29 TRANSLATION STRATEGIES OF POLITICAL CULTURE-TERMS IN TEXTBOOK CIVIC CULTURE Zainal Arifin Study Program of Indonesian Literature and Language School of Teacher and Training Education - Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta – Indonesia Abstract The study aims to analyze and describe the translation strategies of political culture terms in the textbook Civic Culture. It used a descriptive-qualitative. The data were the terms in the textbook. The data sources consisted of informants and documents (or textbooks): Civic Culture and its Indonesian translation Budaya Politik. The data collection used a content analysis, questionnaires, and depth-interview. The data validity employed a technique of theory and data (or source) triangulation. The data analysis applied an interactive model: data reduction, data display, and conclusion/verification. Based on the data analysis of the political culture terms, the results of the study show that translating the terms of textbook Civic Culture into Indonesian language uses various translation strategies: translation by cultural substitution, translation by cultural substitution and loanword with spelling change, translation by loanword with spelling change, translation by loanword with spelling change and cultural substitution, and translation by loanword without spelling change. Keywords: translation, strategy, political culture terms A. Introduction Science and technological advance and development of the Western countries that use English as a tool for communication causes a translation activity to have ‘crystallized’ to academic life or academicians. The activity is intended to help facilitate them to understand written English texts academicians. It, nevertheless, is not an easy action. A translator should meet the qualifications that are meaningful to produce a good translation. Larson (1984) and Nababan (2003) stated that a good translation must meet three
30 criteria: accurate, clear, and natural. Likewise, Arifin (2013: 132) suggested that a good translation must meet three criteria: equivalent, readable, and acceptable. The term equivalency means that a meaning or message of target text must be equivalent to original text. Finding a meaning equivalency, however, a translator frequently faces an English term that is not used in an Indonesian language, for example. For this, it is very essential to use various translation strategies for transferring the English term into Indonesia one. The term readability refers to how a translation text is easily understood by readers. Readability means whether the text is difficult to understand or not (Tampubolon in Suladi etc., 2010: 4). The term acceptability refers to a text structure of translation work that must be based on a target language’s grammatical rule. It is very essential to particularly transfer specific words or terms that are not spoken in a target language. However, it is the criteria which can frequently not be met by a translator. It is assumed that he or she understands English grammatical structure or rule as well as Indonesian one, but he or she doesn’t understand a translation theory and a variety of translation strategies. For example, he or she can’t use one of the translation strategies for replacing a specific term that is not used in Indonesia language. Therefore, he or she should understand a translation theory and translation strategies widely before he or she translates a specific term into Indonesia term, particularly. The term translation can be seen as a placement of meaning or message in one language into another language. Catford (1965: 20) stated that translation is a replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). Machali (2000: 12) suggested that the term translation means to find an equivalency of source text material to another target language one. Larson (1984: 2) defined as follows: Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then restructuring this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context.
31 Also, for transferring a text material in one language into another language, a translator should be literate in understanding a variety of translation strategies. Widyamartaya (1989: 62-83) suggested that translation strategies that can be used by a translator for replacing a text into another text are as follows: 1) translation by loanword, 2) translation by loanword with spelling change, and 3) translation by substitution. According to Baker (1995:26-42), those used by professional translators can be stated as follows: 1) translation by a more general word (superordinate), 2) translation by a more neutral/less expressive word, 3) translation by cultural substitution, 4) translation by or loanword plus explanation, 5) translation by paraphrase using a related word, 6) translation by paraphrase using unrelated word, 7) translation by omission, and 8) translation by illustration. Muis etc (2010: 20-25) stated that a process of foreign term adoption suggest can be done as follows: 1) adoption by spelling and pronunciation adaption; 2) adoption by spelling adaption without spelling change; 3) adoption by pronunciation adaption without spelling adaptation; and 4) adoption without spelling and pronunciation adaption. B. Research Method The research aimed to analyze and describe the translation strategies of political culture terms in the textbook Civic Culture. It employed a descriptive-qualitative. The data were the political culture terms (words and phrases) in the textbook Civic Culture and its translation Budaya Politik. The data sources were the textbook Civic Culture by Gabriel A. Salmond and Sidney Verba, published by the Little, Brown and Company in 1965 and its translation Budaya Politik by Sahat Simamora, published by Bumi Aksara in 1990. The data validity used a technique of data or source triangulation and peer debriefing. The data analysis applied an interactive model: data reduction, data display, and conclusion/verification. C. Analysis and Discussion 1. Analysis Referring to the data analysis, the translation strategies used for translating the political culture terms include 1) translation by cultural substitution, 2) translation by cultural substitution and loanword with spelling change, 3) translation by loanword with spelling change, 4) translation by loanword with spelling change and
32 cultural substitution, and 5) translation by loanword without spelling change. a. Translation by cultural substitution With the translation by cultural substitution, the translator translates the English political culture terms into Indonesian language. It is employed because he can find the meanings or messages of the terms that are equivalent to the Indonesian terms. In a lingual unit, the terms may be divided into words and phrases. 1) Words The translator translates the term nations into bangsa-bangsa. The strategy causes a shift from word in English to phrase in Indonesian for difference in grammatical rules between English and Indonesian, particularly in the formation of plural nouns. In English, the plural noun is generally formed with the addition of the letter ‘s’ in the end of the word (for examples, nation’s’) whereas in Indonesia, it is formed with the repeating of the noun (for example, bangsa-bangsa). The terms culture, pluralism and freedom are translated into kebudayaan, kemajemukan and kebebasan respectively. There is no shift between English and Indonesian; all the English singular nouns do not change in Indonesian. The term citizens is replaced with warganegara-warganegara. The English word shifts to the Indonesia phrase. Also, the term rights is transmuted into hak-hak. The plural noun members is translated into the singular noun (anggota) in Indonesian. The terms legitimate, regulation, fusion and belief are replaced with absah, peraturan, penyatuan and keyakinan respectively. With the cultural substitution strategy, the translator replaces all of the words with Indonesian words. There is no shift in the translation of the terms. The terms unjust and powerless are transmuted into tidak adil and tanpa kekuatan. The prefix un- (in ‘un’just) expresses a meaning of negative (tidak) and the suffix -less also expresses a meaning of negative (tanpa) in Indonesian. It is the affixes that cause a shift from word in English to phrase in Indonesian. Similarly, the word distrust is replaced with kecurigaan. The prefix dis- lexically expresses a meaning of negative, but it doesn’t result in a shift of lingual unit in Indonesian. The term successor is translated into pengganti. The suffix -or may generally refer to (person). There is no shift in the kind of lingual unit although the English word contains the suffix ‘or.’ The
33 meaning or message equivalency of the term alienation is terasing. With the startegy, although there is the prefix ‘ter-‘ in its translation, it doesn’t result in a lingual unit; but it causes a shift in the kind of word, from noun to adjective. The equivalency of the terms official, vote, independence, power, trust and leadership are respectively translated into pejabat, dukungan, kebebasan, kekuatan, kepercayaan and kepemimpinan. With the strategy, the translator replaces all of the words with the same lingual unit as English one. It means that there is no shift in the kinds of lingual unit. Likewise, the word trust translated into kepercayaan is the same in lingual unit as English one. The term law is translated into undang-undang. There is a shift in the kind of lingual unit, from word to phrase in Indonesian. The term udang-undang is not a plural word; it is a singular word, so it means a single. The term constitutions is transmuted into UUD. The plural noun is replaced with the initials UUD, standing for Undang-Undang Dasar. The term legislatures is replaced with para senator. The word doesn’t shift in the kind of plural word. The word para means a plural in Indonesian. 2) Phrases The term human liberty is replaced with kebebasan manusia. Using the strategy causes English phrase grammatical structure to differentiate from Indonesian one. In general, English phrase structure consists of modifier + head while Indonesian one consists of head + modifier. Likewise, the terms human polity, traditional culture, civic culture and pluralistic culture are transmuted into pemerintahan yang manusiawi, kebudayaan kuno, budaya politik and kebudayaan majemuk respectively. The terms British history and United States are transferred into sejarah Inggris and Amerika Serikat. Although there is a shift in grammatical structure, writing the names of countries beginning with the capital letter ‘E’ and ‘U&S’ in ‘B’ritish and ‘U’nited ‘S’tates are the same as writing in Indonesian (‘I’ and ‘A’&’S’ in ‘I’nggris and ‘A’merika ‘S’erikat). In addition, there is a shift in the plural word States is translated into the singular word (Amerika). The terms group interests, decision makers, authority figures and municipal corporations are translated into kepentingan kelompok, pembuat keputusan, tokoh penguasa and lembaga atau unit pemerintahan kota praja respectively. The plural words as head in the phrases change in the singular noun in Indonesian. The
34 addition of the conjunction atau (or) in its translation indicates an option: lembaga ‘atau’ unit pemerintahan. Furthermore, the word municipal shifts from the word to phrase (kota praja). The terms open polity, public opinion, political influence, governmental decision and cultural development are transmuted into pemerintahan terbuka, pendapat umum, pengaruh politik, pengembangan kebudayaan and kebijakan pemerintah. The translator transferred the meanings in consideration with the grammatical structure of head and modifier. The meaning of the term history of nations is equivalent to sejarah bangsa-bangsa. With the strategy, the translator does not transfer the meaning of the word of into Indonesian. The plural noun nations means bangsa-bangsa; there is no shift in the translation of the plural noun. The punctuation hyphen (-) indicates the repeating of the same word in Indonesian. The meanings of the terms making of law, rules of law and patterns of authority are equivalent to pembuatan undang-undang, aturan undang-undang and pola kekuasaan respectively. The translator does not transfer the word of in the phrase for Indonesian grammatical structure. The word law shifts to phrase (undangundang). The phrase is not categorized as plural in Indonesian. The plural nouns patterns and rules shift to the word pola and aturan). The terms governmental officials, ordinary citizens and governmental affairs are translated into para pejabat pemerintah, orang-orang awam and urusan pemerintahan respectively. The plural nouns officials and citizens do not shift in Indonesian (para pejabat and orang-orang). In Indonesian, the word para indicates the plural meaning; the repeating of the word orang in orang-orang is categorized as plural, but the plural word (affairs) shifts to the singular word (urusan). The terms local government, fellow citizen, influential role, popular election dan royal person are transmuted into pemerintah daerah, sesama warganegara, peran penting, pemilihan umum and pribadi raja respectively. All the translations are different from their original terms in grammatical structure, but the term sesama warganegara is the same as its original term fellow citizen. The meaning of the term symbols of majesty is equivalent to simbol-simbol Sri Baginda. The noun plural (symbols) stands in its translation (lambang-lambang). The word majesty shifts to phrase
35 (Sri Baginda) and the small letter (m) changes in the capital letter (‘S’ri ‘B’anginda). The terms unjust act, civic cooperation, voluntary association, polls to vote and unjust treatment are translated into perbuatan tak adil, kerjasama warganegara, perserikatan sukarela, tempat pemungutan suara and perlakuan tak adil respectively. Each head of the phrases stands as a singular noun in Indonesian, but the word polls as head in the phrase ‘polls’ to vote change in the singular word (tempat). The term ujust local law is equivalent to ketidakadilan. The phrase changes in the word ketidakadilan. The translator does not translate it by word-for-word. The terms independent government authority, independent governmental authority, unjust legislative activity, acquiescence and submissiveness and formal election system are replaced with kekuasaan pemerintah yang bebas, kekuasaan pemerintah yang merdeka, kegiatan perundang-undangan yang tidak adil, kepatuhan tanpa pamrih dan perasaan takluk and sistem pemilihan formal. TABLE 1: Translation Strategy by Cultural Substitution 1. Words No English 1. Nations 2. Culture 3. Pluralism 4. Freedom 5. Citizens 6. Legitimate 7. Regulation 8. Unjust 9. Belief 10. Fusion 11. Official 12. Vote 13. Power 14. Independence 15. Rights 16. Law
Indonesian bangsa-bangsa Kebudayaan Kemajemukan Kebebasan Warganegara-warganegara Absah Peraturan tidak adil Keyakinan Penyatuan Pejabat Dukungan Kekuasaan Kebebasan Hak-hak Undang-undang
36 17. Powerless Tanpa kekuatan 18. Distrust Kecurigaan 19. Alienation Terasing 20. Trust Kepercayaan 21. Faith Kepercayaan 22. Successor Pengganti 23. Members Anggota 24. Leadership Kepemimpinan 25. Constitutions UUD 26. Legislatures Para senator Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik 2. Phrases No English 1. human liberty 2. humane polity 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
traditional culture civic culture Pluralistic culture British history The United States Group interests Open polity History of nations Municipal corporations
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.
Cultural development Public opinion Political influence Governmental decision Governmental officials Decision makers Ordinary citizens Local government Legislatures Fellow citizen Unjust local law Making of law
Indonesian kebebasan manusia pemerintahan yang manusiawi kebudayaan kuno budaya politik Kebudayaan majemuk Sejarah Inggris Amerika Serikat Kepentingan kelompok Pemerintahan terbuka Sejarah bangsa-bangsa Lembaga atau unit pemerintahan kota praja Pengembangan kebudayaan Pendapat umum Pengaruh politik Kebijakan pemerintah Para pejabat pemerintah Pembuat keputusan Orang-orang awam Pemerintah daerah Para senator Sesama warganegara Ketidakdilan Pembuatan undang-undang
37 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.
Subjects of law Influential role Unjust act Rules of law Independent government authority Popular election Royal person Symbols of majesty Independent governmental authority Unjust legislative activity
Subyek hokum Peran penting Perbuatan tak adil Aturan undang-undang Kekuasaan pemerintah yang bebas Pemilihan umum Pribadi raja Lambang-lambang Sri Baginda Kekuasaan pemerintah yang merdeka Kegiatan perundangundangan yang tidak adil Tempat pemungutan suara Kerjasama warganegara Perserikatan sukarela Kepatuhan tanpa pamrih dan perasaan takluk Dunia politik Sistem pemilihan formal Perlakuan tak adil Pola kekuasaan Urusan pemerintahan Tokoh penguasa Kelompok pendidikan Kekuasaan pemerintah Sifat tanggap pemerintah
Polls to vote Civic cooperation Voluntary association Acquiescence and submissiveness 38. Political realm 39. Formal election system 40. Unjust treatment 41. Patterns of authority 42. Governmental affairs 43. Authority figures 44. Educational group 45. Governmental power 46. Governmental responsiveness Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik
b. Translation by Cultural Substitution and Loanword with Spelling Change With the strategy, the translator transmutes the meaning of political culture-terms into Indonesian as well as adopts them with spelling change by referring to the Guide to Adaptation of Foreign Terms. In a lingual unit, the terms may be divided into words and phrases.
38 1) Words The term elites is translated as well as adapted into kaum elit. The letter ‘s’ is transmuted into kaum, denoting the plural word while the plural noun elite is adapted by deleting the letter ‘e’ in its translation. With the strategy, the word’s meaning stands in its translation as plural, but the term shift to phrase in Indonesian. As a plural noun, the term norms is translated as well as adapted into norma-norma. The repeating of the word nomina with the hyphen (-) can denote plural; the term is adopted with the addition of the letter ‘a’ in the end of the word. 2) Phrases The term political culture is equivalent in meaning to kebudayaan politik. The word culture is translated into kebudayaan while the political is really not transmuted but adopted into politik in Indonesian. Additionally, the term political science is equivalent to ilmu politik. The translator only replaces the science ilmu and the adjective political is adopted into Indonesian with spelling change. With the strategy, the phrase structure of the terms shifts from modifier + head into head + modifier. The terms social attitudes, social relations, social values, social groups, social issues and social trust are replaced with tingkah laku sosial, hubungan sosial, nilai-nilai sosial, kelompok sosial, masalahmasalah sosial and kepercayaan sosial. However, the plural nouns shift to the singular ones while the word trust stand as singular in Indonesian. Also, the grammatical structure of the phrases is different from Indonesian one: from modifier + head to head + modifier. The term democratic attitudes is replaced with tingkah laku politik yang demokratis. Furthermore, the word democratic is not translated but adopted into demokratis. The plural noun attitudes shift to the singular word and the phrase (tingkah laku). Likewise, the term democratic promise is translated as well as adopted into janji demokrasi. The term political culture of participation is translated as well as adapted to kebudayaan politik dalam partisipasi. The term democratic model of the participatory state is equivalent in meaning to model negara demokrasi yang partisipatif. The words democratic and participatory are adopted with spelling change. The term western democratic states is replaced with negara-negara
39 demokratis barat. The plural noun states stands as plural in Indonesian (negara-negara) while the word democratic is adopted with spelling change. The term nuance of civic culture is equivalent to nuansa kebudayaan politik. The word nuance is adopted with spelling change while the phrase civic culture is equivalent to kebudayaan politik. The term authoritarian form of polity is transferred as well as adopted into bentuk pemerintahan yang otoriter. The phrase form of polity is transferred into bentuk pemerintahan while authoritarian is adopted into otoriter. The term parliamentary supremacy and representation is replaced with supremasi dan perwakilan parlementer. The word representation is translated into perwakilan while the phrase parliamentary supremacy is adopted in Indonesian with spelling change. The term traditional aristocratic and monarchic forces is equivalent in meaning to kekuatan aristokratik tradisional dan monarkis. The word forces as plural noun shifts to kekuatan as singular one. The term traditional aristocratic and monarchic is adopted with spelling change (aristokrasi dan monarki tradisional). The term culture of consensus and diversity is transferred as well as adopted into budaya konsensus dan diversitas. The word culture is equivalent in meaning to budaya while the phrase consensus and diversity is adopted into Indonesian. The term culture of political accommodation is replaced with kebudayaan politik yang akomodatif. The word culture is translated into kebudayaan while phrase political accommodation is adopted with spelling change into politik yang akomodatif. The term diffusion of democratic political culture is transferred as well as adopted into difusi kebudayaan politik yang demokratis. The translator transmutes the word culture into kebudayaan while diffusion, political and democratic are adopted into difusi, politik and demokratis respectively. The term personality characteristics of the “democrat” is translated as well as adopted into ciri-ciri personalitas kaum demokrat. The word characteristics is equivalent in meaning to ciri-ciri while democrat and personality are adopted with the addition of the word ‘kaum’ demokrat and personalitas. The term political attitudes and feelings is translated as well as adopted into sikap dan perasaan politik. Nomina The plural nouns attitudes and feelings shift to the singular ones: sikap and perasaan. The term properties of democratic culture is translated as well as adopted into sifat-sifat kebudayaan demokratis. The plural noun
40 properties as head of the phrase stands as the plural one in Indonesian. The terms political socialization experience is replaced with pengalaman sosialisasi politik. The translator transfers the experience into pengalaman while the other words are adopted into Indonesian with spelling change. The term parochial political culture and subject political culture are replaced with and adopted into kebudayaan politik parochial and kebudayaan politik subyek. The term general political system is equivalent in meaning to sistem politik secara umum. As an adjective, the word general shifts to adverb (secara umum). The term participant political culture is replaced with kebudayaan politik partisipan. The term cultural heterogeneity or cultural mix is equivalent in meaning to heterogenitas atau campuran kebudayaan. The word mix of the phrase is translated into campuran. The term congruent political culture is replaced with kebudayaan politik yang harmonis. The word congruent is transmuted into harmonis. The term systematically mixed political culture is transferred into kebudayaan politik campuran yang sistematis. The term allegation toward complex political system is equivalent in meaning to kesetiaan terhadap sistem politik. The term central government structrures is transmuted into struktur-struktur pemerintah pusat. The terms“high” political culture, performance of political system and Prussian state authority are transmuted into kebudayaan politik yang “berwibawa,” penampilan sistem politik and pemerintahan negara Prusia respectively. In relation to the three terms, the translation transfers as well as adopt into Indonesian. The term American and British population is replaced with orang-orang Amerika dan Inggris. The capital letters ‘A’ in ‘A’merican and ‘B’ in ‘B’ritish stand in the target language (‘A’merika and ‘I’nggris) while the singular noun (population) shifts to the plural one (orang-orang). The term national government is replaced with pemerintahan nasional. The word national is adopted into nasional while the word government is translated into pemerintahan. The terms modern political societies and associational interest groups are translated and adopted into masyarakat politik modern dan kelompok kepentingan asosiasional respectively. The plural noun societies and groups shift to the singular noun (masyarakat and kelompok). The term informal group strategy is transferred as well as adopted into strategi kelompok informal. The word informal is adopted into the target language without spelling change. The term
41 cooperative political behavior is replaced with tingkah laku politik kooperatif. The word behavior shifts to phrase (tingkah laku) in Indonesian. The term informal group membership is replaced with keanggotaan kelompok informal. The term structure and power of respective local council is equivalent in meaning to struktur dan kekuatan dewan perwakilan lokal. The words power and council are transferred into kekuatan and dewan perwakilan. The term unjust local regulation is equivalent to ketidakadilan peraturan lokal. The word unjust (as adjective) shifts to the noun (ketidakadilan) in the target language. The term American political history and political history of Germany are translated as well as adopted into sejarah politik Amerika and sejarah politik Jerman. The word history is replaced with sejarah. The terms traditional political powers, long-term political stability, democratic values and formal democratic rules are translated as well as adopted into kekuatan-kekuatan politik tradisional, stabilitas politik jangka panjang, nilai-nilai demokrasi and aturan-aturan demokrasi formal. The terms feelings toward nations and politics, social and religious morality and democratic governmental institutions are transferred into perasaan terhadap bangsa dan politik, moralitas sosial dan keagamaan and lembaga pemerintah yang demokratis. TABLE 2: Translation Strategy by Cultural Substitution and Loanword with Spelling Change 1. Words No English Indonesian 1. Elites kaum elit 2. Elites Para elit 3. Norms Norma-norma Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik 2. Phrases No English 1. political culture 2. political science 3. democratic attitudes 4.
Indonesian kebudayaan politik Ilmu politik tingkah laku politik yang demokratis tingkah laku politik
42 5. 6. 7.
social attitudes democratic promise political culture of participation 8. democratic model of the participatory state 9. elective legislature 10. Western democratic states 11. nuance of civic culture 12. authoritarian form of polity 13. autocratic polity 14. Independent aristocrats 15. local power 16. Parliamentary supremacy and representation 17. traditional aristocratic and monarchic forces 18. Culture of consensus and diversity 19. Culture of political accommodation 20. Diffusion of democratic culture 21. Democratic institutions 22. Political experience 23. personality characteristics of the “democrat” 24. Culture of democracy 25. Political attitude and feelings 26. Properties of democratic culture 27. Psychocultural approach 28. Economic culture 29. Religious culture 30. Culture conflict
tingkah laku sosial Janji demokrasi Kebudayaan politik dalam partisipasi model negara demokrasi yang partisipatif dewan legsilatif yang dipilih negara-negara demokratis barat nuansa kebudayaan politik bentuk pemerintahan yang otoriter pemerintahan yang otokratis Aristocrat independen Kekuatan lokal supremasi dan perwakilan parlementer Kekuatan aristokratik tradisional dan monarkis budaya konsensus dan diversitas Kebudayaan politik yang akomodatif Difusi kebudayaan politik yang demokratis Pranata demokrasi Pengalaman politik Ciri-ciri personalitas kaum demokrat Kebudayaan demokrasi Sikap dan perasaan politik Sifat-sifat kebudayaan demokratis Pendekatan psikokultur Kebudayaan ekonomi Kebudayaan religius Konflik kebudayaan
43 31. Political science 32. Political socialization experience 33. General political system 34. Legislative bodies 35. Parochial political culture 36. Subject political culture 37. Participant political culture 38. Cultural heterogeneity or cultural mix 39. Congruent political culture 40. Systematically mixed political culture 41. Allegation toward complex political system 42. Central government structures 43. Centralized authority 44. “High” political culture 45. Performance of political system 46. Prussian state authority 47. Political subculture 48. Subcultural cleavage 49. Democratic citizen 50. Local and national competence 51. American and British population 52. National government 53. Modern political societies 54. Associational interest groups 55. Cooperative political
Ilmu politik Pengalaman sosialisasi politik sistem politik secara umum Badan legislatif Kebudayaan politik parokial Kebudayaan politik subyek Kebudayaan politik partisipan Heterogenitas atau campuran kebudayaan Kebudayaan politik yang harmonis Kebudayaan politik campuran yang sistematis Kesetiaan terhadap sistem politik Struktur-struktur pemerintah pusat Pemerintah sentralisasi Kebudayaan politik yang “berwibawa” Penampilan sistem politik Pemerintahan Negara Prusia Sub kebudayaan politik Perpecahan sub-“s”ultutal Warganegara yang demokratis Kompetensi lokal dan nasional Orang-orang Amerika dan Inggris Pemerintahan nasional Masyarakat politik modern Kelompok kepentingan asosiasional Tingkah laku politik
56. 57. 58. 59.
behavior Informal group strategy Public criticism Assimilation of community Informal group membership
60. Social values 61. Structure and power of respective local council 62. Means to protest 63. Individual action 64. Official bureaucracy 65. Unjust local regulation 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.
Political channels National legislature Structure of politics Political skill Social groups Subjective competence Educational group Political strategy Political consideration American political history Political pressure Political machine Legislative decisions Social legislation Revolutionary tradition Political development Administrative officials Political history of Germany System of courts Traditional political powers
86. Long-term political stability 87. Democratic values 88. Formal democratic rules
kooperatif Strategi kelompok informal Kritikan publik Asimilasi masyarakat Keanggotaan kelompok informal Nilai-nilai sosial Struktur dan kekuatan dewan perwakilan lokal Sarana protes Aksi individu Pejabat birokrasi Ketidakadilan peraturan lokal Saluran politik Undang-undang nasional Struktur politik Keahlian politik Kelompok sosial Kompetensi subyektif Kelompok pendidikan Strategi politik Pertimbangan politik Sejarah politik Amerika Tekanan politik Mesin politik Keputusan legislatif Pengaturan sosial Tradisi revolusioner Pembangunan politik Pejabat administratif Sejarah politik Jerman Sistem peradilan Kekuatan-kekuatan politik tradidional Stabilitas politik jangka panjang Nilai-nilai demokrasi Aturan-aturan demokrasi
89. Election campaign 90. Social relations 91. Political qualities and attitudes 92. Stable democracies 93. Character qualities 94. Social trust 95. Political cooperation 96. Political affairs 97. Aspirational democracy 98. Freedom to communicate 99. Political communication network 100. Political stress 101. Political dispute 102. Political content 103. Voluntary association membership 104. Organizational members 105. Active and passive membership 106. Political sphere 107. Incumbent elites 108. Political role 109. Political effect 110. Political decisions 111. Authority hierarchy 112. Government and politics 113. Demographic groups 114. Traumatic political history 115. Political movement 116. Political opponent 117. Political responsibility 118. Political awareness 119. Political obligation 120. Political campaigns 121. Feelings toward Nations and Politics
formal Kampanye pemilihan Hubungan sosial Kualitas dan sikap politik Demokrasi yang stabil Kualitas kepribadian Kepercayaan sosial Kerjasama politik Urusan politik Demokrasi aspirasi Kebebasan berkomunikasi Jaringan komunikasi politik Ketegangan politik Perdebatan politik Bobot politik Keanggotaan peserikatan sukarela Organisasi politik Keanggotan aktif dan pasif Suasana politik Elite yang berwewenang Peranan politik Pengaruh politik Keputusan politik Hirarki kekuasaan Pemerintahan dan politik Kelompok demografis Sejarah politik traumatis Gerakan politik Lawan politik Tanggung jawab politik Kesadaran politik Kewajiban politik Kampanye politik Perasaan terhadap bangsa dan politik
46 122. Social and religious morality 123. Governmental power 124. Governmental responsiveness 125. National government 126. Political life 127. Political decision makers
Moralitas sosial dan keagamaan Kekuasaan pemerintah Sifat tanggap pemerintah
Pemerintah nasional Kehidupan politik Para pembuat keputusan politik 128. Democratic governmental Lembaga pemerintah yang institutions demokratis 129. Social issues Masalah-masalah sosial 130. Political institution Lembaga politik 131. subjects of law Subyek hukum 132. Political realm Dunia politik 133. democratic political powers kekuatan politik demokratis 134. infrastructure of the infrastruktur pemerintahan democratic polity demokratis 135. Destructive of traditions Perusakan tradisi 136. Authoritarian governmental Struktur pemerintahan structure otoritarian 137. Democratic interludes Perselang-selingan demokrasi 138. Administrative officials Para pejabat adminsitratif 139. Adherence to the rules of Dukungan terhadap administrative procedures prosedur peraturan administratif Sources: Textbooks - Civic Culture and Budaya Politik c. Translation by Loanword with Spelling Change With the strategy of translation by loanword with spelling change, the translator adopts the political culture terms into Indonesian with spelling change. In a lingual unit, the terms may be divided into words and phrases. 1) Words The terms democracy, modernization, traditionalism, coalition, rationalism, parliamentarism and consensualism are adopted into demokrasi, modernisasi, traditionalisme, koalisi, rasionalisme,
47 parlementarisme and konsensualisme respectively. With the spelling change, the translator adopts these terms socialization, acculturation, patriotism, parochial, dynasty, activist, paternalism, moderate, organization, democratization and conflict into sosialisasi, akulturasi, patriotisme, parokial, dinasti, aktivis, paternalistik, moderat, organisasi, demokratisasi and konflik. Likewise, the translator adopts the terms executives, bureaucracies and monarchs into eksekutif, birokrasi and monarki respectively. 2) Phrases The political culture-terms stable democratic process, political participation, social structure, European democracy and formal institutions of democracy are replaced with proses demokrasi yang stabil, partisipasi politik, struktur sosial, demokrasi Eropa and institusi demokrasi formal. The terms authoritarian bureaucracy, independent aristocrats, parliamentary traditions, Era of absolutism and neutral media of communication are adopted into birokrasi otoriter, aristocrat independen, tradisi parlemen, era absolutisme and media komunikasi netral respectively. Additionally, the translator adopts the terms political acculturative processes, dimension of political orientation and political and administrative structures and processes into prosesproses akulturasi politik, dimensi orientasi politik and struktur dan proses politik dan administrative in Indonesian. Istilah-istilah budaya politik seperti centralized authoritarian structure, individual political psychology dan defensive political infrastructure diserap menjadi struktur otoritarian yang sentralistis, psikologi politik individu dan infrastruktur politik yang defensif. The terms opposition party, political fragmentation and opposite affiliation are replaced with partai oposisi, fragmentasi politik and afiliasi politik. The translator adopts the terms political perspective, social classes and political subculture into perspektif politik, kelas-kelas politik and subkultur politik. Also, the translator adopts the political culture-terms political cognition, party preference, social status, individual action, political strategy and national identity into menjadi kognisi politik, preferensi politik, status sosial, aksi individu, strategi politik and identitas nasional respectively.
48 TABLE 3: Translation Strategy by Loanword with Spelling Change 1. Words No English Indonesian 1.
Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik
49 2. Phrases No English 1. stable democratic process 2. political participation 3. social structure 4. European democracy 5. political system 6. formal institutions of democracy 7. political party 8. political elites 9. democratic political powers 10. authoritarian bureaucracy 11. Independent aristocrats 12. parliamentary traditions 13. Era of absolutism 14. neutral media of communication 15. Democratic optimism 16. Democratic mechanism 17. Democratic ideology 18. Democratic qualities 19. Democratic in structure 20. Contemporary democracy 21. Political socialization 22. Culture-personality 23. Political phenomena 24. socialization 25. Political acculturative processes 26. Political objects 27. Political orientations 28. Dimension of political orientation 29. Political and administrative structures and processes 30. Cognitive orientation 31. Affective orientation
Indonesian proses demokrasi yang stabil partisipasi politik struktur sosial demokrasi Eropa sistem politik institusi demokrasi formal partai politik elit politik kekuatan politik demokratis birokrasi otoriter Aristocrat independen Tradisi parlemen Era absolutism Media komunikasi netral optimism demokratis Mekanisme demokrasi Ideologi demokratis Kualitis demokratis Struktur demokratis Demokrasi kontemporer Sosialisasi politik Personalitas kultur Fenomena politik sosialisasi Proses-proses akulturasi politik Obyek-objek politik orientasi politik Dimensi orientasi politik Struktur dan proses politik dan administratif Orientasi kognitif Orientasi afektif
50 32. Evaluative orientation 33. Centralized authoritarian structure 34. Prussian absolutism 35. Local authorities 36. Democratic infrastructure 37. Authoritarian governmental structure 38. Infrastructure of parties 39. Democratic interludes 40. Defensive political infrastructure 41. Authoritarian regime 42. Political activity 43. Micro- and macropolitics 44. Individual political psychology 45. Politically competent 46. Informal association 47. Political competence 48. Administrative competence 49. American republic 50. Opposition party 51. Opposite affiliation 52. Political fragmentation 53. Democratic infrastructure 54. Social organization 55. Political perspective 56. Political socialization 57. Secondary structures of politics 58. Social or political characteristics 59. Secondary political system 60. Social classes 61. Nonpolitical participation 62. Subjective political competence
Orientasi evaluatif Struktur otoritarian yang sentralistis absolutisme Prusia Kekuasaan-kekuasaan lokal Infrastruktur demokratis Struktur pemerintahan otoritarian Infratruktur partai-partai Perselang-selingan demokrasi Infrastruktur politik yang defensif Rejim otoriter Aktivitas politik Mikro dan makro politik Psikologi politik individu Secara politis berkompeten Asosiasi informal Kompetensi politik Kompetensi administratif Republik Amerika Partai oposisi Afiliasi oposan Fragmentasi politik Infrastruktur demokratis Organisasi sosial Perspektif politik Sosialisasi politik Struktur sekunder politik Karakteristik sosial atau politik Sistem politik sekunder Kelas-kelas sosial Partisipasi nonpolitik Kompetensi politik subyektif
51 63. Social factor Faktor sosial 64. Democratic political Orientassi politik demokratis orientation 65. Political subculture Subkultur politik 66. Contemporary Rezim konstitusional dan constitutional and demografis kontemporer demographic regime 67. Political communication Proses komunikasi politik process 68. Political cognition Kognisi politik 69. Party preference Preferensi partai 70. Social status status social 71. Stable and effective Demokrasi yang stabil dan democracy efektif 72. Political party system Sistem partai politik 73. Democratic political Sistem politik demokrasi system 74. Politics of opportunism Politik oportunisme 75. Stable and effective Proses politik demokratis democratic political yang stabil dan efektif process 76. Political socialization Sosialisasi politik 77. National identity Identitas nasional 78. Local and national Kompetensi lokal dan competence nasional 79. Individual action Aksi individu 80. Structure of politics Struktur politik 81. Subjective competence Kompetensi subyektif 82. Political strategy Strategi politik Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik d. Translation by Loanword with Spelling Change and Cultural Substitution With the strategy, the translator adopts as well as transfers the political culture-term into Indonesian. The terms can be divided into words and phrases.
52 1) Words The term allegiance is adopted into allegiance without spelling change. With the strategy, the translator also translates it into (kesetiaan). It means that the translator writes both its original term and translation. Likewise, the translator replaces apathy and alienation into apathy (apati/kelesuan) dan alienation (pengasingan). 2) Phrases The word civic virtue is adopted as well as translated “civic virtue” (kebijakan politik). Additionally, the terms parochial-subject culture, subject-participant culture and parochial-participant culture are adopted as well translated into parochial-subject culture (kebudayaan subyek parokial), subject-participant culture (kebudayaan partisipan subyek) dan parochial-participant culture (kebudayaan partisipan parokial). The translator writes both its original term and translation in Indonesian. TABLE 4: Translation Strategy by loanword with spelling change and cultural substitution 1. Words No English Indonesian 1. Allegiance Allegiance (kesetiaan) 2. Apathy Apathy (apati/kelesuan) 3. Alienation Alienation (pengasingan) Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik 2. Phrases No Bahasa Inggris Bahasa Indonesia 1. Civic Virtue “Civic Virtue” (kebijakan politik) 2. Parochial-subject Parochial-subject culture culture (kebudayaan subyek parokial) 3. Subject-participant Subject-participant culture culture (kebudayaan partisipan subyek) 4. Parochial-participant Parochial-participant culture culture (kebudayaan partisipan parokial) Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik
e. Translation by Loanword without Spelling Change With the strategy of translation by loanword without spelling change, the translator adopts the political culture-terms without spelling change. The terms can be divided into words and phrases. 1) Words The terms legislator and administrator are adopted into Indonesia. The translator does not change them at all in Indonesian. 2) Phrases The terms Ottoman Empire, Political citizenship and Human relations are adopted in Indonesian. The translator writes them in the translation just as their original term. TABLE 5: Translation by Loanword without Spelling Change 1. Words No English Indonesian 1 Legislator Legislator 2 Administrator Administrator Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik 2. Phrases No English Indonesian 1 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire 2 Political citizenship Political citizenship 3 Human relations “Human relations” Source: Textbooks- Civic Culture and Budaya Politik
2. Discussion Transferring a message or meaning of a source text into another text gets more increased attention to linguistics, particularly translation linguistics. It is due to the replacement of the message to cause a cultural gap between a source and target language. It is the gap or difference that makes a translator take a difficulty of finding a message or meaning of a text in another text. For the problem, it is very necessary to use various translation strategies for transferring a message or meaning of a text into
54 another in consideration with its equivalence, readability, and acceptability. The three criteria must be met to produce a good translation. A good translation work, in other words, must include the criteria of equivalence, readability, and acceptability. More particularly, some translation strategies that should be used for replacing a term of certain field in another term are 1) translation by loanword without spelling change,2) translation by loanword with the adaption to a target language’s spelling of word, and 3) translation by cultural substitution, among others. Based on the analysis above, the translation strategies that are used by the translator for replacing the English political culture-terms in textbook entitled Civic Culture with the Indonesian terms include: 1) translation by cultural substitution, 2) translation by cultural substitution and loanword with spelling change, 3) translation by loanword with spelling change, 4) translation by loanword with spelling change and cultural substitution, and 5) translation by loanword without spelling change. With the strategy of translation by cultural substitution, the translator translates the political culture-term into Indonesian. The terms own their meaning equivalency in Indonesia; and he could find the messages or meanings equivalent to their original terms. It is relevant to the results of the research by Arifin (2013), stating that the translator could use a cultural substitution strategy for translating the specific culture-terms into Indonesian. The strategy of translation by cultural substitution and loanword with spelling change means that the translator transfers as well as adopts the political culture-terms into Indonesian ones by referring to the rules of a foreign word adoption. He transfers the terms into Indonesian ones because they own their messages or meanings equivalent to Indonesian ones. Also, he adopts them with spelling change. It is consistent with the result of the research by Arifin (2012), showing that transferring the midwifery terms of the phrases could use a strategy of translation by cultural substitution and loanword with spelling change. Additionally, the other results of the research by Arifin (2013) indicate that transmuting the specificculture terms of the phrases could employs a strategy of translation by cultural substitution and adoption of the terms with spelling change. A strategy of translation by loanword with spelling change means that the translator does not translate the political culture-
55 terms but only adopts the terms into Indonesian with spelling change because they do not own their meaning equivalence in the target language. Widyamartaya (1989: 62-83) suggested that a translation strategy by adoption with spelling change could be employed so that the terms of the target language can be compared with their original terms. A translation strategy by loanword with spelling change and cultural substitution means that the translator adopts the political culture-terms as well as translates them into Indonesian. With the strategy, they do not only change in Indonesian ones but also translates them. Baker (1995: 26-42) suggested one of the translation strategies with translation by loanword plus explanation. Finally, a translation strategy by loanword without spelling refers to the adoption of the political culture-terms without spelling change in Indonesian. Muis et al. (2010: 20-25) stated a process of foreign word adoption without spelling change.
D. Conclusion and Suggestion 1. Conclusion Translation is a process of transferring a message or meaning of text material in another language. It is the message or meaning that must be emphasized by a translator because it tries to find it in another language. A transfer of message or meaning of the political culture-terms in textbook Civic Culture is part of the translation activity. To actualize the activity, the translator can use five strategies for producing a good translation work of the three criteria: equivalency, readability, and acceptability. However, it is very essential to apply the most appropriate strategy which can result in a translation with the criteria. It indicates that the translator must transfer a term into another language more accurately in consideration with them so that a reader will not take a problem of understanding its meaning. 2. Suggestion Translation a political culture-term frequently causes a problem of equivalency, readability, and acceptability. It is due to the non-equivalency of it in Indonesian as a target language. For answering to the problem, the translator can employ some
56 translation strategies which should greatly help preserve and keep Indonesian existence. References A. Almond, Gabriel & Sydney Verba. 1965. Civic Culture. The United States: Little, Brown & Company (Canada) Limited. Arifin, Zainal. 2012. Analisis Terjemahan Istilah-Istilah Kebidanan oleh Mahasiswa Prodi Kebidanan Akademi Bhakti Mulia Sukoharjo. Surakarta: LPPM UMS. Arifin, zainal. 2013. Translation Strategies of Culture-Specific Terms. Surakarta: Jurnal Sastra dan Bahasa STAIN Surakarta, Vol. 11 No. 2 September 2013. Baker, Mona. 1995. In Other Words: a course on book translation. Routledge: London Catford, J.C. 1974. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Larson, Mildred A. 1984. Meaning Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalent. New York: University Press of America. Machali, Rochayah. 2000. Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah. Jakarta: PT Grasindo. Muis, Muhammad. 2010. Perluasan Makna Kata dan Istilah Bahasa dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa Pendidikan Nasional. Nababan, Rudolf M. 2003. Translators and Development of Translation Competence. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret. Sahat Simamora. 1990. Budaya Politik, the second print. Terjemahan: CIVIC CULTURE. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Suladi, Wiwiek Dwi Astuti dan K. Biskoyo. 2010. Keterbacaan Kalimat Bahasa Indonesia dalam Buku Pelajaran SLTP. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan nasional. Widyamartaya, A. 1989. Seni Menerjemahkan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.