Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Acronyms and Abbreviations Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss. Can't find an acronym you're looking for in our listing? Try the listing, and additional links, maintained by the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A A-S A-SAR A-SCAT A%C AA AAAS AABW AAF AAG AAIW AAOE AARI AAS AASE AASP AASSREC AATSR AAWORD ABE ABL ABLE ACA ACABQ ACARS ACARS ACAST ACATS ACC ACC ACC ACCI ACCLAIM ACCM ACCP ACD ACE-1 ACE-2 ACE ACE ACE ACGIH ACH4

Arakawa-Schubert Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Advanced scatterometer Animal population ratio living in cool climate region atomic absorption American Association for the Advancement of Science Antarctic Bottom Water Association Aeronautique et Astronautique de France American Association of Geographers Antarctic Intermediate Water Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (Russian Federation) atomic absorption spectrometry (spectrometer, spectroscopy) Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils advanced along-track scanning radiometer Association of African Women for Research and Development Advisory Board on Energy (India) atmospheric boundary layer Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment Advanced Computer Applications (project) Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions Aircraft Communication and Recording System ARINC Communications and Reporting System Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development (UN) Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species Administrative Coordination Committee (ECOSOC) Air Combat Command (formerly TAC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Advisory Committee on Climate Applications and Data (WMO) ACC Levels by Altimetrics and Island Measurements Atmospheric General Circulation Model Atlantic Climate Change Programme Aeronautical Charting Division (NOS) Southern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) North Atlantic Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) Advisory Committee on the Environment (ICSU) Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) Atmospheric Chemistry Education in Global Change (IGAC) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Annual methane (CH 4) emission from enteric fermentation

ACHEX ACID ACL ACM ACMAD ACP ACR ACRIM ACS ACSM ACSYS ACTM ACTS A.D. ADAAC ADALT ADB ADC ADCLS ADCP ADDNET ADEOS ADEOS ADMC ADP ADPE AE AEC AEDD AEEI AEEI AEF AER AER AERI AERI AERI-FEP AEROCE AES AEST AET AF AFBC AFDM AFEAS AFGL AFGWC AFR AFS AGA AGAGE AGAL AGASP AGBD AGCM AGID AGL AGU Agr. AGRHYMET AGU AGWAT AGWP AH AIAA AIBS AIChE AICRIP AID AIDJEX AIHA AIJ AIM AIM AIME AIP AIP-1 AIP-2 AIP-3 AIREP AIRS AIRS-AMSU AIRS/MHS AIS AIT AITP AJAX AL Al Al 2O 3

Aerosol Characterization Experiment Acidification Chemistry Information Data Base (BNL) alternate concentration level advanced climate model African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development Atmospheric Chemistry Program (DOE) active cavity radiometer active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor American Chemical Society American Congress of Surveying and Mapping Arctic Climate System Study (WCRP) Atmospheric chemical transport model African Centre for Technology Studies anno Domini Affiliated Distributed Active Archive Center Advanced Radar Altimeter Asian Developing Bank Affiliated Data Center Advanced Data Collection and Location System Accoustic Doppler Current Profiler Acid Deposition Data Network (EPA) Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (Japan) Advanced Earth Observing System Agri-residue dry matter content automatic data processing automatic data processing equipment Atmosphere Explorer U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now DOE) Arctic Environment Data Directory Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument Autonomous energy-efficiency index (improvements) Average emission factor Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts) atmospheric and environmental research (DOE) Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer AERI Front End Processor Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment Atmospheric Environment Service (Canada) Australian Eastern Standard Time actual evapotranspiration Agri-residue used for animal feed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor ash free dry mass Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Air Force Global Weather Central (U.S.) Africa American Fisheries Society American Gas Association Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment Australian Government Analytical Laboratories Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Programme Above ground biomass density Atmospheric General Circulation Model Association for Geoscientists for International Development above ground level American Geophysical Union Agriculture (USDA) Agronmeteorology and Operational Hydrology and Their Applications American Geophysical Union Agriculture and Water Project (JECOR) Absolute Global Warming Potential Air Heater American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics American Institute of Biological Sciences American Institute of Chemical Engineers All India Coordinated Programme for Rice Improvement Agency for International Development (U.S.) Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment American Industrial Hygiene Association Activities Implemented Jointly approximate inertial manifold Asian-Pacific Integrated Model American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers Algorithm Intercomparison Programme Algorithm Intercomparison Project-1 Algorithm Intercomparison Project-2 Algorithm Intercomparison Project-3 Aircraft Weather Report atmospheric infrared sounder Atmospheric Infrared-Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit Advanced Infrared Radiometer Sounder (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder)/Microwave Humidity Sounder airborne imaging spectrometer Asian Institute of Technology Arctic Ice Thickness Project (WCRP) 1983 Oceanographic cruise along 0° Meridian into Weddell Sea (U.S., SIO) Aeronomy Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (ERL) aluminum alumina (aluminum oxide)

ALA ALACE ALADIN ALARA ALBIOS ALE ALE/GAGE ALEXIS Alf ALFA ALIAS ALK ALOHA ALPEX ALS ALSC ALSS ALT ALT ALTA AMA AMAD AMAP AMBIACE AMD AmeDAS AMEX AM/FM AMI AMIE AMIGO AMIP AMMS AMQUA AMRIR AMS AMS AMS AMS AMSR AMSU AMSU-A AMTS AMU ANARE ANBS ANC ANL ANFC ANL/ACRF Ann ANNEX I

American Library Association Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument as low as reasonably achievable Aluminum Biogeochemistry in Soils (EPRI) Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment ALE/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors Grimco A-700 processor used for data analysis AER Local Forecast and Assimilation (Model) Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer alkalinity A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment Alpine Experiment Adirondack Lake Survey (ALSC) Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation Aluminum in Streams Study (EPRI) altimeter Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada Active Long Term Archive African Mountains Association activity median aerodynamic diameter Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme Amazon Biogeochemistry and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Developing America Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System Atlantic Meteorology Experiment Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (Society) active microwave instrumentation Automated Methane Instrument Evaluation America's Inter-hemispheric Geobiosphere Organization Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project Advanced Multichannel Microwave Sensor American Quaternary Association advanced medium resolution imaging radiometer accelerator mass spectrometry American Mathematical Society American Meteorological Society Applied Mathematical Sciences (DOE) advanced microwave scanning radiometer advanced microwave sounding unit advanced microwave sounding unit-A advanced moisture and temperature sounder atomic mass unit Australian National Antarctic Research Establishment Asian Network of Biological Sciences acid-neutralizing capacity Argonne National Laboratory Annual Natural Forest Cleared ANL's Advanced Computing Research Facility annual Countries committed to a quantified CO 2 target (OECD, EU, Central and Eastern European countries)

ANNEX II ANSI ANSTO ANT ANTARES ANTARFIX ANU AO AO AOD AODC AOGCM AOIPS AOL AOML AOSB AOSIS AOVP ACSYS) AP APA APA APAFO APAR APARE APC APCA APDA APEC APHA API APMP APN APSRS APT AQA Ar ARA ARAC ARC ARC ARC/INFO ARCS ARCSS ARDB ARGOS ARINC ARINC ARISTOTELES ARL ARL ARM ARMA ARMSAT ARPA ARRCC ARS ARSMC ART ARTEMIS ARTEP ARW AS AS ASA ASA ASA ASB ASAP ASAR ASAS ASASP ASB ASCAT ASCATT ASCE ASCEND ASChE ASCII ASCOT ASCS ASDAR ASE ASEAMS ASEAN ASF ASF ASHOE ASI ASK ASL ASL ASLO ASM ASME ASOEN ASOS ASPP ASPRS ASR ASSAS ASTER ASTER ASTEX ASTM ASU ATES ATDD ATDL ATF Atlantis ATLAS ATLAS ATLID atm ATM ATMOS ATOVS ATP ATPEX ATS ATS ATS ATS ATSR AURIO AV AVCS AVD AVHRR AVHRR GAC AVHRR LAC AVIRIS AVISCO AVNIR avtur AWDB AWIPS-90 AWRA AWIS AWWA AXCTD

OECD countries and EU American National Standards Institute Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Menai, New South Wales) Antarctica (START) Antarctic research (France) (JGOFS) Antarctic fixed station (France) (JGOFS and WOCE) Australian National University (Canberra, Australia) announcement of opportunity atmosphere-ocean aerosol optical depth acridine orange direct count Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System Airborne Oceanographic Lidar Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Miami, Florida) (ERL) Arctic Ocean Sciences Board Association of Small Island States Arctic Ocean Variability Project (ACSYS Annual Production Adirondack Park Agency alkaline phosphatase activity Advanced Particles and Fields Observer absorbed photosynthetically active radiation East Asian-North Pacific Regional Experiment (IGAC) Apparent consumption Air Pollution Control Association (Pittsburgh) Arctic Precipitation Data Archive (ACSYS) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization American Public Health Association American Petroleum Institute Acid Precipitation Mitigation Program (NAPAP) Asia-Pacific Network (for Global Change Research) (START) Aerial Photo Summary Records System automatic picture transmission American Quaternary Association Argon atmospheric radiation analysis Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (program) Ames Research Center Antarctic Research Center GIS software Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station Arctic System Science (program) Arctic Runoff Database (ACSYS) Argos Data Collection and Position Location System (CNES and NOAA) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Aeronautical Research, Inc. Applications and Research Involving Space Technologies Observing the Earth's Field from a Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland (NOAA) Australian Radiation Laboratory (Melbourne, Victoria) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE program) Autoregressive moving-average Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Satellite Advanced Research Project Agency Analysis of Rapid and Recent Climate Change (project) Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ASEAN Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre Arctica (START) Advanced Relay and Technology Mission Satellite (ESA) Ariane Technology Experiment Platform (European) Advanced Research Workshop Anti-Spoofing on GPS Transmissions Area of Savanna American Statistical Association Antarctic Support Association Atmosphere Spectroscopy Applications Area of Savanna Burned annually Automated Shipboard Aerological Programme Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Advanced Solid State Array Sensor Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe Association of Southeastern Biologists advanced scatterometer advanced scatterometer American Society of Civil Engineers Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century American Society of Chemical Engineers American Standard Code for Information Interchange Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (program) Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay Air Sea Experiment Association of Southeast Asian Marine Scientists Association of Southeast Asian Nations Alaska SAR Facility Atmospheric Stablization Framework Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency) Assisted Search for Knowledge above sea level atmospheric surface layer American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Applied Simulation and Modelling (IASTED) American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASEAN Senior Officials on the Environment Automated Surface Observing System American Society of Plant Physiologists American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing aerosol solar radiation Advanced Solid State Array Sensor Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (radiometer) Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (formerly ITIR) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment American Society for Testing and Materials (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) Air Separation Unit Alcatel Espace Systems Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (formerly ATDL) (NOAA) Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (now ATDD) atmospheric transmission factor Research vessel (U.S.) Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Airborne Turnable Laser Absorption Spectrometer atmospheric lidar atmosphere Atmospheric Transport Model Atmospheric Trace Molecules Observed by Spectroscopy Advanced TOVS adenosine triphosphate ARM Tropical Pacific Experiment Advanced Technology Satellite Antarctic Treaty System applications technology satellite Advanced Turbine Systems along-track scanning radiometer Auroral Imaging Observatory acoustic velocity (geophysical logging) Advanced Vidicon Camera System acoustic variable density (geophysical logging) advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA) AVHRR Global Area Coverage AVHRR Local Area Coverage airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer French group for Analysis, Validation, and Investigation of Satellite Oceanography advanced visible and near-infrared radiometer aviation gas turbine fuel Adirondack Watershed Data Base Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System for the 90s American Water Resources Association Association for Women in Science American Water Works Association (Denver) autonomous expendable CTD profiler

B b/w B%T BaA BAAS BAHC BAHC-SSC BALTEX BAO BaP BaPDE BAPMoN BASC BARA BASE BATAN BATERISTA BATGE BATS BATS BAU b.a.u. BB BBHIR BBHSR BBL bbl BBSR BBSRC BBSS BBZ BC BCC BCD BCF BEMS BEST Bet BF BGC BGL BHD BIA BIBEX BiE BIGSTIG BIG-TT BIH BIOME BIOMOVS BIOSYNOP BIOTRANS BIOTROP BIPM BLM BLS BMAP BMC BMFT BMG BMRC BMWT BNA BNAP BNL BNSC BO

black and white Animal population ratio living in temperate climate region benz[a]anthracene British Association for the Advancement of Science Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (program) (IGBP) BAHC Scientific Steering Committee Baltic Sea Experiment Boulder Atmospheric Observatory benzo[a]pyrene chemically reactive diolepoxides Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (WMO) Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate, National Research Council (U.S.) Pressure in Atmosphere Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (Canada) Reactor and Nuclear Research Facilities, National Atomic Energy Agency Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfers and Ecological Research in Situ Studies in Amazonia (BAHC and GEWEX) Biosphere-Atmosphere Trace Gas Exchange (in the tropics) (IGAC) Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (NCAR) business-as-usual business as usual (scenario) Biomass Burned broadband hemispherical in flux radiometer broadband hemispherical solar radiometer benthic boundary layer barrels (of oil) Bermuda Biological Station for Research Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council balloon-borne sounding system benthic boundary zone black carbon British Coal Corporation (U.K.) Binary Coded Decimal bioconcentration factor Bioelectromagnetics Society Bilan Energetique du Systeme Tropical Grimco A-700 processor used for data collection Biomass quantity burned in fields biogeochemical cycle British Gas Lurgi (gasifier) designation of an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica Bureau of Indian Affairs (DOI) Biomass Burning Experiment (IGAC) Business in the Environment biomass integrated gasifier steam-injected gas turbine BAHC-IGAC-GCTE Task Team Bureau International de l'Heure global biome model Biospheric Model Validation Study Biological Synoptic Ocean Prediction biological transformations (site at 47°N 20°W) Regional Center for Tropical Biology Bureau International de Poids et Mesures Bureau of Land Management (DOI) "Basic Linked System" scenario Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Baltic Marine Cooperation Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (Germany) Meteorological and Geophysics Agency Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia) Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology (Division) (DOE) Block Numbering Area Basic Hydrological Network Assessment Project Brookhaven National Laboratory British National Space Centre CH4 producing potential

BOB BOC BOD BODC BOF BOFS BOM BoM BOR BOREAS BORIS BP BPA BPKM BPPT Bq BRDF BrO BRW Bs BSIP BSRN BTCs Btu BUFR BuREC BUV BVE BW BWTP



Bureau of the Budget Bureau of Census (DOC) Biochemical Oxygen Demand British Oceanographic Data Centre (Bidston) basic oxygen furnace Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (U.K.) benthic organic matter Bureau of Meteorology (DASET) Bureau of Reclamation (DOI) Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BAHC and GEWEX) BOREAS Information System before present Bonneville Power Administration billion passenger kilo metre Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (Indonesia) Becquerel (symbol) (SI unit of activity of ionizing radiation source) bidirectional reflectance distribution function bromine monoxide Barrow Observatory (Barrow, Alaska) (CMDL) Natural forest biomass burned onsite Birban Sahani Institute of Paleobotany Baseline Surface Radiation Network breakthrough curves (column-elution tests) British thermal unit Binary Universal Form for the Representation (of data) Bureau of Reclamation (now WPR) Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer Barotropic vorticity equation bulk water Basalt Waste Isolation Project



carbon-13 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 13)

C 13C 14C

C C C/A C&W C-MACCS C3AT ca. CAA CAA CAAP CAC CAC CACGP CAD CADD CAeM CAF CAgM Cal/Val CALCOFI CAM CAMS CAO CAP CAPPI CAR CARBICE CARDS CARS CARS CART CAS CAS CAS CASA CASSAD CAST CAT CBA CBO CBS CC CCAM CCAQ CCC CCCN CCCO CCCP CCD CCDB CCDP CCGT CCI CCIR CCITT CCIW CCL

carbon-14 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 14) carbon Celsius, centigrade Coarse/Acquisition GPS signal structure Animal population ratio living in warm climate region Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation Ch3 Albedo Test (AVHRR) circa Central Arid Asia (START) Clean Air Act (1970) Composition and Acidity of Southeast Asian Precipitation Climate Analysis Centre (now CPC) (WMO) Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS) computer-aided design/ drafting/drawing computer-aided design and drafting Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology (WMO) Clean Air Facility Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (WMO) calibration/validation California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation crassulacean acid metabolism Control and Monitoring System cold air outbreak Central Arizona Project (USBR) Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator Caribbean (START) Carbon Dioxide Intercalibration Experiment (IGAC) climatological aerological reference data set Climate Applications Referral System coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM) Chemical Abstract Series Chinese Academy of Science Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (WMO) Inter-Union Commission on the Application of Science to Agriculture, Forestry, and Aquaculture (ICSU) Centre for African Settlement Studies and Development Chinese Academy of Science and Technology computerized axial tomography cost benefit analysis Congressional Budget Office (U.S.) Commission for Basic Systems (WMO) Combined Cycle Chikuko Cha Amayi M'Malawi (Women's NGO) Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions Canadian Climate Centre CDIAC Computing System Network Committee on Climate Changes and the Ocean (SCOR and IOC) California Institute of Technology Concurrent Computation Project charge-coupled device (camera) Carbon content of dead biomass Climate Change Detection Project Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Commission for Climatology (WMO) International Radio Consultative Committee (ITU) International Consultative Committee on Telegraphs and Telecommunications (ITU) Canadian Centre for Inland Waters Central CO 2 Laboratory, SIO (WMO)

CCLB CCM1 CCM2 CCM CCM0 CCM2 CCMS CCN CCOP CCRS CCSDS CCT CD CD CD CDAS CDC CDCR CDDIS CDF CDIAC CDIC CDMS CDNC CDOS CDP CDRD CD-ROM CDRP CDW CE CE CEA CEA CEA CEA CEAREX CEC CEC CEDAR CEDDA CEEM CEES CEI CEM CEMA CEN CENELEC CENR CENTO CEOS CEP CEP CEPAL CEPAL CEPEX CEPT CEQ CER CERCLA CERES CERES CERGA CERL CERN CERN CERN CERP CERSAT CES CETA CETA CF CF CFAGB CFC CFC CFC-11

Carbon content of living biomass community climate model one community climate model two (NCAR) community climate model Community Climate Model (NCAR) Community Climate Model (version 2) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society cloud condensation nuclei Committee for the Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (Indonesia) Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Consultative Committee for Standard Data Services computer-compatible tape Chemistry Division community development compact disc Climate Data Assimilation System Control Data Corporation conceptual design and cost review Crustal Dynamics Data Information System common data format Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (formerly CDIC) (ORNL/DOE) Carbon Dioxide Information Center (now CDIAC) Cryospheric Data Management System Cloud drop number concentration Customer Data and Operations System Crustal Dynamics Project (NASA) Carbon Dioxide Research Division compact disc-read only memory Carbon Dioxide Research Program Circumpolar Deep Water Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy Combusion Efficiency cause-and-effect analysis Central Electricity Authority (India) Council of Economic Advisors Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France) Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment cation exchange capacity Commission of European Communities Coupled Energetics and Dynamics of the Atmospheric Regions Center for Experiment Design and Data Analysis (NOAA) Center for Energy and Environmental Management Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (formerly CES; replaced by CENR) Center for Environmental Information cumulus ensemble model Council of Mutual Economic Aid (Russian Federation, formerly U.S.S.R.) European Committee for Standardization (EC) European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (EC) Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (U.S. NCST) Central Treaty Organization Committee on Earth Observation Satellites circular error probability Comite Ecumenico de Proyectos Comision Economica para America Latina (Spain) (ECLA) Economic Commission for Latin America (Spain) (ECLA) Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment Conference Europeenne des Administration des Postes et Telecommunications (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.) carbon dioxide exchange rate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980) (Superfund) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (EOS) Crop Environment Resource Synthesis Centre d'Etudes et de Rechereches Geodynamiques et Astronomiques Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA) Chinese Ecological Research Network European Laboratory for Particle Physics European Organization for Nuclear Research Cooperative Ecological Research Project (PRC, Germany, and UNESCO) French group for processing ERTS-1 low bit rate data from ocean areas Committee on Earth Sciences (now CEES) Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment Comprehensive Education and Training Administration concentration factor Carbon Fraction Carbon fraction of above ground biomass chlorofluorocarbon chlorinated fluorocarbon CC13F, trichlorofluoromethane, Freon-11

CFC-12

CCl2F2, dichlorodifluoromethane, Freon-12

CFC-113

CCl2FCClF 2, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane

CFEM CFF CFM CFR CFRI CGBAPS CGC CGC CGCM CGCP CGED CGES CGMS CGMW CGO CH 4



combined fates and effects model Carbon fraction of fuel Chlorofluoromethane Code of Federal Regulations Central Fuel Research Institute (India) Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station Committee on Global Change Management and Coordination Advisory Committee coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model Canadian Global Change Program Committee on Geophysical Environmental Data (NAS) Center for Global Environmental Studies Coordination of Geostationary Meteorological Satellites Commission for the Geological Map of the World Cape Grim (Tasmania) (baseline station) methane

CH 4-C



Methane-carbon ratio

CH 3CL



methyl chloride

CH 3CCl 3

methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane)

CHAMMP CHP CHRIS CH.SS CHy CI CIA CIAP CIAP CIDA CIE CIEA CIESIN CIG CIHEAM CIL CILSS CIMO CIMSS CINOF CIR CIRAC CIRES CIRT CIS CIS CISPR CISTI CIT CITE CIUS CKE CLAES CLARET CLASS CLAVR CLI CLIC CLICOM CLIMAP CLIMAP CLIVAR ClNO 3



Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (Climate Modeling Program)CHEMRAWN Chemical Research Applied to Wo Combined Heat and Power Chemical Hazard Response Information System Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) Commission for Hydrology (WMO) Conservation International (Washington, D.C.) (NGO) Central Intelligence Agency Climate Impact Assessment Program Inter-American Committee for the Alliance for Progress Canadian International Development Agency Chinese Institute of Electronics Committee on International Environmental Activities Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (U.S.) Commonwealth Industrial Gases (U.K.) Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Mediterraneenes Coal India Limited Comite Inter-Etats pour la Lutte Contre la Secheresse au Sahel (CH.SS) (consists of Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta, and Cape Verde Islands) Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (WMO) Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Campaign for Integrated Observations of Solar Flares color-infrared (film) Canadian Institute for Research in Atmospheric Chemistry Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (University of Colorado, Boulder) cirrus test CDIAC Information System Commonwealth of Independent States International Special Committee on Radio Interference Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information California Institute of Technology Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation Conseil International des Unions Scientifiqes (ICSU) cumulus kinetic energy cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System Clouds from AVHRR Climate Change (project) Climate Inventory and Catalog climate computing Climate Long-Range Investigation Mapping and Prediction (project) Climate Applications Project (WMO) Climate Variability and Predictability (WCRP) chlorine nitrate

ClO ClO 2



chlorine monoxide chlorine dioxide

ClONO 2

chlorine nitrate

ClNO 3



chlorine nitrate

CLP CLRI CLS cm



Contract Laboratory Program (EPA) Central Leather Research Institute (India) Collected Localization Satellites (France) centimeter

cm 3 CMA CMAP CMC CMD CMDL CME CMIE CMM CMP CMP CMRS CMS CN CNC CNES CNET CNG CNR CNR CNRET CNRS CO CO-C CO 2



cubic centimeter (milliliter) Cement Manufacturers' Association (U.S.) Climate Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (program) Canadian Meteorological Centre Coordinator for Multi-lateral Development Program Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (NOAA and ERL) Community Modelling Effort (U.K.) Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy Commission for Marine Meteorology (WMO) Climate Modelling Programme computer modeling package Coal Mines Research Station Configuration Management System condensation nuclei condensation nucleus counter Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales (French Space Agency) Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (France) compressed natural gas Committee on Natural Resources Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) Centre for Natural Resources Energy and Transport (UN) National Scientific Research Center (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique) (France) carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide carbon trace gas emission carbon dioxide

COADS COARE COBIOTECH CODATA CODMAC COE COGEOMAP COHMAP Co-I COLA COM CONA CoP COPS COPUOS Corp. COS CoSAMC COSPAR COST COSTED COW COWAR COWRR CPA CPC CPE CPEs CPM CPMS CPO CPP CPPC CPRS CPS CPU CPUE CRC CRC CRD CRE CRE CREN CREO CRESP CRF CRI CRIC CRL CRM CRP CRPE CRREL CRS CRT CRU CRYSYS CS CS CSA CSA CSATA CSD CSEC CSELI CSERGE CSES CSIR CSIR CSIRO CSIRO/DAR CSM CSMP CSO CSPP CSR CSRS CST CSTR CSU CTD CTD CTD CTM CTS CTSS CU CUF cv C.V. CVS CW CW CWA CWR CWSF CY CZCS CZM CZMA

Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA and WCRP) Scientific Committee for Biotechnology (ICSU) Committee on Data for Science and Technology (ICSU) Committee on Data Management, Archiving, and Computation U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Federal-State Cooperative Geologic Mapping Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project co-investigator Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies Communication Department Committee for OWSE-North America Conference of the Parties to the FCCC continuously operating per fluorocarbon sniffer Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN) Corporation (spell out in text; abbreviate in references, lists tables, footnotes, bibliographies, and indexes) Carbonyl sulfide Commission for Special Applications of Meteorology and Climatology (WMO) Committee on Space Research (ICSU) Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN) Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (ICSU) Committee on Water Committee on Water Research (ICSU and UATI) Committee on Water Resources Research Centrally Planned Asia Climate Prediction Center (formerly CAC) Eastern Europe (also called Centrally Planned Europe) Centrally-planned economies critical path method climatological prediction by model statistics Core Project Office (IGBP) cloud photopolarimeter Core Project Planning Committee (IGBP) cloud-profiling radar system certified professional secretary central processing unit catch per unit effort Climate Research Committee cyclic redundancy check Carbon released from dead biomass Coal Research Establishment of BCC (U.K.) Centro Ricerche Energia, Italy (ENEA) Chemical Research and Environmental Needs Cryosphere Research on Qingzang Plateau Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (NEA) cloud radiative forcing Climate Research Institute (Oklahoma State University) Computerized River Information System (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) Carbon released from living biomass certified reference material Climate Research Program Centre de Recherches en Physique de l'Environment Terrestre et Planetaria Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (COE) cavity-ringdown spectrometer cathode-ray tube Climatic Research Unit (UEA, Norwich, U.K.) Cryospheric System Computer Services Department Carbon stored Canadian Space Agency Chinese Society of Astronautics Centra Studi e Applicazioni in Tecnologie Avanzate (Italy) Commission on Sustainable Development Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (University of Lancaster) Centra Studi e Laboratori Telecommunicazioni (Italy) Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (UEA and University College, London) Center for the Study of Earth from Space (University of Colorado, Boulder) Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa) Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIRO/Division of Atmospheric Research (Australia) climate system monitoring Climate System Modeling Program Central Statistical Organization Collaborative Special Project and Programme Centra de Sensores Remotes (Italy) Cooperative State Research Service CHAMMP Science Team Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (BASC) Colorado State University (Fort Collins) Chemical Technology Division (ORNL) conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (instrument) continuous-temperature-depth Chemistry/Transport Models Committee on the Teaching of Science Cray time-sharing system University of Colorado capacity utilization factor Calorific Value coefficient of variation (math) Conference and Visitors' Services continuous wave "Conventional Wisdom" scenario, World Bank, 1990 Clean Water Act (1977) continuous-wave radar Chemical Waste Storage Facility calendar year coastal zone color scanner Coastal Zone Management Coastal Zone Management Act (1972)

D D/H 1-D 2-D 3-D 4-D 4DDA 1-D RCM 2-D RCAM

deuterium/hydrogen (ratio) one-dimensional two-dimensional three-dimensional four-dimensional four-dimensional (4D) data assimilation one-dimensional radiative-convective model two-dimensional radiative-advective-convective equilibrium model

D DAAC DAAC DAC DADS DAEDALUS DAR DARA DARE DARPA DAS DAS DAS DASA DASET DASETT DAT DB DB DBE dbh DBMS DBS DC DC DC D.C. DCAR DCDS DCDSTF DCF DCP DCP-OES DCS DCT DD DDF DDL DDMP DDRP DDT DE DE DE08 DEBITS DEC DECNet Dehydrite dE/dt DEIS DEM DEMR DEW DGCM DGLR DGVM DH DHCN DHHS DHS DI DIA DIAL DIC DICE DIDAC DIF DIS Discovery DISORT DIS-SC DISSPLA DIU DIW DKD DLG DLG-E DLR DLS DM DM DMA DMDS DM-MIMD DMS DMS DMSO DMSP DNA DND DNES DOA DOAI DOAS DOC DOC DOD DOD DOE DOE DOI DOJ DOL DOLY DOM DOM DOMSAT DOMSTAR DOPLID DORIS DORIS DOS DOS DOST DOT DOY DP DPC DPC DPR (D)PR DPS DQO DRAW DRS DRSS DSB DSDP DSIR DSIR DSM DSN DSP DSRT DSS DST DST DTD DTH DTR DU DUNDEE DWBM DWS DYFAMED DYN

Deuterium (also abbreviated as 2D or 2H) Data Active Archive Center Distributed Active Archive Center Data Assembly Centre (WOCE) Data Archive and Distribution System Documenting Aerosol Electromagnetics, Defining Aerosol Lifetimes, and Understanding Sources (Research Stations) Division of Atmospheric Research (CSIRO) (Aspendale, Victoria, Australia) Deutsche Agentur fur Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (Germany) data rescue U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency data-assimilation system data acquisition system direct access system Deutsche Aerospace Administration Department of the Arts, Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories (formerly DASETT) Department of the Arts, Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories (now DASET) Department of Science and Technology direct-beam (irradiance) direct broadcast Deep Basin Experiment diameter at breast height data base management systems (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) Doppler beam swinging United States Department of Commerce developing country Dairy cattle District of Columbia Danish Centre for Atmospheric Research Digital Cartographic Data Standard Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force (Composed of members of the NCDCDS and FICCDC/SWG) Discounted Cash Flow data collection platform direct coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy data collection system dedicated carbon tax degree day descriptive data file direct downlink domain-decomposition-message-passing Direct/Delayed Response Project dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (insecticide) dynamics explorer Decay designation for an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica Deposition of Biogeochemically Important Trace Species (IGAC) Digital Equipment Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation Network magnesium perchlorate anhydrous granular rate of evaporation (moisture loss from soil) Draft Environmental Impact Statement digital elevation model Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources (Canada) distant early warning Dynamic Global Vegetation Model Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (GAIM) chromosome-doubled haploid Daily Historical Climate Network United States Department of Health and Human Services Department of Human Services Directorate Denmark's Academy for Engineering Differential Absorption Lidar dissolved inorganic carbon Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy digital data acquisition system Data Interchange Format Data and Information Systems (EOS and IGBP) Research vessel (U.K.) discrete ordinate (model) DIS Standing Committee Display Integrated Software System and Plotting Language Data Information Unit Department of Industrial Works Deutscher Kalibrierdienst digital line graph digital line graph-enhanced Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) dynamic limb sounder Data Management (WMO and WWW) deep monitoring (wells)DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.) direct memory access (computer term) dimethyl disulfide distributed memory, multiple instruction, multiple data (computer) data management system dimethyl sulfide or dimethylsulphide dimethyl sulfoxide Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (U.S.) deoxyribonucleic acid Department of National Defense (Canada) Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (India) United States Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture, Indonesia differential optical absorption spectroscopy dissolved organic carbon United States Department of Commerce United States Department of Defense Deutsches Ozeanographisches Datenzentrum (Germany) Department of the Environment (Canada) United States Department of Energy United States Department of Interior United States Department of Justice United States Department of Labor Dynamic Global Phytogeography Model (GCTE) dissolved organic macromolecules dissolved organic matter Domestic Communications Satellite communications relay set Doppler lidar Determination d'Orbite et Radio Positionement Integre par Satellite (France) Doppler Orbit and Radio Positioning Integration by Satellite Department of Space United States Department of State Department of Science and Technology United States Department of Transportation day of year direct playback display code (CDC) Domestic Policy Council development planning review dual precipitation radar Digital Photogrammetry System Data Quality Objectives Direct Read After Write Animation System Data Relay Satellite Data Relay Satellite System direct sounding broadcast deep sea drilling project Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (now SRC) (U.K.) Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) demand-side management Deep Space Network digital signal processing Deep Sea Reversing Thermometer Data Support Section (NCAR) data system tests Department of Science and Technology digital terrain data Technical University of Denmark Diurnal temperature range Dobson units Down Under Doppler and Electricity Experiment Office of Defense Waste Byproducts Management Doppler wind sensor atmospheric dynamics and fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea (France) (JGOFS) Dynamic Systems Project

E E/GDP E/GNP EADS EARSeL EAS EAs EASIZ EASOE EAWEP EAZO EBBR EBCDIC EBM EC EC EC EC EC EC EC EC ECA ECAFE ECAMP ECC ECD ECD ECDIS ECE ECG EC-GC ECHAM ECHIVAL ECLA ECLAC ECLIPS ECMWF Ecom. ECN ECN ECOMARGE ECOSOC ECOWARM ECS ECS ECSL ECTF ECU ECWA ED EDA EDAS EDC EDD EDI EDI EDIS EDOS EDP EDS EDSG EDTA EDTA EDX EDXS EEC EEC EEFSU EEI EEP EER EEZ EF EFCC EFEDTA EFQ e.g. EGCM EGE EG&G EGS EIA EIPO EIS EISCAT EISMV

Ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product Ratio of energy consumption to gross national product Environmental Assessment Data System European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Environmental Analyses Section (ORNL) Environmental Assessments Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment East Asia and Western Pacific Energy Active Zones of the Ocean Energy-Balance Bowen Ratio Extended Binary Coded Data Interchange Code (IBM) energy-balance model eddy correlation electron capture elemental carbon Environment Canada European Community European Communities or Commission of the European Communities executive committee Executive Council (WMO) Economic Commission for Africa (UN) Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (USAF) electrochemical concentration cell effective cutoff diameter electron capture detector (GC) Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems Economic Commission for Europe (UN) Ecosystem Conservation Group (UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, and IUCN) electron capture-gas chromatograph European Centre/Hamburg Model (ECMWF/MPI) European International Project on Climate and Hydrological Interactions between Vegetation, Atmosphere, and Land Surfaces (BAHC and EPOCH) Economic Commission for Latin America Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN) Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (U.K.) EOS communications Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Environmental Change Network ecology of the continental margins (France) (JGOFS) Economic and Social Council (UN) European Committee for Water Resources Management (IAHS) Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (project) EOSDIS Core System European Centre for Space Law Edinburgh Centre for Tropical Forests Environmental Change Unit (Oxford) Economic Commission for Western Asia Energy Division elevation difference accuracy particulate/radon data system EROS Data Center Exchange of Digital Data electronic Data Interchange Equivalent-damage index Environmental Data and Information Service EOS Data and Operations System electronic data processing Environmental Data Service Energy Demand Steering Group ethylenediaminetetraacetate ethylenediaminetetraacetic (acid) energy-dispersive X-ray (analysis) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy European Economic Communities European Economic Commission Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union Edison Electric Institute east equatorial Pacific external engineering review Exclusive Economic Zone Emission Factor Externally Fired Combined Cycle European Field Experiment in Decertification Threatened Area (ECHIVAL and BAHC) Estimated fuel quantity consumed (Used to determine carbon stored) exempli gratia (for example) use only in parentheses or footnotes, followed by a comma) Eddy-resolving General Circulation Model Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Edgerton, Germeshauser, and Greer European Geophysical Society Energy Information Administration (DOE) European IGAC Project Office Steering Committee environmental impact statement European Incoherent Scatter Facility Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences et de Medecine Veterinaire (Dakar)

EJ E-LIDAR ELS ELV EM EMAP EMEP EMEP-CCC EMEX EMF EML EMOC EMR EMSL EMSL-LV En ENEA ENEA ENRIC ENRICH ENSO ENVISAT EOC EOC EOCAP EODC EOF EO-ICWG EOPM EORCU EOS EOS-AERO EOS-ALT EOS-AM EOSAT EOS-CHEM EOSC EOSDIS EOSP EOS PM EOTC EP EP EPA EPA EPC EPD EPER EPI EPICA EPO EPOCH EPOP EPOPE EPRI EPSRC EQPAC ER ER-2 ERB ERBE ERBES ERBS ERD ERDA ERDAS ERFEN ERFU ERIM ERL ERNets ERNI EROC EROS EROS EROS ERP ERS ERS ERS ERS ERS-1 ERS-2 ERTS ERTS-1 ESA ESA ESA ESA ESA ESA/IRS ESAD ESAER ESAM ESCAP ESD ESDIS ESF ESF/EPC ESMAP ESMR ESOC ESRC ESRC ESRI ESSA ESSC ESTAR ESTEC ESTEC ET ETA ETAC ETAP ETC ETC etc. ETF ETF ETI ETM ETRP ETSA ETV EU EU EUMELI EUMETSAT EUR EURECA EUROSTART EUROTRAC EUV EVA EXCOMM EZE

exajoule (10 18 joules) experimental lidar Eastern Lake Survey expendable launch vehicle electromagnetic Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe EMEP-Chemical Coordination Centre Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment Energy Modelling Forum Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE) EOSDIS Mission Operations Center electromagnetic radiation Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (Nevada) (EPA) Natural forest biomass used for energy Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy) Italian National Agency for New technology, Energy and the Environment Environment and Natural Resources Information Center European Network for Research on Global Change (CEC) El Nino/Southern Oscillation (coupled oceanic-atmospheric change) environmental satellite Earth Observation Center (NASDA) EOS Operations Center (NASA) Earth Observation Commercialization Application Program Earth Observing Data Center (U.K.) empirical orthogonal function Earth Observations International Coordination Working Group electro-optic phase modulation European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit Earth Observing System (U.S.) EOS Aerosol Mission EOS Altimetry Mission EOS Morning Crossing (ascending) Mission or Earth Observing System (morning pass) Earth Observation Satellite (commercial operator for satellite systems in the U.S.) EOS Chemistry Mission Earth Observations Science Committee (of ESA) EOS Data and Information System Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter Earth Observing System (afternoon pass) or EOS Afternoon Crossing (descending) Mission European Organization for Testing and Certification (EC) Earth Probe extraction procedure (RCRA and EPA) Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) Environmental Protection Authority (Victoria, Australia) Environmental Protection Committee (Bahrain) European Pollen Database Environmental Processes and Effects Research (program) environmental productivity index European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (PAGES) EOS Project Office European Programme on Climate and Hazards (EEC) European Polar-Orbiting Platform Etude de Processes dans l'Ocean Pacifique Equatorial Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, California) Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Equatorial Pacific (JGOFS) Office of Energy Research Extended Range U-2 (aircraft) Earth Radiation Budget Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Earth Radiation Budget Explorer Satellite Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Ecological Research Division (DOE and OHER) U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly AEC; now DOE) Earth Resources Data Analysis Systems Estudio Regional del Fenomeno El Nino Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade Program Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Environmental Research Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (NOAA) Energy Research Networks wet-only rainfall collector Ecological Rates of Change (NSF) Earth Resources Observation Satellite Earth Resources Observation System European River Ocean System (EEC) Environmental Research Parks Economic Research Service Earth Resources (or remote sensing) Satellite ESA Remote Sensing Satellite European Remote-Sensing Satellite European Remote-Sensing Satellite-1 European Remote-Sensing Satellite-2 Earth Resources Technology Satellite (now Landsat) Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 Ecological Society of America Endangered Species Act (1973) Entomological Society of America Equatorial South America (START) European Space Agency European Space Agency/Information Retrieval Service Earth Science and Applications Division (NASA HQ) European Space Agency's Earth Resources (Satellite) Institute for Environmental Science and Management Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN) Environmental Sciences Division (ORNL) Earth Science Data and Information System European Science Foundation ESF/European Palaeoclimate and Man Project (holocene climate) Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme electronically (electrically) scanning microwave radiometer European Space Operations Center Environmental Science Research Center Economic and Social Research Council Environmental Systems Research Institute U.S. Environmental Science Services Agency (forerunner of NOAA) Earth System Sciences Committee electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ARM) European Space Research and Technology Centre European Space Technology Centre (Netherlands) evapotranpiration estimated time of arrival Environmental Technical Applications Center (U.S. Air Force) Expanded Technical Assistance Program Energy Technology Center European Telecommunications Standards Institute (EC) and others especially of the same kind; and so forth Engineered Test Facility Environmental Task Force Economic Transition and Integration (project) enhanced thematic mapper (Landsat) Education and Training Programme (WMO) electron transport system activity electrothermal vaporizer Agri-residue utilized for energy supply European Union eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic sites (France) (JGOFS) European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Bureau of European Affairs European Retrievable Carrier European Planning Committee for START European Experiment on Transport and Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents (in the Troposphere over Europe) extreme ultraviolet extra vehicular activity Executive Committee Asociacion Protestante de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo en Alemania

F %FCO f FAA FAB FAB FABF FACE FAD FAGS FAI FANGIO FAO FAP FAPIS FAQ FAR FARS FASINEX FAST FATE FB FBS FBC FC FCC FCCC FCCSET FCDS FCST FD FDA FDH FDI FDM FDOC FE Fe FEA FEDC FEDMAP FEIS FeLINE FEM FEMA FEMA FERC FEWA FF FFES FFO FFT FGCC FGD FGDC FGEF FGGE FGGE SOP FICCDC FICCDC/SWG FID FIELD FIFE FIFRA FIN FIPS FIRE FIREIFO FIRESCAN FIT FIZ FL FLAIR FLINN FLM FLUPAC FMFR FMFT FNOC FNWC FO FOAM FOLD FOR FORAST FORET FORTE FORTRAN FOT FOT FOV FPD FR Fr Fr FRAM FRG FRI FRLAB FRONTAL FRR FRRPA FS FSI FSL FSSP FST FSU FT FTIR FTIR FTP FTP/A FTS FTS FTS FTU FUA FW FWCA FWM FWP FWPCA FWS FWWTA FY

Fraction of carbon oxidized Fraction Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) Finance and Budget Fraction actually burned Fraction of agri-residue burned in fields free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (GCTE) Fraction actually degrades Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (ICSU) Fertilizer Association of India Feedback Analysis for GCM Intercomparison and Observations Food and Agriculture Organization (UN) (ICSU) Food and Agriculture Project Formation en Amenagement Pastoral Integre au Sahel Frequently Asked Question Federal Acquisition Regulations Facility for Atmospheric Remove Sensing Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment Fourier amplitude-sensitivity test Formation of Aerosol and their Transformation over Europe (EUROTRAC) Fraction burned annually Frontal Boundary Study Fluidized Bed Combustor Fuel Consumption Federal Communications Commission Framework Convention on Climate Change Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (now NSTC) Fleet Consolidated Data Set (U.S. Navy) Federal Council for Science and Technology Fraction that is dead facility disposal area Fixed Dynamical Heating field data investor finite difference method Fraction of degradable organic carbon Fossil Energy Program (DOE) iron Far East Fusion Energy Design Center Federal Geologic Mapping Project final environmental impact statement Iron as a Limiting-Nutrient Experiment (CSIRO) finite element method Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Finite Element of Water Flow through Aquifers free format Fossil Free Energy System Fraction of oxidized fast Fourier transformation Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S. National Ocean Service) Flue Gas Desulphurisation Federal Geographic Data Commission Federal Geographic Exchange Format First GARP Global Experiment (WMO) FGGE Special Observing Period Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (USGS) FICCDC/Standards Working Group (U.S.) flame ionization detector (GC) Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development First ISLSCP Field Experiment Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Fish Information Network (data base) Federal Information Processing Standard First ISCCP Regional Experiment First ISCCP Regional Experiment Fire Research Campaign Asia-North Field Investigation Team (EPA) Fachinformationszentrum Fraction that live Measurement of Micronutrient Absorption and Status Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Sciences Network federal land manager (e.g., National Park Service) flux dans l'ouest du Pacifique equatorial (France) (JGOFS) four-minus-five restoral four-minus-five test Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (U.S. Navy) Fleet Numerical Weather Center (U.S. Navy) furnace oil Fates of Aromatic Model federally owned Landsat data Forestry Resources (project) Forest Response to Anthropogenic Stress (model) Forest of East Tennessee (model) fast on-orbit recording of transient events FORmula TRANslation (a computer language) flight operations team Fourier Optical Transform field-of-view (of vision) flame photometric detector Federal Register (use with numbers in text; use "Fed. Regis." in reference lists) Quantity of biomass cleared annually from natural forests Fraction of liquid waste treated anaerobically (In methane emissions from municipal liquid waste) Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (U.K.) Federal Republic of Germany (now Germany) Forest Research Institute Front Range Lidar, Aircraft, and Balloon (experiment) frontal process studies (France) (JGOFS) fast repetition rate Forest and Rangeland Renewable Planning Act (1974) Forest Service (USDA) Forest Survey of India Forecast Systems Laboratory (ERL and NOAA) forward scattering spectrometer probe field support terminal Florida State University (Tallahasee) Free troposphere Fourier transform infrared Fourier transform infrared radiometer (spectroscopy) file transfer protocol field task proposal/agreement Fournier transform spectrometer full turbulence simulation file transfer system Formazin turbidity unit Fuel Use Act filter wheel Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1958) food web model Field Work Proposal Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972) United States Fish and Wildlife Service Fraction of waste water treated anaerobically fiscal year

G G-1 G-7 g GA GAC GAGE GAIM GH GALE GAME GAMETAG GARP GATE GATE GATT GAW GBF/DIME Gbps GBSRN GC GCC GCCD GCDB GCDIS GCEP GCHC GCIP GCM GCM GC/MS GCO GCOS GCP GCPI GCRIO GCRP GCSS GCSS GCTE GCTE-SSC GCTM GCV GDAAC GDAS GDC GDP GDPS GDSIDB GDR GDR GE GEBA GEC GEDEX GEF GEF GEIA GEISA GEM GEM-HEX GEMS GENESIS GENIE GENLEAF GEO GEOM GEOS Geos-3 Geosat Geosat GEOSECS GER GERG GESAMP GEWEX GF3 GFDL GFDL

Gulfstream-1 (airplane) Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States gram geographic analysis global area coverage Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (IGBP) Gas Heater Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment GEWEX-related Asian Monsoon Experiment Global Atmospheric Measurements Experiment of Tropospheric Aerosols and Gases Global Atmospheric Research Program (WMO, ICSU, and NOAA) GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment Global Atmosphere Tropical Experiment General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO) Geographic Base Files/Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Census Bureau) gigabits per second Global Baseline Surface Radiation Network gas chromatography (chromatograph) global change category Global Climate Change Digest (CEI) Geographic Coordinates Data Base Global Change Data and Information System Global Change Education Program Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center (USGS) GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project General (global) Circulation Model Global Climate Model gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Generation Certification Official (waste generation) Global Climate Observing System (WMO, IOC, UNEP, and ICSU) Ground Control Point Cape Grim Photochemical Intensive (CSIRO) Global Change Research Information Office Global Change Research Program GEWEX Cloud System Study Global Cloud Systems Study Global Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems (program) (IGBP) GCTE Scientific Steering Committee Global Chemical Transport Model gross calorific value Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center Grimco data acquisition system Global Data Centre gross domestic product Global Data-Processing System (WMO and WWW) Global Digital Sea-Ice Data Bank (WMO/CMM) Geophysical Data Record German Democratic Republic (now Germany) General Electric Global Energy Balance Archive global environment change Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment Global Environment Facility (WB, UNDP, and UNEP) Global Environmental Fund Global Emissions Inventory Activity (IGAC) Gestion et d'Etude des Information Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques Geospace Environment Modeling Geochemical, Microbiological, and Hydrological Experiment Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP) Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems Global Environmental Network for Information Exchange generic models of leaf response Geostationary Earth Observation geographically detailed model Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite Geodetic Satellite Mission (NASA) Geologic Satellite (program) (USN) Geodesy satellite (USN) Geochemical Ocean Sections Study Global Environmental Research (U.K.) Global Environment Research Group Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (WCRP) General Format No. 3 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA) Goddard Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

GFLOPS GFO GGI GGI GGS GHCN GHG GHz GIF GIM GIMMS GIS GISMO GISP GISP2 GISP II GISS GIT GIT

one gigaflop equals 1 billion (10 9) floating point operations per second (measure of computer processing capability) Geosat follow-on GPS geoscience instrument greenhouse-gas indices global geospace science Global Historical Climatology Network greenhouse gas(es) gigahertz Graphical Interchange Format Global Integration and Modeling (IGAC) Global Inventory Modeling and Monitoring Study geographic information system (a system for management, manipulation, analysis, and display of spatial data) graphic-information-system modeling Greenland Ice Sheet Project (NSF and PAGES) Greenland Ice Sheet Project Second Greenland Ice Sheet Project (U.S.) Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA) gastrointestinal tract Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta)

GJ GL GLAS GLAS GLBC GLI GLIS GLL GLOBE GLOBE GLOBEC GLOBEC GLOCARB GLOCHANT GLOCHEM GloED GLONET GLOSS GLRC GLRD GLRS GLRS-A GLRS-R GMCC GMDSS GMP GMS GMSC GMT GNIS GNP GNO GO 3OS

giga (109) joule Geophysics Laboratory Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (formerly GLRS-A) Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences Great Lakes Basin Commission global imager Global Land Information System Galileo Global Land One kilometer Base Elevation (DIS) Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SCOR) Global Marine Ecosystem Dynamics (program) Global Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide Network (IGAC) Global Change Research in the Antarctic (SCAR) Global Atmospheric Chemical Survey (IGAC) Global Emissions Database Global Tropospheric Ozone Network (IGAC) Global Sea-Level Observing System (IOC) Great Lakes Research Center (LSC and NOAA) Great Lakes Research Division Geoscience Laser Ranging System Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Altimeter (now GLAS) Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Ranger Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (now CMDL) Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (IMO) genetically modified plants Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (Japan) Geologic Map Standards Committee (USGS) Greenwich Mean Time Geographic Names Information System (USGS) Gross National Product Gross Product Originating Global Ozone Observing System (WMO)

GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (program) GOED Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite GOES Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics GOES Global Omnibus Environmental Survey (HDGEC) GOEZS Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (IGBP, SCOR, and WCRP) GOF Global Ocean Flux GOFS Global Ocean Flux Study GOI government of India GOIN Global Observation Information Network GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMI Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument GOMOS Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars GOMR global ozone monitoring radiometer GONG Global Oscillation Network Group GOOS Global Ocean Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU) GOOS Global Ozone Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU) GOP Geographical Observatories Programme GOS Global Observing System (WMO and WWW) GOS :Geomagnetic Observing System GPC Global Processing Center GPCC Global Precipitation Climatology Center (data base) GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPI GOES Precipitation Index GPO Government Printing Office (U.S.) GPS Global Positioning System GPSDR Global Positioning System Demonstration Receiver GR growth rate GRADO CNES Gravity Satellite (France) GRASS Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) GRDC Global Runoff Data Centre GRECA Group of Experts on Accident Consequences (NEA and OECD) GREENS Global Redevelopment with Energy Environment Sustainability GREENTIE Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange GRGS Groupe de Recherches de Geodesic Spatiale (France) GRID Global Resource Information Database (UNEP) GRIP Greenland Icecore Project (PAGES) (Europe) GRIMCO CGBAPS computing system GRM NASA Gravity Satellite (U.S.) GRO Gamma Ray Observatory (NASA) GSA General Services Administration GSA Geological Society of America GS&M Modeling (task team) GSC Geological Survey of Canada (DEMR) GSF Gesellschaft fur Strahlen und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen (Germany) GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) GSL Gulf Stream Locale GSMNP Great Smoky Mountains National Park GSN Global Seismic Network GSP Greenland Sea Project GSPDC Geostationary Satellite Precipitation Data Centre GSRN Global Surface Radiation Network Gt gigaton (1,000 million tons) GtC gigatons (or gigatonnes) of carbon GTCC Gas Turbine Combined Cycle GTCE Global Tropospheric Chemistry Experiment GTE Global Tropospheric Experiment GTOS Global Terrestrial Observing System GTS Global Telecommunications System (WMO and WWW) GUI graphical user interface GVap GEWEX Water Vapor Project ("GvaP"is preferred) GVaP GEWEX Water Vapor Project (preferred over "GVap") GW Gigawatt GWE Global Weather Experiment GWh giga watt hour GWP greenhouse (global) warming potential H H-1211

Halon 1211; CBrClF 2

H-1301

Halon 1301; CBrF 3

H 2



hydrogen

H 2O



water

H 2O 2



hydrogen peroxide

ha HAAP HAE HAGE HALOE HALSS HAMOCC HAO HAP HAPEX HAPEX-MOBILHY HARM HASL HASP HBJ HBL HBr HBW HCBP HCCD HCFC HCFC-141b

hectare high-altitude aerial photograph height above ellipsoid human activity and global environment Halogen Occultation Experiment high-altitude lidar sensing station Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Model High Altitude Observatory (NCAR) hazardous air pollutant Hydrological-Atmospheric Pilot Experiment (GEWEX) HAPEX-MOdelisation du BILan Hydrique Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology Health and Safety Laboratory High Altitude Sampling Program Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (India) Hudson Bay Lowland hydrogen bromide half band-width hexachlorobiphenol Historical Canadian Climate Database hydrochlorofluorocarbon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141b (CH 3CCl 2F)

HCFC-142b

hydrochloroflourocarbon-142b (CH 3CClF 2)

HCFC-22

hydrochloroflourocarbon-22 (CHClF 2,

HCHO

chlorodifluoromethane) formaldehyde (also written as CH 2O)



HCl HCMM HCMM/AEM-1 HCMR HCN HCN HCND HD HDF HDGCB HDGEC HDP HDP HDRL HDTV HEC HECP HEIFE HELCOM HEM HESS HEW HF HFC HGCC HHMS HHS HHV HI HIC HILDA HIMSS HIRDLS HIRIS HIRS HIS HIS HITRAN HLQ HLW HMCRI HMMR HMSU HMTA HMW HNO3 HNRC HOC HOCl HOMS HOT HOx

hydrogen chloride Heat-Capacity Mapping Mission HCMM/Applications Explorer Mission-1 heat-capacity mapping radiometer Historical Climatology Network hydrogen cyanide Historical Climatology Network-Daily hierarchical diagnosis hierarchical data format Human Dimensions of Global Change (programme) (UNU, ISSC, and IFIAS) Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (programme) (ISSC) Human Dimensions Program (SEDAC) Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Program (ISSC) High-Dose Reference Laboratory High-Definition Television Hydro-Electric Commission (Tasmania) Herbaceous Energy Crops Program Heihe River Field Experiment Helsinki Commission Harmonizations of Environmental Measurement (program) High Latitude Ecosystems as Sources and Sinks of Trace Gases (IGAC) Health, Education, and Welfare hydrogen fluoride hydrofluorocarbon Hot Gas Clean Up Hydrostatic Head Monitoring Station Department of Health and Human Services Higher Heating Value (thermal efficiency basis) human interactions Habitat International Coalition high-latitude diffusive-advective model high-resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (now MIMR) high-resolution dynamics limb sounder high-resolution imaging spectrometer high-resolution infrared radiation sounder high-resolution interferometer sounder high-spectral resolution interferometer sounder High Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Database holocellulose/lignocellulose quotient high-level waste Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute high-resolution multifrequency microwave radiometer high-resolution microwave sounding unit Hazardous Materials Transportation Act high molecular weight nitric acid HOMS National Reference Centre hydrophobic organic compounds hypochlorous acid Hydrological Operational Multipurpose Subprogramme (OHP and WMO) Hawaii ocean time (series) odd hydrogen (OH and H 2O 2)

HP HP HP HP HPCC HPCRC HPD HPLC HPLC HPS HQ HRDI HRE HRIRS HROI HRPT HRS HRSG HRV HRV HSA HSL HSRL HSRP HST HST HSWA html http HTW HUD HUMICAP HVI HVS HWRP HYNET Hz

health physicist health physics Hewlett-Packard (gas chromatograph manufacturer) High Pressure High Performance Computing and Communications High Performance Computing Research Center (ORNL) Hydrometeorological Processes Division high-precision liquid chromatography high-pressure liquid chromatograph/chromatography Health Physics Society (Bethesda, Maryland) headquarters high-resolution Doppler imager Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (impoundment) high-resolution infrared radiation sounder high-resolution optical instrument high-resolution picture transmission (AVHRR) Hazard Ranking System (EPA) Heat Recovery Steam Generator high resolution video (SPOT) high resolution visible Historic Sites Act (1935) Hazardous Substance List (EPA) High Spectral Resolution Lidar High Speed Research Program Hawaii standard time Hubble Space Telescope Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984) hypertext markup language hypertext transport protocol High Temperature Winkler gasifier Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.) Humidity sensor on drifters (FASINEX) high-volume impactor high-volume sampler Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (WMO) Intercomparison of Operational Hydrological Network Design Techniques hertz (cycles per second)

I 3I IAA IABO IABP IAC IACG IACGEC IAEA IAEG IAF IAG IAGA IAGC IAH IAHR IAHS IAI IAL IAMAP IAMAP-IAHS IAMAS IAOPA IAP IAPSO IAR IAS IASC IASI IASI IASI IASPEI IASTED IATA IATUL IAU IAVCEI IAWPRC IBM IBM PC IBP IBP IBRD IBSRAM IBSS IBWC IC IC IC IC ICA ICACGP ICALPE ICAO ICAR ICAR ICARDA ICARUS ICAS ICASVR ICC ICCE ICDB ICE ICE ICEAR ICES ICF ICGW ICIC ICICI ICID ICIMOD ICIP ICL ICL ICLD ICN ICOLD ICP ICP/MS ICP-OES ICPP ICRAF ICRCCM ICRM ICRP ICRSDT ICRU ICSC ICSD ICSI ICSTI ICSU ICSU-ACE ICSW ICTP ICWG ICWQ ICWRS IDA IDASS IDB IDCCC IDCS IDDSAC IDEAL IDNDR IDP IDRI IDS IDSS IDRI IEA IEA IEA/ORAU IEC IEE IEEE IEEE IELV IEM IEOS IERS IERS IEW IFAD IFDC IFE IFIAS IFIM IFMH IFMK IFN IFO IFOV IFRB IFREMER IFRTP IFS IFS IFU IFYGL IG IGAC IGAC IGAC-SSC IGAP IGBP IGBP-DIS IGC IGCC IGCP IGEA IGFA IGFA IGLD IGN IGO IGOSS IGOSS IGPO IGRSS IGS IGT IGU IGY IHB IHD IHO IHP IHS IHSS II IIASA IIG IIID IIOE IISL IITM IJC ILAS ILO ILWAS IMA IM-Al IMAGE IMAGES IMB IMC IMCO IMD IMF IMF IMG IMO IMO IMOP IMP IMS IMS IMS IMU IN in. Inc. INC INC INCD IND INDIGO INEL INFOCLIMA INFOTERRA INPA INPE INPE INQUA INRA INS INS INSA INSAT INSTARR INSULA INT INTECOL INZN I/O IO IOB IOC IOC IOC IOCARIBE IODE IOP IOPG IOS IP IP IPB IPCC IPCC-EIS IPCC/RSWG/EIS IPEI IPMS IPO IPOC IPR IPS IPV IQSY ir IR IRAP IRC IRD IRF IRGA IRI IRIS IRIS IRIS IRP IRRI IRSS IRSSP IRTM IRTS IS92 IS ISA ISA ISAMS ISAR ISAS ISC ISCCP ISEATRA ISEB 10 ISEE ISEM ISFA ISI ISLSCP ISO ISOS ISP ISPRS ISPs ISRIC ISRO ISS ISSC ISSP ISSS ISSMFE IST ISTAP ISTP ISU ISWS ISY ITASE ITB ITB ITC ITCZ ITE ITEM ITEX ITIR ITIR ITOS ITOY ITPO ITPP ITPR ITRA ITRC ITRDB ITSC ITU ITU IUAES IUB IUBMB IUBS IUCAF IUCC IUCN IUCr IUCRM IUCS IUE IUFRO IUGG IUGS IUHPS IUNS IUPAB IUPAC IUPAP IUPHAR IUPS IUPsyS IUR IUTAM IVA IVL IV&V IWC IWG IWGDMGC IWP IWRA IWSA IZMIRAN

improved initialization inversion International Academy of Astronautics International Association of Biological Oceanography (ICSU) International Arctic Buoy Programme International Activities Committee Interagency Committee on Geomatics (DEMR) Inter-Agency Committee on Global Environmental Change International Atomic Energy Agency (UN) International Association for Engineering Geology International Astronautical Federation International Association of Geodesy (IUGG) International Association of Geomagnetism and Agronomy (IUGG) International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry International Association of Hydrogeologists (IUGS) International Association for Hydraulic Research International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IUGG) Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (START) International Association of Theoretical Applied Limnologists International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IUGG) IAMAP-International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IUGG) International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IUGG and ICSU) International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Institute of Atmospheric Physics International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IUGG and ICSU) Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (Feiberg, Germany) Image Analysis System International Arctic Sciences Committee infrared atmospheric sounding instrument improved atmospheric sounding interferometer infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IUGG) International Association of Science and Technology for Development International Air Transport Association International Association of Technological University Libraries International Astronomical Union International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IUGG) International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control International Business Machines (Corp.) International Business Machines Personal Computer International Biological Programme (ICSU) International Biophysical Program International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Board for Soil Research and Management Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) International Boundary and Water Commission (Independent; U.S. and Mexico) industrialized country interaction coefficient Intergovernmental Council ion chromatography International Communication Agency International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS) International Centre for Alpine Environments (Chambery, France) International Civil Aviation Organization Indian Council of Agricultural Research International Center for Action Research International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas Interagency Climate-Aerosol Radiative Uncertainties and Sensitivities (Program) International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences International Committee on Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations (IAHS) Instrument Control Center International Commission on Continental Erosion (IAHS) Ice Core Data Bank International Cirrus Experiment International Cometary Explorer International Centre for Equatorial Atmospheric Research (Indonesia) International Council for the Exploration of the Seas Instrument Control Facility International Commission on Ground Water (IAHS) Intercalibrations-Intercomparisons (IGAC) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development for the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Region (Katmandu, Nepal) International Conference on Image Processing integrated cloud liquid International-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICSU) International Commission on Large Dams ice condensation nuclei International Commission on Large Dams inductively coupled plasma emission (spectroscopy) inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy Idaho Chemical Processing Plant International Council for Research in Agroforestry Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (program) International Committee on Radionuclide Meteorology International Commission on Radiological Protection International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (IAHS) International Commission on Radiological Units International Civil Service Commission International Continental Scientific Drilling (program) International Commission on Snow and Ice (IAHS) International Council for Scientific and Technical Information International Council of Scientific Unions ICSU Advisory Committee on the Environment International Commission on Surface Water (IAHS) International Centre for Theoretical Physics International Coordination Working Group International Commission on Water Quality (IAHS) International Commission on Water Resources Systems (IAHS) International Development Agency Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System Inter-American Development Bank Interior Department Cartographic Coordinating Committee (DOI) Image Dissector Camera System Interim Data Documentation Standard for ARC/INFO Averages International Decade for the East African Lakes (project) (PAGES) International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Instrument Development Program Thailand Development Research Institute interdisciplinary science Integrated Data Sounding System Thailand Development Research Institute Institute of Energy Analysis International Energy Agency Institute of Energy Analysis/Oak Ridge Associated Universities Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments Institution of Electrical Engineers Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Institute for Electronics and Electrical Engineering intermediate expendable launch vehicle Institute of Experimental Meteorology International Earth Observing System International Earth Reference System International Ellipsoid Reference System International Energy Workshop International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN) International Fertilizer Development Center Institute for Energy Technology (Norway) International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Study Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) Institut fur Meereskunde, Hamburg, Germany Institut fur Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany Ice-freezing nuclei intensive field observation instantaneous field of view International Frequency Registration Board Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploration de la Mer Institut Francais pour la Researche et la Technologie Polaire (French Institute for Polar Research Technology) Integrated Forest Study on the Effects of Atmospheric Deposition International Foundation for Science Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (Germany) International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IHD) Institute of Geography International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (Program) (IGBP and ICACGP) IGAC Scientific Steering Committee International Global Aerosol Program International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU) IGBP Data and Information System International Geophysical Cooperation Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle International Geological Correlation Programme (IUGS and UNESCO) International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research Inter-Governmental Funding Agencies International Group of Funding Agencies (for Global Change Research) International Great Lakes Datum Institut Geographique National Intergovernmental Organization Integrated Global Ocean Services System (WMO/IOC) Integrated Global Ocean Station System (UNESCO) International GEWEX Project Office International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society International Glaciological Society Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago) International Geographical Union (ICSU) International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 - 31 December 1958) International Hydrographic Bureau International Hydrological Decade (UNESCO) International Hydrographic Organization International Hydrological Program (UNESCO) International Heliospheric Study International Humic Substances Society interdisciplinary investigator International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Vienna) Indian Institute of Geomagnetism International Institute of Information Design International Indian Ocean Expedition International Institute of Space Law Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology International Joint Commission (Independent; Canada and U.S.) Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer International Labor Organization Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI) Information Management and Archives (Office) inorganic monomeric aluminum Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect International Marine Global Change Study (PAGES and SCOR) Investigator of Micro-Biosphere ice mass content Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization India Meteorological Department ice mass flux International Monetary Fund Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases International Maritime Organization International Meteorological Organization (formerly WMO) Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (WMO) ice mass path Information Management Services Information Management System International Mountain Society International Mathematical Union ice nuclei inch Incorporated Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (for a Framework Convention on Climate Change) International Negotiating Convention International Convention to Combat Decertification Industrial Metabolism Project French programme, Indien Gaz Ocean Idaho National Engineering Laboratory World Climate Data Information and Referral System International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information (UNEP) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazona (Brazil) Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Brazil) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacialis Brazilian (Brazil) International Union for Quaternary Research Institut National de Recherche Agronomiques (France) inertial navigation system Institute Scholars Institut National des Sciences Appliques (France) Indian Satellite Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (University of Colorado, Boulder) International Scientific Council for Island Development (NGO) p-iodonitrotetrazolium International Association of Ecology (ICSU and IUBS) Institut Zairois pour la Conservation de la Nature input/output input/output Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems and Related Activities Intergovernmental Oceanographic Council (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO) International Ozone Commission IOC Sub-Commission for the Carribbean and Adjacent Regions International Oceanographic Data/Information Exchange (IOC) intensive observing period Indian Ocean Planning Group (JGOFS) Institute of Ocean Sciences (Canada) independent pixel Internet Protocol Bogor Agriculture Institute (Indonesia) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO and UNEP) IPCC-Energy and Industry Subgroup IPCC/Response Strategies Working Group/Energy and Industry Subgroup Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument International Polar Motion Service WOCE International Planning Office International Partner Operations Center Intellectual Property Right Inter Press Service isentropic potential vorticity International Quiet Sun Years infrared (preferred over "IR") Infrared ("ir" is preferred) Interdisciplinary Panel on Climate Change International Radiation Commission Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil) instantaneous radiative transfer infrared gas analyzer International Reference Ionosphere Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology infrared interferometer spectrometer integrated radar imaging system Installation Restoration Program International Rice Research Institute Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Interactive Remote Sensing Software Package infrared thermal mapper infrared temperature sounder IPCC Scenarios, 1992 Image Subtraction Israel Space Agency Italian Space Agency improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder Intelligent Synthetic Aperture Radar Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) International Seismological Centre International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (WCRP) International Symposium on Ecological Aspects of Tree-Ring Analysis Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry International Sun-Earth Explorer International Society for Ecological Modelling International Scientific Film Association International Statistical Institute International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project (GEWEX and WCRP) International Standards Organization International Southern Ocean Studies International Society for Photogrammetry International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Integrated Steel Plants International Soil Reference and Information Centre Indian Space Research Organization integrated sounding system International Social Science Council ICSU Solar System Panel International Society of Soil Science International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Instrument Support Terminal International Space Technology Assessment Program International Solar Terrestrial Physics International Space University Illinois State Water Survey International Space Year (1992) International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (PAGES) Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia) Intergovernmental TOGA Board International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences Intertropical Convergence Zone Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (NERC) International Technology Environmental (data base) Management (system) International Tundra Experiment (USMAB Directorate on High Latitude Ecosystems) infrared thermal imaging radiometer (now ASTER) intermediate and thermal infrared radiometer Improved TIROS Operational System International Tropospheric Ozone Year International TOGA Planning Office International TOVS Processing Package infrared temperature profile radiometer intercomparison of transmittance and radiance algorithms Industrial Toxicology Research Centre International Tree-Ring Data Bank International TOVS Study Conference integrated terrain unit International Telecommunication Union International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences International Union of Biochemistry (ICSU) International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International Union of Biological Sciences (ICSU) Inter-Union Commission on Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy and Space Science Information Unit on Climate Change International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (now World Conservation Union) (Switzerland) International Union of Crystallography Inter-Union Commission on Radio Meteorology Inter-Union Commission on Spectroscopy international ultraviolet explorer International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (Secretariat, Schonbruan, Vienna) International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (ICSU) International Union of Geological Sciences (ICSU) International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science International Union of Nutritional Sciences International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (ICSU) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ICSU) International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (ICSU) International Union of Pharmacology International Union of Physiological Sciences International Union of Psychological Science International Union of Radioecologists International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICSU) intra vehicular activities Instituto Venezuelan de Investigaciones Cientificas Swedish Environmental Research Institute independent verification and validation Ice water content Investigators Working Group Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (U.S.) Ice water path International Water Resources Association International Water Supply Association Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Radio Research, and the Ionosphere (Academy of Sciences) (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.)

J JASIN JASON JAWS JECOR JEDA JEE JEM JEOS JEOS JERS-1 JERS JGOFS JGOFS GS JGOFS PM JGOFS-SSC JI JICST JIN JIU JJA JMA JOC JOI JPL JPOP JSC JSC JSC-WCRP JST JTC JTU

Joint Sea-Air Interaction Experiment Scientific panel (MITRE Corporation Joint Airport Weather Studies (project) U.S.-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission of Economic Cooperation Joint Environmental Data Center Japan Environment Agency Japanese Experiment Module Japanese Earth Observing System Japanese Earth Observing Satellite Japanese Earth Remote-sensing Satellite-1 Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JPOP) Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (program) (IGBP and SCOR) JGOFS Global Synthesis JGOFS Photosynthetic Measurements (task team) JGOFS Scientific Steering Committee Joint Implementation Japan Information Center of Science and Technology Joint Implementation Network joint inspection unit June-July-August Japan Meteorological Agency Joint Organizing Committee Joint Oceanographic Institutions (Inc.) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) (NASA) Japanese Polar-Orbiting Platform (JERS) Johnson Space Center Joint Scientific Committee (ICSU, WCRP, and WMO) Joint Scientific Committee for the WCRP (ICSU and WMO) Japan Standard Time joint transfer correlation Jackson turbidity unit

K K ka KAHE kbps KEEP KERFIX keV kg kHz kJ km KNMI Kow kPa Kr KSC KUM kW kWh kyr



kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature (the number of kelvins equals the number of degrees Celsius plus 273.15) thousands of years time series station off Kahe Point, Hawaii kilobits per second Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes Kerguelen fixed station (France) (JGOFS) kilo electron volts kilogram kilohertz kilojoule (energy measure) kilometer Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute octanol-water partition coefficient kiloPascal (pressure above ambient (100 kPa = 1 atmosphere excess)) krypton Kennedy Space Center (NASA) Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii kilowatt kilowatt hours (3.6 million joules) kiloyear

L L/C L LAC LAC LAF LAGCM LAGEOS LAI LAID LAMBADA LAMP LAN Landsat Landsat LANL LANL/ACL LAPAN LaRC LASE LASER LASR LASS lat. LAWS LBL LBL LBLRTM LCC LCL LDC LDEO LDGO LDR LEADEX LEAPS LEBS LEFI LEMA LERTS LES LFM LGM LHV LI Lidar Lidar LIDQA LIGA LIMS LIPI LIPI LIPI LIRAD LIS LIS LITE LLL LLNL LLW LMA LMD LMER LMER LMES LNG LODYC LOICZ LOICZ-SSC long. LOIS LONGLINES LORAN LORCS LOTREX LOTREX LOTUS LOWESS LP LPDA LPDM LPG LPI LPM LR LRA LRP LRPT LSC LSD LSM LSN LST LST LTER LTM LTM LTREB LTRMP LTRRS LUCC LUCC-CPPC LUCIE LV LVS LVS LW LWC LWIR LWP LWRM

land cover liter levelized annual cost local area coverage Lake Acidification and Fisheries (EPRI) general circulation model at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Laser Geodynamics Satellite leaf area index land-atmosphere interactions dynamics Large-scale Atmospheric Moisture Balance of Amazona using Data Assimilation (BAHC and GEWEX) Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (EPRI) local area network Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (formerly ERTS) (NASA) land satellite (photographs of the ground) Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory's Advanced Computing Laboratory National Institute for Aeronautics and Space (Indonesia) Langley Research Center (NASA) Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Library Access, Search, and Retrieval Local Area Sounding System latitude laser atmospheric wind sounder Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (University of California) line-by-line line-by-line radiative transfer model land cover change lifting condensation level less-developed country Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory linear depolarization ratio Leads Experiment Low Electron Attachment Potential Species Low Emission Boiler Systems local electric field instrument Long-term Ecological Modelling Activity (GCTE) Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Teledetection Spatiale (France) Lincoln Experimental Satellite limited fine-mesh model Last Glacial Maximum Lower Heating Value library laser-radar light detection and ranging (instrument) Landsat Image Data Quality and Analysis Last InterGlacial in the Arctic (project) Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere Marine Pollution Monitoring Center (including LIPI's Network of the Center for Research and Development in Oceanography) Minister of State for Population and Research Environment (Indonesia) The Indonesian Institute of Sciences lidar/radiometer land information system lightning imaging sensor Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste Laboratoire de Meteorologie Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique Land Margins Ecosystem Research Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (ORNL) Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred) Liquified Natural Gas Laboratoire d'Oceanographic Dynamique et de Climatologie Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP) LOICZ Scientific Steering Committee longitude Land Oceans Interactions Study Long Hydrographic Sections Programme (U.S.) Long-Range Area Navigation System League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP) Longitudinal Land-Surface Traverse Experiment Long-Term Upper Ocean Study, Woods Hole, 1983 locally weighted least squares Low Pressure laser-phased Doppler anemometer Lagrangian particle dispersion model Liquid Petroleum Gas low-pressure impactor liters per minute laser retroreflector laser retroreflector array Landscape Research Project (DOE) low-resolution picture transmission Lake Survey Center (NOAA) least significant difference LAWS Simulation Model long- and short-normal resistivity (geophysical logging) local solar time local standard time Long-Term Ecological Research (program) (NSF) linear tangent model long-term monitoring Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology Long-Term Resource Monitoring Program (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) Long-Term Regional Research Site Land Use and Cover Change (IGBP and HDP) LUCC Core Project Planning Committee Study of circulation north and west of Australia (Leeuwin Current) Large Volume water samples (>100 liters) Large Volume Sampling low-volume sampler longwave liquid water content long-wavelength (thermal) infrared liquid water path longwave radiation model

M m M-region M&CD M&E MAA MAB MABL MAC MAC MACDIF MAESA MAFF MAGE MAGE MAGIC MAGS Magsat MAHLOVS MAKS MAP MAP3S MAP3S/PCN MAPS MAPS MAPS MARC MARDOS MARECO MARIA MASC MASFLEX MAST MAT MATS MAW MB mb Mbps MBL MBT MCC MCC MCF McIDAS MCL mcm MCP MCS MCS MCSST MCZ MDA MDC MDE MDR MDSRS MEA MECCA MED MEDCOM MEDCOM MEDIAS MEDIAS MEDIAS MEDS MEHALICE MELV MEPED MERGE MERIS MERIT MERS MES MESOSOFT MESEEC MESSR METEOR Meteor METEOSAT METEOSAT METOP MeV MFE MFE/MAGNOLIA

meter Maunder region Metals and Ceramics Division (ORNL) monitoring and enforcement moist-adiabatic adjustment Man and the Biosphere (programme) (UNESCO) Marine atmospheric boundary layer Middle Atmosphere Cooperation (IGAC) Multiphase Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Mapping and Charting Data Interchange Format (Canada) Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (U.K.) Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (IGAC) Marine Gas Emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate (IGAC) Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchment Mackenzie GEWEX Study (Canada) Magnetic Field Satellite Middle and High Latitudes Oceanic Variability Study Martin and Kitzis Sampler (portable air sampler) Middle Atmosphere Programme Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Precipitation Chemistry Network Map Analysis Package System Measurement of Atmospheric Pollution from Satellites Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System The Middle Atmosphere Responses to Changes "Sources of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment and Their Relative Contributors to Overall Dose Assessment from Marine Radioactivity" (IAEA CRP) Marine Radioecology Working Group (IUR) Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents (CEC) Mountain Administration Support Center (NOAA) Marginal Sea Flux Experiment (in the West Pacific) (IGOPS) Marine Science and Technology Programme (CEC) marine air temperature Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Studies Ministry of Agriculture and Water (Saudi Arabia) Manitoba millibar megabits per second marine boundary layer Mechanical Bathythermograph mesoscale convective complex Mission Control Center Methane conversion factor Man-computer Interactive Data Access System maximum contaminant level million cubic metre Meteorological Communications Package (direct broadcast of operational data) Mesoscale Cloud System Mesoscale Convective Systems Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (algorithm) Mesoscale Compressible Community Model Methodology of Decision Analysis (project) more developed country Middle East minimum detectable radiance morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering monoethanolamine Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment Mediterranean (the region) (START) Mediterranean Planning Committee (START) Mediterranean Regional Committee (START) Mediterranean and Subtropical Africa Mediterranean Basin and Sub-tropical Africa (regional research network) Reseau de Recherche Regionale pour le Bassin Mediterraneen et l'Afrique Subtropicale Marine Environmental Data Service (Canada) Methane and Halocarbons Intercalibrations Experiment (IGAC) medium expendable launch vehicle medium energy proton and electron detector Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG reduction policies medium-resolution imaging spectrometer Monitoring Earth's Rotation and Intercomparison of Techniques Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Military Engineering Services Mesoscale Data Management Facility Methodologies to Estimate Social, Environmental, and Economic Consequences multispectral electronic self-scanning radiometer Operational Weather Satellite (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) Research vessel (Germany) Geosynchronous Meteorology Satellite (ESA) European Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT) Meteorological Operational Satellite (polar satellite series) mega electron volts Magnetic Fusion Energy (program) MFE/Magnetic Field Experiment

Mflops MFO MFRSR mg MGE MGO Mha MHRS MHS MHS MHz MIADS MIAS MIBK mill(s) MILOX MIMD MIMR MIMR min MINK MIPAS MIPS MIR MIRSL MIS MISR MIT MITI MITRE MITRE MIZ MIZEX MJ mks MKS mksa MKSA mL MLE MLO MLOPEX MLOPEX II MLR MLS mm MM4 MM5 MMAD MM-Al MMCH4 MMES MMI mmscmd MMTS MNRT MOA MOBILHY MOC MODE MODECS MODIS MODIS-N MODIS-T MODMAP MOGUNTIA MOLA MOM MOM MOMS MONEX MONSEE MOP MOPITT MORACC MORFLOT MORS MOS-1 MOS MOS MOSS MOT MOU MP MPa MPC MPC MPE MPF MPI MPL MPL MR MR MRC MRI MRIR MS MSA MSC MSC MSFC MSL MSP MSR MSS MSS MST MSU MSW MT MTCE MT-CLIM MTCR MTMC MTOE MTS MU MUID MUIR MVS mW MW Mwh MWDI MWIR MWL MWR MWSR

One megaflop equals 1 million (10 6) floating point operations per second mixed-function oxidase (enzyme system) multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer milligram MicroStation Foundation and Modular GIS Environment (by Intergraph, Inc.) Main Geophysical Observatory (Russia) million hectare Modified Hazard Ranking System (DOE) Message Handling System (electronic) microwave humidity sounder megahertz map information assembly and display system Marine Information Advisory Service (U.K.) methyl isobutyl ketone 0.001 U.S. dollars Mid-Latitude Ecosystems and Photochemical Oxidants (IGAC) multiple instruction, multiple data (system) multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer (formerly HIMSS) multiband/multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer minute Missouri-Iowa-Nebraska-Kansas Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (sounder) millions of instructions per second Orbital System (Russia) Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory management information system multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer Massachusetts Institute of Technology (U.S.) Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan) Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Establishment Miniature Individual Transmitter Receiver Equipment Marginal Ice Zone Marginal Ice Zone Experiment megajoule meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKS") meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred) meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKSA") meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred) milliliter maximum likelihood estimation Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) (CMDL) MLO Photochemical Experiment Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemical Experiment II multiple linear regression microwave limb sounder millimeter Mesoscale model 4 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR) Mesoscale model 5 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR) mass median aerodynamic diameter total monomeric aluminum Methane emitted from animal manure Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred) Modified Mercalli Intensities million metric standard cubic metre per day Maximum-Minimum Temperature System Minister of State for Research and Technology Memorandum of Agreement Mobilisation du Bilan Hydrique Memorandum of Cooperation Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment molecular design of chemical systems moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (NASA/GSFC) moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-Nadir moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-tilt modernization of mapping techniques Model of the General Universal Tracer transport in the Atmosphere Mars Observer Laser Altimeter Mission Operations Manager modular ocean model modular optoelectronic multispectral scanner Monsoon Experiment Monitoring of the Sun-Earth Environment Meteosat Operational Programme Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere modeling radiation clouds, and convection Ministry of the Merchant Marine of the Soviet Union (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) Group of Experts Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea Marine Observations Satellite-1 (Japan) Marine Observations Satellite model output statistics Map Overlay Statistical System (by Autometrics) Ministry of Transport (Canada) Memorandum of Understanding Medium Pressure Megapascal massively parallel computer maximum permissible concentration Mission to Planet Earth momentary power failure Max Planck Institute (Germany) Marine Physical Laboratory Micropulse Lidar Microwave Radiometer Methane Recovery Medical Research Council Meteorology Research, Inc. medium resolution infrared radiometer mass spectrometry (spectrometer) methanesulfonate Marine Sciences Council Meteorological Satellite Center Marshall Space Flight Center mean sea level Motion-Sensing Platform microwave scanning radiometer multispectral scanner (Landsat) multispectral scanner system Ministry of Environment and Science microwave sounding unit Municipal solid waste million tonne million tonnes of carbon equivalent Mountain Climate Model million tonnes of coal replacement Military Traffic Management Command million tonnes of oil equivalent microwave temperature sounder microwave unit map unit identification data map unit interpretation record Minimum-Variance-Simultaneous milliwatt megawatt megawatt hours Master Water Data Index medium-wavelength infrared municipal waste leachate microwave radiometer microwave water substance radiometer

N N-C N 2



Nitrogen-carbon ratio nitrogen

N 2O



nitrous oxide

N 2O 5



nitrogen pentoxide, nitric anhydride

N 2O-N



Nitrous oxide nitrogen trace gas emission ratio

NA NAAQ NAAQS NABE NACNEMS NAD 27 NAD 83 NADP NADP/NTN NADW NAEG NAF NAFCOM NAIC NAL NALMS NAM NAMAS NAPAP NAR NARA NARC NARE NARL NARS NARSNDF NAS NASA NASA/EDC NASC NASCOM NASDA NASM NASQUAN NAST NATO NATT NAVSTAR Navstar NAVSWC NAWDEX NBIOME NBIS NBRF NBRI NBS NBS NC NCAER NCAR NCASI NCB NCC NCC NCDC NCDCDS NCDS NCE NCEP NCGIA NCIC NCLAN NCMC NCMRWF NCP NCPDI NCPO NCRP NCSA NCS&T NCSU NCV NDBC NDC NDC NDCDB NDF NDIR NDP NDPD NDSC NDVI NE NEA NEAPACC NEB NECT NEG NEHA NEIC NEIDA NEP NEPA NEPP NERC NERDDC NERI NERP NERSC NES NES NES NESDIS NESDP NESHAP NESS netCDF NEXRAD nf-EBM NFERC NFMA NGB NGDC NGM NGO NGRS NGS NGSDC NGVD 29 NH 3

North America(n) National Ambient Air Quality National Ambient Air Quality Standards North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (JGOFS and IGAC) North American Cooperative Network of Enhanced Measurement Sites North American Datum of 1927 North American Datum of 1983 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (EPA) National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network North Atlantic deep water Nevada Applied Ecology Group Northern Africa (START) Northern Africa Committee (START) Newly Agro-Industrialized Country National Agricultural Library North American Lake Management Society North America National Measurement Accreditation Service National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program net assimilation rate National Archives and Records Administration National Atmospheric Radiation Centre (AES) North Atlantic Regional Experiment (IGAC) National Arctic Research Laboratory (Barrow, Alaska) National Archives and Records Service (GSA) North Atlantic Regional Study Narrative Data File National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.) NASA/Environmental Data Centre North American Stratigraphic Code NASA Communications Network National Space Development Agency (Japan) National Air and Space Museum National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network National Academy of Science and Technology North Atlantic Treaty Organization Northern Australian Tropical Transect Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging Global Positioning Satellite Communication Set Naval Surface Warfare Center (DOD) National Water Data Exchange (USGS) Northern Biosphere Observation and Modeling Experiment Northern Biosphere Information System National Biomedical Research Foundation National Botanical Research Institute National Biological Survey National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) National Committee (IGBP) National Council of Applied Economic Research National Center for Atmospheric Research (NOAA) (Boulder, Colorado) National Council on Air and Stream Improvement Net change of biomass National Climatic Center (now NCDC) Network Control Center National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) (NOAA) National Committee-Digital Cartographic Data Standards (American Congress Surveying & Mapping; formed 1982) NASA Climate Data System Net carbon emission National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly NMC) National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis National Cartographic Information Center National Crop Loss Assessment Network (EPA) National Critical Materials Council National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting National Climate Program National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Inventory National Climate Program Office National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements National Center for Supercomputing Applications National Council for Science and Technology (formerly FCCSET) North Carolina State University net calorific value National Data Buoy Center National Data Centre Nondairy cattle National Digital Cartographic Data Base Narrative Data File non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer numeric data package National Data Processing Division (EPA) Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD) North East Atlantic Palaeooceanography and Climate Change National Environmental Board National Research Council of Thailand WOCE Numerical Experimentation Group National Environmental Health Association National Enforcement Investigations Center National Estuarine Inventory Data Atlas Noise Equivalent Power National Environmental Policy Act (1969) National Energy Policy Plan (DOE) National Environmental Research Centre National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Council (Australia) National Environmental Research Institute National Environmental Research Park National Energy Research Supercomputer Center National Energy Strategy National Eutrophication Survey nuclear estate with small holdings National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NOAA) National Economic and Social Development Plan National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants National Environmental Satellite Service (NOAA) Network Common Data Format Next-Generation Weather Radar (NWS) noise forced energy balance model National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center National Forest Management Act (1976) Nordic Gene Bank National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA) (Boulder, Colorado) Nested Grid Model nongovernmental organization National Geodetic Reference System National Geodetic Survey (NOAA) National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 ammonia

NH 4+



ammonium

NH NH NHAP NHC NHEML NHRC NHRE NHRI NHTSA NIAES NIC NIE NIEHS NIES NIEs NIGEC NIH NILU Nimbus Nimbus NIO NIOSH NIP NIPDWS NIR NIRP NIST NISTEP NKA NKO NKS NLC NLE NLVF



National Highway Northern Hemisphere National High-Altitude Photography Program United States National Hurricane Center United States National Hurricane Experimental Meteorological Laboratory National Hydrology Research Centre United States National Hail Research Experiment National Hydrology Research Institute National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (DOT) National Institute of Agro-Environmental Studies Newly Industrialized Country National Institute for the Environment National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institute for Environmental Studies newly industrializing economies National Institute for Global Environmental Change National Institutes of Health Norwegian Institute for Air Research NASA Meteorological Satellites (1 through 7) Satellite Series to Meet the Needs of Atmospheric and Earth Scientists National Institute of Oceanography National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health normal incidence pyrheliometer National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards near infrared National Institute for Radiation Protection National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly NBS) National Institute of Science and Technology Policy Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy Nederlandse Kalibratie Organisatie Nordic Nuclear Safety Project National Laboratory Consortium National Library for the Environment Norway Agricultural Research Council

Nm 3 nm3 NMC NMFECC NMFS NMHC NMNH NNMI NNSF NNSS NNWSI NO NO 2



Normal meter 3 natural metre cubenm nanometer National Meteorological Center (now NCEP) (WWW) National Magnet Fusion Energy Computer Center National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA) nonmethane hydrocarbons National Museum of Natural History Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization National Natural Science Foundation Navy Navigational Satellite System Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (project) nitric oxide nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen peroxide

NO 3



nitrate radical

NOAA NOAH NOBREX NODC NODC NODS NOMHICE NOO NOPEX NORDA NORDMAP NORPAX NOS NOSS NOWES NO x

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC) Nitrous Oxide and Halocarbons Division (CMDL) North Brazil Current Experiment National Oceanographic Data Center (NOAA) National Ozone Data Center (NOAA) NASA Ocean Data System Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (IGAC) National Oceanographic Office Northern Hemisphere Climate Processes Experiment (BAHC) Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity European Nordic Pollen Data Mapping Project North Pacific Expedition National Ocean Survey (NOAA) National Oceanic Satellite System Northern Wetlands Study oxides of nitrogen (generic)

NO x



nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2, NO 3, etc.)

NO x-N



Nitrogen oxides nitrogen trace gas emission ratio

NO y



total active nitrogen

NOZE NP NPDES NPIC NPL NPOP NPP NPS NR NRA NRC NRC NRC NRCC NRCP NRCT NREN NRL NROSS NRP NRPGC NRSA NSA NSA/AAO NSBF NSC NSC NSC NSCAT NSERC NSF NSFNet NSIDC NSJI NSN NSpC NSPD NSS nss NSSDC NSSFC NSSL NSTC NSTL NSTS NSWS NTIS NTN NTS NUC NVI NWLISN NWP NWPA NWPM NWR NWRC NWRI NWS NWSRFS NWWA NYU NYU/Ultra NZOI NZP

National Ozone Expedition neutron porosity (geophysical logging) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System National Programme on Improved Chulhas National Physics Laboratory NASA Polar Orbiting Platform Net Primary Production (IGBP-DIS, and GAIM Working Group) National Park Service (USDI) not reported NASA Research Announcement National Research Council (Canada) National Research Council (U.S.) (NAS) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.) National Research Council of Canada National Research Council for the Philippines National Research Council of Thailand National Research and Education Network Naval Research Laboratory Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System National Research Program National Research Program for Global Change National Remote Sensing Agency (India) Northern Slope of Alaska NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean National Scientific Balloon Facility National Science Council National Security Council Norwegian Space Center NASA scatterometer Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada) National Science Foundation National Science Foundation Network National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado, Boulder) North-South Joint Implementation NASA Space Network National Space Council National Space Policy Directive National Stream Survey non-sea-salt National Space Science Data Center National Severe Storms Forecast Center National Severe Storms Laboratory National Science and Technology Council (U.S.) National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA) National Space Transportation System National Surface Water Survey (EPA) National Technical Information Service (DOC) National Trends Network Nevada Test Site National Underseas Research Center normalized difference vegetation index Northwest Land Information System Network numerical weather prediction Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982) Numerical Weather Prediction Model Niwot Ridge (Denver, Colorado) National Weather Records Center National Water Research Institute (Canada) National Weather Service (formerly U.S. Weather Bureau) National Weather Service River Forecast System (U.S.) National Water Well Association New York University New York University's Ultracomputer (project) New Zealand Oceanographic Institute National Zoological Park

O 18O

O&M O/N O 2



oxygen-18 (oxygen isotope with atomic weight of 18) Operation and Maintenance oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio (normal) molecular oxygen

O 3



ozone

O x



odd oxygen (O + O 3)

OAR Office of Atmospheric Research (NOAA) OARM Office of Administration and Resources Management OAS Organization of American States OASIS Observation at Several Interacting Scales OAST Office of Aeronautics Space Technology (NASA) OAU Organization of African Unity OAXTC Ocean Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Compounds OCAM Afro-Malagasy Common Organization OCC Operations Control Center OCCAM Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Modelling (U.K.) OCE Oceania (START) OClO :chlorine dioxide OCN Oceania OCTS ocean color and temperature sensor o.d. outside diameter ODA Official Development Assistance ODA Overseas Development Agency (U.K.) ODAS Oceanic Data Assimilation System ODB Orbit Determination Beacon ODC other data center ODP Ocean Drilling Program ODP ozone-depleting potential OEC Office of Environmental Compliance OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OEG Office of Environmental Guidance OEP Office of Economic Planning OER Office of Energy Research (DOE) OES Bureau of Oceans, International Environment, and Scientific Affairs (USDA) OFDA Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance OFS Office of the Foreign Secretary (NAS and NRC) OGC Oregon Graduate Center (now OGIST) OGCM ocean general circulation model OGI Oregon Graduate Institute (now OGIST) OGIST Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology OGWP Office of Ground Water Protection (EPA) OH hydroxyl radical OHER Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE) OHF Old Hydrofracture Facility (pond) (ORNL) OHP Operational Hydrology Programme (WMO) OIEA Office of Integrated Environmental Analysis (EPA) OIRM Office of Information Resources Management (EPA) OIS Operational Information Service (WWW) OKCS Oklahoma Climatological Survey OLIPAC Oligotrophic Pacific (France) (JGOFS) OLR outgoing long-wave radiation OLS operational license stage OLS operational line scanner OLS optical line scanner OM-Al organic monomeric aluminum OMB Office of Management and Budget (Independent) OMCS ozone monitor comparison system OMDR Optical Memory Disk Recorder Animation System OMEX Ocean Margin Exchanges OMP Ocean Margins Program OMWOG Ocean-based Measurements Working Group ONEB Office of National Environmental Board ONR Office of Naval Research (U.S.) ONWI Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation OPAC Online Public Access Catalog OPC ordinary portland cement OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEX Operational and Executive Personnel for Civil Service OPM Office of Personnel Management OPPE Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation (EPA) OPS optical sensor OPT Optimization Under Uncertainty Project ORAU Oak Ridge Associated Universities ORD Office of Research & Development (EPA) ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL/ACL ORNL/Advanced Computing Laboratory ORR Oak Ridge Reservation ORSTOM Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-mer (Office of Overseas Scientific and Technical Research) (France) OSB Ocean Studies Board OSC Office of Scientific Computing (DOE) OSC Orbital Sciences Corporation OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSR Office of Sponsored Research OSSA Office of Space Science and Applications (NASA HQ) OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiments OST Office of Science and Technology OSTI Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE) OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OSU Oregon State University OSWER Office of Solid Waste and Energy Response (EPA) OTA Office of Technology Assessment OTEC ocean thermal energy conversion OTS Office of Toxic Substances (EPA) OWDC Office of Water Data Coordination (USGS) OWRT Office of Water Research and Technology (DOI) OWS Ocean Weather Station OWSE Operational WWW Systems Evaluation OWSE-NA Operational WWW Systems Evaluation North America P P/R P-Code P

productivity/respiration GPS precision transmission code significance level (statistical)

Pa PAAD PAC PACER PAD PAF PAGES PAGES-EXCOMM PAGES-SSC PAH PAHO PALE PAM PAN PANASH PAR PAR PAR PARCC PASA PASC PASE PBL PBM PBMR PBU PC PC PCA PCAST PCB PCMDI pCO2

Pascal (1N/m 2) Program Assistance Approval Document Polar Atmospheric Chemistry Program for the Acceleration of Commercial Energy Research Program Approval Document Processing Archiving Facility Past Global Changes (IGBP) PAGES Executive Committee PAGES Scientific Steering Committee polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Pan American Health Organization Palaeoclimate from Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PAGES) Portable Automated Mesonet peroxyacetylnitrate Paleoclimates of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere (PAGES) photosynthetically active radiation photosynthetically available radiation Project Appraisal Report precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, and comparability Participating Agency Service Agreement Polar Atmospheric and Snow Chemistry (IGAC) Polar Air-Snow Experiment planetary boundary layer peribacteroid membrane Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer peribacteroid unit personal computer Pulverized Coal principal components analysis President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology polychlorinated biphenyl Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison partial pressure of CO 2

PCU PCR PCSSD PDA PDB PDB PDB PDE pdf PDL PDRCA PDS PDS PDSI PECO PEGASUS PEM PEM PEMD PEM WEST PEP PEPCase PER PERD PF PFBC PFCs PFRA PFTs Pg PG PGC PGS PHOXA PHSA PI PIC PIC PICES PILPS PIO PIO/C PIO/P PIO/T PIP PIP PIP PIR PIRLA PIXE PJ PL PLDS PLDS PM PM-2.5 PM-10 PMC PMC PMEL PMF PMIP PMIR PMOD PMP PMR PNEDC PNL PNNL PO4 POC POCC POCM POD POEM POEMS POES POES POGO Polarstern POLDER POLES POLEX Polynya POM POM PON POOZ POP POSEIDON PP

platinum cobalt unit polymerase chain technology Philippines Council for Sustainable Development phased-Doppler anemometer isotope standard for carbon Pee Dee Belemnite (Pee Dee River, South Carolina) Pee Dee Belemnite (carbonate) isotope standard for C, O partial differential equation probability density function polarization-diversity lidar Participatory Development Resource Centre for Africa Planetary Data System photothermal deflection spectroscopy Palmer Drought Severity Index CEC-COPERNICUS Program Current profiling system Particle Environment Monitor Particle modulator radiometer personalized educational materials development Pacific Exploratory Mission - West Pole-Equator-Pole (PAGES) (Palaeoclimates Initiative for the Western Hemisphere) Phosphenol-pyruvate carboxylase Program for Ecological Research Panel for Energy Research and Development Pulverized Fuel (coal) Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor perfluorocarbon compounds Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration perfluorocarbon tracers pentagram planning group Program Grande Carajas (Brazil) Product Generation System photochemical oxidant and acid deposition model application within the framework of control strategy development Public Health Service Act (1965) principal investigator particle in cell particulate inorganic carbon North Pacific Marine Science Organization Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (GCIP/GEWEX) Project Implementation Order (AID) PIO for Commodities PIO for Participant Training PIO for Contract Technicians or Contract Services Performance Improvement Program Project Implementation Plan (AID) WetNet Precipitation (algorithm) Intercomparison Project precision infrared radiometer Paleoecological Reconstruction of Recent Lake Acidification (EPRI) Proton induced x-ray emission analysis petajoule public law Planetary Land Data System Pilot Land Data System photosynthetic measurements (JGOFS) particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 micrometers particulate matter less than 10 micrometers diameter pollen mother cell Pressure-Modulator Cell Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA and ERL) probable maximum flood Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (NATO and PAGES) Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (WRC) probable maximum precipitation pressure-modulated radiometer Programme Nationale d'Etude de la Dynamique du Climat (France) Pacific Northwest Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (formerly PNL) phosphate particulate organic carbon Payload Operations Control Center parallel ocean-climate model Precision Orbit Determination polar-orbiting earth observation mission (ESA) positron electron magnetic spectrometer Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Polar-Orbiting Geophysical Observatory Research vessel (Germany) Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances polar exchange at the sea surface Polar Experiment (FGGE) Wind or current driven opening in winter sea-ice particulate organic matter polycyclic organic matter particulate organic nitrogen Permanently Open Ocean Zone Population Satellite programme (France) perfect program (approach)

ppb



parts per billion (10 9)

ppbv PPFD



parts per billion (10 9) by volume photosynthetic photon flux density

ppm



parts per million (10 6)

ppmv PPP PPP PPR



parts per million (10 6) by volume Polluter pays principle Purchasing power parity photopolarimeter radiometer

ppt



parts per trillion (10 12)

pptv PR PRARE PRAREE PRC PRC PRF PRL PRN PROBE PRT PSA PSAC PSC PSD PSDPC Psfc PSFG psi PSL PSMSL PSO PSP PSPDC PSSI PSU PTB PTFE PU PUMS PUSPITEK PV PVC PW PWD PWV

parts per trillion (10 12) by volume precipitation radar precise range and range-rate equipment (ERS-1) precise range and range rate equipment-extended People's Republic of China precipitation pulse repetition frequency Physical Research Laboratory Pseudo-Random Noise Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment precision radiation thermometer Pacific Sciences Association President's Science Advisory Committee polar stratospheric clouds prevention of significant deterioration (NPS, regulations of the CAA) Polar Satellite Data Processing Centre surface pressure Permanent Service on the Fluctuation of Glaciers pounds per square inch polystyrene latex Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (U.K.) Project Science Office Precision Spectral Pyranometer Polar Satellite Precipitation Data Centre Pacific/Sulfur/Stratus Investigation Pennsylvania State University Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig polytetrafluoroethylene processing unit Public Use Microdata Samples Training Facilities in the Centre for Research, Science, and Technology potential vorticity polyvinyl chloride precipitable water Public Works Department precipitable water vapor

Q QA QAMS QA/QC QBO QC QCE QLN QN QTL QTO



quality assurance Quality Assurance Management Staff quality assurance/quality control quasi-biennial oscillation quality control Quality Control Experts (WOCE Hydrographic Programme) Quantitative Links Networks quinoline Quantitative Trait Loci quasi-triennial oscillation

Quads



Quadrillion (10 15) Btu

R r 2 R/C R&D R&SSD R/V RA RA RA-2 RA I RA II RA IV RAD radar Radarsat RADCAL RADPATH RAE RAFOS RAI RAM RAMP RAMP RAMS RAMS RAMS RANN RAOB RAP RAPD RASC RASS RAWG/Hydrology RBV rcf RCM RCRA RCRE RCS RCW RCWP RDAAC RDBMS RDP RDT REFLEX REKLIP RES RESA RESSAC RET RF RFE RFD RFLP RFP RGA RGA RGB RGCT RGI RGIS RGR RGS RH RHIESSys RI RIC RICE RIDGE RIGES RIHMI-WDC RILWAS RIMI RIS

coefficient of determination (statistical) Residue Crop ratio research and development Radiation and Safety Surveys Department (ORNL) research vessel Radar altimeter Regional Association (WMO) POEM altimeter (ESA) Regional Association I - Africa (WMO) Regional Association II - Asia (WMO) Regional Association IV - North and Central America (WMO) Radioecology Programme (NKS) radio detection and ranging Synthetic Apeture Radar Satellite (Canada) Radiation Calibration Laboratory Biochemical Pathways of Artificial Radionuclides (CEC) Royal Aircraft Establishment SOFAR spelled backwards (float which receives sound signals) Rainfall Anomaly Index random-access memory Remote Atmospheric Measurements Program Remote Atmospheric Monitoring Project regional atmospheric modeling system Remote Atmospheric Measurements Systems Results Analysis and Management System (EPA) Research Applied to National Needs (NSF) Radiosonde or Rawindsonde Observation Remedial Action Program (DOE) Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique Radio Atmospheric Study Centre radio-acoustic sounding system Regional Associations' Working Groups on Hydrology (WMO) return-beam Vidicon relative centrifugal force radiative-convective model Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) required collaborative research experience radar cross section "Rapidly Changing World" Scenario (EPA) "Rapidly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA) Remote Data, Analysis, and Archive Center Relational Data Base Management System (Oracle) Radar Development Project remote data transmission Remote Fluvial Experimental Series Regional Climate Project (REgio-KLIma-Projekt) Regional Evaporation Study Scientific Research Society of America The Consequence of a Major Nuclear Accident on the Surrounding Environment: Soil and Surface Rehabilitation (CEC) renewable energy technologies radio frequency Regional Finite Element (model) Royal Forestry Department restriction fragment length polymorphism Request for Proposals reduction gas analyzer relative growth rate red-green-blue (signal) Reflective Gross Cloud Test regional-global interactions regional geographic information system relative growth rate Royal Geographical Society relative humidity Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System radar interferometry Regional Information Center Rice Cultivation and Trace Gases Exchange (India) (IGAC) Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment Renewable Intensive Global Energy System All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI) Riso Integrated Environmental Project reflector in space (laser beam adsorption, measures O 3, CFCs, etc.)

RIS RISC RISC RITS RIVM RK RLU RM RM RMC RMES rms RMS rmse RMSE RMTC Rn RNA RNMI ROM ROPME RPA RPE RPM rpm RPN RPSS RRC RRCT RRN RRN ANT RRN ART RRN CAA RRN CAR RRN ESA RRN MED RRN NAF RRN OCE RRN SAF RRN TAM RRN TEA RRN TNH RRN TSA RRS RRTM RS RSA RSAC RSD RSF RSMC RSR rss

retroreflector in space reduced instruction set chip reduced instruction set computer radiatively important trace species Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection river kilometer relative light unit reference material river mile Regional Meteorological Centre (WWW) Relay Mirror Experimental Satellite root mean square (preferred over "RMS") root mean square ("rms" is preferred) root mean square error (preferred over "RMSE") root mean square error ("rmse" is preferred) Regional Meteorological Training Centre radon ribonucleic acid Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute read-only memory Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (IOC) remotely piloted aircraft Office of OECD, European Community, and Atlantic Office of NATO and Atlantic Political-Military Affairs revolutions per minute Division de la recherche en prevision numerique relative partial sum of squares Regional Research Centre (START) Reflectance Ratio Cloud Test Regional Research Networks (START) RRN Antarctic RRN Arctic RRN Central Arid Asia RRN Caribbean RRN Equatorial South America RRN Mediterranean RRN Northern Africa RRN Oceania RRN Southern and Eastern Africa RRN Tropical Asian Monsoon Region RRN Temperate East Asia RRN Temperate Northern Hemisphere RRN Temperate South America regional research sites (START) rapid radiative transfer model remote sensing Republic of South Africa Remote Sensing Applications Center (China) residual standard deviation LANL computer code Regional/Specialized Meteorological Centre rotating shadowband radiometer root-sum-square

RSS RSSD RT RTD RTH RTNEPH RUC RUT RVAU RVB RWC RWVL



rotating shadowband spectrometer Responses of Savannas to Stress and Disturbance (IUBS and MAB) radiative transfer real-time data Regional Telecommunication Hub real-time nephanalysis Roskilde University Center reflectance uniformity test Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University return-beam Vidicon Regional Warning Centre Raman Water Vapor Lidar

S s S&R S&T S-GCOS SA90 SA SABLE SAC SAC SAC SAC SADC SADCC SAF SAF SAFARI-92 SAFCOM SAFIRE SAFISY SAGA SAGE SAGE III SAHC SAIC SAIL SalArgos SAM SAM II SAMBO SAMS SAO SAP SAR SAR SARB SARCS SARCS-SAP SARSAT SAS SAS SASANEE SASS SASI SAT SATOBS SATOR SAVE SAW SBC SBC SBIR SBUV SBUV SBUV-2 SC SC SCA SCANSCAT SCAR SCARAB SCARABE SCAT SCATT SCD SCF SCIAMACHY SCIBP SC-IGBP SCM SCOPE SCOR SCORPIO SCOSTEP SCOT SCPP SCRIPPS SCS SCS SCST SCW SCWP SD s.d. SDAC SDC SDS SDS SDSC SDSD SDSS SDTS SDWA SEAMEO SEAREX SEAS Seasat SEASPAN SeaStar SEATO SeaWIFS SEB SEBEX SEC sec SECTIONS SEDAC SEL SELPER SELV SEM SEM SERC SERC SERDP SERI SERON SERP SESAME SESAME SESC SETAC SF SFC SGCR SGM SGP SGP SGR SH SHARE SHEBA SHPO SHSG SI SI SI SIAM SiB SIDS SIFE SIG-WAIS SIMD SINTEF SIO SiO 3

second (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "sec" for "secant") search and rescue science and technology Space-Based Global Change Observation System IPCC Scenario A, 1990 Selective Availability (on GPS transmissions) simulator atmospheric boundary layer environment Special Analysis Centre (WOCE) Satellite Application Centre Scientific Advisory Committee Scientific Advisory Council (IGBP) Southern Africa Development Community Southern African Development Coordination Conference Society of American Foresters Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa (START) South African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa Regional Committee (START) spectroscopy of the atmosphere using far infrared emission Space Agency Forum on International Space Year (1992) Soviet-American Gas and Aerosol Experiment Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III South Asia Hydrological Cycle Science Applications International Corporation Steel Authority of India Limited Argos-located buoy equipped with temperature and conductivity sensors Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement Simultaneous Auroral Multi-Balloons Observations stratospheric and mesospheric sounder Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (U.S.) Scientific Advisory Panel (SARCS) Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research synthetic aperture radar (satellite) surface and atmospheric radiation budget Southeast Asia Regional Committee (START) SARCS Scientific Advisory Panel Search and Rescue Satellite Southern Asian Region (START) Statistical Analysis System South and Southeast Asia Network for Environmental Education Seasat A Scatterometer System Statistical Analysis Systems Institute (Raleigh, North Carolina) surface air temperature Satellite Observations Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Research South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment sawlog harvest Brazilian Society for Cartography, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Remote Sensing sum of base cations Small Business Innovation Research Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (experiment) Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (radiometer) Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet-2 Scientific Committee (IGBP) standing committee snow-covered areas scanning scatterometer Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (ICSU) Scanner for the Radiation Budget Scanner for Radiative Budget Experiment radar scatterometer scatterometer Scientific Computing Division (NCAR) Scientific Computing Facility scanning, imaging, and absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography Scientific Committee for the International Biological Programme Special Committee of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (ICSU) single-column model Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (ICSU and IGBP) Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (ICSU) Oceanographic cruise in the South Pacific, 1968 (U.S.) Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics Services Consultance en Observation de la Terre Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction Program Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of California at San Diego) Soil Conservation Service (Anchorage, Alaska) (USDA and DOA) Swiss Calibration Service State Commission for Science and Technology (Survey of India) "Slowly Changing World" Scenario (EPA) "Slowly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA) standard deviation standard deviation Satellite Data Analysis Center Swiss Development Corporation site data system sodium dodecyl sulfate San Diego Supercomputer Center Satellite Data Services Division Spatial Decision Support System Spatial Data Transfer Standard Safe Drinking Water Act South East Asian Ministers Education Organization Sea-Air Exchange (program) Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System sea satellite (an oceanographic research satellite) (NASA) SEAREX South Pacific Aerosol Network Spacecraft flying SeaWIFS Southeast Asian Treaty Organization sea-viewing wide-field sensor State Electricity Board Sahelian Energy Balance Experiment Science Executive Committee of the IWG secant (trigonometric function) (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "s" for "second") Oceanographic Programme of the U.S.S.R. Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (CIESIN) Standard Elektrik Lorenz (AG Stuttgart, Germany) Society of Latin American Remote Sensing Specialists small expendable launch vehicle scanning electron microscope space environment monitor Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Science Executive Research Council (U.K.) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Solar Energy Research Institute (Golden, Colorado) Southeastern Regional Oxidant Network Sedimentary Rock Program Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment Second European Stratospheric Arctic Middle Latitude Experiment Space Environment Service Center Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry screening factor surface Subcommittee on Global Change Research second-generation model single Gauss point Southern Great Plains specific growth rate Southern Hemisphere Software Help for Applications, Research, and Education Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean state historic preservation officer (Memphis) Spherical Harmonic Spatial Grid (model) International System of Units (Systeme International d'Unites) (standard metric units; replaced mks and mksa systems) Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.) solar influences Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) simple biosphere (model) Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States Second ISCCP Field Experiment Special Interest Group-Wide Area Information Server Single Instruction, Multiple Data (system) (processor) Norwegian Institute of Technology Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) silicate

SIP SIR SIR SIR SIR-C SIROS SIRS SISEX SIT SITE SIV SIZ SJVF SK SLA SLAR SLB SLEJF SLIES SLP SLR SLR SLS SLURP

Solar Influences Program Scientific Information and Retrieval (system) Shuttle Imaging Radar Spaceborne Imaging Radar Shuttle Imaging Radar-C solar and infrared radiation observation stations satellite infrared spectrometer Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment Servizio di Taratura in Italia Satellite Instructional Television Experiment solar and interplanetary variability Seasonal Ice Zone Veterinary Agricultural Research Council Saskatchewan Special Libraries Association side-looking airborne radar shallow land burial Sri Lanka Environmental Journalists Forum stratospheric limb infrared emission spectrometer sea-level pressure satellite laser ranging sea level rise stereo line scanner Simple Linear Unit Reservoir Program



Sm 3 SMC SMCRA SME SME SMIC SMM SM-MIMD SMMR SMMR SMO SMOS SMOW SMS SMS/GOES SMY SN SNAS SNL SNL/PPG SNOTEL SNR SO SO 2

Standard meter 3 System Management Center Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Society of Mining Engineers Solar Mesosphere Explorer Study of Man's Impact on Climate Solar Maximum Mission shared memory, multiple instruction, and multiple data (computer) scanning multichannel microwave radiometer scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer Samoa Observatory (American Samoa) (CMDL) surface meteorological observation system standard mean ocean water isotope standard Synchronous Meteorological Satellite SMS/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite solar maximum year Space Network Strategic National Alternatives Study Sandia National Laboratories SNL/Parallel Processing Group snow survey and remote telemetry signal-to-noise ratio Southern Oscillation sulfur dioxide

SO 4



sulfate radical

So x



Oxides of sulfur

SOA SOC SOC SOCC SOCEX SOFAR SOHO SOI SOI SOLSTICE SOMMA SOP SOP SOPAC SORTI SOS SOS/SONIA SOTER SP SPARC SPADE SPAN SPARC SPARCLE SPAS SPECMAP SPECTRE SPELDA SPIE SPM SPO SPOT SPOT SPR SPREP SPREX SPSO SR SR SRA SRAD SRB SRC SRC SRDC SRF SRF SRIC SRL SRM SRP SRS SRS1 SRWCP SS SSA SSALT SSARR SSB SSB SSBUV SSC SSEC SSG SSHT SSI SSM SSM/I SSM/T SSMI SSMR-SSM/I SSP SSSA SSSD SST SSU SSURGO ST STA STA STACS STAP STAR STARE START START-SC STEM STEP STIB STIKSCAT STIP STMW STORET STORM STORM-FEST STP STP STRATOZ STRESS STRI STRIVE STSB SUBSTA SUBIM SUNY SUP SURE SURTROPAC SUSIM

state-of-the-art Specialized Oceanographic Centre (IGOSS) soil organic carbon Satellite Operation Command and Control Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment Sound Fixing and Ranging (float with sound source) Solar Heliospheric Observatory Southern Oscillation Index Survey of India Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzer Ship of Opportunity Programme standard operating procedures South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission solar-radiance-transmission interferometer Southern Oxidants Study SOS/Southeast Oxidant and Nitrogen Intensive Analysis Soil and Terrain Survey spontaneous potential (geophysical logging) stratospheric processes and their role in climate Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols, and Dynamics Expedition Space Physics Analysis Network Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate Spaceborne Aerosols and Cloud Lidar Earthprobe Shuttle Pallet Satellite Mapping Spectral Variability in Global Climate Project Spectral Radiance Experiment Structure Porteuse External pour Lancements Doubles Ariane (external support structure for Ariane dual-launches) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers suspended particulate matter South Pole Observatory (Antarctica) (CMDL) Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (France) Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre (France) single point resistance (geophysical logging) South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme Spring Runoff Experiment (DOE) Science Processing Support Office scanning radiometer size-resolving Society for Risk Analysis spectral radiometer surface radiation budget Saskatchewan Research Council Science Research Council (formerly DSIR) (U.K.) Surface Reference Data Centre Solar Radiation Facility (CMDL) spectral response function short-rotation intensive culture Shuttle Research Laboratory standard reference material soluble reactive phosphorus Statistical Reporting Service South Research Station 1 (WOCE) Short Rotation Woody Crop Program stainless steel (flasks) singular spectrum analysis solid-state (radar) altimeter Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (model) Space Science Board (NRC) Space Studies Board shuttle solar backscatter ultraviolet (radiometer) Scientific Steering Committee (JGOFS, PAGES, and IGBP) Space Science and Engineering Center Scientific Steering Group Sea Surface Height (above some reference ellipsoid) Spectral Statistical Interpolation special sensor microwave SSM/imager SSM/temperature Special Sensor Microwave Instrucments (Satellite) scanning multichannel microwave radiometer-SSM/I scanning spectral polarimeter Soil Science Society of America state soil survey data base sea-surface temperature stratospheric sounding unit soil survey geographic data base (USDA and SCS) Steam Turbine Science and Technology Agency (Japan) Strategic Transportation Analysis (integrated transportation networks for MTMC) Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study (U.S.) Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (GEF) Space Three-Axis Accelerometer for Research Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment System for Analysis, Research, and Training (IGBP, WCRP, and HDP) START Standing Committee solar terrestrial environment model Solar Terrestrial Energy Program Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction and the Biosphere (IGBP) stick scatterometer Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena Sub-Tropical Mode Water Storage and Retrieval System (water quality data; EPA) Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (program) Storm-scale Observations Regional Measurement Program-Fronts Experiment Systems Test standard temperature and pressure (0° and 1 atm) Subsurface Transport Program (DOE and OHER) Stratospheric Ozone (campaign) sediment transport events on shelves and slopes Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Science Teachers Research Involvement for Vital Education (now TRAC) Scientific and Technical Services Branch (BoM) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Subsidiary Body on Implementation State University of New York soluble unreactive phosphorus Sulfate Regional Experiment Survey of the Tropical Pacific Experiment (France) Solar Ultraviolet Spectral irradiance monitor

Sv SV SVAT SVATS SW SWACOM SWADE SWCA SWCC SWDA SWE SWEDAC SWF SWG SWG SWH SWIR SWIRLS SWSA SWT SY

Sverdrup (10 6m 3s -1); Measure of water transport Small Volume water samples (< 10 liters) soil vegetation atmosphere transfer (model) (BAHC) Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme shortwave Standard Water Column Model Surface Wave Dynamic Experiment Soil and Water Conservation Act (1977) Second World Climate Conference (1990) Solid Waste Disposal Act shallow-water equations Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation social welfare function Science Working Group Standards Working Group significant wave height short wavelength infrared stratospheric wind infrared limb sounder solid waste storage area Science Working Team Seasonal Year



T T/C T/P SWT T/S TC/OPC T TA TAAF TABLE TAC TAE TAGA Talk TAM TAO TAO TAP TAPPI TARFOX TBD TCA TCAD TCDC TCLP TCO TCO 2

Temperature/Conductivity sensor chains on drifters TOPEX/Poseidon Science Working Team Temperature/Salinity Technical Committee on Ocean Processes and Climate (Germany) tonne trace analytical Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises (France) Tsukuba Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment Tactical Air Command (U.S. Air Force bases) (now ACC) Transportable Applications Executive (a computer user interface) trace atmospheric gas analyzer total alkalinity Tropical Asian Monsoon Region (START) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Tradeable Absorption Obligation; also implicitly, tradeable (net) absorption obligation Transboundary Air Pollution (project) Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observation Experiment to be determined trichloracetic acid Tradeable Carbon Absorption Obligation technical cooperation among developing countries Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (EPA) Technical Cooperation Activities (WMO) total CO2

TCP TCP/IP TCR TDC TDDR TDL TDLAS TDLS TDMA TDR TDRS TDRSS TDS TDY TEA TEA-COM TEAM TEAMA TEC TECO TECO TED TED TEDDY TEESE TEGD TEHM TEM TERI TERLS TERRA TERSE TES TF TFAP

Tropical Cyclone Programme (WMO) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol tonnes of coal replacement Tropical Data Centre total direct diffuse radiometer Techniques Development Laboratory tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer tunable diode laser spectroscopy tandem differential mobility analyzer time domain reflectometry Tracking and Data Relay Systems Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System total dissolved solids temporary duty Temperate East Asia (START) Temperate East Asia-Planning Committee (START) Technology Base Enhancement for Autonomous Machines Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia total electron content Terrestrial Ecological Research Initiative terrestrial ecosystems Technological and Economic Dynamics total energy detector TERI Energy Data Directory Yearbook TERI Energy Economy Simulation Evaluation Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA) Terrestrial Ecosystem Hydrology Model Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (GAIM) Tata Energy Research Institute Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (India) Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional Research and Analysis (Laboratory) Tunable Etalon Remote Sounder tropospheric emission spectrometer throughfall Tropical Forestry Action Plan (coordinated by FAO)

Tflops Tg TG TGCR TGCT TGDDIS TGI TGT TI TIA TIC TIGER TIGER TIGER/GICS TIGER/GRF-N TIGGER TIGR TIMSS TIN TIR TIROS TIROS TIRS TISAB TISGLOW TKE TL TLCF TLV TM TM TMACS TMC TME TMI TMR TMS TMS TNH TOA TOA TOC TOCE TOCSEEG TOF TOGA TOGA-COARE TOMCAT TOMS TOMS TOMUIS TON TOPEX TOPEX TOPEX/POSEIDON TOR torr TOS TOVS TOX TRAC TRACE-A TRAGEX TRANSPAC TRANSIT TREES TREM TRL TRMM TROPOZ TRSC TRUCE TSA TSAR TSC TSCA TSD Tsfc TSI TSL TSP TSP TSS TSS TT TTO TTO TUNES TUR TUT TVA TWAS TWP TWPO TWRA TWT

One teraflop equals 1 trillion (10 12) floating point operations per second Teragrams or million tonnes trace gas thermal gross cloud restoral thermal gross cloud test Trace Gas Dynamics Data Information System temperature growth index TDRSS Ground Terminal thermal imagery Territorial and International Affairs total inorganic carbon Terrestrial Initiative in Global Environmental Research (U.K.) Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Reference (system) (BOC) TIGER/Geographic Identification Code Scheme (U.S. Census Bureau) TIGER/Geographic Reference File-Names (BOC) Earth sciences dimension to TIGER TOVS initial guess retrieval thermal infrared spectral scanner Triangular Irregular Network thermal infrared Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Topographic Infrared Operations Satellite thermal infrared scanner total ionic strength adjustment buffer (analytical method) TERI Information Service on Global Warming turbulent kinetic energy Team Leader Team Leader Computing Facility threshold limit value team member Thematic Mapper (Landsat) International Mathematics and Computer Simulations Thinking Machine Corporation tropical mountain ecosystems (IUBS and MAB) TRMM microwave imager TOPEX microwave radiometer thematic mapper simulator Typical Shape Functions, Maximum A Posteriori Simultaneous Temperate Northern Hemisphere (START) top of the atmosphere tropical ocean-atmosphere (array) total organic carbon tonne of carbon equivalent Tradeoffs Among Competing Social, Environmental, and Economic Goals theoretical orthogonal function Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (program) (WCRP) TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment Toulouse Off-Line Model of Chemistry and Transport total ozone mapping spectrometer (experiment) total ozone measuring satellite 3-D ozone mapping with ultraviolet imaging spectrometer total organic nitrogen Topography Experiment Topography Ocean Experiment (NASA and CNES) Ocean Topography Experiment (NASA/CNES Satellite Programme) Tropospheric Ozone Research (EUROTRAC) pressure in millimeters of mercury with respect to vacuum TIROS Observational System TIROS operational vertical sounder total organic halides Teacher Research Associate (program) (formerly STRIVE) Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic Trace Gas Exchange between Midlatitude Terrestrial Ecosystems and Atmosphere (IGAC) Trans-Pacific Experiment Satellite Navigation (position location) System (U.S.) Tropical Ecosystem Environmental Observations by Satellite Tropical Rainfall Experimental Mission Transuranium Research Laboratory Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (U.S.-Japan) Tropospheric Ozone (Campaign) Thailand Remote Sensing Centre Tropical Urban Climate Experiment Temperate South America (START) Time-series Storage and Retrieval (system) Transportation Systems Center (DOT) Toxic Substances Control Act (1976) Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (facilities) surface temperature Thermo Systems, Inc. Technical Services Laboratory total soluble phosphorus total suspended particles total suspended solids Total Surveying Systems task team total toxic organic (compounds) transient tracers in the ocean (survey) Thomas Washington's Unexpected Nautical Extravaganza South-north (expeditions) thermal uniformity restoral thermal uniformity test Tennessee Valley Authority (U.S. Independent) Third World Academy of Science tropical Western Pacific Tropical Western Pacific Ocean Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency Traveling Wave Tube

U UAF UAOB UARP UARS UATI UAV UBA UC UCAR UCI UCLA UCR UCRL UCS UCSB UCSF UEA UDF UFACNC UGAMP UGM UH UHF UIC UIC UI/CSRD UITA U.K. UKAEA UKMO ULS ULST UMTA UMTRAP UMTRCA UN UNARS UNCED UNCHS UNCTAD UNCTAD UNDP UNDRC UNEC UNEP UNESCO UNFCCC UNFPA UNGA UNGCRP UNHCR UNICEF UNIDO UNIFEM UNISIST UNITAR UNJSPF UNM UNO UNP UNRWA UNSCEAR UNSO UNTAB UNU UPS UPU URAS

University of Alaska-Fairbanks Upper Air Observation Upper Atmosphere Research Program Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (NASA) Union des Associations Techniques Internationals unmanned aerospace vehicle Umweltbundesamt (Germany) University of California University Corporation for Atmospheric Research University of California, Irvine University of California at Los Angeles (U.S.) University of California at Riverside UC Radiation Laboratory Secretariat to the U.S. National Commission University of California, Santa Barbara University of California at San Francisco University of East Anglia (U.K.) UAV demonstration flights ultrafine aerosol condensation nucleus counter U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Project University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia University of Heidelberg (Germany) ultra high frequency Ukpeaguik Inupiat Corp. Underground Injection Control (program) University of Illinois/Center for Supercomputing Research and Development Union of International Technical Associations United Kingdom (preferred over "UK"; use as adjective only; spell out as noun) U.K. Atomic Energy Authorities U.K. Meteorological Office upward-looking sonar uniform low stratus test Urban Mass Transportation Administration (DOT) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act United Nations Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development United Nations Commission for Human Settlement United Nations Commission on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Developmental Program Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator United Nations Economic Committee United Nations Environmental Programme (ICSU) United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Program for Population United Nations General Assembly United Nations Global Change Research Program Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Development Fund for Women United Nations System for Scientific and Technological Information United Nations Institute for Training and Research United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund University of New Mexico United Nations Organization United Nations Political Affairs United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office United Nations Technical Assistance Board United Nations University uninterruptible power supply Universal Postal Union (a commercial CO 2 analyzer)

URI URL URL URSI US-AID U.S. U.S.A. USACE USAF USBCF USBM USBR USCG USCGS USDA USDA-SCS USDC USDD USDI USDOC USDOD USDOE USDOI USDW USEPA USFS USFWS USGCRP USGCRPO USGS USIA US-IGBP USJGOFS USMAB USMAPS USN USNC/IHP USNC/SH USNMAS USO U.S.S.R. USWB USWOCE UT UT UTC UTM UTM uv UV uv-A uv-B UVR uv-vis UW UW UWG UW/UD

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Uniform Resource Locator (Mosaic) upper range limit International Union of Radio Science U.S. Agency for International Development United States United States of America United States Army Corps of Engineers (DOD) United States Air Force United States Bureau of Commercial Fisheries United States Bureau of Mines United States Bureau of Reclamation (USDI) United States Coast Guard United States Coast and Geodetic Survey United States Department of Agriculture United States Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service United States Department of Commerce (also DOC and USDOC) United States Department of Defense (also USDOD and DOD) United States Department of the Interior (also DOI and USDOI) United States Department of Commerce (also DOC and USDC) United States Department of Defense (also DOD and USDD) United States Department of Energy (also DOE) United States Department of the Interior (also DOI and USDI) usable supply of drinking water United States Environmental Protection Agency (also EPA) United States Forest Service (USDA) United States Fish and Wildlife Service United States Global Change Research Program United States Global Change Research Program Office United States Geological Survey (DOI) United States Information Agency United States Geosphere/Biosphere Program United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study United States Man and the Biosphere United States Map Analysis Package System United States Navy United States National Committee for IHP United States National Committee on Scientific Hydrology United States National Map Accuracy Standard ultra-stable oscillator Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now Russian Federation) United States Weather Bureau United States component of WOCE universal time University of Tennessee Universal Time Coordinate Unified Transport Model university transverse mercator (cartography) ultraviolet (preferred over "UV") ultraviolet ("uv" is preferred) ultraviolet type A ultraviolet type B (280-320 nanometer wavelength interval) ultraviolet radiation ultraviolet-visible (spectroscopy) University of Washington (Seattle) University of Wisconsin user working group University of Wisconsin/University of Denver

V V-PDB VACM VAD VAM VAMP VAS VEI VCP VCP (ES) VCP (F) vfr vhf VHRR VHSA VIRS VIRSR VIS VISSR VLBI VLSI VMS VMVM VNIR VOC VOS VSSC VTIR VTPR VTR

international scale for expressing C and O isotopic composition relative to PDB carbonate Vector Averaging Current Meter velocity azimuth display vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza Validation of Model Project (IAEA) VISSR atmospheric sounder (GOES) volcano explosivity index Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN) Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN) Voluntary Cooperation Program (fund) very far radiation very high frequency very high resolution radiometer variable hydrologic source areas visible infrared scanner visible infrared scanning radiometer visible visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (GOES) very long baseline interferometry very large scale integration Virtual Memory System Vector Measuring Current Meter visible and near infrared volatile organic compound voluntary observing ship (WMO) Vikram Sarabhai Space Center visible and thermal infrared radiometer vertical temperature profile radiometer video tape recording

W w WAIS WAMEX WARC WATOX WATFLOOD WATSTORE WB WBC WBDCS WBIS WBW WCAP WCASP WCDMP WCDP WCIP WCIRP WCP WCRP WCRP-JSC WD WDC WDCGG WDSD WEAVE WEBB WEC WECC WEFAX WENPEX WEO WES WESTPAC WET WetNet WEU WEV WEVS WFC WFEO WFF WFOV WFP WG WGEP WGDM WGGC WGNE WGR WGRF WHO WHOI WHP WIHG WILASS WIND WINDII WIPO WIRP WISP WITS WMC WMO WMS WOCE WOCE/HP WODC WOVO WP WPCF WPL WPR WRC WRC WRD WRDD WRI WRR WRRC WS WSC WSI WSMC WST WTH WTR WUA WVR WWB WWF WWW WWO WWSP86 WWW

watt West Antarctic Ice Sheet (project) (PAGES) West African Monsoon Experiment World Administrative Radio Conference Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment University of Waterloo Flood Forecasting System (Canada) Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (USGS) World Bank Western Boundary Current Wide-Band Data Collection System Walker Branch Information System Walker Branch Watershed (introduced as an "experimental facility") World Climate Applications Program (WMO) World Climate Applications and Services Program (WMO) World Climate Data and Monitoring Program (WMO) World Climate Data Program World Climate Impact Program World Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies Program (UNEP) World Climate Programme (WMO/ICSU) World Climate Research Programme (WMO, ICSU, and IOC) Joint Scientific Committee (WCRP) wind direction World Data Center (ICSU) World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (JMA/WMO) Water Data Sources Directory (USGS) Water and Energy: Atmospheric, Vegetative, and Earth Interactions Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (USGS) World Energy Council Western European Calibration Cooperation weather facsimile (via geosynchronous weather satellite) Western North Pacific Cloud-Radiation Experiment Western European Organization (ECOSOC region comprising W. Europe, Canada, U.S., and Japan) Waterways Experiment Station (USACE) IOC - Programme Group on the Western Pacific waste extraction test Network for Distribution and Joint Analysis of SSM/I Data (MSFC) Western Europe Water Energy-Vegetation Wetland Ecosystem Vulnerability Study World Food Council (UN) World Federation of Engineering Organizations Wallops Flight Facility Wide Field of View World Food Program working group working group on energy policy working group on data management working group on global change working group on numerical experimentation (JSC/CAS) Waste Generation Rate working group on radiative fluxes World Health Organization Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Massachusetts) WOCE Hydrographic Programme Waclia Institute of Himalayan Geology Water Infiltration in Layered Subfreezing Snow (program) weather information display Wind Imaging Interferometer World Intellectual Property Organization Watershed Integrated Research Program (DOE) Winter Icing and Storms Programs World Ionosphere Thermosphere Study World Meteorological Center (WWW) World Meteorological Organization (ICSU) World Magnetic Survey World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WCRP) WOCE/Hydrographic Program World Ozone Data Center World Organization of Volcano Observatories wind profilers Water Pollution Control Federation Wave Propagation Laboratory (NOAA) Water Resource Planning Water Resources Council World Radiation Center Water Resources Division (USGS and DOI) Water Resources Development Department (MAW) World Resources Institute (Washington, D.C.) World Radiometric Reference Water Resources Research Center wind speed Water Survey of Canada whole-sky imager Western Space and Missile Center Whitecap simulation tank whole-tree harvest Western Test Range (NASA) weighted usable area water vapor radiometer Women's World Banking World Wildlife Fund World Weather Watch (WMO) Waste Water Outflow Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986 World Wide Web

X X-SAR XBT XCTD XDR XIE XMM XRD



X-Band synthetic aperture radar expendable bathythermograph (oceanography) Expendable Conductivity Temperature Depth (probe) external data representation X-ray Imaging Experiment X-ray Multi-mirror Mission X-ray diffraction



(do not abbreviate this word) year (spell out)



Exclusive Economic Zone of Indonesia zero point of change (hydrous iron and aluminum oxides)

Y year yr Z ZEEI ZPC Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss. Glossary terms can be found in the Glossary list. Carbon dioxide-related conversion tables can be found in the Conversion Tables list.

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