Chapter 26: The Origins of the Cold War Chapter Review Terms United Nations: 1. An international peacekeeping organization 2. Founded in 1945 a. Represented 50 nations 3. Purpose a. Promote world peace b. Promote security c. Promote economic development Satellite Nations: 1. A country dominated politically and economically by another. a. Much of Eastern Europe became part of the Soviet Union as satellite nations Containment: 1. A measure used to block another nation’s attempts to spread its influence to other nations Iron Curtain: 1. Term used to describe the imaginary line separating Communist Eastern block countries with Western Europe. 2. Terminology first used by Winston Churchill in 1946 Cold War: 1. A conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union a. Neither country directly confronted the other in a battle situation 2. Dominated world affairs from 1945‐1991 3. Dominated United States foreign policy between 1945‐1991 Truman Doctrine: 1. United States policy during the Truman Administration a. Presented by Truman in 1949 2. Doctrine provided economic and military aid to free countries under the threat of takeover
a. Threat by internal or external forces Stopped communism in Greece
Marshall Plan: 1. Plan was proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 a. United States would provide economic aid to help European nations rebuild following World War II. Berlin Airlift: 1. An operation where the United States and Britain flew supplies into West Berlin in 1948. a. Began when the Soviet Union blockaded the city 2. Operation lasted 327 days a. They made 277,000 flights b. Provided 2.3 tons of supplies i. Food ii. Fuel iii. Medicine North Atlantic Treaty Organization: 1. Defense military alliance formed in 1949 2. Included ten western European nations, the United States and Canada 3. Pledged military support to each other if attacked a. First peacetime military pact with Europe and the United States since the alliance with France in 1778. 4. West Germany joined in 1955 5. Provided a standing force of more than half million troops in Europe. a. Thousands of pieces of military equipment i. Planes ii. Tanks iii. Other equipment Chaing Kai‐shek: 1. Head of the Nationalist Chinese Government. 2. Led China in the Second Sino‐Japanese War a. His stature within China weakened during this time b. His international prominence grew 3. Supported by the United States between 1945‐1949 a. Received three billion dollars in military and economic aid from the United States 4. He attempted to eradicate the Chinese Communists during the Chinese Civil War
He failed, forcing his government to retreat to Taiwan i. There he continued serving as the President of the Republic of China and Director‐General of the KMT
Mao Zedong: 1. Chinese Marxist military and political leader 2. Led the Communist Party of China to victory against the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War and the People’s Republic of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. 3. Regarded as one of the most important figures in modern world history 4. Maoʹs policies are blamed by critics for causing severe damage to the culture, society, economy and foreign relations of China 5. Consolidated power over the Communist Party in 1942 a. Launched the Zheng Feng, or ʺRectificationʺ campaign against rival Communist Party of China members 6. First political campaigns were land reform and the suppression of counter‐ revolutionaries a. These were mass repressions i. Former KMT officials ii. Businessmen iii. Former employees of Western companies iv. Intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect v. Large numbers of rural gentry Taiwan: 1. Also known as Formosa 2. Governed by the Republic of China a. Located in East Asia off the coast of mainland China 3. Following World War II, Republic of China military administration on Taiwan was under Chen Yi a. Unstable and corrupt b. Seized property c. Set up government monopolies of many industries 4. Distrust due to political, cultural and linguistic differences between the Taiwanese and the Mainland Chinese 5. Chaing Kai‐shek was forced to leave China and set up residence in Taiwan 38th Parallel 1. 38th parallel was first suggested as a dividing line for Korea. 2. Following World War II parallel was established as the boundary between the Soviet (north) and American (south) occupation zones in Korea a. Parallel divided the peninsula roughly in the middle 3. In 1948, the dividing line became the boundary between the newly independent countries of North and South Korea
Korean War: 1. Occurred between June 25, 1950, and a cease‐fire on July 27, 1953 2. War fought in Korea that was divided by the post‐World War II Soviet and American occupation zones a. Began with the invasion of capitalist South Korea by forces in Communist North Korea b. Principal support on the side of the North was China i. Limited assistance by Soviet combat advisors, military pilots, and weapons c. South Korea was supported by United Nations forces i. Principally from the United States 3. The conflict ended as a stalemate between the sides in 1953 House Un‐American Activities Committee: 1. Investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives between 1938‐ 1975 a. Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities b. Held public and private hearings in six cities in 1934 2. Its work was supposed to be aimed mostly at German American involvement in Nazi and Ku Klux Klan activity 3. Committee investigated and supported allegations of a fascist plot to seize the White House a. Known as the Business Plot 4. HUAC became a standing committee in 1946 a. Began investigating Communist influence in the movie industry due to pro‐ Soviet films made during World War II i. Soviet Union was an ally of the United States during this time. b. Committee believed there was Communist propaganda placed in films. c. Subpoenaed forty‐three witness from the film industry to testify before the committee i. Many supported the committees accusation of communists having infiltrated the film industry Hollywood Ten: 1. The name given to ten unfriendly witnesses during the HUAC investigation of the film industry a. Ten were subpoenaed to appear before the committee i. Refused to testify 1. Believed the hearing was unconstitutional b. The ten were sent to prison for their refusal to testify.
Blacklist: 1. A list developed in response to the HUAC hearings of the film industry a. List was compiled by Hollywood executives i. List consisted of people in the industry who had known Communist backgrounds 1. Approximately 500 actors 2. Writers 3. Producers 4. Directors 2. This list ruined individual careers. Alger Hiss: 1. A U.S. State Department official a. Involved in the establishment of the United Nations 2. Whittaker Chambers, former Communist spy turned government informer, accused Alger Hiss of being a member of the Communist Party a. In an appearance before the House Committee on Un‐American Activities 3. Accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 a. Voluntarily appeared before HUAC to deny being a Communist b. Convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950 i. Grand jury could not indict him for espionage 1. Statute of limitations had run out 4. Hiss went to trial twice a. First trial ended in a hung jury b. Second trial jury found him guilty on two counts of perjury. 5. Verdict was upheld by the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court a. Sentenced to five years imprisonment i. Served 44 months Ethel and Julius Rosenberg: 1. Involved in a Communist spy case in 1950 a. Involvement resulted from German born physicist Klaus Fuchs implicating them in atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union. 2. Both were minor activists in the American Communist Party a. When asked of their involvement they denied any affiliation b. Also denied charges brought against them that resulted from information received from Klaus Fuchs i. When questioned pleaded the fifth amendment c. Claimed they were being persecuted i. Said this was taking place because they were Jewish ii. Said that is was taking place because of their radical beliefs 3. Both were found guilty of espionage a. Sentenced to death
Individuals from all over the world asked for clemency for the Rosenberg’s a. Premise for consideration was based on weak evidence and weak testimony during the trial i. Felt that what was presented at the trial did not warrant the death penalty Case was appealed to the Supreme Court a. Decision was a refusal to overturn the conviction Both died in the electric chair in 1953 a. They were the first civilians in the United States to be executed for espionage.
Joseph McCarthy: 1. Republican United States Senator from Appleton, Wisconsin 2. Was an anti‐communist activist 3. Earned a reputation in his first three years in the Senate as an ineffective legislator a. He realized he would need an issue to champion if he was to be reelected in 1950 b. Took the issue of Communism in American Government i. Issue played off American’s fear of Communism spreading 4. Began making unsupported accusations toward people who he claimed were Communist a. Provided no evidence to back accusations b. Claimed he had the names of Communist working in the State Department i. Truth was he did not ever have one name c. Charged the Democratic Party of being guilty of twenty years of treason i. Accused them of allowing Communism to infiltrate the government 5. Always was careful to do his name‐calling in the Senate a. Had legal immunity there i. He could not be sued for slander 6. Republicans did nothing to stop McCarthy even through they knew what he was doing was wrong. a. Believed the propaganda would win the party the Presidential election in 1952. 7. McCarthy made accusations against the army in 1954 a. The investigation was nationally televised i. Americans witnessed first hand McCarthy bulling witnesses 1. McCarthy alienated the audience and cost him support 8. Condemned by the Senate for improper conduct a. Believed McCarthy had brought dishonor to the Senate 9. Three years after Communist investigations brought on by McCarthy, he died a broken man a. Died from alcoholism H‐Bomb 1. Name given to the Hydrogen bomb a. Estimated that this bomb would have the force of one million tons of TNT. i. It is sixty‐seven times more powerful than the atomic bomb
2. The morality of creating such a weapon was argued by scientists 3. United States entered into an arms race with the Soviet Union to produce the first Hydrogen Bomb a. United States was the first to detonate i. November 1, 1952 1. Advantage lasted one year a. Soviet Union exploded their bomb in 1953 4. The world moved to thermonuclear race Brinksmanship: 1. The pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster a. Purpose is to achieve the most advantageous outcome 2. Became very important in United States foreign policy during Dwight D. Eisenhowerʹs Presidency. a. Brinkmanship was a cheap alternative to fighting actual wars 3. For brinkmanship to be effective the threats used are continuously escalate 4. Another of the policies by John Foster Dulles a. Part of the “New Look” program 5. Eisenhower combined the policy with technological innovations and massive retaliation Dwight D. Eisenhower: 1. During World War II served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe a. Responsible for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944‐45 2. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO 3. As a Republican, he was elected the 34th U.S. President a. Ended the Korean War b. Kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War c. Made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority d. Launched the Space Race 4. Announced the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957 a. Announced after the Suez Crisis b. Stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. c. Countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms d. Military action provisions of the Doctrine were applied in the Lebanon Crisis i. America intervened in response to a request by that countryʹs president. 5. Doctrine was made in response to the possibility of a generalized war a. Resulted from the Soviet Unionʹs attempt to use the Suez War as a pretext to enter Egypt John Foster Dulles:
4. 5. 6.
Served as Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959 Significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world a. Advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina As Secretary of State, Dulles spent considerable time building up NATO as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion a. Threatened massive retaliation in event of a war First major policy shifts towards a more aggressive posture against communism Directed the CIA, in March of 1953, to draft plans to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran Architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization a. Treaty was signed by representatives of the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand b. Provided for collective action against aggression Was one of the pioneers of mutual assured destruction and brinkmanship Strongly opposed the Anglo‐French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt
Central Intelligence Agency: 1. Created in 1947 with the passage of the National Security Act a. An independent agency that supports the President, the National Security Council, and all other government officials who make and execute national security policy 2. President Eisenhower relied on the CIA as an extension of U.S. foreign policy. 3. CIA directed the overthrow of what were seen as pro‐communist governments in Iran and Guatemala in 1953 and 1954 4. Flew high‐altitude U‐2 surveillance missions over communist nations to monitor missile deployment a. In 1960, the Eisenhower administration was embarrassed when the Soviet Union shot down one of the U‐2 planes and captured the pilot, who admitted to working for the CIA Warsaw Pact: 1. An organization of Central and Eastern European communist states 2. Established on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland a. To counter the alleged threat from the NATO alliance b. Prompted by the integration of a ʺre‐militarizedʺ West Germany into NATO 3. Lasted throughout the Cold War 4. Pact was divided into two branches: the Political Consultative Committee a. Coordinated all non‐military activities b. Unified Command of Pact Armed Forces i. Had authority over the troops assigned to it by member states ii. Headed by the Supreme Commander
Nikita Kruschev: 1. Was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin 2. Was First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 3. Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964 a. Removed from power by his party colleagues in 1964 4. Became Premier of the Soviet Union on March 27, 1958 a. Promoted reform of the Soviet system b. Place an emphasis on the production of consumer goods rather than on heavy industry 5. Sought to lower the burden of defense spending on the Soviet economy a. New emphasis on rocket based defense i. Soviet lead in this technology emphasized by the success of Sputnik 1 Frances G. Powers: 1. Aviator a. Flew a U‐2 high‐altitude photographic surveillance plane over Russian airspace i. Cold War espionage incident 2. Took off from a U.S. air base at Peshawar, Turkey a. Mission scheduled was codenamed Grand Slam i. Route would take it from Turkey to Soviet nuclear‐weapons facilities in the Ural Mountains various railroads, intercontinental ballistic missile sites in Siberia ii. Return trip was across northern Russia, there to photograph shipyards b. He was detected by Soviet radar while still 15 miles from the Afghan‐Soviet border c. Flew over an SA‐2 battalion soon after entering Soviet airspace d. Shot down by the Soviet Union in May 1960 i. U‐2 over‐flights violated treaty law 3. In the beginning of the incident U.S. government claimed Powers had been conducting weather research 4. Powers was convicted of espionage by the Soviet Union a. Sentenced to 10 years in prison b. Pardoned by the USSR in February of 1962 i. Sent back to America in exchange for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel Covert Actions by the United States in Latin America: 1. Covert United States involvement in Chile in the decade between 1963 and 1973 2. Central Intelligence Agency spent three million dollars in an effort to influence the outcome of the 1964 Chilean presidential elections 3. Range of clandestine activities undertaken by the CIA included: a. covert action b. clandestine intelligence collection c. liaison with local police and intelligence services d. Counterintelligence 4. CIA provides financial support to a political party; this is called ʺcovert actionʺ
Developed a paid ʺassetʺ in the party for the purpose of information gathering, the project is ʺclandestine intelligence collection.ʺ Goal of covert action is political impact
5. Covert Actions by the United States in the Middle East: 1. During the 1940s and early 1950s, U.S. leaders wanted to play an anti‐imperialist role in the Middle East a. From 1953 to 1979 in the post World War II era, control over the region was exercised primarily through U.S. influence b. Oppose continued British and French rule in the region c. Voiced support for reform movements 2. United States also opposed British proposals to overthrow the nationalist government in Iran. a. U.S. leaders also feared that the Iranian government of Prime Minister Muhammad Mossadegh was being taken over by Communist forces. i. CIA gave several million dollars to anti‐Mossadegh supporters 3. Shah of Iran acted as a Pentagon/CIA surrogate to police the region 4. U.S.‐Soviet conflict that shaped all of U.S. foreign policy a. By the mid‐1950s, U.S. leaders believed with good reason that this conflict was being extended into the Middle East b. United States saw that Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser decided to align with the Soviets 5. United States opposed their plot to overthrow Nasser during the Suez crisis Events of the Hungarian uprising: 1. Hungarian people revolted in 1956 a. Called for a democratic government 2. Imre Nagy formed a new government a. Popular liberal Communist leader b. Promised free elections c. Denounced the Warsaw Pact d. Demanded Soviet troops leave Hungary 3. Soviets responded to Nagy demands a. Soviet tanks went into Hungary in November 1956 i. Killed approximately 30,000 Hungarians b. Hungarian freedom fighters threw up barricades in the streets i. Only armed with pistols and bottles ii. Fought the Soviets with no luck 4. Soviets overthrew the Nagy government a. Replaced it with a Pro‐Soviet leader
Nagy was executed Approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled to the West.