Computer Animation CPSC 426 - UiO

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Computer Animation INF2050

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Om kurset Hva er dette kurset ikke: – matte kurs – kunst kurs

Det er – en introduksjon til Max 3D – forsøk til å forklare prinsipene av data animasjon og det som ligger bak

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

INTRODUKSJON Animate = “to give life to”

Specify, directly or indirectly, how ‘thing’ moves in time and space

Dataanimasjon inkluderer alle aspekter av bilder i bevegelsen: • • • • • • • • • • •

Programmering Modelering Animasjon Lys Rendering Post-prossesing Scripting Storyboarding Hardware Software Lyd

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

INTRODUKSJON Vi skal kune ta opp bare en del av dette. Kanskje bare • • • • •

Programmering Modelering Animasjon Lys Rendering

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

INTRODUKSJON Historien (litt mer omfatende en det vi gjorde på animasjonskvelden)

Aplikasjoner Metoder

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Methods and Techniques 2D Animation Basics – Double buffering – Interactive programs – Geometry review

Interpolation – Linear interpolation – Temporal interpolation

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Introduksjon 3D Animation Basics – Coordinates and cameras – Transformations – projections

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Introduksjon Surfaces and Lighting – – – –

Polygonal models Shading Texture mapping Roto-scoping

Procedural Animation – Procedural texturing – Animated surfaces – Flocking behavior INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Introduksjon Motion as Curves – – – – – –

Explicit vs. implicit Normals Interpolation Hermite curves Evaluators Motion paths

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Introduksjon Pragmatic Issues – Collision detection – Level-of-detail

Post-processing – – – –

Compositing Color processing Anti-aliasing Motion blur

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Short exercise: Think of a polygonal shape that is (from orthogonal views) • a circle at the bottom • a square from the front • a triangle from the side Draw it in 3D!

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Two main categories Computer-assisted animation ƒ 2D & 2 1/2 D ƒ Inbetweening ƒ Inking, virtual camera, managing data, etc

Computer generated animation ƒ Low level techniques Precisely specifying motion

ƒ High level techniques Describe general motion behavior

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Low level techniques Shape interpolation (in-betweening) Have to know what you want

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

High level techniques Generate motion with set of rules or constraints ƒ Physically based motion

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~job/Projects/SoundGen/video.html

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Abstraction From Animator colors each pixel (low level) to Tell computer to “make movie about a dog” (high level) INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation Persistence of vision: discovered about 1800s ƒ Zoetrope or “wheel of life” ƒ Flip-book

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation Camera to make lifeless things move ƒ Meleis 1890 using simple tricks ƒ Emil Cohl (1857-1938, French)

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation ƒ J. Stuart Blackton (American) Meet Thomas Edison in 1895 Combine drawing and file: “The Enchanted Drawing” Six years later: “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces Animated smoke in 1900; First animated cartoon in 1906

QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation First celebrated Animator ƒ Winsor McCay (American) Little nemo Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)

QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation First major technical development ƒ John Bray /Earl Hurd (1910) ƒ Translucent cels (short for celluloid) in compositing multiple layers ƒ Use of grey scale (as opposed to B&W) ƒ Color short in 1920

John Randolph Bray'sColonel Heeza Lair.

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation Out of Bray’s studio Max Fleischer (Betty Boop,, Popeye) ƒ Patented rotoscoping in 1915 ƒ Draing images on cells by tracing over previously recorded live action Paul Terry (Terrytoons: Mighty Mouse) George Stallings(?) Walter Lantz (Woody Woodpecker)

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Heritage of Animation Animation as an art form ƒ First animated character with personality Felix the cat by Otto Messmer (1920s)

Force to reckoned with ƒ Sound and Walt Disney

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Disney: Animation as an art form Innovations ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Story board to review story Pencil sketch to review motion Multi-plane camera stand Color (not first to use color) Sound! Steamboat Willie (1928)

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Multiplane Camera Move scene layers independently of camera

http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Club/9199/Animation/Disney_Multiplane.html

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

MGM and Warner Brothers, etc.

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Other Media Animation Computer animation is often compared to stop motion animation ƒ Puppet animation Willis O’Brian (King Kong) Ray Harryhausen (Might joe Yong, Jason and the Argonauts) INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Other Media Animation ƒ Claymation ƒ Pinhead animation ƒ Sand animation Physical object is manipulated, image captured, repeat

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Hierachy of film/animation Presentation Act Scene Shot Frame INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Short History of Computer Animation In Research labs NYIT

Still frame from Gumby animation by Hank Grebe and Dick Lundin, 1984.

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Resources (on history) Timeline from Brown Animation class ƒ Animation Timeline

America’s Story ƒ http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgibin/page.cgi/sh/animation/blcktn_2

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

In Research Labs University of Utah ƒ Films on walking and talking figure ƒ Animated hand and animated face (1972)

University of Pennsylvania ƒ Human figure animation (Norm Badler)

Cornell University ƒ architectural walk-throughs (Don Greenberg) INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

History of Computer Animation 1974: Hunger by Rene Jodoin and Peter Foldes ƒ 2.5D system, object interpolation

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Current activity Centers University of Toronto's Computer Science Department Simon-Fraser University's Graphics and Mulitmedia Research Lab Georgia Tech's Graphics Visualization and Usability Center Brown Computer Graphics Group Ohio State University's ACCAD Ohio State University's Department of Computer and Information Science George Washington University Graphics Group UC San Diego's Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of North Carolina's Computer Science Department MIT's Media Lab MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science University of Wisconsin at Madison

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Current Companies Pixar Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) Disney Xaos Rhythm & Hues Digital Domain Lamb & Company Metrolight Studios Boss Film Studios deGraf/Wahrman R/Greenberg Associates Blue Sky Productions Sony Pictures Cinesite Imageworks Apple…. .

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

Pacific Data Images (PDI)

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Animations that paved the way Pixar Luxo Jr. (1986)

ƒ first computer animation to be nominated for an Academy Award

Red's Dream (1987) Tin Toy (1988) ƒ first computer animation to win an Academy Award

Pixar - Knick Knack (1989) INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Early CG in film ƒ Future World (1976) ƒ Star Wars (1977) Lawnmower man (1992, Xaos, Angel Studios) Hollywood’s view of VR ƒ Tron (1982, MAGI) Supposed to look like a computer ƒ The Last Starfighter (1984) Use CG in place of models ƒ Willow (1988, ILM) Morphing video First digital blue screen matte extraction ƒ Howard the Duck (1986, ILM) First wire removal ƒ The Abyss (1989, ILM)

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

More early CG in film Jurassic Park (1993, ILM) ƒ Forest Gump (1994, Digital Domain) Insert CG ping pong ball

ƒ Babe (1995, Rhythm & Hues) Move mouths of animals & fill in background

ƒ Toy Story (1995, Pixar & Disney) First full length fully CG 3D animation

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Early CG on TV Reboot (1995, Limelight Ltd. BLT Productions) ƒ Similar intention of “inside computer” ƒ First fully 3D Sat. morning cartoon Babylon 5 (1995) ƒ Routinely used CG models as regular features Simpsons (1995 PDI)

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

Introduksjon

INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK

INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén

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Computer Animation CPSC 426 - UiO

Computer Animation INF2050 INSTITUTT FOR INFORMATIKK INF2050, januar 29, 2008 Alma Leora Culén Om kurset Hva er dette kurset ikke: – matte kurs – ...

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