CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

PREFACE RULES,

Xi

PRIN CIPLES, AND

IN TEGRITY:

A GENERAL IN TRO D U CTIO N

XV

WH AT RE A L L Y M A T T E R S ? ES SA YS O N V A L U E IN N A TU RE Where We Are and How We Got Here: The Roots o f Crisis Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: Guilt

3

Lynn White, Jr., The Historical Roots o f O ur Ecological Crisis

5

/. B aird C allicott, Environm ental Philosophy Is Environmental Activism: The M ost Radical and Effective Kind Shepard Krech, III, Pleistocene Extinctions

11

17

H ow ard F. Lyman with Glen Merzer, Mad Cowboy: The Cattle Rancher W ho W on't Eat Meat 2 7 M ichael Pollan, The (Agri)Cultural Contradictions o f Obesity B ill M cKibben, Deep Economy: The W ealth o f Com m unities and the D urable Future

Respect for Nature

37

42

Introduction: The Last Man and the Search for O bjective Value

42

Respect for Animals Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion P eter Singer, All Animals Are Equal

49

47

33

3

M ark Sagoff, Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Q uick Divorce

59

H olm es Rolston, III, Values in and Duties to the Natural World Ian John Whyte, The Elephant M anagement D ilem m a

66

71

Respect for Life Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion

85

C hristopher D. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural O bjects

85

Gary Varner, Biocentric Individualism Equal Respect

90

Jen n ifer Zamzow, guest editor

Questions for Reflection and D iscussion

101

Paul W. Taylor, The Ethics o f Respect for Nature David Schmidtz, Are All Species Equal?

H olistic Ethics

102

114

123

M ichael B ukoski, guest editor Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: The Land Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic

123

124

Arne Naess, The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: A Summary 129 Elliott Sober, Philosophical Problem s for Environm entalism

132

R am achandra G uha, Radical American Environm entalism and W ilderness Preservation: A Third World C ritique

Ecofem inism

145

153

D aniel Silvermint, guest editor Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: Three Models o f O ppression

153

Kristen Hessler an d Elizabeth W illott, Feminism and Ecofem inism

155

K aren J. Warren, The Power and the Prom ise o f Ecological Feminism 1 57 G reta G aard an d Lori Gruen, Ecofem inism : Toward G lobal Justice and Planetary Health 1 70 G ita Sen, W omen, Poverty, and Population: Issues for the Concerned Environm entalist

187

V. Rukm ini Rao, W omen Farmers o f India's Deccan Plateau: Ecofem inists Challenge World Elites

5

Environm ental Justice

194

202

Joh n Thrasher, guest editor Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: Justice to W in

202

Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Environm ental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy 2 0 4 Vandana Shiva, Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit

21 7

David Schmidtz, Natural Enemies: An Anatomy o f Environmental Conflict

6

220

How Wild Does Nature Have to Be?

228

Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: An Allegory John Muir, Hetch Hetchy Valley

228

230

M artin H. Krieger, W hat's W rong with Plastic Trees?

232

Elizabeth W illott, Restoring Nature, W ithout M osquitoes?

244

David Pitcher an d Jen n ifer Welchman, Can an Environm ental Paradise Be Regained? The Hetch Hetchy Valley Q uestion

7

Finding Our Place in Nature

258

265

D om inating Nature Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion Val Plumwood, Being Prey

265

266

Freya Mathews, Letting the World Grow Old: An Ethos o f C ounterm odem ity

2 71

M ichelle Nijhuis, Bonfire o f the Superweeds

280

Learning to Belong Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion

286

Ronald Sandler, Environm ental Virtue Ethics

286

Thom as E. Hill, Jr., Ideals o f Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments

291

The Sim ple Life Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion M ark Sagoff, Do We C onsum e Too Much?

3 01 3 02

Joshu a C olt G am brel an d Philip C afaro, The Virtue o f Sim plicity Paul Schwennesen, O n the Ethics o f Ranching

339

324

II

WHAT RE A L L Y W O R K S ? ES SA YS ON H U M A N E C O L O G Y

8

Weighing Our Options

349

Questions for Reflection and D iscussion: O ptim al Pollution Steven Kelm an, Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique

349

350

Andrew Brennan, Moral Pluralism and the Environm ent

357

M artha C. Nussbaum, The Costs o f Tragedy: Som e Moral Limits o f C ost-Benefit Analysis

3 70

D avid Schmidtz, A Place for Cost-Benefit Analysis

9

The Logic o f Scarcity

387

401

Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion

401

Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy o f the C om m ons David Schmidtz, The Institution o f Property

403 406

Carol M. Rose, Liberty, Property, Environm entalism

420

D an C. Shahar, Free-Market Environm entalism Pace Environm entalism

10

438

W hat It Takes to Preserve W ilderness

447

Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: South Africa

44 7

David Schmidtz, W hen Preservationism D oesn 't Preserve

449

D avid Schmidtz an d Elizabeth W illott, Reinventing the Com m ons: An African Case Study

458

Lynn Scarlett, Choices, Consequences, and Cooperative Conservation: A New Environm entalism ?

11

4 72

Overpopulation and W hat to Do About It

484

Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: The Population Bom b

4 84

Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and M orality G arrett Hardin, Living on a Lifeboat

486

4 93

H olm es Rolston, III, Feeding People Versus Saving Nature

504

Henry Shue, G lobal Environm ent and International Inequality Elizabeth W illott, Recent Population Trends

12

516

526

Climate Change and W hat to Do About It

536

D an C. Shahar, guest editor Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: Handing Down a Warmer World

536

D ale Jam ieson, Ethics, Public Policy, and G lobal Warming

538

Stephen M. Gardiner, A Perfect M oral Storm : Clim ate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem o f C orruption Andrew Light, Clim ate Ethics for Clim ate Action

54 7

557

John R. Christy, Testimony, U.S. House Ways and Means Com m ittee 5 6 7

13

Cities and W hat to Do About Them

5 70

Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Taking Scarcity Seriously

570

Jessica Woolliams, D esigning Cities and Buildings as if They Were Ethical Choices 5 72 Lynn Scarlett, Making Waste M anagement Pay

576

Robert Glennon, U nquenchable: America's Water Crisis and W hat to Do About It 5 7 9 G arland D. Cox, Energy

586

Tom Fournier, Air Pollution Abatement Strategies

14

590

Technology and W hat to Do About It 5 9 6 Scott Boocher, guest editor Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: Innovation and Risk M anagement

596

Gary Comstock, Ethics and Genetically M odified Foods

598

Paul B. Thompson and W illiam H annah, Novel and Normal Risk: Where Does N anotechnology Fit In?

609

Joshu a C olt G am brel, Virtue Theory and Genetically Modified Crops

15

622

Environm entalism in Practice

62 7

Q uestions for Reflection and D iscussion: The Ethics o f Confrontation 62 7 Bryan G. Norton, The Environm entalists' D ilem m a: D ollars and Sand D ollars

62 8

Bryan G. Norton, Fragile Freedoms Paul Watson, Tora! Tora! Tora!

63 4

639

Kate Rawles, The M issing Shade o f Green

644

Andrew Light, Taking Environm ental Ethics Public

654

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS PREFACE RULES, Xi PRIN CIPLES, AND IN TEGRITY: A GENERAL IN TRO D U CTIO N XV WH AT RE A L L Y M A T T E R S ? ES SA YS O N V A L U E ...

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