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buichifukumura We Do What We Want

Bahaya Melancap(Onani) 14 02 2011 Masturbasi merupakan tanda kehidupan seks yang sihat. Namun, jika terlalu sering Masturbasi dan berlebihan boleh berpengaruh terhadap kesihatan seksual umum. Lelaki dan wanita memiliki perbezaan dalam masturbasi. Lelaki lebih sering masturbasi daripada wanita. Lelaki muda mengalami masturbasi yang lebih berbanding lelaki dewasa yang telah berumur. Mereka yang berusia 20-an boleh mengalami masturbasi setiap hari dan bahkan beberapa kali sehari bergantung pada pengeluaran hormon dan gaya hidup. Namun, masturbasi yang berlebihan boleh mempengaruhi kesihatan. Berikut ini kesan samping yang ditimbulkan dari masturbasi berlebihan. 1. Lelaki yang melakukan masturbasi terlalu kerap boleh menyebabkan lecet pada alat vitalnya. 2. Masturbasi yang terlalu kerap juga menyebabkan sperma keluar berlebihan sehingga boleh menyebabkan impoten dikemudian hari. 3. Kesan lainnya adalah merasa kepenatan sepanjang waktu, sakit pinggang, penipisan rambut atau rambut gugur. Idealnya lelaki mengalami ejakulasi sebanyak satu kali sehari. Menurut penelitian, lelaki yang ejakulasi lebih dari lima kali seminggu boleh mencegah kanser prsotat dan membentuk sperma yang sihat. Tetapi jika mengalami masturbasi yang tidak berlebihan boleh memberi kesan positif terhadap tubuh. Masturbasi boleh mengurangi stress dan meningkatkan aliran darah ke seluruh tubuh. 3 Hukum Onani (Masturbate) Masturbate atau dalam Bhs. M’sia = Melancap atau Onani (Bhs. Arab = Istimna) ialah suatu perbuatan mengeluarkan sperma dengan tangan sendiri dengan tujuan mencapai kepuasan seks secara bersendirian, tanpa pasangan. Persolan ini dirasakan amat patut dibincangkan hukumnya memandangkan ia adalah satu perkara yang sering timbul dibenak fikiran apabila seseorang itu bermusafir jauh dari pasangan hidupnya sehingga menyebabkan dia mencari sesuatu alternatif lain bagi mencari kepuasan seks dirinya. Dalam perbincangan ini perkataan onani digunakan mewakili masturbasi sebagai bahasa yang tepat mengikut Kamus Dewan. Onani adalah suatu perbuatan yang dipandang sebagi dosa besar di sisi Islam, demikian menurut majoriti para fuqaha. Imam as-Shafie dan Imam Malik, apabila ditanya mengenai hukum onani, mereka mengharamkan perbuatan sedemikian berdasarkan firman Allah Azza waJalla dalam al-Qur’an: Dan mereka yang menjaga kehormatannya (dalam hubungan seksual) kecuali kepada isteri atau hamba sahayanya, maka sesungguhnya mereka tidaklah tercela. Maka barangsiapa yang mengingini selain yang demikian, maka mereka adalah orang-orang yang melampaui batas.[Maksud surah alMu’minun 23 – 5,6,7] Ayat di atas menerangkan bahawa seseorang yang menjaga kehormatan diri hanya akan memperlakukan hubungan seksual bersama isteri-isterinya atau hamba-hambanya yang sudah dinikahi. Hubungan seksual seperti ini adalah suatu perbuatan yang baik, tidak tercela di sisi agama. Akan tetapi jikalau seseorang itu cuba mencari kepuasan seksual dengan cara-cara selain bersama pasangannya yang sah, seperti zina, pelacuran, onani atau persetubuhan dengan haiwan, maka itu dipandang sebagai sesuatu yang melampaui batas, salah lagi berdosa besar di sisi Islam. Demikian ringkas penerangan Imam as-Shafie dan Imam Malik apabila mereka ditanya mengenai hukum onani. Kenyataan di atas disokongi oleh riwayat berikut: Di Hari Akhirat Tuhan tidak akan melihat golongan-golongan ini lantas terus berfirman: Masuklah kalian ke dalam api neraka bersama-sama mereka yang (berhak) memasukinya. Golongan-golongan tersebut ialah [1] Orang-orang homoseksual, [2] orang yang bersetubuh dengan haiwan, [3]orang yang mengahwini isteri dan juga anak perempuannya pada waktu yang sama dan [4] orang yang kerap melakukan onani, kecuali jikalau mereka semua bertaubat dan memperbetulkan diri sendiri (maka tidak lagi akan dihukum). Lebih dari itu onani juga hanya berupaya memberikan kepuasan sementara kepada pembuatnya dan ia tidak lain hanya akan menambahkan lagi dorongan untuk melakukan hubungan seksual yang lebih sempurna. Ini adalah kerana manusia telah dicipta oleh Allah Azza waJalla untuk memuaskan kehendak seksual masing-masing dengan pasangan masing-masing dan apabila manusia cuba mencari alternatif lain ia hanya akan menaikkan semangat, tidak pula memuaskannya. Justeru itu onani tidak akan berjaya memuaskan nafsu seksual tetapi hanya akan melahirkan nafsu yang lebih kuat dan mengarah kepada perbuatan yang lebih buruk mudaratnya seperti zina, pelacuran dan sebagainya. Shah Waliallah Dahlawi menerangkan: Ketika air mani memancut dengan banyak, ia juga mempengaruhi fikiran manusia. Oleh itu orang muda akan mula menaruh perhatian terhadap wanita cantik dan hati mereka mula terpaut kepadanya. Faktor ini juga mempengaruhi alat jantinanya yang sering meminta disetubuhi menyebabkan desakan lebih menekan jiwa dan keinginan untuk melegakan syahwatnya menjadi kenyataan dengan berbagai-bagai aktiviti. Dalam hal ini seorang bujang akan terdorong untuk melakukan zina. Dengan perbuatan tersebut moralnya mulai rosak dan akhirnya dia akan tercebur kepada perbuatan-perbuatan yang lebih merosak. Keterangan di atas dapat diumpamakan kepada seseorang yang selalu mengkhayal dirinya memandu kereta Ferari. Lalu di satu hari dia memperoleh peluang untuk memandunya tetapi dihadkan kepada kelajuan maksimum 80 kmsj. Sudah tentu ini hanya memberikan kepuasan sementara lalu menjadi pemankin pula untuk berkehendak memandu kereta tersebut selaju 200 kmsj atau lebih. Melakukan onani secara kerap juga banyak membawa mudarat kepada kesihatan dan seseorang yang melazimkan diri dengan onani akan menghadapi kesankesan kelemahan badan, anggota yang terketar-ketar atau terkaku, penglihatan yang kabur, perasaan berdebar-debar dan kesugulan fikiran yang tidak menentu.Kajian perubatan juga membuktikan bahawa kekerapan melakukan onani akan memberi kesan negatif kepada kebolehan seseorang itu menghasilkan sprema sihat dan cukup bilangan dalam jangka masa panjang. Ini akan menghalang kebolehan seseorang itu menghasilkan zuriat-zuriat bersama pasangan hidupnya malah lebih dari itu, menghadapi ketergendalaan seksual dalam umur yang masih muda (mati pucuk).Melazimkan diri dengan onani juga menjauhkan hakikat seseorang itu daripada tujuan ciptaannya, iaitu sebagai sebaik-baik ciptaan Allah Subhanahu waTa’ala, sebaik-baik makhluk bumi dan sebagai sebaik-baik umat, iaitu umat Islam. Ia menjauhi nilai-nilai moral serta akhlak tinggi yang menjadi unsur utama kemulian umat Islam berbanding dengan yang lain-lain. Walaubagaimanapun sesetengah ahli fiqh berpendapat bahawa onani dibolehkan jikalau seseorang itu menghadapi suasana kegentingan syahwat dan dia berkeyakinan bahawa onani dapat meredakan syahwatnya dan dapat pula menghalang dirinya daripada terjerumus ke dalam sesuatu yang lebih besar mudaratnya seperti zina atau pelacuran. Kebolehan ini bukanlah bertujuan menghalalkan perbuatan onani tetapi ia adalah didasarkan kepada kaedah usul fiqh yang menyatakan: Dibolehkan melakukan bahaya yang lebih ringan supaya dapat dihindari bahaya yang lebih berat. Di sini perlu diwarnakan bahawa onani yang dibolehkan dari prinsip di atas hanyalah dalam suasana yang amat menekan, berbeza pula dengan onani yang dilakukan setiap hari atau setiap masa yang terlahir dari perbuatan melihat video-video, majalah-majalah atau angan-angan lucah. Yang pertama dibolehkan atas dasar pertimbangan maslahat agama manakala yang kedua diharamkan atas dasar pertentangan dengan perintah dan nilai-nilai agama. Tetapi sebelum seseorang itu dengan mudah menceburkan dirinya dalam kebolehan melakukan onani dalam saat-saat keperluan, dia seharusnya mencari alternatif-alternatif lain bagi mengelak dirinya daripada langsung menghampiri perbuatan tersebut. Melazimkan diri dengan berpuasa, atau dengan banyak berzikir mengingati Allah Ta’ala atau dengan mensibukkan diri dengan perkaraperkara kebajikan adalah antara menu sajian yang dicadangkan. Tidak ketinggalan juga ialah doa kepada Allah Subhanahu waTa’ala agar dia terpelihara dari perlakuan atau lintasan hati yang mengarah kepada sedemikian perbuatan, mengingatkan kepada kisah Nabi Yusuf alaihi-salam dalam alQur’anul Karim di mana beliau walaupun selaku seorang Nabi Allah, tetap memanjatkan doa kepada Allah Azza waJalla agar terpelihara dari godaangodaan serta fitnah wanita yang dihadapi di istana tempat kerjanya ketika itu. (Lihat surah Yusuf 12, terutamanya pada ayat 32 dan 33). Sesiapa yang berusaha untuk menjauhkan onani atas dasar taqwa dan iman kepada Allah Subhanahu waTa’ala, nescaya Allah akan mencukupinya. Insya-Allah hidayahNya akan membimbing seseorang itu menjauhi perbuatan onani dan pada waktu yang sama akan digantiNya dengan anugerah kelazatan jiwa dan kepuasan batin yang tidak mungkin tercakup penggambarannya melalui tulisan ini. Kesimpulan 1. Onani pada dasarnya adalah perbuatan yang haram di sisi Islam lagi bertentangan dengan nilai-nilai kesyumulan ajarannya. 2. Sesetengah ahli fiqh membolehkan onani jikalau seseorang itu berkeyakinan bahawa ia akan dapat menghalang dirinya daripada terjerumus dalam kesalahan agama yang lebih besar. Kebolehan ini bukanlah sebagai menghalalkan onani. (http://www.e-logodesign.com) custom logo design (http://www.e-logodesign.com)

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Mari Belajar Bahasa Sarawak 11 02 2011

Dialek Sarawak Dari Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas. Dialek Sarawak atau Bahasa Melayu Sarawak ialah bahasa daerah yang digunakan oleh penduduk di Sarawak dalam kehidupan seharian.Ia mempunyai beberapa persamaan dengan Bahasa Melayu Brunei. Berikut adalah beberapa perkataan di dalam dialek Sarawak.

Kamek Kamek bermaksud saya di dalam bahasa Melayu. Contohnya “Kamek ada kereta” bermaksud “Saya ada kereta”. Kata “Kame'” adalah ungkapan halus yang biasa diucapkan oleh anak-anak terhadap orang yang lebih tua. Kata “Saye” juga sama halusnya dengan kata “Kame'”. Jika “Kame'” umumnya digunakan terhadap sesama keluarga dan orang terdekat dengan kita, tetapi tak terlalu pantas digunakan terhadap orang yang baru kita kenal. Misalkan dengan orang yang kita barusan bertemu di atas Bis. Sedangkan kata “Saye” bisa digunakan terhadap keluarga dan orang terdekat dan orang yang telah lama kita kinal, dan juga pantas dan layak saja jika kita gunakan untuk berkomunikasi dengan orang yang baru kita kenal. Kata ini juga umumnya dipakai di Kalimantan Barat, misalkan pada Bahasa Melayu Logat Pontianak dan Logat Mempawah, dan logat lainnya yang ada di Kalimantan Barat

Kitak Kitak bermaksud awak di dalam bahasa Melayu. Contohnya “Kitak ada kereta” bermaksud “Awak ada kereta”. Di dalam Bahasa Melayu Logat Kalimantan Barat (Logat Pontaianak dan Logat Mempawah misalkan), kata “Kitak” berarti kalian. Sedangkan awak=kau=anda

Molah Molah bermaksud buat di dalam bahasa Melayu. Contohnya “Kamek gik molah kerja” bermaksud “Saya sedang buat kerja”.

Sik Sik bermaksud tidak di dalam bahasa Melayu. Contohnya “Kamek sik tauk” bermaksud :Saya tidak tahu”. Selain daripada itu terdapat banyak perkataan dalam bahasa sarawak yang terlalu jauh bunyinya daripada bahasa Malaysia. Contohnya; Kenak = Kenapa Kenak = Kena Tangga = Tengok/Lihat Diat = Lihat/Tengok Tunggah = Panggil Padah = Beritahu Engkah = Letak Embak = Bawa Mikik = Baiki Kepak = Penat Nekik = Daki\Panjat Tempek = Tampal,(sama maksud ‘tepek’ bgi longat kelantan) Lonjong = Panjang Asuk = Anjing Pusak = Kucing Manok = Ayam …indah = ‘pengguat ayat’ contohnya; pande sakit indah bila urang nyurohnya belaja. maksudnya, sakitlah pula apabila saya menyuruh dia belajar. Geruk = Leher Tengok(bukan sebutan tengok=lihat) = lihat dalam-dalam plente = Bergurau Pebulak = Penipu Berolah = Nakal Sinun = Sana / Situ (nun disinun = nun di sana) Sitok = Sini (di sitok = di sini) Tapak = Pinggan Cangkir = Cawan Kedak = macam (polah kedak tok juak = buat macam ni juga) Polah = buat / lakukan Dibah = Di bawah Semangka = Tembikai Gerek = Kekasih (Azura ya gerek Zaid = Azura tu kekasih Zaid) Pusuk = Ikan Bilis Lejuk =Jemu Temu\Nemu = Jumpa Jeraya\Leboh = Jalanraya Singkol = Rasa pelik Belon = Kapal Terbang Gerek = Teman Lelaki / Wanita Bergerek = Dating Can = Teman Istimewa Lan = Jom Nerais = Teriak / Jerit Nyering = Bunyi kuat Entingal = Degil Lawa = Sombong Kacak = Cantik Ceridak = Tak Terurus Ngambor = Bersepah Somet = Misai Nyaman = Sedap Terdapat juga bahasa melayu sarawak yang digunakan oleh orang-orang tua sarawak terutamnaya di Bahagian Kuching. Seperti: Ladin = Pisau Lang = Pintu Sukut = sisi Pagu = Para Telok = Bilik Diniari = Subuh Pagi awal = Awal pagi Gadong = Hijau Kalas = Merah jambu Ngkodok = Ungu Minyak = cuma Ngetor = Jalan-jalan (TOUR) Terdapat banyak lagi perkataan dalam bahasa Sarawak belum termasuk kata nama, kata sifat, kata kerja, kata soal serta nahu-nahu yang perlu kita tahu dalam mempelajari Bahasa Sarawak [To Be Continue] (http://www.e-logodesign.com) custom logo design (http://www.e-logodesign.com) Comments : Leave a Comment » Categories : Umum

Renungan Kita Bersama 11 02 2011 IBADAT SEMBAHYANG : Kelebihannya, kelebihan Jumaat dan Kerugian Apabila Lambat Ke Masjid Pada Hari Jumaat Bismillah, Walhamdulillah Wassalatu Wassalamu `Ala Rasulillah, Wa’ala Aalihie Wasahbihie Waman Walaah Matlamat hidup manusia adalah untuk mencari kebahagiaan di dunia dan akhirat. Kebahagiaan itu pula akan dijamin datang apabila manusia mahu melaksanakan perintah dan suruhan Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala. Antara perintah dan suruhan Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala yang wajib ditunaikan ialah sembahyang. Hal ini dijelaskan oleh Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala dalam firmanNya yang tafsirnya : “Sesungguhnya berjayalah orang-orang yang beriman, iaitu mereka yang khusyu‘ dalam sembahyangnya; Dan mereka yang mejauhkan diri daripada perbuatan dan perkataan yang sia-sia”. (Surah Al-Mukminun: 1-3) Berdasarkan ayat di atas, jelaslah kepada kita bahawa kebahagiaan dan kemenangan hidup itu hanya dapat dicapai oleh orang-orang yang beriman, orang-orang yang menjaga sembahyangnya dan orang-orang yang menjauhkan dirinya daripada perbuatan sia-sia. Sembahyang merupakan salah satu daripada rukun Islam dan merupakan suatu ibadat yang sangat penting dalam Islam. Malah Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam menegaskannya dalam sabda Baginda yang maksudnya : “Mahukah kamu Aku memberitahukan bahawa dasar (punca) segala urusan, tiangnya dan puncaknya? Aku menjawab: “Ya! Wahai Rasulullah”, lalu Baginda bersabda: “Dasar (punca) segala urusan adalah Islam (dua kalimah shahadat) dan tiangnya ialah sembahyang dan puncaknya ialah jihad”. (Hadis riwayat Al-Tirmizi) Dengan demikian sembahyang merupakan suatu suruhan yang wajib ditunaikan oleh setiap orang Islam. Orang yang menunaikan sembahyang ini akan diberi ganjaran pahala kerana mematuhi suruhan Allah Subhanhu wa Ta‘ala. Hidupnya sentiasa mendapat nikmat dan rahmat dari Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala dan di akhirat nanti akan dimasukkan ke dalam syurga bersama-sama dengan orang-orang soleh. KEWAJIPAN SEMBAHYANG JUMAAT Sembahyang Jum‘at adalah salah satu diantara kewajipan yang termaklum berdasarkan al-Qur‘an dan Al-Sunnah, orang-orang yang mengingkarinya dihukumkan kufur. Al-Qur‘an menjelaskan mengenai kewajipan sembahyang Jum‘at, Allah Subhanhu wa Ta‘ala berfirman yang tafsirnya : “Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Apabila diserukan azan (bang) untuk mengerjakan sembahyang pada hari Jum‘at, maka segeralah kamu pergi (ke masjid) untuk mengingati Allah (dengan mengerjakan sembahyangJum‘at) dan tinggalkanlah berjual beli (pada saat itu); yang demikian adalah lebih baik bagi kamu, jika kamu mengetahui (hakikat yang sebenarnya)”. (Surah Al-Jum‘at: 9) Berdasarkan ayat ini dan ayat-ayat berikutnya, Allah Subahanhu wa Ta‘ala memerintahkan umat Islam bersegera ke tempat sembahyang Jum‘at (masjid) sebaik-baik sahaja mendengar seruan azan serta meninggalkan kerja masingmasing seperti berjual beli dan kerja-kerja lain, untuk pergi ke masjid mendengar khutbah dan mengerjakan sembahyang Jum‘at. Setelah selesai sembahyang, mereka digalakkan meneruskan usahanya mencari rezeki sambil banyak mengingati Allah dalam segala keadaan. Mereka yang mematuhi ajaran Allah yang demikian itu akan beroleh kejayaan dan kebahagiaan di dunia dan akhirat. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam juga mejelaskan mengenai kewajipan sembahyang Jum‘at tersebut berdasarkan sabda Baginda yang maksudnya : “Sembahyang Jum‘at adalah hak yang wajib ke atas setiap orang Islam dengan (mengadakannya) secara berjemaah kecuali empat iaitu seorang hamba, perempuan, kanak-kanak dan orang sakit”. (Hadis riwayat Abu Daud dan Al-Hakim) Oleh itu, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala menetapkan hari Jum‘at sebagai hari besar mingguan bagi umat Nabi Muhammad Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam serta memerintahkan mengadakan satu sembahyang yang khas menandakan kebesaran hari Jum‘at, bagi menggantikan sembahyang Zuhur. KELEBIHAN HARI JUMAAT Di antara kebesaran dan kelebihan hari Jum‘at itu ialah penghulu segala hari. Pada hari Jum‘at telah dijadikan bapa segala manusia iaitu Adam ‘alaihissalam. Pada hari itu juga diberikan satu saat di mana segala doa dan permintaan akan dikabulkan kecuali perkara-perkara yang maksiat sebagaimana Rasulullah bersabda yang maksudnya : “Sesungguhnya hari Jum‘at adalah penghulu segala hari dan hari yang paling besar di sis Allah Subhanhu wa Ta ‘ala iaitu hari yang lebih besar daripada hari raya Adha dan hari raya Fitrah, pada hari Jum‘at itu terdapat lima kejadian iaitu hari yang dijadikan Adam ‘alaihissalam dan Baginda di turunkan daripada syurga ke muka bumi, dan pada hari itu juga wafatnya Adam ‘alaihissalam, dan Allah mengurniakan satu saat di mana doa-doa dikabulkan kecuali doa-doa maksiat, dan hari Jum‘at juga akan terjadinya hari Kiamat”. (Hadis riwayat Ibnu Majah) Hari Jum‘at juga adalah hari pengampunan daripada Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala kepada umat Islam baik yang masih hidup mahupun yang telah meninggal dunia. Dalam hal ini Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam menjelaskan kelebihan orang yang berwudhu di rumahnya kemudian pergi ke masjid untuk menunaikan sembahyang Jum‘at dalam sabda Baginda yang maksudnya : “Sesiapa yang berwudhu dan menyempurnakan wudhunya, kemudian dia (pergi ke masjid) untuk menunaikan Jum‘at, lalu mendengar dan tidak bercakap (ketika khutbah dibacakan), maka diampuni dosa-dosanya yang ada di antara hari Jum‘at itu dan hari Jum‘at berikutnya dan ditambah tiga hari lagi. Dan sesiapa yang bermain-main dengan anak-anak batu (ketika khutbah) telah berbuat sia-sia”. (Hadis riwayat Muslim) (http://www.e-logodesign.com) custom logo design (http://www.e-logodesign.com) Comments : Leave a Comment » Categories : Agama

Manchester United info 10 02 2011

Manchester United F.C.

(https://buichifukumura.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/305px-man_utd_fc_svg.png) History

Early years (1878–1945) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1878–1945) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Manchester_United_F.C._(1878%E2%80%931945)) refer to caption

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manchester_United_League_Performance_18932008.PNG) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manchester_United_League_Performance_18932008.PNG) A chart showing the progress of Manchester United F.C. through the English football league system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_football_league_system) from joining as Newton Heath in 1892–93 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1892%E2%80%9393_Football_League) to 2007– 08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007%E2%80%9308_Premier_League) Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lancashire_and_Yorkshire_Railway) depot at Newton Heath (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton_Heath).[11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_8-10) The team initially played games against other departments and rail companies, but on 20 November 1880, they competed in their first recorded match; wearing the colours of the railway company – green and gold – they were defeated 6–0 by Bolton Wanderers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolton_Wanderers_F.C.)‘ reserve team.[12] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-11) By 1888, the club had become a founding member of The Combination (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Combination), a regional football league. However, following the league’s dissolution after just one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_Alliance), which ran for three seasons before being merged with the Football League. This resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_First_Division), by which time it had become independent of the rail company and dropped the “LYR” from its (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notename.[11] barnes_8-10) After just two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_Second_Division).[11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_8-10)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ManUnited1905-1906.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ManUnited1905-1906.jpg) The Manchester United team at the start of the 1905–06 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1905%E2%80%9306_in_English_football), in which they were runners-up in the Second Division In January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £210,000 as of 2011[13] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-inflation-UK12) – the club was served with a winding-up order (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquidation).[14] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-13) Captain Harry Stafford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Stafford) found four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Davies) (who became club president), each willing to invest £500 in return for a direct interest in running the club and who subsequently changed the name;[15] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_9-14) on 24 April 1902, Manchester United was officially born.[16] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-15)[17] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-16) Under Ernest Mangnall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Mangnall), who assumed managerial duties in 1903, the team finished as Second Division runners-up in 1906 and secured promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1908 – the club’s first league title. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Community_Shield)[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-17) and ended with the club’s first FA Cup title. Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to joinManchester City (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_City_F.C.).[19] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-18) In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, where it remained until regaining promotion in 1925. Relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yo-yo_club), achieving its alltime lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Following the death of the club’s principal benefactor, J. H. Davies, in October 1927, the club’s finances deteriorated to the extent that Manchester United would likely have gone bankrupt had it not been for James W. Gibson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_W._Gibson), who, in December 1931, invested £2,000 and assumed control of the club.[20] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_12-19) In the 1938–39 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1938%E2%80%9339_in_English_football), the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division.[20] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notebarnes_12-19)

Busby years (1945–1969) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1945–1969) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Manchester_United_F.C._(1945%E2%80%931969))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Busby_babes_1955.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Busby_babes_1955.jpg) The Busby Babes in Denmark in 1955 In October 1945, the impending resumption of football led to the managerial appointment of Matt Busby, who demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions.[21] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-20) Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947, 1948 and 1949, and to FA Cup victory in 1948 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_FA_Cup_Final). In 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years.[22] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-21) With an average age of 22, the media labelled the back-to-back title winning side of 1956 “the Busby Babes”, a testament to Busby’s faith in his youth players.[23] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-22) In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelsea_F.C.) the same opportunity the previous season.[24] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-23) En route to the semi-final, which they lost to Real Madrid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_Madrid_C.F.), the team recorded a 10–0 victory over Belgian champions Anderlecht (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R.S.C._Anderlecht), which remains the club’s biggest victory on record.[25] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-24)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Munich_memorial_plaque.JPG) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Munich_memorial_plaque.JPG) A plaque at Old Trafford in honour of the players who died in the Munich air disaster The following season, on the way home from a European Cup quarter-final victory against Red Star Belgrade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Star_Belgrade), the aircraft carrying the Manchester United players, officials and journalists crashed while attempting to take off after refuelling in Munich, Germany. The Munich air disaster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich_air_disaster) of 6 February 1958 claimed 23 lives, including those of eight players – Geoff Bent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoff_Bent), Roger Byrne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Byrne),Eddie Colman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Colman), Duncan Edwards (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan_Edwards), Mark Jones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Jones_(footballer)), David Pegg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Pegg), Tommy Taylor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Taylor) and Billy Whelan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Whelan) – and injured several more.[26] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-25)[27] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-26) Reserve team manager Jimmy Murphy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Murphy_(footballer)) took over as manager while Busby recovered from his injuries and the club’s makeshift side reached theFA Cup final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1958_FA_Cup_Final), which they lost to Bolton Wanderers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolton_Wanderers_F.C.). In recognition of the team’s tragedy, UEFA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA) invited the club to compete in the 1958–59 European Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1958%E2%80%9359_European_Cup) alongside eventual League champions Wolverhampton Wanderers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolverhampton_Wanderers_F.C.). Despite approval from the FA, the Football League determined that the club should not enter the competition, since it had not qualified.[28] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-27)[29] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-28) Busby rebuilt the team through the 1960s by signing players such as Denis Law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_Law) and Pat Crerand (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat_Crerand), who combined with the next generation of youth players – including George Best (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Best) – to win the FA Cup in 1963 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1963_FA_Cup_Final). The following season, they finished second in the league, then won the title in 1965 and 1967. In 1968, Manchester United became the first English club to win the European Cup, beating Benfica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S.L._Benfica) 4–1 in the final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_European_Cup_Final)[30] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_18-1929) with a team that contained three European Footballers of the Year (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballon_d%27Or): Bobby Charlton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobby_Charlton), Denis Law and George Best. [31] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-30) Matt Busby resigned as manager in 1969 and was replaced by the reserve team coach, former Manchester United player Wilf McGuinness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilf_McGuinness).[32] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_19-31)

1969–1986 Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1969–1986) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Manchester_United_F.C._(1969%E2%80%931986))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bryan_Robson_at_the_cliff_-march_92.JPG) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bryan_Robson_at_the_cliff_march_92.JPG) Bryan Robson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryan_Robson) was the captain of Manchester United for 12 years, longer than any other player.[33] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-32) Following an eighth-place finish in the 1969–70 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969%E2%80%9370_in_English_football) and a poor start to the 1970–71 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1970%E2%80%9371_in_English_football), Busby was persuaded to temporarily resume managerial duties, and McGuinness returned to his position as reserve team coach. In June 1971, Frank O’Farrell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_O%27Farrell) was appointed as manager, but lasted less than 18 months before being replaced by Tommy Docherty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Docherty) in December 1972.[34] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-33) Docherty saved Manchester United from relegation that season, only to see them relegated in 1974; by that time the trio of Best, Law, and Charlton had left the club.[30] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_18-1929) The team won promotion at the first attempt and reached the FA Cup final in 1976 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976_FA_Cup_Final), but were beaten by Southampton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_F.C.). They reached the final again in 1977 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_FA_Cup_Final), beating Liverpool (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_F.C.) 2–1. Docherty was dismissed shortly afterwards, following the revelation of his affair with the club physiotherapist’s wife.[32] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_19-31) [35] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-34) Dave Sexton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Sexton) replaced Docherty as manager in the summer of 1977. Despite major signings, including Joe Jordan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Jordan_(footballer)), Gordon McQueen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_McQueen), Gary Bailey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Bailey), andRay Wilkins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_Wilkins), the team failed to achieve any significant results; they finished in the top two in 1979–80 and lost to Arsenal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenal_F.C.) in the 1979 FA Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1979_FA_Cup_Final). Sexton was dismissed in 1981, even though the team won the last seven games under his direction.[36] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_20-35) He was replaced by Ron Atkinson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ron_Atkinson), who immediately broke the British record transfer fee to sign Bryan Robson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryan_Robson) from West Bromwich Albion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Bromwich_Albion_F.C.). Under Atkinson, Manchester United won the FA Cup twice in three years – in 1983 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_FA_Cup_Final) and 1985 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_FA_Cup_Final). In 1985–86 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985%E2%80%9386_in_English_football), after 13 wins and two draws in its first 15 matches, the club was favourite to win the league, but finished in fourth place. The following season, with the club in danger of relegation by November, Atkinson was dismissed.[37] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_20-2136)

Ferguson years (1986–present) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1986–present) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Manchester_United_F.C._(1986%E2%80%93present))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alex_Ferguson.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alex_Ferguson.jpg) Alex Ferguson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Ferguson) has been manager of Manchester United since November 1986. Alex Ferguson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Ferguson) and his assistant Archie Knox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archie_Knox) arrived from Aberdeen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen_F.C.) on the day of Atkinson’s dismissal,[38] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-37) and guided the club to an 11th-place finish in the league.[39] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-38) Despite a second-place finish in 1987–88 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1987%E2%80%9388_in_English_football), the club was back in 11th place the following season.[40] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-39) Reportedly on the verge of being dismissed, victory over Crystal Palace (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Palace_F.C.) in the1990 FA Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_FA_Cup_Final) replay (after a 3–3 draw) saved Ferguson’s career.[41] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-40)[42] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-41)

The following season, Manchester United claimed its first Cup Winners’ Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Cup_Winners%27_Cup) title and competed in the 1991 UEFA Super Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_European_Super_Cup), beating European Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990%E2%80%9391_European_Cup) holdersRed Star Belgrade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Star_Belgrade) 1–0 in the final at Old Trafford. A second consecutive League Cup final appearance followed in 1992, in which the team beat Nottingham Forest 1–0 at Wembley. [37] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notebarnes_20-21-36) In 1993, the club won its first league title since 1967, and a year later, for the first time since 1957, it won a second consecutive title – alongside the FA Cup – to complete the first “Double (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_(association_football))” in the club’s history.[37] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notebarnes_20-21-36)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ryan_Giggs_United.jpg) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ryan_Giggs_United.jpg) Ryan Giggs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Giggs) is the most decorated player in English football history.[43] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-42) Manchester United’s 1998–99 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%9399_in_English_football) was the most successful in English club football history as they became the first team to win the Premier League, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League – “The Treble” – in the same season.[44] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-kings43)Losing 1–0 going into injury

time

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_football#Duration_and_tiebreaking_methods) in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999_UEFA_Champions_League_Final), Teddy Sheringham (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teddy_Sheringham) and Ole Gunnar Solskjær (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ole_Gunnar_Solskj%C3%A6r) scored late goals to claim a dramatic victory over Bayern Munich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FC_Bayern_Munich), in what is considered one of the greatest comebacks of all time.[45] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-44) The club also won the Intercontinental Cup after beating Palmeiras (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociedade_Esportiva_Palmeiras) 1–0 in Tokyo.[46] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-45)Ferguson was subsequently knighted for his services to football.[47] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-46) In 2000, Manchester United competed in the inaugural FIFA Club World Championship (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000_FIFA_Club_World_Championship) in Brazil,[48] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-47) and won the league again in the 1999–2000 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999%E2%80%932000_FA_Premier_League) and 2000–01 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000%E2%80%9301_FA_Premier_League) seasons. The team finished as runners-up in 2001–02 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001%E2%80%9302_FA_Premier_League), before regaining the title in 2002–03 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002%E2%80%9303_FA_Premier_League). They won the2003–04 FA Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_FA_Cup_Final), beating Millwall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millwall_F.C.) 3–0 in the final at the Millennium Stadium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Stadium) in Cardiff (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiff).[49] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-48) In the 2005–06 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005%E2%80%9306_in_English_football), Manchester United failed to qualify for the knockout phase of the UEFA Champions League for the first time in over a decade, but recovered to secure a second-place league finish and victory over Wigan Athletic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigan_Athletic_F.C.) in the 2006 Football League Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Football_League_Cup_Final). The club regained the Premier League in the 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons, and completed the European double (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_(association_football)#European_Double) by beating Chelsea 6–5 on penalties in the 2008 UEFA Champions League Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_UEFA_Champions_League_Final) in Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzhniki_Stadium). Ryan Giggs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Giggs) made a record 759th appearance for the club in this game, overtaking previous record holder Bobby Charlton.[50] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-49) In December 2008, the club won the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_FIFA_Club_World_Cup) and followed this with the 2008–09 Football League Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008%E2%80%9309_Football_League_Cup), and its third successive Premier League title.[51] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-50)[52] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-51)

That summer, Cristiano Ronaldo was sold to Real Madrid for a world record £80 million.[53] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-52) In 2010, Manchester United defeated Aston Villa 2–1 at Wembley to retain the League Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009%E2%80%9310_Football_League_Cup), its first successful defence of a knockout cup competition.[54] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-53)

Crest and colours

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manchester_United_Badge_1960s-1973.png) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manchester_United_Badge_1960s1973.png) Manchester United badge in the 1960s The club crest is derived from the Manchester City Council coat of arms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_City_Council#Coat_of_arms), although all that remains of it on the current crest is the ship in full sail.[55] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_49-54) The devil stems from the club’s nickname “The Red Devils”; it was included on club programmes and scarves in the 1960s, and incorporated into the club crest in 1970, although the crest was not included on the chest of the shirt until 1971 (unless the team was playing in a Cup Final).[55] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_49-54) A photograph of the Newton Heath team, taken in 1892, is believed to show the players wearing a red-and-white quartered jerseys and blue shorts.[56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_48-55) Between 1894–96, the players wore distinctive green and gold jerseys[56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_48-55) which were replaced in 1896 by white shirts, which were worn with blue shorts. [56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteBarnes_48-55) After its name change in 1902, the club colours were changed to red shirts, white shorts, and black socks, which has become the standard Manchester United home kit.[56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_48-55) Very few changes were made to the kit until 1922 when the club adopted white shirts bearing a deep red “V” around the neck, similar to the shirt worn in the 1909 FA Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1909_FA_Cup_Final). They would remain part of their home kits until 1927.[56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_48-55) In 1934, players sported cherry and white hooped shirts, but the following season the red shirt was recalled after the club’s lowest ever league placing of 20th in the Second Division.[56] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-Barnes_48-55) The black socks were changed to white from 1959 to 1965, where they were replaced with red socks up until 1971, when the club reverted to black. The current home kit is a red shirt with a white collar, worn with white shorts and black socks.[57] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-56) The Manchester United away strip has more often than not been a white shirt, black shorts and white socks, but there have been several exceptions. These include the navy blue shirt with silver horizontal pinstripes worn during the 1999–2000 season,[58] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-57) and the current away kit which is a white shirt with red and black flashes on the sleeves, with black shorts and white socks.[59] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-58) An all-grey away kit worn during the 1995–96 season was dropped after just two games because players claimed to have trouble finding their team-mates against the crowd.[60] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-59) In 2001, to celebrate 100 years as “Manchester United”, a reversible white/gold away kit was released, although the actual match day shirts were not reversible. [61] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-60) The club’s third kit is often all-blue, this was most recently the case during the 2008– 09 season, to celebrate 40 years since it was worn for the club’s first European Cup win in 1968.[62] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-61) Exceptions include blue-and-white striped shirts worn during the 1994–96 season, an all black kit worn during the Treble winning season, and white shirts with blackand-red horizontal pinstripes worn between 2003–05.[63] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-62) The club’s 2008–09 season away kit – a white shirt with blue and red trim, worn with blue shorts and white socks – was used as the club’s third kit during the 2009–10 season.[64] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-63) [65] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-64)

Grounds Main articles: North Road (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Road_(football_ground)), Bank Street (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_Street_(football_ground)), and Old Trafford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Trafford) Old Trafford Theatre of Dreams

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Old_Trafford_inside_20060726_1.jpg)

Location

Sir Matt Busby Way (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Matt_Busby_Way), Old Trafford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Trafford,_Greater_Manchester), Greater Manchester (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Manchester), England

Broke ground

1909

Opened

19 February 1910

Owner

Manchester United

Operator

Manchester United

Construction cost

£90,000 (1909)

Architect

Archibald Leitch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Leitch) (1909)

Capacity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seating_capacity)

75,957 seated[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteinside_united-1)

Tenants Manchester United (1910–present) Newton Heath initially played on a field on North Road (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Road_(football_ground)), close to the railway yard; the original capacity was about 12,000, but club officials deemed the facilities inadequate for a club hoping to join The Football League.[66] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-white_21-65) Some expansion took place in 1887, and in 1891 Newton Heath used its minimal financial reserves to purchase two grandstands, each able to hold 1,000 spectators.[67] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-66) Although attendances were not recorded for many of the earliest matches at North Road, the highest documented attendance was approximately 15,000 for a First Division match against Sunderland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunderland_A.F.C.) on 4 March 1893.[68] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-67) A similar attendance was also recorded for a friendly match against Gorton Villa on 5 September 1889.[69] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-68) In June 1893, after the club was evicted from North Road by its owners, Manchester Deans and Canons, who felt it was inappropriate for the club to charge an entry fee to the ground, secretary A. H. Albut (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._H._Albut) procured the use of the Bank Street ground (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_Street_(football_ground)) in Clayton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clayton,_Manchester).[70] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-shury_21-2269) It initially had no stands, by the start of the 1893–94 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1893%E2%80%9394_in_English_football), two had been built; one spanning the full length of the pitch on one side and the other behind the goal at the “Bradford end”. At the opposite end, the “Clayton end”, the ground had been “built up, thousands thus being provided for”.[70] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-shury_21-2269) Newton Heath’s first league match at Bank Street was played against Burnley (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burnley_F.C.) on 1 September 1893, when 10,000 people saw Alf Farman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alf_Farman) score a hat-trick (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hat-trick), Newton Heath’s only goals in a 3–2 win. The remaining stands were completed for the following league game against Nottingham Forest (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nottingham_Forest_F.C.) three weeks later.[70] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-shury_21-2269) In October 1895, before the visit of Manchester City, the club purchased a 2,000-capacity stand from the Broughton Rangers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broughton_Rangers) rugby league (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rugby_league) club, and put up another stand on the “reserved side” (as distinct from the “popular side”). However, weather restricted the attendance for the Manchester City match to just 12,000.[71] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-70) When the Bank Street ground was temporarily closed by bailiffs in 1902, club captain Harry Stafford raised enough money to pay for the club’s next away game at Bristol City and found a temporary ground at Harpurhey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpurhey) for the next reserves game against Padiham.[72] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note71)Following financial investment, new club president J.H. Davies paid £500 for the erection of a new 1,000-seat stand at Bank Street.[73] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-inglis_23472)Within four years, the stadium had cover on all four sides, as well as the ability to hold approximately 50,000 spectators, some of whom could watch from the viewing gallery atop the Main Stand.[73] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-inglis_234-72) However, following Manchester United’s first league title in 1908 and the FA Cup a year later, it was decided that Bank Street was too restrictive for Davies’ ambition;[73] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteinglis_234-72) in February 1909, six weeks before the club’s first FA Cup title, Old Trafford was named as the home of Manchester United, following the purchase of land for around £60,000. Architect Archibald Leitch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Leitch) was given a budget of £30,000 for construction; original plans called for seating capacity of 100,000, though budget constraints forced a revision to 77,000. The building was constructed by

Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester. The stadium’s record attendance was registered on 25 March 1939, when anFA Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Cup) semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolverhampton_Wanderers_F.C.) and Grimsby Town (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grimsby_Town_F.C.) drew 76,962 spectators.[74] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-73) Bombing in the Second World War destroyed much of the stadium; the central tunnel in the South Stand was all that remained of that quarter. After the war, the club received compensation from the War Damage Commission (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Damage_Commission) in the amount of £22,278. While reconstruction took place, the team played its “home” games at Manchester City’s Maine Road (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maine_Road) ground; Manchester United was charged £5,000 per year, plus a nominal percentage of gate receipts.[75] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-74) Later improvements included the addition of roofs, first to the Stretford End and then to the North and East Stands. The roofs were supported by pillars that obstructed many fans’ views, and they were eventually replaced with acantilevered (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantilever) structure. The Stretford End was the last stand to receive a cantilevered roof, completed in time for the 1993–94 season (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993%E2%80%9394_in_English_football).[32] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_19-31) First used on 25 March 1957 and costing £40,000, four 180-foot (55 m) pylons were erected, each housing 54 individual floodlights. These were dismantled in 1987 and replaced by a lighting system embedded in the roof of each stand, which remains in use today.[76] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-75) The Taylor Report (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_Report)‘s requirement for an all-seater stadium lowered capacity at Old Trafford to around 44,000 by 1993. In 1995, the North Stand was redeveloped into three tiers, restoring capacity to approximately 55,000. At the end of the 1998–99 season, second tiers were added to the East and West Stands, raising capacity to around 67,000, and between July 2005 and May 2006, 8,000 more seats were added via second tiers in the north-west and north-east quadrants. Part of the new seating was used for the first time on 26 March 2006, when an attendance of 69,070 became a new Premier League record.[77] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-76) The record was pushed steadily upwards before reaching its peak on 31 March 2007, when 76,098 spectators saw Manchester United beat Blackburn Rovers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackburn_Rovers_F.C.) 4–1, with just 114 seats (0.15 percent of the total capacity of 76,212) unoccupied.[78] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-77) In 2009, reorganisation of the seating resulted in a reduction of capacity by 255 to 75,957. [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteinside_united-1)[79] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-record_gate78)

Support Manchester United is reputed to be the most popular football club in the world, with the highest average home attendance in Europe.[80] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-79) The club’s worldwide fan base includes more than 200 officially recognised branches of the Manchester United Supporters Club (MUSC), in at least 24 countries.[81] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-80) The club takes advantage of this support through its worldwide summer tours. Accountancy firm and sports industry consultants Deloitte (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deloitte) estimate that Manchester United has 75 million fans worldwide,[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-hamil_126-5) while other estimates put this figure closer to 333 million.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note333_million_fans-6) Supporters are represented by two independent bodies; the Independent Manchester United Supporters Association (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_Manchester_United_Supporters_Association) (IMUSA), which maintains close links to the club through the MUFC Fans Forum,[82] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-81) and the Manchester United Supporters’ Trust (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_Supporters%27_Trust) (MUST). After the Glazer family’s takeover in 2005, a group of fans formed a splinter club, F.C. United of Manchester (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F.C._United_of_Manchester). The West Stand of Old Trafford – the “Stretford End (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stretford_End)” – is the home end and the traditional source of the club’s most vocal support.[83] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_52-82)

Rivalries Main articles: Manchester derby (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_derby), Liverpool F.C. and Manchester United F.C. rivalry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_F.C._and_Manchester_United_F.C._rivalry), and Leeds United A.F.C. and Manchester United F.C. rivalry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leeds_United_A.F.C._and_Manchester_United_F.C._rivalry) Manchester United has major ongoing rivalries with three clubs: Liverpool (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_F.C.), Manchester City (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_City_F.C.) and Leeds United (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leeds_United_A.F.C.).[84] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-83)[85] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-84) The most hotly contested derby fixture is often versus Liverpool, described by Ryan Giggs as “probably the most famous fixture in English football”,[86] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-85) as both teams have dominated certain periods of English football.[87] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-86) The rivalry is considered a manifestation of the cities’ competition during industrial times, when they competed for supremacy of the north-west; Manchester was famous for its textile industry, while Liverpool (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool) was considered the world’s pre-eminent port.[88] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-87) This fixture also has a history of hooliganism; at the 1996 FA Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_FA_Cup_Final), an unidentified Liverpool fan spat at Eric Cantona (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Cantona) and threw a punch at Alex Ferguson as a victorious Manchester United team walked up the steps at Wembley Stadium (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wembley_Stadium_(1923)) to collect the trophy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Cup) from the Royal Box.[89] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-88) At an FA Cup match in 2006, an ambulance carrying Alan Smith (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Smith_(footballer_born_1980)), who had broken his leg during the match, was attacked by Liverpool fans.[90] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-89) Informally known as the “Roses Rivalry”,[91] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-90) the rivalry with Leeds United has its origins in the Wars of the Roses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses) fought between the House of Lancaster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Lancaster) and the House of York (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_York), Manchester United representing Lancashire and Leeds representing Yorkshire.[92] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-91) Independent research by the Football Fans Census (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_Fans_Census) showed that in English football Leeds and Manchester United are among the top three clubs which fans of other sides feel passionately against.[93] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-92)

Global brand Manchester United has been described as a global brand; a 2009 report valued the club’s trademarks and associated intellectual property at £329 million, and gave the brand a strength rating of AAA (Extremely Strong).[94] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-93) In 2010, Forbes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forbes) magazine ranked Manchester United second only to the New York Yankees (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Yankees) in its list of the ten most valuable sports team brands, valuing the Manchester United brand at $285 million (16 percent of the club’s $1.835 billion value).[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteForbes_brands-7) The club is currently ranked third in the Deloitte Football Money League (behind Real Madrid and Barcelona).[95] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteDeloitte_money_league-94) The core strength of Manchester United’s global brand is often attributed to Matt Busby’s rebuilding of the team and subsequent success following the Munich air disaster, which drew worldwide acclaim.[83] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_52-82) The “iconic” team included Bobby Charlton and Nobby Stiles (members of England’s World Cup winning team), Denis Law and George Best. The attacking style of play adopted by this team (in contrast to the defensive-minded “catenaccio (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catenaccio)” approach favoured by the leading Italian teams of the era) “captured the imagination of the English footballing public”.[96] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-hamil_116-95) Busby’s team also became associated with the liberalisation of Western society during the 1960s; George Best, known as the “fifth Beatle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beatles)” for his iconic haircut, was the first footballer to significantly develop an off-the-field media profile.[96] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-hamil_116-95) As the first English football club to float on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club raised significant capital, with which it further developed its commercial strategy. The club’s focus on commercial and sporting success brought significant profits in an industry often characterised by chronic losses. [97] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-96) The strength of the Manchester United brand was bolstered by intense off-the-field media attention to individual players, most notably David Beckham (who quickly developed his own global brand). This attention often generates greater interest in on-the-field activities, and hence generates sponsorship opportunities – the value of which is driven by television exposure.[98] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-97) During his time with the club, Beckham’s popularity across Asia was integral to the club’s commercial success in that part of the world.[99] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-98) Because higher league placement results in a greater share of television rights, success on the field generates greater income for the club. Since the inception of the Premier League, Manchester United has received the largest share of the revenue generated from the BSkyB (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Sky_Broadcasting) broadcasting deal.[100] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-99) Manchester United has also consistently enjoyed the highest commercial income of any English club; in 2005–06, the club’s commercial arm generated £51 million, compared to £42.5 million at Chelsea, £39.3 million at Liverpool, £34 million at Arsenal and £27.9 million at Newcastle United. A key sponsorship relationship is with sportswear company Nike (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nike,_Inc.), who manage the club’s merchandising operation as part of a £303 million 13-year partnership established in 2002.[101] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-100) Through Manchester United Finance and the club’s membership scheme, One United, those with an affinity for the club can purchase a range of branded goods and services. Additionally, Manchester United-branded media services – such as the club’s dedicated television channel, MUTV – have allowed the club to expand its fan base to those beyond the reach of its Old Trafford stadium.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-hamil_126-5)

Sponsorship In an initial five-year deal worth £500,000, Sharp Electronics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharp_Corporation) became the club’s first shirt sponsor at the beginning of the 1982–83 season, a relationship that lasted until the end of the 1999–2000 season, when Vodafone agreed a four-year, £30 million deal.[102] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteshirt_sponsorship-101) Vodafone agreed to pay £36 million to extend the deal by four years, but after two seasons triggered a break clause in order to concentrate on its sponsorship of the Champions League.[102] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteshirt_sponsorship-101) To commence at the start of the 2006–07 season, American insurance corporation AIG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_International_Group) agreed a four-year £56.5 million deal which in September 2006 became the most valuable in the world.[103] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-102)[104] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-103) At the beginning of the 2010–11 season, American reinsurance company Aon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aon_Corporation) became the club’s principal sponsor in a four-year deal reputed to be worth approximately £80 million, making it the most lucrative shirt sponsorship deal in football history.[105] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-104) The club’s first kit manufacturer was Umbro (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbro), until a five-year deal was agreed with Admiral Sportswear (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Admiral_(sportswear)) in 1975.[106] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note105) Adidas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adidas) received the contract in 1980, [107] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-106) before Umbro started a second spell in 1992.[108] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-107) Umbro’s sponsorship lasted for ten years, followed by Nike’s record-breaking £302.9 million deal that will last until 2015; 3.8 million replica shirts were sold in the first 22 months with the company.[109] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-108)[110] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-109)

In addition to Nike and Aon, the club also has several lower-level “platinum” sponsors, including Audi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audi) and Budweiser (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budweiser).[111] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-110)

Ownership and finances See also: Malcolm Glazer ownership of Manchester United (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_Glazer_ownership_of_Manchester_United) Originally funded by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, the club became a limited company in 1892 and sold shares to local supporters for £1 via an application form.[15] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_9-14) In 1902, majority ownership passed to the four local businessmen who invested £500 to save the club from bankruptcy, including future club president J.H Davies.[15] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notebarnes_9-14) After his death in 1927, the club faced bankruptcy yet again, but was saved in December 1931 by James W. Gibson, who assumed control of the club after investing £2,000.[20] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-barnes_12-19) Gibson promoted his son, Alan, to the board in 1948,[112] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-111) but died three years later; the Gibson family retained ownership of the club,[113] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-112) but the position of chairman passed to former player Harold Hardman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Hardman).[114] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-113) Promoted to the board a few days after the Munich air disaster, Louis Edwards, a friend of Matt Busby, began acquiring shares in the club; for an investment of approximately £40,000, he accumulated a 54 percent shareholding and took control in January 1964.[115] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-114) When Lillian Gibson died in January 1971, her shares passed to Alan Gibson who sold a percentage of his shares to Louis Edwards’ son, Martin in 1978; Martin Edwards (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Edwards) went on to become chairman upon his father’s death in 1980.[116] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-knighton_bid115) Media tycoon Robert Maxwell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Maxwell) attempted to buy the club in 1984, but did not meet Edwards’ asking price.[116] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-knighton_bid115) In 1989, chairman Martin Edwards attempted to sell the club to Michael Knighton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Knighton) for £20 million, but the sale fell through and Knighton joined the Board of Directors instead.[116] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-knighton_bid115) . Manchester United was floated on the stock market in June 1991 (raising £6.7 million),[117] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-116) and received yet another takeover bid in 1998, this time from Rupert Murdoch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert_Murdoch)‘s British Sky Broadcasting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Sky_Broadcasting) Corporation. This resulted in the formation of Shareholders United Against Murdoch – now the Manchester United Supporters’ Trust – who encouraged supporters to buy shares in the club in an attempt to block any hostile takeover (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeover#Hostile_takeovers). The Manchester United board accepted a £623 million offer,[118] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-117) but the takeover was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competition_Commission) at the final hurdle in April 1999.[119] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-118) A few years later, a power struggle emerged between the club’s manager, Alex Ferguson, and his horse-racing partners, John Magnier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Magnier) and J. P. McManus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._P._McManus), who had gradually become the majority shareholders. In a dispute that stemmed from contested ownership of the horse Rock of Gibraltar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_of_Gibraltar_(horse)), Magnier and McManus attempted to have Ferguson removed from his position as manager, and the board responded by approaching investors to attempt to reduce the Irishmen’s majority.[120] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-119) In May 2005, Malcolm Glazer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_Glazer) purchased the 28.7 percent stake held by McManus and Magnier, thus acquiring a controlling interest through his investment vehicle Red Football Ltd in a highly leveraged takeover valuing the club at approximately £800 million (then approx. $1.5 billion).[121] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-120)[122] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-new_owner121) In July 2006, the club announced a £660 million debt refinancing package, resulting in a 30 percent reduction in annual interest payments to £62 million a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteyear.[123] 122)[124] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noterefinancing-123) In January 2010, with debts of £716.5 million ($1.17 billion), [125] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-124) Manchester United further refinanced through a bond issue worth £504 million, enabling them to pay off most of the £509 million owed to international banks. [126] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-125) The annual interest payable on the bonds – which mature on 1 February 2017 – is approximately £45 million per annum.[127] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-126) Despite restructuring, the club’s debt prompted protests from fans on 23 January 2010, at Old Trafford and the club’s Trafford Training Centre (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trafford_Training_Centre).[128] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-127)[129] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-128) Supporter groups encouraged match-going fans to wear green and gold, the colours of Newton Heath. On 30 January, reports emerged that the Manchester United Supporters’ Trust had held meetings with a group of wealthy fans, dubbed the “Red Knights”, with plans to buying out the Glazers’ controlling interest.[130] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-129)

Players First-team squad As of 2 February 2011[131] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-130)[132] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-131) Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA) eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No.

Position

Player

1

GK (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goalkeeper_(association_football))

Edwin van der Sar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_van_der_Sar

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands)

3

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France)

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

Patrice Evra (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Evra)

4

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Owen Hargreaves (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Hargreaves)

5

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

Rio Ferdinand (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_Ferdinand)

6

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

Wes Brown (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wes_Brown)

7

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

Michael Owen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Owen)

8

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Anderson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anderson_Lu%C3%ADs_de_Abreu_O

9

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria)

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

Dimitar Berbatov (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitar_Berbatov)

10

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

Wayne Rooney (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayne_Rooney)

11

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Ryan Giggs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Giggs)

12

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

Chris Smalling (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Smalling)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Park Ji-Sung (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Park_Ji-Sung)

13

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Korea)

14

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico)

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

Javier Her (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javier_Hern%C3%A1ndez_Balc%C3%

15

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia)

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

Nemanja Vidić (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemanja_Vidi%C (captain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_(association_football)

16

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Michael Carrick (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Carrick)

17

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal)

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

Nani (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nani_(footballer))

On loan Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA) eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No.

Position

19

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England)

27

Player

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy)

Danny Welbeck (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danny_Welbeck) (at Sunderland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunderland_A.F.C.) until 30 June 2011)[133] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note132) Federico Macheda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federico_Macheda) (at Sampdoria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.C._Sampdoria) until 30 June 2011)[134] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note133)

30

DF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defender_(association_football))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium)

31

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Ireland)

32

MF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midfielder)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note134) Corry Evans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corry_Evans) (at Hull City (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hull_City_A.F.C.) until 30 June 2011)[136] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note135)

FW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_(association_football))

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegal)

Ritchie De Laet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritchie_De_Laet) (at Portsmouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portsmouth_F.C.) until 30 June 2011)[135]

Mame Biram Diouf (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mame_Biram_Diouf) (at Blackburn Rovers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackburn_Rovers_F.C.) until 30 June 2011)[137] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note136)

Reserves and academy For the reserve and academy squads, see Manchester United F.C. Reserves and Academy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C._Reserves_and_Academy).

Former players For details of former players, see List of Manchester United F.C. players (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Manchester_United_F.C._players) and Category:Manchester United F.C. players (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Manchester_United_F.C._players).

Club captains For a list of club captains, see List of Manchester United F.C. players#Club captains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Manchester_United_F.C._players#Club_captains).

Player records For player records, including player awards, see List of Manchester United F.C. records and statistics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Manchester_United_F.C._records_and_statistics).

Club officials Owner: Glazer family via Red Football Shareholder Limited[142] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-141) Honorary

president:

Martin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Edwards)[143]

Edwards

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-142) Manchester United Limited Co-chairmen:

Joel

Glazer

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Glazer) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avram_Glazer)[144]

& Avram Glazer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-board-143) Chief

executive:

David (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Gill_(executive))[144]

Gill

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-board-143) Chief operating officer: Michael Bolingbroke[144] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-board-143) Commercial director: Richard Arnold[145] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-144) Chief of Staff: Ed Woodward[146] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-145) Non-executive directors: Bryan Glazer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryan_Glazer), Kevin Glazer, Edward Glazer & Darcie Glazer[144] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-board-143) Manchester United Football Club Directors: David Gill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Gill_(executive)), Michael Edelson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Edelson), Sir Bobby Charlton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobby_Charlton), Maurice Watkins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Watkins_(solicitor))[147] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-146) Club

secretary:

John

Alexander

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Alexander_(footballer))[148] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-147) Global

ambassador:

Bryan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryan_Robson)[149]

Robson

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-148) Coaching and medical staff Manager: Sir Alex Ferguson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Ferguson) [150] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_noteferguson-149) Assistant manager: Mike Phelan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Phelan) [151] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-150) First

team

coach:

René

Meulensteen

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Meulensteen)[152] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-151) Goalkeeping coach: Eric Steele (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Steele) [153] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-152) Fitness

coach:

Tony (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Strudwick)[154]

Strudwick

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-hawkins153) Reserve

team

manager:

Ole

Gunnar Solskjær (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ole_Gunnar_Solskj%C3%A6r)[155] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-154)

Managerial history Main article: List of Manchester United F.C. managers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Manchester_United_F.C._managers) Dates[156] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note155)

Name

1878–1892

Unknown

1892–1900

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) A. H. Albut (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._H._Albut)

1900–1903

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) James West (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_West_(football_manager))

1903–1912

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Ernest Mangnall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Mangnall)

1912–1914

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) John Bentley (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bentley_(football_manager))

1914–1922

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Robson)

1922–1926

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) John Chapman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Chapman_(footballer))

1926–1927

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Hilditch)

1927–1931

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Herbert Bamlett (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Bamlett)

1931–1932

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Walter Crickmer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Crickmer)

1932–1937

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) Scott Duncan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Duncan)

1937–1945

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Walter Crickmer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Crickmer)

1945–1969

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matt_Busby)

1969–1970

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Wilf McGuinness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilf_McGuinness)

1970–1971

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matt_Busby)

1971–1972

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Ireland) Frank O’Farrell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_O%27Farrell)

1972–1977

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) Tommy Docherty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Docherty)

1977–1981

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Sexton)

1981–1986

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) Ron Atkinson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ron_Atkinson)

Notes

Jack

Lal

Matt

Matt

Dave

Robson First manager from outside England

Hilditch

Busby

Busby First manager from outside the United Kingdom

Sexton

Both most honours won and longest serving 1986–present

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) Alex Ferguson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Ferguson)

Honours Manchester United’s first trophy was the Manchester Cup, which it won as Newton Heath in 1886.[157] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-156) In 1908, the club won its first league title, and won the FA Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Cup) for the first time the following year. In terms of the number of trophies won, Manchester United’s most successful decade was the 1990s; the club won five league titles, four FA Cups, one League Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_Cup), fiveCharity Shields (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Community_Shield) (one shared), one UEFA Champions League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Champions_League), one UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Cup_Winners%27_Cup), one UEFA Super Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Super_Cup) and one Intercontinental Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercontinental_Cup_(football)). The club currently holds the record for the most FA Cups, with 11, and the record for the most FA Cup Final (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Cup_Final) appearances, with 18.[158] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-157) Manchester United and Liverpool have each won a joint-record 18 top-division titles, but Manchester United holds the record for the most Premier League titles (11), and was the first English team to win the European Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Champions_League) in 1968. The most recent trophy came in August 2010, when the club won the FA Community Shield (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_FA_Community_Shield). The only major honour that Manchester United has never won is the UEFA Europa League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Europa_League),[159] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-158) although the team reached the quarter-finals in 1984–85 and the semi-finals of the competition’s precursor tournament, the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-Cities_Fairs_Cup), in 1964–65.[160] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-159)[161] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-160)

Domestic League First

Division (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_First_Division)[162]

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notepremier_league-161) (until 1992) and Premier League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_League):[162] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notepremier_league-161) 18

1907–08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1907%E2%80%9308_Football_League#First_Division), 1910– 11 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1910%E2%80%9311_Football_League#First_Division), 1951– 52 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1951%E2%80%9352_Football_League#First_Division), 1955– 56 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955%E2%80%9356_Football_League#First_Division), 1956– 57 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956%E2%80%9357_Football_League#First_Division), 1964– 65 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964%E2%80%9365_Football_League#First_Division), 1966– 67 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1966%E2%80%9367_Football_League#First_Division), 1992– 93 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1992%E2%80%9393_FA_Premier_League), 1993– 94 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993%E2%80%9394_FA_Premier_League), 1995– 96 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995%E2%80%9396_FA_Premier_League), 1996– 97 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996%E2%80%9397_FA_Premier_League), 1998– 99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%9399_FA_Premier_League), 1999– 2000 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999%E2%80%932000_FA_Premier_League), 2000– 01 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000%E2%80%9301_FA_Premier_League), 2002– 03 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002%E2%80%9303_FA_Premier_League), 2006– 07 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006%E2%80%9307_FA_Premier_League), 2007– 08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007%E2%80%9308_Premier_League), 2008– 09 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008%E2%80%9309_Premier_League) Second Division (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_Second_Division):[162] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_notepremier_league-161) 2

1935–36 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935%E2%80%9336_Football_League#Second_Division), 1974– 75 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1974%E2%80%9375_Football_League#Second_Division_2)

Cups FA Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Cup): 11 1908–09 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1909_FA_Cup_Final), 1947–48 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_FA_Cup_Final), 1962–63 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1963_FA_Cup_Final), 1976–77 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_FA_Cup_Final), 1982–83 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_FA_Cup_Final), 1984–85 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_FA_Cup_Final), 1989–90 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_FA_Cup_Final), 1993–94 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_FA_Cup_Final), 1995–96 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_FA_Cup_Final), 1998–99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999_FA_Cup_Final), 2003–04 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_FA_Cup_Final) League Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_Cup): 4 1991–92 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1992_Football_League_Cup_Final), 2005– 06 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Football_League_Cup_Final), 2008– 09 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_Football_League_Cup_Final), 2009– 10 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_Football_League_Cup_Final) FA Charity/Community Shield (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Community_Shield): 18 (14 outright, 4 shared) 1908 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1908_FA_Charity_Shield), 1911 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1911_FA_Charity_Shield), 1952 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1952_FA_Charity_Shield), 1956 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956_FA_Charity_Shield), 1957 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1957_FA_Charity_Shield), 1965 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1965_FA_Charity_Shield)*, 1967 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1967_FA_Charity_Shield)*, 1977 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_FA_Charity_Shield)*, 1983 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_FA_Charity_Shield), 1990 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_FA_Charity_Shield)*, 1993 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_FA_Charity_Shield), 1994 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_FA_Charity_Shield), 1996 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_FA_Charity_Shield), 1997 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1997_FA_Charity_Shield), 2003 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003_FA_Community_Shield), 2007 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_FA_Community_Shield), 2008 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_FA_Community_Shield), 2010 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_FA_Community_Shield) (* shared)

European European Cup/UEFA Champions League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Champions_League): 3 1967–68 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_European_Cup_Final), 1998–99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999_UEFA_Champions_League_Final), 2007– 08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_UEFA_Champions_League_Final) UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Cup_Winners%27_Cup): 1 1990–91 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_European_Cup_Winners%27_Cup_Final) UEFA Super Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Super_Cup): 1 1991 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_UEFA_Super_Cup)

Worldwide Intercontinental Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercontinental_Cup_(football)): 1 1999 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999_Intercontinental_Cup) FIFA Club World Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA_Club_World_Cup): 1 2008 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_FIFA_Club_World_Cup)

Doubles and Trebles Doubles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Double): League and FA Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Double#England): 3 1993–94 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993%E2%80%9394_Manchester_United_F.C._season), 1995– 96 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995%E2%80%9396_Manchester_United_F.C._season), 1998– 99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%9399_Manchester_United_F.C._season) (as part of the Treble (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treble_(association_football))) League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_League) and League Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_League_Cup): 1 2008–09 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008%E2%80%9309_Manchester_United_F.C._season) European Double (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Double#European_Double) (League (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_League) and European Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Champions_League)): 2 1998–99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%9399_Manchester_United_F.C._season) (as part of the Treble (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treble_(association_football))), 2007– 08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007%E2%80%9308_Manchester_United_F.C._season) “The Treble (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treble_(association_football)#Continental_trebles)” (League, FA Cup and European Cup): 1 1998–99 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%9399_Manchester_United_F.C._season) Especially short competitions such as the Charity/Community Shield (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FA_Community_Shield), Intercontinental Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercontinental_Cup_(football)) (now defunct), FIFA Club World Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA_Club_World_Cup) or Super Cup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UEFA_Super_Cup) are not generally considered to contribute towards a Double or Treble.[163] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_United_F.C.#cite_note-162) (http://www.e-logodesign.com) custom logo design (http://www.e-logodesign.com) Comments : Leave a Comment » Categories : Red Devil

Maulidur Rasul 10 02 2011

(https://buichifukumura.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/mrasul.jpg)Maulidur Rasul (dalam bahasa Arab bermaksud kelahiran Rasul) adalah hari bersejarah keputeraan Nabi Muhammad (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabi_Muhammad). Hari ini jatuh pada hari ke-12 bulan Rabiul Awal sempena kelahiran Nabi yang jatuh pada pada Isnin ( Dari hadith riwayat Muslim, 8/25 ) 12 Rabiul Awal (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabiul_Awal) Tahun Gajah bersamaan dengan 23 April 571. Baginda adalah nabi (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabi) terakhir yang diutus oleh Allah (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allah) Subhanahu Wataala. Tapak kelahiran baginda pula kini mempunyai satu bangunan kecil yang dikenali sebagai Maulid Nabi (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maulid_Nabi). Setiap tahun pada hari itu, umat Islam (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam) di seluruh dunia akan mengadakan majlis memperingati keputeraan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w dengan mengadakan beberapa acara seperti perarakan, ceramah dan sebagainya. Banyak kelebihan dan keistimewaan yang akan dikurniakan oleh Allah Subhanahu Wataala kepada mereka yang dapat mengadakan atau menghadiri majlis Maulidur Rasul. Kita dapat lihat betapa besarnya kelebihan orang yang memuliakan majlis keputeraan Nabi Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam, kerana bila berniat sahaja hendak mengadakan Maulud Nabi, sudah pun dikira mendapat pahala (http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahala) dan dimuliakan. Sememangnya bernazar untuk melakukan sesuatu yang baik merupakan doa dan dikira amal salih. Jelas kepada kita bahawa pembalasan Allah Subhanahu Wataala terhadap kebaikan begitu cepat sehinggakan terdetik sahaja di hati hendak berbuat kebaikan, sudah Allah Subhanahu Wataala akan memberi pembalasan yang tiada ternilai. Seseorang yang beriman, kuat bersandar kepada Allah, ketika di dalam kesusahan dia tetap tenang dan hatinya hanya mengadu kepada Allah dan mengharapkan pertolongan dan kasih sayang Allah Subhanahu Wataala. Keberkatan mengadakan Majlis Maulud itu bukan sahaja didapati oleh orang yang mengadakan majlis itu, tetapi seluruh ahli rumah atau orang yang tinggal di tempat itu turut mendapat keberkatannya. (http://www.e-logodesign.com) custom logo design (http://www.e-logodesign.com) Comments : Leave a Comment » Categories : Agama

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