompt for ATM PWs. For TDM PWs, enter tdmpayload size <34..512>. For additional information, refer to Configuring Pseudowires in Chapter 4.



Check whether QoS is enabled on the network for PW traffic on the entire path (end-to-end) and in both directions.



Define the expected VLAN ID and p-bits

They may also be caused by incorrect configuration.

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Installation and Operation Manual

Corrective Action are configured for the PW by entering vlan [id <0..4094>] [priority <0..7>] at the config>pwe>pw prompt.

Echo in voice

Error while transmitting over Ethernet pseudowire

Physical layer fault

IP (ARP) logical error

5-14

Troubleshooting



If EXP bits are used in MPLS based PSNs, define the EXP bits by entering exp-bits <0..7> at the config>pwe>pw prompt.



If ToS bits are used in PSN networks such as UDP over IP, MPLS over IP, or MPLS over GRE, define the correct ToS bit by entering tos <0..255> at the config>pwe>pw prompt.



If you transmit TDM pseudowires over Cisco routers, make sure that the MTU transmitted by ACE-3105, ACE-3205 does not exceed the smallest MTU configured in the network. To configure the MTU size, enter the mtusize command at the config>pwe prompt. For additional information, refer to Configuring Pseudowires in Chapter 4.



Check the network delay and try to decrease the delay.



Try to decrease the CDVT buffer setting.



Refer to the respective troubleshooting section on the physical layer at the beginning of this table.



Check for FCS and alignment errors working opposite the switch or router. To do so, view the Ethernet port statistics by entering show statistics at the relevant Ethernet port prompt (config>port>eth).



Verify that the remote device (Layer 2 networks) or default gateway MAC address was learnt by ACE-3105, ACE3205. To do so, enter show arp-table at the router prompt (config>router).



If this is not the case, attempt to ping the address in its subnet from the local ACE unit by entering ping from any command prompt.

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Fault/Problem

Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

PPPoE error

At the config>port>ppp prompt, enter show status. and do the following:

Packets are not received



Verify that an operational PPPoE session is active. Session Status must be Up.



Check the status of the PPPoE session and what negotiation parts opposite the BRAS/LNS were completed successfully.



Check whether a local IP address was received. If no local IP address was received, check the credential allocation on the RADIUS server. To do so, enter access-authentication and the desired user name and password at the config>port>ppp prompt. Make sure that the minimum authentication level (CHAP/PAP) matches the security settings on the LNS.



Check the PW In/Out labels on both end PW devices.



Use the label in and label out commands at the config>pwe>pw prompt at both end PW devices. Additional information is available in Chapter 4 under Configuring

Pseudowires. •

Check whether the LDP mode is used. To do so, enter info at the config>pwe>pw prompt. The LDP mde is used if an LDP PW ID (ldp-pw-id) appears.



Check whether both devices have the same LDP PW ID assigned.



Check the path connectivity by enabling the BFD or validating the path using PSN OAM tools.

LDP error

Errors occur while trying to switch PW and tunnel labels,



At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp prompt, enter show hello-table to monitor the LDP session.

The BFD fails to receive keep-alive messages in the given time frame and the PW is disabled.

The BFD on the local unit failed to receive BFD messages from the remote unit.



Verify that the BFD is enabled on the remote unit. To do so, view the status of the PW at the remote unit using the show status command at the config>pwe>pw prompt.

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

The local system did not receive any BFD packets from each other at the pre-defined time interval.



Check the network path between ACE3105, ACE-3205 (local unit) and the remote unit using the ping command from any prompt.



Increase the detection multiplier using the detection-multiplier command and the Min Tx interval using the mininterval tx command. Both are available at the config>oam>bfd-descriptor prompt.



Check whether BFD packets are indeed received on the remote unit.



Follow the steps listed above for the remote unit.

BFD keep-alive messages cannot synchronize although both the local and the remote unit are receiving them.



Remove the BFD descriptor on both the local and the remote unit using the no bfd-descriptor command at the config>oam prompt.

The jitter buffer failed to compensate PSN packet delay variations (PDV).



Monitor the pseudowire statistics by entering show statistics all at the relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.

The PDV buffer is used to compensate for PDV in PSN networks. If the network PDV exceeds the configured depth of the jitter buffer, an underrun occurs, causing the jitter buffer to re-initialize.



To view the frequency of underruns, view the log file by entering show logfile at the config>system prompt.



Investigate the clocking settings and the network topology. The screen image below illustrates and explains a possible scenario.



Make sure that the Ethernet link is running in Full Duplex mode by entering show status at the relevant config>port>eth or prompt.



Increase the jitter buffer delay. To do so, you have to remove the PW and recreate it with the new jitter buffer delay. To specify the jitter buffer delay, enter jitter-buffer <1000..32000> at the relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.



Identify different network elements that may cause the underrun, such as LAN congestions, overloaded queuimg mechanisms, routing table updates, load sharing and re-route events.

Neighbor-signaled session is down. The remote system does not get the BFD packets from the local system, but the local system gets the packets from the remote system.

Error while transmitting over TDM pseudowire

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Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Underrun PW Rx R=1 Underrun PW Rx R=1 Underrun PW Rx L|M=100 Rx R=1

End Up Start Start Down End End Up End Start

PW 3 3 - 3 PW 3 PW 3 3 - 3 PW 3 PW 3 3 - 3 PW 3 PW 3



Rx R=1 means that the remote unit was experiencing Underrun condition.



Rx L|M=100 means that the remote unit is reporting on failure on the TDM interface.



When Rx L|M is up together with Underrun event, continue with the fault on the remote TDM interface procedure.



In case the missing packets counter is also increasing along with the underruns, it is possible that the underruns are simply caused by the massive packet loss events and not by high PDV.

Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Corrective Action

Clock related underruns may cause periodic underruns.

Incorrect clocking configuration



Rule out that there is more than one active clock source in the network.

Adaptive clock recovery failure

Pseudowire problems



Run a self test as explained under SelfTest to determine if a physical port or component associated with the pseudowire has failed.



Check events and alarms that are active for the associated physical ports.



Check the status of the CES PSN Recovery Clock PW. The operational status must be up and the local status must be forwarding.



Verify that the clock source associated with the CES PSN Recovery Clock PW is set to Recovered.



Restart the adaptive clock recovery (ACR) by changing the configuration to a different clock option, for example to Rx Clock and then back to Recovered.



Check the status of the clock recovery PW on the distribution unit. To do so, verify that the distributed clock associated with the CES PSN Recovery Clock PW is set to Distributed.



If the underrun is also associated with the Rx L|M=100 alarm, check the status

Faults related to TDM interface related underruns ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Installation and Operation Manual

Corrective Action of the remote Data interface (not the clocking interface). Enter show statistics all at the relevant config>port>e1 prompt.

ATM bandwidth issues

Insufficient PSN -> ATM buffer size



If LOS and AIS are increasing, the attached PW is not sending traffic to the remote unit.



LOS (loss of signal) may indicate a physical link failure. In case of AIS (alarm indication signal), check why connected equipment is generating AIS towards ACE-3105, ACE-3205.



IMA group. View the status of the relevant IMA group(s) by entering show status group at the relevant config>port>atm>ima-group prompt. Check for the number of links and available cell rate.



SDH/SONET. Check whether the output cell rate is lower than the expected transmission rate by entering show statistics all at the relevant config>port>atm>sdh-sonet prompt.



Increase the buffer size by entering atm-payload max-cells <1..29> at the relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.



If traffic transmitted to the ATM side is shaped by ACE-3105, ACE-3205, check the shaping parameter configuration for the ATM Descriptor.



Advise with your network administrator before changing any settings.



For additional information and instructions, refer to Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.



Enable policing on the remote unit by entering traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt <1..8000>] at the config>qos>atm prompt. Additional information and instructions

The buffer size is too small for the number of cells per packet. the buffer size is determined according to the number of cells per packet using the following formula: ATM buffer [cells] = max cells per frame] x 50 Shaping problems

Bursty traffic from the remote device. The remote unit receives traffic at a rate that causes temporary burstiness, which cannot be handled by the receiving unit’s

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Fault/Problem

Probable Cause

Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Corrective Action are available under Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.

ATM -> PSN buffer.

An IMA group failed



Enable shaping for the ACE unit connected to the remote unit so that bursty traffic is shaped before being transmitted to ACE-3105, ACE-3205.



Check the status of the relevant IMA group by entering show status group at the relevant config>port>atm>imagroup prompt.



Check the physical ports that belong to the relevant IMA group. To do so, enter show status link.



View the status of the link that encountered an error by entering show statistics at the relevant port’s prompt. In case of LOS, a physical error occurred.

The number of active links is below the minimal



In the IMA Group Status screen, compare the number of active links (Rx and Tx) with the min. number of links you configured. If the number of active links is lower, reduce the min number of active links by entering minimumlinks {rx <1..8/16>} {tx <1..8/16>} at the relevnt config>port>atm>imagroup prompt.

The max link delay may have been exceeded.



Increase the allowed max differential delay by entering max-differential-delay <1..100>.

A clocking issue may cause the IMA group to fail.



Make sure that the clock settings match the settings on the opposite unit. For additional information and instructions, refer to the clock parameters under Configuring an IMA Group in Chapter 4.

Clocking problems may have caused out of IMA frame irregularities (OIF), except during SES or UAS IMA at the near end.



Monitor the OIF by entering show statistics link all at the relevant config>port>atm>ima-group prompt.

Protocol mismatch



Verify that the IMA group ID matches for the local unit’s and the remote unit’s IMA groups by entering show status group at the relevant config>port>atm>ima-group prompt on both units.



Verify that the IMA protocol version

Physical link failure

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Fault/Problem

Installation and Operation Manual

Probable Cause

Corrective Action matches for the local and the remote unit’s IMA groups. ACE units support IMA Version 1.0 and 1.1.

Problems may occur in the IMA control plane (ICP cells)

5.4



Check the number of ICP cells that are in error, invalid or missing (except during seconds when a SES or UAS-IMA condition is reported). To do so, enter show statistics link current at the relevant config>port>atm>ima-group prompt. The counter of the relevant ICP cells is listed under Violation.



Restart the IMA group on the local and the remote unit. To do so, enter no blocking and then restart at the relevant config>port>atm>ima-group prompt.



Disconnect and reconnect all active links and restart the IMA group again on the local and remote units.

Performing Diagnostic Tests

This section lists and explains I connectivity tests such as the ping and the trace route tests.

IP Connectivity Tests The IP connectivity tests include two types of tests and are available from every command level: •

Ping test – allows you to send packet shares towards a specified IP address



IP route tracing – allows you to send trace-route packets towards a specified IP address to trace and locate bottlenecks over the IP network.

Task

Command

Checking the reachability of a remote host

ping <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> [number-ofpackets ] [payload-size ]

Determining the route to a destination address

trace-route <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>

Note

5-20

Only one ping or trace route session is allowed at a time.

Performing Diagnostic Tests

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5.5

Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

Frequently Asked Questions

Q

Does ACE-3105, ACE-3205 support ATM over PSN and ATM switching at the same time?

A

Yes, both function types are supported by the unit and can be utilized simultaneously.

Q

What kinds of AAL types does ACE-3105, ACE-3205 support over a packet-switched network?

A

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 supports all AAL type (AAL1, AAL2, and AAL5) and transfers them via the PSN transparently.

Q

What exactly is the timeout mechanism?

A

When using the ATM cell concatenation mechanism, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 stores the data cells until the maximum number of concentrated cells is reached. TDM traffic, however, requires continuous delivery of data. Accordingly, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 uses the timeout mechanism to reduce the cell storage time before encapsulated data is sent towards the PSN. The timeout delay value can be set between 100 to 5,000,000 microseconds. The timer accuracy is +500 microseconds.

Q

In packet-switched traffic, what triggers the sending of a packet?

A

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has several trigger of sending packet towards the PSN: ƒ

When reaching the maximum cells concatenation number

ƒ

When the timeout timer has expired

ƒ

When the end of AAL5 (SDU bit=1, configurable) is received.

Q

How can an ATM VPs (virtual paths) be mapped to a pseudowire?

A

Any ATM VP can be mapped to a PW using 1:1 mode (1 VP per PW) or N:1 mode (N VPs per PW).

Figure 5-2 demonstrates how VPs can be mapped to pseudowires in the 1:1 encapsulation mode.

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Installation and Operation Manual PW VP 1

1

PW=1

VP PW 1

1

2

2

3

3

ETH

ATM STM-1

ACE

VP=1

PW VP 2

ACE VP1, VP2, VP3

PW1, PW2, PW3

STM-1

ETH

Ethernet Network

1

PW=2

ATM

ETH

STM-1

ACE

VP=1

PW VP 3

1

PW=3 ETH

ATM

ACE

STM-1

VP=1

Figure 5-2. VP Mapping to PW

5-22

Q

What kind of QoS does ACE-3105, ACE-3205 support over packet-switched networks?

A

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 complies with 802.1p and 802.1q for L2 (VLAN), EXP bits of MPLS and for the ToS/DSCP of the IP layer. You can assign a QoS to each PW (configurable).

Q

How can one calculate the required Ethernet bandwidth for a PW based on the ATM parameters?

A

Bandwidth utilization depends on the ATM connection rate, mapping methods (VPoPSN or VCoPSN), network type (L2/MPLS or IP), VLAN existence and number of concatenated cells. A calculator that calculates the bandwidth based on these parameters can be obtained from Technical Support.

Q

How can end-to-end OAM be maintained over a packet-switched network?

A

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 transfers transparent End-to-End OAM over the PSN. You can set the Intermediate mode for the OAM Descriptor, in order to instruct ACE-3105, ACE-3205 to transparently forward the ATM OAM cells as user data over the PSN . For more information, refer to Chapter 4 .

Q

How does the pseudowire connectivity check (VCCV-BFD) works?

A

BFD control messages are generated by both the local and remote ACE units, on both directions of the pseudowire. When the local ACE unit does not receive control messages from the remote ACE unit during a number of transmission intervals, it declares that the PW on its receive (Rx) direction is down. The PW then enters a defect forwarding state on the local ACE unit. In addition, the local ACE generates "control-detection-time-expired" packets towards the remote ACE, and the remote ACE replies with "neighbor-signalsession-down" packets.

Q

What is "Misorder" in the context of packet-switched traffic?

Frequently Asked Questions

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Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics

A

In packet-switched traffic, some packets are not received according to their predefined sequence number. This condition is defined as misorder. Accordingly, to allow proper de-capsulation of ATM/TDM traffic, ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has a mechanism that fixes this condition by re-ordering the received packets correctly.

A

You can enable or disable the ordering mechanism, and also set the 'number of packets' window (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 packets) in which ACE-3105, ACE-3205 will try to fix erroneous packet sequences (misorders). For more information, refer to Chapter 4.

5.6

Technical Support

Technical support for ACE-3105, ACE-3205 can be obtained from the local distributor from whom it was purchased. For further information, please contact the RAD distributor nearest you or one of RAD's offices worldwide. This information can be found at RAD's Web site: http://www.rad.com/ (for offices location, click About RAD > Worldwide Offices ; for distributors location, click Where to Buy > End Users).

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade This chapter explains how to upgrade ACE-3105, ACE-3205. Software upgrades may be required to fix product limitations, enable new features, or to make the unit compatible with other devices that are already running the new software version. The information includes the following: •

Detailed conditions required for the upgrade



Any impact the upgrade may have on the system



Overview of downloading options



Upgrade via the CLI



Upgrade via the Boot menu.

6.1

Impact

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is upgraded once the unit has been reset.

6.2

Software Upgrade Options

Application software can be downloaded to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via CLI or the Boot menu, using the XMODEM or the TFTP protocol.

6.3

Prerequisites

This section details the software file names and outlines system requirements needed for the upgrade procedure.

Software Files New version releases are distributed as software files named for example ACE3105_SW6_10A18.cmp. The files can be obtained from the local RAD business partner from whom the device was purchased.

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System Requirements Before starting the upgrade, verify that you have the following: •

Note

For upgrade via TFTP: ƒ

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit with a router interface bound to the management interface used, and a static route defined to a PC with the TFTP server application (such as 3Cdaemon or PumpKIN), and a valid IP address.

ƒ

Software file stored on the PC.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 communicates with TFTP servers via Ethernet ports only. •

For upgrade via XMODEM ƒ

Operational ACE-3105, ACE-3205 unit

ƒ

Connection to a PC with HyperTerminal installed

ƒ

Software file stored on the PC.

6.4

Upgrading Software using the CLI

Other than upgrading via the Boot menu, you can start running the upgrade without restarting the unit, allowing processing the upgrade remotely.

Using TFTP Network administrators use the TFTP protocol to distribute new software releases to all the managed ACE-3105, ACE-3205 units in the network from a central location. The central application is a PC on the network with a TFTP server application such as the PumpKIN server installed on it.

Figure 6-1. Downloading a Software Application File to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via TFTP Use the following procedure to download the software release to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 using the copy command. 1. Verify that the required image file is stored on the PC together with the TFTP server application.

6-2

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2. Verify that ACE-3105, ACE-3205 has a router interface assigned to it as explained under Adding and Configuring Router Interfaces in Chapter 4. 3. Verify that a static route is configured to the PC as explained under Defining Static Routes in Chapter 4. 4. Ping the PC to verify the connection as explained under Pinging the PC. 5. Activate the TFTP server application as explained under Activating the TFTP Server. 6. Download the image file to the unit as explained under Downloading the New Software Release File to the Unit.

Note

Configuration values shown in this chapter are examples only.

Verifying the IP Settings ACE-3105, ACE-3205 must have a router interface with IP parameters configured according to your network requirements. In addition, a static route must be established to the TFTP server to establish a communication session with the TFTP server. ³

To verify the IP parameters: •

At the router# prompt, enter info. The router interface configuration information is displayed.

ACE>config>router(1)# info interface 1 address 172.17.141.65/24 name “Interface-1” bind ethernet 1 no shutdown exit static-route 172.17.151.1/32

address

172.17.141.1

Pinging the PC To verify IP settings and the communication between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the PC, send a ping command from the ACE unit to the PC. ³

To ping the PC: 1. At any level, start pinging the desired host specifying its IP address and the number of packets being sent:

ACE>config>router(1)# ping 172.17.151.1 number-of-packets 25 2. If the ping request is timed out, check the link between ACE-3105, ACE-3205 and the PC (physical path, configuration parameters etc).

Activating the TFTP Server Once the TFTP server is activated on the PC, it waits for any TFTP file transfer request originating from the product, and carries out the received request

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automatically. The Downloading/Uploading Files section in Chapter 4 explains how to prepare your PC for SFTP/TFTP file transfer. ³

To run the TFTP server: •

Activate a TFTP server application, such as 3Cdaemon (available from www.3com.com) or PumpKIN (available from http://kin.klever.net/pumpkin/).

Downloading the New Software Release File to the Unit This procedure is used to download the new software release to the disk of your ACE unit. ³

To download a file via TFTP: 1. At the file# prompt, enter the copy command, as follows:

ACE-3105, ACE-3205>file# copy tftp://172.17.151.1/ACE3105_SW6_10A18.cmp The application file is downloaded and saved on the flash disk 2. Disconnect the power, wait a few seconds and then reconnect the power. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is upgraded and starts with the new software version.

Using XMODEM XMODEM is used to download and upgrade from a PC connected to the CONTROL port of the relevant ACE unit. Application file is transferred to ACE-3xxx RS-232

ACE-3xxx

PC with a Terminal Emulation and Application File

Figure 6-2. Downloading a Software Application File to ACE-3105, ACE-3205 via XMODEM

Copying the New Software Release File to the Unit This procedure is used to download the new software release to the disk of your ACE unit. ³

To download a file via XMODEM: 1. At the file# prompt, enter the copy command, as illustrated below. You are asked to send the file.

6-4

Upgrading Software using the CLI

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

ACE>file# copy xmodem: main-sw ACE>file# *****Send file from terminal using XMODEM protocol***** 2. In HyperTerminal’s Menu bar, choose the Transfer menu of HyperTerminal and then select Send File. The Send File window appears as illustrated below.

3. In the Protocol field, select Xmodem. 4. In the Filename field, enter the prescribed ACE-3105, ACE-3205 software file name and its path or click to navigate to it. The Send button becomes available 5. When ready, click . The Xmodem File Transfer window appears and the download starts. A progress bar and counters let you monitor the progress as illustrated below. 6. Disconnect the power, wait a few seconds and then reconnect the power. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is upgraded and starts with the new software version.

Note

The command times out and the send file request is considered as failed if you do not initiate sending the file within approximately three minutes.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Upgrading Software using the CLI

6-5

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

6.5

Installation and Operation Manual

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

Software downloading may also be performed using the Boot menu. The Boot menu can be reached while ACE-3105, ACE-3205 performs initialization, for example, after power-up. You may need to start the loading from the Boot menu when it is not possible to activate TFTP using the CLI (for example, because the ACE-3105, ACE-3205 software has not yet been downloaded or is corrupted).

Caution The Boot menu procedures are recommended only for use by authorized personnel, because this menu provides many additional options that are intended for use only by technical support personnel. Similar to upgrading via the CLI, you can upgrade via the Boot menu using either the TFTP or the XMODEM protocol. Both protocols are briefly explained with the respective upgrade options via CLI under Using TFTP and Using XMODEM respectively.

Note

6-6

All the screens shown in this section serve illustration purposes only. Your ACE3105, ACE-3205 may display different software versions and port profiles.

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

Preparing for Downloading an Application File Use the following procedure to prepare the system and to access the Boot menu: 1. Verify that the management PC is connected to the ACE unit via serial connection and that the ACE unit and the Configuration PC can access each other and that they are accessible from the network. 2. If you use the TFTP protocol, activate the TFTP server application and refer to File Operations in Chapter 4 for further information and instructions on preparing the system for TFTP/SFTP download. 3. Disconnect your unit from the power. 4. Open HyperTerminal and configure the communication parameters associated with the selected PC’s serial port as follows: ƒ

Baud Rate:

9,600 bps

ƒ

Data bits:

8

ƒ

Parity:

None

ƒ

Stop bits:

1

ƒ

Flow control:

None.

5. Click . HyperTerminal is now ready for communication with the unit. 6. Reconnect your unit to power and immediately press + once you are asked to do so (illustrated below). ƒ

The Boot menu appears and you are asked whether you wish to download the application file or access the file utility.

ƒ

If the self test starts before you press +
as illustrated below, you have to wait until the self test is complete and then restart the unit in order to access the Boot menu.

BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 RAD DATA COMMUNICATIONS Boot software version 1.1

Mar 26 2009, 09:55:28

Press 'ctrl a' to enter file menu screen (within 3 sec).

BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU 1. Download Application File 2. File Utility Select mode:

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

6-7

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

Boot software version 1.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Mar 26 2009, 09:55:28

Press 'ctrl a' to enter file menu screen (within 3 sec). Self Test : Start Packet :

42284K

Using TFTP The preparations needed for using the TFTP protocol via the Boot menu are similar to the preparations needed to download software using the TFTP protocol via the CLI. Additional information on preparing the system for using the TFTP protocol, refer to File Operations in Chapter 4. The main difference is that you need to define the IP communication parameters associated with the corresponding Ethernet port (IP addresses and the associated subnet mask and a default gateway IP address). Use the following procedure to download software release 6.1 to ACE-3105, ACE3205 via TFTP. 1. Verify that the ACE3105_SW6_10A18.cmp is stored on the PC with the TFTP server application. 2. Prepare the system and access the File menu as explained under Preparing for Downloading an Application File.

Downloading via TFTP This section explains how to download and activate an application file using the TFTP protocol. ³

To download the application file using TFTP: 1. In the Boot menu, press 1 for downloading the application file. You are asked whether to download via application file via XMODEM or TFTP.

Download application file using: 1. Xmodem Protocol 2. TFTP Protocol Select one protocol: (Esc to exit) 2. To use the TFTP protocol, press 2. You are asked to confirm your request.

6-8

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU Download application file using: 1. Xmodem Protocol 2. TFTP Protocol Select one protocol: (Esc to exit) Download application file using TFTP: [Y/N] 3. Press to confirm your request. You are asked which Ethernet port you use for the transfer. The listed ports depend on the current profile of your unit. Therefore the image below may differ from the profile on your unit. Select ethernet port for download: 1. Eth1 2. Eth2 3. Ext MAC 4. Type the number associated with the relevant Ethernet port and press . You are asked for the application file name. 5. Enter the path with the application file’s name including its suffix. You are asked for the IP settings of the relevant ACE unit (Host) and the TFTP server. 6. Enter the IP settings and then press to transfer the application file as illustrated below. FILE NAME: HOST IP: HOST MASK: DEFAULT GATEWAY:

ACE3105_SW6_10A18.cmp 172.17.180.30 255.255.255.0 172.17.180.1

TFTP IP SERVER:

172.17.180.153

Press S to start transferring the file (N to cancel). ƒ

HOST IP: The IP address of the Ethernet port used for the upload. Press to continue.

ƒ

HOST Mask: The IP subnet mask. Press to continue.

ƒ

DEFAULT GATEWAY: If the TFTP server is located on a different LAN, you have to define the IP address of the default gateway associated with the relevant port. Make sure to select an IP address within the subnet of the assigned port’s IP address. To change the current value, type the desired IP address, and then press to end the configuration.

ƒ

If no default gateway is needed, for example, because the TFTP server belongs to the same LAN as the relevant port used for the upgrade, enter 0.0.0.0.

ƒ

TFTP IP SERVER: The IP address of the TFTP (e.g. PumpKIN) server.

7. To complete the upgrade and log on again, follow the onscreen instructions. ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

6-9

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

Installation and Operation Manual

Using XMODEM Use the following procedure to download software release 6.1 to ACE-3105, ACE3205 via XMODEM. 1. Verify that the ACE3105_SW6_10A18.cmp is stored on the PC with the HyperTerminal application installed. 2. Prepare the system and access the File menu as explained under Preparing for Downloading an Application File. ³

To download the application file using XMODEM: 1. At the Boot menu, press 1 for downloading the application file. You are asked whether to download via application file via XMODEM or TFTP.

Download application file using: 1. Xmodem Protocol 2. TFTP Protocol Select one protocol: (Esc to exit) 2. To use the XMODEM protocol, press 1. You are asked to send the application file. BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - Xmodem file transfer Downloading application file. Send the file. 3. In HyperTerminal’s Menu bar, choose the Transfer menu of HyperTerminal and then select Send File. The Send File window appears as illustrated below.

4. In the Protocol field, select Xmodem. 5. In the Filename field, enter the prescribed ACE-3105, ACE-3205 software file name and its path or click to navigate to it. The Send button becomes available 6. When ready, click . The Xmodem File Transfer window appears and the download starts. A progress bar and counters let you monitor the progress.

6-10

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

When the download is complete, the ACE unit’s file system is updated as illustrated below. Once the update is complete, the unit restarts and you are ready to log on. Downloading application file. Send the file. download file succeeded Boot file system version 1.1 Mar 26 2009, 10:06:23 Tffs Configuration process has succeeded Writing application to file system. This may take several minutes. 50% Completed [||||||||||||

Note

]

If downloading fails, the current version remains active and you have to repeat the entire procedure to upgrade the unit.

Managing the File System When a new application file is downloaded, the current one will be moved to the backup folder. In addition, you can perform additional file operations by using the file utility.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

6-11

Chapter 6 Software Upgrade

³

Installation and Operation Manual

To manage the file system: 1. Access the Boot menu as explained under Preparing for Downloading an Application File. The Boot menu appears.

BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU 1. Download Application File 2. File Utility Select mode: 2. In the Boot menu, press 2 for accessing the file utility. The File Menu appears as ill, listing options on how to manage the backup and the active configuration file. Boot file system version 1.1 Mar 26 2009, Version 10:06:23 Tffs Configuration process has succeeded RAD BOOT FILE MENU 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 9.

Reset the system. File swap: operating backup. Delete Operating file (existing backup will be saved as operating). Delete configuration file. Show files list in flash directory. Delete all file system (software and configuration files).

Select operating mode: 3. Enter the number associated with the desired option (explained below).

6-12

ƒ

0 - Reset the system. Restarts ACE-3105, ACE-3205.

ƒ

1 - File swap: operating backup. Operates the backup file. The previously active file is now the backup.

ƒ

2 - Delete Operating file (existing backup will be saved as operating). Deletes the active file. The backup file becomes the operating file and no backup is available. If no backup is available, the unit reverts to the factory default.

ƒ

3 - Delete configuration file. Deletes the user configuration. The unit reverts to the factory default configuration.

ƒ

4 - Show files list in flash directory. Displays all files stored on the flash disk of your unit.

ƒ

9 - Delete all file system (software and configuration files). Deletes all files. To operate the unit, a new application file must be downloaded as explained under Using XMODEM or Using TFTP.

Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Appendix A Connection Data A.1

SHDSL Connector

The SHDSL electrical interface is an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired in accordance with Table A-2.

Table A-1. SHDSL Connector Pinouts Pin

Function

1

NC

2

NC

3

TIP 1 (Loop 1)

4

RING 1 (Loop 0)

5

TIP_0 (Loop 0)

6

RING 1 (Loop 1)

7

NC

8

NC

Caution Do not connect wires to the NC pins.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

SHDSL Connector

A-1

Appendix A Connection Data

A.2

Installation and Operation Manual

ADSL2+ Connector

The SHDSL electrical interface is an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired in accordance with Table A-2.

Table A-2. ADSL2+ Connector Pinouts

A.3

Pin

Function

1

NC

2

NC

3

NC

4

RING 0

5

TIP_0

6

NC

7

NC

8

NC

E1 or T1 Connectors

The E1 or T1 interfaces of ACE-3105, ACE-3205 terminate in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired as follows:

Table A-3. E1/T1 Connector Pinouts

Note

A-2

Pin

Function

1

RX+

2

RX-

3



4

TX+

5

TX-

6



7

Input signal (TTL input)

8

GND

For balanced E1 or T1, only use a 4-wire cable (pins 1, 2, 4, 5).

E1 or T1 Connectors

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Installation and Operation Manual

Appendix A Connection Data

Balanced-to-Unbalanced E1 Adapter Cable When ACE-3105, ACE-3205 is ordered with unbalanced E1 interfaces, it is necessary to convert the RJ-45 connector to the standard pair of BNC female connectors used by unbalanced E1 interfaces. For this purpose, RAD offers a 150-mm long adapter cable, CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X, wired as illustrated in Figure A-1.

Figure A-1. CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X Cable Wiring Diagram

A.4

Ethernet Connector

The electrical Ethernet interface terminates in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired as follows:

Table A-4. Ethernet Connector Pinout

Note

Pin

Function

1

TX+

2

TX–

3

RX+

6

RX–

4, 5, 7, 8

GND

Fiber optic Ethernet interfaces (if ordered) use SFP transceivers.

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Ethernet Connector

A-3

Appendix A Connection Data

A.5

Installation and Operation Manual

Terminal Control Connector

The terminal control interface of ACE-3105, ACE-3205 terminates in a V.24/RS-232, 9-pin, D-type female DCE connector (straight cable), wired as follows:

Table A-5. CONTROL Connector Pinout

A-4

Pin

Function

5

Common

2

RX Data

3

TX Data

Terminal Control Connector

ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Supplement

AC/DC Adapter (AD) Plug for DC Power Supply Connection

Note

Ignore this supplement if the unit is AC-powered. Certain units are equipped with a wide-range AC/DC power supply. These units are equipped with a standard AC-type 3-prong power input connector located on the unit rear panel. This power input connector can be used for both AC and DC voltage inputs. For DC operation, a compatible straight or 90-degree AC/DC Adapter (AD) plug for attaching to your DC power supply cable is supplied with your RAD product (see Figure 1 and Figure 2).

Figure 1. Straight AD Plug

Connect the wires of your DC power supply cable to the AD plug, according to the voltage polarity and assembly instructions provided on page 2.

Figure 2. 90-Degree AD Plug Caution

Prepare all connections to the AD plug before inserting it into the unit’s power connector.

Publication No. SUP-930-03/08

1

AC/DC Adapter (AD) Plug

³ To prepare the AD plug and connect it to the DC power supply cable: 1. Loosen the cover screw on the bottom of the AD plug to open it (see Figure 3). 2. Run your DC power supply cable through the removable cable guard and through the open cable clamp. 3. Place each DC wire lead into the appropriate AD plug wire terminal according to the voltage polarity mapping shown. Afterwards, tighten the terminal screws closely. 4. Fit the cable guard in its slot and then close the clamp over the cable. Tighten the clamp screws to secure the cable. 5. Reassemble the two halves of the AD plug and tighten the cover screw.

Figure 3. AD Plug Details

6. Connect the assembled power supply cable to the unit. • Reversing the wire voltage polarity will not cause damage to the unit, but the internal protection fuse will not function.

Warning

• Always connect a ground wire to the AD plug’s chassis (frame) ground terminal. Connecting the unit without a protective ground, or interrupting the grounding (for example, by using an extension power cord without a grounding conductor) can damage the unit or the equipment connected to it! • The AD adapter is not intended for field wiring.

2

Supplement

Terminal Block Connector for DC Power Supply Connection

Note

Ignore this supplement if the unit is AC-powered. Certain DC-powered units are equipped with a plastic 3-pin VDC-IN power input connector, located on the unit rear panel. Different variations of the connector are shown in Figure 1. All are functionally identical. 0

Supplied with such units is a kit including a mating Terminal Block (TB) type connector plug for attaching to your power supply cable. Connect the wires of your power supply cable to the TB plug, according to the voltage polarity and assembly instructions provided on the following pages.

Caution

Figure 1. TB DC Input Connector Types Appearing on Unit Panels

Prepare all connections to the TB plug before inserting it into the unit’s VDC-IN connector.

Publication No. SUP-220-06/08

The Access Company

Terminal Block Connector

³ To prepare and connect the power supply cable with the TB Plug:

Note: Refer to Figure 2 for assistance. 1

1. Strip the insulation of your power supply wires according to the dimensions shown. 2. Place each wire lead into the appropriate TB plug terminal according to the voltage polarity mapping shown in Figure 3. (If a terminal is not already open, loosen its screw.) Afterwards, tighten the three terminal screws to close them. 2

3. Pull a nylon cable tie (supplied) around the power supply cable to secure it firmly to the TB plug grip, passing the tie through the holes on the grip.

Figure 2. TB Plug Assembly

4. Isolate the exposed terminal screws/wire leads using a plastic sleeve or insulating tape to avoid a short-circuit. 5. Connect the assembled power supply cable to the unit by inserting the TB plug into the unit’s VDC-IN connector until it snaps into place.

Figure 3. Mapping of the Power Supply Wire Leads to the TB Plug Terminals

• Reversing the wire voltage polarity can cause damage to the unit!

Warning

2

• Always connect a ground wire to the TB plug’s chassis (frame) ground terminal. Connecting the unit without a protective ground, or interruption of the grounding (for example, by using an extension power cord without a grounding conductor) can cause harm to the unit or to the equipment connected to it!

Terminal Block Connector

Note: Certain TB plugs are equipped with captive screws for securing the assembled cable’s TB plug to the unit’s VDC-IN connector (C and E types only). To secure the plug, tighten the two screws on the plug into the corresponding holes on the sides of the input connector as shown in Figure 4. 3

Figure 4. TB Plug with Captive Screws (optional)

³

To disconnect the TB plug: 1. If the TB plug is equipped with captive screws, loosen the captive screws (see Figure 4). 4

2. If the unit’s VDC-IN connector is type B, lift the locking latch (see Figure 1). 5

3. Pull out the TB plug carefully.

Caution Always lift the locking latch of type B connectors before disconnecting the TB plug, to avoid damaging the TB plug.

3

Terminal Block Connector

4

24 Raoul Wallenberg Street, Tel Aviv 69719, Israel Tel: +972-3-6458181, Fax +972-3-6483331, +972-3-6498250 E-mail: [email protected], Web site: http://www.rad.com

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ACE-3105, ACE-3205 Ver. 6.1

Publication Number:

355-205-05/11

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International Headquarters 24 Raoul Wallenberg Street Tel Aviv 69719, Israel Tel. 972-3-6458181 Fax 972-3-6498250, 6474436 E-mail [email protected]

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www.rad.com

The Access Company