International Journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies (IJEEFUS) ISSN(P): 2250-0065; ISSN(E): 2321-0109 Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 35-48 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria 2

Department of Development Control, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Flood is one environmental problem that occurs globally, regionally and nationally, it occurs in various ways and conditions; on large scale and urban scale. On a large scale, changes in atmospheric conditions, rainfall variations and continental drift can influence the occurrence of flood. On an urban scale, several man-made activities such as indiscriminate dumps of refuse in secondary and primary drains can cause flood. Birnin Kebbi, an urban area in Kebbi State is one urban area faced with seasonal flood disaster. This study assesses the causes and effects of flood disaster in Birnin Kebbi with a view to propose physical planning strategies in preventing and controlling flood in the study area. Two sets of questionnaires were designed and administered in this study area. One questionnaire for the identification of flood prone area and the other questionnaire was design to solicit information from agencies responsible for flood control. From the information collected from these town designed questionnaires reveals that inadequate storm water drainage are the principal cause of flood in Birnin Kebbi other causes are heavy rainfall, blocked burrow pit, poor development control practices, poor settlement planning, dumping of refuse in drainage lines and drains building construction on run – off drainage lines are others. The study suggested an integration of all flood control measures into physical development plans, planning matrix adopted for flood prone areas and the use of urban renewal strategies for settlements within the flood prone areas.

KEYWORDS: Flood, Flood Prone, Flood Control, Rainfall, Flood Prevention and Planning INTRODUCTION Birnin Kebbi like most urban centers of Nigeria had experienced flooding on a yearly basis. The resultant and properties with prone areas like Rafin Atiku, Tudun Wada, Shiyar Fada, Taka Lafiya and Yar’yara are most affected. In addition to property damages, infrastructures are affected. This disaster stagnated many socio- economic activities in the area. The effort of the previous State Government to arrest the situation through construction of roads, culverts and drainages did not holistically solve the flood problem. The study aims at assessing the cause of flood disaster in Birnin Kebbi with a view to recommend physical planning strategies to prevent future flood disaster in the study area Birnin Kebbi. The Problems These are outlined in the following ways: •

Inadequate application of appropriate techniques in the control and prevention of flood in Birnin Kebbi.

Absence, inadequate and inappropriate road network system.

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Absence of drainage systems to direct storm water and drainage lines.

Poor environmental sanitation practices by the citizens which causes blockage of drains or channels.

Poor funding or budgeting by State Government responsible for environmental planning and management. To ameliorate the above problems, the aim of this research is to assess the causes of flood disasters in Birnin

Kebbi with a view to propose physical planning proposals to prevent future flood disaster. How best can this aim be realized? It can be realized through the following objectives namely; •

To identify the physical characteristics of flood prone areas in Birnin Kebbi.

To assess the extent, frequency and effects of the disaster on the citizens (inhabitants) of the affected flood areas in Birnin Kebbi.

Examine the existing and future flood prevention strategies in Birnin Kebbi.

To design a physical planning proposal that will facilitate prevention and Control in Birnin Kebbi. The focus is on the cause in Birnin Kebbi and assesses the extent of physical effects on the environment and limits

itself to only flood prone areas of Birnin Kebbi. The Theoretical Basis The concept of flood have been explained by different disciplines especially within the built environment and engineering through various ideas, Ward R.C (1989) define flooding as basically a natural phenomena, which can be intensified or even caused in some cases by human activities. Sada. E (1988) defined flooding as unusually high rates of discharge often leading to deformation of land adjacent to streams, and this is usually caused by intense or prolonged rainfall or combination of both. Other researchers like Monkhow E. (1998), Morphy E.C (1988) identify flooding in hydrological terms as discharge of water in excess at the River banks to its full capacity to land or built environment. These are just a few ideas of flooding but there are many more ideas and very contentious. Causes of Flooding •

They could be man-made or artificial Olanrewanju, et al (2003) when applied to physical development, e.g blockage of drainage lines.

High rate of urbanization without industrialization and control levies (urban Edge, 1991): Akintola F.O (1978).

It could also be caused by indiscriminate use of the environment (degradation, deforestation and over grazing) Daura et al M, (1997)

Other causes of flooding are heavy rainfall or excessive rainfall Schultz, M and Kasen, V. (1999). These are also a few causes but are specific to this study. The effect of flooding has short and long term effects in urban and rural areas of Nigeria. The primary effects of

flood are those due to direct contact with bodies like rivers, streams and blockage of drainage lines with high velocity. Secondary and Tertiary effects are the long-term changes that had taken place such as disruption of urban infrastructures and its consequences to its economic, health, food and human and activity systems.

Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State


Techniques for Flood Control Various flood control and prevention techniques have been used with much or in some areas like Birnin Kebbi, without success. But in general, flood control or prevention includes:•


Construction of bridges and wider culverts.

Avoidance of refuse or waste within water channels and drainages lines.

Legislation and enforcement against indiscriminate dumping (disposal) and erection of buildings on swampy prone areas.

Effective infrastructure planning to avoid flooding

Regular environmental sanitation practices in urban areas.

River dredging and planning

Regular public enlightenment campaign on the effects of flooding Lema, E.S (2002) summarises the integrated flood control scheme into:

Engineering physical measures and

Non Engineering physical measures, but these measures have their planning implications. These Implications Are

The adoption of sustainable flood management zoning and development control,

The use of prosperity acquisition and remedial flood way planning,

The use of sustainable modification of water shed and catchment conditions through forest management planning,

The application of on- site storage spatially located, and the review and adoption of government policy on flood control on environment and institutional frame work, land use planning and control. These ideas above are overlapping as suggested Kalto, J. B. (2007); they are integral part of planning control,

development control and building control called planning tools. They must be applied to ensure successful enforcement, mutual reinforcement of political, legal administrative, planning and zoning. But he further re-emphasized that to ensure implementation of land use regulations in flood prone areas, steps must be followed to institute land use regulations as supported by the U.N. (1998) and UN (habitat 2000):•

Enactment of ordinance under Town and Country planning,

Identification and selection of land protection zoning policies

The drafting of specific flood prone policies,

The enforcement of these policies as also suggested by Kalto, J.B (2007). Theoretically, two (2) control measures could be adopted to flood prone areas; in Birnin Kebbi

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Physical measures involving structural works applied in (Manila city, Philippines (1998)).

Non- physical measures mostly solution to the man-made problems adopted in ONDO State, areas of Okitipupa, Oka, Awo and Akure Ala through

Settlement planning scheme

Drainage system approach

Planning of steep-slopes, Odemerho,RO. and Okoko, E (2001).

METHODOLOGY The purpose is to give in-depth explanation of how the research was carried out by using quantitative and qualitative information to arrive at clarity and plausibility of the data. Data Used Data used include the following: •

The techniques of flood disaster management and control.

The physical characteristics of the study area, and the socio economic activities of the inhabitants.

Sources of Data Sources of data are twofold namely: primary and secondary. The Primary data are information obtained through the use of questionnaires to the flood prone areas as household and information from the Agencies responsible for environmental planning and Management in Birnin Kebbi. Secondary data are relevant literatures on flood and flood disaster issues. Many of such information are in published textbooks, journals, reports, documents etc. Sampling/ Sampling Size A random sampling technique was used in administration of the questionnaire during the household survey and 10% sample size as shown on the table 1. Table 1: Sample Size for Flood Prone Areas S/No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Flood Prone Area Total Population Rafin Atiku 8,330 Tudun Wada 12,528 Takalafiya 9,641 Shiyar Fada 15,390 Yaryara 11,880 Total 57,769 Source: Birnin Kebbi Master Plan, 2005.

No. of Compounds 490 522 311 810 360 2,493

Sample Size 10% 49 52 31 81 36 249

The Study Area The study areas in Birnin Kebbi are Rafin Atiku, Tudun Wada, Takaifiya, Shiyar Fada and Yar’yara. A compound survey was conducted with a structured questionnaire. Another structured questionnaire was designed and information solicited from Kebbi Urban Development Authority (KUDA) and from Ministry of Environment Birnin Kebbi. A total of 26 personnel consisting of 10 staff of the State Urban Development Authority and 16 students of Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0


Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State

Federal Polytechnic, Binin Kebbi on industrial training were used with knowledge of urban and regional planning. Area Coverage of Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi The flood prone areas are Rafin Atiku with total area in hectares 403; Tudun Wada with total area of 19 hectares, Raka Lafiya with a total area of 10.5 hectares, Shiyar Fada 43.4 hectares and Yar’yara 9.52 hectares a grand total area of 122.72 hectares coverage. A main cause of flooding is heavy rainfall.

Figure 1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Site Analysis Birnin Kebbi town is situated on top of a steep scarp of about 40m except for Takalifiya settlement area overlooking the flood plain of the Sokoto River; Takalafiya is situated at the bottom of the scarp 15m above the flood plain. The range of relief in the present built up area on top of the scarp is 10m with the highest part being in the west of the town at the base of the Dukku hills. This provides a very complex internal drainage structures with the northern sector draining month over the scarp of the central and southern sectors draining south and west, the eastern sector draining east and south east. The Sokoto River located at the northern part of the town and the Shella River running from the north east to south has a broad flood plain which is used for Agriculture. Physical development expansion and growth of the town is constrained by these two Rivers given the town a multi – liner pattern of growth. Refer to map 4.3.

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Figure 2

Figure 3 Surface Water Drainage Existing System There are very limited number of constructed storm water drainage and channel in Birnin Kebbi. The surface water system in Birnin Kebbi is poor as the channels ranges from mutual gullies and excavated trenches to poorly constructed ones with no considerations for specifications, size volume and pressure of storm water i.e. carrying capacity. Most drainage contains sediments and refuses with mostly open drains blocked by indiscriminate dumping of waste. See map 4.4 and table 2 on the location of existing storm water drainage in Birnin Kebbi. Table 2: Location of Existing Water Drainages in Birnin Kebbi S/No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Location Ahmadu Bello Way Emir Haruna Way Umaru Gwandu Road Murtala Mohammed Way Haliru Abdu Road Rafin Atiku Outfall

Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Length (Km) 1.2 0.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 4

Size (M) 0.5x1 0.5x1 2x2.5 2x2.5 2x2.5 3x5

Category Secondary Secondary Primary Primary Primary Primary

Condition Bad Bad Good Good Good Good

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0


Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State

7. Guruza Road 8. Muhammed Bandi Road 9. Hamma Zina Road 10. Yahaya Shantali Road 11. Gari Mallam Road 12. Yeldu Road 13. Ubandoma Sa’ad Road 14. Emir Usman Road 15. Tudun Wada Outfall Source: Field Survey, 2007.

Table 2: Contd., 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.32 1.26 0.2 0.1 0.3 2.6

0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 0.5x0.5 3x5

Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Primary

Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Good

Physical Site Analysis of Flood Prone Areas The gradient of each flood prone area was studied to ascertain the degree of slope. This is however expressed as a ratio between the height and length on ground. A section drawing of each of the identified flood prone area was carried out to see true appearance of the various landscapes depicted on the contour map. RafinAtiku and Taka Lafiya, settlements are located lower than the pond and during the heavy rainfall, the drainage are filled up with sediments and cannot facilitate the free flow of storm water during rainy seasons, the capacity of drainages are too narrow for storm water to flow, Tudun Wade, Shiyar Sarakuna and Yaryana settlements are located higher on a gentle slope making it easier for storm water to flow, but it is not so, because of the back of define drainage system these settlements are occasionally flooded with number of houses submerged rendering people homeless. Refer to maps 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 & 4.9 on appendix. The spatial effect on the environment is great especially on human activity system. Movement of people becomes difficult during and after the flood because most available roads are compacted with sediments making movement of vehicles, goods and services almost impossible. Farmlands are washed away and farmers have a difficult time to reclaim their land, as most people in the flood prone area are farmers, (46Y% field survey, July 2007). Summary of Research Findings •

The identified flood prone areas are Rafin Atiku, Tudun Wada, Taka Lafiya, Shigar Fada, and Yarya. The total areas of these settlements combines are 122.22 hectares.

All the flood prone areas lack adequate storm water drainages and well defined access roads. A total of six (6) ponds were identified in these areas and over flow their banks during raining season and cause flooding.

Birnin Kebbi Town or city is located on top of a scarp which gives the town a complex drainage pattern.

The town itself Birnin Kebbi lacks adequate drainage facilities for storm water with only 19.9km of storm water constructed drainages whereas 400km of roads without drainage channels.

The peak of rainfall in Birnin Kebbi is between the month of August and September accounting for 80% of total rainfall.

Poor settlements layout planning and poor funding of relevant agencies responsible for environmental planning and management.

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Strategies Adopted in Flood Prevention and Control in Birnin Kebbi The strategies adopted for the prevention and control of flood in the study area are as follows: •

Construction of roads and drainages by KUDA, Kebbi State Urban Development Authority and the State Ministry of Works and Transport including road maintenance waste management, tree planting and development control and enforcement,

Poor funding and lack of political will by the government.

Poor co-ordination with planning agencies responsible for development.

Planning Proposal for the Prevention of Flooding In Flood Prone Areas of Birnin Kebbi In order to integrate physical and non-physical measures into planning or physical planning, planning matrix concept is adapted. The planning matrix gives a graded set of planning controls for different land uses relative to their different level of risk such as high risk, medium risk, low risk and free risk precincts (Bewshor, Ltd, 2003). The planning matrix is essential in development control as it balances the risk exposure in areas prone to flood. The key component of planning matrix approach is to divide the area into different areas of risk known as flood risk precincts. This gives different degrees of flood risk and different development control measures will be taken to prevent flood hazard, as shown in the planning matrix concept and maps showing proposed flood risk precincts for Birnin Kebbi. All the flood prone areas, fall under the medium Risk Areas because applying strict development control implementation or enforcement is appropriate. Some areas like Yaryara settlement need a careful rehabilitation schemes while the rest settlements needs upgrading schemes. The ponds must be reclaimed for recreational purpose. Phasing and Implementation The implementation of these projects or any other planning projects with these conditions is capital intensive and must be implemented with caution based on priorities and re-prioritizing the phasing, see table 3. Table 3: Phasing and Implementation S/No.

Project and Phasing Phase I (a): Commissioning of planning consultants 1. for the preparation of action areas plans for the identified flood prone areas. Phase II (b): Provision of tarred roads, drainages, refuse collection points and reclamation of executing 2. ponds as well as resettlement of affected families in Yanyara and Takalafiya flood prone areas. Phase II: Improvement of existing roads and the construction of new ones in Shiyar Fada and Rafin 3. Atiku. Reclamation of existing ponds and the resettlement of affected families in the area. Phase III: Improvement of existing roads and the construction of new ones in Tudun Wada and Rafin Atiku. Reclamation of existing ponds and the 4. resettlement of affected families in the area. Completion of phase I and II. All these within the context of the action area plan already prepared in phaseI. Source: Field Survey, 2007. Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Period of Implementation 2008

2008 - 2010

2011- - 2014

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0


Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State

Implementation of this type of project also requires a general framework upon which they can be achieved with greater community or citizen’s participation which also needs a strong political will, available financial and human resources and finally, legal and institutional framework. The agencies for implementation must be patriotic to strictly involve themselves with co-ordinate effort to put all the design specification on the ground and routine maintenance regularly.

CONCLUSIONS Projects like this of Birnin Kebbi the flood prone areas should not be ignored, because it touches on the socio-economic, political, cultural as well as environmental conditions and livelihood of the people. All the resources inputs must be available and the categories of professional, technical artisan man power must be mandated to contribute to change the living conditions of the people of Birnin Kebbi and the flood prone areas.


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Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State



Figure 4

Figure 5

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Figure 6

Figure 7 Impact Factor (JCC): 3.0965

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Assessment and Planning for Flood Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State


Figure 8

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International Journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies (IJEEFUS) ISSN(P): 2250-0065; ISSN(E): 2321-0109 Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 35...

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