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Toolkit

LiRe2.0 Lifelong Readers 2.0

Table of Contents LiRe2.0 Toolkit Introduction ...................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 1. Introduction to Effective Reading Promotion to Children, Teenagers, and Adults. 8 Executive Summary of Research Completed ......................................................................... 8 Introduction to Research Completed ................................................................................... 13 Results of Research Completed on Transnational Literacy Levels ....................................... 14 Ireland ............................................................................................................................... 14 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................... 21 Portugal ............................................................................................................................. 27 Romania ............................................................................................................................ 33 Greece ............................................................................................................................... 36 Italy.................................................................................................................................... 39 Reading habits and interests of young people ................................................................. 43 Ireland ............................................................................................................................... 43 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................... 47 Portugal ............................................................................................................................. 48 Romania ............................................................................................................................ 51 Greece ............................................................................................................................... 53 Italy.................................................................................................................................... 56 Types of texts that interest young people and modes of reading ................................... 57 Ireland ............................................................................................................................... 57 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................... 60 Portugal ............................................................................................................................. 60 Romania ............................................................................................................................ 62 Greece ............................................................................................................................... 63 Italy.................................................................................................................................... 65 Chapter 2. Guidelines for Successful Reading Promotion through the use of ICT. ................. 67 Strategies for promoting reading. ........................................................................................ 67 Ireland ............................................................................................................................... 67 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................... 71 Portugal ............................................................................................................................. 73 1

Romania ............................................................................................................................ 78 Greece ............................................................................................................................... 83 Italy.................................................................................................................................... 88 Challenges involved in promoting reading through ICT ....................................................... 95 Ireland ............................................................................................................................... 95 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................... 97 Portugal ............................................................................................................................. 99 Romania .......................................................................................................................... 100 Greece ............................................................................................................................. 101 Italy.................................................................................................................................. 102 Review of national curricula ............................................................................................... 104 Ireland ............................................................................................................................. 104 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................. 117 Portugal ........................................................................................................................... 117 Romania .......................................................................................................................... 125 Greece ............................................................................................................................. 129 Italy.................................................................................................................................. 132 Focus Group Findings: Teachers ......................................................................................... 133 References .......................................................................................................................... 134 Ireland ............................................................................................................................. 134 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................. 136 Portugal ........................................................................................................................... 140 Romania .......................................................................................................................... 141 Greece ............................................................................................................................. 143 Italy.................................................................................................................................. 147 Sitography........................................................................................................................... 151 Chapter 3. Review of Digital Tools that may Support Reading Promotion. .......................... 153 Web 2.0 Tools Description and Features ........................................................................... 153 Goodreads ....................................................................................................................... 153 PocketBook Touch HD (E-Reader)................................................................................... 157 Kahoot ............................................................................................................................. 159 2

Tablets ............................................................................................................................. 162 Seesaw ............................................................................................................................ 165 StoryJumper .................................................................................................................... 168 Lino .................................................................................................................................. 171 Story Board that .............................................................................................................. 173 Studyblue ........................................................................................................................ 175 Prezi................................................................................................................................. 177 Padlet .............................................................................................................................. 179 ToonDoo.......................................................................................................................... 182 Other Identified Tools: ....................................................................................................... 185 Chapter 4. Ideas, Actions and Activities for Incorporating ICT in Reading Promotion .......... 192 Collected Best Practices ..................................................................................................... 192 Rationale for Best Practice Report ..................................................................................... 193 Overview on the collected Best Practices .......................................................................... 194 Approaches and innovative methods to promote reading, identified in the reviewed programs, projects and reports.......................................................................................... 194 Best practices to promote reading and writing ................................................................. 199 Ireland ............................................................................................................................. 199 Cyprus ............................................................................................................................. 213 Portugal ........................................................................................................................... 225 Romania .......................................................................................................................... 234 Greece ............................................................................................................................. 238 Italy.................................................................................................................................. 249 Chapter 5. Resources for Reading Promotion ....................................................................... 256 Lesson Plans using Web 2.0................................................................................................ 256 Lino .................................................................................................................................. 256 Story Board That ............................................................................................................. 262 Goodreads ....................................................................................................................... 266 Prezi................................................................................................................................. 272 StudyBlue ........................................................................................................................ 276 Tablets ............................................................................................................................. 280 3

Podcast ............................................................................................................................ 283 Kahoot ............................................................................................................................. 286 Kahoot Part 2 .................................................................................................................. 289 Seesaw ............................................................................................................................ 293 E-Readers ........................................................................................................................ 296 StoryJumper .................................................................................................................... 299 ToonDoo.......................................................................................................................... 304 Padlet .............................................................................................................................. 309 Identified Best Practice: Programs ..................................................................................... 316 Identified Best Practice: Projects ....................................................................................... 344 Identified Best Practice: Reports ........................................................................................ 370 Identified Best Practices to Promote Reading and Writing ............................................... 381 Self -Assessment Evaluation Plan - Whole school reading promotion through ICT .......... 419 Self-Assessment Evaluation Plan - Areas identified for improvement for effective use ICT for reading promotion: ....................................................................................................... 425 LiRe2.0 Toolkit Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 426

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LiRe2.0 Toolkit Introduction This is one of the most important products of the LiRe2.0 project. The Toolkit is a combination of all completed outputs and activities within the LiRe2.0 project. The Toolkit aims to inspire, guide, and facilitate the creation of reading cultures and communities among pre-teens and teenagers, university students, and working adults, through the use of Web 2.0 technologies and other forms of digital/social reading and “book-talking.” The final toolkit is produced in an interactive format and is freely available online. Having assessed what is currently available and what is needed by users in order to promote reading through the use of ICT, the Toolkit provides and demonstrates practical and innovative use of ICTbased educational practices and resources. The Toolkit can be used in order to play a significant role in enhancing people’s reading attitudes, reading engagement, and reading skills; especially in the case of disengaged or reluctant readers and marginalized learners. In order to localize the Toolkit a shortened version has been adapted and translated in Greek, Romanian, Portuguese and Italian and includes the most important key findings and resources. The full and complete Toolkit can be found in English and includes the following chapters: Introduction to Effective Reading Promotion to Children, Teenagers, and Adults This section of the Toolkit examines in depth research completed in Ireland, Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Romania and Italy on national literacy levels, reading habits and interests of young people and the different types of texts that interest young people and modes of reading. Each section is broken down per country to order to give a brief overview of the findings from each particular country. This critical review completed through completed through desk and field based research enabled partners to gather all available know-how regarding effective reading promotion to students aged 10-18, with an emphasis on reluctant and/or struggling readers which has formed the basis of what was needed by users of the Toolkit. This chapter of the Toolkit is useful and relevant for all users seeking to gain information and awareness in relation to existing methods used in the EU to promote reading and increase the motivation for reading of children and teenagers. Guidelines for Successful Reading Promotion through the use of ICT This section of the Toolkit includes strategies for promoting reading as identified in each partner country, challenges involved in promoting reading through ICT and reviews of national curricula in each partner country. This chapter of the Toolkit focuses on the collection of best practices and certain approaches that proved useful in achieving this goal as illustrated in related literature. These include project-based reading promotion, outdoors/informal learning, use of ICT with emphasis on mobile technologies and social media, comics, and digital storytelling. The main target of this chapter of the Toolkit is to 5

provide educators and teachers with analytical information regarding acclaimed international and European best practices in reading promotion and introduce educators to an array of digital tools which can be used to enhance people’s reading attitudes, reading engagement, and reading skills. This review of reading promotion activities, frameworks and reports are included in the Toolkit in order to develop a sample of actions and activities for reading promotion to children and teenagers in a practical, adaptable and innovative manner. Review of Digital Tools that may Support Reading Promotion This section of the Toolkit identifies digital and web2.0 tools that can be used to promote reading though the use of ICT. Included in this chapter are digital tool description templates that outline the different features of the tool itself such as mode of execution, tool type, content, target users and educational uses. These can be used as a guideline for teachers and educators on tools that are available for use in promoting reading through ICT. Also included in this section of the Toolkit are over 90 identified digital tools with a brief description and web address of many useful Web 2.0 technologies that can be used across a range of education settings in order to promote reading through the use of ICT. This chapter of the Toolkit includes practical tips of inspire, guide, and facilitate the creation of reading cultures and communities among pre-teens and teenagers, university students, and working adults, through the use of Web 2.0 technologies and other forms of digital/social reading and “book-talking” which have been identified as being practice tools in relation to reading promotion through the use of ICT. Ideas, Actions, and Activities for Incorporating ICT in Reading Promotion This section of the Toolkit gives details of the findings of best practice research and describes approaches and innovative methods to promote reading as found in national and international programs, projects and reports. These methods can all be used as recommendations and ideas for teachers and educators who seek to promote and encourage reading through the use of ICT. This section includes over 30 identified best practices to promote reading and writing as found in programs, reports and projects both nationally and internationally. Detail is given on each identified literacy resource to include the URL of where the material can be found as well as a brief description of approach used. These can all be used by teachers and educators in order to promote reading and writing. Resources for Reading Promotion through ICT The resource section of the Toolkit includes a wide range of resources that have been identified as best practice in relation to promoting reading through ICT. These are broken down into programs, projects and reports. Each of these templates include a description of the program, project and report and its identification data. Each of these resources can be 6

directly used or can be adapted to use to promote reading through ICT. Also included in this section of the toolkit is a whole school reading promotion through ICT self-assessment evaluation plan. This self-assessment has been created to be used by schools or education institutes in order to identify how they can best use ICT to promote reading. Schools are asked to ‘tick the box’ as to which stage they are currently at in relation to each reading promotion area. Each section gives a description of a stage that is ‘not yet initiated’, ‘at initial stage’, ‘at developed stage’, and ‘at enhanced stage’. Under each heading a description is given. The school must meet the outlined description in order to be at each particular stage. In order to be ‘at an enhanced stage’, a school is required to meet what is asked in each of the descriptions. When each section has been achieved, a school is efficiently operating at an enhanced stage in relation to whole school reading promotion through ICT. The evaluation can be used to identify areas that are not being met in the school and how they might best operate effectively in reading promotion through the use of ICT by implementing ways in which technology can encourage reading for pleasure and engagement in various settings, and for diverse readers. This section of the Toolkit also includes 10 Lesson Plan templates which have been formed using Web2.0 Technologies. The lesson plans break down and demonstrate how particular Web2.0 Technologies can be used to formulate a lesson in an education setting. Each lesson plan uses a particular Web2.0 tool in order to promote reading through ICT. The lesson plan template includes detail on methodologies that can be used to deliver the lesson, possible challenges that an educator might face while delivering the lesson, the level of ICT proficiency that is needed by learners to complete the lesson, the target audience that the lesson plans are best suited for, intended learning outcomes, approaches to assessment, summary of activities that can be used to include introduction, instruction, practice, evaluation and closing. Also included on each Lesson Plan are notes on differentiation, linkage and integration. Each lesson plan demonstrates how particular Web2.0 tools can be used in a practical and useful way in order to promote reading through the use of ICT. These can be downloaded and printed for use in a variety of different settings. Each of these lesson plans are transferable and adaptable to best suit the needs of the learners. The overall Toolkit will help to equip educational institutes and educators with the relevant tools and resources to be able to operate at an efficient and effective level in order to adequately promote reading through the use of ICT in order to encourage reading for pleasure and create lifelong readers. It is anticipated the Toolkit will assist in combating low levels of literacy and engage at risk students in reading and academic learning by providing innovative pedagogical methods, best practice guidelines, and strategies towards systemic use of ICT for reading promotion as outlined in the research, resources and ideas within the LiRe2.0 Toolkit.

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Chapter 1. Introduction to Effective Reading Promotion to Children, Teenagers, and Adults. Executive Summary of Research Completed The use of ICT in school organisation to enhance literacy learning is prevalent. Many governments across the world have invested a large amount of resources to develop and support ICT infrastructure in schools. This report is part of the “Lifelong Readers 2.0” (LiRe2.0) project, which holds the stance that the innovative use of ICT-based, open educational practices and resources that connect informal, non-formal, and formal reading/learning, can play a vital role in students’ reading habits, reading commitment, and reading skills; particularly in the case of disengaged or reluctant readers and marginalised learners. There is, therefore a need for the development of a systematic literature review in order to collect available knowledge regarding effective reading promotion through the use of ICT, to students aged 10-18, with an emphasis on reluctant and/or struggling readers. This state of the art and research report on reading promotion using ICT identifies through empirical and theoretical evidence best practices and innovative pedagogical methods and implementation strategies towards sustainable use of ICT for literacy reading enhancement. More specifically, the purpose of this report is to present the findings from the transnational research (desk-based and field-based research) that emerged through the national research reports prepared by each partner organization within the framework of IO1 of the “Lifelong Readers 2.0” project. Based on a research framework that provides guidelines, possible research questions, an indication of possible data collection methods for the desk-based research, and the focus group guides to be used for the field-based research, all the project partners conducted national research so as to explore the state of the art in their country in terms of reading promotion practices and strategies through the use of ICT. This report identifies through empirical and theoretical evidence the current situation in Ireland, Cyprus, Portugal, Romania, Greece, and Italy with respect to literacy levels, as well as best practices and innovative strategies towards the sustainable use of ICT for literacy reading enhancement. The most common finding in all the national research reports conducted was the fact that literacy levels in the partner countries are rather low, and especially when this is used as an indicator of student performance and achievement. In Ireland, the results of OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which examines literacy proficiency, numeracy proficiency, and problem-solving in technology-rich environments, indicated that adults (aged 16-65) in Ireland have an average score of 266 compared to the participating countries average of 8

270, which places Ireland 17th out of 24 participating countries. From the survey, 17.9% of respondents in Ireland are found at or below Level 1. Similarly, Cyprus participated in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in 2001 and the results indicated that students’ performance was below the international average placing the country 26th out of the 35 countries ranked (Mullis et al., 2003). In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2012 Cyprus was positioned in the third group, which is comprised of the countries that score below the average of OECD countries. The problematic situation of literacy levels in Cyprus was also raised by the teachers’ focus group conducted in the framework of the LiRe2.0 research phase, who also expressed the necessity to provide children a rich and motivating environment for learning to read. With respect to Portugal, PISA results for 2012 highlight that the average performance relating to reading for 15-year-old students is 488 points when compared to the OECD average which is 496 points. In general terms, Portugal increased its points in Reading by 1.6. In relation to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Portugal for children between 10 and 15 years of age, data collected by the INE (National Statistical Institute, 2014) report that 98% use computers, 95% access the Internet and 93% use a mobile phone. This does not mean, however, that they use a computer, a laptop or desktop at school or that these devices are well used for helping the students navigate the complex digital landscapes they live in. In terms of the digital literacy associated to reading among young Portuguese, based on OECD (2015) data which compare reading on paper (print reading) and digital reading, Portugal has, in both cases, levels of performance below the OECD average. Portuguese students seem to have a lower performance than expected with respect to reading in digital form, which, according to the OECD (2015) report may be directly related to low performance in reading on paper. In PIRLS (2001-2011) and PISA (2000-2012) assessments on reading comprehension and reading literacy, a substantial proportion of students in Romania (around 35% in both studies) was considered to be low performing readers. While a Eurydice Report in 2011 reported Romania to be among the countries, where there is the most comprehensive coverage of basic reading instruction, the curriculum including “between four and six different indicators for word identification and knowledge of phonics and at least three indicators for fluency”. Regarding literacy levels with respect to the use of ICT in reading, the central steering documents concerning “Competence into Mass Media” state that students and teachers should use ICT in all subjects in class and also for complementary activities. Similarly, in Greece, secondary school students have performed below average in international tests for literacy in reading according to the results of the 2012 PISA assessment, published by the OECD. In Greece, more than 5100 15-year olds from 188 Greek schools were tested. While the report found a slight improvement in Maths, literacy in Reading and Science remained static. The report found Greek 15 year olds to be below 9

average in reading literacy, with a mean score of 477 (OECD mean was 496) giving it a ranking of 30th out of 34 OECD countries and 40th out of all participating countries. In Italy, the OECD PISA 2012 National Report edited by Invalsi (National Institute for the Evaluation of the education system) highlighted some critical elements: Italy ranks slightly and significantly below the OECD average. It is between the 26th and the 34th place in the ranking of the 65 participating countries and it is between the 19th and the 25th place about the 34th OECD countries. In Italy almost one-fifth of 15-year-old students are below the critical threshold of the minimum required skills in order to make the reading and functional activity. What is more, Italy lags behind most OECD countries when it comes to the equipment and the usage of information and communication technology (ICT) in the school. For example, in 2011, only 30% of Italian students in the 8th grade used ICT as a regular instruction tool in science classes, compared to the average 48% in an OECD country. In an effort to address the low literacy levels in the partner countries, the research phase also focused on data related to reading for pleasure by students and suggestions to promote this idea, based on the benefits proven to be achieved. Opinions of teachers and students, that participated in the LiRe2.0 research phase, on young people’s reading habits converged in the sense that not many students are reading for pleasure; although there are good efficient readers among young people, reading is seldom stated as a preferred activity or as part of their favourite entertainment. Furthermore, reading is associated by young people to school work, albeit sometimes pleasurable and interesting. Students claimed that they like to read fictional genres such as biographies, adventure, novels, magazines, and also claimed to like to read about real-life situations. Teachers corroborated students’ opinions and highlighted their added motivation when they read about emotional and lifethreatening events. It was also found that reading is associated by students to information: they read to acquire information on very specific subjects. When they do so, they may use the Internet and mobile technologies. During the last decades, a number of strategies have been proposed in order to motivate young people to read. Segers and Verhoeven (2002) suggest that reading interactive storybooks can assist primary students to expand their vocabulary and conceptualize the structure of narrative texts. The “Act Now!” report in 2012, which was published by the European Commission, suggests the use of a digital environment in an effort to improve literacy levels amongst students. Acknowledging the integration of technology in children’s lives, Chance & Lesesne (2012) proposed the use of book trailers in order to support literacy through the use of technology. The positive effects of the use of technology is also depicted in Eden, Shamir, and Fershtman’s (2013) study, which revealed that teenage students (aged 13–16) with learning disabilities, who used laptops, had significantly improved their spelling capabilities as opposed to the group of participants that did not use laptops. Motivation has 10

been identified by researchers and teachers as an important factor for youth’s engagement in reading activities. As both conclude, when young people are motivated to read for pleasure then they tend to develop positive stance and cultivate their reading skills without putting too much cognizant effort (Mullis et al., 2003; Seitz, 2010; Snowball, 2005). ICT initiatives and programs have up to now been loosely connected to reading promotion, although there have been projects and programs in this area that have promoted digital resources, such as e-books and digital reading contests. E-books are an easy way to find favourite books and they are also easy to carry and to store. Both students and teachers agreed that the use of these technologies would probably motivate reluctant readers and marginalized readers to read more; however, they also shared some concerns as to the compatibility of reading and ICT, by stating that reading online can be fragmented and therefore unsuitable to sustain the attention and interpretation skills required from a literary piece of art. In order to integrate the use of ICT in combating low literacy levels, it is necessary to help both teachers and students to get access to necessary equipment and good internet connection at school, especially in those areas where the infrastructure is poor. Developing curricula, which can respond to the real needs of the 21st-century students, is one of the various national measures at the partner countries to combat low literacy levels. At school, training courses for teachers, but also optional courses for students have to be conceived to combat low literacy levels. A different selection of the texts in the curricula would be one of the most important national measures that can be taken to promote reading for teenage students, who are at high-risk before they drop out. Also, it is important to include in such curricula differentiated guidelines for printed material and for digital material or for the integration of ICT in promoting reading or specific texts, ICT tools, or Web 2.0 tools incorporated in the curricula with the objective of promoting reading. Teachers that participated in the research phase of LiRe2.0 in partner countries indicated a number of strategies to support students’ reading through the use of ICT and Web 2.0 technologies, including the use of websites through which readers can look for public libraries as well as listen to storytelling by famous actors and learn about events regarding the books in which they are interested. Moreover, they suggested the development of a learning environment enriched by learning materials, like story books and other reading documents, which could capture the interest of the students. In addition, modelling reading - teachers act as models to illustrate how reading is being done - and setting up a mobile library traveling through the school, create an inspiring atmosphere to support students’ reading motivation are strategies, which were also suggested by the teachers. Another issue addressed was also the importance of parents’ engagement in supporting children’s reading, as well as the significance of peer-reading relationships. 11

It should be noted here, that this Executive Summary only presents a brief overview of the research phase conducted by the LiRe2.0 partners and the information presented in the partners’ national reports. For detailed information on the specifics of each country and extensive description on various findings of the national reports on the state of the art in each of the partner countries, the following sections of this Collective Research Report need to be consulted.

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Introduction to Research Completed The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the transnational research (deskbased and field-based research) that emerged through the national research reports prepared by each partner organization within the framework of IO1 of the “Lifelong Readers 2.0” project. Based on a research framework that provides guidelines, possible research questions, an indication of possible data collection methods for the desk-based research, and the focus group guides to be used for the field-based research, all the project partners conducted national research so as to explore the state of the art in their country in terms of reading promotion practices and strategies through the use of ICT. The scope of the individual national research reports was to provide an account of the stateof-the-art, meaning what currently exists, in each of the partner countries with respect to the following thematic categories: 

Status of national literacy levels



Reading habits and interests of youth



Types of texts that interest youth and modes of reading



Strategies for promoting reading



Best practices to promote reading and writing



Challenges involved in promoting reading through ICT



Review of national curricula

Based on the above thematic categories that needed to be discussed in the national reports, and based on what each project partner provided in their national report (and the data that were available in each country), this transnational research reports provides a collection of the research findings in each country and tries to draw some conclusions on similarities and differences in reading practices through ICT in the partner countries, with the objective of reaching a common framework on which the Toolkit can be developed.

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Results of Research Completed on Transnational Literacy Levels Ireland In 2012 the Irish Stationery Office published a report (Office, 2013). This report presents the results for Ireland on the OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills also known as PIAAC. The survey was carried out in Ireland between August 2011 and March 2012 by the Central Statistics Office on behalf of the Department of Education and Skills. Ireland was one of 241 countries that participated in the survey under the direction and supervision of the OECD and a consortium of international institutions. The findings from each participating country were then outlined in an international report by OECD. Ireland had a very high response in comparison to participating countries with response levels of almost 6,000 adults aged between 16 and 65. PIAAC reports collect statistics and information in relation to three specific skills sets and areas: literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments. PIAAC builds on the findings of two previous international surveys, the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the Adult Literacy and Life skills survey (ALL). Ireland participated in IALS in 1994 but not in ALL. According to the OECD these areas are considered “key information processing skills” because they are necessary for fully “participating in the labour market, education and training, and social and civic life” (ibid, p. 2). This shows the importance of each of these areas in terms of vocational and academic skills and they were purposefully designed in order to imitate everyday tasks. The literacy tasks require the respondent to read through texts of varying complexity to find specific pieces of information. The structure of the presented texts includes newspaper articles, websites and posters. The questions were based on real-world problems and ranged from simple addition and subtraction to the calculation of averages, percentages and the estimation of quantities. The third area, problem solving skills in technology-rich environment required the respondent to interact with one or more common computer applications in order to solve a problem. The survey has two stages. The respondent’s performance on these individual tasks was converted into an average or mean score for each domain, representing his/her proficiency in that area. With the use of these average scores it is possible to calculate the percentage of the population who fall within different levels of each skill domain. Literacy and numeracy proficiency have been split into five levels and problem solving in technology-rich environments has been split into three.

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Adults (aged 16-65) in Ireland have an average score of 266 compared to the participating countries average of 270. This score places Ireland 17th out of 24. Other countries that have similar average literacy scores are Poland (267), Austria (266) and Northern Ireland (265). From the survey, 17.9% of respondents in Ireland are found at or below Level 1, compared to 16.7% on average across participating countries. This is statistically on par with other countries that also participated in the survey, including Canada (17.3%), England (17.8%), Poland (18.8%), Germany (19.0%). At the higher end of the literacy scale, a combined average of 50.0% of adults in participating countries score at Levels 3, 4 or 5. In Ireland, the percentage of adults scoring at Levels 3, 4 or 5 is slightly less at 44.5%. This is statistically similar to other countries such as Northern Ireland (44.2%), Poland (44.7%), Austria (45.7%) and the United States (45.7). Countries such as Japan (71.1%) and Finland (62.9%) have the highest percentage of adults at Levels 3, 4 and 5. In relation to the statistics for problem solving and technology-rich environments only three proficiency levels were created compared to the five levels that exist for literacy and numeracy. On the problem solving scale the average score of adults at or below Level 1 is 41.7%. In Ireland 42% of respondents scored at or below Level 1 (29.5% at Level 1, 12.6% below Level 1). Ireland is one of several countries that are on a similar level to the average score, including Finland (39.9%) and Sweden (43.9%). At the higher end of the scale, 25.3% of Irish adults are proficient at Level 2 and 3. This is 8.7% lower than the international average of 34.0%. Despite being lower than the average, Ireland ranks slightly higher than Poland (19.2%) and on par with Slovak Republic (25.6%). The survey also showed that 10% of Irish adults had no computer experience at work or at home. This is more than the average of 8%. Ireland (5%) also scored close to the average (4.9%) of adults who failed the basic computer skills assessment. The European Commission published a report based on Irelands PIAAC findings (Commission, 2013). The report analyses the PIAAC survey results in order to see if there are any findings that are relevant for education and training policies in Europe. Several pieces of information from the Survey are relevant for EU education and training policies. One such finding is that 25% of adults lack the skills to effectively make use of ICTs for problem solving. Results from the survey show that nearly 14% of the EU population aged 16-65 can only perform simple tasks that would be considered to be far below an average proficiency level. The survey also showed that the 13% of people surveyed couldn’t take the 15

test due to lack of ICT ability. Across Europe all countries showed less than 9% of people surveyed performed at Level 3, the highest level. Rather than computer based testing, a paper based test was also offered to participants with 17% of Irish adults opting out which is significantly higher than the EU average of 11% but lower than Poland at 23%. In many ways this reflects the insufficient skills of people within Ireland to deal effectively with ICT in relation to problem solving. The 16-24 year olds show results that are lower than the averages for the whole population with approx. 13% identifying as having little or almost no ICT skills or experience compared to the 16-65 year olds averaging at approx.28%. The findings acknowledge the disparity between the statistics that show the same amount of 16-24 year olds have only Level 1 ICT problem solving proficiency as the overall whole population. This leads us to believe that despite the high volume of young people using ICT outside of work, this does not necessarily develop problem solving skills through the use of ICT. These findings show a correlation between the use of ICT and literacy levels. According to the survey, participants who showed high levels of ICT usage at the workplace scored approx.14 points higher on the literacy scale in comparison to those who don’t use ICT at work. The survey refers to ICT being one of the strongest links to proficiency in literacy as well as having a positive connection existing between the uses of ICT and reading practice. Another finding from the survey was that 20% of the EU working age population has low literacy and low numeracy skills. In literacy, participating EU countries on average perform slightly worse than OECD countries as a whole but comparable to the US. While in EU17, 9% of the population showed high levels of literacy skills (levels 4 and 5) the share for the OECD is almost one third higher (12%); in numeracy, the difference between the two is slightly lower. However, considerable differences in the distribution of skills across participating countries exist. (ibid p.7) The statistics in relation to the younger population are slightly different and on average are better. Across all participating countries 16-24 year olds score 7 points better on the proficiency scale in literacy (5 points in numeracy) than the overall population, which roughly equates to one year of education. The OECD Better Life Initiative (OECD, 2015) was launched in 2011 and focuses on the aspects of life that people feel matters most to them and what helps to shape the quality of their lives. From the findings it is discovered that Irish users of the Better Life Index (ibid, 2015), find the most important aspects of their lives are life satisfaction, health and education. The initiative aims to inform policies, generate support and improve people’s lives and well-being.

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According to the findings, the reading skills of Irish students are among the highest in OECD participating countries. The survey also notes that 14.9% of Irish students report ‘feeling a lot of pressure from schoolwork’ (ibid, p. 3) in comparison to the 10.8% in OECD average. Ireland also falls higher than the OECD average of 7.1% of teenagers aged 15-19 who are not in employment or in education or training. Irish students score at 10.6%, much higher than the OECD average (ibid, p.3). The report also shows findings in relation to inequalities in education and literacy standards of young people from low socio-economic backgrounds. “In Ireland, on average children from high socio-economic backgrounds have higher reading literacy scores than children from low socio-economic backgrounds.”(ibid, p.3). In relation to educational attainment, 81.9% of the working population has at least an upper secondary education in the south and east of Ireland, while this statistic is much less at 77.2% in the border, midland and western region of Ireland. According to the report “This gap (4.7 percentage points) is smaller than the regional differences in educational attainment in most other OECD countries.” (ibid, p5). Regional differences are also acknowledged in relation to internet connectivity with the report stating that “The share of households with a broadband connection ranges from 70% in the Southern and Eastern region to only 59% in the Border, Midland and Western region.” (ibid, p5). Education at a Glance, 2014, was published in September 2014 by the OECD (OECD, Education at a Glance 2014- OECD Indicators A Country Profile for Ireland, 2014). The main focus is to compare Ireland against other OECD countries. EAG compares the educational attainment and skills levels of Irish participants in comparison with their OECD counterparts. From this, many comparisons can be made in relation to Irish statistics correlating with OECD averages. Findings showed that adults with third level education were more likely to score higher in the literacy category of PIAAC. The findings also note “Interestingly, in Ireland of those with upper secondary level attainment, there was little difference in the literacy skill levels of those with a general and those with a vocational qualification, with a similar proportion of the population scoring at each level. (Table A1.8L)” (2014, p5). The survey also shows that “Full time workers also tended to have scored better in the PIAAC literacy domain, with 13% of all full time employed people scoring at Level 4/5, compared to 7% of all part time employed people. (Table A5.10a (L):P131).” (ibid, p7). Due to rapid growth in national income as well as in public expenditure, spending by public authorities on education also grew rapidly in Ireland, as it did in most other OECD countries. Between 2005 and 2011 total public and private spending increased in Ireland by 38% (compared to 12% on average across OECD countries) for all levels of education combined below Higher Education. Expenditure on education (public and private combined) in 2011 was 6.2% of Gross Domestic Product (up from 5.6% in 2008), which is now slightly above average OECD 17

expenditure at 61% of GDP and above the EU-21 average of 5.8% GDP. This figure reflects Ireland’s continued maintenance of higher spending levels on education as the economy shrunk. (ibid, p. 11) EAG also examines the learning environment and organisations of Irish schools in relation to OECD statistics. The findings show that instruction time in relation to primary and lower secondary level Ireland was higher than the OECD average. ‘20% of compulsory instruction time in primary schools was given to ‘Reading, writing and literature’ - below the OECD average of 22%’ (ibid, p.18). This gives the impression of a decrease in time allocated to literacy in comparison to other OECD countries. It is noted that ‘Reading, writing and literature’ and mathematics “includes the additional time allocated to literacy (i.e. one hour per week) and to numeracy (i.e. 70 minutes per week) provided for under the implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy.” (ibid, p. 18). Another important note is that English and Irish is taught in all schools but the time allocated to ‘reading, writing and literature’ is only representative of the first language of the school. The report acknowledges Circular 0056/2011 which allows schools to increase designated time given to literacy through an arrangement of methods such as: (ibid, p. 26) ‘Integrating literacy and numeracy skills with other curriculum areas. Using some or all of discretionary curriculum time for literacy and numeracy activities. Re-allocating time spent on the other subjects in the curriculum to the development of literacy and numeracy. Prioritising the curriculum objectives which are considered most valuable in supporting children’s learning and delaying the introduction of elements of some subject.’ In 2008, ECDL Foundation (Foundation, 2009) undertook a detailed survey of digital literacy levels across the population of 15 countries. Almost 8000 people were surveyed across Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. The aim of the survey was to analyse levels of digital literacy within each country and analyse patterns of computer usage. According to the survey findings, a combined mean of 63% surveyed were ‘digitally literate.’ 34% displayed basic or lower than basic computer skills. 37% displayed skills gaps between their competency and full digital levels. (2009, p.5). In relation to demographic findings, the group displaying most ‘over confidence’ were 16-25 year olds. Findings also show that there was no observable difference between gender and that digital literacy in urban areas was slightly greater than in rural areas. It also shows that the largest skills gap for young people is in the use of word processing and spreadsheet applications. (ibid, p.6). 18

The survey shows that a mean percentage of 84% of participants use computers daily and a high percentage of 94% using a computer several times a week. (ibid, p.16). In Ireland, PC usage is widespread with 82% using a PC everyday which is slightly below the average mean percentage of 84%. 93% of Irish participants responded as using a PC several times a week. (ibid, p.37). The main sources of computer training were school for the 16-25 age categories, while up to 60% of those in the labour market (ages 26-55) had taken training at work or in a private training centre. A mean of 83% of total respondents had taken some form of formal training. (ibid, p.16). In relation to Ireland, the findings showed that The most common areas for training to take place were at college (22%) and at a training centre (22%) where Ireland scored above the survey average for training at college (11%) and above the survey average for training centres of (17%).” (ibid, p.37). In 2013, in preparation of a Digital Strategy for Schools, PDST-TIE (Professional Support Service for Teachers- Technology in Education) undertook a census of ICT in primary, postprimary and special schools on behalf of the Department of Education and Skills (Jude Cosgrave, 2014). The online teacher questionnaires were set up in order to gather information and data relating to ICT, its impact on teaching and learning and ICT integration. The results show that in Ireland Proposed changes in curriculum and assessment at both primary and post-primary levels provide an opportunity to promote understandings of how to make innovative use of ICTs beyond “integration” (e.g Junior Cycle, Project Maths, Integrated Primary Language Curriculum for infants to second class, review of primary mathematics, and revision of the Senior Cycle sciences). (2014, p. 8). The report gives findings on ICT infrastructure in schools and the use of ICT Devices. According to the survey, the overall average ratio of students to working computing devices in schools was 4.6 to 1 at primary level, 3.7 to 1 at post-primary level, and 1.7 to 1 in special schools. At both primary and secondary level, DEIS schools (Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools) had more favourable ratios than non-DEIS schools. The ratios of students to computers/ devices specifically for student use were 11.1 at primary level, 8.8 at post-primary level, and 3.3 in special schools. This shows that a very large proportion of ICT within a school are designated for teacher or administrative use in comparison to the amount designated for student use. However, it also noted that 99% of post-primary schools reported having a dedicated computer room for students. Other forms of ICT were also reported in both primary and post-primary such as interactive whiteboards and digital 19

projectors. In relation to the use of ICTs in schools, areas such as Web 2.0 technologies were also referred to in the report with 97% of post-primary schools, 71% of primary schools and 65% of special schools reporting that they had a website or blog for their school. (2014, p. 14). Software to support literacy, numeracy and students with disabilities were also mentioned as being commonly used within primary and post-primary schools with a general overall positive attitude towards the effects of ICT on teaching and learning in relation to improvements in literacy, numeracy and engaging students. 43% of primary level principals identified “use of ICT to support the development of key skills such as literacy and numeracy” as being one of the prioritised areas for teachers’ continuing professional development. In 2013, desktop computers accounted for 54% of working computers available to students in primary schools, 83% in post-primary schools, and 51% in special schools. (Figure 4.1). Tablets accounted for 5% of devices in primary and post-primary schools, and a quarter of devices in special schools. (2014, p. 12). According to the EU Kids Online paper (Brian O'Neill, 2012), the online activity use of 9-16 year olds in Ireland are significantly below European averages and that many young people are lacking basic internet safety skills. The paper emphasised the importance of digital literacy and its value towards enhancing creativity, literacy and other skills. The report confirms the low levels and range of online activities among 9-16 year olds in Ireland. It shows a lot of gaps and it shows a need for improvement. It is also mentioned that the data comprised from EU Kids Online shows how much the internet influences activities that children use online. The use of the internet for entertainment and socialisation is the highest form of internet usage. According to the survey the most popular online activities of Irish children aged 9-16 are ‘watching video clips’ and ‘playing internet games’. Both of which scored at 76%. The survey also discusses the difference in activities depending on the specific age bracket of the young person. For example, watching video clips and playing computer games are popular with all ages; communication use (SNS, email, IM) is more for teenagers. The use of the internet for schoolwork and social network sites also scored favourably high at 58% each. The paper uses “ladder of opportunities” which is five distinct steps or stages of progression of online activities used by Irish children. (Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2007). Graduations in digital inclusion: children, young people and the digital divide. New Media Society, 9(4), 671-696.). (2012, p.2). Stage 1 shows that 23% of young people only use less than two activities online and predominantly use the internet for schoolwork and video games. Stage 2 discusses how up to 34% of young people aged 9-16 use the internet for up to five activities to include watching video clips. It is interesting to note that according to the paper 57% of young 20

people do not move beyond this step. Out of those who do progress on to Stage 3, 33% use up to nine activities to include SNS, email, instant messaging and social network sites. Stage 4 includes 9% using entertainment, online gaming and downloading films. Only 2% reach Stage 5 which includes a wider range of web 2.0 technologies such as webcam, blogging and reading online news. The paper uses six clusters to represent patterns of young people’s online use. Cluster one is determined as being “Low use, low risk”. This cluster is identified as having very low levels and range of online activities. Cluster two is identified as being quite entertainment focused. Cluster three is relevant in relation to being considered “learning-orientated.” Users in this range have a much wider range of activities to include school work, reading the news as well as entertainment. Cluster four identifies users as being “communication-orientated” and focuses on communication based activities and accounts for 25% of children. 7% represent cluster five which is characterised as being high-use and social networking focused. Cluster six which is similar to cluster five in its high use and focus of social networking. Cyprus Education in Cyprus, whether public or private, is mandatory until the age of 15. Pre-primary to secondary and some parts of post-secondary education are all under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC). Pre-primary education, primary and lower secondary education are mandatory and offered free of charge in the public domain. Preprimary school is one year’s duration and is followed by six years of primary education for ages 6-12. Secondary education is divided into two cycles: the lower (gymnasium) and the upper high school (lyceum and technical school). Figure 1 below provides a clear view of how the educational system in Cyprus is structured, how many years are required for each grade, which parts are compulsory and what choices are available for students. The Cyprus Educational System

The following tables indicate specific demographic as they are provided by the Statistical Service (2015) of the Republic of Cyprus. Namely, Table 1 indicates in detail the number of pupils (10yrs+) by school type and sex for the school year 2012-2013. Also, table 2 indicates 21

in detail the number of teachers, school type, and sex in Primary Education for the school year 2012-2013. Demographics of Students in Primary Education in Cyprus (10 yrs+)

STUDENTS Type of school

Male

Female

Public

8.919

8.205

Private

656

697

TOTAL

9.575

8.902

Demographics of Teachers in Primary Education in Cyprus

TEACHERS Type of school

Male

Female

Public headmaster personnel

&

teaching 772

3.588

Private headmaster personnel

&

teaching 49

263

TOTAL

821

3.851

The following table presents the number of pupils in Gymnasium circle (lower secondary) by type of school, age, grade, and sex for the school year 2012-2013. Demographics of Students in Gymnasium circle in Cyprus STUDENTS Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Type of school

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Public

4.159

3.816

3.983

4.006

4.075 3.919

Private

721

714

854

745

871

TOTAL

4.880

4.530

4.837

4.751

4.946 4.721

802

Reading literacy has been conceptualised by the EACEA P9 Eurydice (2011) as “the comprehensive aptitude to understand, use and reflect on written language forms in order 22

to achieve personal and social fulfilment” (p.7). This definition comes to a consensus with the definition provided by the PIRLS’s report which defines it as “the ability to understand and use those written language forms required by society and/or valued by the individual. Young readers can construct meaning from a variety of texts. They read to learn, to participate in communities of readers, and for enjoyment” (p. 33). Moreover, OECD’s (2013) definition also indicates the importance of literacy in terms of the successful engagement of students in the social and civic life by conceptualising it as the “understanding, using, reflecting on and engaging with written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society” (9). These definitions suggest that literacy is important as it provides children with the necessary means to conceptualise, attach meanings and negotiate the world of which they are part of, while they are at school and later on as active members of the society. Evidence from the report Teaching Reading in Europe: Contexts, Policies and Practices (EACEA P9 Eurydice, 2011) highlights that “in 2009, approximately one in five 15-year olds in the EU-27 countries had difficulties using reading for learning” (p.13). Consequently, if Europe is to achieve its benchmark by 2020 -the percentage of low-achieving 15-years olds in reading, mathematics and science should be less than 15%- (European Commission, 2009), the aforementioned situation needs to be reversed. Research data on the availability of leisure time of children in Cyprus, indicates that a percentage of 62% of the children who attend the primary and secondary schools do not spend their free time in reading literary books (Papavasiliou et al., 2005). Considering that improved literacy enhances innovation, prosperity and cohesion in society as well as the well-being, social participation and employability of all citizens (High Level Group of Experts on Literacy, 2012a) it is important for all governments across the world to regard it as their legal obligation to provide all the necessary support for effective reading promotion to students through the use of ICT. The past few years, the Cyprus Education System (CES) has taken positive steps in order to support reading. Namely, since the Education Reform and the development of New Curricula in the Republic of Cyprus, reading is being regarded as a core objective in the CES. According to the new Curricula at all educational levels (preschool, primary and secondary education) internal motives are provided in order to encourage children to establish a constant relationship with reading literature and outside the school environment (MOEC, 2010, p.35). In the next paragraphs we present the measures-actions that have been adopted to support literacy levels in Cyprus. According to Michaelidou – Evripidou (2012) in pre-primary education the teacher is responsible for identifying problems and reporting them to the Ministry through a specific,

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participatory procedure and pre-defined route. At this stage there are no standardised tools or formal testing. In primary level, since 2007-08, there are tests which are being performed at two ‘key stages’ for identifying students ‘at risk’. Namely, the longitudinal ‘Programme for Functional Literacy’ runs by the Centre for Educational Research and Evaluation (CERE) on a national scale for all primary school pupils at the third and sixth primary school grade aiming at the identification of pupils ‘at risk’ for functional illiteracy. The results are forwarded to schools and the Directorates of Education at the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC), so that these pupils receive early support, while at school. A data bank is being kept for monitoring students’ progress. During the school year 2013-2014, the Functional Literacy Programme was held for the seventh consecutive year in the sixth grade of the Elementary School (Primary Education). The total number of students that were involved completed 7695 essays for Language and 7721 tests for Mathematics. The results indicated the following:  

5.8% of students were likely to remain language illiterate. Also 3.1% of students belonged to both risk groups. The corresponding rates for the school year 2012-2013 for sixth grade were 6.9% for Language.

Synoptically, the results which emerged from these tests indicated the following:      

Specific schools indicate higher rates of students ‘at risk’ Identification of sex differences with respect to literacy levels. Boys tend to face more literacy problems than girls The socioeconomic background of the students ‘at risk’ is a factor which is highly linked to the literacy problems Specific professional development – in service training of the teachers is needed Need to introduce/refine support programmes for ‘students at risk’ within the school The allocated time for ‘consolidation’ introduced in the primary school timetable, can be used for supporting students ‘at risk’

(CERE, 2015; Michaelidou – Evripidou, 2012) With respect to the last point regarding the consolidation period, a teacher from the focus group stated that: The introduction of the consolidation period was an innovation of the curriculum reform. During this period, pupils, in collaboration with their teacher, should have had the opportunity to cover any gaps identified and focus on the acquisition and consolidation of core knowledge. Unfortunately, based on my 24

experience this is not the case. Due to the increased material teachers need to cover throughout the year, this consolidation period is not used to support students but instead to cover the existing material. (Female, Teacher Focus group) At gymnasium level, there is a literacy programme that is running under the auspices of the Educational Psychology Service (scientific responsibility) and the Secondary Education Directory (administrative responsibility). This programme aims to provide equal educational opportunities, prevent social exclusion by fostering basic skills, reinforcing self-esteem and offering emotional support. Also, in the year 2004–2005, in an attempt to enhance literacy subjects, the institution of teacher advisors for literary subjects in Secondary Education was introduced. The teacher advisors visit schools, both public and private, and offer advisory support, using new methods and approaches, often through teaching practices, while they prepare supportive material for literary subjects and samples of examination papers to cover the fields of Ancient and Modern Greek, History, Latin as well as other literary subjects (Michaelidou – Evripidou, 2012; MOEC, 2015). At the end of lower secondary school (Gymnasium) and the first grade of upper secondary (Lyceum) students participate in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). PISA which takes place in three-year cycles and it is organised by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) publishes reports on students’ performance in science, mathematics, reading literacy and cooperative problem solving levels in more than 70 countries across the world. PISA utilises proficiency levels to depict the type of skills students are able to use at each level, for each cognitive area. Specifically, Level 1 is the lowest and level 6 is the highest proficiency level. Students at Level 2 –which is considered the baseline level- indicates that students hold the basic skills, which will permit them to fit in and engage effectively in the social and civic life. The following table indicates the average of student performance in reading and the classification of Cyprus. It should be noted that in PISA 2012 Cyprus is positioned in the third group which is comprised by the countries which score below the average of OECD countries. As the table also shows, the 32.9.9% of 15-year-old students identified below level 2 and therefore are considered low performing readers. In addition, only a small percentage of 4% was identified on the higher levels of the PISA reading literacy scale (levels 5 and 6) (CERE, 2014).

25

Average of student performance in reading and the classification of Cyprus in Pisa 2012.

Another international large scaled survey which is being used to evaluate the reading literacy levels is the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and it is conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). This programme has a frequency of five years to permit the participatory countries to monitor their children's literacy achievement. Cyprus participated in PIRLS in 2001 and the results also indicated that students’ performance was below the international average placing the country 26th out of the 35 countries ranked (Mullis et al., 2003). It should be noted that currently Cyprus participates in the European Literacy Policy Network (ELINET) which was founded in 2014 and has 78 partner organisations in 28 European countries. The main scope of this network is to improve literacy policies in its participatory countries aiming at the limitation of the number of children, young people and adults with low literacy skills (ELINET, 2016). ELINET is inspired by the work of European High Level Group of Experts on Literacy (2012a) which defined 3 key issues for European literacy policies:   

Creating a more literate environment Improving the quality of teaching Increasing participation, inclusion (and equity)

(High Level Group of Experts on Literacy, 2012a, p. 38) The importance of the development of a digital environment and the utilisation of digital devices into the school context has been highlighted in the Curricula of the Republic of Cyprus. It is also crucial to note that in the new language curriculum there is a clear connection between the ICT and literacy. Specifically, the language curriculum supports comprehension and development of oral and written discourse in broadly used means of new technologies. Despite the fact that there is no ICT curriculum in primary education in Cyprus, the new curricula are comprised of a wide range of strategies and practices about 26

ICT in an effort to support quality of teaching and learning through media in all subjects (MOEC, 2010). A teacher who participated in the focus group further explains: In the primary schools each classroom owns at least one computer and a projector in order to help the teachers to support teaching and learning procedures. Some schools are also equipped with interactive boards as well. Depending on the number of the students, primary schools have a computer room where students can work in groups on specific educational software. This software is provided by the MOEC. It should be noted though that schools encounter many problems with the equipment. In many occasions the software or the computers do not function properly. Of course there are ICT counsellors who visit the school at least twice a year to help teachers with the use of technology in their teaching but this is not enough. (Teacher focus group, female) With respect to the secondary education classrooms are equipped with computers and a projector. Also, in each school there are 2-3 laptops and 2-3 portable projectors that can be borrowed by teachers in order to be used in classroom (MoEC, 2015; ELINET, 2016). Portugal In this section key policies and national and European governmental reports are analyzed to provide data on the status of literacy levels for Portugal from 2008 to 2014 with a special highlight on reading skills and related ICT programs and initiatives. Reference is made to several reports, such as “The Economic Dimensions of Literacy in Portugal: A Review”, published in 2009; the Eurostat regional yearbook 2015 (European Union, 2015); the PISA Report as relevant for Portugal and the OECD 2015 Report on digital literacy; as well as national statistics and government initiatives on young people and their use of ICT; and the 2015 OECD Study on Students, Computers and Learning. The Economic Dimensions of Literacy in Portugal

According to the report “The Economic Dimensions of Literacy in Portugal: A Review”, published in 2009, literacy – the ability to understand and apply knowledge presented in print – has long been recognized as a key determinant of economic growth. Portugal displays in this area among the lowest literacy skills when compared to other European nations. Contrarily to other nations, in Portugal literacy scores have little impact on individual labor market success, except at the very highest level of literacy. This may be due to the low literacy intensity of most jobs in the country. A large number of jobs in the Portuguese labor market are low skilled in terms of reading engagement (approximately 71%). For these jobs, formal education can be thought of as having little to no value in terms of labor productivity. Thus among low to semi-skilled jobs, experience, seniority and/or other structural factors are more likely to be important in determining wage earnings in 27

Portugal. Thus, one may characterize Portugal as a literacy-poor environment. This has a negative impact on schools and school education. Because of under-investment historically the population has a low level of educational attainment and the quality of the workforce measured on adult literacy scales is low compared with OECD countries. Changing this rapidly is near impossible because the size of incoming cohorts of graduates is shrinking, the upper secondary graduation rate is still far from universal (although compulsory for 12 years since 2009-2010), access to tertiary education remains restricted and unequal, and performance on standardized tests of student achievement still leaves much to be desired. It is also known that at the macro-economic level, literacy matters and that having a high proportion of adults with low literacy scores constrains economic growth. Thus, improved levels of adult literacy scores in the population should eventually yield significant social and economic benefits. In a study commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education (Coloumbe and Tremblay 2009) there is a 47% gap in real per capita GDP between Portugal and the OECD average. The quoted study highlights that Portugal should worry about the economics of literacy, because of its influence on the capacity of the economy to create wealth, and because it would reduce undesirable levels of inequality in education. Eurostat Regional Yearbook 2015

In 2014, according to the Eurostat Regional Yearbook 2015, the proportion of early leavers from education and training in Portugal was 17.4%. However, between 2008 and 2014 Portugal also recorded a 17.5 percentage point reduction in early leavers’ rates. Despite this improvement, Portugal still registers a gap of 7 percentage points to the national target set for 2020 in relation to the proportion of early leavers from education and training (Eurostat, 2015:38). There are some regions in Portugal where one fifth of the population was classified as early leavers from education and training (Eurostat, 2015: 89). The biggest reductions between 2008 and 2014 were also recorded in Portugal (in the Norte region there was a reduction by more than 20%; in the Centro region (where IPCB is located); in the Algarve; and Lisbon). PISA

The PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) international report which began in the year 2000 has, since then, been done periodically every three years, having to date already written 6 international reports, the last edition corresponding to the year 2015. Among the various indicators that are included in the report, student literacy has been highlighted in three different areas, particularly: Mathematics, Science and Reading. The PISA includes 34 countries associated to the OECD and 30 countries which are distributed 28

throughout the rest of the geographic areas that represent about 80% of the world’s economy. Given that the LiRe 2.0 project focuses on reading, in sum, the results for Portugal can be listed from the year 2000 up to 2012, with regards to the data already published: 

2000: 27th place (410 points)



2003: 28th place (478 points)



2006: 31st place (472 points)



2009: 27th place (489 points)



2012: 30th place (488 points)

Taking into consideration the results obtained in 2012, the average performance relating to reading for students who are 15 years old is 488 points when compared to the OECD average which is 496 points. In general terms, Portugal increased its points in three areas: Mathematics (+2.8); Sciences (+2,5); Reading (+1,6). According to the OECD (2014), highlighted reference is made to Portugal that, from 2003 to 2012, has been increasing its general points as to student performance. ICT statistics

In relation to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Portugal for children between 10 and 15 years of age, data collected by the INE (National Statistical Institute, 2014) reported that 98% use computers, 95% access the Internet and 93% use a mobile phone. 35% of students spend at least 4 hours on line during weekend days in Portugal against the 30% OECD average (OECD, 2015: 42). Boys also spend more time than girls (18 minutes across OECD countries). In what concerns ICT use at school, Portugal is below the OECD level (OECD, 2015: 53), although there has been a significant increase from Pisa 2009 to Pisa 2012 results in Portugal. The average time Portuguese students spend using the internet at school is 24 minutes per day. 41%, however do not use the internet at school during a typical school day (OECD 2015: 55). When comparing 2009 to 2012 more students in Portugal had access to computers (98%). However, the access to laptop computers at school is still relatively low when compared to other European countries. In what concerns digital reading assessed through PISA 2012 data (OECD, 2015: 113), Portugal scores below the OECD average. Most Portuguese students have moderate browsing activity and when performing task-oriented browsing, they score above the OECD average (OECD, 2015: 115). This may mean that students are selective in their online navigation and follow relevant links to solve tasks. Students’ performance in digital reading

29

is, however, not perfectly aligned with their performance in print reading (OECD, 2015: 119). Initiatives to improve reading skills

Making the connection between digital literacy associated to reading, based on OECD (2015) data which compares reading on paper (print reading) and digital reading, in both cases, Portugal has levels of performance below the OECD average. By making a more objective reading of the results it can be seen that Portuguese students have a lower performance than expected with regards to reading in digital form, adding to the OECD (2015) report that this result can have a direct relationship with a low performance in reading on paper. Associating the data from the various PISA reports, Portugal has had an average score of its students’ performance situated below the OECD average, despite there being a generalized increase (but still not enough) in terms of the performance of Portuguese students. For this reason, the Portuguese Government has been taking measures and initiatives that allow Portuguese students to improve their literacy levels. It was through the 17th Constitutional Government that the following national programs have been issued: 

Continuous Training Program in Mathematics for teachers of the 1st Stage of Basic Education with the objective of creating an articulated network between the initial training institutions and schools/school groups, increasing knowledge in mathematics, teaching and curriculum (Order No. 812 / 2005 , 24th of October).



Training Program in Experimental Teaching of Science involving teachers of the 1st Stage of Basic Education between 2006 and 2010 (Order No. 2143/2007, 9th of February and Order No. 701/2009, 9th of January) that aimed to increase scientific literacy levels of Portuguese students by developing the professional skills of teachers of the 1st Stage of Basic Education.



National Program for Teaching Portuguese (mother tongue) in the 1st Stage of Basic Education (PNEP) that focused teacher training in the use of systematic methods and explicit strategies for Portuguese language teaching in the classroom, in order to improve levels of reading comprehension and oral expression (Order No. 546/2007, 11th of January).



In another aspect, associated with ICT, the same Constitutional Government, through the Order No. 143/2008, dated January 3rd, created the Technological Plan for Education (PTE) with the main objective of placing Portugal among the five most advanced European countries in technological modernization of education. Following this initiative, the e.Escolinha program is designed for students enrolled in the 1st to 4th year of primary education and the e.Escola program for students enrolled in the 5th to 12th year. Order No. 20956/2008, 11th of August, created 30

conditions so that families could be supported in acquiring computers and broadband access according to their income and size of respective household. A laptop was distributed under the e.Escolinha Program, with internet access which was known as «Magalhães» and which contained a set of educational software related to the curriculum of the 1st stage of Basic Education. According to official data, 414,120 «Magalhães» were distributed. As for the e.Escola program, very favourable conditions were created for the purchase of laptop computers with an internet connection, involving a partnership between the Portuguese Government and mobile telecommunications companies, 476,041 devices having been purchased. This initiative lasted from 2008 to 2011. As claimed by Pereira and Pereira (2011), the PTE trebled numbers in 2009 when compared with the figures for 2005, in the number of computers connected to the Internet in schools. 

The 18th Constitutional Government ended the PTE initiative, having created a new initiative by Order No. 10252/2015, 15th of September under the designation Learn and Innovate with ICT, with the establishment of multidisciplinary teams of the Ministry of Education: Educational Resource and Technologies Team (ERTE). The ERTE was acknowledged as a multidisciplinary team with the following main objectives: a) To propose methods aimed at integrating the effective use of ICT into curricula and programs of different subjects in a transversal way in all levels of education and teaching. b) To encourage and promote research into the use of ICT in educational contexts, as well as the dissemination of these results. c) To propose guidelines that will allow for the creation, development, monitoring and evaluation of innovative and promotional initiatives of educational success through the inclusion of ICT into the teaching and learning process. d) To promote initiatives that contributes to the defining of reference guidelines for initial, continuous and specialist training of educators and teachers in the educational use of ICT. e) Ensure participation in international projects and institutions involving the study, promotion, evaluation and use of ICT in educational contexts.

Under the responsibility of ERTE other previous initiatives already under way were reorganized, where it is possible to highlight: SeguraNet; eTwinning; Education for Media; Programming and Robotics in the 1st Stage of Basic Education; Learning laboratories (e.g. EduLabs; Tablets in Education, Future classrooms); Distance learning. 31

Synthesising the various initiatives and programs in ICT, the following table presents, in chronological terms, those that were most representative: National Program

Activity Period

Entity/Institution responsible

Levels of covered

teaching

Project MINERVA

1985-1994

Ministry of All levels of teaching Education (GEP and DEPGEF)

Program Nónio-Século 1996-2002 XXI

Ministry Education

of All levels of teaching

uARTE – Internet in 1997-2002 Schools

Ministry of Science All levels of teaching and Technology

Program [email protected]

2002-2005

Ministry of Science 1st Stage and Technology; Education Schools of Higher Education; FCCN

of

Basic

Project [email protected]

2006-2007

Ministry of 1st Stage Education (CRIE) Education

of

Basic

School Initiative, 2006-2007 Teachers and Laptops

Ministry Education

Technological Plan for 2007-2011 Education

Ministry of All levels of teaching Education (GEPE)

Safe Internet

UMIC; Ministry of All levels of teaching Education (ERTE/PTE-DGIDC); FCCN; Microsoft

2007- …/

Initiatives e-Escolinha* 2008-2011 e e-Escola**

MOPTC

of All levels of teaching

*1st Stage Education

of

Basic

** 2nd and 3rd Stages of Basic Education and Secondary Education Learning and 2010- …/ Innovating with ICT

Ministry Education

of All Levels of Education (ERTE32

DGIDC) Table: National initiative Programs related to the promotion and use of ICT in educational contexts, in the period 1985-2016. (Adapted from Pereira and Pereira (2011)). As can be seen from the table above, since 1985 to the present, Portugal has been implementing a set of national programs and / or initiatives conducive to promoting the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process in initial and continuing training of teachers which, in full, already accumulated 30 years of experience. Another note, worthy of highlighting, has to do with the fact that the vast majority of these initiatives have involved all levels of education. However, it is also important to note that some of these initiatives were only directed towards students of the 1st Stage of Basic Education (6-10 year olds) because it was this education stage where the biggest gaps were felt both in equipping in terms of computers and in connection and respective Internet access. Another aspect to highlight is that there are still two initiatives running: the 'Safer Internet' and 'Learn and Innovate with ICT. The first remains imperative relating to the criminal context where there has been, more seriously, the existence of issues related to cyber bullying, with paedophilia and theft and use of personal data and identity. The second, simply for having a very wide scope and a set of initiatives and programs at an international level, which already has a relevant background, continues to be given the respective follow-up. On a more global assessment there is a certain tendency for each Constitutional Government and / or Minister of Education to leave their mark, which could even be positive since it allows for new, more updated and more consistent proposals to emerge with educational and social challenges. So there is the realization that there is a certain correlation between public policies with the different political cycles (Pereira and Pereira, 2011). Romania The levels of reading literacy based on national statistics

According to the report of Education Policy and Data Center - EPDC (2014, 2), learning is measured through literacy rates which are important because literacy is a foundational skill needed to attain higher levels of learning and national performance on learning assessments. The EPDC statistics show that in Romania the literacy rate is 99% among the youth population, higher than the average youth literacy rate in other upper middle income countries. In comparison to other low and middle income countries in access to education, measured as the primary school net enrolment rate and youth literacy, Romania ranks at the 30 percentile in access and 76 percentile in learning. Country reading levels/literacy levels based on international assessment measures

The mean score of students in fourth grade in Romania on the PIRLS (2011, 90) overall reading scale was 502 points. This was significantly below the EU-24 average of 535. Among 33

EU countries, just Malta (477) had a lower mean score than Romania. The performance of students in Romania was about the same across the reading purpose and reading process scales, according to ELINET report (2015, 23) The PIRLS (2011)1 reading results for Romania in Grade 4, shows that “nearly 14% of test takers in Romania performed below the lowest performance benchmark in reading, compared to an average of 13% for other countries that took the same assessment”. The PISA (2012) survey on the maths, science and reading skills of 15 year-olds revealed that Romania fall far short of the EU average, 37.3% are low achievers in reading (EU average: 17.8%), 40.8% in maths (EU average: 22.1%) and 37.3% in science (EU average:16.6%). The same study also shows big disparities in learning outcomes between students coming from different socioeconomic backgrounds. 15 year-olds in the bottom 20% of the scale scored an average of 404 in maths, as compared with 506 on average among those in the top 20%. For reading, according to Education and Training Monitor for Romania (2014, 7) the gap is even wider (392 average for the bottom 20% and 496 for the top 20%). In the ELINET report (2015, 5) it is stated that “Romania participated in PIRLS assessments of 4th graders’ reading comprehension in 2001, 2006 and 2011, and in four rounds of PISA assessments of 15 year olds’ reading literacy in 2000-12. This means it is possible to describe change over time in average reading proficiency, according to different characteristics of the readers. Romania performed well below the EU average in both PIRLS and PISA. The gap between the performance in Romania and the EU average is larger in PISA than in PIRLS. Between 2001 and 2011 in PIRLS and 2000 and 2012 in PISA, the performance did not improve significantly. In PIRLS, the pupils even performed worse in 2011 than in 2001. The lack of significant growth at either level over the last decade is a cause of concern. A substantial proportion of pupils (around 35% in both studies) can be considered as low performing readers. At best they can read simple texts, retrieve explicit information, or make straightforward inferences, but they are not able to deal with longer or more complex texts, and interpret beyond what is explicitly stated in the text.” National educational standards with respect to literacy

In the Eurydice report (2011, 57) it is stated that “the vast majority of curricula provide at least two different types of indicators related respectively to word recognition, fluency and knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The most comprehensive coverage of basic reading instruction can be found in Ireland, Greece, Spain, Cyprus, Luxemburg, Romania and Slovenia. Their curricula include between four and six different indicators for word identification and knowledge of phonics and at least three indicators for fluency.”

1

http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2011/framework.html

34

In Romania, the Law on National Education no. 1/2011 strengthened a competence based curriculum in order to address quality issues in education. Transversal approaches under the curriculum and new transversal assessment tests have recently been implemented, as shown in the Education and Training Monitor for Romania (2014, 8). As a result of ongoing reforms, Romanian policy makers have taken promising steps to strengthen literacy performance: for example, Romania has introduced in 2014 a national evaluation specifically aimed to evaluate literacy related competencies in the field of Language and Communication for the grades 2, 4 and 6. Furthermore, digital literacy was made a focal point both in initial teacher training and in continuous professional development of teachers. The most significant change, though, was the turn towards a competence-based curriculum. (ELINET 2015, 8) Distinction in literacy level measures and standards for primary and secondary education

According to Romania’s new National Curriculum, the main reason why children need to study Romanian Literature and language in the primary school is to develop elementary competences in written an oral communication and conversacy with fiction and non-fiction texts appropriate for their age. The requirements of the new curriculum have substantially changed how primary school children study Romanian language. The previous artificial and arbitrary division of Romanian into three domains – reading, learning content, and communication – has been replaced by a functional model (Noveanu et al. 2007, 182). For the 15 year-old students reading attitudes and metacognitive strategies are envisaged. More precisely, students’ enjoyment of reading and their awareness of efficient reading strategies in order to summarize a text on the one hand, to understand and remember a text on the other hand. At this level, reading proficiency should be related to the enjoyment of reading, and metacognitive strategies (Valtin et al. in ELINET report, 2015, 48). The Ministry of Education, Research and Youth (2013), has produced through its National Evaluation and Examination Service (SNEE: Serviciul National de Evaluare si Examinare SNEE) standards for students to meet at the end of the 4th grade (age 10/11), at the end of the 8th grade (age 14/15) and at the end of the 12th grade (age 18/19), respectively. Literacy levels with respect to the use of ICT in reading

In Romania, there is a national strategy covering training measures in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in schools. Central steering documents from the European Commission concerning “Competence into Mass Media” state that students and teachers should use ICT in all subjects in class and also for complementary activities. The documents also contain recommendations to use e-book readers, computer projectors (beamers), communication software and multimedia applications (Valtin et al. in ELINET report, 2015, 48). 35

As emphasized by Stănilă & Fotiade (2013, 3-4) “Starting the year 2000 the Ministry of National Education is concerned with the pupils’ access to information and so encourages the teachers’ training for information and documentation skills. The transformation of the school libraries into Centers for Documentation and Information (CDIs) is linked directly to the objectives of the Ministry to develop information literacy to ensure access to information.”

Greece Greek secondary school pupils performed below average in international tests for literacy in reading according to the results of the 2012 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) project, published by the OECD. The survey involved testing half a million 15 year olds in 65 countries in Maths, Science and Reading literacy skills. In Greece, more than 5100 15-year olds from 188 Greek schools were tested. While the report found a slight improvement in Maths, literacy in Reading and Science remained static. The report found Greek 15 year olds to be below average in reading literacy, with a mean score of 477 (OECD mean was 496) giving it a ranking of 30th out of 34 OECD countries and 40th out of all participating countries. Four previous surveys took place in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. The reading literacy results over the years have been as follows (numbers in parentheses): 2003 (472), 2006 (460), 2009 (483) and 2012 (477). The numbers are relatively consistent over the past 9 years (PISA, 2012). Greece took part in the 1991 IEA Reading Literacy Study, also known as the prePIRLS test. Greece scored near the average. Future testing in 2001 showed a significant increase in the average student performance, placing Greece in the 75th percentile. Greece has not taken part in PIRLS since then. PIRLS is designed to assist participating countries in monitoring the reading literacy of their fourth-grade populations in comparison to other countries. Compared to the United States, which the other countries are measured against, Greece had a combined reading literacy score of 524, below the United States average of 542. However, Greece scored higher than the international average, which was 500. Scores between 510-570 mean that the children could make elementary interpretations, were able to locate specific parts of the text to retrieve information, and were able to make observations about whole texts. They were not, however, able to make inferences and describe and contrast characters’ actions. Partially in order to correct this problem, In the last ten years, the reformed curricula in Greece now encourage links between curriculum subject areas and the new curricula in primary and secondary education changed as of 2012/13. The new curriculum makes provision for an extra hour per week of Modern Greek for reading literature texts, among other changes (Education Statistics, 2015).

36

Levels of reading literacy based on national statistics

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics on Literacy Rates (2012) reports the following results for Greece: % of females aged 15-24 who were literate in 2012: 99.30%; % of males aged 15-24 who were literate in 2012: 99.45%. The literacy rate % of people aged 15 and above increased 6.85% between 1981 and 2012. No specific statistics were found reporting literacy levels for primary and secondary education aged children; however, if the rates increased in the population aged >15, they most certainly increased in children 10 books/per year. Of those 9.4% were women and 6.8% were men. 38

43.8% aged 15-24 read 1-9 books/year. Of those, the women read 40.2% and the men 28%. Those who read more went on to university and lived in urban areas. Of those who finished high school, the ones who had learned a foreign language or had travelled or lived abroad, read more than those who remained in Greece. Of the avid readers (>10 books/yr.), 85% read books and 4% magazines. Of those who read < 10 books/yr., 57% read books as their first choice and newspapers as their second choice. The non-readers prefer newspapers (40%) and magazines (11%). e-Books were not mentioned. Use of ICT: 43% of people said they use computers and approximately the same number visited the Internet daily to find information, write e-mails, look at social media pages and download music (National Book Centre of Greece, EKEBI, 2010, 2012). In a survey undertaken by the Pedagogical Institute, 78% of students voted in favor of enriching their literature course using ICT. The author pointed out that though the literature lesson has evolved over the past 30 years to accommodate the wishes of the readers/children, the number of children reading literature has declined. First they illustrated the books, then they reduced the segment of the book the children had to read, followed by adding modern literature and removing classical literature. None of these actions led more children to reading; in fact, the opposite happened and literacy rates have dropped. They decided to enhance books in primary schools with recipes, brief ads and webpages. This may make the students happy but it is doubtful if they will learn about the great poets in school (Rizospastis, 2010). Italy Italy lags behind most OECD countries when it comes to the equipment and the usage of information and communication technology (ICT) in the school. For example, in 2011, only 30% of Italian students in the 8th grade used ICT as a regular instruction tool in science classes, compared to the average 48% in an OECD country2. The potential of technology for transforming education goes well beyond equipping each classroom with an interactive whiteboard or other comparable technology. Two initiatives of the national plan give selected teachers and schools the possibility to pilot a variety of pedagogic uses of ICT and to reinvent teaching and learning in a technology-rich environment: [email protected] 2.0, that grants a lump sum for one classroom within a school, and [email protected] 2.0, for the entire school. These initiatives have two objectives: showcase the power of educational technology and make it even more desirable; pilot new schooling models for the Italian education system. The current national policy for large-scale introduction of ICT in all schools, Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale, was launched in 2007. The current policy marks a clear discontinuity with previous national efforts to introduce ICT in schools: it aims at introducing the use of ICT 2OECD

(2010), Are the New Millennium Learners Making the Grade? Technology Use and Educational Performance in PISA 2006, OECD Publishing http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Innovation%20Strategy%20Working%20Paper%2090.pdf

39

equipment directly in the standard, everyday classroom, rather than in separated computer labs that have to be booked in advance; moreover, it transcends disciplinary boundaries by seeking ICT adoption in all subject fields and at all levels of education. Understanding the problematic of using Information Technologies, demands a consideration of some more fundamental educational issues. ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change: in teaching style, in learning approaches and in accessing to information. Yet, the rhetoric for change has been too associated with the symbolic function of technology in society, which sits uncomfortably with teachers professional judgements. So educational computing, it would appear, has yet to find its own voices. Technology plays an important and pervasive role both in modern society and in modern education and everyday life. Understanding the problems associated with using Information Technologies demands a consideration of some more fundamental educational issues. It is not only perceived as a catalyst for change, but also change in teaching style, and conversely not impressed by change that appears to focus on what the technology can do rather than on learning. From this, it will emerge a clearer template of what change is required in education, and the new expectations and relationships for both teachers and technologies in order to achieve it. Status of national literacy levels

The analysis of all the documents and statistical information shows that more than half of Italians do not read even one book a year. A survey by ISTAT (National Statistics Institution), carried out in 2015, shows that only 42 % of people, aged six years and more (24 millions), have read one book for professional or not educational reasons, during the past year. This percentage stays stable, after a progressive decrease starting in 2012. (Graphic) In fact, the number of people that read books is decreasing, moving from 43% in 2013 to 41,4% in 2014. All the data of 2015 are stable. The only difference regards 15-17-year-old readers, who have increased from 51,1% in 2014 to 53,9% in 2015.

There are a lot of gender differences and social inequalities that influence literacy levels. Regarding gender differences, female readers are 48,6%, against 35% of male readers. People who read the most, are young girls between 15 and 24 years: They (60%) read at 40

least one book a year. This percentage raises up to 66,1% for girls between 15 and 17 years old. Female readers in their 60s or more fall below 50%, while male readers of all ages always show a lower percentage, while boys between 11 and 14 years old stay around 45%. Another variable that influences reading data is the place of origin. Thus, people from the southern part of Italy read less than the rest of the country: 1 out of 3 reads at least one book in a year (28,8%), while in the Islands (Sicily and Sardinia), readers have increased moving from 31,1% in 2013 to 33,1% in 2014. However, in the northern part of Italy more than 48% of people read a book per year (49,6% of readers live in North-West). Also the urban dimension of the places seems to influence literacy levels. In the municipalities of metropolitan area, readers are 51% of the population, while in small urban municipalities with fewer than 2.000 inhabitants, the percentage decreases to 35,5%. Besides, regardless of the territorial context, the Educational Level is one of the most important factors that affect reading practice. 3 out of 4 graduates read books (75% in 2014, against 77,1% in 2013). However, the proportion lowers down to 1 out of 2 people among undergraduates and A Level holders, (50,2%; 53% in 2012) and to 1 out of 4 for people who hold a primary school diploma. Another massive factor that influences reading habits is represented by the family context. The propensity of children to reading books is directly related both to their parents' literacy levels and to their reading habits and books-familiarity. Children readers between 6 and 10 years old, whose parents define themselves as fond of reading, are 63,7%, while 11-14-year-old children readers are 66,8%. On the contrary, children readers who belong to non-reading families of the same age are, respectively, 26,7% and 30,9%. Almost half of the national readers (45,5%), the so-called "weak readers", has not read more than 3 books in 12 months. They were 11,5 millions of people in 2013, while in 2014 the number decreased to 10,7 millions, since the rest of them turned directly to non-readers. This 6,8% decreasing proves the importance of the so-called “maintenance measures”, in order to avoid the progressive loss of irregular readers. In Italy the so-called strong readers (people who read at least 1 book per month) are 13,7% (14,6% women; 12,4% of men). Almost 1 family out of 10 owns no books (9,1%: about 2,3 millions of families). This percentage is well above the national average in Puglia (18,2%), Calabria (16,3%) and Basilicata (16,1%). Among those families who do own some books at their home place, 22,2% of people do not equally read a single book in a year, while 1 out of 4 (24,5%) reads approximately three books a year (18,3% in 2014). 41

During the last years, a significant increasing on reading habits has been given by the spreading of digital products and eBooks. 4,5 millions of people (8,2 %) in the last three months have read or downloaded books or eBooks. 6% of those people do not normally either own or read printed books. The use of eBooks mainly affects young people: in particular, 22,4% of people aged 18-19 use the web as a constant tool in order to relate with reading. However, data highlight that most of the people who regularly read eBooks, currently reads and buys also printed books, since percentages of eBooks reading are related to the number of printed books owned at home. Among eBooks buyers, people aged 16-74 who own 50 or less printed books are 17,4%, while those who own 200 or more printed books are 39,3%. The international PISA 2012 (Program for International Student Assessment) measures the performance of 15-year-old students in reading literacy, tested in 65 countries. The reading literacy is read as "the ability to understand and use written texts, reflect on and engage them in reading in order to reach their goals, develop their knowledge and potential and be an active part in society" (OECD, 2009). The OECD PISA 2012 National Report edited by Invalsi (National Institute for the Evaluation of the education system) highlights some critical elements: Italy ranks slightly and significantly below the OECD average. It is between the 26th and the 34th place in the ranking of the 65 participating countries and it is between the 19th and the 25th place about the 34th OECD countries. In Italy almost one-fifth of 15-yearold students is below the critical threshold of the minimum required skills in order to make the reading and functional activity. Against a national average share of low performers in reading equal to the 19.5% of the total students, high schools have only the 5.6% and technical colleges the 20.3%, but the incidence rises to the 41,7% for the Vocational Training Centers and to the 44.9% in vocational schools. In addition, only students of secondary schools, with an average of 537 points, achieved in reading significantly higher than both the national and the OECD average. Students of technical institutes (476), of vocational schools (415) and the Vocational Training Centres (421) are all below both the national and the OECD average. Students in the North West (514) and North East (511) are placed above both the national average (490) and the OECD average (496), with a statistically significant difference: the Center (486) and the South (475) get a result in line with the Italian average. The Central Italy is also in line with international benchmarks; the South ranking below this value, especially in some regions it is below the national average; South Island (453) is placed significantly below both the averages of reference, as well as the Area's convergence regions (Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicily) that, overall, get an average score of 465. In particular, it concerns a high rate of illiteracy, which affects about the 70% of Italian adults and that puts Italy the last place among OECD countries for literacy and the second lowest for math skills.

42

The Italian young from 16 to 29 years, no longer in an educational/training program but equally engaged in an occupational activity, that is the so-called NEET (Not in Education, Employment or Training), are the social groups with the lowest levels of literacy. Only the 18.2% of them reaches level 3; young workers reach the 32.3%, students reach the 42.9% and workers and students the 45.8%. It is necessary to improve their relationship with reading, because they rarely read. From the data analyzed, it well emerges which are the objectives and priorities regarding the actions and the promotion of reading strategies (National Plan for the Promotion of reading, good practices, etc ..) which need to be taken in order to raise awareness and create new readers, among young people and not only. Promotional activities, infrastructural interventions must pay particular attention to the South, since not even a third of residents reads one book a year, and the levels of participation in cultural life are much lower than the national average. There is a huge gap between the southern regions and the rest of the country, which can no longer be ignored, since the fate of the book and culture necessarily coincides with the destiny of Italian country. Reading habits and interests of young people Ireland The results were taken from two separate Focus Groups. One focus group (School 1) took place on 16/03/16 in a Secondary School. Students in this group are aged 15 and 17 and are all in their fourth year of Post-Primary school which is a transition year between Junior and Senior cycle and are male and female. The second student focus group (School 2) that results are taken from were a group of students in a different school. Students in the group range from aged 14 to 20 and included both male and female. The students in School 2 are currently completing Junior Certificate and Leaving Certificate equivalent courses. Students in School 1 listed sports, listening to music, going out with friends and watching Netflix as their favourite things to do in their free time. Students in School 2 expressed a variety of different things that they like to in their spare time such as hanging out with friends, being outside, playing guitar, sleeping, watching TV, playing PlayStation, watching Netflix and eating. Favourite leisure activities that were mentioned by students in both schools were sports, tennis, football and going to the gym. School 1 students specifically mentioned football, martial arts and playing guitar are their favourite hobbies. Only one student from School 1 and two students from School 2 said that they like read books in their free time. The rest said that they did not like to read or said that ‘sometimes’ they would 43

read in their spare time. In relation to how many books that students read a year, the answers greatly varied amongst those asked. In School 1, all students asked said “around 1 or 2” and that these were mostly in school. In School 2, one female student aged 18 answer 3, one male students aged 19 said 8-10 and another female student said 1. When asked what kinds of books do they like to read students in School 1 said that they would read “anything that is good” in School 2 one male student aged 18 answered ‘Books about dog breeds’ another male student aged 18 answered ‘Irish History’. Other general answers from students were ‘everything’ as well as crime, superhero characters, Jacqueline Wilson books, magazines and books about people’s daily life. One particular female student aged 17 said that she enjoys reading books that are based on diaries such as The Diary of Anne Frank. Another male student aged 17 answered that he enjoys books that are based on true stories and articles online. One particular male student aged 16 said that he often does not complete a full book as he “gets half way through and gets bored.” One female student aged 17 said she reads 2 books a year but mentioned “When I was little I used to read non-stop.” When questioned about the decrease in her reading habits, she said that she reads less now because she is “busy with life”. One female student in School 1 aged 14 said that she likes to read books that are based on films and recently read The Fault in Our Stars on holidays. When asked about books such as The Hunger Games or Harry Potter, the students in School 1 said that they didn’t like these books as they were too long but other books that they do like are sports based books particularly based on football. Students from school 2 listed off specific features that they would look for in a text such as a topic that they are interested in like crime, football, true life stories. One particular female students aged 17 said that she specifically looks for books with characters that she can relate to like characters that are of a similar age and mentioned a character called ‘Tracey Beaker’ that she was fond of when she was younger. Other features that students say they look for in a text are if it has something interesting in it like local news or events in newspapers or magazines. One particular female student aged 18 who stated she read 1 book a year said that she much prefers books or magazine based on fashion, make-up and famous people. A female student aged 15 in School 1 said that she would judge whether a book is good or not depending on its cover and that she would look for books that “catches the eye” if it had “good reviews”. When asked how often do they visit a bookshop or a library, students in School 2 every student apart from 2 said either never or once a year. The two students (one male 19, one female 18) that said they visit bookshops and the library around ‘every week or two weeks’ and that they buy books from the book shop. Students in School 1 said that they visit bookshops mostly around Christmas to buy books for themselves. Also mentioned was the Mobile Library in the area which one student (female, aged 14) said she attends with her Mother and little brother. All students in School 2 said that they have a library in the 44

Literacy Class and that they read during class and during book club. One male student aged 18 said that he doesn’t use the library at all. When asked if their teachers suggested books for them to read, all students in School 2 said ‘Yes- sometimes.’ When asked if these books are part of the curriculum or not, students responded saying that it is for their class work as well as for their own enjoyment and that as part of their Book Club they must write a book review but it can be based on any book that the students chose. In School 1 students said that they have a school library and that they use it sometimes as part of class. They also said that ‘sometimes’ their teachers suggest books for them to read and that teachers suggest books and put them at the front office for students to see. All students in School 2 apart from two said that they would not discuss the books that they read with their classmates and that they would not recommend the books that they read to others however all students in School 1 said that they would recommend books to their friends and classmates. When asked how they might choose a book from the bookstore or library students gave a range of answers in response. School 1 students said that they would chose a book based on its cover or the blurb on the back. Several students said they would choose based on their knowledge of the author and if they had read previous books by the author. Almost mentioned by a student was that he would look for key words like ‘football’ (male- aged 17) and if it looks interesting. One female student aged 17 said she would pick a book if they were relatable or based on TV or a movie. Another student in School 2 said that he often brings a book home and reads it to see if it is good. When asked where do they like to read books, students answered a mixture or home and at school. Many of the reluctant readers seemed to read most at school and very rarely at home whereas the more advanced readers prefer to read at home. In School 1, all students said that they much referred to read at home as it was ‘cosy’ and they could read in bed and there are less distractions. One female student aged 17 in School 2 also said that she much preferred to read at home in bed. In School 2 one female student aged 17 mentioned that she enjoyed reading while flying and travelling. In relation to their access of books at home, students in School 2 all said that they regularly read magazines and newspapers at home and that many of the books that they have are books from school or were novels that were part of the school curriculum. Nearly all of the students mentioned that they have access to books that their parents own at home, in particular books on crime, fiction and music as well as encyclopaedias and novels. Two students mentioned that they read online at home as well as through the use of ebooks and kindles. All students were asked if their parents encouraged them to read. One girl aged 17 said she has “no encouragement to read from my parents”, one male student aged 16 stated “Yes, my parents encourage me to read and they always tell me to read.” A male student aged 17 said that his Father regularly encourages him to read and recommends books to him quite often. One male students aged 18 said that he is regularly told by his mother to “Get off the 45

PlayStation and read”. The majority of the young people in School 2 said that they used to have a lot of encouragement to read from their parents when they were younger and in Primary school but this has diminished as they have gotten older. This seemed to be a common response to all students and they all felt that they were encouraged a lot more by their parents to read when they were younger. In School 1 all students felt that their parents encouraged them to read but that they had been much more encouraged when they were younger and in primary school. All except one student (male aged 19) said that they prefer to read printed texts and 2 students said that they use an e-reader (female aged 18, and male aged 19). When students in School 1 and 2 were asked if they were interested in e-readers or digital books the responses varied greatly. In School 1, 3 female students aged 14-15 said that they had ereaders. In School 2 some students said they would like to use them and might find them easier to read, one student (male aged 17) said he would be “more likely to read if we had e-books in school.” However a female student aged 17 said that she likes “the old fashioned way and the smells of books.” Other statements that were made in relation to e-books or audio books were “they’re annoying” “annoying voice” “Haven’t got the patience to listen” and that “nobody uses them.” Students mentioned that they do use social media as a way of reading news or journal articles. Students in School 1 said that they regularly online particularly on Facebook. One female student aged 14 said that she reads a lot on Facebook such as articles on social issues like bullying. This same student also said that she felt like ereaders and Kindles were ‘cool’ and that she likes that if you don’t know what a word is you can use it to look the word up and find out its meaning. Snapchat was also mentioned by students in School 1 and as one female student aged 14 said that she would send a snapchat picture of a book she was reading to her friends. All students in School 1 said that they would be more likely to read if they had access to iPads and e-readers and could download the books at home. Several students in School 2 also said that they would use google to look up information on things and then share it to their Facebook or other social media accounts. When asked about difficulties or challenges that they face when reading or when using technology to read, nearly all of the students in School 2 said that they are easily distracted and have much less concentration when reading online because a “friend might send something” and this would cause them to become side tracked. Students in School 1 mentioned not having free time and the high cost of books being some of the reasons that prevent them from reading more, they also mentioned that in relation to using e-readers it can be very bad for your eyes. Students in School 1 said that Facebook should be used to share book reviews or information on authors to encourage reading promotion among young people using ICT.

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Cyprus Reading habits and reading interests of teenagers has been the focal point of research studies the past six decades. Reading habit is considered as an important aspect for developing a literate society in this world as it forms the character of the citizens and assists them in the development of proper thinking methods (Palani, 2012). Recent studies have also highlighted the significant positive correlation between academic achievement and reading habits (Kaur and Pathania, 2015; Singh, 2011; Sherafat and Murthy, 2016). In order to draw conclusions about the reading habits and reading interests of children in Cyprus we retrieve information from the project “Are you Reading?” which aimed to investigate the reading motivation, attitudes, habits and behaviours of primary school students in relation to reading and develop programs to promote a love of reading. According to research findings, 30-40% of the children expressed positive attitudes towards reading, 20% were neutral and 30-40% of the participants were negative. A 57.8% of the research participants stated that they like visiting bookstores as opposed to a 34.4% who like visiting public libraries. In terms of reading preferences, the children stated that they prefer comics, adventure and mystery stories. On the contrary, only a small percentage of students (9.6%) indicated their preferences in reading newspapers, tales with princess and princesses (10.8%) and biographies (11.7%). In terms of reading at school, 29% stated that they read a book in silence approximately 1-2 days per week whereas a percentage of 26% replied that they do this practice every day. In terms of reading using technological means at school, the vast majority of students (60.8%) do not seem to use technology to read stories. Only a percentage of 16.8% uses computers and only the 15.1% uses the internet. Even a smaller percentage of students uses their mobiles (2.3%) or their tablets (4%) to read stories at school. However, a large number of participants use technology at home. Specifically, 27.7% of the children use computers and the internet (23.4%) to read stories at home. Nevertheless, it should also be noted that a percentage of 39.2% do not use technology to read at home (Kyprianou, 2014). A participant from the focus group offers an explanation of this limited use of technology in schools and at home: Although some efforts have been made to support the use of technology in schools, the infrastructure is not adequate and it is not supported to a great extent. However, the main reason of the limited use of technology in terms of supporting reading is that a considerable number of teachers and parents do not hold the belief that the use of ICT can play a vital role in students’ reading habits, reading commitment, and reading skills. On the contrary, they believe that the use of technology has a negative impact upon reading. (Teacher focus group, female). 47

Several studies however, contradict the aforementioned by highlighting that the use of ICT does promote children’s language and literacy development (de Jong & Bus, 2003; Shamir, Korat & Fellah, 2012; Yelland, Hill & Mulhearn, 2006) in addition to enhancing children’s motivation to learn. International studies have also investigated the reading habits and reading interests of teenagers. Specifically, in a study regarding reading which was conducted in 30 schools in the south-west of England, findings indicated that a 61% of the 707 school students (11 and 15 yrs old), claimed to be reading a book at home. Moreover, these participants tended to select books that other students have enjoyed and were relevant to their own experiences and concerns (Hopper, 2005). Howard’s study (2008) has also depicted the role of teens’ peers in supporting teenagers’ reading habits. As the researcher stated ‘for many young teen readers, reading takes place almost exclusively in a social context and is seen as an effective way to cement peer friendships. These teens actively seek to read the same materials as their closest friends and use reading (talking about reading, exchanging reading material, following the same series) as a form of social bonding’ (p. 9). This influence of peer recommendation also highlights the gap that exists between what teenagers read and what teachers offer them as reading material. An earlier study conducted by Thomson (1987) highlighted this gap by stating that the majority of student teachers’ knowledge of teenage fiction is too limited for them thus making them incapable of making recommendations that will permit school students to enhance their reading skills and habits.

Portugal In this chapter attention is given to reading habits and interests of Portuguese youth retrieved from desk research and a focus group interview with young people and two focus groups with teachers and school librarians (and reports on these interviews). Information is also collected on what young people like to read and how they approach reading printed and digital material, with a special emphasis put on the use of e-readers or e-books or any other form of online reading material and Web 2.0 tools in connection to reading. Low-skilled readers and social background

Research shows that over 50 per cent of today’s Portuguese youth are classified as low skilled in the key subjects of reading literacy, mathematics and science, although these numbers are improving. This result carries important implications for Portugal’s future economic prospects because workers with skills below Level 3 will have great difficulty competing in the global knowledge economy. Portugal has among the lowest rates of persistence to upper secondary completion in Europe, a fact that limits the efficacy of school-based interventions for these students. International comparative data suggest that 48

upper secondary graduation is a critical marker, one that maximizes the probability of students reaching Level 3 on the international proficiency scales. Level 3 has been judged to be the level needed to support tertiary participation, lifelong learning, labor productivity and democratic engagement. Teachers in Focus group 2 highlight some concrete reasons connected to reading that may explain early school dropout and the low levels described in the paragraph above: some students in the 3rd cycle of basic education (13-15 year-olds) still have problems with reading in the sense of decoding texts, which seriously impairs their possibility of enjoying reading or making sense of what they read. Research confirms that reading among children 11 to 15 may still be affected by low reading comprehension. A student who cannot comprehend what he reads, cannot be motivated to read. Thus choice of reading material may be as important as strategies to scaffold reading. But prior to this, there is the need to help students decrease their perceived difficulty and avoidance of reading, when this is the case. There are multiple aspects of motivation to reading, but studies have shown that teachers need to enable students to experience the benefits and uses of reading all types of texts in multiple concrete situations. More specifically, research has it that the reading proficiency of Portuguese youth is highly conditioned by their social background. Students coming from socially disadvantaged homes achieve much lower average scores than their more advantaged peers. Comparative analysis of the PISA data suggests that reducing the level of social inequality in reading practices and hence educational outcomes is one of the most effective ways of improving overall scores. The OECD Study Students, Computers and Learning (2015:3) further reiterates that the digital divide is better bridged by ensuring that every child develops baseline reading and mathematics skills than through expanding high-tech devices and services. One particular set of data to be gathered from several reports is that the early school dropout percentage is higher among boys than it is among girls and that the percentage of girls in tertiary education in Portugal is higher than that of boys (Eurostat, 2015), which points to a growing gap between the literacy levels of boys and girls that deserves the attention of policy makers and educators. Characterization of students as readers

A survey conducted at Secondary School Manuel de Arriaga, in the Azores region (one of the regions with higher dropout levels) in Portugal, entitled “Os jovens e a leitura” (Young people and reading) developed during the school year 2009 and 2010 shows that in grade 7, 47% of the young boys consider reading to be positive; by year 8, the percentage is 50%; by year 9, 55% of the boys consider reading to be positive. All these percentages are below those for girls. This survey also shows that boys read less than girls per day; in fact only 8% 49

do so every day in grade 8; 11% in grade 9; and 2% in grade 10. As to type of reading, boys in grades 7 and 8 claim to prefer reading magazines or newspapers, cartoons and adventure stories; in grade 9, besides adventure stories, boys claim that they also appreciate detective stories, crime fiction and science fiction. The most interesting data of this survey relates to results among grades 7, 8 and 9 male teachers, 31% of which consider reading boring and 52% of which claim that they only read once in a while. 40% claim that they don’t like being given books. As to the activities that they consider more useful in connection to reading, 83% highlight debate and discussion about the book; and 87% literature analysis and interpretation; as well as research under teacher supervision (74%) and research done by the students themselves (63%). Focus group interviews (focus group 3) highlighted that among the interviewed boys and girls who liked to read there were books at home and parents read; although parents did not buy books for their children, there were other relatives that would, as one student stated. Another survey, conducted in 2011 and 2012 (Yubero, Larrañaga and Pires 2014) with 1116 young people in 9 Higher Education Polytechnic institutes and universities, aged 18 to 25, may be used to reflect on younger students’ reading trajectories from school to higher education. Higher education students will be among the students who are achievers. It is also known to be true that from childhood to late adolescence the rates of voluntary reading decrease and that the older the student the less he reads for pleasure. The majority of the 1116 students surveyed claim they read to get information and keep updated; one third claims they read in order to learn, and only 19% claim that they do so for pleasure. 5% read to ‘get out of the real world”. There are no significant differences between males and females, even if more females than males answer that they read because they like to do so (46,8 versus 36,4). Among the interviewed students, aged 13 to 15, males and females, the majority said they read because they have to, for school work. They said they used the school library frequently, to relax, to read about their interests and to get books from to take home on loan. Only 2 claimed they read for pleasure. What they prefer to do for entertainment is to practice sport, watch television and listen to music. Teachers in Focus group 2 add to these that students like their online social networking through mobile technologies, also. According to these teachers there are a couple of young students that are passionate about reading, there are others who are regular and efficient readers. Some 14-year-old students may be reluctant and marginalized readers because they still lack the decoding skills necessary to read; others because they still cannot comprehend what they read and therefore additional pedagogies of reading are required to motivate them for reading. One fact mentioned by one teacher in Focus group 2 is that while these students may not like to read they like to hear others reading. Students in focus group 3 attribute the lack of enthusiasm for reading among their peers to the fact that there 50

are many other entertainments that concur with reading books, such as short news pieces on the internet and quick access to flash news. Mention was also made by the focus group teachers that when asked to read literature, young people may still not fully comprehend what they are reading; one further aspect mentioned is that the reading materials that constitute mandatory reading (and the didactic approaches to them) in the classroom may not be appealing to students and therefore are felt as boring. Libraries and classrooms

School libraries and reading promotion events are mentioned as effective actions that bring students closer to reading. School libraries not only buy the titles that are compulsory reading for the classroom or which are advertised in the National Reading Plan, they also try to engage with their readers’ interests and to create a safe environment where students feel at ease to do any kind of reading they like, on tablets, on the computer, through magazines and books, for information, for school work and for pleasure. School libraries work in tandem with classroom teachers to provide the books for set readings and to support the out-of-class readings that students are encouraged to do. They are open to new mobile technologies and reading on various supports and are part of a wider library network that supports their training in new technologies for reading and in reading promotion. Teachers in focus group 2 highlighted that the engagement of students as old as 14 or 15 depends very much on the type of book and its theme and on the emotions and passion a teacher or any other adult reader can impart to the reading. These teachers also seemed detached from new mobile technologies in connection to reading. The interviewed teachers and school librarians (teacher-librarians) in both focus groups (1 and 2) reported the slow inclusion of web technologies into school libraries but not in the classrooms for the purpose of reading. One of the school librarians described that only 3 in circa 600 users of the school library revealed computer-mediated reading habits: one used an e-reader, the other was sued to reading on his own I-pad and a third would read books both online and offline.

Romania Reading is a great educational review for all walks of life. Reading expands the mind's vocabulary and gives a more positive impact on a person's life. This obviously is a good thing because as a child who is growing, it is important for the mind to develop in the best way it could. There is a quote saying that people who read, succeed. In what follows we shall refer to studies conducted in Romania. In order to obtain an image as close to reality and in order 51

to be objective in assessing reality, we shall relate primarily to the National Strategy for Youth Policy 2015 - 2020, drafted in 2014 by the Ministry of Youth and Sport and to various sociological studies and research relevant to our interest. Comparative research data by age groups show that young people are involved in a higher extent in various forms of cultural activities. However, Romanian youth participation in cultural activities cannot be considered as being high and it is rather casual. A quarter of teens say they never read literature; 8% do so daily, 20% 2-3 times per week, 24% 2-3 times per month, while 20% read literature only 2-3 times per year3. According to a study conducted in 2012 by the iVOX sociological research commissioned by the National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications, the young Romanian have the following preferences related to places to read: bed (42.97%), outdoor locations (17.29%) computer (9.64%), bus or other means of transport (6.24%), bathroom (6.08%), school (6.06%), library (4.89%), kitchen (2.97%), book-shop (2.2%) and other locations (1.66%)4. The available studies regarding the moment when young people prefer to read reveals that evening and weekends are often mentioned. Also, during the holidays they read required books foreseen in the curriculum but also books of their choice (with a more concentration in the 16-18 age group). In Romanian society young readers are slightly different because they prefer to buy books from online bookstore for their comfort but also because most often the prices are better than in the traditional bookstores. Most of the time they read on modern devices such as smart phones and eBook readers and they sometimes read books published on different blogs. Technology created a kind of emptiness in libraries and museums the Internet prices being more attractive. According to a study in 2015, girls prefer to read the texts in digital format, while boys prefer text printed on paper. Specialists say that girls far exceed the boys on enthusiasm for reading. The girls quickly adopted the "digital literacy" while boys are more comfortable with traditional printed texts on paper, such as comic books, textbooks, newspapers5. Approximately 80% of European young people between 15 and 24 use computers and the internet every day. Romania is among the countries which have recorded low levels on this indicator, along with Bulgaria, Ireland and Greece. Referring to our country, poor living standards and disinterest in reading has led to a situation where although there are books, documentaries and volumes of studies in electronic form, they are accessed to a very 3

http://mts.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Strategia-tineret-ianuarie-2015.pdf http://ivox.ro/download/get/f/raport-cat-cum-si-ce-citesc-romanii-2012 5 http://jurnalul.ro/stiri/observator/fetele-prefera-cititul-in-format-digital-studiu.html 4

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limited extent. In Bucharest, there is even a digital library, but it is accessed by people aged over 25 years. Compared to the data of the present reality, Romania aims to mobilize competent institutions and organizations - governmental and nongovernmental ones, in a concerted effort of expansion, quality raising and increase the efficiency of formal and nonformal learning for young people in order to better prepare them for living and working and in order to develop their cultural background.

Greece Perhaps the most pertinent research done in Greece is a study by the University Research Institute for Mental Health (Kokkevi, Fotiou, Xanthaki, Kanavou, 2011). The study examined what Greek adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 years old do in their spare time. According to the results, sports activities, use of computers and listening to music are the most popular pastimes, independent of gender and age. When weekly activities were graphed, reading came in seventh place with boys at 26.6% and girls at 40.8%. The authors did a further breakdown of this data by age and graphed the results for 11, 13 and 15 year olds. Reading books came in sixth place for the combined age groups. 47.8% of 11 year olds read, while 30.9% of 13 year olds read and 22.2% of 15 year olds read. These results show that there is a steep decline in the percentage of students who significantly reduce what they read by the age of 15. 16.4% of adolescents, primarily boys aged 13-15 years of age, spend at least 6 hours a day behind a screen, be it the television, computer or playing electronic games. Compared to 2006, in 2010 the number of students that spend time (at least 6h/day) behind a screen has practically tripled. Students spend less time watching TV and more time behind a computer screen indicating that they have replaced television with computers. According to the Nielsen Book Summit (2014), in the U.S., reading rated at the top of leisure activities for kids 0-10; it dropped for kids 11-13, and then at 14-17, reading is completely superseded by social media and other forms of entertainment. When it comes to the digital vs. print question, teen’s preference for print is loud and clear: 54% of teens strongly prefer print, 28% have no preference, and 18% strongly prefer e-books. The prevalence of tablets among children is also growing. Tablets are the preferred method of watching videos, gaming and social networking among children aged 11-13. As kids hit adolescence, smart phones begin to dominate over tablets. However, 44% of teens reported “needing a break from mobile” devices. While most teens in the study are “light readers,” (that read 3-6 hours a week), those who read the most within the teen segment tend to be girls around 15 years old. Among these readers 56 percent prefer print.

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For children aged 13-17, 92% said they play video games weekly. 66% said they also read for pleasure. Almost all readers, then, are gamers. 93% of teens that read also play games, as well as 94% of children aged 6-12. Despite the tech-savvy nature of many gamer kids’ homes, they responded in surveys that they generally preferred print books to e-books. Additionally, gamers often spend four times more leisure time gaming than they spend on reading for pleasure and their preferred activity is gaming, even over television. Kids and teens that are also gamers were more likely to respond that when they read, it was often for school rather than for pleasure. Though this information regards the US, it mirrors similar reading patterns in Greece in regard to preferences, gaming and the literacy connection. Adolescents in Europe devote more time to electronic and digital media than any other single activity. 77% of 13-16-year-olds in Europe have a social networking profile. The majority of young Europeans spend more time online than they do on reading. The authors believe that this informal computer ‘play’ helps young people develop the skills needed for reading proficiency. They claim that teenagers who spend more time browsing the internet for fun at home have better digital reading results (PISA 2009). However, they acknowledge limitations in using the digital environment for reading promotion of adolescents, one reason being the limited number of available resources. The market for educational apps is exploding for handheld devices (EU High Level Group, 2012). Engaging in certain online activities also has an impact on digital reading performance. In each of the 19 countries that took part in the digital reading assessment (Greece did not), the more frequently students search for information on line, the better their performance in digital reading. Students, who spend their time online with emails and chat, do not perform as well (PISA, 2009). The National Book Centre of Greece has conducted three nation-wide surveys on reading behaviour between 1990-2010 on the population as a whole. They found an increased interest in book reading in 2010, despite the economic downturn. Greek eBooks were launched in the trade market in 2010, following their rising success in the English-speaking countries. Their degree of penetration, though, six years later, is very low. This is due to the lack of a low-cost, readers such as Kindle, no large Greek language e-Books inventory, such as Amazon, and the relatively high price of tablets. Greek language e-Books amount to approximately 7000 titles, today, and include mostly ePub versions of the new titles that come out in printed form. Most of them are available through iTunes and through dedicated e-bookstores such as myebooks.gr and cosmotebooks.gr. Copy-free literature has been promoted by initiatives such as openbook.gr. An acclaimed medium-size publisher (Periklis Douvitsas, from Nefeli Books) has recently launched a ‘fair trade’ e-Book platform (fairead.net), aiming at services offered to authors and publishers (and ‘fairer’ terms offered 54

to e-retailers and readers). Their focus is mainly on mobile distribution, through a reading app (The Age of Discontent, Kabouropoulos, January 12, 2016). In a 2010 survey on 1500 people, 15 years and older (90 were 15-18 years old), 43% of those questioned read at least one book vs. 34% in 2004. 7% of people aged 15-24 read 10 books or more per year. Of those 9.4% were women and 6.8% were men. 43.8% aged 15-24 read 1-9 books/year. Of those, the women read 40.2% and the men 28%. People in the following categories read more: those who went to university, those who live in urban areas, those who had learned a foreign language or had travelled or lived abroad. Of the reasons stated for not reading: 39% said they didn’t have time, 30% said they didn’t like reading or it was boring, and 11% said they had health issues. Of the avid readers (>10 books/yr. read books and magazines. Those who read 149

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http://msjosay.hubpages.com/hub/The-Difference-between-Web-20-and-Web-10 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8337887.stm http://ospitiweb.indire.it/adi/pisa/sintesi_pisa.htm http://presidenza.governo.it/DIE/attivita/rapporto_rapporto_promozione_lettura.pdf http://puntoeduri.indire.it/lingue/ http://sdiaf.comune.firenze.it/ http://www.biblioteche.comune.fi.it/progetti_speciali.html http://www.cepell.it/index.xhtm http://www.compita.it/ http://www.educazionedigitale.it/ http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media11561.pdf http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=articles&article=29-1 http://www.giuntiscuola.it/lavitascolastica/magazine/news/dal-miur/studenti

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http://www.ischool.startupitalia.eu/education/39984-20160112-digital-reading-foc http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/ http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/10825 http://www.istat.it/it/istruzione-e-formazione http://www.masternewmedia.org/it/tecnologia-insegnamento/ambienti-diapprendimento/PLE-personal-learning-environments--20070617.htm http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Innovation%20Strategy%20Working%20Paper%2090.pdf http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/article/E-learning-Nordic-2006---Uncovering-theImpact-of-ICT-on-Education-in-the-Nordic-Countries http://www.scuolavalore.indire.it/guide/didattica-della-lettura-comprensione-e-riscritturadi-testi/ http://www.scuolavalore.indire.it/nuove_risorse/dal-web-2-0-al-ple/ http://www.uoc.edu/rusc/5/1/dt/eng/benyoussef_dahmani.pdf www.libernauta.it; http://www.biblioteche.comune.fi.it/bambini

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Chapter 3. Review of Digital Tools that may Support Reading Promotion. To follow is a list of Digital Tools identified as being most effective in supporting reading promotion through ICT.

Web 2.0 Tools Description and Features Goodreads Tool name: Goodreads

Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. http://www.goodreads.com Mode of execution: Is the tool online or standalone?

Online tool. Available online on the http://www.goodreads.com website. It is also available for free download on the App store- Goodreads App.

Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. Free

Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Office suite

Boards

X

Email

Instant Messenger

Web blogs

X

153

Writing tools

Word processor

X

Social media

X

Web publishing

Note taking

X

Video

Podcast

Presentations

X

Online X

Teacher tool

Wikis X

Learning management systems

X

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other…

Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. Goodreads is an Amazon company and "social cataloging" website. The website allows users to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. Users can also create their own groups of book suggestions, surveys/polls, blogs, and discussions. On the Goodreads website, users can add books to their personal bookshelves, rate and review books, see what their friends and authors are reading, participate in discussion boards and groups on a variety of topics, and get suggestions for future reading choices based on their reviews of previously read books. Once a user has added friends to his/her profile, s/he will see the friends' shelves and reviews and can comment on friends' pages. Goodreads features a rating system of one to five stars, with the option of accompanying the rating with a written review. The site provides default bookshelves—read, currently-reading, to-read—and the opportunity to create customized shelves to categorize a user's books. It also offers quizzes and trivia, quotations, book lists, and free giveaways. Members can receive the regular newsletter featuring new books, suggestions, author interviews, and poetry. If a user has written a work, the work can be linked on the author's profile page, which also includes an author's blog. Goodreads organizes offline opportunities as well, such as IRL book exchanges. The website facilitates reader interactions with authors through interviews, giveaways, authors' blogs, and profile information. There is also a special section for authors with suggestions for promoting their works on Goodreads.com, aimed at helping them reach their target audience. Goodreads includes the feature to share on social media such as Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, and other social networking sites. Users can link their Goodreads account with their Facebook or other social networking account. This enables users to import contacts from the social networking account to Goodreads and expand their 154

Goodreads friend list. Users can then interact and engage with other users in relation to comments, book suggestions and recommendations. There are settings available that allow Goodreads to post straight to a social networking account which allows the users Facebook friends to see what that person is reading or what ratings that have given a book. To start using Goodreads you should select books that you have read, that you are reading, or that you want to read and add them to "your books". You can do this by searching for books, by looking at your friends' lists, or by entering a book that is not on Goodreads yet. Rating a book automatically adds it to your books (and to your "read" shelf). You start with three default shelves (read, currently-reading, and to-read), but you can also create your own bookshelves. Shelf names contain many different themes and topics of books and you can create any category that you are interested in. To add books to your shelves you can search by the author name or the title of the book. When you have found the book that you want, there are many different features that you can use. You can click on one of the five stars to rate the book immediately, you can click on “add to my books” to choose a shelf, you can write a review, you can record the date your read the book, and you can also note whether you own a copy. Goodreads contains a "my books" tab where you can see all the different "views" that are available on Goodreads. You can sort these by author, title, rating, date read, and more. There are many different views that show you all of your book covers, another shows your reviews, and another helps you shelve groups of books at once. There is also one that is printer-friendly. You can change your shelves, reviews, and ratings at any time. Many books are listed in Goodreads in several editions, such as hardback and paperback. After you upload your photo and post your basic info, you can start to add books to your virtual shelves. You can also post quotes you like, share your own writing for others to review, or publicize your upcoming events. When you log in, the homepage will show all the latest reviews from your friends. You can also compare your book list to that of another Goodreads user. Users can use the explore tab to browse and find books that are popular among your friends or with other Goodreads users. Groups can be created to discuss literature. There are many different online groups within Goodreads such as groups for close friends or local book clubs; groups for organizations such as literary magazines and university alumni. Groups can be public, moderated, restricted by domain, or secret. Users can click on any book title to find information. As well as information such as author, ISBN, and literary awards, you can also find the book’s average rating, the number of people who have rated and reviewed the book, and even how those people decided to shelve it. You can find Goodreads groups discussing the book, reviews from your friends, and other reviews of other readers. If you need a copy, there are links that help you find it at an online bookseller or your local. Users can also export their books to a spreadsheet.

Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). The age range of potential tool users advisable would be teenagers and adults from at least age 13. The content is quite ‘mature’ and not necessarily ‘child-friendly.’ The books 155

available vary in range but the tool itself would be most utilised by teenagers and adults as it is quite heavy textually and due to the substantial presence of social media where users of all ages can engage and interact with one another. There are two different sets of target users that would benefit from this tool, these are book lovers and authors of books. It is a place where you can see what your friends are reading and vice versa. You can create "bookshelves" to organize what you've read (or want to read). You can comment on each other's reviews. You can find your next favourite book. Goodreads also have a specific target audience of authors. The Goodreads Author Program is a completely free feature designed to help authors reach their target audience of passionate readers. This feature allows for new and established authors to promote their books. The Author Program is designed for people with published books, or who are in the process of publishing a book. There is also a writing section feature for budding writers to post their writing for others to read and review.

Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. This tool has many potential educational uses for teenagers, adults whether it be in an educational or youth club environment. Goodreads offers a way for people to communicate about books in many different ways. Goodreads can be used within a classroom group and within the site students can talk about the current class reading selection. Teachers can also post questions and assignments. Teachers are also able to create quizzes based on classroom material or come up with contests and challenges. Goodreads is a collaborative Web2.0 tool which allows users to form and share opinions on books in an online setting. Users can also develop communication skills by engaging with other users. Users will also use critical and reflective thinking in order to review books and share their feelings and opinions. Language and writing skills are also demonstrated through the development of reviews and recommendations by users. Goodreads encourages lifelong readers and reading for pleasure and allows users to share their likes and dislikes, and the recommendation system encourages users to read even books based on their preferences.

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PocketBook Touch HD (E-Reader) Tool name: PocketBook Touch HD (e-reader)

Tool source: http://www.pocketbook-int.com/us/products http://www.pocketbook-int.com/ro/products/pocketbook-touch-hd

Mode of execution: Is the tool online or standalone? It may be used both online and standalone.

Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. Commercial software

Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Office suite

X

X

Writing tools

Boards

Word processor

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Online

X

Social media

X

Web blogs

Wikis

X

Video

Podcast

Presentations

Teacher tool

Learning management systems

X

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editor157

player/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. Backlight: + Display: 6" E Ink®Carta™ 1072 × 1448 Touchscreen: Infrared (multisensor) Processor: 1 GHz Weight: 180 g Dimensions: 113,5 × 175 × 9 mm Audio Out: + To store user’s digital library and audio-collection the new e-reader is equipped with 8 GB of internal memory and external microSD card slot (up to 32 GB). An efficient processor of 1GHz and 512MB RAM provide fast response and stable work of any application and smooth turning of pages. The user of PocketBook Touch HD may select content in any format – the device supports without converting 18 popular text and 4 graphic formats (JPEG, BMP, PNG, TIFF). The preinstalled Abbyy Lingvo® dictionaries (21 translation directions) are essential for foreign books reading. Built-in wireless Wi-Fi together with Dropbox, Send-to-PocketBook and PocketBook Sync services will allow to deliver any e-content on the device fast and easy, without having connection with PC. PocketBook Touch HD – high comfort of reading and listening

Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). 10 years - up

Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. An e-reader can be approached as a tool with a great potential educational use in that it stimulates the interest in reading at all ages.

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Kahoot Tool name: KAHOOT Tool source: https://getkahoot.com Tool state: The tool is online and can be easily downloaded. Availability type: Freeware: It is free for educators, who can upload their questionnaires or choose among the million quizzes posted. Registration is required for quiz creation. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

x

Social media

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Online

x

Video

Podcast

Presentations

Web blogs

Wikis

x

Teacher tool

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Quiz show, game for the classroom, online quiz system Tool description: Kahoot is an online quiz system that plays out like a television game show. The teacher plays the role of the game leader and creates a multiple choice quiz; this quiz is then projected in the classroom and the students can answer on real time, by clicking on their laptops, tablets or smartphones (30 seconds); they earn points for correct choices. Easy-to-use format and game like features promote interactive learning; students get competitive and excited, so they are engaged. Kahoot may be used to improve learning and /or to provide edutainment, as students get engaged with any content. Apparently 159

most students will play to win and any content may be learnt that way. Kahoot requires an online connection and can be easily customised by teachers and students by using publicly available images and videos or their own teaching materials/ or duplicating kahoots created by other users and adapting them to their own classrooms. Teachers can get immediate feedback on how many students answered correctly and which questions students are still struggling with (which allows for adjustments in the lesson plans for the next day). Kahoot users (students) get a PIN and have to create a nickname before being directed to the quiz. Students then wait in the lobby till the teacher (the kahoot leader) clicks the start button to begin the quiz. Every multiple choice answer corresponds to a shape and colour, which the players have to hit; this requires them to look up from their devices and interact with teacher and peers. Target users: Teachers and students of any age can use Kahoot. Kahoots are popular among K12 students. Educational uses: The digital application (App) Kahoot may be used with any mobile device (smartphone and/or tablet), which makes it very accessible among young people (https://getkahoot.com), also within the BYOD (bring your own device) trend. Kahoot is not intended for teachers to use with their classes every day, but once or twice a day. Kahoot is generally used to create sets of questions which generate a code that is provided to students so that they can access it. Students can be asked to devise their own questions on subjects they learn in class, which the teacher then incorporates into the quiz. Thus, it is very popular for formative assessment to monitor each student's progress and to identify areas where students would benefit from more one-to-one teaching. Kahoot may also be used to introduce a lesson, as a way of piquing students’ interest in absorbing unfamiliar material, increase retention of new facts, revise prior to exams, survey opinions. The aim is that during a class, at any time, the teacher may ask the students about the theme presented or discussed. Due the fact that Kahoot promotes immediate feedback, it will allow students to become aware about what they have learned and eventually signal what they yet need to learn. Each student has the opportunity to see what answers were correct and which were wrong. If necessary, results can be projected with ranking of student names, which may promote healthy competition among students to achieve the maximum score. The Kahoot site also lends itself to social sharing, as students may post their ranking on kahoots they have finished. Teachers can pick and choose from millions of kahoots to adapt for their classes. Kahoot also enhances collaborative learning; Kahoot can be used to create, edit and 160

produce classroom materials (for quick revision; surveys, etc.). In a classroom environment the typical procedure is: 1. The teacher introduces a topic using a Kahoot designed to prompt debate, critical thinking and active learning, by supplementing the Kahoot with instructional images or video. 2. Once the topic is introduced, the students play a Kahoot designed for formative assessment, to assess and improve upon the learner’s understanding of the topic. 3. The teacher leads the class in other activities, discussions and related quizzes to consolidate the learner’s knowledge. The same Kahoot may be replayed to reinforce learning through repetition. 4. The teacher asks learners to create their own quizzes on the same or related subject. Learners research, build up knowledge or gather relevant content and create own quizzes; they are then empowered to play as leaders of Kahoots. Sources: wikipedia

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Tablets Tool name: Tablets Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. Device Tool state: Is the tool online or standalone? Can be used as an online tool or as a standalone tool. Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. Device Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Office suite

Boards

X

X

Word processor

X

X

Social media

Video

X

X

Email

Instant Messenger

X

Web publishing

X

Note taking

X

Podcast

Presentations

X

Online

X

X

Web blogs

Wikis

X

Teacher tool

X

Learning management systems

X

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… Device Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. The inclusion of the tablets is made as a digital device. Taking into account the fact that 162

the tablets may have different Apps (digital applications) downloaded they also allow the access of the Internet via a wi-fi connection or GSM, combined with its small size makes them very easy to use in different contexts due their portability. Internet access promotes conditions for the students to use the multitude of existing resources and, in particular, all the Web 2.0 tools. The use of certain Apps, which are so familiar to young people, promotes and improves their use among students. Another aspect which maximizes the use of the educational context tablets is related to their smaller dimensions, compared with laptops, that making them easier to transport and, consequently, to promote easier their use in the teaching and learning process. Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). The use of tablets can be made by all students whatever their age or grade. It can also be used in all areas of knowledge. Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. The "TEA Project" will be a reference: http://teagulbenkian.weebly.com/. It is intended that the use of tablets in an educational context will promote a change in the way students use digital technologies by changing the shift through content and resources consumers and users in order to become content producers. The educational environment with the introduction of the tablet should be able to generate interactive spaces in order to be able to provide a more differentiated instruction and at the same time, promoting a learning approach that can be integrated in a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. In the case of a device that makes the ubiquitous and integrated digital technologies, are created conditions for the process of teaching and learning which can be contextualized in spaces outside of the classroom (non-formal). In view of this greater flexibility provided by the use of tablets in educational contexts (formal and informal), it is fostered critical and reflective spirit among the students as coresponsible for their learning. In this context, we suggest an Inquiry-Based Learning methodology and Problem Solving approach. In an example of using the tablet from associating Inquiry-based methodology learning and Flipped Classroom, the teacher presents a collection of videos and digital resources on the Web for their students consult at their home on a given theme (whatever area of knowledge but in this case, the example corresponds to the Natural Sciences) with an example of living ecosystem of a given habitat so that students understand the characterize the viability of this ecosystem, before these contents were treated in the classroom. Students use their tablets for watching these videos and to consult the digital resources offered by their teacher, each student may seek by its own initiative other 163

different resources proposed by the teacher. This means that it will promoted conditions for students to access contents according to their needs and learning rhythms. With their tablets students can also question the teacher via email or via a platform (eg LMS) to answer questions and they will can also communicate with their colleagues or even with other experts, stimulating collaborative work. It should be noted that the tablets feature allows such access 'anytime, anywhere' conjugating a formal space and a non-formal learning space. It is in this process that may include a Flipped Classroom methodology with the presentation of the research previously done by the students at the classroom through the presentation and discussion of these contents by the students, presenting solutions, as a result of his previous work search. Within this approach it will allowed the creation of contexts for a collaborative learning where students are the center of learning where the teacher has the key role in guiding and stimulating. Such an approach can be said that one can change the concept of homework ‘from home’ to the classroom. That is, the class time is used not to transmit content but to create interactions between teacher and student (s) and among the students themselves. In this case emphasizes the role of technology as a way of providing digital content to students through the use of tablets that students really enjoy.

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Seesaw Tool name: Seesaw Tool source: http://web.seesaw.me/

Tool state: The tool is standalone. Availability type: Freeware.

Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Social media

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

Video

Podcast

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Presentations

Online

Teacher tool

Web blogs

Wikis

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. Seesaw empowers students to independently document what they are learning at school. Students can “show what they know” using photos, videos, drawings, text, PDFs, and links. Students and teachers can also import directly from most popular apps. When students add to their Seesaw journal, content is uploaded, organized by student, and immediately accessible to teachers from any device. Seesaw makes it easy for 165

students and teachers to review progress over time and demonstrate growth.

Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). With support for QR code sign in for younger learners and email/Google account sign in for older students, Seesaw works in any K-12 classroom. The tool may be used by parents, too and it also may be used by students in different classrooms in order to collaborate, to share their knowledge. Seesaw may be used also to connect classrooms and teachers, to share their experience. Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. Seesaw helps teachers to encourage students to get deeper learning and reflection. Seesaw portfolios are a great asset at parent teacher conferences or even student-led conferences. Seesaw helps capture the learning process, not just the end result. Students can use Seesaw's built-in audio recording, drawing and caption tools to reflect on what they've learned or explain how they got their answer. Seesaw gives students an authentic audience of their peers, parents and even other classrooms around the globe, encouraging better work and real feedback. Teachers control who can view what student content, and can customize which feedback options are available in their class. Seesaw Blogs are a simple way to share a selection of work from students’ Seesaw portfolios on a public class blog, giving students a broader, global audience for their learning. Teachers can also connect directly to other classrooms through Seesaw Connected Blogs, providing students an opportunity to collaborate with other classrooms around the world and develop digital citizenship skills in a safe, teacher-moderated environment. Teachers using Seesaw for formative assessments can now tag their student’s posts with their own set of skills or standards. Optionally, assign a simple 1-4 star rating to student work to get a real-time understanding of how students are progressing towards key curriculum objectives. Standards and ratings are only visible to teachers, and are fully customizable to the learning goals class is working towards. 166

Teachers can take notes that are visible only to teachers, or add work into a teacher-only private folder. Students and parents cannot view work in the teacher private folder or access teacher private notes. Seesaw gives the possibility to include families in the learning process by inviting them to view updates to their child’s Seesaw journal. Seesaw’s immediate, visual updates actually get seen by parents provide encouragement for students, and cross language barriers.

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StoryJumper Tool name: StoryJumper Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. http://www.storyjumper.com

Tool state: Is the tool online or standalone? StoryJumper is an online tool.

Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. Creating, sharing, and reading books online on StoryJumper is free. There is no cost to use StoryJumper. StoryJumper gives access to created art libraries for story creation, online sharing, and book publishing. You can also order books as professionally published books. There are also options to purchase books to be published in hardcover, paperback or digital download. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

X

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

X

Social media

Video

X

X

Podcast

Presentations

Online

X

Web blogs

Wikis

X

Teacher tool

Learning management systems

X

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editor168

player/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… Users can ‘like’ ‘comment- encouraging words only, up to 1000 words’ ‘share- to Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter’ under any books that they create or are already in the StoryJumper library. There is also a feature to translate books that have been created and that are in the StoryJumper library into different languages. Books can be searched for in the StoryJumper library under language and topic and can be viewed online or purchased. Teachers can create class groups for users and review users books as well as allow access to parents. Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. StoryJumper is a site that gives teachers, students, parents, and authors a fun set of intuitive tools for writing and illustrating stories. The StoryJumper Classroom Edition is designed to give teachers an interface to manage and review students' work and provide strong privacy controls over student information. Teachers can create a teacher account and create, add and edit a class group of student users. Teachers can create a group with a Class Name and give a temporary password that all students will use to access the class the first time. Other information can be added such as duration of the class. After this duration is over, all students will be logged out. If students are over 13 years old, teachers will be asked to click "Yes". Teachers can also enter each student's email address. Students can also use StoryJumper at home without needing a signed permission form. Teachers can also allow students to be able to search photos from Flickr.co. To save time, a username is automatically generated for each student. If a teacher wants to change these, this can also be done. Video tutorials are included on the StoryJumper website in order to demonstrate how teachers and students can best use the tool. There is also a StoryJumper guide that includes tips on story writing and information around character development and creating plots. These directions can be printed and given to students. Also included is a template which can be given to parents to approve permission for the use of StoryJumper at home. This allows students more time to work on their stories at home as well as to share their books with family and friends (with parental approval). Students can then comment on other people's books. Students can then log in and create a book. Pictures can be saved and attached within the stories. Students can include and edit texts to create their stories. Each book has a cover page and students can flick from page to page within their books. A video tutorial can be shown to students in order to learn how to use the website to create their own book. After students have worked on their stories, teachers can go to their class page and scroll through the Review Student Books section to see all of their students' books. Teachers can read, edit, and comment on each of them. Student books are "private" by default. Teachers can share their student books and can securely allow students to see each other's work and allow parents see the books, as well. Books can then be shared or 169

purchased to share with other parents or teachers in hardback, paperback or digital download.

Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). On the StoryJumper website FAQ the question ‘Who is StoryJumper for?’ is asked. The answer provided is ‘All kids, aged 5 to 95.’ This tool has the potential to be adaptable and can be used by learners of all ages. Different themes can be used within the book creation in order to make the tool more suitable depending on the age and capabilities of the learners using it. The topic of the book being created depends on what is most relatable to the learners and any topic can be chosen. Users as young as 5 and as old as 21 would find this tool beneficial if the content of the story is age appropriate. StoryJumper enforces the highest level of information and identity protection possible for users, and fully complies with Federal regulations for protecting the privacy of children under age 13. A full Privacy Policy is included on the StoryJumper website.

Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. While the activity of reading stories is an educational goal in itself, young people should also experience the joy of the creative process, as well. Storytelling requires focus and concentration. StoryJumper is designed to enable young people to attain a state of creative 'flow' as easily as possible, and without disruption from distracting elements such as overly complex tools or intrusive advertising. Not only does StoryJumper encompass writing elements of learning but it also encourages reading and interactive engagement. StoryJumper promotes writing and literacy and includes several story templates that give students suggestions and ideas to stimulate their creativity. The website itself and story creation process is a print rich environment and includes a colourful art library. The art library is stocked with thousands of full-colour props and scenes, including everything from simple shapes to complex mythological animals and characters. Young people can mix and match scenes, and share their stories with one another via email, through social media, on the website and can comment and collaborate with one another. The inclusion of social network and email alongside the online tool enables users to develop their IT skills as well as their reading and writing in a safe and monitored environment. The tool is also extremely flexible and transferable and can be adapted within different age groups, abilities, languages and subjects. Students can also draw their own pictures by hand, and then scan and upload them to their own story. Users can also compile the pictures for a class compilation. The completed stories can be shared for free online, or ordered as books.

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Lino Tool name: Lino Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. http://en.linoit.com Tool state: Is the tool online or standalone? Online Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. There is a free of charge version of the tool offering a number of features fitting the purpose of the lesson, in which the tool will be used, and a premium version (offering a number of advanced features) that is made available at a fee specified by the developer. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Office suite

Boards

Email

Instant Messenger

Web blogs

X

Writing tools

Word processor

Web publishing

Note taking

Online

Wikis

X

Social media

Video

Podcast

Presentations

Teacher tool

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… Lino can be described as an online bulletin board tool.

171

Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. According to the tool’s official website (http://en.linoit.com): Lino is an online web sticky note service that can be used to post memos, to-do lists, ideas, and photos anywhere on an online web canvas. Lino can be accessed from any digital device and be used as an online bulletin board. Users can easily organize their posts with the help of a number of sticky notes coloring options and other available features. Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). Lino can be used by a wide range of ages. Students aged 15 – 16 who intend to make use of the tool in the context of the proposed lesson plan can perfectly exploit the whole range of available features. Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. Lino can be perfectly used as a presentation tool allowing its users to create canvases that reveal facts, ideas, concepts and their associations. Presentation of all the above can take place with the help of information inserted in the canvas in various formats (text, images, video). The extent and degree to which all offered functionalities are used and the way in which presented information is organized, can facilitate conclusions on the breadth and depth of learners’ understanding.

172

Story Board that Tool name: Story Board that

Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. http://www.storyboardthat.com/

Tool state: Is the tool online or standalone? Online Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. There is a free of charge version of the tool offering a number of features (that can cover the needs of our lesson plan) and a premium version (offering a number of advances features and services) that is made available at a fee specified by the developer on the site. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Office suite

Boards

Email

Instant Messenger

Web blogs

X

Writing tools

Word processor

Web publishing

Note taking

Online

Wikis

X

Social media

Video

Podcast

Presentations

Teacher tool

Learning management systems

X

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other… 173

Online tool for comic creation through use of a number of available layouts and templates. It can easily be accessed through both a PC and a tablet and allows for exporting created comics in a high resolution images, PDF of PowerPoint format. The free version of the tool offers its users the following: (a) creation of three to six cells comics, (b) potential to create two comics per week, (c) option to export created comics in watermarked images, PDF files, PowerPoint presentations. Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). StoryBoard can be used by a wide range of students. Teenagers will enjoy using the tool in the context of the proposed lesson plan as they love comics and working in groups. Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity.   

Re-enforcing English, History, Special Ed, STEM, ELL, & Foreign Languages Creating Graphic Organizers Presentation Creation and Delivery

174

Studyblue Tool name: Studyblue Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. www.studyblue.com/ Mode of execution: Is the tool online or standalone? Online Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. Freeware (a basic version)

Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Social media

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

Video

Podcast

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Presentations

Online

Teacher tool

Web blogs

Wikis

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other…

Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. 175

StudyBlue, is a learning platform, which provides intelligent learning tools including flashcards, notes and study guides. The website allows users to upload class study materials, create electronic flashcards to study and share with others, and practice quizzes. StudyBlue allows students to store their notes in the cloud and connect with other students studying the same subjects. StudyBlue content can be accessed online or on mobile phone applications. Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). StudyBlue is an online studying platform for high school and college students.

Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. Creating flashcards and quizzes allows you to gain in study skills and learning. The website facilitates teachers to share lessons or homework.

176

Prezi Tool name: Prezi Tool source: In this section, the URL of the developer’s website, from which the tool may be downloaded or accessed, is provided. www.prezi.com Mode of execution: Is the tool online or standalone? online Availability type: Freeware/availability of demo version/commercial software. freeware Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Social media

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

Video

Podcast

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Presentations

Online

Teacher tool

Web blogs

Wikis

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Blog/wiki/comic book creator/video editorplayer/photo gallery/bulletin board/game/social network/other…

Tool description: In this section, key characteristics and offered functionalities (as described in the developer’s website) may be presented. Web suitable tool to make online presentations and on the cloud. It offers a user interface that allows you to zoom, scroll through slides in a dynamic (not necessarily sequential) to 177

enlarge the various sections of the presentation and to navigate through the information. Target users: In this section, the age range of potential tool users is provided (this piece of information may also be available from the developer). This tool is suitable for all types of users who want to communicate their ideas or information with a presentation. Educational uses: In this section, descriptions of the tool’s potential educational uses are provided. This section may serve as the necessary rationale for the exploitation of the tool in the context of a specific educational/learning activity. Prezi can be used by teachers and students to collaborate on presentations with multiple users able to access and edit the same presentation and to allow students to construct and present their knowledge in different learning styles. The product is also being used in e-learning and edutainment.

178

Padlet Tool name: Padlet Tool source: https://padlet.com/ Tool state: The tool is used online. It can also be downloaded as a mobile app, both for iOS and for Android, as well as on Kindle devices. The final product can be exported in various formats, as PDF, CSV, image, and Excel. Availability type: Padlet is free to use with respect to its basic features, which are sufficient for individual teachers and a teachers’ class. There is a premium service with charge for group services offered for schools and businesses. Every user needs to create an account, so as to be able to create a padlet. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Social media

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

Video

Podcast

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Presentations

Online

Teacher tool

Web blogs

Wikis

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Available wallpaper and theme options, accepts images and videos from computer or phone, allows for collaboration from various users on the same product, available in multiple languages. Tool description: Padlet is an interactive and collaborative online tool, which students and teachers can 179

use in order to create bulletin boards and walls on specific themes, with a collection of images and videos telling a story. These can be created individually or in collaboration with others, and photos, videos, or other types of files can be uploaded and organized in templates/backgrounds/themes that are available in order to tell a story or present a board in a visual manner. Users can upload files from their computer, take a picture or video from their phone, or a link from the web. They can post images, documents, videos, music, and files from Photoshop, Illustrator, Autocad, and more. They can also embed content from anywhere on the web, including YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, Vimeo, The New York Times, and 400 other apps. Attached links and files appear with a contextual preview to give viewers a hint of what they will see. (Source: https://padlet.com/features) Target users: Padlet can be used by primary education teachers, as well as by secondary education teachers. It can also be used in tertiary education in courses related to teacher professional development, or ICT integration in education. Padlet can also be used by students, who master basic skills in ICT, so it would be preferable, as a minimum age, to be used from upper classes of primary school onwards. Educational uses: Padlet can be used to collaborate in collecting ideas, brainstorming, and more. This tool can easily be used in a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) classroom since all students will be able to access it for free, no matter what device they have. Padlet does not show which work is attributable to which student, so teachers may want to require that students initial their contributions in order to get credit. If allowing all students to post to the wall or make comments, teachers may want to discuss internet safety and etiquette and establish specific class rules and consequences. Making the setting private again will prohibit content from later being replaced by classmate "vandalism." Padlet can be used to collect web quest links and information to share with students. By leaving the wall open to comments, teachers can solicit input, discussions, or viewpoints from students. They can even contribute other sources they find. Color code resources to indicate different reading levels or "high challenge" sources can be used for more able students. A student project can be assigned for which students choose their theme and design a wall around it. For example, students can create a wall about an environmental issue. They can include pictures, audio or video, links, and other information to display. Padlet can also be used as a new format for book reports. Teachers can explore students’ favorite topics (e.g. music or sports) and can create a wall around these favorites or hobbies. A wall can also be used for grammar or vocabulary words, or for debates or viewpoints. In addition, assignments, reminders, or study skills can also be posted on a wall. Another idea, especially if student scribes or reporters are used in class, is to use the Padlet site to create a wall with the goings-on in class. The wall can be embedded in a blog, wiki, or website. Padlet can also be used as a class space during snow days and school breaks. The link can be shared to a teacher-created, public wall where students can share notes about 180

what they did during the snow day or respond to a thought-provoking question. Creativity and organization can be encouraged by having “gifted” students (or anyone doing independent projects) create Padlets to collect ideas, images, quotes, and more in an "idea bin." Teachers can require students to share a brainstorming Padlet to show the ideas they considered before they launch into a project. They can brainstorm (and later sort/color code) the possibilities for a creative problem-solving or "Maker Faire" project. In writing or art classes, Padlet can be used as a virtual writer's journal or design notebook to collect ideas, images, and even video clips. Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/

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ToonDoo Tool name: ToonDoo Tool source: http://toondoo.com Tool state: The tool is used online. The final product can be embedded on a website, wiki, or blog, or the URL can be shared publicly or with a restricted audience. Availability type: ToonDoo is free to use. Every user though needs to create an account, so as to be able to create a comic strip or comic book. Tool type and features (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Webtop

Writing tools

Social media

Office suite

Boards

Word processor

Video

Podcast

Email

Web publishing

Instant Messenger

Note taking

Presentations

Online

Teacher tool

Web blogs

Wikis

Learning management systems

Other (please identify if not included): Users can select from a library of available clip art or they can doodle their own images.

Tool description: ToonDoo is an online digital tool that can be used to create a story or a small book in a comic book format; either as a comic strip (a ToonDoo) or as a comic book (a ToonBook). In this digital tool, the author (teachers and students) can create a story through selection of scenarios, characters and respective lines (texts). The tool offers a 182

variety of backgrounds, props, characters, brushes, design styles, as well as libraries of images based on several themes. The tools available for altering imaged and text help users personalize their comic strip or comic book as much as they wish. The main relevance of this digital tool is the fact that students appreciate reading comics associated with its great visual impact (illustrations). This tool has the ability to be used and exploited in different disciplines, so that it makes it a very versatile tool where reading and writing is involved. Comic books allow students to create a story about any topic they are investigating and to create a strip on their own, which increases motivation and commitment while promoting reading. Target users: ToonDoo can be used by primary education teachers, as well as by secondary education teachers. It can also be used in tertiary education in courses related to teacher professional development, or courses related to the integration of ICT in teaching. ToonDoo can also be used by students, who master basic skills in ICT, so it would be preferable, as a minimum age, to be used from upper classes of primary school onwards. Educational uses: Teachers and students can play with the "Create Your Own" tools to make a TOONDOO or TOONBOOK, including locating characters, resizing, re-ordering, entering text, etc. They can also upload an image to include. When done, they can publish the product, publicly by sharing the URL or to opt for a limited audience. As a results, some potential safety concerns need to be considered: If students are creating their own TOONDOOS, it is preferable for the teachers to prohibit their accessing the links to "popular" TOONDOOS and others available to the public, since the site is open for anyone's idea of "funny" content. Once teachers have laid the ground rules, they can have students create strips with characters explaining a science concept. Or show the steps in a process or procedure, such as the water cycle. Older students can create political satire cartoons. If students work from their teacher’s account, then the teacher can provide the "raw materials" of some digital pictures for them to make cartoon explanations of lab safety procedures or nature species. Even little ones can write sentences; they can work with a partner and teachers should preferably limit their choices to 3 character options so they do not keep changing their minds! (Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/) Illustrations have a number of possible benefits to learning. Some concepts, especially in the sciences, can be difficult for students understand textually, but are better communicated in pictures. Illustrations can be used to get students attention and increase their emotional interest in a topic. Other illustrations can be used to summarize or rephrase information and help students build their framework of understanding. There are even more benefits to be gained by having students create their own cartoons in class. By creating cartoons, students: 183



Interpret a concept from verbal/textual form (provided by teacher) to visual form (created in ToonDoo)



Organize science concept to fit a limited-panel representation



Create their own new, unique representation of an idea



Appreciate the difficult scientists encounter when trying to communicate their ideas to others



Demonstrate computer skills

(Source: https://toondooguide.wordpress.com/toondoo-what-it-is-and-why-to-use-it/)

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Other Identified Tools: Below table contain other identified tools which can be used in promotion of reading through ICT. Identified Digital Tool

Notes

iCardSort

One of the best ways to help kids construct their own understanding of content is through sorting. By sorting, students are able to identify examples and non-examples of items within categories like spelling patterns, parts of speech, or other groups of related information, building their own context for the content. iCardSort, an app that creates movable electronic cards, allows students to sift through and sort information. Most simply, it can be used for categorizing, but the possibilities are endless! It can also be used for building sentences, research, or even learning how to write paragraphs. Reading and writing are non-linear art forms, and the tools we put in front of students should facilitate this creative process. Confining children to prescriptive graphic organizers can kill a love of reading and the freedom that accompanies spontaneous thought. Using concept mapping tools like Popplet allows students to document their journey in an infinite visuospatial sketchpad of thought, that truly reveals the nuanced complexity and interconnectedness of being literate. The younger children are, the more difficult it is for them to express their ideas in writing. By providing students with interactive whiteboard and recording tools like Educreations, students can document thinking simply by speaking. They can import rubrics, texts, and writing samples to create videos that focus on process, not product. As a part of my reading assessments, I’ve asked students to read the text aloud in Educreations, annotating, highlighting, and thinking aloud as they go. It’s given me fantastic insights into thought patterns and the complex nature of individual student thinking while reading. http://bitu.com/spot/ Three-time Caldecott Medalist David Wiesner turns users into explorers – explorers of the many complex layers of Spot as they zoom closer and closer into the illustrations and discover unseen worlds, which, in turn, beg to be further investigated. They will delight in dust bunnies that hop when touched, welding ladybugs, a family of insects enjoying a winter day, and a host of other unexpected surprises. Tip: Spot is full of story starter after story starter. Students can explore an island and then write a story explaining what is occurring in this imaginative environment. http://darnedsock.com/loose-strands/

Popplet

Educreations

David Wiesner's Spot

Loose Strands

185

Seamus Heaney: Five Fables

The UnStealer

Remind

Seesaw

Skitch

Loose Strands will appeal to fans of Choose Your Own Adventure books. A wry story is created as readers follow along and choose their desired outcomes. Strands of hair guide the way through the story and branch off when choices must be made. A fun feature is a map that shows the path that has been taken as well as outcomes blocked by the choices already made. Tip: Encourage students to refer to the map when making decisions and in order to keep track of where they have been. http://fivefablesapp.com/ Scot poet Robert Henryson's adaptations of five Aesop fables are brought into the modern age with this app. Students will be able to look at the original language, as well as modern English while at the same time viewing animations of the fables. Tip: Students can compare Aesop's version of each fable to the Scot version and the modern language version to learn more about changes due to culture and how storytelling varies from country to country. http://www.thehappydandelion.com/ The Unstealer is a creative story that teaches the meaning of the prefix un-. Follow along as a stealthy thief turns an unhappy day around and makes an unconfident girl confident again. Interactive features make this app unbelievable and one that shouldn’t be unintentionally ignored. Tip: What stories can students create using other prefixes? Challenge them to write their own! https://www.remind.com Remind offers teachers a free, safe and simple way to instantly text students & parents. Teachers, coaches, or administrators can send reminders, assignments, homework, assessments, or motivational messages directly to students' & parents' phones. Including: regular text messages, voice clips and attachments. You can also schedule texts. Messaging is safe because phone numbers are kept private Tip: Use Remind daily to brief parents on whether their children did well in class and what their homework is for the night. http://web.seesaw.me/ Seesaw is a student-driven digital portfolio that empowers students (as young as 5!) to independently create, capture, and store artifacts of learning. Seesaw allows educators to collect and Organize digital and physical work in one place. Tip: Give students ownership of their own space to create & record what they learn. Students can add text and voice recordings to journal items to reflect, explain, and develop their academic voice. A great teacher resources section is available on the Seesaw site. Skitch is a free app that helps you communicate visually with friends, co-workers, and the world. Can markup and edit images.- can add text, highlight, blur, arrows, sticker to mark images. Tip: Share a diagram of the earth’s layers and have students label it 186

Spider Scribe Jr.

Content Creation Adobe Voice

Buncee for Edu

Glogster

Pixel Press Floors

Reading Comprehension at the Paragraph Level

with you. https://www.spiderscribe.net/ SpiderScribe Jr. is a mind mapping and brainstorming tool. It lets you organize your ideas by connecting notes, images and geographic locations in free-form maps. Tip: The app can be used offline - it does not require internet connection, unless you need to email your map to someone. https://spark.adobe.com/about/video Simple, elegant tool for creating stories by recording voice over your own images or a library of themes, images, fonts and music. Anyone can create beautiful presentations with virtually no learning curve. Tip: Going on a field trip? Have a big event in the library or at school? Ask students to take pics and have a camera roll ready for the storytelling to come. https://www.edu.buncee.com/home Create beautiful digital stories using audio recordings and libraries of background and stickers. Wizards support beginners' efforts. Tip: Record your voice and share a model project as a way to explain assignments to parents and with younger students or use for announcements. Check the buncee blog for loads of ideas for integrating buncees into curriculum. http://edu.glogster.com/ This favorite web-based interactive poster tool is even better as an app, because of the drag-and-drop Glog canvas. There's an impressive library of educational graphics, categorized by subject, as well as handy templates and a sweet collection of text displays. Finished Glogs are sharable on Pinterest, Facebook, or may be tweeted, emailed or exported. Saved glogs are instantly synced and available online. A button links glog creators to Glogpedia, a template library of thousands of categorized Glogs from classrooms around the world. Tip: Inquiry projects can be enhanced by creating a network of linked Glogs--one might be devoted to the thesis, others--the evidence, another--the conclusion. http://www.projectpixelpress.com/floors/ This social gaming/problem solving app inspires kids to create (literally draw) and share their own video games. Drawings, build on the 14 creator elements, are captured by the app and immediately transformed into playable games. Creators get feedback about how often their games are played. Tip: Check out the one- or five-day Design Thinking curricula, complete with rubrics and brainstorming handouts. Keep sketch sheets around for spontaneous maker activity! Middle school students, having moved well beyond learning to read, are now reading to learn. Students need to learn to be critical readers and how to look for answers and evidence within the text. If a student gets a comprehension question wrong, the Reading 187

Comprehension at the Paragraph Level app explains why the answer was wrong. The app contains 36 short passages followed by comprehension questions and a critical thinking question. Students can view their quiz results and questions that gave them trouble. Brush of Truth The most common reason kids dislike reading is because they find it boring and lose interest in the story. Brush of Truth is a reading app with a twist! It lets you make choices about what you want to happen as you read along. There are 20 different endings, 65 different “choice points,” and even an option to go back and explore different endings than their initial choice. Using illustrations, easy print and high-interest text to grab students’ attention, Brush of Truth focuses on reluctant readers. It’s also well-linked to Common Core standards. Educators can create lessons and use worksheets that match stories in the classroom. iTooch 7th Grade Language We can’t say enough about the iTooch suite of apps across the Arts language arts curriculum. This app combines direct instruction with practice and tests. The questions are both standalone and linked to reading passages. Students can work their way through 13 reading lessons from main idea to tone, mood, figurative language, conflict, theme and more. All materials can be accessed in the free version of this app if the students complete the lessons in order, unlocking each subsequent lesson. Students are scored on each test that they take and their scores are saved within the app, to which users can add multiple players in order to keep scores separate. Grammar: Figures of Though the name of this app is a tad misleading, users will find solace Speech in that it provides plenty of practice reinforcing literary terminology. While most figures of speech are examples of literary terms and techniques, users are confronted with more information than expected. This app allows users to take lessons or quizzes over literary terminology including synecdoche, personification, metonymy, etc. With 300 questions available, students have the opportunity to practice identifying literary terms instead of merely memorizing the definition. Progress is given to students at the end of each quiz, documenting the number of questions answered right and wrong. Users get to see what they missed and how the correct answer is identified. They also have the opportunity to retest missed questions. Spelling Notebook Free This app replaces old-fashioned spelling dictation and allows parents and teachers to create individualized word lists for each child. Users locate words they want to add to a list in the app dictionary, then either use the built-in recording or record their own voice. Practice with the word visible or hidden, random order or alphabetical. When the player practices a list, correct answers receive a star, and incorrect have the proper spelling beside the word in black ink (good that the correct spelling is emphasized). The incorrect words are repeated in subsequent dictations. Results are stored and can be emailed to parent or teacher with success percentage and specific 188

Kahoot Emaze StoryJumper

Edublogs.com

Goodreads

Kindle e-reader

Google Play Newsstand

Future Classroom iTunes iBooks Apple

spellings used. It’s not a fancy app, but it does the job well. For Classroom Management https://www.emaze.com/ The story starter workbook is an online tool for teaching students the creative writing and reading process. The goal of the workbook is to coach students in building the 7 primary components of a story (Characters, Challenges, Motivation, Setting, Obstacles, Climax, and Closing). Finishing the 7 steps will give students complete story arcs that they can then develop into rich, detailed stories. An online digital book is then created and can be printed or shared with others through email, Facebook and Twitter. An edublog is a blog created for educational purposes. Edublogs archive and support student and teacher learning by facilitating reflection, questioning by self and others, collaboration and by providing contexts for engaging in higher-order thinking. It can be authored by a learner, teacher, researcher or an administrator. The most popular features include discussion tools, video embedding, Facebook and Twitter integration, and calendars. Goodreads is one of the world’s largest site for readers and book recommendations. Using the website or app, people can see which books their friends are reading. Track the books they are reading, have read, and want to read. Check out your personalized book recommendations. Goodreads offer a recommendation engine that analyses 20 billion data points to give suggestions tailored to your literary tastes. You can also find out if a book is a good fit for you from our community’s reviews. The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon.com. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. A book may be downloaded from Amazon to several devices at the same time. The devices sharing the book must be registered to the same Amazon account. A sharing limit typically ranges from one to six devices, depending on an undisclosed number of licenses set by the book publisher. Play Newsstand's home displays articles on the basis of the user's interests which, according to Google, the app learns quickly. Play Newsstand was released for iOS in September 2014, as an update to the existing Google Currents app. Play Newsstand featured about 1,900 free and paid publications at the time of its launch. The app automatically formats articles for reading on a phone or tablet, complete with images, audio and video inline. Articles are cached on the device for offline reading. http://lsl.eun.org/home http://www.apple.com/ie/itunes/ http://www.apple.com/ie/ibooks/ 189

Blogs/ voice blogs Podcasts Wikis Web 2.0 platforms (Edublogs, YouTube) Tablets Smart phones QR codes (Quick Response Codes) QR Codes Scanners

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301905627_Web_20_in_ ComputerAssisted_Language_Learning_a_research_synthesis_and_implication s_for_instructional_design_and_educational_practice

1001 voices authoring tool (for stories in narrative format)

Can be accessed freely through email at [email protected]

MS PowerPoint to create digital stories (addressed to pupils)

http://www.1001storia.polimi.it/generate/EXPO/1743/

http://www.rbe.mec.pt/np4/ideiasmerito.html

Visit your phone's app store (examples include the Android Market, Apple App Store, BlackBerry App World, etc.) and download a QR code reader/scanner app.

MS Movie Maker to create digital stories (addressed to teachers) Mystory

MOOC on storytelling

1010: The Beginning of the Republic

Educational game

Os Maias – becoming an expert!

Educational game

Konnecting. O homem ser comunicante

Educational game

Interactive screens

http://teagulbenkian.weebly.com/ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZVZH19uSjilqw254GGcmfw

Digital library Digital library for blind (“Sound of the pages”)

http://itec.eun.org/web/guest;jsessionid=AC474F1F6EC091F1A678D 41FDEEB6810 http://www.bibnat.ro/Biblioteca-Digitala-Nationala-s135-ro.htm

190

Book trailer production eTwinning platform / TwinSpace Movie Maker Adobe Premier Corel Video Studio Sony Vegas Camtasia Studio Portal to promote reading/ Goethe Institute Media lab Pressreader “Reinvent The Book”

https://www.etwinning.net/ro/pub/profile.cfm?fuseaction=app.proje ct&lang=ro&pid=68461 Digital tools used by pupils to create videos based on their partner’s poems

http://www.goethe.de/ins/gr/lp/prj/lef/lfw/rum/ro12029505.htm medialab.futurelibrary.gr Working with a classic story and using technology to enhance the reading experience www.sgt.gr/gre/SPG1611

http://www.europeana-space.eu/hackathons-home/ XANADU. Persistent readers’ http://www.progettoxanadu.it community Wikireadia Searchable and editable encyclopaedia of good practice in reading, writing, listening and speaking http://www.wikireadia.org/ AMORES Methodology to improve students’ engagement with literature www.amores-project.eu Closer to Books Slovenian Book Portal Bližjiknjigi.si Malta Libraries eBooks http://maltalibraries.lib.overdrive.com/ Service Cellphone novels I-pad books with soft music http://digitalfor little readers, text that storytime.com/review.php?id=261#sthash.U337VyoB.dpuf highlights while read and the possibility to record your own narration Multiple computer workstations Voice Thread An interactive collaboration and sharing tool that enables users to add images, documents, and videos, and to which other users can add voice, text, audio file, or video comments. Classroom 2.0 Ning The community for educators using Web 2.0 and collaborative technologies! A social network for educators. e-Reader Intelligent board Twitter Social media Facebook Social media 191

MOODLE

Chapter 4. Ideas, Actions and Activities for Incorporating ICT in Reading Promotion Collected Best Practices This section of the Toolkit was prepared in the framework of the “Lire2.0” Erasmus+/KA2 project (reference number 2015-1-IE01-KA201-008625). It presents the findings from a desk-based research performed by six project partners from Ireland, Cyprus, Portugal, 192

Romania, Greece and Italy with the purpose of identifying Best Practices in the field of sustainable use of ICT for reading promotion for pupils and teenagers of 10-18 years old. The research consisted in reviewing past programs, projects and reports from the inside and outside the European Union. This section presents a brief overview on the collected Best Practices to include three categories – programs, projects and reports – and the EU coverage. A summary of the most important approaches and innovative methods to promote reading, as they have been identified in the reviewed documents is also included. This has all been included in the LiRe2.0 Toolkit in order to assist educators and teachers in promoting reading through the use of ICT.

Rationale for Best Practice Report This Report on Best Practice Resources was developed in the framework of the Lifelong Readers 2.0 (Lire2.0), an “Erasmus+ Key Action KA201Strategic Partnerships for School Education” project with reference number 2015-1-IE01-KA201-008625. The Report presents the results obtained by the project Consortium within a desk-based research targeting to review the best of existing practices and innovative pedagogical methods, best practice guidelines, and implementation strategies towards scalable, systemic and sustainable use of ICT for reading promotion. The research focused on collecting Best Practices and certain approaches that proved useful in sustaining ICT-based reading promotion as illustrated in related literature, namely: project-based reading promotion, outdoors/informal learning, use of ICT with emphasis on mobile technologies and social media, comics, digital storytelling, and interactions with scientists through schools-scientist partnerships. The emphasis was on reading promotion and sustaining the creation of communities of readers but transfer of methods and practices across areas was also encouraged. The main target is to provide to educators and teachers analytical information regarding acclaimed international and European Best Practices in reading promotion and introduce educators to an array of digital tools of enhancing people’s reading attitudes, reading engagement, and reading skills. Envisaged tools included mobile devices, tablet computers, interactive comics, digital storytelling, social media and games. Approaches in targeting high risk students, drop outs, and combating low literacy levels have also been taken into account. This Report gathers thus representative available know-how regarding effective reading promotion through ICT, with an emphasis on Web2.0 technologies. Diverse digital tools and environments that may be used for reading promotion have been reviewed. The desk-based research was achieved through two distinct activities: 193

1. Review of past programs: the issues addressed have included practical tips of inspire, guide, and facilitate the creation of reading cultures and communities among pre-teens and teenagers, university students, and working adults, through the use of Web 2.0 technologies and other forms of digital/social reading and “book-talking”. 2. Review of research reports: past relevant projects and programs like LiRe1.0 (www.lifelongreaders.org) have been reviewed in order to identify reading promotion activities, frameworks and reports; these will be used later on in the project, to develop sample of actions and activities for reading promotion to children and teenagers (10-18 years old).

Overview on the collected Best Practices The desk-based research was performed by six project partners, namely Louth and Meath Education and Training Board (LMETB) from Ireland, Centre for Advancement of Research and Development in Educational Technology Ltd (CARDET) from Cyprus, Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco (IPCB) from Portugal, Universitatea din Piteşti (UPIT) from Romania, Douka Ekpaideftiria Ae - Palladion Lykeion Ekfpaideuthria Douka (DOUKAS) from Greece and IIS Ferraris Brunelleschi Empoli (IIS) from Italy. The identified programs, projects and reports have been selected based on the relevance of certain attributes that they provide to the users and beneficiaries in the view of ICT and Web2.0 Technologies-based reading promotion, namely: approach, innovative method, strategy, activity/action, project-based reading promotion, outdoors/informal learning, digital tools or environment, social Reading and “book-talking”, practical tips. By scrutinizing the collected Best Practices, it was revealed that specific ICT-based techniques and Web2.0 technologies exist in each Best Practice and these are in fact the elements that made the respective programs, projects and reports becoming successful. The table below presents the most important such techniques and approaches supporting the reading promotion of children and teenagers.

Approaches and innovative methods to promote reading, identified in the reviewed programs, projects and reports Best Practice Programs

Approaches and innovative methods - an on-line platform where children can share their video book reviews with their peers via a website repository; 194

Best Practice

Approaches and innovative methods - an online community which include varied forms of digital communications (educational modern mobile appliances such as: seasonal books feature, tips for parents, recorded interviews with authors or traditional story tellers, advice on how to prepare a book review, etc.) to increase children’s literacy skills and cultural awareness; - a searchable and editable Encyclopaedia of good practice in reading, writing, listening and speaking; - eBook Service which can be accessed online (borrowing several titles at a time, search and filter eBooks and audio books, read them in many different formats, etc.); - a Best Practice Ideas platform containing the most consistent experiences and best practices implemented by libraries to promote reading, where applications were made by schools across the country (i.e. School library, QR Book design, Words Tablet, Get the electronic book into the classroom and other school projects); - a ‘flipped classroom’ approach (using schoolbooks online, resources online and web technologies in class - tablet/computers, interactive screens, internet access 4G), combined with learning outside the classroom, videos, podcasts, books and websites created by teachers for students to use at home; - a National Program “The World in my library" with free access to Internet and equipment (computers, software, peripherals) made available to the public libraries and the diversification of services in public libraries (i.e. the “Stories’ week” program to promote reading for children and a service for the development of digital literacy of students in primary and secondary education, using electronic portfolios as means for the active involvement in the educational process and productive use of new technologies); - a Book-A-Book program for achieving a Virtual Traditional Catalogue, for books published before 1990 (digitalizing library records and integrating them into an easy-to-use, comprehensive platform, offering wide scale information on library resources, allowing users to conduct focused or exploratory searches, enabling book reviews and allowing users to book a book); - an educational platform for teachers, students, parents providing teaching practices on the character development, a pedagogical model for learning in the digital age and reading community; - an intergenerational action in favour of reading, “Read us a story”, accommodating people of the 3rd age who come to the school to read stories to children; - “The battles of the books” reading promotion program for youth 8 to 12 years (teachers gather into an organizing committee that put together their classes to compete at a certain time of the year, in one place, based on a questionnaire that ask students about the content of thirty youth novels, read in a year); - a pioneering program creating high-quality mother-tongue materials to teach children to read on an accessible, low-cost digital platform and sustainably deploying them at national scale, in partnership with government and other stakeholders; 195

Best Practice

Projects

Approaches and innovative methods - enhance pupils' enjoyment of books through crafts and creative activities by using audio conferencing, chat, e-mail, forums, mp3 recordings and other software (PowerPoint, video, pictures and drawings), Video conferencing, Virtual learning environments (communities, virtual classes) and web publishing, creation of a common blog; - creating media labs where teenagers, students, professionals, unemployed people and immigrants can produce and edit a video, create a digital story, record a radio spot or even their own song, hold a meeting or just surf the Internet and access exclusive digital content, while at the same time relaxing in a pleasant and friendly environment; - increasing the joy of reading and reading motivation of children and youths through activities are of a communal nature (management, staff and the community participate in the planning and implementation of the events held at both schools and libraries); - a site dedicated to book lovers, providing a forum to discover and share commentary about the authors and books they have read, with weekly questions, a monthly poll tallying opinions on the book, a blog with writing tips, author event information and links to more than three dozen writing and book sites (the titles are split into fun categories like Books to Read During the Day, With the Lights On and Books to Furiously Chain Read); - a repository website, which collects materials trialled and validated by selected tutors, and has been used for in-class education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies; - a digital collection of traditional folk culture; - using ICT to raise student’s motivation to learn a foreign language; - improving children’s English speaking skills by collaborating on a digital story and sharing information about their perspective cultures and traditions. - applying classroom model based on collaborative teaching and learning., enhancing the interaction and collaboration through the use of ICT: all classrooms are equipped with an interactive whiteboard, wireless internet, and devices for each student (PCs or tablets); teachers collaborate with their students to create digital learning materials; - improving students’ and teacher’ digital literacy and empowering teachers by increasing their pedagogical competences in new technologies and creating eartifacts, digital stories inspired by national literatures; learners can also submit reflections via video and posters; - a book portal that increases the accessibility and recognition of national literary, humanities and other cultural magazines at home and abroad; - encouraging children to create digital media content to their own stories, through an authoring tool created to combine text, audio, images and video, which can be accessed freely through email; - developing games and gaming for education (that have potential for reading promotion) based on the students’ preferences; - developing student-created blogs with diverse information, such as on participating schools, educational materials for understanding flamenco culture, a wide variety of educational resources to work on these texts and a 196

Best Practice

Approaches and innovative methods wide range of resources used. There is also information on the activities developed through Web 2.0 tools (e-literatura digital, podcasts, videos, blogs, etc.); - producing book trailers as a method to promote literature appreciation (video production using digital storytelling techniques); - making students to cooperate to write an e-magazine (writing different types of articles - interview, report, survey, essay, opinion - on various topics, using ICT collaborative tools for publishing, editing, commenting, communicate efficiently, etc.; - illustrating books or novels based on interviewing parents and grandparents, publishing the material on eTwinning platform, organising an exhibition at school including own works and reflecting about the results on the Desktop forum; - popularization of the multicultural aspect of poetry (using ICT knowledge acquired within Computer science classes: word processing and Word and PowerPoint presentations, using data available on Google, You Tube; using Toolbox: e-mail, Skype, chat, forum, blog and TwinSpace; creating videos based on poems by using: Movie Maker, Adobe Premier, Corel Video Studio, Sony Vegas, Camtasia Studio); posting the results on a blog and eTwinning; - collecting, systematizing, digitalizing and preserving for future generations the cultural heritage of national literary classics; - working out models for teaching learning to learn skills and developing cognitive competencies of Romani students of distant village primary schools (adaptation of educational software suitable for teenagers with learning difficulties and ICT-supported enrichment programmes in mathematics, physics, chemistry, mother tongue and Information Technology); - building a reading promotion framework by featuring, among other, an extensive collection of reading promotion actions, an annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources and reading promotion evaluation tools; - “reinventing the book” (using technology to enhance the reading experience): working on four aspects of a book: Book Design, Open Hardware, API (Application Program Interface) and Entrepreneurship and Sustainability; - multimedia library and Multicentrum (offering young readers over thirteen CDs, DVDs, computer games and programs, multiple computer workstations, Internet access and software, activating young readers, providing opportunity to explore poetry, graphics, theatre and film); - creating a community of kids and literature promoters who confront and dialog with each other personally and online; - creating a website that gathers the ‘ideal library’ with the books most voted by the kids, with close examination files; - using the Xanadu training methods for reading promoters through courses and seminars, dialogues between school and library networks, by means of ICT; - creating a web and social platform, through which to share reading tools, events and activities and create actual contacts among strong and either weak or reluctant readers; 197

Best Practice

Reports

Approaches and innovative methods - creating or reinforcing School and Private Company Libraries through a Web2.0 tools based campaign; - a digital free library available via the Internet, providing access to any type of document: printed documents (books, press and magazines) in image and text mode, manuscripts, sound and iconographic documents, maps and plans; - using digital programmes to allow the reluctant readers building a personal reading learning programme; - videoconferences with teachers from abroad (Philippine) and methodological worksheets when teaching a foreign language (English); - travelling libraries of the most beautifully illustrated children's books in multiple European languages travel from school to school across Europe and placing the results on a website; - using authoring tools for digital stories/comics (Web comics); - promoting a safer online environment for children (investigating children’s habits in using mobile devices for a variety of activities, and investigating the online risks associated with such activities, so as proposing internet safety guidelines for the youth and for their parents) - online reading and writing laboratory; - producing learning scenarios & activities, guidelines and recommendations to help policy-makers and schools to take informed decisions on optimal strategies for implementing 1-to-1 initiatives in schools and for the effective integration of tablets in teaching and learning. - primarily used devices are the ebook readers; practical steps in implementing a one-to-one device initiative in second-level schools consists of a four-step process: plan, prepare, implement and evaluate; - each library would suit its context, thus the training of specialized teacher librarians inside schools is needed; school libraries should be conceived as multimedia resource centers that would facilitate reading equipment and access to participation through diverse means of communication of its users (teachers and students); - the introduction of laptops, Wi-Fi, digital textbooks and virtual learning environments - making up truly digital classrooms - has changed the teaching of reading and writing across all subjects in education; - the term reader used for a library user is not anymore valid, as nowadays the users benefit from library’s services which means especially ICT facilities. Availability of these services is another revolution in the system, which, along with open access to information represent essential changes in the system. The public library was completely transformed from an organization that observes social development into an organization participating in social evolution because it supports the training and information of the users, as recipients of information technology which makes a difference between traditional libraries and modern libraries; - Prisoners usually have low skills and little education; in a Prison Learning Centre having a central ICT network, each prisoner works on an individualised study plan, any time and at their own pace; the ICT competencies will be valuable in both their professional and private life in freedom; 198

Best Practice

Approaches and innovative methods - the use of ICT in schools is important through the following aspects: ICT access and use of ICT in schools; progress in the use of ICT in schools; the first contact of students with the ICT and ICT in schools; access to ICT outside the classroom and the ability to use available ICT resources for other purposes; - the use of mobile devices (tablets, mobile phones) for mobile learning during field trips outside the classroom (which proved to be more efficient than traditional ways for reading per se, but also for brainstorming, collecting data, coming up with ideas, working on comprehension activities); - using social technologies as valuable tools in the language classrooms but also entailing challenges regarding their theoretical and pedagogical alignment; - using Web 2.0 tools and collaborative environments (digital storytelling, digital yearbooks, electronic storybooks, oral reading and publishing) to positively influence fluency, vocabulary development and comprehension of texts in pupils’ learning.

Best practices to promote reading and writing The following tables provide an overview of national best practices from European countries that aim at promoting reading and writing though the use of ICT. Therefore, we provide a description of the national programs that have been completed or are currently being implemented with the objective of promoting reading and writing through the use of ICT, or Web 2.0 tools, or some form of technology/digital material in general. Ireland Title

Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers

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URL

http://www.education.ie/en/Education-Staff/Information/NEPSLiteracy-Resource/neps_literacy_good_practice_guide.pdf http://www.education.ie/en/Education-Staff/Information/NEPSLiteracy-Resource/neps_literacy_resource_pack.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

National Educational Psychological Service.

The synthesis of research findings reported are drawn from twelve studies all completed within the last 15 years.

Short Description (max. 200 words) Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers (National Educational Psychological Service, 2012): This is a guide for teachers, learning support and resource teachers in special education settings. This guide has been developed by psychologists from NEPS and aims to help teachers in primary, post-primary and special schools, by sharing information about evidence-based approaches to teaching reading for students aged 6-18 years old. It encompasses all students with reading difficulties, dyslexia, as well as those who have poor progress in reading and may have general learning difficulties. Information can be applied to students from disadvantaged backgrounds, minority groups, students with reading difficulties and for those whom English is not a first language. The focus of the guide is reading skills, the ability to decode and understand text. Objectives (General & Specific) To assist teachers, learning support teachers, resource teachers and teachers in special education settings. Give assistance to struggling readers. Evidence-based approaches to teaching reading. Focus on reading skills. How to help students who struggle with reading. Description of Main Activities and Methods 

The Good Practice Guide also comes with an accompanying resource pack. Throughout the Good Practice Guide there are links to relevant materials in the

200

resource pack, linked to the relevant literature and guidance. 

The guide collates research evidence from a range of sources and suggests how this evidence can be applied to teaching practice.



The guide shows that the following areas should be part of an effective programme of effective reading instruction:





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Phonemic awareness and the teaching of phonics.

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Decoding and word studies, including the learning of a sight vocabulary.

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Language development, to include vocabulary development.

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The explicit teaching of comprehension strategies.

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Meaningful writing experiences

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The development of fluent reading by reading and rereading familiar texts.

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A wide-range of reading materials.

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Opportunities for both guided and independent reading.

The research refers to Brooks (2007) and his use of ratio gains as a method of measuring progress in reading and sets a standard by which literacy interventions for failing readers can be measured. -

Ratio gain is the amount of progress a student makes in reading age, divided by the time spent between pre and post intervention.

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The calculation of ration gains must be done by using a test that gives age equivalent scores.

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Example: If a student makes one year’s progress in word reading over the course of one year, then the ratio gain is 12 months (progress) divided by 12 months (time spent) giving a ratio gain of 1.

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Brooks (2007) suggests that we should be aiming for students to make ration gains of 2 and that we should be aiming for struggling readers to make two years progress in one year.

The guide emphasizes the need for structured, explicit and systematic teaching and refers to ‘structures specialized tuition’ (p. 10). Programmes that are described as enhancing progress for struggling readers are the systematic teaching of phonics and teaching sight vocabulary. Also included is a specific guide and advice on 201

Teaching Sight Vocabulary/ High Frequency Words and other specific websites that contain high frequency words and related activities. 

The guide recommends the use of small groups or 1:1 tuition for effective teaching of reading and that the teaching of reading in groups of more than 4 or 5, are less effective approaches for the teaching of reading.



The guide also advises on the frequency and duration of intervention and that short, intensive interventions, with daily, targeted support are most likely to be effective.



The guide advises on teaching to the point of automaticity as well as teaching students to read fluently.



The guide gives detailed reference to several forms of assessment that can be used by teachers in assessing literacy skills.

Results (p. 8 & 9) The guide gives examples of results from interventions that are well targeted and well delivered and how these can be effective with students from a range of backgrounds and with a range of abilities. (p. 8) MacKay (2007) in relation to a ten-year project in West Dunbartonshire to eradicate illiteracy with 60,000 students in Scotland claimed ‘only three pupils remained with Neale Analysis cores below the 9y 6m level of functional literacy’ ‘(p. 31).’ It also refers to results from Nugent (2010) who found that children from the Travelling Community made over a year’s progress in reading skills over a three-month intervention period, while Kennedy (2010) found students in schools with disadvantaged status made very significant progress when their teachers engaged in focuses professional development. The raising of teacher expectation is also cited as being a feature of raising achievement and success. (Eivers et al., 2004) The guide refers to the need for small group and 1:1 tuition and refers to results that specify that ‘the largest size of an effective teaching group, has been found to be three students’ (Vaugh et al., 2000). Also referred to in the guide is that Shinn et al. (1997) found that an in-class model of support, was not effective in raising the achievement of failing readers. The guide refers to the fact that regular assessment and on-going monitoring of student 202

literacy achievement is associated with positive outcomes. Co-operative Learning and Peer Support are referred to in the guide. There is also a specific guide to using Paired Reading and that is a highly effective intervention. The guide gives five evidence-based interventions that has been collected in Ireland over four years of research by NEPS. These are interventions that have been proven to be effective in Irish schools. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? (p. 17) The guide refers to computer assisted learning. The NRP (2000) noted that computer assisted learning has a lot of potential particularly in relation to word processing approached, as reading and writing activities can be integrated. It is mentioned that specifically targeted programmes especially those with speech-feedback can have a significant impact. The guide gives specific advice and tips regarding motivating and engaging students which are relevant to the LiRe2.0 project of creating lifelong readers. (p. 17) The following approaches are recommended: - Make literacy experience relevant to student’ interest, everyday life and to current environmental events. - Provide a positive learning environment that promotes student autonomy in learning. - Allow choice. Empower students to make decisions. - Build strategies such as goal setting, self-directed learning and collaborative learning. - Give feedback that is motivational but not controlling. The best type of feedback is informational feedback that conveys realistic expectations and links performance to effort. It is better to praise students for effort rather than to praise for ability. - Give the students opportunities to engage in meaningful reading and writing activities, including reading their own and peers’ work. - Offer students access to a wide range of high quality reading material. The guide includes a guidance document on the use of positive declarations in the classroom. This could be used in the LiRe2.0 project as a tool for teachers to promote reading. Psychological research has shown that making bold positive declarations about 203

future reading achievement can have a significant impact on both reading ability and attitude to reading (see McKay 2006). The expectation is that each child will make a minimum of 3 positive declarations per day about future reading achievement and the enjoyment of books/ reading. Declarations can be general or specific and can be done individually, in groups or as a whole class group. The guide emphasizes the need for effective reading instructors, teacher education and continuing professional development and how this is linked with attaining significantly higher student achievement. This correlates with the teacher training workshop output within the LiRe2.0. Reference is also made to non-teachers delivering programmes and tapping into the power of parents. This is also relevant to LiRe2.0 in creating lifelong readers and that many people play a role in supporting the development of literacy and reading skills of children. An awareness of supporting parents and non-teachers could also be acknowledged in the resource section and toolkit as part of the LiRe2.0 project. Everything that is included in the guide can be included as recommendations to teachers to promote reading and create lifelong readers and be adapted to include the promotion of the use of ICT and web 2.0 technologies in reading promotion. The inclusion of the effective usage of paired reading in the guide ties in with the use of Web 2.0 technologies in reading promotion and the ability of young people to engage, collaborate and react to what they read. All reference to pair reading in the guide can be adapted to be relevant to promoting reading through the use of ICT.

Title

Effective literacy and numeracy practices in DEIS schools

URL

https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Inspection-ReportsPublications/Evaluation-ReportsGuidelines/insp_deis_effective_literacy_and_numeracy_09_pdf.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

Department of Education and Science Short Description (max. 200 words) In this publication (Department of Education and Science, 2009), inspectors from the department of education and science describe ways in which schools can help children to learn better in the areas of literacy and numeracy. The publication is intended to support the sharing of good practice among schools and teachers. It describes a range of 204

approaches that schools and teachers have taken in the teaching of literacy and numeracy in eight schools designated as serving areas of considerable socio-economic disadvantage. The work of each of the eight schools is described in individual chapters. Chapters 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 describe effective best practices in relation to literacy and reading promotion. Chapters 3, 5 and 7 focus on mathematics and numeracy. Objectives (General & Specific) It is hoped that other teachers and schools will be inspired by the success and progress of the eight schools mentioned and will use the best practices given to promote and literacy and numeracy within their own schools. Over several days with each of the schools the inspector reviewed relevant school documents and assessment data, observed teaching and learning in various settings, interacted with pupils, staff, management and parents. The report uses the findings of each school in order to offer best practice for other schools, teachers and parents. It is recommended that schools and teachers use the good practice of each school and adapt the recommendations to their own school. Description of Main Activities and Methods One particular school is discussed as showing best practice in maximising literacy achievement. Observations and recommendations that were made were: -

A systematic, whole-school approach to raising literacy standards.

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In school literacy team

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Targeting specific language needs

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Significant number of teachers have completed, or are currently pursuing, postgraduate studies.

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The school has prioritised the development of early-literacy skills.

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Carried out a whole-school literacy review.

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Willingness of staff to update their teaching skills

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Devised a co-teaching approach to literacy called ‘literacy work station model.’

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Completed a pilot of the model.

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Production by the school of a training DVD for the literacy work station model for the staff.

Literacy Work Station Model: (p. 13-16). 205

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Participation is timetables for an hour each day.

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Each class displays the session’s timetable.

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Throughout the hour, students must spend time at four out of the five different work stations.

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The stations are listening, guided reading, independent reading, writing, worddetective work.

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Each students spends twelve minutes at each station.

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The stations are then followed by a whole-class plenary session.

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The mainstream class teacher directs the guided reading station.

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The learning support teacher manages the word-detective station.

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All activities have clear learning objectives.

The Listening Station: -

The listening station is managed by the pupils themselves.

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A group led by a captain, listens to the recording of a story or a shared-reading session.

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The station is set up with headphones and a listening device.

The Guided Reading Station: -

This is compulsory in every literacy session.

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The teacher teaches reading skills and strategies using texts that provide an appropriate level of challenge.

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The choice of texts is monitored closely.

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This session includes re-reading of texts, reviewing difficult words, new words and new books.

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The teacher uses encouraging prompts and questioning techniques to encourage new words.

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The teacher records students reading in a reading log.

Library Station: 206

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The aim of the library station is to enable students to read independently.

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This station has cushions, rugs, posters, large-format books and displays of students work.

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Reading material is presented in four browsing baskets.

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There is a reference book basket, a comic/newspaper/ periodicals basket, a poetry basket, and a basket for the pupils’ own anthologies and word-detective books.

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The reading material varies depending on reading abilities.

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The group captain logs the reading texts.

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Students select and read themselves.

The Writing Station: -

Students are offered a variety of writing tools such as coloured pencils, pens, and crayons as well as various types of paper.

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The teacher provides a number of writing activities.

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These can include: fact files, menus, letters and reports.

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Students are encouraged to brainstorm and plan what they will write.

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Also included are interactive word walls, word families, posters with grammar and punctuation conventions.

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The students select their best effort to be placed on display in the writing corner.

The Word Detective Station: -

This is the most highly structured session.

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Involves direct, systematic teaching of phonics, new vocabulary and sentence construction.

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Teachers use flashcards, charts, posters and word walls as part of this station.

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This session also includes a kinaesthetic approach to learning punctuation.

Plenary Session: -

Each literacy lesson concludes with an eight-minute plenary session called 207

‘Newstalk’. -

This is when students give feedback about the last activity that they completed and what they found helpful in completing the task.

The findings also include collaborative planning and co-teaching of phonological awareness are pivotal in raising literacy standards. In relation to leading success in reading, a wholeschool phonic programme is included as being a best practice programme within one particular school. Included in this programme is teaching manuals, teaching materials, charts, photo-copiable books, flashcards and a tutorial video. Whole-school approach to the teaching of reading is also mentioned in the report as being a key feature of best practice within one particular school. This includes a policy on integrating reading, targets that students must meet and are expected to achieve as well as resources, materials and methodologies. Activities such as DEAR- Drop Everything And Read are also considered to be best practice in reading and literacy promotion. Results The Literacy Work Station Model is described has having many beneficial results. Evidence is reported as being seen in how adept the students are at describing what they are learning and how they are learning. Teachers report students being able to read with much greater fluency and expression. The results of standardized assessment have also increased with students becoming more independent as learners and move confidently through the stations choosing books to read and selecting topics for writing. Teachers also spoke about the confidence that they have gained from the literacy work station model. Teachers are referred to having great success in standardized tests due to the implementation of the phonics programme in every classroom. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Each area identified in each of the schools as being beneficial in reading and literacy promotion and can be recommended to other schools and teachers as a guide of what programmes or activities can be included. These recommendations can be included as part of the LiRe2.0 resource collection on the website or as part of the toolkit.

Title

The Reading Process- A Guide to the Teaching and Learning of Reading. 208

Dublin, 2014. URL

http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Reading%20Booklet%20%20to%20circulate.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

PDST- Professional Development Service for Teachers Department of Education and Skills. Short Description (max. 200 words) This manual has been compiled by members of the Professional Development Service for Teachers (Professional Development Service for Teachers Department of Education and Skills, 2014). Its sole purpose is to enhance teaching and learning in Irish primary schools and will be mediated to practising teachers in the professional development setting. Objectives (General & Specific) The booklet attempts to highlight the main components that should be considered in when teaching reading. Such as, varied and rich vocabulary, development of phonological processes, the need for relevant comprehension strategies, focus on reading fluency, and attitude and motivation. The booklet seeks to provide background knowledge on each of these areas by outlining practical suggestions that can be applicable in the classroom. Recommendations are given for the planning and teaching of reading as well as a suggested 6 Step Approach to a Reading Lesson. Description of Main Activities and Methods Attitude and Motivation (p. 7-8): The booklet advises that teachers can promote excitement and motivation to read by providing students with: -

Interesting and rich texts

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Choice of text

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Authentic purposes for reading

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Opportunities to explore, interact and experiment with text.

Best Practice tips are also given as way of fostering enjoyment of reading and is recommended as being achieved in several ways such as:

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A print rich environment

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Choice and control

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Reading to students

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Optimal challenge

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Opportunities for collaboration and social interaction

Also included is a detailed explanation of ways of motivating students such as reading time, sharing, reading to students, using fads, films and TV, poetry, inventories and surveys, book discussion groups, class-created books, publicity campaigns, different audiences, reading timeline, read with a friend, this is your life, lonely texts, TV vs. Reading and Where in the World. There is also an inclusion of tips to work effectively with unmotivated students. Reading Fluency: The booklet describes a range of activities that can be used at home and at school to support the development of fluent reading such as guided reading, reading partners, peer tutoring, C.A.P.E.R, Readers Theatre and Shared Reading. Recommended websites are also given that would be useful for teachers looking for resources on reading fluency such as http://www.pdst.ie/node/294 http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/RTE.html http://www.thebestclass.org.rtscripts.html http://www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm Comprehension Strategies: (p. 12-14) The booklet suggests the importance of comprehension strategies that need to be taught in order to develop independent readers. It is mentioned that dividing instruction time into pre-reading, during reading and post-reading. This allows teachers to design activities around each area and provides an opportunity for teachers to demonstrate strategies that readers can use at each stage of the reading process. Examples of reading strategies given are predicting, connecting, comparing, inferring, synthesizing, creating images, selfquestioning, skimming, scanning, determining importance, summarizing and paraphrasing. Word Identification Strategies: (p. 15) The concept of word attack is described as a way of tackling unfamiliar words. Word identification strategies need to be taught such as ‘sounding out’ ‘chunking’ ‘re-reading’ ‘reading on’ ‘using analogy’ ‘consulting a reference’ and ‘adjusting your reading rate.’ Vocabulary: (p. 16) Activities to support vocabulary development are included in the booklet such as small 210

words in big words, semantic gradient, compound words, multiple meanings, vocabulary deep processing activity, word wall, word taxonomy, valuing vocabulary, vetting vocabulary and word of the week. Phonological Awareness and Phonics: (p. 22) The booklet emphasizes the importance of phonics and how they are key to the reading process. Methodologies such as syllabic awareness, onset-rime awareness, rhyming games and phonic awareness. Other strategies for phonics that are included as best practice are making and breaking words and chunking. The booklet gives evidence of assessment in reading that can be used to monitor a students reading development and the impact of reading initiatives. Reading Assessment Continuum is included in the booklet with best practice assessment initiatives such as self-assessment, conferencing, portfolio assessment, concept mapping, questioning, teacher observation, teacher-designed tasks and tests, standardized testing and diagnostic tests. Top Tips for Parents/ Guardians are also given for students in 5 th and 6th class. (p. 41) 1. Encourage your child to visit the local library as often as possible. 2. Recognise and praise your child’s effort in reading. 3. Ensure your child has access to a wide range of reading material- newspapers, magazines, guides etc. 4. Take an internet in different children’s authors. 5. Discuss ideas and points of view proposed by newspaper articles etc. 6. Provide a well-lit study/reading area. 7. Ensure that you value and enjoy reading yourself. 8. Allow your child to choose his/her own reading material. 9. Encourage your child to read for information- timetables/ weather/ forecasts/ menus. 10. Encourage your child to try and guess unknown words. Results There are no specified results mentioned in the guide. 211

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? All strategies, activities and methodologies in the manual can be used and adapted for the LiRe2.0 project. They can be used as part of the teaching training tutorials, as part of the Toolkit and online in the resource section. These areas are all relevant for teachers in their teaching of reading.

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Cyprus

Title

Life Long Readers

URL

http://www.lifelongreaders.org/

Funding Agency

Duration

Lifelong Learning Programme

24 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) Lifelong Readers (LiRe) Project aimed to provide school librarians, teachers, and administrators with guidance and tools for encouraging children of ages 6-12 to develop lifelong reading habits. Objectives (General & Specific) The Lifelong Readers (LiRe) project aimed:  To convince stakeholders about the need to devote more time and effort to reading promotion and to place reading for pleasure at the centre of their policies, approaches and practices.  To provide stakeholders with guidance, training, and an array of tools for reading promotion in the primary school.  To initiate change by implementing reading promotion programmes in all participating countries.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The LiRe project built a reading promotion framework which features: (i) Summary descriptions of successful reading promotion programs; (ii) Principles, strategies and approaches for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures; (iii) An extensive collection of reading promotion actions, grouped under such categories such as Reading Promotion through Play/ ICT/ Volunteerism/ Awards/ the Arts; (iv) An annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources; (v) Reading promotion evaluation tools. In accordance to the above-stated aim, the general objective of the LiRe project was to create and disseminate a Lifelong Readers Framework, which strived to convince, guide and support reading promotion in European primary schools. The LiRe Framework gathered reading promotion experience and knowhow from across the EU and the globe, organised it into solid and accessible bits of information, and made it available to stakeholders. It provided both actual examples of successful reading promotion and general guidance regarding successful designing and implementation of such programmes. 213

More analytically, the completed LiRe framework features: (i) Summary descriptions of successful reading promotion programs; (ii) Principles, strategies and approaches for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures; (iii) An extensive collection of reading promotion actions, grouped under categories; (iv) An annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources; (v) Reading promotion evaluation tools. LiRe Training Modules have also been developed and implemented, which address the reading promotion training of teachers, school librarians, and administrators. After developing the framework, the LiRe consortium proceeded to implement reading promotion action plans in several EU primary schools and published Implementation Reports (Case Studies); these case studies were presented to all stakeholders as examples of applied, whole-school, LiRe reading promotion programmes. Translated, localized and condensed versions of the LiRe Framework have been published and disseminated. Partners presented and published about the Lifelong Readers project, in order to maximize its impact on European reading promotion. Results Reading promotion is rarely organised as a whole-school educational programme, or planned and encouraged on a nation-wide basis, let alone on a European basis. Through its Reading Promotion Framework and Training Modules, the Lifelong Readers project provides the first of its kind programme at a European level, encouraging educational authorities and schools to view reading promotion as something that has to be pursued in an organised, systematic and systemic manner. LiRe engages and addresses the needs of all school staff members; it covers all facets of reading promotion, such as reaching disadvantaged pupils and families, involving parents, promoting reading to children, promoting reading through ICT; it also amasses a large body of successful reading promotion actions, providing schools with an assortment of choices. Descriptions of successful reading promotion programmes (Framework Part A); this is a set of twenty-four documents which summarize real cases of successful reading promotion programmes. In this manner, the framework provides stakeholders with solid information about how a successful reading promotion programme looks like. Research report & Guiding Principles, Strategies and Approaches (Framework Part B), which communicates to stakeholders research results regarding reading promotion, as well as guidance through a series of Guiding Principles, Strategies and Approaches, to be used when designing and implementing a reading promotion programme. The Assortment of Reading Promotion Actions (Framework Part C), which aims to compiles and assorts one hundred and two proposed reading promotion actions, from which a school may select and adjust the ones it finds most appropriate for its context and its own reading promotion programme. Reading Promotion Sources & Resources (Framework Part D); an annotated catalogue of theoretical sources and educational resources which pertain to reading promotion. Through this product, primary school administrators, librarians and teachers have access to a large and multifaceted body of sources and resources that will help them in their efforts to build quality reading promotion programmes. 214

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The whole approach of LiRE can be adjusted to match the needs of the current project. The LiRE framework that is based on a whole school program is very appropriate, along with the reading promotion actions and activities as they were designed and implemented for this project. The adjustments we need to make in several of these activities are related to the target group. In this regard, we will use texts more relevant to children and engage tools such as comics, tablets, games that are connected to their experiences as well as Web 2.0 tools.

Title

Are you reading?

URL

http://www.cardet.org/diavazoume/

Funding Agency

Duration

Lifelong Learning Programme

24 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers: The project explored the reading motivation, attitudes, habits and behaviors of primary school students. At the same time, it aimed to develop and implement a pilot project to promote a love of reading. Specifically, the project explored why, how, when, and how children read in Cyprus and developed strategies and approaches that encouraged them 215

to read. Objectives (General & Specific) In-depth scientific research into the causes behind the poor literacy levels in Cyprus, in order to detect one of the obstacles to be removed and the other incentives and additional positive factors that should be strengthened. Proposal for a specific, comprehensive strategy and approach, which can be used directly as part of the Education Reform and the new Curriculum. Support of schools, directors and teachers in implementing the new Curriculum for Literature and the pursuit of the central objective to foster a love of reading.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The results are derived based on data collected from large-scale mixed research methodology (mixed methods), with the participation of students, parents and teachers in all grades of the elementary schools in all districts of Cyprus. Collected quantitative and qualitative data both through questionnaires and through interviews and investigative laboratories. Followed by processing and analyzing data. Tools were designed based on the findings of the literature review and considering the Cyprus composed as to dimensions of reading attitudes of students 1 st – 6th grades. After designing the six research tools, a pilot implementation was conducted. Data collection included: Focus groups for students 1st – 3rd grade at Primary school Interviews with parents of students 1st – 3rd grade at Primary school Focus groups with teachers who teach in 1st – 3rd grade at Primary school Students Questionnaire 4th – 6th grade Primary School Parents Questionnaire for students 4th – 6th grade Primary School Interviews with teachers who teach in 4th – 6th grade at Primary school Main deliverable for the project was Guide to Promote a love of reading and the sampling Reading program, which consists of the following parts: Reading Book and motivation «reading engagement» General Strategy: Parallel development of reading skills and reading motivation Approach and techniques to promote a love of reading Guiding principles for effectively promoting a love of reading Libraries, schools and communities that support a love of reading successfully Results The project at the beginning, formed a complete and factual picture of the reading attitudes, habits and behaviors of students of Cypriot primary school, motivation and positive factors that can enhance or strengthen the engagement of children in the book, and barriers that restrict love reading in Cyprus. This was achieved through a large-scale study, the findings and recommendations of which were utilized to develop appropriate strategies and approaches to removing barriers and increasing incentives for reading 216

books from primary school pupils. The results of the project respond to the following questions: What are the reading attitudes, habits and behaviors of primary school pupils? What barriers and other factors operate negatives for reading books from primary school pupils in their spare time? What incentives and other positive factors may enhance or strengthen the involvement of primary school pupils with the book? What strategies and approaches could remove barriers and enhance incentives for reading books from primary school pupils?

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The cultivation of love for reading offers advantages that last for the entire life of children. The main ideas of this project can be adjusted to match the needs of the current project. Cultivation of positive attitudes and perceptions towards reading books in his spare time Incentives for students Involvement of teachers and parents / guardians Collaboration between school and parents / guardians Support training of reading experts

Title

Science Fiction in Education (SciFiEd)

URL

http://www.scifieducation.org/

Funding Agency

Duration

Comenius LLP project

24 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) The SciFiEd project, focuses on providing teachers with tools, training, and guidance that will assist them in enhancing their teaching, making science more attractive to students, connecting it with real-life issues such as the environment, and providing girls and other marginalised groups with access to science. Objectives (General & Specific) The general objective of the SciFiEd project is to create and disseminate a SciFi in Education Toolkit, which will strive to convince, guide, and support educators in 217

introducing Science Fiction in education, gather and develop experience and knowhow in this field, organise it into solid and accessible bits of information, and make it available to stakeholders. More specific the SciFiEd project aims to:  Increase pupils’ motivation and achievement in science and other subjects, through the introduction of Science Fiction in education.  Enhance the quality of teaching Science and Technology, as well as an array of other subjects to children aged 9-15 and higher.  Connect science education with real-life issues such as the environment.  Provide girls and other marginalised groups with better access to science education.  Contribute to the improvement of initial teacher education and in-service professional development of science teachers and to the exchange of innovative teaching practices. Description of Main Activities and Methods Research Report and Summary of Suggested Approaches and Methods (Part I of "SciFiEd Toolkit"). Introduction to Science Fiction and its Subgenres (Part II of “SciFiEd Toolkit”) Review of Significant SciFi Texts for Children and Young Adults Guidelines and Ideas for Incorporating SciFi in Various Educational Areas (Part IV of "SciFi-Ed Toolkit") Guide for Educators: How to Use Multimedia Technologies to Effectively Introduce Science Fiction in Education. Sample Cross-Curricular SciFi Units

Results Based on results of field research performed in partner countries, we may draw the following conclusions: In some participating countries, like Poland and Romania, SF literature is well developed and popular among children and young people. In the rest of the participating countries science fiction for children and young adults is at a developing stage. In some countries, such as Cyprus, recent developments in the field show an emerging appreciation for and development of the SF genre. As far as translated SF is concerned, American science fiction seems to be popular in most participating countries. In all countries, while there is not much reference to teaching scientific facts, concepts or processes through SF. This is not found in teacher-training either and a vast number of educators are not familiar with SF and its pedagogical potential. Nevertheless, a limited number of practitioners do propose and employ interesting educational activities that utilize SF. In all participating countries, the inclusion of SF in curricula is marginal and limited, if it exists at all. Additionally, when referred to, it is only included under Literature and never in relation to Science. Interdisciplinary approaches to SF are rare and only generally described. The pedagogical and educational valences of SF literature are not fully 218

exploited in education, most of this issue being left to teachers’ choice. In all countries, there is the potential for SF to be introduced by teachers should they choose, and the majority of educators believe that SF could be of use in many areas such as Science, English & Communications, Maths, Social Studies, Environmental Education and History. Teachers and experts recognize multiple educational benefits stemming from SF in education: increased student motivation; vocabulary and language skills; critical thinking; environmental and civic sensitivity; imagination and self-esteem; opportunities to explore visions of the future and critique of the present; students’ cognitive awareness and critical awareness about science; students’ realization of the interconnections between science, technology, culture, society, and the environment. There are at least four types of activities for utilizing SF film and other media: Use of comics or film as a stimulating introduction to a new subject/theme; Interrogations of the scientific bearings of sci-fi scenes; Peruse of sci-fi film and cartoons to study phenomena and even perform measurements (using technology); Analysis of how science, technology and scientists are depicted in these media. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The use of the science fiction as a book genre can be a useful tool in order to engage children in reading as it is appealing to children and it fits to their interests.

Title

European Pictures Book Collection II (EPBC II)

URL

http://epbcii.eu/

Funding Agency

Duration

Comenius Multilateral LLP project

24 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers: EPBC II aimed to create a collection of picture books from all 27 member states with accompanying educational material using cutting edge ICT. It will benefit from the advancement of educational technology to build a comprehensive, interactive and userfriendly database which will make all of the project outputs available on-line. This project is a continuation of the original European Picture Book Collection (EPBC) which was created by European scholars and educators working in the field of children's literature and teacher education. Through reading the visual narratives of at least one picture book from each member state, the first EPBC was devised to help both teachers and children to learn more about their European neighbours' languages, literatures and cultures. 219

EPBC II project promoted a structured pedagogical use of picture books focusing on second language teaching and learning. The picture books appeared as flipping books (either the whole book or parts of it depending on copyright permissions) and will be accompanied by on-line interactive activities that will bring the e-books in dialogue with each other and engage students in creative literary, linguistic and cultural comparative processes.

Objectives (General & Specific) The project aimed to build a European Picture Book Collection (EPBC) by European scholars and educators working in the field of children's literature and teacher education and purported to bring to children across Europe at least one picture book per country. More specific, the project goals are the following: Collect picture books from 27 EU states and ethnic, linguistic or religious groups within them Make them available to children, educators, librarians, and scholars Provide the means and support to educators in order to incorporate EPBC II in their teaching.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The main activities of this project are: Bibliographic Catalogue: useful information regarding all 65 picture books of the EPBC II collection Group of suggested activities that can be used in the classroom (Culture, Language, Literature translated in English, Estonian, German, Greek, Polish, Romanian) Guide for Teachers: guidelines and suggestions on how to get started with the EPBC II, translated in English, Estonian, German, Greek, Polish, Romanian. Training Modules for Teachers: these modules are a useful tool for teacher-trainers who wish to train teachers in the use of EPBC II or other European picture books. Online Activities: short, interactive activities connected to specific books from the collection. Results Exploiting picture Books, we learned that the read image is: Required: the study of images as separate entities from the text Image - text: different sources of information that contribute in different ways to the narrative of history Pictures Books from Educational area (literature), students are: Adopt a positive stance towards reading literature Develop literacy awareness through metacognitive reflection Appreciate and take pleasure in the aesthetic qualities of European pictures books

220

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? EPBC II is having a profound and multifaceted impact on educators and students and their teaching/learning practices, by encouraging, enhancing and supporting: Improvements in pedagogical approaches regarding the teaching of European languages and literatures The learning of modern foreign languages The quality and European dimension of teacher training and student learning The development of innovative ICT-based content and pedagogies That impact can be transferred to the current project with some adjustments.

Title

Edu Comics Project

URL

http://www.educomics.org/

Funding Agency

Duration

Comenius LLP project

24 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) EduComics show educators how online comics can be used in the classroom to enhance learning, engage and motivate students, and use technology in a practical and effective way. The project created training material for teachers and organized seminars for teachers in Greece, Cyprus, UK, Italy and Spain, in order to show strategies and lesson plans in their schools. The potential for Web comics to be used in education offers educators a means of using multimedia (text, images, audio and video) with their students in most curricular areas. For example, within science, a student can navigate through a web comic book that shows different characters/actors arguing about a science topic. In languages, characters could be placed in a restaurant were they have to order a meal. A web comic can also allow audio in the languages. 221

Objectives (General & Specific) The main goal of the project was to help children forge an alternative pathway to literacy by writing, designing, and publishing original web comic books. More specific, Edu Comics goals were: To show educators how online comics can be used in the classroom to enhance learning, engage and motivate students To create training material for teachers and organize seminars about the educational use of comics for teachers in Greece, Cyprus, UK, Italy and Spain. Description of Main Activities and Methods Description of Pilot Studies: Using digital comics to develop students’ ability to distinguish between observation and interpretation (elementary school – Cyprus) (EN) Pilot Use of Educational Digital Comics in teaching Modern Greek Language in a class of Junior High school (Greece) (EN) Educational Digital Comics in a class at Junior High School (Italy) (EN) Educational Use of Digital Comics in a class at Primary School (Italy) (EN) Incorporating Digital Comics in the Learning Of English as a Foreign Language for 3rdYear Secondary School Students (Spain) (EN) Pilot Implementation of Digital Comics in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom for 4th-Year Secondary School Students (Spain) (EN) Enhancing Teaching and Learning at Primary School with Digital Resources in the Classroom: A case study using ComicLab (SPAIN) (EN) Digital comics to develop students’ independent active language learning Secondary/Adult school (Czech Republic) (EN) Use of Educational Digital Comics to support language learning in a group of UK students aged 12-13 (UK) (EN) Pilot Uses of Educational Digital Comics in Classroom Use of Educational Digital Comics with Students of Secondary Education on the subject: INTRA-SCHOOL VIOLENCE "Action-Reaction" (EN) Pilot Use of Educational Digital Comics in teaching Modern Greek Language in A class of Junior High school (EN) Multimedia Story Telling for Students of Primary Education Web Comics nella didattica (IT) Results Comics from a pedagogical perspective:  are a worldwide language understood  challenges the senses  transform the abstract into concrete  boost the imagination of teenagers  are motivating 222

 are visual What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The use of comics in education is based on the concept of creating engagement and motivation for students. It has been noted that the use of a narrative form such as a comic can foster pupils' interest in science and help students remember what they have learnt. It also provides a means of fostering discussion. So, in the current project that aims to make reading an integral part in the life children, who are currently unenthusiastic about books, we believe that comics will serve as a pleasant form of reading that students will worship.

Title

COMENIUS ALCUIN project (Active Literacy: Competence and Understanding, Internally Naturalised–From Decoding to Understanding)

URL

http://www.ea.gr/ep/comenius-study/outcomeDetail.asp?id=215

Funding Agency

Duration

Comenius project

26 months

Short Description (max. 200 words) COMENIUS ALCUIN project aimed at the development of reading methods which would encourage children to develop their reading skills, transform them into competent readers and users of their mother tongue as well as English as a second language. This project also aimed to enable students to analyse and critically evaluate literary texts of various genres as well as European perspectives, and degrees of sophistication.

Objectives (General & Specific) The main goals of the project were:  develop efficient and concrete pedagogical method  assist teachers to motivate students to develop their reading skills  help students acquire the ability to analyze and critically evaluate, both in writing and speaking, literary texts of various genres as well as European perspectives, and degrees of sophistication  develop methods of reading which will motivate them to address more demanding texts  enable students to carry out reflective in-depth readings.

Description of Main Activities and Methods 223

Distribution of questionnaires regarding students’ reading habits. After this process, the implementation of new modules took place. New didactic approaches were continuously tested in the classroom. After each testing period of new pedagogical methods, all teachers and two students from each partner school participated in a partner meeting, and discussed the results of the previous work period. Three academics from universities ensured the quality of all evaluation materials as they designed the questionnaires and related the results and analysis of all evaluations to current research. These academics collaborated with teachers and students in the designing of new pedagogical methods. The procedure of the project was published and accessible on the forum, thus ensuring communication between all partners. Dissemination was continuously carried out by website, workshops at schools, libraries, teachers’ training colleges and articles in local newspapers and professional journals. Development of several useful and practical guidelines applicable to the classroom situation in the form of Teachers’ Guidelines and a CD. Development of the project website to ensure sustainability of the project. Results 1. Establishment of students’ reading habits in five European countries 2. Choice of different literary text types 3. Development and implementation of ten new pedagogical ideas, used with the different literary text types 4. Evaluation of the use of the different literary text types, and the implementation of the ten new pedagogical ideas 5. Establishment of a Forum for communication amongst all participants, exchange of ideas, experiences, cultural enrichment, work sharing, etc. 6. Cultural enrichment through meetings, country visits, and forum discussion. 7. Involvement of all stakeholders in curriculum decision making: students, teachers, and researchers. 8. Improvement of motivation of students through the implementation of the outcomes of the project so far. 9. Enrichment of teaching and learning methods aiming to motivate students to read literary texts. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? COMENIUS ALCUIN project had a profound and multifaceted impact on educators and students and their teaching/learning practices. Particularly it made a difference in the students‘ study of literature which contributed to a great extent to student motivation increase in reading literature. This impact can be transferred to the current project with some adjustments to also include the use of with the use of ICT-based, open educational practices and resources to enhance all students’ reading habits, reading commitment, and reading skills.

224

Portugal Title

Biblioteca de Livros Digitais (Digital Book Library)

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/bibliotecadigital/

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education

ongoing

Short Description (max. 200 words) The Digital Book Library is a Web 2.0 initiative, structured by the aggregation of a number of shared individual projects, interwoven in a dynamic links and RSS web. The Library aims to create a community space on the Internet, that lies beyond the traditional concept of place of publication on the network, understood as a mere repository of work. Objectives (General & Specific) The Library is a place of sharing, exchange of experiences, gathering of all those who promote and enjoy the pleasure of reading and are interested to expand their cycle of friends and acquaintances. Main objectives: -

Improve reading and writing skills;

-

Share expertise and knowledge;

-

Participate in initiatives integrated into multiple forms of reading and writing characteristics of the 21st century.

Description of Main Activities and Methods Integrated in the multiple actions of the National Reading Plan, the Digital Books Library is a dynamic space for initiatives related to reading and writing, which is assumed as an aggregate of established authors of books and approved by the National Reading Plan and simultaneously as a repository of works done by people interested in creating other texts motivated by the book you just read. Results The digital books library is the first official initiative and properly regulated with quality assurance of the Ministry of Education of Portugal. Taking into account the fact that 225

young people do appreciate reading in digital form, this repository is an excellent resource for teachers. This feature provided more opportunities leading to an increase in reading habits by young students. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? For Lire 2.0 project this repository is a feature already tested and known by teachers and students. which may facilitate its use for research purposes. Another added advantage has to do with the fact that it is a repository certified by the Ministry of Education which gives it a quality assurance label.

Title

Novas Leituras

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/novasleituras/

Funding Agency

Duration

Porto Editora Publishing House and the Ministry of Education

2015-

Short Description (max. 200 words) This site is designed to showcase more books and it has as main objective to make authors and illustrators known. The site contains three tabs: Highlights; authors; books. This site facilitates access to a biography of the author or illustrator in text and multimedia format. In the tab "highlights” users may publish online comments and questions directed at authors and illustrators. This creates conditions for a closer relationship between the reader (students) and the authors and illustrators. Objectives (General & Specific) The main goal is to bring readers (students) closer to authors and illustrators through digital interaction (digital mail). The web interface allows you to make comments and promote discussion between authors / illustrators and readers (students and teachers). 226

Another objective is to disclose a brief biography of authors and illustrators. Description of Main Activities and Methods The site aims to be a place that creates conditions for a review and more reflective discussion of the available books. By providing an email form, it reduces the "distance" between readers (students and teachers) and authors / illustrators. This makes readers (students) feel closer to authors and creates greater empathy. This emotion may provide a greater willingness to read and thus increase the reading habits of the younger students. Results No actual immediate results. However, this is a process that needs time for readers (students and teachers) to get used to including it in their routines. However, it should be highlighted that its impact has been positive due to its innovative character. It is the first time the Ministry of Education has allowed the rapprochement between readers and authors / illustrators. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? For Lire 2.0 Project this site is important because it will develop activities and data collection with authors and illustrators. The site lets you get closer to the authors and illustrators of books which will enable dialogue and deepen knowledge, answer questions and also establish partnerships and collaborations between contente creators (writers and illustrators) and students.

Title

Digital Storytelling (Project TALES)

URL

http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/?page_id=37&lang=en

Funding Agency

Duration

LLP - Comenius

2013-2015

Short Description (max. 200 words) TALES (in which Portugal was a partner) investigates the educational impact of oral and digital storytelling in formal education. It includes state of the art about digital storytelling, documentation on examples of good practice and pilot studies, “stories” created by schools (age range 6-18) and, most importantly, a manual for teachers 227

(November 2015). Objectives (General & Specific) To investigate the impact of oral and digital storytelling in formal education and to create a set of cognitive tools to empower teachers to introduce storytelling into their practice effectively. To create an innovative educational approach to be introduced and applied Europe wide. To develop new teaching methods and materials involving storytelling and include them as innovative approach and new content in initial and in-service teacher training courses. Description of Main Activities and Methods State of the art analysis. Investigation of the position of storytelling and storytelling techniques in school education, initial and in-service teacher training in the partners’ countries. Collection of good practice in Europe. 20 examples of good practices will be collected, assessed and described. Creation of draft training material. The first steps will serve as the basis for a set of publications (manual, guidelines, teacher training modules) in English and in each partner language (+ French) to be used by teachers, trainers and teacher trainers. Pilot storytelling projects. All partners will pilot a storytelling project in a school in their country. Digital storytelling. An authoring tool for creation and publishing of digital stories will be used in the frame of a European contest, as well as during some of the pilots. All the digital stories will be gathered in an innovative exploratory portal (in this website). National training days. Each partner will organise a national dissemination & training day in his/her country. An international conference. At the end of the project, an international conference will be organized for dissemination (location to be defined) Results 1. State of the Art Report 2. In order to allow students from all over Europe to create and share multimedia stories, an authoring tool, 1001voices, has been developed within the frame of 228

the TALES project. The tool supports the creation of interactive multimedia (combining text, audio, images and video), multilingual stories. 3. The CREATING A MULTIMEDIA NARRATIVE WITH “1001Voices” USER MANUAL (downloadable from http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/assets/1001voices_ENG.pdf) is particularly useful for planning digital storytelling with children. It uses a free tool that can be gotten from the following mail through registration: [email protected] 4. There is also a Good Practices Report which includes, for example, a chapter on “Making digital stories with MS PowerPoint or MS Movie Maker – KHLim – Belgium”; What does the teacher say? – KHLM – Belgium; Of Cuberdons, Belgian Waffles, Beer and meatballs from Liege – KHLim – Belgium; Is there a Moocy Way? – KHLim – Belgium; the project Under the same sky: my food is your food athttp://www.1001storia.polimi.it/generate/INTERNATIONAL/1620/ by the Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Multi Lingual Digital Story telling – Peace School London - United Kingdom; 5. A manual aimed at teachers and teacher trainers on how to implement storytelling practices into formal education. 6. Training modules http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/assets/TALES_training_modules.pdf What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The parts that concern multimedia narratives done by children and the training of teachers. The state of the art report that concerns digital storytelling.

Title

Livros Falados / Spoken Books

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/escolas/projectos.php?idTipoProjecto=93 http://area.dge.mec.pt/pnllf/default.aspx

229

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education /PNL / Visão Júnior (magazine)/ School Libraries Network (RBE)

Ongoing

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project aims at producing audiobooks through digital tools. The project is developed in two parts, one concern the audio and graphic record of readings performed by the students. In addition to targeting the incentive to read through, the project aims to facilitate access to a wide range of texts to minority groups. Objectives (General & Specific) The project has two main objectives: -To promote reading through diverse ways of reading; -To encourage the production and dissemination of audiobooks by schools and by students. Description of Main Activities and Methods The proposed activities aim at training reading skills, promote ways of reading, such as reading aloud, re-telling and interpreting texts, as well as develop projects on creating audiobooks in two distinct thematic areas (in accordance with the objectives of the PNL and Curricula standards): Oral Health and Nutrition; and The Oceans. Results The project was a success in schools. The children-produced audiobooks were released online by the school libraries, Visão magazine and on the PNL website. The project is still running; therefore it is early to assess itsreal impact, especially in terms of evaluation of its potential for WEB 2.0 educational technologies. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Fundamentally the idea of creation and dissemination of audiobooks through the web and other digital platforms by students for the promotion of reading; and the dissemination of these children’s productions among other children with special educational needs. This peer to peer project and its involving children in the creation of content may be good starting points for LIRE 2.0.

230

Title

Caminho das Letras

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/caminhodasletras/

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education /PNL

2008/2010

Short Description (max. 200 words) “O Caminho das Letras” is a pilot R&D project within the framework of reading to be used in the early stages of schooling. The project had as its main purpose the design of an interactive app to be made available online to the teaching of reading in schools. It promotes and sustains the autonomous reading of students through digital books, among other aims. Objectives (General & Specific) The project offers to students the possibility to explore an amazing universe of very appealing images, texts and sounds, which may awaken their curiosity for words and texts. The main objectives of the project are: - to provide an interactive learning tool for reading and writing; -to give students a digital online tool to stimulate autonomous reading and writing; - to give students, teachers and families the opportunity to experiment with reading digital books. Description of Main Activities and Methods The interactive platform available on the WEB offers an integrated set of images, words and texts with which students interact to build their own reading pathways or be oriented in their reading. The tool offers possibilities for the development of several reading competences: autonomous reading; reading with parents and the family; practice reading in the classroom. Results The WEB app was made available as an important support tool for teachers and learning 231

supported by the National (Curricular) Plan for Teaching of Portuguese Mother Tongue (PNEP). It has been widely used in schools and in the family context of pupils for the practice of reading. Descriptions of teacher users show it be a motivating application for students that stimulates reading. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? In the perspective of the Lire 2.0 this project highlights the relationship between learning and the training processes of reading through games and digital books. The games and interactive texts proposed may be a reference to the project LIRE 2.0.

Title

Portal das Escolas

URL

https://www.portaldasescolas.pt/

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education

Ongoing

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project Portal for Schools is an online platform of the General Direction of Education – Ministry of Education, through which the Resources and Educational Technology team ensures the management of digital educational resources created and made available by schools themselves (teachers and classes). It is a platform for sharing resources. Objectives (General & Specific) The main objectives of the portal are the sharing and use of digital educational resources teachers can create and make available on the Portal of educational resources. The integration of the repository of digital educational resources Portal with the European Bank of Digital educational resources guarantees the access of schools to thousands of educational digital resources. Description of Main Activities and Methods The Portal of the schools is the reference site for schools and is the largest collaborative online network of education in Portugal. The Portal is intended for schools, educational communities of Basic Education and Secondary Education, including teachers, students and 232

families. Results The schools Portal was created within the technological plan of education and is used by schools and by teachers. It plays a key role in sharing WEB 2.0 resources created by teachers and students. Is the largest collaborative online network of educational digital resources in Portugal. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Within the framework of the Lire 2.0 Project, it is relevant to highlight this shared collaborative space that works as a repository of digital resources for use by schools, teachers, students and families, as well as explore how it may be further explored in the sense of purposeful networking that supports teachers and students in their learning and teaching.

233

Romania

Title

Books which became movies

URL

http://www.biblionet.ro/upload/documents/document/24718/attachement/1 72166/Ghid%20adolescenti%20-%20Cluj.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

“Octavian Goga” Cluj County Library

October 2012 – march 2013

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project “Centres of excellence for facilities offered to teenagers and young people aged 14 to 25” was conceived to help librarians to meet young people’s needs and interest and, as a result, one of the outcomes of the project is a Good practices Guide for services and programmes dedicated to teenagers and young people. The guide includes a detailed description of the services and programmes dedicated to teenagers and young people which have been implemented by “Octavian Goga” Cluj County Library or other public libraries in Cluj County. One of these programs is “Books which became movies” which was offered to college students aged between 14 to18. Objectives (General & Specific) “Books which became movies” program aimed: 1. to present a series of films based on literary works; 2. to make the students discuss about those literary works; 3. to develop the students capacities of identifying in a movie details which are

related to the techniques of production, such as image, light, sound, scenery, motion, costumes etc. in order to stimulate their critical perception, the communication ability and the pleasure of reading by this type of media education. Description of Main Activities and Methods “Books which became movies” program started from a very simple idea: developing the young people critical spirit regarding reading a literary text and also watching a movie. This was the very reason why the organizers chose several movies based on novels in Romanian literature, which could be found among the obligatory texts in the Romanian 234

literature curricula, considering these could also be possible items at the baccalaureate exam. While at Romanian literature classes the students learnt to analyze a literary text in a critical way, in several perspectives, they did the same with the movies so, through these movies, the organizers managed to develop certain debates novel vs. movie. Preparations for the activities involved collaboration with college teachers and a student in Film and Television at University of Cluj. After choosing the movies, the most important parts in them were selected, considering the relevant parts in the movies from the novel perspective. The fragmentation of the movies was necessary in order to stress the most important elements which had to be pointed out. The first effective activity in the program consisted in a visit to the library, which aimed to make the students familiar with the cinema techniques, so the participants learned about the beginnings of cinema, about types of movies. They also found out what is behind the screen, from the producer to sound engineers. At the end of the meeting the students were asked to form several teams and to make short movies on a subject they prefer. The following three activities were similar and consisted in watching a set of sequences from a movie based on a novel, but they were asked to read the novel previously. Each sequence was discussed together a teacher and the discussion focused on the extent the movie director’s approach respects the novel, how the characters are presented in the movie vs. the novel etc. The students could come closer to the literary text by means of the movie. The fifth activity represented a Movie maker workshop, coordinated by a librarian and the students learnt how to paste photos, to add text, music or comments to the image and other facilities the application offers. The result of their work, the short movie, participated in a competition which represented the final activity in the program. At the end of the program the students were asked to express their opinions about the activities and they manifested their pleasure of taking part in other similar projects. Results “Books which became movies” program was complementary to the educational process in school and within family. The impact of such a program is greater as it uses audiovideo resources which are carefully selected, in order to help young students to be more exigent in choosing the texts they read or the movies they watch. Such a program can be used in other domains (history, sciences or ecology) by watching documentaries. The commentaries that follow watching the documentaries should be 235

coordinated by a specialist. This type of program helps school to move to the library and this is a way to encourage teenagers to read more. At the same time, this is an opportunity to show them that the library could be used as a place for socialization. The cinema education stimulates critical learning and perception, the analyses and the debates on the emotions and topics triggered by watching a movie. The teenagers also learn how to use the movie as a support of their own creativity. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? This type of program which involves different materials and resources could be considered attractive by teenagers, as, in general, they are interested in new technologies such as the techniques involved in producing a movie, and they could associate reading novels with watching movies and discussing then about differences and specific features of the two art works. The library involvement in the program may show teenage students that this is not only “a book storehouse”, but also a modern place, where it could be “cool” to spend their free time.

Title

DIGIFOLIO

URL

http://www.biblionet.ro/upload/documents/document/24719/attachement/172173 /Ghid%20copii%20-%20Brasov.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

„George Bariţiu” Braşov County Library

16 weeks

Short Description (max. 200 words) DIGIFOLIO program addresses to 8-14 aged children and to their teachers and it aims to develop multimedia skills and to improve knowledge about the way electronic portfolios are made. The main advantage of this program is that it does not teach students about computers, but about the way it is used to learn. The method is “learning by doing” and it uses a free platform dedicated to education which is easy to use, intuitive. DIGIFOLIO can be implementted with limited resources in county 236

libraries or in school libraries and it has a major impact for children, as it ensures access to different technological devices, the necessary knowledge to use them effectively and, support and advice in making the electronic portfolios, the possibility of sharing their performances. Objectives (General & Specific) DIGIFOLIO aimed : 1. to develop knowledge related to the way the electronic portfolios are made; 2. to develop children’s multimedia communication skills ; 3. to support developing and presenting the electronic portfolios made. Description of Main Activities and Methods 1. Instructing children about the procedure of making the electronic portfolios. This activity may be organized as a quiz. 2. Opening the accounts on the administration system for electronic portfolios (Weebly). The librarian creates an account on the platform for each group, then the username and password are given to each student. Each student accesses his/her own work space by introducing the username and password, then realizes a message for the page “about”, using the text instrument. 3. Developing multimedia communication skills consists in: using the web 2.0 instruments for making the electronic portfolios - Voki; using the web 2.0 instruments for making the electronic portfolios – Prezi; using the video camera and digital recorder; using the photo camera and making a banner in Photoshop Elements; using the web 2.0 instruments for the electronic portfolios – Youtube; using the web 2.0 instruments for the electronic portfolios Wikispace; using the scanner; using the graphic tablet. 4. Finalizing the electronic portfolio by integrating all the resulted objects within the project, saving and editing them in free access. 5. Making a presentation of the activities developed within the project by means of Glogster. 6. Making a video for promoting the program by means of an instrument called Animoto. Results The main features of the project are creativity and interactivity, so it had a major impact on every group involved in: students, librarians, teachers and even parents. Students became more and more eager to learn something new from the librarians at every meeting. The intense work, much information, many web 2.0 instruments presented, using and applying 237

them the alert rhythm of work imposed by students became a real challenge for both librarians and teachers. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The approach used in this program can be used in Lire2.0 because it ensures: - students’ access to different technological devices, the necessary knowledge for effectively using them, assistance in making the electronic portfolios, the possibility of valorization and sharing their performances; - teachers’ digital skills improvement and developing new competences, assistance for implementing new technologies in class; - parents’ opportunity to know and easily inform about their children’s activity and performances.

Greece Title Imago 2010 URL http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/projects/public_parts/documents/comenius/acc_mes_final_ report_2007/com_mp_142381_imago2010.pdf Funding Agency EU Comenius Project

Short Description (max. 200 words) In the media age, children face reading literacy and visual literacy challenges even at preschool and primary school age. The development of broad literacy skills, which go far beyond a purely text-based approach (e.g. critical and competent use of visual material, coding and decoding of pictures) would, therefore, appear necessary. However, school education has traditionally focused primarily on the acquisition of written language. The need for an "aesthetic literacy" remains mostly ignored. The early years are critical in the development of language and reading skills. Working with images is particularly appealing to children, promotes non-linear, lateral thinking and can motivate learning. Including (visual) literacy is particularly valuable in language learning programs for children from an immigrant background. 238

Objectives (General & Specific) The main goal of this project was to develop and test a European-style curriculum for visual literacy for teachers and student teachers in pre-primary and primary schools. The purpose of this project was therefore to develop, test and evaluate new materials and curricula, where the use of symbols, images and texts can be practiced and shared. The materials aim to develop elementary visual skills, evoke interest in visual forms of expression, promote individual articulacy and help to advance verbal and non-verbal linguistic skills in the form of best-practice examples. Description of Main Activities and Methods Elementary and primary school teachers were given the necessary professional skills and trained in visual skills and level-of-learning diagnosis in training sequences and further training modules. The international comparison in the project gives some insight into cultural differences and visual communication. The reference to three different scripts (Latin, Cyrillic and Greek alphabets) makes this a particularly exciting project. Results The results of the project have been published for practicing teachers and it has been augmented by including publications for children. Articles intended for specialists and teacher trainers have also been published. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The project addressed aesthetic literacy, which is important because the visual presentation of a given text is very important in determining whether it will be read by students in the target group and whether the reader will suggest it to a peer. This aspect also applies to reading using ICT materials.

Title

Let’s Introduce a Book – The Little Prince

URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_sc hools_and_pro/profile.cf m?f=2&l=en&n=43099 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p43099/welcome http://ourlittleprince.wikispaces.com/01.Home 239

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2012

Short Description (max. 200 words) Three primary school classes worked together on turning a chosen book, ‘The Little Prince’ into a theatrical performances, slide presentations and comic books published on the Internet. To make the experience more real, pupils produced a Little Prince visit to their own country, presented it on stage and organized an exhibition about the project. Objectives (General & Specific) The pupils were 10-12 years old. The aims of the project were to motivate pupils to love reading, to help them improve their foreign language skills, to make contact with peers from other countries and to improve their computer, theatre, drawing, writing and speaking skills. Description of Main Activities and Methods Pupils use various techniques to design/draw scenes from the book. Pupils' drawings were then scanned, exchanged between the classes and printed. As part of the finale, pupils organized an exhibition in their schools. The slide presentations made by pupils in all the classes were put together in order to create a joint presentation. Similarly, all the videos from the theatre performances were merged to create a joint movie. Results The final presentation and comic were published on the Internet. To make the experience more real, pupils also produced a Little Prince visit to their own country, presented it on stage and organized an exhibition about the project. It encouraged collaboration between the classes in all phases of the execution. There were a variety of teaching methods used which were stimulating for the pupils. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The collaboration and the culmination in fun and stimulating activities, which included the active participation of the pupils. There were also several methods exploited, giving the range of pupils a choice to exploit their talents in the area where they felt most comfortable.

240

Title

Lifelong Readers: A European Reading Promotion Framework for Primary School Librarians, Educators and Administrators

URL

http://www.lifelongreaders.org/

Funding Agency

Duration

EU Comenius Multilateral project 2011-2013 Short Description (max. 200 words) Lifelong Readers (LiRe) aimed to provide school librarians, teachers, and administrators with guidance and tools for encouraging children aged 6-12 to develop lifelong reading habits. Because low levels of young Europeans' literacy skills have been repeatedly documented, the EU emphasizes and encourages the need for lifelong learning. Lifelong reading goes hand-in-hand with lifelong learning. Objectives (General & Specific) LiRe collected, developed, and exchanged good practices for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures. As only a small number of EU member states have achieved good results in the field and have produced innovative reading promotion products and processes, the project, via pertinent and concrete European cooperation, aimed to benefit reading education and improve the training of school librarians, educators and administrators across the EU. Another aim was to initiate change by implementing reading promotion programmes in all participating countries. Description of Main Activities and Methods To achieve these aims, the LiRe project built a reading promotion framework which featured: (i) Summary descriptions of successful reading promotion programs; (ii) Principles, strategies and approaches for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures; (iii) An extensive collection of reading promotion actions, grouped under such categories such as Reading Promotion through Play/ ICT/ Volunteerism/ Awards/ the Arts; (iv) An annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources; (v) Reading promotion evaluation tools. Results The LiRe Training Modules addressed the reading promotion training of teachers, school 241

librarians, and administrators. The material was piloted, implemented and the results were disseminated by all partners. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? There are many parallels between the LiRe1.0 program and LiRe2.0. The initial program touched upon reading promotion through ICT skills and it addressed a target audience of approximately the same age range as the LiRe2.0 project, though it was more limited.

Title

Bookraft

URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_and_pro/pr ofile.cf m?f=2&l=en&n=28256 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p28256/welcome http://etwinningbookraft.blogspot.be/

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2011

Short Description (max. 200 words) In this project, school librarians cooperated with teachers in Poland, Cyprus and Greece to enhance pupils' enjoyment of books through crafts and creative activities. The pupil age range was between 11-17 years of age. Objectives (General & Specific) The project aimed to encourage reading pleasure through a variety of creative activities and crafts, to teach library services and media education through e-Twinning, to apply peer education on the teacher level, as well as on a student level, to make the libraries more interesting and attractive and to make the pupils "library ambassadors." Description of Main Activities and Methods A number of subject areas, including cross-curricular areas, were considered in this project: Drama, History of Culture, Informatics / ICT, Language and Literature, Media 242

Education and Music. The activities were conducted in Greek and English. Among the tools used were: audio conferencing, chat, e-mail, forums, mp3 recordings and other software (PowerPoint, video, pictures and drawings), Video conferencing, Virtual learning environments (communities, virtual classes) and web publishing. Results The result was the creation of a common blog with all the pupils’ work. In addition, because of the display of the student’s crafts related to the books, the libraries became more interesting and attractive. Pupils successfully collaborated across many subject areas and learning platforms, thus broadening their educational experience. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Factors which LiRe2 can benefit from include the cooperation between schools, the engagement of pupils in cross-curricular subject areas and the use a variety of ICT tools to finalize and ‘publish’ their projects.

Title

Young Poets Society

URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_and_pro/pr ofile.cfm?f=2&l=en&n=35771 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p35771/welcome

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2011

Short Description (max. 200 words) Poetry can motivate students and present a wide range of learning opportunities. Through the “Young Poets Society” project, students aged 12-15 from three different countries selected and exchanged poems by great poets of their countries, explored their characteristics. They then cooperated with each other in an effort to write their own poems using various structures and styles. Objectives (General & Specific) Therefore, the project aimed to introduce students to the world of poetry and to learn to read many different styles of poetry. In addition, they were required to work 243

collaboratively and communicate with each other, share ideas and concerns, and discover ways in which the pupils themselves share common characteristics with the students from other countries, using poetry as the means for self-expression and self-realization. Furthermore it aimed to motivate students to improve their use of the English language through reading and writing poetry and reinforce their grammar, vocabulary skills, creativity and development of their imagination. Description of Main Activities and Methods The ‘Young Poets’ wrote their own poems using various structures and styles (haiku, cinquain, quatrain, sensory-emotion poems, couplets, diamonte poems, limericks, shape poems, tanka, ballad, and free verse). All these poems were accompanied by illustrations made by the students themselves. Their combined work was incorporated into an e-book under the title "Young Poets Society: Collection of Poems". Students also use their poems creatively to make their own video or audio files, dramatize them or make them into songs. The resulting material was hosted in a blog specially designed for this project. Results The students successfully completed the project. In the process they became acquainted with the different types of poetry through the hands-on approach afforded them by the project, and rounded up the effort through digital means. A blog was also created. There was the added benefit of using a language that was not their native tongue, to communicate. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The collaboration with students from other schools and other countries is a main motivating factor as is using ICT tools. It is a good idea to have as a project finale an activity that the students select and which will necessitate the use of technology.

Italy

Title

XANADU. Persistent readers’ community 244

URL

http://www.progettoxanadu.it

Funding Agency

Duration

Hamelin Cultural Association - Bologna

From 2004

Library ‘Sala borsa’ Kids University of Bologna -Facultyof Education Sciences Short Description (max. 200 words) Xanadu is a reading promoting project dedicated to teenagers, which expands within a year in a already rooted and continuously growing network of schools and libraries. Its intention is to create an interactive community of teenagers who confront and interact to each other, starting from their own experience of reading and cultural consumption through a close dialogue among various parlances: books, films, comics, music, video games, the Internet and new technologies. It proposes a competition based on a bibliography on a specific topic. Xanadu website becomes an active place of exchanges and debates. The winner of the competition is not a reader or a class but the book that kids loved the most, which is celebrated at the end of the year during a meeting with writers, musicians and experts. Objectives (General &Specific) -

to create a project that promotes reading among teenagers;

-

to supply new stimulus and means to help kids in their course of growth and individual identity development;

-

to develop critical skill and personal opinion, to learn how to ‘read’ themselves and reality;

-

to stimulate different cognitive capacities which give the opportunity to read and understand different parlances;

-

to renovate the book property of the Italian libraries.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The project creates two complementary routes, one for the kids and the other one for the librarians, teachers and educators.

245

Activity for kids: - literature workshops; - contests to determine the most loved stories; - comparison through new media; - multidisciplinary routes (novels, short stories, poems, music, comics, movies and virtual reality); -meetings with authors; - the ideal library (the ‘permanent bookshelf’ in the Internet with the books most voted by the kids). Activity for teachers, librarians and educators: - training courses; - conferences and study days; - independent work groups which interact online. Results 11 editions 50.000 kid participants Over 1,000 class participants Over 700 titles among the most interesting classical and contemporary literature 3,778,521 visualizations of the site of Xanadu Prize 2007 for the best book and literature promoting project of the Ministry of Cultural Assets and Activities – Book and Reading Centre What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0project? Ideas and activities of the above project that can be used for the LiRe 2.0 project: - creating a community of kids and literature promoters who confront and dialog with each other personally or online; - creating a website that gathers the ‘ideal library’ with the books most voted by the kids, 246

with close examination files; - using the Xanadu training methods for reading promoters through courses and seminars, dialogues between school and library networks, by means of the ICT.

Title

Multimedia and reading

URL

http://www.trovarsinrete.org

Funding Agency

Duration

Public and Multimedia Libraries of SettimoTorinese

Since 2000

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project involves kids and students of the local schools in routes that stretch among books and multimedia technologies, suggesting that the new tools are not a menace to books and reading, but they construct an enormous access opportunity to the informative and cultural resources; moreover, they allow the creation of a community sharing the same interests, as well as provide with a place to publish or promote personal ideas and researches. Objectives (General & Specific) - to promote Internet and multimedia access as the appropriation of a new culture; - to encourage integration among the new media and the traditional communication tools; - to detect the most appropriate multimedia forms in order to promote reading; - to establish a connection between the multimedia and the rest of the expressive activities, exploiting creative potentiality; - to develop learning methods and the use of new technologies in ludico-creative forms; Description of Main Activities and Methods - reading workshops in every school; - multimedia workshops; - experimental focus group, constructed by teachers, librarians, communication experts to organize the online learning community; 247

- web connection among all the schools involved in the project; - establishment of a scholarship reserved for graduates in Communication Sciences for the research on the transformations of reading and writing induced by multimedia technologies; - cultural and technologic training for teachers; - creation of a shared website, forums and onlines debates groups - narrating and surfing: kids and adults gather the memories of the city; - online game; - blog (online journal) Results Promoting a multimedia and interdisciplinary approach to reading What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? -creating reading and writing workshops in schools, provided with paper and digital narrative texts, updated annually; - creating a forum as a functional place for a group of readers which includes authors, readers, reading promoters; - developing reading, net surfing and writing projects about local stories to learn and transmit the memories of the territories of belonging.

248

Italy Title

#ioleggoperché, April 23rd International Book Day

URL

http://www.ioleggoperche.it/it/home/

Funding Agency

Duration

AIE: ItalianEditors’ Association

February, 9th 2015 - April 23rd2015

Short Description (max. 200 words) 240 thousand books have been trusted to thousands of zealous readers: the Messengers, who, in their turns, will entrust the books to as many readers as they can reach. The Messengers will meet the people to whom entrust the books at schools, at universities, at workplaces, on local trains, in libraries and in bookshops. Objectives (General & Specific) A national campaign aimed to promote the act of reading as a viral one. Description of Main Activities and Methods 250000 copies of printed books have been freely distributed by the reading messengers Ioleggoperché website has become the means of encounters of all the activities connected with reading which have been organised by the messengers during the 3-months lasting campaign Results Interest raised on reading as a social activity. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0project? - creating a web and social platform, through which sharing reading tools, events and activities, as well as create actual contacts among strong and either weak or reluctant readers.

249

Title

Le parole tra noi leggere[The light words between us], by Gargano Trifone

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6554/index.html

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to the present

Short Description (max. 200 words) Reflections on the new aspects of reading introduced by the various digital devices, and the differences between these and the traditional book-form The teaching course introduces the teacher to the new forms of digital textuality and, therefore, to the tools andapps that the prosumer – producer and consumer student – finds and uses in a social and collaborative environment. Online reading implies the existence of a reader who makes choices, within the context of "possibilities" for expansion, junctions and decisions prepared by the author. Some web 2.0 software also encourages collaborative (or collective) writing experiences, as do the social network platforms. Objectives (General &Specific) The project includes two parallel and complementary paths, one aimed at teachers and the other at students. Objectives for the teachers: 

Using ICTs, to help students engage in written and transmitted production, both in terms of communicative intentions and the characteristics of the text

Objectives for the students: 

To pay attention to the forms of video-writing and multimedia communication.



To use ICTs to produced significant texts in both rigid and flexible form.



To use ICTs in a cooperative and collaborative way. 250

Description of Main Activities and Methods The activities use visual and multimedia communication tools in reference to the expressive strategies and technical tools of online communication. -

-

Phase 1 involves watching two videos, each just a few minutes long, on the innovations brought about by web 2.0 and on the need to protect one's own privacy/online security. Phases 2 and 3 offer workshop ideas to use in class.

Activities for the young people: -

-

Read hypertextual/transmedia stories online This will not only change their method of reading, but also the style (and quality) of their writing. A series of reflections of traditional writing and hypertextual writing

Results 

The project was made available to more than 200 schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions;



The project was included in a rich INDIRE Repository of materials, andtrialled and validated for education and classroom-based work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies



What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0: 

to create an interactive community of children and promoters of reading, who interact and engage in discussions in-person and online;



to increase levels of collaborative and collective reading and writing, with texts "deposited" online (cloud, wiki, blog)

251

Title

Le scritture del mito: la figura di Ulisse nel tempo [Writing the myth: the figure of Ulysses over time] by Donatella Vignola

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6142/

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to the present

Short Description (max. 200 words) A course on the persistence of the myth of Ulysses, from Homer to the present day, throughout Western literature, and in texts of various genres and with various codes (including in mixed form: words to music, words and images). A series of activities ranging from webquest to cooperative learning to reading, and textual, individual and collective cooperation. Objectives (General &Specific) 

To learn how to read and interrogate a text online



To perform an analytic reading



To perform an intratextual reading

Description of Main Activities and Methods Through collaborative learning techniques, students are guided in "learning through doing" and reading a "text", including image-based texts, according to their various points of intersection and levels. Readers experience the polysemy of the text and the role that each reader's experience has in their interpretation. The end of the course includes individual genre and mixed code (video + text) productions, which take account of the various reading interpretations. Results 

The project was made available to more than 500 teachers in more than 200 252

schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions; 

The project was included in the INDIRE Repository, which collects materials trialled and validated by selected tutors, and has been used for in-class education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0 include: 

placing great emphasis on the centrality of the text in relation to the centrality of the reader



turning a literary text into a powerful cognitive tool, capable of making sense of human actions and interactions, but also of negotiating the social role and identity of adolescents

Title

"Non t'inganni l'apparenza delle scorciatoie": massime, aforismi, epigrammi, enigmi ["Don't be fooled by the appearance of shortcuts": maxims, aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas] by Cristina Nesi

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6617/

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to today

Short Description (max. 200 words) Reflection on the mode of transmission of a message (from wax tablets to smartphones) as an essential element in the specificity of communication. The course delves into the use of the short form, central to social, smart and, in general, web 2.0 communication. Objectives (General &Specific) 253

The project includes two parallel and complementary paths, one aimed at teachers and the other at students. General objectives 

Improve communicative skills through short forms



Develop short form textual comprehension and production skills

Objectives for the teachers -

Introduce students to, and encourage them to use, the linguistic structures of short forms and present their evolution over time.

Objectives for the students -

Read and write ancient and modern types of short forms. Use all short form literary techniques to write more incisively and effectively from a communicative perspective, including on social networks and smartphones.

Description of Main Activities and Methods -

The activities use visual and multimedia communication tools with regard to the expressive strategies of the text.

-

The introductory stages draw on the recurrent sections of text to explain the formal continuities that differentiate a maxim from an aphorism, an ancient aphorism from a modern one, and an epigram from an enigma.

-

The aim is to entertain through reading and writing workshops on double meaning, word play games and creating enigmas

-

The course also aims to encourage teachers to reflect on the reading of short forms through questionnaires, and asks them to present their reflections in the form of an epigram

-

The activities aim to reveal the great richness of meaning of short forms (aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas), which relies, in part, on the reader's intuition and interpretation.

Results 

The project was made available to more than 200 schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions;

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The project was included in the INDIRE Repository of materials trialled and validated for in-class education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies



The project was included in the INDIRE Repository of materials selected for use in training newly-hired teachers

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0 include: 

increasing the number of reading and writing workshops focusing on short forms such as maxims, aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas



Creating a community of young people capable of interacting online, using epigrams, in particular, which Foscolo describes as "verses of conversation", making the students capable of using irony in an effective way.

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Chapter 5. Resources for Reading Promotion This section of the Toolkit gives a series of created Lesson Plans using Web 2.0 Tools that can be used in a practical way in the classroom to promote reading through the use of ICT. These Lesson Plans can be changed and adapted to suit the needs of your learners.

Lesson Plans using Web 2.0 Lino Teacher:

School:

H. Panoutsopoulos

Doukas School, Greece

Class Group: -

Date:

Lesson Theme:

Teaching Methodology:

September 30, 2016

Exploring the lives and work of three prominent Greek Mathematicians of the ancient times. Meet three great Greek mathematicians from the ancient times.

Group Investigation model (*) for a detailed description of the model, see: Eggen, P.D. & Kauchak, D.P. 2006. Strategies and Models for Teachers. Boston, Pearson (pp. 110 – 116).

Possible Challenges:

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience:

 Different attitudes of students towards reading.

 Ability to search the web for information.

Students aged 15 – 16 years old

 Different attitudes of students towards Mathematics.

 Ability to store and retrieve information relevant to a project/assignment.

(10th grade students)

 Different ICT proficiency levels among participating students.

 Ability to make use of basic functionalities of a tool that has already been presented in class (‘Lino’ for the purpose of this lesson plan).

 Realistic time scheduling of activities to be implemented.

SEQUENCE

Lesson number 1 in a series of one (1) lessons

Duration of lesson:

Prerequisites: Prior to the described lesson, students (under Two (2) teaching hours specific instructions provided by the teacher) need to:  have familiarized themselves with the writing style of the

author of the book ‘The Parrot’s Theorem’ (writer: Denis Guedj),  have read book excerpts describing the lives and work of the three mathematicians (namely, Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes) that the lesson is about,  have familiarized themselves with ‘Lino’ (http://en.linoit.com), i.e. the tool that will be used in the

(i.e., approximately 1h 30 min).

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context of the lesson.

Intended Learning Outcomes

(Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Two principal approaches to assessment:

(Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)



Factual knowledge:  Students will learn about the life and work of three (3) prominent Greek mathematicians of the ancient times (namely, Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes) and the historical and geopolitical context in which their achievements took place.  Students will learn basic mathematical definitions and concepts that have been taught at school and are associated with the work of these mathematicians.  Procedural knowledge:  Students will be able to develop and apply skills related to inquiry based on the use of various resources.  Students will be able to develop and apply skills related to the presentation of information (i.e., inquiry findings) in a logical manner based on the use of a specific tool (‘Lino’ in the case of the specific lesson).  Conceptual knowledge:  Students will understand the historical and geopolitical context in which the selected mathematicians lived and produced their achievements. Assessment will focus: (i) on the mastery of information and content accessed and used by students, (ii) the quality of presentation of their work, (iii) the quality and effectiveness of the group effort in which they have been involved. Students’ work will be assessed: (i) by the teacher and (ii) by peers. A number of questions that could drive the development of assessment criteria are the following:  Mastery of information and content:  Is the content/information that has been presented accurate?  Is the content/information that has been presented well documented?  Have students cited sources of information that have been used over and above the material that has been provided by the teacher)?  Quality of presentation:  Is the content/information presented by students easy to understand?  Which features of the tool have students used in order to present the results of their work?  Quality and effectiveness of the group effort:  Have group members listened to each other?  Have group members shared information and ideas?  Have group members helped each other clarify ideas?  Have group members provided each other feedback?

KEY RESOURCES

Textual

Display and Electronic media

Appropriately selected excerpts from the book ‘The Parrot’s Theorem’ by Denis Guedj that present the life and work of three (3) prominent Greek mathematicians of the ancient times

Material from websites made available in various formats (text, videos, images) offering information on the life and work of the mathematicians and found as a

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(Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes).

result of student-led inquiry.

Additional printed material (e.g. magazine articles) offering extra information on the life and work of the mathematicians.

Students’ personal computers. Teacher’s personal computer. Internet connection. Overhead projector & display screen.

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Action 1 Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Summary of activity The introductory phase of the lesson will focus on students’ orientation. To this end, the teacher explicitly presents: 

What the lesson is about.  The lesson is about getting to know and present the lives and work of three of the most influential Greek mathematicians of the ancient times (namely, Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes).



How students are expected to work and expected outputs.  Students are expected to work in groups (preferred group size: 3 to 4 students).  Each group will be assigned the presentation of the life and work of one of the three Mathematicians.  Group members will make use of information that has been gathered from reading excerpts of the book “The Parrot’s Theorem” by Denis Guedj (prerequisite for the lesson).  Information retrieved from additional resources provided by the teacher or found by students should also be used.  Students will be prompted to search for and find material in a variety of formats (e.g. images, textual information, videos, etc.) that wil be used for the creation of a canvas, with the help of ‘Lino’, presenting the life and work of the assigned mathematician.  Each group is expected to create a canvas with the help of the employed tool (‘Lino’) that will clearly present where and when the assigned mathematician lived and what mathematical concepts he developed.



The aim and objectives of the lesson.

Action 2

Summary of activity

Direct Instruction:

In the case of the Group Investigation Model, instead of a direct instruction phase, there is a Group Planning phase that relates to: (i) formation of groups and (ii) preparation of groups for investigation on their assigned mathematician and development of their expected outputs. More specifically:

How will I present new material and make learning relevant?



Formation of groups.  The teacher assigns students to groups by making clear the criteria against which choices regarding groups and their members were made.



Preparation of groups for investigation and development of expected outputs.  Group members draw upon the information they have gathered after having read the book excerpts and other relevant material assigned to them.  Group members make decisions with respect to additional information they need to search for.  Group members make decisions upon the content and structure of their output (i.e. a canvas created with ‘Lino’).  An action plan is devised with each group member being assigned specific tasks within the group.

Action 3

Summary of activity

Guided and Independent Practice:

The third phase of the lesson relates to the implementation of further investigation on the assigned mathematician by group members and the development of the expected product (i.e., the ‘Lino’ canvas).

How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

During this phase, the teacher provides support and guidance to students by answering questions. The teacher is also responsible for helping students with time management and keeping track of their progress.

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Action 4

Summary of activity

Assessment and Evaluation:

The teacher informs students about the assessment criteria and also about the way in which assessment is going to take place. The teacher is expected to assess the end product of the work that has been done by all groups, while each group of students is expected to assess the work of the other groups (peer assessment).

What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Guidelines on the submission of assessment results are also provided. More specifically, assessment by the teacher and peer assessment are expected to take place after the completion of the lesson. Students are prompted to send the results of their assessment to the teacher through email. The teacher sets a deadline for the completion of the assessment for each group, taking into account the defined criteria.

Action 5

Summary of activity

Closing:

The teacher asks students to reflect on the work that has been done in the context of their groups and share their thoughts about what did or did not work well. Apart from that, the teacher asks students to provide him/her with oral feedback about what aspects of the project they enjoyed and benefitted from the most.

How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

260

Differentiation:

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection:

How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Discussion on the strengths and weakness of the work of students can help them gain insights in formal investigation and presentation and use them more effectively in future assignments.

Assessment results will help the teacher draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the lesson regarding the degree to which students were able to read, learn and demonstrate their learning. Time constraints and other practical issues that relate to the implementation of the lesson should also be issues for reflection.

In the case that there are students who encounter difficulties in reading the assigned book excerpts or cannot keep up at the same pace as their teammates, the teacher may provide them with further instructions, simplify the assigned task to them and prompt them to get help from their teammates. Exceptionally able students may assume leading roles in groups and guide collaborative efforts by making decisions about the implemented investigation and the nature of the created product

Moreover, it is important to help students understand how content and information from various domains intertwine in cases of tasks/projects like the one assigned to students in the present lesson.

261

Story Board That Teacher:

School:

Group:

N. Bablademou/

Doukas School

13-14- year old Grades 8-9

F. Korbi Date:

Lesson Theme:

Teaching Methodology:

2/10/2016

‘Haereas and Callirhoe’: a novel written in Hellenistic times

Communicative teaching

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience:

Possible Challenges: IT literacy

Teenagers (grades8-9)

High as students will need to know how to use Story Board That: a lesson preceding that one has to come before this one. In case of students who have no previous experience with computers see alternative activity.

Learning Difficulties To make the content of ancient literary work contemporary. Technical difficulties

SEQUENCE

Collaborative Learning

Lesson …1.. in a series of 1

Duration of lesson: 90 minutes

Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)



Factual knowledge: Students will know….  The historical background  Everyday life at that time  Information about the writer



Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to…  Use strategies for scanning, skimming and note taking  Create a digital story  Share their work with peers  Assess their peers’ work



Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand…  The sequence of events  The thoughts/feelings and actions of the characters  The setting  The language

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Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)



Assessment of learning (e.g. class test)  Students create a digital story that can be shared/assessed by peers and teacher.  The digital stories will encourage students to have fun reading the book.



Assessment for learning (identifying next steps needed to improve the learning and teaching).  Teacher identifies problems  Helps and monitors  Improves guidelines for students to create further digital stories as homework, future classwork and team work based on further reading of the book.

KEY RESOURCES

Textual

Display and Electronic media

Haereas and Callirhoe

Smart Board

Written by Hariton Afrodisieos

Tablet/ iPad/pc

Published by ‘To Rodakio’, 1995

Action 1

Summary of activity

Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Action 2

1. Teacher draws students’ attention on the cover/picture and title of the book and they try to guess what the story might be about. 2. Ss use their tablets/iPads/pcs and find information about the author of the book. 3. Ss read chapter 1 of the book (2 pages long)

Summary of activity

263

Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Teacher uses the site of StoryboardThat http://www.storyboardthat.com/ to demonstrate how students can create a digital story.

Summary of activity

1. Teacher organizes students in groups or pairs. 2. Each group or pair of students will have to create a story based on the settings, plot or characters. Ss, however, can choose to: a. focus on the character/ that interests them the most b. choose to give a different end to the story c. recreate a scene producing a realistic dialogue ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY: If some students are not that confident using the tool, or not that interested, they can dramatize a scene.

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Summary of activity

Students present their stories to the class. Teacher and students can comment orally on the work. The comments should be made on: a. creativity b. originality c. language d. efficient use of the app

Action 5

Summary of activity Students can vote online if possible.

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Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Teacher collects positive comments or problems and deals with those in a following session. Teacher uploads everybody’s work on the school digital newspaper. Teacher assigns another storyboard as hw/project inviting students to read on.

Differentiation:

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection:

How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Integration with IT To be filled accordingly. As students work in groups, the exceptionally able students support Integration with Ancient Greek: and help those with special Students will be able to relate to learning needs. characters, settings and plot of another historical time. The visual elements make the Students will be able to retell a lesson appealing to different types story that happened in another of learners. historical time using their own phrasing.

Integration with Art: cover of the book and several cultural and artistic elements mentioned in the story (music, games, etc).

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Goodreads Teacher:

School:

Nicola Townley

Post-primary school

Date:

Lesson Theme: Goodreads Online Book Review

Teaching Methodology: Teacher Exposition Discussion Practical Work Skills Demonstration

Level of ICT proficiency needed: Medium to high standard of ICT proficiency needed.

Target Audience: Most suitable for teenagers and adults.

12/09/16

Possible Challenges: Weakened ICT skills Low literacy levels Lack of reading experience

SEQUENCE

Lesson 1 and could be used in a series of many different lessons

Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Duration of lesson: 1 Hour.

Factual knowledge: Students will know how to write a review of a book. Students will know what is needed to construct a review. Students will know how to use the different features of Goodreads. Students will know the content of a book review. Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to communicate/engage/interact with other book readers. Students will be able to recommend books to other readers.

Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand how to communicate ideas and concepts within a book. Students will understand how to express their opinions. Students will understand the value of sharing books Students will understand how to use ICT to share books and to review books online. 

Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand…

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Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

To show assessment of learning students will write their own reviews and recommend books to read through their Goodreads profile. The teacher will read each of the reviews when they have been completed and give feedback to students in the comment section of each review. As part of assessment for learning, students will use their skills of understanding and book reading/ reviewing content to participate in a discussion dialogue in a group setting. Each student must respond at least 3 times within the discussion.

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1

Textual Books to read. Library of books.

Display and Electronic media Access to PC/Laptops Internet access Visual display Whiteboard/ Blackboard

Summary of activity

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Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Attention-getter: In this part of the lesson the teacher will introduce the concept of categorizing books. The teacher will ask students for the titles of books that they have read. The teacher will then chair a group discussion/ opinion poll to determine whether the books discussed fall under the following headings ‘like’ or ‘dislike’. The teacher will then write the headings on the board/ visual display. As the students ‘call out’ book titles that they have read, the teacher will then write the titles of each books under whichever heading the students decide to categorize each individual book. Hook: This will generate conversation and dialogue around what the class likes/ dislikes and has read as a whole. The teacher can then discuss with students which of these books students would recommend and why.

Bridge: Goodreads can then be introduced and suggested as a tool to help organize and find new books. The teacher will then demonstrate and explore the Goodreads website which will be visually displayed for all students to see.

268

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Summary of activity Students will then be asked to create an individual profile on the Goodreads website. A class group will be created and added by the teacher. As part of the group the teacher can add a description, rules, give a group topic and sub topic, include ‘tags’. Teachers can set the group to public, private, secret and 18+.

When the students have created their profile, the teacher can then share the link for the group to each student in order for them to be able to join the group.

Students will then add books to their profile that they have read. As part of this they can create ‘shelves’ as a form of category.

Students will then be asked to add any books that they have read onto their shelves and profiles.

269

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity Students will then be asked to read at least 5 reviews of books that they have already read or put on their shelves on Goodreads. Students must read a variety of different reviews. The teacher will then lead a ‘mind map’ discussion on what aspects of the reviews where interesting and what areas should not be included/ what worked well as well as what should and should not be included in a review.

Book Reviews: -

Main themes discussed Characters Synopsis of the book No spoilers Personal opinion

These notes will be left on visual display within the classroom so that students can view them when they are completing their own reviews.

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Summary of activity For this part of the lesson students will show their understanding of the concept by using their Goodreads profile to review 3 books that they have read. Students will be asked to rate the book that they have read. They will also include tags or bookshelves. Students must also include the date that the student finished reading the book and the date that they started reading in the book. The section for the book review is titled ‘what did you think?’ Also included is formatting tips, insert book/author, enlarge text field. Students can also add a reference or book cover. Users can ‘click to hide entire review because of spoilers.’ Students will then ‘save’ their review and can post it to a blog or add the review to their update feed.

270

Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity The teacher will then start a discussion in relation to a book that is being studied in the class as part of the curriculum. The teacher can choose any relevant topic/ question to initiate the discussion. Students will then be asked to write at least 3 separate responses within the discussion. Students must engage with the discussion topic as well as with responses given by other students.

271

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Extra time might be needed in order to navigate the website in order to complete the assignment. It is possible to enlarge the text. Use of a text to speech program. Use of a touch screen. Use of books at the students reading level instead of grade level.

Integration with technology Communication skills. Literacy and vocabulary. Collaborative Learning. Reflective Learning.

N/A.

Teacher:

School:

Group:

Literature teacher

Technical Institute

2nd grade

Date:

Lesson Theme:

Teaching Methodology:

May

“The Merchant in Fair”. The life of the medieval merchant.

Lesson with the interaction of ICT

Possible Challenges:

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience:

To make this subject, the Medieval History, which itself is quite complex and also differentiated, accessible but not superficial to students who are not necessarily too expert and interested.

To know how to master useful 15 or 16-year-old, first or second operating systems and applications year students of a Secondary to follow interactive lessons School. characterized by the use of ICT such as for example Prezi or BlueStudy.

Prezi

SEQUENCE

Lesson in a series of…

Duration of lesson: 55 minutes

272

Intended Learning Outcomes





 Two principal approaches to assessment:

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1 Introduction:

The students will have to be able to place the studied events in space and in time; to know some of the routes of the merchants of the Middel Ages; to know the essential areas of Medieval economy and the principal mercantile techniques. The students will have to be able to master better and better the specific vocabulary; be able to refine their capacity of interpreting written and iconographical sources and to consolidate deductive and inductive capacities. The students will have to understand the Medieval lifestyles and the reason why merchants used to be defined as “harsh men”.



Oral interrogations and written tests were resorted to assess the students’ learning achievements.



Blank maps of Europe and of Italy were prepared where every student had to report a set of information and construct Medieval routes on the basis of the explanation given during lessons and individual studies at home.

Textual

Display and Electronic media

Textbook Geographic maps

Book in Progress IWB App (Prezi) Video

Summary of activity Imagining the progress of the work session I figured that certain students, initially at least, might have been in difficulty facing a modular, specialized type lesson, so I simulated the first lesson of the class activity dividing the students in quite heterogeneous groups - as far as competence, attitude towards the subject and will to learn in general are concerned - to create a collaborative climate, typical of sea voyages. Either everybody rows on the same side in a serious way or you finish at the bottom of the depths. After creating the right climate of collaboration I introduced the lesson revealing at once the possible critical points like the study and analysis of the iconographical material or of the duplications of documents of the time of reference that the students examined with difficulty because they were very little used to direct confrontation with completely inexpert sources of the exegesis work. Paradoxically the point that had already been sensed as one of the critical ones turned out to be one of the easiest ones because the students resulted to be very capable of working in a team following to the letter the teacher’s indications. In other words: once understood that they were not studying history but were “doing a historical research” all the students (some more than the others, some participating more, others with some distraction) became involved in the type of work that, although difficult, was faced with care and digested quite well. For fear that I might not succeed in meeting the activity schedule and/or not succeed in putting the students in the condition to do the “work of a historian”, a lot of pictures and iconographic supports were prepared to head for the “homo videns” that is, on the average, the student of these years.

273

Action 2 Direct Instruction:

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice:

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation:

Action 5 Closing:

Summary of activity Since the very first lesson I used the ICT, like Prezi; I continuously posed stimulus questions to keep the students’ attention high and, contextually, to check if they learned every argument that had just been faced. To activate the students, I had prepared a set of differentiated materials from text supports to informative cards, from projections to iconographic apparatus showed - to the students through apps like Prezi. In every lesson I used images and schematized mind maps to bring back geographic and time spaces of reference to direct the students. For example, to face the subject of fairs, I projected several routes that had been covered by certain merchants, showing some of the most important coins handled by the “harsh men” and commenting an exchange letter which was referring to that kind of coin. Summary of activity A peer-to-peer based teaching type was promoted and the students were invested by focused and precise tasks. At the end of every lesson some excerpts of historiographical essays on subject were assigned as homework and in the following lessons we returned to the already treated subjects with iconographical supports to be examined in groups with the teacher’s help. The use of tablets, IWB and projector allowed a collective work and an interacted lesson commenting, from time to time, different types of sources. Moreover, intermediate tests were also executed. Summary of activity The students were put through two different types of tests in itinere and in the concluding fase: The structured test in itinere is resolved in a questionnaire concerning a historical source, like for example an exchange letter, one of the numerous working tools of Medieval merchants. A set of questions is asked and students have to answer them in an accurate and reasoned way to demonstrate that they had developed the analogy between the exchange letter and the modern bill of exchange; in fact, if the bill of exchange today is used for different reasons from those which had pushed the production of the exchange letter, in their legal forms they are quite similar, indeed, the bill of exchange is nothing else that the evolution of the exchange letter. The final assessment is ascertained through a final test called “The Merchant in Fair”: after having examined the table of Medieval Europe and having taken in consideration the value of 130 golden florins at their disposal, the students have to “untie” their own moneybags imagining to be merchants far from their own home towns, who have to rent and/or buy houses and/or shops, travel on routes and cover preconcerted stages of the trade of the time of reference to indicate their knowledge in the subject and to carry out their own trade activity. Every student, after having illustrated on the map their own doings and their own routes, has to tell Summary of activity (commenting extensively) how they invested the 130 florins they had. At the end of the lesson series and after the concluding tests, one or more lessons are held in laboratory where students can be confronted to each other and can try how much they learned producing paper posters and digital cards.

274

Differentiation:

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection:

To obviate diversities of socialeconomical nature and of abilities, I would divide the students in heterogeneous groups according to preparation, interest and competence, even if personalized activities are foreseen. For instance, ad personam tasks can be assigned to do at home and to present it in front of the whole class; the type of work assigned and the difficulty level of the various homework must be considered on the basis of the knowledge, competence and ability of each student, whether he is exeptionally good and prepared or needs special education.

During the lessons there were involved other subjects like Italian, Geographics, Law and other,non curricular ones such as Art and Philosophy for developping history in an interdisciplinary way. Besides, subjects concerning inclusion and/or diversity – themes that had already been tried by the class during training laboratories on the occasion of the experience done at the Monte Sole School of Peace at Marzabotto (Bologna), where the nazista fascist soldiers had carried out a massacre during the Second WW - were also approached. On the occasion of every remark, analisis or explanation we had recourse to the Web to see images or to follow short videos on the reference subject; to present the lesson or to allow the students themselves to work with and on apps ad hoc.

The working session was carried out without great changes, the way I had calculated, even if I had to simplify some lessons because I lengthened my explanation too much on certain aspects or because I got myself involved so much in the themes I was explaining that very often I lost my perception of time and only the school bell brought me back “to schedule”. An important modification will be to create a less demanding course that would imply less analyses or explanations during the work course right to obviate the time at our disposal. Speaking about changes, the reasons of the modifications are numerous and often contemporaneous like the questions/stimulus of the students who started discussions or required explanations/clarifications which took away precious time from the activity. In consequence, my underestimation of these “interferences/interruptions” produced an inadequate prediction of time schedule for the execution of the learning activity in all its complexity. As I foresaw, using the IWB and the help of images and iconographic sources were really appreciated by the students who showed greater participation and interest on the occasion of laboratory lessons. With pleasure, because it was not predictable, the writer registers the success of the test disguised as a game. Even if it was a test, because it was a conclusive assessment, the game of the “merchant in fair” was faced seriously by the students who worked hard and achieved in the average better results than their standard ones.

275

StudyBlue Teacher:

School:

Group:

Literature teacher

Technical Institute FerrarisBrunelleschi Lesson Theme:

II B and II C

April

Literature contest. “L’ultimo arrivato”.

Interacted lesson with the use of ICT

Possible Challenges:

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience:

Date:

Teaching Methodology:

To read and have fun. To make the contents of several literary works contemporary.

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

To know how to master useful 15 or 16-year-old, first or second operating systems and applications year students of a Secondary to follow interactive lessons and to School. “have fun” with ICT like, for example, StudyBlue. Lesson in a series of… Duration of lesson: 55 minuti

  

Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1

The students will have to be able to place stories and characters of various studied literary works in space and in time; to know and to recognize specific literary languages. The students will have to be able to master a specific vocabulary; be able to place the studied events and stories and to consolidate deductive and inductive capacities. The students will have to be able to understand how to make current certain themes and subjects that are present in the books proposed by the teacher either in lesson work or as homework.



Oral interrogations and written group tests were resorted.



Laboratory lessons were prepared where every student had to cooperate with their classmates to achieve a common goal in order to get a positive overall evaluation.

Textual

Display and Electronic media

Textbook Old and modern, national and international classics

IWB App (Studyblue) Powerpoint

Summary of activity

276

Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Knowing that reluctance for reading is quite widespread among young people between 14 and 16, I drew the attention of my students issuing a challenge. I started the first lesson putting them in competition among themselves and another second grade class from the same institute. I began with the end of the course with what we should have done showing the procedure of the literature competition corresponding to the final test. Caught by the idea of trying themselves in a competition, even if in a literary one, the students followed with attention my instructions and they welcomed with a certain enthusiasm the idea of a literary competition “versus” the students of another second grade class, who were also involved in reading – as agreed previously - the same book (Marco Balzano’s “L’ultimo arrivato”) and in studying some other texts or anthological passages from important and famous literary works.

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Summary of activity The students were involved immediately with reflections on themes that emerged from the reading of a determined book or anthological passage of a quite famous and important literary work. I had prepared beforehand some material for close examination on the arguments that would have been dealt with during the lesson and showed videos or supporting images to the texts. In this sense short videos or images in theme had been recourse to orient the students.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity In the classroom I used, with and together with the students, ICT like StudyBlue to teach its characteristics and potentiality. A laboratory lesson was carried out for making the students approach the new learning tool and at the end of the lesson the students were assigned some homework, based on this ICT. The use of tablets the students were equipped with allowed a collective work and an interacted lesson commenting, from time to time, the different assignments executed by the students.

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Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Action 5

Summary of activity The lessons supported by “tools” like the StudyBlue allowed to assess constantly and ‘in work in progress’ what and how much the students learned because actually it was used contextually as learning and assessment tool. The intermediate tests were resolved on oral interrogations or on group tests. Lastly, on the occasion of the World Book and Copyright Day (April 23rd) two different second grade classes of the school tried out in a conclusive final test defying each other in a literary competition focused mainly on Marco Balzano’s book “L’ultimo arrivato”, winner of the Campiello Literary Award, and on other literary works that were common to the relative study plans, agreed in advance by the teachers. The literary challenge was based on a set of tasks with aimed questions using most of all ICT like StudyBlue.

Summary of activity

Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

At the end of the lesson series and after the concluding final test, two lessons were held in laboratory where students could try themselves and could be confronted to each other on how much they had learned. Creating flashcards with App Studyblue or simple slides with PowerPoint allows students to have always available the material for a quick refresher and also accessible from their smatphones Differentiation: Linkage and Integration: Teacher Reflection: How will I differentiate the lesson for How will I make connections with What worked well? What didn’t pupils with varying abilities, including other learning within a subject work so well and how this might be pupils with special learning needs or area? Integration: How will I make done differently next time? What exceptionally able pupils? connections between learning in types of learning were particularly different subject areas? evident across the class? The particularly skilled and prepared students had the task to support and Reading and/or studying certain The interacted lessons or those help their classmates who had more books - chosen expressly by the conducted with the declared goal difficulties in the subject and they teachers and dealt with in class of trying in literary competitions covered a guiding role for the whole with interacted lessons -, with classmates or students of class-group on the occasions of discussions, close examinations another class stimulated positively challenges or literary competitions. and tests promoted the the students. The reading of one or For the students with special participation of the students and two books with a clear and welleducational needs sometimes the their interests to much broader defined goal allowed to conduct same type of text was assigned to be themes and topical interests like the lessons and the activities with read as for the rest of the class, the acceptance of the other, serenity involving the students. otherwise they were given simplified tolerance and peace. Discussions With pleasure, because it was not texts to allow them to participate in and stimulus questions on various predictable, the writer registers the the common work and to be involved books read by the students were success of the conclusive final test on the occasion of laboratory lessons. made to incite considerations not disguised as literary gameonly tightly bound to the texts but challenge. Even if it was a school to other arguments that allowed test, the literary game-challenge them to learn new notions and to was faced seriously by the students face different arguments. who worked hard and achieved in

278

the average better results than their standard ones. The final test disguised as literary challenge can undoubtedly be improved with the integration of other school subjects and with a greater articulation of itself.

279

Tablets

Teacher: Henrique Gil/António Pais

School:Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco

Class Group: 13/15-year-olds. Years 7 and 8

Date: 30.09.2016

Lesson Theme: Research and information analysis on ecological issues: food

Teaching Methodology: “inquiry based learning” “flipped classroom” “collaborative learning”

Possible Challenges: No internet connection in the class; BYOD/Tablet does not work

Level of ICT proficiency needed: know how to use tablets; know how to search digital information (Internet/search engines/Youtube)

Target Audience: teachers and students (years 7 and 8)

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Lesson 1 in a series of 2 





Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)





Duration of lesson: 45 minutes

Factual knowledge: Students will know … o Terminology (theme and topic) o Source identification & analysis for topic o Facts (main facts and details) o Living beings and food: classes Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to… o Identify information from keyword search and verify its relevance for task; o Identify parts from whole knowledge; cause-effect sequence; reason and consequence; o Use strategies for scanning and skimming information, such as underlining, note taking, using graphs; filling in grids and summing up. o Organize answer according to question focus. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand… o Informative text o Theme and topics o Infer information from text Assessment of learning (e.g. class test) should inform Reading: can identify topic information in text; can underline it, sum it up and present it. Use of tablet: can do selected tasks, such as navigate the text and highlight information by using colour to do so, as well as other features. Assessment for learning (identifying next steps needed to improve the learning and teaching). Uses information collected from sources to digitally create a poster or a flyer on content topic.

280

KEY RESOURCES

Textual Multimedia; text

Display and Electronic media Tablet

Action 1 Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Summary of activity Teacher elicits ‘Who uses tablets?” “Do you like it/ not like it? Why?” Teacher organizes quick blackboard survey: “Where do you use the tablet? For what purpose you use tablet? Favourite sites you search? Teacher organizes individual written survey based on a template (slip of paper distributed individually to each Student) where students describe ‘why they use tablets; the websites they prefer; how often they use tablets? The main purpose of the use of tablets? Their opinions/experiences related to websites about science” Teacher elicits from Students: “Do you think that it would be possible learn by yourselves using tablets? Let’s see!” Teacher demonstrates the use of tablets by using sites related to Biology/Nature ( i.e. for Portugal: https://nationalgeographic.sapo.pt/ciencia; http://ordembiologos.pt/; http://www.quercus.pt/).

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Summary of activity Teacher sets an example of tablet use so that Students may understand the variety and quality of information sources in connection to a particular Science topic (i.e. animals, plants, food). Teacher demonstrates how Students can use a tablet to search for information, how to collect it and analyse information. Teacher may do this search online if she feels confident; she may also use a PowerPoint with hyperlinks to relevant sources connected to the selected theme or topic. This may be one text only or a multimedia object (it is preferable that the Teacher uses the latter).

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity Teacher organizes Students in groups. Teacher presents to the whole class a problem related to students’ food habits. The problem should trigger an extensive use of resources on animals and plants, facilitate inquiry-based learning and aim at ecologically sustainable problem-solving. Student groups will have to research a list of pre-selected websites (2 websites per group) in order to create a text with ecological sustainable answers or proposals. Each group will also be stimulated to find additional sources, whenever needed. Teacher supports Students’ searches. Students will also be invited to exchange information with other groups

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Summary of activity Teacher collects all ecologically sustainable proposals produced by Student groups to review correct solutions which will take into account: the quality, the objectivity and the clarity of the written proposal (thus developing scientific writing skills).

281

Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity Teacher announces that this activity has to be continued at home (flipped classroom) with several other resources that the Teacher will email to Students. These resources will consist mainly of videos with interviews on the problem/topic. The next class Students will start with the presentation by each group of a proposal of an interview protocol to ask questions from colleagues, teachers and/or parents on the topic. This will have been sent to the Teacher’s email before the class. The teacher informs Students that the next stage is for Students to synthetize information in written form and to record it as a podcast (written and oral skills) in class. Students will have to search on the Internet for videos and/or tutorials on how to create a podcast (these may be the ones sent by the Teacher through email or those researched by Students themselves. The Teacher will encourage collaborative work among groups and within each group.

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Less able pupils can be integrated in Reading with a portable ICT device Student groups. in a multimedia context. Exceptionally able Students will be encouraged to enlarge their online search with an additional search on well-known national and international food experts.

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class? N/a

Science Students will develop simple questionnaires on the class’s food habits through the use of very simple ways of communication online. Maths Students will collect data to do graphs on students in the class: their fruit eating habits (who eats what and how often; … Languages Students will produce the script and record themselves (sound and image) doing simple interviews on the importance of healthy eating or any other food-related topic.

282

Podcast Teacher:Henrique Gil/ António Pais

School:Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco

Class Group: 13/15-year-olds. Years 7 and 8

Date: 30.09.2016

Lesson Theme: Doing a podcast script: ecology related issues and food

Teaching Methodology: “inquiry based learning” “flipped classroom” “collaborative)

Possible Challenges: No internet connection in the class; BYOD/Tablet does not work

Level of ICT proficiency needed: know how to use tablets; know how to transfer digital information (Internet/search engines/Podcast/Podomatic)

Target Audience: teachers and students (years 7 and 8)

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Lesson 2 in a series of 2







Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)





KEY RESOURCES

Duration of lesson: 45 minutes

Factual knowledge: Students will know … o Podcasts o Scripts for interviews to be recorded in a podcast o Facts (main facts and details) taken from an interview Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to… o Identify information from interviews and verify its relevance for task o Analyse content in order to sum up main ideas that were communicated o Apply instructions they read in order to make a podcast. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand… o Oral discourse for podcast o The necessary adaptation from written script to video recording

Assessment of learning (e.g. class test) should inform if students are able to do a podcast Know how to use researched information for a small interview on the topic Can transfer knowledge they read to practice Assessment for learning (identifying next steps needed to improve the learning and teaching) will focus on how well Students manage to transfer what they know about the topic to the script and how effective they are in communicating; It will also focus on the use of the specific digital tools autonomously.

Textual Multimedia/Text/

Display and Electronic media Tablet/Podomatic

283

Action 1 Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Summary of activity This lesson should take place in the computer lab if tablets are not operational. Teacher takes Students to computer lab or uses Students’ own tablets. Teacher writes the website address for Students to download the podcast making programme at www.podomatic.com together with the digital resource Audacity (www.audacityteam.org). Teacher presents guidelines on how to do a podcast on PowerPoint that is shared with students and may be used by them whenever needed. Students are also invited to use the how to make a podcast guidelines they searched at home and/or shared with other Students.

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Summary of activity Teacher hands over corrected scripts done by students at home on the interviews they are going to record.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity If it is not possible for Students to leave the classroom in order to interview other Students, teachers or parents, they will concentrate on the other Students in the class. They will record answers on audio (Tablet/Smartphone/audio recording device) and will later transcribe them (written skills), so as to analyse them later. At the analysis stage they will produce a 150-word summary (that evidences their capacity to summarize) of the main proposals made on the selected topic: sustainable food habits. After that, one of the Students will read the text to be subsequently recorded as a podcast, published and shared among the ‘school community members’. Teacher goes around and will advise students during their work phases: interviews, content analysis and summing upSummary information. of activity Teacher reviews Students’ podcasts as well as the scientific concepts used and the quality of the text produced in terms of analysis and summary.

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed? Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity Students play the podcasts in class or at home. Students give feedback on Podcasts: I like to do podcasts because /I don’t like to do podcasts because…/ next time we do podcasts we could….

284

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class? N/a

Less able pupils can be integrated in Reading with ICT and any other Student groups. subject area. Exceptionally able Students may be Science encouraged to do interviews via Students will synthetize scientific email/Skype to national experts. information and review scientific concepts. Languages Students may research other sources (such as fiction or documentaries in their own mother tongue or a foreign language) to compare data. Students may read multimedia texts on the topic on the Internet in the foreign language.

285

Kahoot Teacher: Margarida Morgado /António Pais

School: Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco

Class Group: 12-year-olds. Year 6

Date: 30.09.2016

Lesson Theme: Exploring reading through an online game

Teaching Methodology: “learners to leaders loop”

Possible Challenges: No internet connection in the class or library; BYOD does not work or does not support downloading Kahoot

Level of ICT proficiency needed: know how to use tablets, smartphones to download game; know how to play online games

Target Audience: teachers and librarians of year 6 that teach reading

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

Lesson 1 in a series of 2

Duration of lesson: 45 minutes



Factual knowledge (The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it): Students will know o Vocabulary connected with the text they are reading and its concepts o Theme and topic of text o Core information and details o Chronological time  Procedural knowledge (The interrelationship among basic elements within a larger structure that enables them to function together): Students will be able to… o Define own reading procedures o Read tasks autonomously on several technologies (multimodality) o Elicit and write essential information (core information and details) o Understand multimodality in connection to meaning making Conceptual knowledge (How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods): Students will understand…; o Narrative text and/or text types o Narrative dimensions – action, time and space o Chronological time – sequencing actions in time  Assessment of learning (e.g. class test) should inform o About Students’ understanding of text; (Kahoot has in itself a feedback facility that may assess student progress) o About ICT knowledge of Students (know how to use and interact with Kahoot)  Assessment for learning (identifying next steps needed to improve the learning and teaching). o Group work (Teacher will observe how Students interact in groups) o Use of information for text understanding and analysis (through Kahoot feedback to questions)

286

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1 Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Textual Text /book /story being currently discussed.

Display and Electronic media Kahoot

Summary of activity Teacher elicits ‘Who plays online games?” “Do you like it/ not like it? Why?” Teacher organizes quick blackboard survey: “Where do you play online games? What device do you use? Favorite online games? Teacher organizes individual written survey based on a template (slip of paper distributed individually to each child) where children describe ‘the games online they like; the device they play on; how often they do in the week?” Teacher elicits from Students: “Can you play an online game with the book we are reading? Let’s see! Teacher demonstrates with a 3-question Kahoot quiz played collectively on the screen. Teacher clicks on answers after input from Students. Summary of activity Teacher sets an example on how to create a quiz on the book currently being read by using a Multiple choice answer with 4 possibilities. Teacher demonstrates how she does in Kahoot (this can be done online if Teacher feels confident, or previously prepared on a PowerPoint, if teacher is not confident).

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity Teacher organizes Students in groups. Student groups have to prepare similar multiple choice questions for the book currently being read. Student groups have to prepare 2 questions: with 4 multiple choice answers each. This can be done on template created by Teacher and handed over to Students, so that they just have to fill it in with the relevant information.

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Summary of activity Teacher collects all questions produced by Student groups to review correct answers and writing skills.

Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity Teacher announces that next class they will start with a Kahoot (online game) to review the book, using the questions the student groups have just prepared. If Teacher is counting on BYOD (Bring your own device), Teacher instructs Students on how to download Kahoot and to bring their online device to school next time. If Teacher is counting on the Computer lab, then this is not necessary.

287

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Less able pupils can be integrated in Reading with ICT and any other n/A Student groups with mixed abilities subject area and thus participate in creating questions and answers. Students will be able to link this particular text and content with Exceptionally able Students can other texts they know or read; prepare more than 2 questions; relate text action and plot to Questions can also be rated for historical time, such as the epoch Students: described; retell factual historical Students have to produce 1 easy data in connection to text; make a question; 1 difficult question; 1 very map of the places mentioned in difficult question. the text; build timelines for narrative action. Integration with Arts curricula: Students will audio and video record own readings; Students will participate in Q&A; Students will represent space and chronological action graphically and through pictures Integration with Maths curricula: Students will produce a graph on time used by each Student or by groups to answer each question or a group of questions.

288

Kahoot Part 2 Teacher: Margarida Morgado /António Pais

School: Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco

Class Group: 12-year-olds. Year 6

Date: 30.09.2016

Lesson Theme: Exploring reading through an online game

Teaching Methodology: “learners to leaders loop”

Possible Challenges:

Level of ICT proficiency needed: know how to use tablets, smartphones to download game; know how to play online games

Target Audience: teachers and librarians of year 6 that teach reading

No internet connection in the class or library; BYOD does not work or does not support downloading kahoot SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Lesson 2 in a series of 2

Duration of lesson: 45 minutes



Factual knowledge: Students will know…. o Vocabulary connected with the text being read and its concepts o Theme and topic of text o Core information and details o Chronological time



Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to… o Elicit and write essential information (core information and details) o Understand multimodality in connection to meaning making



Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand… o Narrative analysis and what it implies o Narrative dimensions – action, time and space o Chronological time – sequencing actions

289

Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1 Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?



Assessment of learning (e.g. class test) should inform o About SS’ understanding of text analysist; (Kahoot has in itself a feedback facility that may assess student progress) o About ICT knowledge of SS (know how to use and interact with Kahoot)



Assessment for learning (identifying next steps needed to improve the learning and teaching). o Group work (Teacher will observe how Students interact in groups) o Use of information for text understanding and analysis (through Kahoot feedback to questions) o Teacher will note down needs of Students in terms of writing questions and selecting Right and Wrong text analysis statements

Textual Text /book discussed.

/story

being

Display and Electronic media currently Kahoot

Summary of activity Teacher takes Students to computer lab or uses Students’ own mobile devices. Teacher gives out the PIN for Students to gain access to the online game they are going to play based on the questions and multiple choice answers they have prepared. Teacher advises Students to insert a nickname and waits for every Student (or group of students if they are playing in groups) to be in the Kahoot lobby. Students may play in groups and get a nickname for their team. T assists Students in getting ready. Students play the Kahoot based on the questions and answers they prepared in the previous class and get their scores. Summary of activity Teacher introduces a Kahoot based on text analysis with 2 questions and 4 multiple choice answers for each question, for Students to do. Students discuss why some answers are wrong; some answers are not so good analysis as other. Teacher divides Students in bigger groups than in the previous class and distributes 1 excerpt per group with the following task: provide 1 question for the analysis of the excerpt with 4 multiple choice answers. Only 1 answer can be correct. Summary of activity Students work in groups on their excerpts. Each excerpt already includes 2/ 3 analysis questions Students can use or adapt. They need to develop 4 answers (1 right and 3 wrong) in a set time (cc 10 minutes). Teacher goes around and corrects Students’ work. Students have to create a 1 question Kahoot online choosing multimedia elements on their group tablet.

290

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed? Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity T reviews Students’ kahoots to identify where Students are having analysis difficulties and also to review their writing skills.

Summary of activity Students play the Kahoots they produced in class (or finished at home, if the time in class was not enough to play all kahoots). Students give feedback on Kahoots: I like it because /I don’t like it because…/ I would / would not like to do it again

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Less able pupils can be integrated in Student groups.

Reading with ICT and any other N/A subject area, depending on the theme and topic of text being Exceptionally able Students can create read. additional questions; Or create ‘Wizard questions’, i.e. very Students can be invited, while difficult questions. analyzing text, to link their SS answers to other content they already know. Integration with Maths curricula: Students can be invited to use the Kahoot register of time used to answer a question, to calculate average time needed to choose a correct answer when it comes to analyze a passage. T presents a mystery box to Students which contains an object that was directly or indirectly referred in the story they read. Science Students hold the box look inside. They write properties of the object see: weight, shape,

but can’t down the they can’t size, it

291

rolls/doesn’t roll, etc. They then formulate hypotheses on the object. Students’ predictions are then registered either as a graph or through geometry (Maths). Teacher opens the box for Students to confirm hypotheses. Students who did not guess the object should review their hypotheses. (In case the Teacher prefers to use the digital medium, she can use a mystery distorted image that is slowly brought back to its original form so as to allow students to confirm hypotheses made.)

292

Seesaw Teacher: teacher of Romanian Language and Literature

School: high school

Class Group: 11th grade

Date: May 2017

Lesson Theme: “Otilia’s Enigma” the main female character

Teaching Methodology: Interactive lesson

Possible Challenges: not enough time for the students to formulate their opinions, but this can be done later, at home, using their Seesaw account

Level of ICT proficiency needed: Upper intermediate

Target Audience: 11th grade students

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

Lesson 2in a series of 4

Duration of lesson: 50 minutes



Students will know the structure of the novel and the role of the main female character in the interpersonal relations network within the novel;



Students will be able to classify the characters, ranging them in a series;



Students will be able to compare the main female character in this novel to other fictional characters;



Students will be able to express their opinion about the behaviour of the main character in the novel;



Students will understand the realistic novel and the types of characters.

 

A 10 item questionnaire meant to assess learning. The students are encouraged to express their opinions about the type of the character Otilia represents and to find few other female characters in novels or movies that are similar. This essay and the optional photos or videos will be part of their digital portfolio. The most interesting essays will be posted on the class Seesaw blog.

293

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1 Introduction: 5 minutes

Textual

Display and Electronic media Digital copy of the book/fragments from “Otilia’s Enigma” Video fragments from the movie Computers Video projector Projecting screen

Summary of activity Students are asked to sign in to Seesaw, using their Email/Google account. Thus, they join the class which has already been created and they access their portfolios. The teacher asks the students to read several fragments of the book that they considered being relevant for the plot of the novel. These fragments have been chosen by the students themselves during the previous class and as homework. This way, the teacher reminds the students the plot and the main characters of the novel.

Action 2 Direct Instruction: 10 minutes

Summary of activity After the introductory activity, the teacher presents the students a short, but relevant sequence from the movie which is based on the novel they study. In this sequence, the main female character, Otilia, concentrates the students’ attention on her behavior and way of thinking. The students are encouraged to say what their opinion about Otilia is: “What do you think about Otilia’s way of thinking and acting? Do you happen to know persons which are similar to this girl? How would you consider the author’s attitude towards this character, i.e. objective/distant/disapproving/sympathetic etc.?” The discussion is meant to focus the students’ interest on Otilia’s behavior, on her deeds and words, on the type of character she represents.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught? 20 minutes

Summary of activity The students are given access to the digital copy of the novel and are asked to choose as many quotes as they can in order to illustrate the main female character’s features. The previous discussion about Otilia can be used as a starting point. The fragments chosen by each student are filed in their personal digital portfolio and they are to be organized according to the feature they illustrate. They can use a list of features which are gathered together by the teacher, during the discussion in the class, and which are projected on the screen. For example, the list might include: beautiful, interesting, ingenuous, fascinating, whimsical, inconstant, superficial, intelligent etc. However, they are told to feel free to add any other feature they figure out is more appropriate to the character and can be argued for, based on a fragment from the novel. They are asked to work individually, and then share their results.

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Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed? 10 minutes

Summary of activity The students are given a 10 item test, conceived as follows: 5 multiple choice items which refer to the features of the main female character in “Otilia’s Enigma”; 4 items with a short answer based on 4 relevant fragments in the novel; 1 item with a 100 word answer which makes the students summarize the most interesting, intriguing features of the main character in this novel. They have to complete this test which may lead them to an outline of Otilia’s portrait. Their answers will become part of their digital portfolio, so the teacher and the students can use them later.

Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material? 5 minutes

Summary of activity After a short presentation of the answers, the teacher changes the setting in the manage class menu, so that students can see each other’s work. The teacher also enables student comments and asks the students to express their opinions, to argue their approval or disapproval, about their classmates’ short essays. The students are encouraged also to express their opinions about the type of the character Otilia represents and to find few other female characters in novels or movies that are similar. This essay and the optional photos or videos will be part of their digital portfolio. The most interesting essays will be posted on the class Seesaw blog.

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

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E-Readers Teacher: Teacher of English literature

School: Zinca Golescu High School

Class Group: XIIA

Date: June 2016

Lesson Theme: Bleak House. An e-reading experience

Teaching Methodology: Interactive lesson

Possible Challenges: Students’ difficulty of handling ereaders due to a possible unfamiliarity with this device.

Level of ICT proficiency needed: Upper intermediate

Target Audience: 18-year-old students, last year of high school

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes

Lesson 1 in a series of 3

   

Duration of lesson: 50 min.

Students will be able to read a chapter from an e-book and learn how to use many tools and features on an e-reader to support literacy learning. Students will be able to manipulate the font size and page orientation in accordance with their individual needs and preferences, to highlight text in order to mark key passages etc. Students will increase their understanding of vocabulary by using e-reader tools and features to support their reading experience Students will understand, interpret and appreciate literary texts.

Two principal approaches to assessment:  

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1

A questionnaire meant to assess technical knowledge acquisition. An essay on the way in which e-readers might encourage them to read more and write a short essay on that, an essay that should also dwell on the comparison between print books and e-books

Textual Charles Dickens, Bleak House, Chapter I

Display and Electronic media e-reader Computer Videoprojector Large projecting screen

Summary of activity

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Introduction

Action 2 Direct Instruction

As today’s students are very dependent on electronic devices and spend a lot of time using them, I intend to use this fact in order to encourage them to read literary works. So, the first step of the lesson is to explain to my students that they will read an electronic book, or e-book, on a device which is generally called an e-reader and which the school has already taken the initiative to provide every classroom with. While showing the device to my students, I introduce the title of the novel the fragment of that day’s lesson was extracted from, i.e. Bleak House. To create a link between the electronic material and the printed text, I also show students the print version of the novel. I explain, “In today’s lesson we are going to read Chapter I from Bleak House by Charles Dickens, entitled “In Chancery”, but instead of reading it the usual way, we are going to use an e-reader. You each have such a device at your disposal, which you will use in a short period of time. Till then, to make clear how to use this learning tool, I will use mine as an example and project the image on this large screen”. Summary of activity The attention of the students is drawn from the very first moment when I have to instruct them as to how to turn on the device and virtually access the novel. Thus, I take the e-reader, place it on the visual presenter and project the image on the large screen. After Chapter I is displayed on the screen, I ask the students to read silently the first page displayed on the large screen. At the end of the time allotted, I ask the students some questions related to the experience they have had up to that moment. “How do you find the electronic page in comparison with a printed page?” After listening to and commenting on their answers, I also explain that the digital reading device has some “tools” that the reader can resort to in order to improve the reading experience. For instance, I ask them: “Would you like to change the font size?” and I demonstrate how to make the font larger and smaller. Moreover, I also show them how to highlight a text or to change the page orientation. All these tools, in my opinion, generate interest and encourage the students to start reading literary texts on e-readers.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice

Summary of activity As a practice activity, after having read the first page of the chapter, I group students in pairs and I assign each pair a digital reader (PocketBook). I go again through the preliminary stages, i.e. turning on the device and accessing the text, and I also remind students how to highlight a text, or change the font size and page orientation to suit their personal needs as readers. As students read perform the reading activity, I take the time to observe their use of the tools by asking them to switch the font size from 12 to 14, for instance. The sequence is also useful in what concerns the language level as well because it enriches the vocabulary knowledge of the students, who may be asked to highlight the unknown words and search for their meaning on the internet (examples: ait, drizzle, mire, blinker, wheeze etc.). In addition, I ask them, as homework, to read Chapter II from the novel and highlight the main symbols in the fragment.

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Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation

Action 5 Closing

Summary of activity In order to assess the students’ performance with an e-reader, I devised a questionnaire with 5 items that are meant to check the acquisition of the technical information (the actions to take when changing the page orientation, when highlighting a sentence etc.). I apply it to the students and I check their answers in order to have a global overview of their readiness to use an e-reader in order to read works of literature. At the end of the class, I ask my students to reflect a little on the way in which ereaders might encourage them to read more and write a short essay on that, an essay that should also dwell on the comparison between print books and e-books. Summary of activity At the end of the lesson and after the questionnaire was applied, I ask the students to freely use the e-reader and access whichever part of the text seemed interesting to them, using the commands taught.

Differentiation: All students, regardless of this learning needs and skills, are likely to be able to participate in the lesson in adequate terms. Undoubtedly, students with a higher level of ICT technologies may perform better and faster than the rest, but the performance will probably be satisfactory in all cases.

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t The topic of the lesson links work so well and how this might be language, literature and ICT done differently next time? What technology in order to increase the types of learning were particularly students’ interest in reading. evident across the class? The use of the e-reader is really appreciated by the students, so the lesson is very likely to reach its twofold aim – that of familiarizing students with e-readers and that of encouraging them to read literature. Perhaps the teacher is tempted to invest too much time in explaining the technical part of the issue, i.e. the actions specific to this tool, but on the whole the lesson stages can be very well respected and the students may be very receptive.

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StoryJumper Teacher:

School:

Nicola Townley

Post-Primary School

Date:

Lesson Theme: Create an online book using StoryJumper.

Teaching Methodology: Group Discussion Creative Narrative Use of technology

Level of ICT proficiency needed: Moderate. Students must be shown the video tutorial on how to create an online book. It is advisable that some time initially is spent exploring the StoryJumper features beforehand.

Target Audience: All ages. This tool is extremely adaptable and would suit any young person given that a relevant story topic is chosen.

12/09/16

Possible Challenges: High standard of IT and internet equipment is necessary. Important to monitor students.

SEQUENCE Intended Learning Outcomes (Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

Lesson 1 in a series of 1.

  

Duration of lesson: 1 hour.

Factual knowledge: Students will know the main 7 components of a story. Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to write and create their own online story book. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand the key elements necessary to create a story.

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Two principal approaches to assessment: (Assessment for learning (AfL) and Assessment of learning (AoL) will be used)

The learning of the students will be assessed by asking higher and lower order questions to ensure that all students understand and have a knowledge of the 7 components of a story. The learning of students will also be assessed by asking students to present their findings from their pair work reflections. Their feedback will determine an understanding and comprehension of key concepts. Assessment of learning will also be carried out when each student has completed their online book. Each book will then be reviewed by the teacher and constructive feedback will be given to each student. This feedback will then be given to each student to form assessment for learning. This feedback will identify steps that need to be taken in order to improve the learning and teaching.

KEY RESOURCES

Action 1

Textual StoryStarter worksheet StoryStarter workbook Whiteboard/ Blackboard

Display and Electronic media Internet Computer/ Laptop access Visual display of website Speakers

Summary of activity

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Introduction: Opening Hook for Learning (How will I gain students’ attention?)

Introduce the concept of story writing to students. The following instructional procedures can be demonstrated with students to introduce the concept of story writing. Attention-getter: “I want all students to discuss in pairs/ groups a time when something interesting happened to them or somebody that they know. This could be a new pet, a holiday that you went on, an activity, a new sibling being born, moving house, starting a new school, an accident that happened etc.” Students will be given an appropriate amount of time and then feedback (either written or verbally) their answers to the teacher and other students. Hook: “These are all examples of stories that have happened in your lives or to somebody that you know. In pairs, discuss what do these stories have in common? What makes them interesting?” Students will be given an appropriate amount of time and then feedback (either written or verbally) their answers to the teacher and other students. Bridge: “Today we are going to use these ideas to create a book based on the important parts of stories such as the different characters, settings and events.” Teachers can then show students the video tutorial on how to use StoryJumper which is available on the online StoryJumper website. https://youtu.be/RBj_371c5o4

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Action 2 Direct Instruction: How will I present new material and make learning relevant?

Summary of activity StoryJumper includes a StoryStarter Worksheet and workbook tool which should be completed with students. These tools teach students the creative writing process and builds the 7 primary components of a story. - Characters - Challenges - Motivation - Setting - Obstacles - Climax - Closing Substantial notes are given within the StoryStarter workbook which is available on the StoryJumper website under ‘StoryStarter- Tell a story in 7 steps.) http://www.storyjumper.com/main/starter Using the notes provided and varied teaching methodologies such as teacher exposition, higher and lower order questioning, worksheets or displaying the notes visually through ICT, in depth exploration of the 7 steps will give students the components necessary to develop a detailed story. The material can be adjusted and adapted as appropriate to fit the needs of the students. Students will then be asked to take each of these 7 components into consideration and complete the StoryStarter worksheet which will form the basis of their story line. http://www.storyjumper.com/files/worksheet.pdf

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice: How will I get students to practice what has just been taught?

Summary of activity Students create their own online book. The online book development tool allows users to create and includes information around text, font size, colour, moving text, pictures, props, scenes, uploading photos, adding pages, Using the StoryStarter worksheet devised, students can then create their own online story book. Users can create a title, cover page and story to include text and images. Users will then create their books online.

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Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: What data will give me information about students’ understanding of today’s lesson? How will students’ learning be assessed?

Action 5 Closing: How will I bring closure to summarize learning and enhance retention of the material?

Summary of activity When students are finished they must save their books. Each book will then be reviewed by the teacher and constructive feedback will be given to each student. Students will then correct/ edit any issues/mistakes that have been addressed. Students can then give a brief description about their book. Students can then allow their book to be viewed publically, by family and friends or only privately. Students can then share their books online through Facebook, Pinterest or Twitter. Students can also use the link to share their stories. Students share their books online or print off. Students publish their books for other students to view.

Summary of activity A class collection of all books created can then be formed. Students can then view all books created by each student within the class. Students must then read each book in the collection. Student will then be asked to ‘comment’ on each book with ‘two stars and a wish.’ Students will comment with two positive features of the story that they have read and one wish as to how it could be improved. All students could then read and present their stories as part of an event that includes all students, teachers and parents.

Differentiation: How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils? Computer screens can be enlarged for any visually impaired students. More images instead of text can be used for young people with literacy difficulties. Different colored font and text can be used for students with dyslexia. Students that are more competent in ICT can create more technical books in relation to imagery and text. ESOL students can use the translation feature.

Linkage and Integration: How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

Teacher Reflection: What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?

Language skills, literacy and ICT are automatically integrated through use of this tool. StoryJumper can be used to create an online book for any subject. Teachers can pick a topic from any curricular subject and ask students to create a book/ notes/ project on the topic. Eg, History- A book about Christopher Columbus. Geography- A book that examines the culture and language of a

N/A

303

different country. All books can be created or translated into many different languages.

ToonDoo Teacher:

School:

Katerina Theodoridou

Primary School

Date:

Lesson Theme: Science Fiction

Teaching Methodology: Cooperative learning, discussion, role-playing, brainstorming, problem solving

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience: 5th Grade Students

30/09/2016

Possible Challenges:    

Lower ICT proficiency than required Lack of interest in working with Web2.0 tools Lack of interest in reading science fiction Need for extra time when working with the application in group

SEQUENCE



Group

Low to medium ICT proficiency – Prior experience with online applications

Lesson 1 in a series of 2

Duration of lesson: 80 mins

304

Intended Learning Outcomes

 



Two principal approaches to assessment:

KEY RESOURCES

 

Factual knowledge: Students will know the basic characteristics entailed in a story (i.e. characters, place, time, problem, action). Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to use the key elements of a story to analyse and create a summary of a science fiction story. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand the role of science fiction stories as a means of creative expression which allows people to convey their visions and worries for the future of humankind.

Formative oral assessment Summative written assessment

Textual

Display and Electronic media

 Copies of the chapters ‘Instructions’ and ‘Assignment Day’ from the Book ‘City of Ember’ (by Jeanne DuPrau)

 Trailer ‘City of Ember’  Video ’10 Reasons for the World Destruction’

Action 1 Introduction:

Action 2 Direct Instruction:

Action 3

Summary of activity  Teacher presents the book ‘City of Ember’ or projects its cover page on the board and asks students to look at it (title, cover image, author).  Teacher asks students to guess what the story of the book might be about.

Summary of activity  Students watch the trailer of the movie ‘City of Ember’ based on the book and decide about its genre.  Teacher introduces the term ‘Science Fiction’ and projects on board a definition of the term. A follow up discussion helps students identify the characteristics of science fiction. Summary of activity

305

Guided and Independent Practice:

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation:

Action 5 Closing:

SEQUENCE

Intended Learning Outcomes

 Teacher gives each student a set of copies of the introduction and the first chapter of the book ‘City of Ember’: (a) Instructions (b) Assignment Day  Teacher or students read aloud the introductive chapter Instructions. Teacher asks comprehension questions.  Students work in pairs to identify any evidence as to why the story is considered to be science fiction.  Teacher reads aloud the chapter Assignment Day.  Students identify and analyse the characteristics of a story by answering in written a set of questions such as: - Where and when is the story happening? - What is the current situation? - Who are the main characters of the story? - What is the problem with which the characters are faced? - What actions are they taking to deal with the problem?

Summary of activity  Students write a brief summary (approx. 100 words) of the two chapters that were read in the classroom using the above questions as guidelines. Summary of activity  Students are asked to recall a science fiction book they have read or a science fiction movie they have watched and pinpoint the elements that justify its genre as science fiction.

Lesson 2 in a series of 2

  

Two principal approaches to assessment:

 

Duration of lesson: 120 mins

Factual knowledge: Students will know the key elements of comic stories necessary for any cartoonist. Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to use ToonDoo comic generator to create a science fiction story. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand the nature of comics as a means of written expression.

Students’ comic story with the use of ToonDoo. Whole-class discussion at the end of the lesson.

306

KEY RESOURCES

Textual

Display and Electronic media

 Comic books  Summary of the book ‘City of Ember’

 ToonDoo application

Action 1 Introduction:

Action 2 Direct Instruction:

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice:

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation: Action 5 Closing:

Summary of activity  Teacher asks students to talk about comic books; if they like reading comic books and why, what kind, etc.  Teacher announces that in today’s lesson the students will create their own comic story.

Summary of activity  Students observe comic books in order to identify their characteristics such as the panels, the gutter, the speech bubbles, the symbols, the background, and the images.  In a classroom discussion the teacher sums up students’ findings and notes them on the board.  Teacher presents and gives a brief demonstration of the ToonDoo application allowing some time for the students to play with the application in order to become familiar with it.

Summary of activity  Teacher provides students with a summary of the story of the book ‘City of ember’ (two children despise the city’s law and try to escape from the underground city and reach the surface of earth. The children will come against the mayor and his men.)  Students are asked to think and give their own end to the story in 1-2 pages using the ToonDoo application.  Teacher reminds students of the key features of a story.

Summary of activity  Students present their comics in classroom by projecting them on the board.

Summary of activity  Whole-class discussion: students express their opinions, likes, and dislikes regarding the unit they were taught.

307

Differentiation:

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection:

How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?



Extra time might be needed in order to complete the story on ToonDoo



ToonDoo allows for more images than text to be used if needed. It also allows for different font size and font colours.



Working in group can facilitate in the sense that more ICT competent students can help less competent students.

This set of lesson plans can be used inter-disciplinarily in Language class, ICT class, Science class (to promote interest through science fiction), and Environmental education class.

Upon completion of the series of lessons, the teacher can reflect on the successes and challenges and how these can be improved the next time these lesson plans are used for instruction.

308

Padlet Teacher:

School:

Katerina Theodoridou

Primary School

Date:

Lesson Theme: Energy – Wind Turbines (Design and Technology)

Teaching Methodology: Problem solving, cooperative learning, discovery learning, experimental learning

Level of ICT proficiency needed:

Target Audience: 6th Grade Primary School Students

30/09/2016

Possible Challenges: Further use of a virtual wall (Padlet) in the classroom for cooperation and assessment

SEQUENCE

Intended Learning Outcomes

Two principal approaches to assessment:



Group

Students to already be familiar with posting material on Padlet (text, images, video)

Lesson 1 in a series of 3

Duration of lesson: 80 mins



Factual knowledge: 1) Students will know the various forms of energy and energy conversion. 2) Students will critically discuss the environmental impact caused by the use of fossil fuels. 3) Students will identify the problems people facing due to the lack of electricity.



Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to use the Padlet virtual wall to post comments.



Conceptual knowledge: 1) Students will appreciate the use of renewable energy sources for sustainable development. 2) Students will become aware of the problems faced by people who live in poor and underdeveloped countries and suggest ways in helping them improve their quality of life.

 

Formative oral assessment. Written questions.

309

KEY RESOURCES

Textual

Display and Electronic media

 Worksheet 1 ‘Technological Justice’  Worksheet 2 ‘Energy’  Worksheet 3 ‘Energy Sources’  Worksheet 4 ‘Electricity’

 PowerPoint ‘Electricity  PowerPoint ‘MDGs and Energy’.  Video ‘Practical Action Renewable Energy’ (2’54’’)  Padlet (https://padlet.com)

Action 1 Introduction:

Action 2 Direct Instruction:

Summary of activity 

Teacher asks students to express their views on energy and how important it is, referring to examples from everyday life.

Summary of activity  Teacher presents and analyses the term ‘Technological Justice’ given the fact that one fifth of the world population have no access to electricity (Worksheet 1).  Teacher encourages students to talk about the possible problems facing people with no access to electricity.  Teacher briefly goes through the Millennium Development

Action 3

Summary of activity Goals (MDGs) using the PowerPoint ‘MDGs and Energy’.

310

Guided and Independent Practice:

 Students study Worksheet 2 ‘Energy’ about the various forms of energy and energy conversion.  Students study the material in Worksheet 3 ‘Energy Sources’ about the renewable (i.e. solar, wind, water) and non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels, i.e. mazut, oil, gas).  Students study Worksheet 4 ‘Electricity’ and watch PowerPoint ‘Electricity’ to discover where and how the electricity power is generated and discuss its usefulness in our everyday life.  Students identify and critically discuss the environmental impact of nonrenewable energy sources and discover their role to the climate change.  Students watch the Video ‘Practical Action Renewable Energy’ (2’54’’). The video presents the work of Practical Action (an international development charity) in underdeveloped poor countries in helping the local communities to develop the infrastructures to generate electricity with the solar energy.

Action 4 Assessment and Evaluation:

 Summary of activity  Written exercises from Worksheets 1, 2 & 3.  Students, in pairs or in small groups, post their comments on Padlet about the video ‘Practical Action Renewable Energy’.

Action 5

Summary of activity

Closing:  Teacher projects the Padlet page on board with children’s comments and a classroom discussion follows.

SEQUENCE

Lesson 2 in a series of 3

Duration of lesson: 40 mins

311

Intended Learning Outcomes



Factual knowledge: Students will know the basic characteristics of wind turbines and how these work. Procedural knowledge: Students will be able to use make a draft model of wind turbine. Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand the role of wind turbines in sustainable development.

 

Two principal approaches to assessment: KEY RESOURCES

 

Teacher observation. Self-assessment (Posting on Padlet).

Textual

Display and Electronic media

 Worksheet 5 ‘Wind Turbines’

 Video ‘The function of wind generator’ (40’’)  Animation http://energy.gov/eere/wind/h ow-does-wind-turbine-work

Action 1 Introduction:

Summary of activity  Teacher asks students to recall some of the renewable energy sources from previous lesson.  Teacher asks students to share any knowledge they may have on wind turbines.

Action 2 Direct Instruction:

Summary of activity  Teacher presents the basic characteristics of wind generators (they use wind power to electricity power) from Worksheet 5.  Students watch a video ‘The function of wind generator’ (40’’) and an animation which shows how the wind turbine works.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice:

Summary of activity  Students are asked to try to generate electricity with the use of a wind generator. For the experiment, they use a motor with a propeller, a voltmeter and wires. Students simulate the wind by using their hands to spin the propeller.  Students discover the relationship between the speed that the propeller spins and the amount of electricity generated.

Action 4

Summary of activity

312

Assessment and Evaluation:

 Students post on Padlet their comments as to what they have learned in today’s lesson.

Action 5

Summary of activity

Closing:

 Whole-class discussion on wind generators as a means to help poor communities which have no access to electricity.

SEQUENCE

Lesson 3 in a series of 3

Intended Learning Outcomes

 Factual knowledge: Students will know the factors that affect a wind turbine in generating maximum electricity.

Duration of lesson: 120 mins

 Procedural knowledge: Students will know how to make a wind turbine model to generate electricity.  Conceptual knowledge: Students will understand the potential of renewable energy sources as a means of achieving sustainable energy and addressing the problem of lack of electricity facing people in poor countries. Two principal approaches to assessment:

 Self-Assessment.  Student presentations.  Peer assessment, whole-class discussion.

KEY RESOURCES

Textual

Action 1

 Worksheet 6 ‘The Problem’  Padlet application  Worksheet 7 ‘Design Ideas’  Digital camera  Worksheet 8 ‘Rubric’ Summary of activity

Introduction:

Action 2

Display and Electronic media

 Teacher asks students to recall any knowledge on wind turbines from previous lessons. Summary of activity

313

Direct Instruction:

 Teacher presents the Problem that students need to deal with (Worksheet 6). Briefly, the situation is about a distant poor village in Peru where people have no access to electricity. Students, as members of a charity organisation, are asked to deal with the problem. Their mission is to make a model of a wind generator that will produce the maximum electricity.  Students are informed of the conditions of their project, i.e. time frame, available material to use, product specifications (Worksheet 6, p.2).  Teacher demonstrates the safe use of certain tools students will use (driller, wire stripper).  The wind generator of each group will be tested and assessed on the extent to which it meets the specifications set, among of which is the capacity for producing maximum electricity power. An electrical fan or a hair dryer could be used to simulate the wind.

Action 3 Guided and Independent Practice:

Summary of activity  Students, in pairs or small groups, work on the Design Process on the basis of the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation).

Note: Students use a digital camera to record their progress throughout their coursework with pictures and videos. Action 4

Summary of activity

314

Assessment and Evaluation:

 Peer assessment with the use of Rubric (Worksheet 8).  Students post on Padlet indicative photos and/or videos as evidence of their coursework and their artefacts. The can choose to present all their work in the form of a poster or a booklet – they can choose whichever format available on Padlet so as to present a collection of the work performed on Padlet through this series of lessons.  Students give a brief sum up of the unit, as to what they have done and learned.

Action 5 Closing:

Summary of activity  Groups present their work in regards to ADDIE model phases and final products (wind turbine) while projecting material they have posted on Padlet.

Differentiation:

Linkage and Integration:

Teacher Reflection:

How will I differentiate the lesson for pupils with varying abilities, including pupils with special learning needs or exceptionally able pupils?

How will I make connections with other learning within a subject area? Integration: How will I make connections between learning in different subject areas?

What worked well? What didn’t work so well and how this might be done differently next time? What types of learning were particularly evident across the class?





Extra time might be needed in order to complete the poster/booklet/album on Padlet Working in group can facilitate in the sense that more ICT competent students can help less competent students.

This set of lesson plans can be used inter-disciplinarily in Design & Technology class, ICT class, Science class, and Environmental education class.

Upon completion of the series of lessons, the teacher can reflect on the successes and challenges and how these can be improved the next time these lesson plans are used for instruction.

315

Identified Best Practice: Programs The following are identified Best Practice Programs for reading promotion through ICT. FIS Bookclub Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): FIS Bookclub http://www.fisbookclub.com/ FÍS Office at the Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) and PDST Technology in Education, there is no cost for participating schools and the site does not contain any advertisements or commercial endorsements. (Resource is currently only accessible to Primary schools but could be used for weaker Post-Primary students/ ideas expressed are transferrable to a post-primary resource). Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative method

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Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

First set up in 2006, the Bookclub is an online network designed to facilitate peer-to-peer book reviews for school pupils. FÍS is an inter-related group of projects, for schools, community and development, all based on the power of digital storytelling. The network allows pupils to upload video reviews of their own choice of books, for the benefit of other members. Reviews are short, can be created on any digital video device (including phones), and can be created by students in both home and school environments. All uploads are strictly moderated in advance. The FÍS Book Club is an on-line platform where children can share their video book reviews with their peers via a website repository - a literacy resource available to schools across Ireland. The project commenced in 2007 and has a current membership of over 900. In December 2011 the FÍS Bookclub project was awarded funds for further development and enhancement of this valuable literacy resource. Total redevelopment and redesign of the site began in 2012 and includes a whole new user interface. The re-launched online community will include varied forms of digital communications, a mix of content and a focused, educational use of modern mobile appliances, all of which have been identified as ‘motivators’, to increase children’s literacy skills and cultural awareness. The aims of the Bookclub are: To provide a literacy resource where children can share their book reviews within the website repository with an audience of their peers, thereby encouraging children to research and plan their reading. To raise literacy standards by encouraging children to read, prepare, present, record, and share video book reviews.

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To provide a literacy resource free of charge in both the English and Irish language to participating schools. To create, present, record and share traditional stories from their own communities in either English or Irish language so as to allow children to observe the similarities and differences between their own life experiences of others, leading to a greater tolerance and understanding, of cultural differences. (Phase 2) To provide frequently changing resources for teachers, pupils and parents, such as seasonal books feature, tips for parents, recorded interviews with authors or traditional story tellers, advice on how to prepare a book review, etc.

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National School Library Network Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Rede de Bibliotecas Escolares (National School Library Network, This part of the website is dedicated to Best Practice (Ideias de Mérito) and is ongoing since 2014; provided by the Ministry of Education for schools as an open platform for school participation. Website at: http://www.rbe.mec.pt/np4/ideiasmerito.html Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Activity/ Action

X

X

X

Project-based reading promotion

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

Action plan of the School Library Network for the period 2014-2016: The blurring of boundaries between school areas such as classrooms and libraries and the recent emphasis on production and networking alter the traditional configuration of the school library. Libraries have become resource centres fitted with devices and software for research, information processing and content production. The exponential growth of online digital content, the portability of equipment and the easiness of handling production and communication tools transforms the ways users relate to information. It also renders physical and virtual access to resources, services and technologies more flexible. In order to encourage work done in schools, a platform was created at this website to lodge Best Practice Ideas, which aims at identifying and supporting the most consistent experiences and disseminate best practices implemented by libraries to promote reading. Applications were made by schools across the country in a bottom-up approach of a kind that took into account their own contexts and needs. Some of these projects involved Universities, Polytechnics and some of them include the development of ICT skills. Some examples: Project School library - transpose limits: The use of digital resources is enhanced by the use of tablets at school, in formal and in informal contexts by training students, teachers and parents; QR Book design: This is based on the potential of QR codes in promoting books and reading. Students, teachers and other educational staff will have access from mobile devices to data on previously selected and adapted literary works, and may also answer online questionnaires and access student produced work. Project Words Tablet: The project tries to respond to reading and writing difficulties of students and simultaneously to their growing appetite for mobile digital technologies, adopting innovative strategies, particularly in the field of Portuguese mother tongue, which will translate into reading sessions and creative and collaborative writing, using tablets and apps; Project Get the electronic book into the classroom: The starting point for this project is the need for the school to explore digital technological uses from a pedagogical perspective, since these practices are increasingly widespread among the younger generations of students. Its aim is also to promote equal access and significant use of ICT by looking into the educational potential of the digital technology, in this

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case of tablets and smartphones, by students and teachers in different ways in order to promote reading, literacy information, as well as content production and content delivery and applications.

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TEA Project Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): TEA project: Tablets in Education (Projeto TEA - Tablets no Ensino e na Aprendizagem A sala de aula Gulbenkian: entender o presente, preparar o futuro) at: http://teagulbenkian.weebly.com/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innovative method

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

x

x

x

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): A 2-year project for the academic years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. A different approach to the classroom with digital technologies, digital schoolbooks, and tablets for teacher training and for pupils learning, which is predicated on the ‘flipped classroom’ approach. Tablets are introduced in grades 7 and 10 during the first year of the project. There are 18 teachers involved and 64 students. They have schoolbooks online, resources online and they use web technologies in class (tablet/computers, interactive screens, internet access (4G). From a pedagogical perspective, the flipped classroom is combined with learning outside the classroom, videos, podcasts, books and websites created by teachers for students to use at home, The students watch/listen to lectures before they come to class. Inside the classroom time is devoted to cooperative learning and to exploring concepts, applications and connections to content, and students receive support from teacher (instructor) and peers when needed. Pedagogical learning scenarios should outline how portable computer devices can be used to support a plethora of learning strategies (p.8). Assessment should be formative and also take into account new competencies that could be acquired by learning with technology (p. 7). The research aim is to analyse how teachers and students use the tablets given to them for study; how this use affects learning and teaching; and how teachers include these ICT resources in their classroom approaches and methodologies. The project is developed in association with technological partners such as Microsoft, publishing houses, foundations, and organizations. During the project teachers are monitored and offered guidance by researchers and experts. The envisaged pedagogy is 1:1 and tablets are carried home by teachers and students. The envisaged success of the programme lies on the following principles: -

Training for teachers

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Community of practice to share practices, challenges during monitoring and to invite peer to peer engagement

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Networking with other partners developing similar projects or sharing similar concerns http://itec.eun.org/web/guest;jsessionid=AC474F1F6EC091F1A678D41FDEEB6810 (2010-2014)

There are associated websites that promote reflection on education in the digital era. The basis is active learning (inclusive of inquiry-based learning, project-based learning, problem-based learning, design thinking, task-based learning and challenge-based learning).

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The website offers a serious of valuable resources (how the project was organized; published academic articles, etc; associated YouTube presentations (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZVZH19uSjilqw254GGcmfw), dissemination of activities online. The project/program offers a different look on students as digital natives; on learning as games-based learning and on mobile learning and interactivity.

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The world in my library Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Title: National Program Biblionet - "The World in my library" Duration: 2010 - 2013 Provider: Public Libraries in the Braşov County Beneficiaries: large audience Website: http://www.biblionet.ro/upload/documents/document/24719/attachement/172173/Ghid%20copii%2 0-%20Brasov.pdf Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

X

Innovative method

Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

X

X

X

Digital tools or environment

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The National Program Biblionet “The World in my library" was one of the most important investments in the public library system in Romania. Thanks to this program, public libraries improved infrastructure and librarians benefited from a series of training programs that resulted in the development of new professional skills. Free access to Internet and equipment (computers, software, peripherals) made available to the public libraries, along with mini-grants available through the same program, inevitably led to diversification of services in most public libraries in Romania. In this program, Brasov County Library "George Bariţiu" has developed two library services, completely new, addressed to children and assisted the public libraries in the county to develop programs for promote reading for children (i.e. the “Stories” week”) and creativity workshops (i.e.”Skilled hands”). The two new services that were developed and implemented are: DIGIFOLIO - for the development of digital literacy of students in primary and secondary education, using electronic portfolios as means for the active involvement of students in the educational process and productive use of new technologies; SUMMER KINDERGARTEN - a program designed to create favorable conditions for the development of children during the summer holidays, a leisure time alternative for 160 preschool children. DIGIFOLIO has enjoyed international recognition being selected to be presented at IFLA International Conference 2012. The program results are shared through the Guide “How to do it?” for best practices for services and programs dedicated to children between 0 and 14 years, developed under the project "The County libraries: Centre of Excellence" funded by IREX Foundation through the national program Biblionet.

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Book-A-Book Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Title: Book-A-Book Duration: 2016 – ongoing Provider: Romanian National Library Beneficiaries: Large audience Website: http://www.bibnat.ro/ / http://www.bibnat.ro/Evenimente-culturale-s108-ev374-ro.htm Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

X

Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

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X

Digital tools or environment

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Book-A-Book is a program for achieving the Virtual Traditional Catalogue of the National Library of Romania, for books published before 1990 in the first action of "crowd-cataloguing" a library from Romania The goal: bringing libraries in the century of technology. Book-A-Book brings library search in the age of instantaneous information availability, by digitalizing library records and integrating them into an easy-touse, comprehensive platform. Book-A-Book offers wide scale information on library resources, allows users to conduct focused or exploratory searches, enables book reviews and, of course, allows users to book a book. Started in 2016, the Book-A-Book project will continue until all metadata for the 1,600,000 scanned catalogue cards will be uploaded. In a later stage, the platform will be improved by activating the “online booking” function for the documents contained within the Romanian National Library Catalogue. Book-A-Book is supported by the event Bookathon, providing the public with an online platform with a dual role: to provide online access to information from the traditional catalogue and to be a simple interface for recording metadata of the books published before 1990, which are not yet introduced into the electronic catalogue. Bookathon is a marathon to make accessible the traditional catalogue of the Romanian National Library. Designed as a marathon of fun in the library, arranged with interactive games and build-ups type contests with attractive prizes, Bookathon is conducted by the National Library in collaboration with the Association of Tech Lounge, composed of students and professors from the Faculty of Automation and Computers at Politehnica Bucharest. One of the technologies that will be used during Bookathon, is Microsoft Computer Vision API, with which text can be identified on each catalogue card. Data on the traditional sheets will be placed in a smart platform through an action of "crowd-cataloguing".

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Inspire ICT - Inspiring Professional Lifelong Excellence in ICT Teacher Development Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Title: Inspire ICT - Inspiring Professional Lifelong Excellence in ICT Teacher Development Partners: Digipro Computer Consultants LTD (coordinator) – Cyprus; Ellinogermaniki Agogi – Greece; Casa Corpului Didactic Cluj – Romania; Rocca al Mare Kool – Estonia Duration: 2008 - 2010. Website: http://funecole.com Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innovative method

Activity/

Digital tools or environment

Action

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Inspire ICT is a European project that was developed within the Lifelong Learning Programme (Leonardo da Vinci – Transfer of Innovation. The overall objective of the project is the FUNecole Platform development and its use in partner countries by teachers in elementary school. The FUNecole curriculum is an innovative curriculum by means of which the child develops different ways of thinking, a positive attitude to the changes in life, as well as his/her habits of computer usage. FUNecole aims to develop students' character and cultivate fundamental values such as respect, responsibility, fairness, integrity, honesty, love. Various learning activities (discussions, games using characters, games based on examples from everyday life, projects) help to develop the students’ communication skills and collaboration, the ability to use a computer. FUNecole characters represent different thinking styles and personalities with which students can identify themselves, which they learn to understand. Through the activities in which they are involved, students learn to be tolerant, to negotiate, collaborate, communicate and interact with people with different personalities. An important element of the project is the educational platform, which has three types of users: parent, teacher, student. The interface is user-friendly and accessible. The graphics is specific to the age level of the students, who love the world of animation. Among the most important results obtained from the project were the teaching practices of character development, a pedagogical model for learning in the digital age and the FUNecole community.

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Bookcraft Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): GREECE: Bookcraft, 2010-2011, eTwinning http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_and_pro/profile.cfm?f=2&l=en&n =28256 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p28256/welcome http://etwinningbookraft.blogspot.be/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Project-based reading promotion

X

X

X

Digital tools or Social Reading and “book-talking” environment

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): In this project, school librarians cooperated with teachers in Poland, Cyprus and Greece to enhance pupils' enjoyment of books through crafts and creative activities. The pupil age range was between 1117 years of age. The project aimed to encourage reading pleasure through a variety of creative activities and crafts, to teach library services and media education through e-Twinning, to apply peer education on the teacher level, as well as on a student level, to make the libraries more interesting and attractive and to make the pupils "library ambassadors." A number of subject areas, including cross-curricular areas, were considered in this project: Drama, History of Culture, Informatics / ICT, Language and Literature, Media Education and Music. The activities were conducted in Greek and English. Among the tools used were: audio conferencing, chat, e-mail, forums, mp3 recordings and other software (PowerPoint, video, pictures and drawings), Video conferencing, Virtual learning environments (communities, virtual classes) and web publishing. The result was the creation of a common blog with all the pupils’ work. In addition, because of the display of the student’s crafts related to the books, the libraries became more interesting and attractive. Pupils successfully collaborated across many subject areas and learning platforms, thus broadening their educational experience.

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Media Lab, Future library Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): GREECE: Media Lab, Future library, The Stavros Niarchos Cultural Foundation, December 2013-ongoing medialab.futurelibrary.gr Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

X

X

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “book-talking”

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Nine libraries all over Greece were chosen by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation to be equipped with the technology necessary to offer a variety of opportunities to the community. Media labs were carefully designed, librarians were specially trained and the objective was to invite more people to the library to read, enjoy themselves, create and share. Teenagers, students, professionals, unemployed people and immigrants can produce and edit a video, create a digital story, record a radio spot or even their own song, hold a meeting or just surf the Internet and access exclusive digital content, while at the same time relaxing in a pleasant and friendly environment. In Veria, the town in Northern Greece where the mother library for the Future Library project is situated, there are also courses in technology for adults. Schoolchildren from a local school have created their own e-book with their teachers. Older people have narrated past events or recorded memories on videos available in a digital “Chest”. The library offers its services to refugees in the area as well. The mobile unit of the library not only regularly visits the nearby refugee camp, but refugees are welcome to use the library to read the press from all over the world through Pressread, charge their phones and tablets, use a Skype connection, read material in English, read children’s books in English or play board games. The mobile unit is not limited to the refugee camp, but tours neighbouring villages on a regular basis.

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Repository of Web 2.0 Tools Resources for Lifelong Training Teachers Program Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Indire -Scuola Valore - Repository of Web 2.0 Tools Resources for Lifelong Training Teachers Duration: 2007-2013 Provider: MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education and Research; INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research] Beneficiaries: School Teachers; Students Website: http://www.scuolavalore.indire.it/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Digital tools or method environment

Social Reading and “booktalking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Ideas and activities base on Web 2.0 tools: - repository, which collects materials trialled and validated by selected tutors, and has been used for inclass education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies - placing great emphasis on the centrality of the text in relation to the centrality of the reader by using interactive materials stored in the common repository; - turning a literary text into a powerful cognitive tool, capable of making sense of human actions and interactions, but also of negotiating the social role and identity of adolescents

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Wikireadia Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): United Kingdom http://www.wikireadia.org.uk/ Provided by the National Literacy Trust Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Activity/

X

X

Action

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “booktalking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Wikireadia was launched as a good practice encyclopedia for the National Year of Reading in 2008, aiming to provide a shared knowledge base for literacy and reading promotion in the United Kingdom. It is a searchable and editable encyclopaedia of good practice in reading, writing, listening and speaking. Teachers and teaching assistants, librarians, publishers, businesses and parents may want to use WikiREADia for different purposes. Projects can be searched by target groups and regions, and the wiki invites different groups (schools, libraries, communities) to participate in editing. Apart from collecting information about projects, Wikireadia also gives advice as to how literacy can be promoted, and how projects can be evaluated and organised in a sustainable way. This site offers the chance to share good practice in literacy initiatives for all audiences. Its purpose is to provide a catalogue of good practice initiatives in reading, writing, speaking and listening and to demonstrate the political context of literacy development. Anyone is welcome to add information, cross-references or citations, as long as they do so within the Wikireadia editing policies and to an appropriate standard. The site allows users to contribute to the collection and to write their own articles and have these published on the website.

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Malta Libraries eBooks Service Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Malta Malta Libraries eBooks Service http://maltalibraries.lib.overdrive.com/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Activity/ Project-based reading promotion Action

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “book-talking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Malta Libraries have an eBook Service which can be accessed online. As a member of the library you can borrow up to 3 titles at a time. You will need an active library card to borrow titles from this library. The main service of the library is to provide reading material for educational, informational and recreational purposes, you will find a variety of reading formats available for lending and referencing including eBooks. These eBooks range in topic such as popular titles, new releases, recent additions, fiction, mystery, suspense, romance, science fiction, biography, autobiography, cooking and food, crafts, childrens fiction and young adult fiction. To borrow material and make use of the services the Public Libraries offer, you need to be a Library member. Joining is free and you can register online. Once registered online you can reserve material online. Once registered you will also have access to the eBooks Service. As part of the eBook Service you can filter search all books by eBook and Audiobook. Books can be read in many different formats such as OverDrive Read, EPUB eBook, PDF eBook, OverDrive Listen, OverDrive Listen, OverDRive MP3 Audiobook and OverDrive Read-along. These are also compatible with many different devices such as Android, Chromebook, IOS, Kindle Fire, Kobo eReaders, Kobo tablets, Mac, Nook eReaders, Nook tablets, Windows and Windows Phone. There is also an app where the OverDrive reader can be accessed. There are many different categories that eBooks can be chosen from such as interest level categories and text difficulty categories. The eBook Service allows users to place a book on hold, borrow a book either online or from the library, you can view samples online of each book, add a book to your wish list or ‘share’ information about the book to your email, SMS or social media. The eBook Service also allows you to view eBook details such as the title, date of publish and the author. Other features are available such as ‘Recommend for you’ where the system recommends other available eBooks to you based on your previous choices. There is also a feature where users can rate the title of the eBooks that they have read.

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Reading is Fun Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Estonia "Reading is Fun". Initiated 2000. In 2005 it won the international Award of Innovative Reading Promotion in Europe. Link: http://www.readingworldwide.com/index.php?id=45913. Estonia Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Reading is Fun is an interactive literature project of Estonia for students in basic education (lower secondary level: 11-16 year-olds), including hard of hearing students. It is an independent project supported by volunteers. Students read books throughout the school year, analyze them in chat rooms via the Internet and carry out various reading-based competitive tasks, such as contests, quizzes, acting tests, meeting authors and artists, visits to cinemas and theatres. They also meet three times a year. The goals of the project are in line with promoting a reading culture and improve children's ICT and Internet skills. They also support young people's leisure activities and offer guided reading and values for life. Goals also highlight integration of foreign students through reading in the country's language; and "to provide equal opportunities for hard of hearing children to learn via the Internet alongside hearing children from ordinary schools". The project supports language and literature tuition in school and constitutes a virtual teaching environment for teachers. As a virtual learning space, the website offers resources and materials on a series of topics such as: (a) a study on the potential of e-readers (2011 by Stiftung Lesen in Germany), which concludes the following: “The analysis of the children’s reading attitudes shows that children who are provided with ereaders and e-books are much more attracted by the literature available than those who have access to printed books only. The same is true for "thick books": as e-books they are chosen far more frequently than their printed counterparts. An e-book cover obviously looks harmless, whereas a book spine may have a discouraging effect on unexperienced readers. However, to keep the initial enthusiasm alive and to turn it into a sustainable interest in reading, some essential (technical) preconditions have to be fulfilled: appealing selection of literature (books, comics, etc.); fast, smooth and intuitive access to e-books; chat function; comment function. (b) a study on “Young people and social networks (JL 2.0)” (2012) by the International Youth Library: available at http://www.readingworldwide.com/index.php?id=9993. (c) a page on New Media for Reading Resource Page at http://www.readingworldwide.com/index.php?id=51667. From here there are links to several news for parents, teachers, on research and on reading apps and books. They address the following topics: - Research on new media and reading skills: the advantages of e-reading are presented as: Built-in

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dictionaries, read-aloud options, word games and access to a wide variety of reading materials online. - Best practices for parents and teachers, such as allowing children time for exploration of e-book features and also avoiding too many non-story related interruptions; engaging the reader in conversations about the story; and interacting. - How to best implement new media in the classroom: understanding information on the Internet; effective use of search engines to locate information; evaluation of Internet sources; communication using e-mail, texts, and chats; and the use of word processing programs (International Society for Technology in Education, 2007). - E-devices, such as mobile phone /cellphone novels, which do not originate from paper-based manuscripts, but from online formats. Johanna Mauermann discusses the new trend of cellphone novels hold in Japanese literature in connection with “emergence of hit novels whose content originally appeared on websites accessed by mobile phone. These keitai shosetsu, or ‚ cellphone novels’, became wildly popular when read on mobile terminals and maintained that popularity when transferred to the paper medium. The writer Yoshi’s Deep Love was the first of these to be widely read. It was received coolly by people connected to the traditional publishing industry, but vast numbers of young girls who had never read novels before (Anm.: Markierung durch J.M.) pushed it to the top of the bestseller lists, making it a significant work from the perspective of expanding the book-reading population.“ (Matsuda, Japanese Book News 51: 3)” - Or I-pad books with soft music for little readers, text that highlights while read and the possibility to record your own narration (See more at: http://digitalstorytime.com/review.php?id=261#sthash.U337VyoB.dpuf).

Public initiatives for promoting reading Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Belgium Title: Public initiatives for promoting reading Duration: Yearly Financer: General Service of Letters and Books of the Ministry of Belgium’s French Community Website: http://www.litteraturedejeunesse.cfwb.be/index.php?id=5969 Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative method

Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

Digital tools or environment

332

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): There are three initiatives to promote reading all over Belgium: La fureure de lire (The fury of reading), Lisnous une histoire (Read us a story) and La bataille des livres (The battle of the books). “The fury of reading” intends to promote reading and books in their various forms (scientific, digital, poetic, paraliterary, romantic ...) with all audiences. Thus, it revolves annually around several hundreds of events supported by libraries, bookshops, art centers, associations, museums, theaters, cinemas, etc. www.fureurdelire.be “Read us a story” is an intergenerational action in favour of reading: this operation started in 2004 in kindergartens throughout the French Community. Each of the kindergartens located in the French Community has the possibility to accommodate people of the 3rd age who come to the school to read stories to children. Training, supervision and monitoring of the volunteers are provided by associations with experience in the matter. www.lisnousunehistoire.cfwb.be “The battles of the books” is a reading promotion program for youth 8 to 12 years. It is spread over a school year. The idea comes from Switzerland. Teachers gathered into an organizing committee that put together their classes to compete at a certain time of the year, in one place, based on a questionnaire that asked students about the content of thirty youth novels, read in a year. The idea touched other Francophone regions and now, thanks to new communication technologies, an audience of over 15,000 young people in other countries as Quebec, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Mali, Haiti, France and Belgium take part in the phenomenon. This international diversification obviously brings an interesting pedagogic added value, insofar as students learn through reading novels very different sociological universe of their own. www.bataille-des-livres.ch

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Joy of Reading: Improving Reading Motivation and Multi-literacy through Collaboration between Schools and Libraries Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Finland Joy of Reading: Improving Reading Motivation and Multi-literacy through Collaboration between Schools and Libraries 2012-2015, Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and the University of Oulu Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Education http://www.lukuinto.fi/media/materiaalit/joy-of-reading-handbook.pdf Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Reading and “booktalking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The ‘Joy of Reading’ program of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture has motivated children and youths to explore the reading and writing for three years, targeting some 15,000 children and youths between the ages of 6 and 16, parents, teachers, and library professionals. More specifically, pilot schools and libraries from 30 municipalities around Finland participated in the program. They sought, developed and tested methods for diversifying reading in children while increasing the joy of reading and improving reading. One reason the program was launched was Finland’s declining PISA results. Although Finland is among the top countries in reading literacy, Finn’s joy of reading is below par. Therefore, schools and libraries joined forces to help motivate students to read. The program includes ideas for increasing the joy of reading and reading motivation of children and youths. The activities are of a communal nature; management, staff and the community participate in the planning and implementation of the events held at both schools and libraries. The methods tested by the pilot schools and libraries combine traditional working methods with new methods, many of which have been developed at Joy of Reading training events. The pilot projects have been carried out using benchmarking: gathering existing practices and improving them, depending on the resources and skills of participating schools and libraries. The practices developed during the Joy of Reading program range from projects lasting several months to small ideas that can easily be adopted into the school or library.

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Enseigner avec le numérique Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): France Enseigner avec le numérique Duration: in progress Provider: Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur e de la recherche; éduscol Beneficiaries: School Teachers, Students Website: http://eduscol.education.fr/pid26435/enseigner-avec-le-numerique.html Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

X

Innovative Strategy method

Activity/

X

X

X

Action

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): - Teaching with new technologies means being organised in a different way for the success of all pupils and a better school system. - Over the last ten years the French Education Ministry has been rolling out flagship schemes - in partnership with local authorities - to help pupils and teachers to benefit from the added value of using new technologies in education. - Teaching staff can draw on a network of ICT contacts at local authority level, supported at the national level by experts in the discipline to develop the use of new technologies.

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The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Slovakia MINEDU - Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic (www.minedu.sk) Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Project-based reading promotion

Outdoors/

X

X

Practical tips

informal learning

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic is the central body of the state administration of the Slovak Republic for elementary, secondary and higher education, educational facilities, lifelong learning, science and for the state's support for sports and youth. The Ministry manages schools and school facilities at the territory of the Slovak Republic through generally binding rules, by providing vocational guidance to all founders, it administers the network of school and school facilities in the Slovak Republic. Though regional school authorities it provides for realization of the state administration. The competences of the Ministry are set out by law. http://www.minedu.sk/uzitocne-odkazy-v-oblasti-celozivotneho-vzdelavania/: The web site dealing with adult education and promoting their common interests, provide information about education, conferences, courses and studies, activities in the field of lifelong and further education, training projects and related activities , international cooperation in this area. http://www.minedu.sk/ucebnice-ucebne-texty-pracovne-zosity/: Link on textbooks in digital form for students and teachers of primary and secondary schools. On the portal are also available other educational materials Textbooks are free for those registered on: http://www.eaktovka.sk/ http://www.minedu.sk/v4/: Comparative review of the situation of young people in the Czech Republic , Slovakia, Hungary and Poland . Indirectly touches on the theme of innovative good practices even if not only for the promotion of reading.

336

National project of computerization and digitalization of the national cultural heritage The Office of the Slovak Republic Government– OPIS Program

Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Slovakia OPIS http://www.opis.culture.gov.sk/ www.opis.gov.sk Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): National project of computerization and digitalization of the national cultural heritage The Office of the Slovak Republic Government– OPIS OPIS is funded by the Ministry of the Slovak culture, by the Ministry of Finance and by the European Community. OPIS finances cultural projects such as, for example, the realization of the national project " digital collection of traditional folk culture". OPIS tends to the preservation of cultural heritage Slovak. An example is the improvement and completion of the digitization of cultural heritage of the Slovak National Library.

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Slovak state institution dependent on the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport working with young people. Program

Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Slovakia - Iuventa (https://www.iuventa.sk) Slovak state institution dependent on the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport working with young people. From March 2013 to October 2015.Co-financed by the European Social Fund. Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Project-based reading promotion

Outdoors/inform al learning

Digital tools or Practical tips environment

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Slovak national project on practical skills in working through non-formal education and as well the use of ICT: https://www.iuventa.sk/sk/sub/projektpraktik/Vystupy-Projektu.alej https://www.iuventa.sk/sk/Projekty/Neformalne-vzdelavanie.alej The project is aimed at developing practical skills in jobs for young people in order to contribute to systemic change and innovation in the non-formal education sector. The project aims to improve the quality of youth work and ensure the development of practical skills and the transfer of know -how to young workers. The project's practices have been implemented in all Slovak regions (except the Bratislava region). The project includes: The promotion of the healthy lifestyles The support of the practical use of ICT The development of practical skills in working with small parts Research and supportive work with young talented Support and development of experiential activities for environmental education Promotion and development of education for citizenship and multiculturalism Support and development of comprehensive training Training of workers and youth leaders in promoting and developing the interests of young people through non-formal education in the youth sector Guarantee the implementation and dissemination programs for young people who use innovative methods of experiential learning

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Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Educational Technologies and Education, ICT as a motivational tool in the learning of foreign languages Program

Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Czech Republic Title: Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Educational Technologies and Education, ICT as a motivational tool in the learning of foreign languages Websites: http://www.youtube.com http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk http://www.helpforenglish.cz http://www.busyteacher.org http://www.listentoenglish.com Duration: from November 2011 till December 2012 Beneficiaries: six elementary schools located in the city of Hradec Kralove and in Hradec Kralove region of the Czech Republic Provider: The whole project was financed by the European Social Fund and from the budget of the Czech Republic.

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Outdoors/ informal learning

X

X

X

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): This program particularly focuses on the learning of foreign languages and the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the learning process with respect to learner’s motivation. Firstly, the issue of motivation and the role of ICT in the foreign language learning are outlined. Secondly, the author describes specific examples of the ICT implementation in foreign language classes in order to raise student’s motivation to learn a foreign language, in this case English.

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Comenius good Practices Examples Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Czech Republic Title: “Comenius good Practices Examples” Duration: Two years Provider: European Union Beneficiaries: mainly pupils, teachers, local authorities, representatives of parents’ associations, nongovernmental organizations, teacher education institutions and universities. Website: http://ec.europa.eu/education/comenius/participate_en.htm http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelonglearningprogramme/comenius_en.htm Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Activity/ Action

Digital tools or environment

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Comenius Program focuses on all levels of school education, from preschool to secondary. It is relevant for everyone involved in school education: mainly pupils and teachers but also local authorities, representatives of parents’ associations, non-governmental organizations, teacher education institutions and universities. Through the Comenius program, the European Union invests around € 200 million each year in projects that promote school exchanges, school development, the education of school staff, school assistantships and more. Part of the EU’s Lifelong Learning Program, the Comenius actions aim to help young people and educational staff better understand the range of European cultures, languages and values. They also help young people acquire the basic life skills and competences necessary for personal development, future employment and active citizenship.

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New Zealand, Turkey, & Germany Kids Global Connection Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Relevant country: Germany Program/Initiative title: New Zealand, Turkey, & Germany Kids Global Connection Initiative carried out by 3 teachers (in New Zealand, Turkey, and Germany) in order to collaborate and promote English language learning between the children. Initiative description: http://teacherrebootcamp.com/2009/08/01/getting-children-involved-with-edtech/ VoiceThread link: http://voicethread.com/myvoice/#thread/558117/2982525/3344320 Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative method

Activity/

X

X

X

Action

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “book-talking”

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The initiative was held in collaboration between 3 schools from 3 countries: New Zealand, Turkey, and Germany. The target group was children from 4 to 10 years of age. The main objective was for children to improve their English speaking skills by collaborating on a digital story and sharing information about their perspective cultures and traditions. The reason it is selected here as a good practice, is the fact that the Web 2.0 tools used in this initiative can also be used to promote reading and can be integrated in the material of the LiRe 2.0 project. These were: VoiceThread, Twitter, and Classroom 2.0 Ning. The educators that were involved in the project conducted online meetings at least once a week. During the initiative’s duration, students that were not more than 5 years old were excited about their engagement in many diverse interactive activities. More specifically they were excited about creating a story together, drawing pictures, colouring them, and hearing their voices live. Throughout the initiative students were encouraged to speak English. The development of stories made them want to learn more vocabulary and phrases to continue reading and creating the story. Students listened to the comments carefully and asked many questions.

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LubutoLiteracy: Zambian teaching and learning materials for the digital age Program Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Zambia Title: LubutoLiteracy: Zambian teaching and learning materials for the digital age Location: Lusaka, Zambia Collaborators/Partners: Ministry of Education, Science and Vocational Training (MOESVT), including the Curriculum Development Centre and Zambian Library Service (ZLS) Website: http://allchildrenreading.org/innovators/lubuto-library-project/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Activity/ Action

X

X

Digital tools or environment

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): LubutoLiteracy is a pioneering program creating high-quality mother-tongue materials to teach children to read on an accessible, low-cost digital platform and sustainably deploying them at national scale in Zambia in partnership with government and other stakeholders. The interactive materials are developed locally by teachers and youth in line with the national curriculum and leverage the open access learning environment and outreach of Lubuto Libraries to particularly benefit highly vulnerable and out-of school children. An entire set of 101 lessons in the first of seven languages, Icibemba, was completed. Work continues on the remainder of the lessons with 101 lessons now completed in Chinyanja and waiting to be exported from eXe to html files which can be viewed in a browser. Illustrations and extra recordings are under production in Chitonga and will soon commence in Silozi, Kiikaonde, Lunda and Luvale.Testing of Icibemba lessons has commenced and feedback will be reported in Q8.

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Teenreads Program Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Canada Teenreads, Book Report Network, 1996-present, http://www.teenreads.com/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative Strategy Activity/ method Action

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or Social Reading environment and “booktalking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines) Teenreads.com is a site dedicated to book lovers providing a forum to discover and share commentary about the authors and books they have read. It offers teen readers aged 12-17 as well as librarians, teachers, and booksellers that work with this age group, reviews and excerpts of young adult books as well as adult titles that are appropriate for teen audiences. In 2009, Teenreads.com had an average of 245,000 unique visitors each month. Teens can also contribute some of the content that helps make the site feel approachable and not too formal. There are weekly questions plus a monthly poll tallying opinions on the book. A blog provides writing tips, author event information and links to more than three dozen writing and book sites. Teens can also sign up for a monthly newsletter. The site has made an effort to include and inspire more reluctant readers, too. For example, the Ultimate Reading List, compiled from reader and staff input, offers a more interesting selection than most schoolbased summer reading lists. Its 400 titles are split into fun categories like Books to Read During the Day, With the Lights On (mystery and suspense novels) and Books to Furiously Chain Read (which includes the Twilight and Hunger Games series). Teens can also find out about movies and TV shows that were based on novels; another section compares interviews from authors who write about similar themes. Generally, recommendations involve modern fiction, although some classics also make an appearance on the site. Some reviews are so detailed that the book essentially has its own mini-website, featuring an excerpt, reading guide, discussion questions, and other items.

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Identified Best Practice: Projects The following are identified Best Practice Projects for reading promotion through ICT.

Project

Living Schools Lab Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Living Schools Lab Started in October 2012, Living Schools Lab is a two-year project funded by the European Commission and coordinated by European Schoolnet. The project was funded by the FP7 of European Commission, and ended in September 2014. http://lsl.eun.org/home Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

/

Innovative method

Strategy

/

/

Activity/ Action

Projectbased reading promotion

Outdoors/ informal learning

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “booktalking”

Practical tips

/

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Department and the PDST – Technology in Education are partners in the EU Commission funded Living Schools Lab project. The main aim of the Living Schools Lab project is to help Ministries of Education to showcase, upscale and mainstream innovative use of ICT in both primary and secondary schools. To this end, the project will create a sustainable, growing network of primary and secondary schools, based around regional clusters that showcase and share best practice and ways to successfully embed the use of technology in teaching and learning across the whole school. ITIS Majorana School in Italy is documented as part of the project in relation to their innovation and use of etextbooks. ITIS Majorana School’s classroom model is based on collaborative teaching and learning. The school actively seeks to enhance interaction and collaboration through the use of ICT: all classrooms are equipped with an interactive whiteboard, wireless internet, and devices for each student (PCs or tablets). Teachers collaborate with their students to create digital learning materials. In the school teachers write and produce their own books, both in digital and in paper format, which are then made available for students, replacing the traditional publishers’ textbooks. Digital textbooks, resources and software are regularly used during lessons. In order to keep digital textbooks and resources up-to-date, project’s teachers are involved not only in the selection of digital content but also in the production of it, according to students’ learning styles and achievements. Furthermore, as the textbooks are produced by the schools themselves (in either digital or printed format), the costs for the students’ parents are reduced considerably. The teachers also use Future Classroom, a new interactive learning space that has been established in the school to explore pedagogical approaches with the support of Apple products, such as iBooks Authors, iTunes U, Apple TV, and iPads. The Future Classroom has four zones, emphasising different aspects of teaching and

344

learning. The first zone is called “agora” and used for plenaries and presentations; the second zone concentrates on digital material production using for example Educreation, iMovies, Keynotes and Pages; the third zone is dedicated for informal learning; and the last one for collaborative learning.

345

EduComics Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Project title: EduComics Project financed by the LLP program (COMENIUS) of the European Commission, with 6 partners Greece, Cyprus, Spain, Italy, and the UK Duration: January 2008 – December 2009 Website: http://educomics.org/

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

The main goal of the project was to help teachers and children forge an alternative pathway to literacy by writing, designing, and publishing original web comic books. The EduComics project aimed at (1) educating educators as to how online comics can be used in the classroom to enhance learning, engage and motivate students, and (2) creating training material for teachers and organizing seminars about the educational use of comics for teachers in Greece, Cyprus, UK, Italy and Spain. The use of various authoring tools for digital stories/comics was explored and these tools can also be investigated in the LiRe 2.0 project, as potential tools for the students to use. Pilot studies were developed in each participating country exploring different topics, thus enhancing the multi-disciplinary benefit of such tools and practices in teaching and learning. The potential for Web comics to be used in education offers educators a means of using multimedia (text, images, audio and video) with their students in most curricular areas. For example, within science, a student can navigate through a web comic book that shows different characters/actors arguing about a science topic. In languages, characters could be placed in a restaurant where they have to order a meal.

346

EU Kids Online II Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Project title: EU Kids Online II Project financed by the EC Safer Internet Programme of the European Commission, with 25 European countries involved Duration: 2009-2011 Website: www.eukidsonline.net Report on Cyprus accessed online at: http://www.lse.ac.uk/[email protected]/research/EUKidsOnline/ParticipatingCountries/PDFs/CYCyprusReport.pdf

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innova tive metho d

Strate gy

Activit y/ Action

Projectbased reading promoti on

Outdo ors/inf ormal learnin g

Digital tools or environm ent

Social Readin g and “booktalking ”

Practical tips

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

The EU Kids Online project, which was run in 3 phases (EU Kids Online I, II, III) aimed to enhance knowledge of European children’s and parents’ experiences and practices regarding risky and safer use of the internet and new online technologies, and thereby to inform the promotion of a safer online environment for children. The reason this project is selected as a best practice with reference to the LiRe 2.0 project is the fact that it is important to consult internet safety guidelines and usage when designing and promoting the use of Web 2.0 tools for reading in the framework of the project. The EU Kids Online II project focused on the exploration of the online activity and the use of mobile devices of 9-16 year olds through a major quantitative survey. The objective was to investigate their habits in using mobile devices for a variety of activities, and also to investigate the online risks associated with such activities, so as to propose internet safety guidelines for the youth and for their parents.

347

Digital Storytelling Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Tales. Stories for Learning in European Schools. http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/?page_id=37&lang=en Section on: Digital Storytelling (Portugal participated in this project) Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innovative method

Strategy

Activit y/ Action

X

X

Projectbased reading promoti on

Outdoors /

X

X

informal learning

Digital tools or environ ment

Social Reading and “booktalking”

Practical tips

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): TALES – Comenius Multilateral project, 1 November 2013 – 1 November 2015. This project encourages children to create digital media content to their own stories. This entails the development of communication skills, media literacy and critical use of ICT. These are fundamental assets for participation in society. Thus, the aim of the project is the adoption of interactive digital storytelling in schools. For this purpose, an authoring tool was created combining text, audio, images and video, which can be accessed freely through email [email protected] and which is password protected. The authoring tool is called 1001 voices and there is an accompanying guide (2015) to it in 5 languages (EN, IT, FR, ES, DE). 1001 voices allows for different narrative formats, such as short stories, compact stories (no more than 10-15 minutes long) and full stories with up to 25 minutes. The project has also compiled a report of collected best practice for school-based storytelling and digital storytelling, such as creating a storytelling scenario; storytelling festivals for in-service and initial teachers in training; Making digital stories with MS PowerPoint or MS Movie Maker for teachers; a collaborative coconstruction of a whodunit story by teachers, a MOOC on storytelling called a Mystory (Dezin 2003). There are also links to digital storytelling projects in schools: http://www.1001storia.polimi.it/generate/EXPO/1743/, among others.

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LabTE (From Gaming to Interactive Activities for Mobile Learning) Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Dos jogos às Atividades Interativas para Mobile learning (PTDC/CPE-CED/I 187/2010)-LabTE (From Gaming to Interactive Activities for Mobile Learning). Links: Ana Amélia Carvalho, (Coimbra University) Aprender e ensinar com Tablets e Smartphones. Apps Games-based Learning. TEA, 26/11/2015 (ppt presentation) at: http://www.slideshare.net/ProjetoTEA/aprender-e-ensinar-com-tablets-e-smartphones-ana-amliacarvalho Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

x

x

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

x

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): A research project that develops games and gaming for education, based on the preferences of Portuguese students and on the analysis of the games they prefer to play according to gender and age. 4 games were developed. Their characteristics are: they are serious games, which require multidisciplinary teams and are to be played in school. Those that have potential for reading promotion are described below: Game 1. 1010: The Beginning of the Republic: the player is invited to help a news journalist while there are several actions that lead toward the change from monarchy to republic in Portugal in 1890, 1908, 1910 and 1911. Game 2. Os Maias – becoming an expert! (Os Maias is a nineteenth-century novel by Eça de Queiroz which is compulsory reading in secondary education). The aim is to stimulate students to read the novel and the aim of the game is to fill in a page of stickers. It contains characters and places taken from the novel and in the training area the students can answer 303 questions, while in the challenge area there are 448 questions. The questions are divided into three levels. Game 3. Konnecting. O homem ser comunicante. Kommuniket is an alien collecting information on humans. He travelled in time, took photos and now he has to report on a series of images he needs to understand and interpret. The player needs to identify 3 words or expressions that characterize the shown image on the screen.

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Training teachers to make READing fun through digITal storytelling Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Title: READIT - Training teachers to make READing fun through digITal storytelling Ref. no.: 510834-LLP-1-2010-1-IT-COMENIUS-CMP Duration: 2010-2012 Coordinator: Università Degli Studi “Guglielmo Marconi”, Italy Partners: University College Lillebælt (Denmark), Marsilio Editori (Italy), Scottish Book Trust (United Kingdom), Curtea Veche Publishing (Romania), Rüştü Akin Kiz Teknik Meslek Lisesi (Turkey), Liceul Teoretic “Ovidius” Constanţa (Romania) Financer: EC/Lifelong Learning programe Website: http://www.readitproject.eu Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The READIT project aims to improve teacher skills through a methodology based on video production using digital storytelling, developing new teaching approaches through the use of ICT to support learning. The innovative didactic methodology integrates traditional teaching strategies with ICT tools to help teachers acquire new skills through video production using digital storytelling techniques. The techniques can be applied to different subjects but in this project production of book trailers was used as a method to promote literature appreciation. The main outcomes are an e-learning platform delivering the e-course for teachers, READIT methodology for video production and digital storytelling and modular course, face-toface seminars in each partner country involving teachers and students and book trailers. Through the training, teachers will learn and test a new educational approach, based on digital technology (i.e. book trailers) that can help raise the interest level and motivate students to read. Students will not only learn about storytelling and how books are constructed, but will also develop transversal skills (e.g. communicative, ICT, teambuilding) useful for future professional development. The innovative aspect of the READIT didactic methodology is to combine the technology in terms of Digital Storytelling and book trailer production with writing techniques such as narrative and screenplay to reinforce teaching of reading and writing in an interactive, creative and authentic way.

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Reporting without borders Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Title: Reporting without borders Duration: 2010-2011 Partners: Lycée Marguerite Yourcenar (France), Theoretical High School "Dr Mihai Ciuca" (Romania), Zespół Szkół nr 1 w Pszczynie (Poland) Financer: EC / eTwinning Programme Website: www.etwinning.net/profile/reporting_without_border Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): In this project, pupils aged 15-19 cooperate to write an e-magazine: they select some topical issues they would like to investigate, would interview their European partners to know their views on this topic, then would organize the information collected and write their articles. All the articles written by the pupils are published in an e-magazine. Among other things, the project aims to develop collaborative writing and proofreading skills and to develop critical thinking skills when selecting and organising relevant information; Furthermore it plans to write different types of articles (interview, report, survey, essay, opinion,…) on various topics, use ICT collaborative tools for publishing, editing, commenting, communicate efficiently with both classmates and partners abroad, develop inter-cultural skills, share ideas and concerns with European partners and bring to the surface the personal interests of the students.

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Book in thread of time Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Title: Book in thread of time Duration: 02.01.2012 –17.01.2014 Partners: “Vasile Lovinescu” Highschool Fălticeni (Romania), Publiczne Gimnazjum nr 30 im.Adama Mickiewicza Łódź (Poland), Fatih Ortaokulu Manisa (Turkey) Website: https://www.etwinning.net/ro/pub/profile.cfm?fuseaction=app.project&lang=ro&pid=68461 Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innovati ve method

Strate gy

Activit y/ Action

Projectbased reading promoti on

Outdoo rs/ informa l learning

Digital tools or environm ent

Social Readi ng and “book talkin g”

Practical tips

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

Students aged 14-16 prepare: (a) interview with parents and grandparents; (b) illustrations for the book or novel together with a short note about the conversation they had with their parents or grandparents; what did they like most about the book? They can attach photographs of their parents or grandparents. They are going to public this material on eTwinning platform; (c) an exhibition at school including own works; (d) reflection about the project on the Desktop forum. The topics are: History of Culture, Foreign Languages, Language and Literature. The tools the students use: chat, e-mail, forum, other software programmes (PowerPoint, video, pictures and drawings), TwinSpace, Video conferences. The achievements are: dialogue between generations; increased role of book in man’s life; getting to know the universal values concerning reading of books and participation of students and their families in cultural activities; improved language and communication skills; promoting tolerance and openness towards other cultures; understanding the purpose and opportunities that the new IT technology provides these days.

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Young Poets’ Society Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Title: Young Poets’ Society Partners: Artemiza Lovin, No. 29 „Sfânta Ana”Middle School, Galaţi (Romania), Paraskevi Belogia, Γυμμάσιο Οιχαλίας-Νεοχωρίου, Οιχαλία (Greece) Website: http://www.etwinning.ro/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Publicatie_eTwinning_20111.pdf Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Project aims is the popularization of the multicultural aspect of poetry and make its role to go beyond borders and make people aware of the idea of unity and cultural individuality. Pupils have used ICT knowledge acquired within Computer science classes: word processing and Word and PowerPoint presentations, using data available on Google, You Tube. Toolbox used: e-mail, Skype, chat, forum, blog and TwinSpace. To create videos based on partners’ poems, pupils used: Movie Maker, Adobe Premier, Corel Video Studio, Sony Vegas, Camtasia Studio. Students achieved literary and artistic works (poems, drawings, videos) and posted them on the blog of the project and in the TwinSpace. Also, they developed their communication skills, especially in English, and have enriched the vocabulary and learned how to create different shapes and styles of poetry following the rules of this genre. All poems created by students were included in an eBook entitled “Young Poets’ Society. Following a good collaboration between partners and the sharing of experience, coordinating teachers improved their teaching methods in the classroom. To achieve the project's final products, namely the posting of poetry on the blog of the project and TwinSpace, computer science teachers were part of the project team assisting the students if needed. All products resulted from the activities can be found on the project's blog, to be found at: http://users.sch.gr/milliospap/blog and in the virtual space eTwinning: http://newtwinspace.eTwinning.net/web/p35771/welcome

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Lifelong Readers: A European Reading Promotion Framework for Primary School Librarians, Educators and Administrators Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): GREECE: Lifelong Readers: A European Reading Promotion Framework for Primary School Librarians, Educators and Administrators 2011-2013, EU Comenius Multilateral Project, http://www.lifelongreaders.org/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion





Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”



Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines):

Lifelong Readers (LiRe) aimed to provide school librarians, teachers, and administrators with guidance and tools for encouraging children aged 6-12 to develop lifelong reading habits. Because low levels of young Europeans' literacy skills have been repeatedly documented, the EU emphasizes and encourages the need for lifelong learning. Lifelong reading goes hand-in-hand with lifelong learning.

LiRe collected, developed, and exchanged good practices for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures. As only a small number of EU member states have achieved good results in the field and have produced innovative reading promotion products and processes, the project, via pertinent and concrete European cooperation, aimed to benefit reading education and improve the training of school librarians, educators and administrators across the EU. Another aim was to initiate change by implementing reading promotion programs in all participating countries. To achieve these aims, the LiRe project built a reading promotion framework which featured: (i) Summary descriptions of successful reading promotion programs; (ii) Principles, strategies and approaches for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures; (iii) An extensive collection of reading promotion actions, grouped under such categories such as Reading Promotion through Play/ ICT/ Volunteerism/ Awards/ the Arts; (iv) An annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources; (v) Reading promotion evaluation tools. The LiRe Training Modules addressed the reading promotion training of teachers, school librarians, and administrators. The material was piloted and implemented. The results were disseminated by all partners.

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Hack the Book Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): GREECE: HACK THE BOOK, 01/2016 – ongoing, The Onassis Cultural Centre Athens, Competitiveness and Innovation Programme (CIP). www.sgt.gr/gre/SPG1611 Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

X

X

X

Digital tools or environment

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Onassis Cultural Centre in Athens invited interested parties in a 48-hour Hackathon in order to “Reinvent The Book”. Participants had to work on four aspects of a book: Book Design, Open Hardware, API (Application Program Interface) and Enterpreneurship and Sustainability. Of the three winners, the one who is currently sponsored to develop their outcome is the vivl.io Project. The creators worked with a classic story and used technology to enhance the reading experience. They believe that children and young adult readers who love technology will come to love reading classic books, too. The book’s objects, places and characters can be enriched with data from outside sources that the project creators edit and connect. The digital part of the book is there but without distracting the reader. Interactive tools allow the reader to look for a place on a real map via a Wi-Fi connection. An inexpensive computer was used and all the data came from the Europeana space. Instructions for young people, parents and educators were included as well as a free version of Minecraft. Readers can introduce 3D models based on the book into the game and create new experiences. The list of possibilities is wide and works individually using each person’s imagination and without predetermined outcomes. Right now, the group is working with REMIX in London for a three-month incubation period. The idea of working on classics with open source material from Europeana making it attractive and interactive to young readers sounds like the Book of the Future.

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XANADU - Persistent readers’ community Project Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): XANADU. Persistent readers’ community Duration: 2004-present Provider: Hamelin Cultural Association - Bologna; University of Bologna -Faculty of Education Sciences Library ‘Sala borsa’ Beneficiaries: students Website: http://www.progettoxanadu.it Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Reading and “booktalking”

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): - creating a community of kids and literature promoters who confront and dialog with each other personally and online; - creating a website that gathers the ‘ideal library’ with the books most voted by the kids, with close examination files; - using the Xanadu training methods for reading promoters through courses and seminars, dialogues between school and library networks, by means of the ICT.

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#ioleggoperché, April 23rd International Book Day Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): #ioleggoperché, April 23rd International Book Day Duration: 2015-present Provider: AIE: ItalianEditors’ Association Beneficiaries: School Libraries, Students, Private Companies' Libraries, Strong Readers, Reluctant Readers (A national campaign aimed to promote the act of reading as a viral one) Website: http://www.ioleggoperche.it/it/home/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ ProjectOutdoors/ Digital tools method based or Action informal reading environment learning promotion

Social Practical Reading tips and “booktalking”

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): - creating a web and social platform, through which sharing reading tools, events and activities, as well as create actual contacts among strong and either weak or reluctant readers. - official AIE and Bookshops endorsement in creating or reinforcing School and Private Company Libriaries though a Web 2.0 tools based campaign

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AMORES Project Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Croatia & United Kingdom AMORES Partner organizations: Croatian Academic and Research Network- CARNet, Zagreb, Croatia. Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom. Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent, United Kingdom. Northumbria University, Athens, United Kingdom. End date: 1 December 2015. www.amores-project.eu

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Innovative Strategy ProjectDigital tools Social Reading and method based or “book-talking” reading environment promotion

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The AMORES project focuses on improving literature learning across Europe by improving student’s engagement with literature through a methodology based on interactive and collaborative use of ICT as well as on improving digital literacies of both students and teachers through the creation of e-artefacts, critical reflection on their production and their use in social participation. The teaching methodology presented can be employed by all educators, primarily those wishing to develop their students’ participation in learning about national and European literature through the creation of e-artefacts. AMORES aims to change this situation and improve literature teaching and learning across Europe by increasing student’s engagement with literature through an innovative methodology based on interactivity and collaboration. The project aims to improve students’ and teacher’ digital literacy and empower teachers by increasing their pedagogical competences in new technologies and creating e-artifacts, digital stories inspired by national literatures. Learners can also submit reflections via video and posters. The project encourages critical reflection on their production and use in social participation. Recommended teaching methods as an example of a learning scenario: 1. Creating collaborative or individual e-artefacts based on works of literature. 2. Sharing e-artefacts. 3. Discussion of e-artefacts.

358

4. Reflection on the process of creation of e-artefacts and on the whole learning process. Recommended activities: -

Students/pupils read their stories

-

Discuss in class.

-

Putting a series of questions about the text to students/pupils who then have to discuss in groups and come up with an agreed set of answers. Questions could be: Who is your favourite character, why did you like her etc.

-

Ask students to think about how they might retell this part of the story to a partner school

-

Demonstrate e-tools for possible use

-

Students/pupils discuss and decide which e-tool to choose such as a movie film of students/pupils acting out an aspect of the story or cartoon generator

-

Students/pupils create their own a-artefact, such as movie etc.

-

Partner schools students/pupils share and discuss the e-artefacts via social network.

-

Partner schools students/pupils discuss the process of creating e-artefacts via videoconference

-

Teachers should moderate and summarise all discussions.

359

The Portal Closer to Books Project Identification data (title, duration, provider, beneficiaries, website, etc.): Slovenia The Portal Closer to Books http://www.blizjiknjigi.si/ Magazines: http://www.revije.si/en/ The Central National Book and Magazine Web Portal (Books on the market, cultural magazines, publishing news, a database of published books) or The Portal Books on the Market for short. The Slovenian Book Agency was the developer of the project, which was co-funded by the European Social Fund and took place from 11th February 2014 to 31st December 2015. Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative Activity/ Project-based reading method promotion Action

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “booktalking”

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Slovenian book portal Bližjiknjigi.si (Closer to Books) was launched in the framework of the project The Central National Book and Magazine Web Portal (Books on the market, cultural magazines, publishing news, a database of published books) or The Portal Books on the Market for short. The Slovenian Book Agency was the developer of the project, which was co-funded by the European Social Fund and took place from 11th February 2014 to 31st December 2015. Its results are the Slovenian book portal Bližjiknjigi.si and the related magazine portal Revije.si, which comprise part of the measures implemented to increase the accessibility and sales of books and magazines, stabilise the Slovenian book market and implement the Single Price for Books Act provided for in the National Programme for Culture 2014-2017. The portal Bližjiknjigi.si provides book authors with information and promotional support and informs the public in a comprehensive and diverse way about the latest published books, the key participants in the Slovenian book industry, and the developments in the field of books and periodicals. It is our wish that the portal becomes the central Slovenian meeting place for everyone engaged in books, professionally or otherwise. The portal Bližjiknjigi.si is designed in a way that gives equal importance to all book-related activities and supports all participants who pursue a common goal: quality, recognizable, acclaimed, accessible as well as profitable books in Slovenia. The portal increases the accessibility and recognition of Slovenian literary, humanities and other cultural magazines at home and abroad. Through the portal the Slovenian Book Agency provides free space and technical support for the presentation of magazines and their publishers. The portal functions as an online archive with free access to full issues of magazines. Advanced search options allow the user to perform a more focused and relevant search of the published content for research, pedagogical, study or other purposes.

360

The portal Revije.si currently features 28 magazines published with the financial support of the Slovenian Book Agency. Individual issues are made free access six months after publication. The portal's search engines are integrated with the central Slovenian book portal Bližjiknjigi.si, which presents the entire contemporary Slovenian book production and functions as a meeting place for all key participants in the book industry.

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Bulgarian literary classics - knowledge for all Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Bulgaria Title: Bulgarian literary classics - knowledge for all. Unknown archives and cultural contexts Ref. no.: BG08-0027 / EEA Grants Promoter: Institute for Literature - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Target groups: Researchers or scientists, Students Website: http://eeagrants.org/project-portal/project/BG08-0027 Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Activity/

Digital tools or environment

Action X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The project aim is to collect, systematize, digitalize and preserve for future generations the cultural heritage of Bulgarian literary classics (mid-19th – mid-20th c.). It also focuses on promoting Bulgarian cultural heritage to the general public, by providing free access to it and turning it into a source of information, ideas and methodological strategies for future cultural and educational products, thus decreasing social and economic disparities. The Classics of Bulgarian literature will be presented through comprehensible literary profiles (incl. cultural and literary context, biography, knowledge of their works, unique bibliographic catalogue of publications in Bulgarian periodicals), and most of them – also by unknown and unique materials from their personal literary archives. Three digital centres will be established in the premises of the Institute for Literature and both partners, which will both contribute with its rich collections to be digitized as well as their expertise, and integral cultural and educational product will be created, which will include a web-based digital repository with 15000 items digitized for first time, a site with new texts presenting the writers, films, virtual exhibitions and collections, presentations, seminars and lectures. In the digitization will take part three trained Roma representatives and two of them will participate in lectures with their presentation of the cultural heritage that is being digitized under the project. The project will create diverse opportunities for free public access to the knowledge of Bulgarian literary heritage, modelling of the contemporary identity of the Bulgarian society, based on the cultural history, forming of cultural values, educational efficiency, efficiency in cultural and educational integration of disadvantaged groups (esp. Roma). Targeted are the general public, students, specialists, social disadvantaged groups (esp. Roma), and Bulgarian schools abroad.

362

Municipal Public Library in Olsztyn Project Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Poland Municipal Public Library in Olsztyn, Poland 2004-ongoing Olsztyn.eu Activity/

Outdoors/

Action

informal learning

X

X

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “book-talking”

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Municipal Public library in Olsztyn has a multimedia library as well as a Multicentrum. The Multimedia library www.planeta11.pl opened in September 2004 as part of a Bertelsmann Foundation project called “Library for Young Customers”. It offers readers over thirteen CDs, DVDs, computer games and programs, multiple computer workstations, Internet access and software. It provides initiatives for activating young readers. It also offers an opportunity for young people to explore poetry, graphics, theatre and film. More importantly, it is a place for teenagers to meet their friends and showcase their talents. The Multicentrum www.multicentrum.net has been awarded the Creative use of ICT Innovation award by eifl – Electronic Information For Libraries. In its ICT laboratory, members can compose music, draw caricatures, produce movies animations or posters or build robots. Skills courses are divided into four modules: MultiArt, MultiMusic, MultiScience and MultiTech. The centre is very popular with disabled children and young adults who participate in the library’s “Yes We Can” programme. MultiLogic is the world of computer-controlled robots, car models, various mechanical devices and constructions made of special materials. MultiLearning teaches practical biology, physics and chemistry. Finally, MultiTechnique deals with information based on advanced industrial technologies.

363

Promoting Equity through ICT in Education Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Hungary Title: Promoting Equity through ICT in Education Duration: 2003-2005 Financer: OECD, Hungarian Ministry of Education Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Strategy

Digital tools or environment

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): As a Hungarian research effort to support the OECD project, the Ministry of Education commissioned a research and development project from Eötvös University to work out models for teaching learning to learn skills and develop cognitive competencies of Romani students of distant village primary schools. The two-year effort involves mentored teacher training, selection and adaptation of educational software suitable for teenagers with learning difficulties and ICT-supported enrichment programmes in mathematics, physics, chemistry, mother tongue and Information Technology. The success stories mentioned above show that ICT actually acts as the Trojan Horse: in the PC box, up-todate educational methods may be smuggled within the walls of traditional schooling. The expansion of the information society within education should rest on four pillars: 1. Hardware and Software – provision of suitable infrastructure, 2. Internet access – fast, inexpensive, and readily available connectivity, 3. Skills and competencies, necessary for making full use of technology and finally, 4. Content provision, to communicate current and authentic knowledge

364

Le projet lecture/Numérique d'agir pour l'école Project Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): France Le projet lecture/Numérique d'agir pour l'école Duration: In Progress Provider: Organisation "Agir pour l'école" Beneficiaries: Teachers and Students at any level Website: http://www.agirpourlecole.org/projet-lecture-numerique-dagir-lecole/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ Project-based method reading promotion Action

Digital tools or Practical tips environment

X

X

X

X

X

X

X Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Project aims at developing some fundamental skills in reading with the use of the most innovative ICT. Digital tools are meant especially for reluctant readers as well as young pupils with difficulty in developing basic competences in reading and are developed in order to provide reading games and programmes which can be used by studens even in absence of teachers. Hence, the digital programmes follow the same pedagogical progression which is followed by the teachers and allow the reluctant readers to build a personal reading learning programme.

365

ICT as a motivational tool in the learning of foreign languages: “On-line teaching of English language at elementary” Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Czech Republic Title: ICT as a motivational tool in the learning of foreign languages: “On-line teaching of English language at elementary” schools in the Czech Republic Website: www.netlektor.cz/elektor/c2p/cont/o_projektu/zkusenosti http://www.camsoftpartners.co.uk/docs/ICC_Grahams_Report_Final.htm REFERENCES: 

Z. Dörnyei, Motivational strategies in the language classroom.

Cambridge: CUP, 2001. 

Frydrychova Klimova, “Impact of ICT on foreign language learning,

” AWER Procedia Information Technology and Computer Science, vol. 2, pp. 180-185, 2012.. 

Fitzpatrick, and G. Davis. (2003). The impact of ICT on the teaching of foreign languages and on the role of teachers of foreign languages, EC Directorate General of Education and Culture [Online].

Financer: European Social Fund and from the budget of the Czech Republic. Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Outdoors/informal Digital tools or learning environment

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): This project depicts an exploitation of ICT in EFL classes at elementary and secondary schools in order to raise students’ motivation for learning English. It illustrated an On-line teaching of English language at elementary schools in the Czech Republic, which ran from November 2011 till December 2012. At six elementary schools located in the city of Hradec Kralove and in Hradec Kralove region of the Czech Republic, teachers of English introduced in their conversation classes videoconferences with teachers from abroad, in this case from the Philippines. The age of pupils spanned from the year of 9 to 15, from the fourth up to ninth grades. These videoconferences were run via Skype. The provider and creator of the web application was company OPEN-IT. The whole project was financed by the European Social Fund and from the budget of the Czech Republic. Also four teachers of English from the Department of Applied Linguistics of the Faculty of Informatics and Management in Hradec Kralove participated in the project as professional advisors, coaches and creators of methodological worksheets that were used during the English conversation classes by the Philippine teachers.

366

The European Children’s Travelling Language Library-Comenius Multilateral Project Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Czech Republic Title: The European Children’s Travelling Language Library-Comenius Multilateral Project Institutions involved: Çukurova Ünivesitesi, Yabancı Diller Öğretimi ve Araştırma Me(Turkey), Jazyková škola s právem státní jazykové zkoušky PELIKÁN s.r.o (Czech Republic), Sastamalan Opisto (Finland), Associazione Culturale Benalua (Italy) Asociacion Cultural LibreMente (Spain) Key words: Reading skills, Libraries, Teaching skills, Promotion of reading Website: http://www.eulib.eu Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Innovative method

Strategy

Project-based reading promotion

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The EuroLib projects aims to answer 3 needs: to provide early European language experiences using a format that can resonate with the imagination of young students, to introduce books as the best source of autonomous lifelong learning, and directly attack the lowering levels of book readership and to promote the idea of Europe and its cultural diversity. In the project, travelling libraries of the most beautifully illustrated children's books in multiple European languages travel from school to school across Europe. Each school has the library for a period and has to carry out a number of pedagogic and collaborative activities before, during and after the visit of the Library. They place the results on the project website for use and viewing by other schools. Activities include inter-comprehension, comprehension, creative expression, criticism, reflection, task-based learning, collaboration and using languages within a social context. On the project website and travelling with the library itself are tools, teacher diaries and teacher guides. The impact on students includes exposure to the rich cultural heritage of Europe, motivation to learn languages, motivation to read books as a source of autonomous lifelong learning and reinforcement of emerging literacy.

367

Wrilab2 Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Relevant countries: Austria, Germany Project title: Wrilab2 Program financed by the LLP program (KA2) of the European Commission, with 10 partners from Austria, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, Slovenia Duration: January 2014 – December 2016 Website: https://www.wrilab2.eu/ Online reading and writing laboratory (online material): https://www.wrilab2.eu/moodle/ Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

X

Innovative method

Activity/

X

X

Action

Digital tools or environment

Social Reading and “book-talking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): This LLP project focuses on the creation of an online reading and writing laboratory for Czech, German, Italian, and Slovenian as L2. Even though the target audience involves students learning a second/foreign language and even though there is more emphasis on writing, it is presented here as a best practice relevant to LiRe 2.0, as it also involves the promotion of reading (as it is directly related to writing) and it also involves the inclusion of Web 2.0 tools through the online laboratory. We could therefore benefit by drawing ideas on the tools and set-up used to promote reading competence. Wrilab2 aims at: 

offering free interactive language learning materials, specifically designed for the teaching of writing to foreigners in the four languages included in the project;



paving the way for a discussion on the European level involving both universities and schools with regards to the methodology and the assessment criteria for the teaching of writing (especially of an argumentative nature) in the four L2s included in the project;



creating the appropriate framework for teaching writing to foreign students, i.e. a Moodle based online laboratory where a vast typology of texts can be analyzed and explained and the students can be guided during their writing process, from the draft to the final revision, learning to write with a “reader’s” sensitivity;



promoting the creation of virtual communities, that will enable students to stay in touch with native speakers fellows and teachers to exchange materials and good practices;



offering didactic writing seminars for teachers in the four L2s included in the project;



offering online writing courses (levels B1-B2, B2-C1) for each L2 involved in the project.

368

Creative Classrooms Lab (CCL) Project Identification data (title, reference number, duration, coordinator, financer, website, etc.): Relevant countries: Austria, Lithuania Project title: Creative Classrooms Lab (CCL) Project financed by the LLP program (KA2) of the European Commission, with 10 partners from Austria, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Italy. Project coordinated by European Schoolnet (EUN). Duration: April 2013 – March 2015 Website: http://creative.eun.org/home Article on project: http://blog.scientix.eu/2015/07/07/mobile-learning-activities-applying-tablets-inlithuania/

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach Innovative Strategy Activity/ Project-based method reading Action promotion

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The Creative Classrooms Lab project (CCL) brought together teachers and policy-makers in eight countries to design, implement, and evaluate 1-to-1 tablet scenarios in 45 schools. The project, which included a strong research component, produced learning scenarios and activities, guidelines and recommendations to help policy-makers and schools to take informed decisions on optimal strategies for implementing 1-to1 initiatives in schools and for the effective integration of tablets in teaching and learning. The project involved classes both in lower and upper secondary level schools, in a variety of subjects, both from the arts as well as the sciences fields. The project developed a course for teachers, in order to train them in integrating tablets in their lesson development and in their teaching, through which we can get ideas for the LiRe 2.0 teacher training modules, in terms of the basic theories, but also practical ideas. For example, the results of the project have indicated that the use of tablet and Web 2.0 tools in more effective when used in tasks that are based on collaboration, inquiry-based learning, activities based on each student’s learning style. The project also aimed at developing strategies and recommendations at the policy level for whole-school implementations of tablets in teaching and learning.

369

Identified Best Practice: Reports The following are identified Best Practice Reports for reading promotion through ICT.

Report

The Use of Tablet Devices in ACCS Schools Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): The Use of Tablet Devices in ACCS Schools. Michael Hallissy, Anne Gallgher, Seamus Ryan, John Hurley. 2013 H2 Learning on behalf of The Association of Community & Comprehensive Schools. Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Strategy

Activity/

Practical tips

Action X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): In 2013 the Association of Community & Comprehensive Schools secured the services of H2 Learning to research the impact of tablet devices across 93 of their national schools. Devices are noted as being used primarily as ebook readers and the report serves as practical steps in implementing a one-to-one device initiative in second-level schools through a four-step process, plan, prepare, implement and evaluate. Step 1: Vision and Planning- Transforming Learning. -Consult the National Council of Teachers of English e-Learning Handbook. - Form a School Committee to lead the Plan. - Start with a Vision you are comfortable with and that is achievable. - Engage in an informed discussion around redesigning learning. - Encourage subject departments to engage in such discussions. - Identify one or two similar areas where staff can ‘experiment’ with the tablets or similar devices to ‘transform’ how they currently teach. - Link such decisions to the overall school learning plan. Step 2: Preparing for Change- The Technological Infrastructure. -

Ensure that the wireless infrastructure is fit for purpose in terms of density of users and movement around the building.

-

Use only experienced installers who are wireless specialists.

-

In planning wireless rollout consider that users will have multiple devices accessing the wireless.

370

-

Considering future multiple device users, identify reference school sites that are currently supporting maximum number of planned users.

-

Seeking independent advice on deployment will save time and money in the future.

-

Main choice of devices in schools are: Apple iPad, Windows 8 devices and the Android devices.

-

All devices should have insurance and be clear on the warranty conditions.

Step 3: Implementation. -

Whole school implementation as well as parental involvement.

Step 4: Evaluation and Review. -

Regular evaluation and monitoring is necessary.

-

Student, teacher and parent evaluation as well as technical performance evaluation needed.

-

Review should allow for changes and update as required.

371

The use of mobile devices as means of data collection in supporting elementary school students’ conceptual understanding about plants. Report/ Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Journal Article

Zacharia, Z., Lazaridou, C., & Avraamidou, L. (2016). The use of mobile devices as means of data collection in supporting elementary school students’ conceptual understanding about plants. International Journal of Science Educations, 38(4), 596-620. Accessed online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09500693.2016.1153811

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Activity/ Project-based reading promotion Action

Outdoors/

X

X

X

informal learning

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The article presents a research study that aimed to examine the impact of mobile learning among 48 4th grade students (primary school). Specifically, the study investigated whether the use of mobile devices during field trips outside the classroom to learn about the parts of the flower and their functions, flower pollinators, the process of pollination/fertilisation, and the interrelationship between animals and plants was more effective than traditional ways of collecting data on the topic. They focused on using mobile device affordances that relate particularly to enhancing students’ memory (i.e. capturing of photos and videos). Moreover, they provided students with the opportunity to capture and store their observations on a mobile storage device in order to enable them to re-see a physical object or phenomenon. Each student had one of two different types of devices: a tablet (90% of the students) or a smart phone (10% of the students). All devices supplied the same features for students to use during their field trips and in class. In particular, the students using mobile devices used the magnifier (zoom-in) feature of the photo app, and the photo and video applications of their devices. The students had to research information, read about the topic and gather data and analyse it. The control group used traditional means (e.g. note-taking, sketching) while the experimental group used the mobile device of their choice and relevant apps. The findings, which can be used as inference for the LiRe 2.0 project, revealed that using mobile devices for data collection enhanced students’ conceptual understanding more than using traditional means of data collection. As a result, in the LiRe 2.0 project, we can explore the use of mobile devices not just for reading per se, but also for brainstorming, collecting data, coming up with ideas, working on comprehension activities, etc.

372

Web 2.0 in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: a research synthesis and implications for instructional design and educational practice, Interactive Learning Environments Report / Journa l article

Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Antigoni Parmaxi & Panayiotis Zaphiris (2016): Web 2.0 in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: a research synthesis and implications for instructional design and educational practice, Interactive Learning Environments, DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2016.1172243 Accessed online at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301905627_Web_20_in_ComputerAssisted_Language_Learning_a_research_synthesis_and_implications_for_instructional_design_and_educa tional_practice

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Activity/ Action

X

X

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or Social Reading environment and “booktalking”

Practical tips

X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the research articles that exist in literature on the use of Web 2.0 tools in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). The reason it is selected as a best practice with reference to the LiRe 2.0 project, is the fact that the article offers an overview of multiple Web 2.0 tools that can be used for reading or for creating online material promoting literacy, and it also offers an overview of successful practices in integrating Web 2.0 tools in the language classroom. Even though the focus of the LiRe 2.0 project is not language learning, still reading plays an important part in the language learning process. For this reason, the article was selected as a best practice here; mostly to assist the consortium in selecting tools as well as practices for the teacher training modules. More specifically, tools investigated in the literature that are relevant to the framework of the LiRe 2.0 project are: blogs, voice blogs, podcasts, wikis, Web 2.0 platforms (Edublogs, YouTube). Through the review of available literature on the topic, it was concluded that the following areas have been investigated in research: (1) Web 2.0 tools that dominate second/foreign language classroom; (2) Learning/Second Language Acquisition theories that guide their use; (3) Skills that Web 2.0 technologies support; (4) Reported advantages and challenges in harnessing Web 2.0 tools; and (5) Task design considerations. Findings of this study conclude that social technologies are valuable tools in the language classrooms but entail challenges regarding their theoretical and pedagogical alignment. The study concludes with some discussion and implications for instructional designers and practitioners.

373

Report

Rede de Bibliotecas Escolares Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Maria Teresa Calçada (2009). Rede de Bibliotecas Escolares: 13 anos a construir saberes, RBE newsletter nº 5. At: http://www.rbe.mec.pt/newsletter//np4/556.html Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Strategy

Digital tools or environment

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): A national strategy for the implementation of a nationwide network of school libraries. It implied the training of specialized teacher librarians inside schools; the assumption that each library would suit its context; the association with local governance structures (such as Town Councils, Regional Councils, Training Centers). School libraries were conceived as multimedia resource centers that would facilitate reading equipment and access to participation through diverse means of communication of its users (teachers and students). The project presupposed active learning, support to teachers and students to school activities as well as creativity. The aim of multimedia resource centres was to train for the critical use of information, create directories and databases for specific scientific areas and cater for the diverse needs of its users: serve the needs of teachers with supplementary materials to classes; produce content; create alternative learning spaces, promote pleasurable reading; stimulate curiosity for diverse types of knowledge; as well as open up space for the new kinds of reading that are emerging in the 21st century. In terms of spatial organization and equipment these multimedia resource centres were equipped with several access points for mobile technologies and equipment, broadband Internet connections. The coordinators and teacher librarians are supposed to organize, select, treat and make available credible and useful information. They are also supposed to help students learn critical information management skills, search for information and learn individually. As a network, the School Libraries developed collaborative practices among schools, shared resources on line, and competed for new resources through the development of projects.

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Romania - The role of the public library in promoting reading Report Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Title: Romania - The role of the public library in promoting reading Author: Corina–Mihaela Apostoleanu Publisher: Goethe Institute / Portal for promoting reading Website: http://www.goethe.de/ins/gr/lp/prj/lef/lfw/rum/ro12029505.htm Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Strategy

Activity/

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

Action X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The document presents findings of PISA Report 2009 for Romania on cognitive and perceptive aspects in relation to a text in Romanian language. It also shows results of the IRES study in 2011 (Institutul Român pentru Evaluare şi Strategie / Romanian Institute for Evaluation and Strategy) on reading habits of Romanian peoples and how public libraries address the promotion of reading among all categories of users. The report explain that the term reader used for a library user is not anymore valid, as nowadays the users benefit from library’s services which means especially ICT facilities. Availability of these services is another revolution in the system, which, along with open access to information represent essential changes in the system. The public library was completely transformed from an organization that observes social development into an organization participating in social evolution because it supports the training and information of the users, as recipients of information technology which makes a difference between traditional libraries and modern libraries. Although there is no official strategy to promote reading which to involve both public libraries and the school, there are specific projects doing that. The report emphasizes of types of activities organized by public libraries.

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Report

IES 2.0 1x1 Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Spain IES 2.0 1x1 University Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona / University Autonoma de Barcelona at: https://sites.google.com/site/ies201x1/home. 2011/2014. Spain Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): IES 2.0 1x1 (IES2.0: Digital literacy practices. Materials, classroom activities and online language resources) documents, explores and assesses how the introduction of laptops, Wi-Fi, digital textbooks and virtual learning environments - making up truly digital classrooms - has changed the teaching of reading and writing across all subjects in education. The project (EDU2011-28381; 2012-2014) is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under the National Plan for Scientific and Technological Research and Innovation 2011. Also, several members of this project take part in the research team [email protected] (Research Group in Language Teaching and Learning), which has received grants from the AGAUR, the Catalan Agency for the Administration of Universities and Research Grants (2009 SGR 803, resolution 03/07/2009; and 2014 SGR 1042, resolution 16/07/2014) and has been recognized as a consolidated research group. Among the project's main products of interest to Lire 2.0 include: • Organization of School Libraries in the WEB 2.0 era: challenges, opportunities and experiences ( at: http://www.slideshare.net/DanielCassany/cssany-school-libraries ); it engages with concepts of ‘users’, ‘residents’, ‘visitors’ and ‘tourists’ and with the notion of the diverse literacies enabled by web 2.0; ‘prosumers’ who create, aggregate and curate content; highlights the virtual learning environment in connection with the personal learning environment; focus on the learner rather than on resources and on the in/out of school environments. • Five practices of quality education, as found in ICT and Internet-mediated teaching in Secondary Education (SE) schools in Catalonia. The schools follow the one-laptop-per-child (1x1) program, where every child has a laptop, Wi-Fi and digital books. Data stem from 41 in-depth interviews with 36 teachers from all subjects. And the interviews provide information on reading and writing practices on computers and on paper. The practices analysed are: 1) teachers are less book-dependent, 2) information searches on the web, 3) collaborative work, 4) large-scale learning projects, and 5) digital reading. At: www.academia.edu/16512801/Cinco_buenas_pr%C3%A1cticas_de_ense%C3%B1anza_con_internet • Presentation of a corpus of 81 ethnographic semi-structured interviews, which describe and analyse current reading practices as regards classroom textbooks, the reading of literary works, tests and additional assessment activities. This allows to consider whether paper is still the dominant format or if the digital is gaining ground in these practices. Finally, the extent to which digital means constitute pedagogical and methodological innovation is analysed.

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Report on e-learning in European prisons-Concepts, organisation, pedagogical approaches in prison education Report Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Sweden Report on e-learning in European prisons-Concepts, organisation, pedagogical approaches in prison education, Walter Hammerschick v.1.0, 23.12.2010, Part3.8 Sweden Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Approach

Strategy

Outdoors/

Digital tools or environment

informal learning X

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): Prisoners usually have low skills and little education. With the number of foreign inmates rising, some prisoners can hardly communicate in the national language. The system of education for prisoners in Sweden is unique. It is more like distance education taking advantage of a central ICT network. Courses on different subjects and levels are available to all inmates. There is a Learning Centre in each prison. All courses, e.g., Swedish for immigrants, are available from all prisons for all prisoners as teachers are not external, but prison staff. There are no classes, no lessons, no terms. Each prisoner works on an individualised study plan, any time and at their own pace. Net Center, the prison’s Intranet system, exists for inmates. Teachers can write to their students, send materials and encourage them. Students can also write to their teachers, ask questions and send tasks. Networks enable students to carry out their work even if they are transferred to another prison. The ICT competencies will be valuable in both their professional and private life in freedom. The server structure used for the distance learning with the inmates is located centrally and is fully separated from the ICT system of the prison administration. There are computer work stations in prisons. Exchange between local students is considered valuable. Prison teachers are also well connected.

Results of the investigation on the use of ICT in Slovak schools Report

Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Slovakia

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MINEDU - Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic (www.minedu.sk) Results of the investigation on the use of ICT in Slovak schools. http://www.minedu.sk/material-prieskum-a-vysledky-material-zahrna-zavery-z-monitoringu-aprieskumu-skol-vo-vztahu-k-vyuzivani-ict-na-skolach/

http://www.minedu.sk/data/att/2911.pdf

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): The investigation on the use of ICT in Slovak schools concerns: 

ICT access and use of ICT in schools



Progress in the use of ICT in schools



The first contact of students with the ICT and ICT in schools



Access to ICT outside the classroom and the ability to use available ICT resources for other purposes

Literacy in the Czech Republic Country Report, children and adolescents Report Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Czech Republic Title: “Literacy in the Czech Republic Country Report, children and adolescents” Year: 2016 Publisher: The European Literacy Policy Network (ELINET). Main Author: Marie Ernestova, Christine Garbe, Dominique Lafontaine, Veronika Laufková, Nicolae Pellegrini, Gerry Shiel, Renate Valtin Website: www.eli-net.eu. http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/school/doc/literacy-report_en.pdf. http://www.eli-net.eu/research/country-reports/

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http://www.eli-net.eu/good-practice/. Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Strategy

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): This report on the state of literacy in the Czech Republic is one of a series produced in 2015 and 2016 by ELINET, the European Literacy Policy Network. ELINET was founded in February 2014 and has 78 partner organisations in 28 European countries1. ELINET aims to improve literacy policies in its member countries in order to reduce the number of children, young people and adults with low literacy skills. One major tool to achieve this aim is to produce a set of reliable, up-to-date and comprehensive reports on the state of literacy in each country where ELINET has one or more partners, and to provide guidance towards improving literacy policies in those countries. The reports are based (wherever possible) on available, internationally comparable performance data, as well as reliable national data provided (and translated) by our partners.

Report / Journal Article

Web 2.0 tools in the reading classroom: Teachers exploring literacy in the 21st century Identification data (title, author, publisher, year, DOI, etc.): Relevant country: USA Banister, S. (2008). Web 2.0 tools in the reading classroom: Teachers exploring literacy in the 21 st century. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 4(2), 109-116. Accessed online at: http://sicet.org/web/journals/ijttl/issue0802/4_2_3_Banister.pdf

Identified best practice (please tick one of more boxes, as appropriate): Activity/ Action X

Project-based reading promotion

Digital tools or environment

Practical tips

X

X

X

Description of the identified best practice (approx. 20-25 lines): This article is posted here as a best practice related to LiRe 2.0 in the sense that it explores the use of blogs and podcasts as Web 2.0 tools and it also explores different techniques such as digital storytelling and digital yearbooks, both of which can provide the consortium with ideas for the teacher training modules. The article presents a study that explored the use of Web 2.0 tools (specifically blogs and podcasts) in a graduate course for K-12 reading specialists. The blogs and podcasts created and shared through this course are described. Areas such as digital storytelling, digital yearbooks, electronic storybooks, oral reading and publishing are explored through the use of these Web 2.0 tools.

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The main results of the study indicated that areas such as fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension of texts could all be positively influenced through the use of the collaborative environments. The participants were extremely enthusiastic about the use of blogs and podcasts and the potential of collaborating and synchronously updating content and expressed the wish to integrate these tools in the K-12 classrooms.

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Identified Best Practices to Promote Reading and Writing The following are best practices identified to promote reading and writing.

Title

XANADU. Persistent readers’ community XANADU. Persistent readers’ community

URL

http://www.progettoxanadu.it

Funding Agency

Duration

Hamelin Cultural Association - Bologna

From 2004

Library ‘Sala borsa’ Kids University of Bologna -Facultyof Education Sciences Short Description (max. 200 words) Xanadu is a reading promoting project dedicated to teenagers, which expands within a year in a already rooted and continuously growing network of schools and libraries. Its intention is to create an interactive community of teenagers who confront and interact to each other, starting from their own experience of reading and cultural consumption through a close dialogue among various parlances: books, films, comics, music, video games, the Internet and new technologies. It proposes a competition based on a bibliography on a specific topic. Xanadu website becomes an active place of exchanges and debates. The winner of the competition is not a reader or a class but the book that kids loved the most, which is celebrated at the end of the year during a meeting with writers, musicians and experts. Objectives (General &Specific) -

to create a project that promotes reading among teenagers;

-

to supply new stimulus and means to help kids in their course of growth and individual identity development;

-

to develop critical skill and personal opinion, to learn how to ‘read’ themselves and reality;

-

to stimulate different cognitive capacities which give the opportunity to read and understand different parlances;

-

to renovate the book property of the Italian libraries.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The project creates two complementary routes, one for the kids and the other one for the librarians, teachers and educators. Activity for kids: - literature workshops; - contests to determine the most loved stories;

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- comparison through new media; - multidisciplinary routes (novels, short stories, poems, music, comics, movies and virtual reality); -meetings with authors; - the ideal library (the ‘permanent bookshelf’ in the Internet with the books most voted by the kids). Activity for teachers, librarians and educators: - training courses; - conferences and study days; - independent work groups which interact online. Results 11 editions 50.000 kid participants Over 1,000 class participants Over 700 titles among the most interesting classical and contemporary literature 3,778,521 visualizations of the site of Xanadu Prize 2007 for the best book and literature promoting project of the Ministry of Cultural Assets and Activities – Book and Reading Centre What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0project? Ideas and activities of the above project that can be used for the LiRe 2.0 project: - creating a community of kids and literature promoters who confront and dialog with each other personally or online; - creating a website that gathers the ‘ideal library’ with the books most voted by the kids, with close examination files; - using the Xanadu training methods for reading promoters through courses and seminars, dialogues between school and library networks, by means of the ICT.

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Title

Multimedia and Reading Multimedia and reading

URL

http://www.trovarsinrete.org

Funding Agency

Duration

Public and Multimedia Libraries of SettimoTorinese

Since 2000

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project involves kids and students of the local schools in routes that stretch among books and multimedia technologies, suggesting that the new tools are not a menace to books and reading, but they construct an enormous access opportunity to the informative and cultural resources; moreover, they allow the creation of a community sharing the same interests, as well as provide with a place to publish or promote personal ideas and researches. Objectives (General & Specific) - to promote Internet and multimedia access as the appropriation of a new culture; - to encourage integration among the new media and the traditional communication tools; - to detect the most appropriate multimedia forms in order to promote reading; - to establish a connection between the multimedia and the rest of the expressive activities, exploiting creative potentiality; - to develop learning methods and the use of new technologies in ludico-creative forms; Description of Main Activities and Methods - reading workshops in every school; - multimedia workshops; - experimental focus group, constructed by teachers, librarians, communication experts to organize the online learning community; - web connection among all the schools involved in the project; - establishment of a scholarship reserved for graduates in Communication Sciences for the research on the transformations of reading and writing induced by multimedia technologies; - cultural and technologic training for teachers; - creation of a shared website, forums and onlines debates groups - narrating and surfing: kids and adults gather the memories of the city; - online game; - blog (online journal). Results Promoting a multimedia and interdisciplinary approach to reading

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What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0project? -creating reading and writing workshops in schools, provided with paper and digital narrative texts, updated annually; - creating a forum as a functional place for a group of readers which includes authors, readers, reading promoters; - developing reading, net surfing and writing projects about local stories to learn and transmit the memories of the territories of belonging.

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Title

#ioleggoperché, April 23rd International Book Day #ioleggoperché, April 23rd International Book Day

URL

http://www.ioleggoperche.it/it/home/

Funding Agency

Duration

AIE: ItalianEditors’ Association

February, 9th 2015 - April 23rd2015

Short Description (max. 200 words) 240 thousand books will been trusted to thousands of zealous readers: the Messengers, who, in their turns, will entrust the books to as many readers as they can reach. The Messengers will meet the people to whom entrust the books at schools, at universities, at workplaces, on local trains, in libraries and in bookshops. Objectives (General & Specific) A national campaign aimed to promote the act of reading as a viral one. Description of Main Activities and Methods 250000 copies of printed books have been freely distributed by the reading messengers Ioleggoperché website has become the means of encounters of all the activities connected with reading which have been organised by the messengers during the 3-months lasting campaign Results Interest raised on reading as a social activity.

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0project? - creating a web and social platform, through which sharing reading tools, events and activities, as well as create actual contacts among strong and either weak or reluctant readers.

385

Title

The Light Words between Us Le parole tra noi leggere[The light words between us], by Gargano Trifone

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6554/index.html

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to the present

Short Description (max. 200 words) Reflections on the new aspects of reading introduced by the various digital devices, and the differences between these and the traditional book-form The teaching course introduces the teacher to the new forms of digital textuality and, therefore, to the tools andapps that the prosumer – producer and consumer student – finds and uses in a social and collaborative environment. Online reading implies the existence of a reader who makes choices, within the context of "possibilities" for expansion, junctions and decisions prepared by the author. Some web 2.0 software also encourages collaborative (or collective) writing experiences, as do the social network platforms. Objectives (General &Specific) The project includes two parallel and complementary paths, one aimed at teachers and the other at students. Objectives for the teachers: 

Using ICTs, to help students engage in written and transmitted production, both in terms of communicative intentions and the characteristics of the text

Objectives for the students: 

To pay attention to the forms of video-writing and multimedia communication.



To use ICTs to produced significant texts in both rigid and flexible form.



To use ICTs in a cooperative and collaborative way.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The activities use visual and multimedia communication tools in reference to the expressive strategies and technical tools of online communication. -

Phase 1 involves watching two videos, each just a few minutes long, on the innovations brought about by web 2.0 and on the need to protect one's own privacy/online security.

-

Phases 2 and 3 offer workshop ideas to use in class.

Activities for the young people: -

Read hypertextual/transmedia stories online

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-

This will not only change their method of reading, but also the style (and quality) of their writing.

-

A series of reflections of traditional writing and hypertextual writing

Results 

The project was made available to more than 200 schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions;



The project was included in a rich INDIRE Repository of materials, andtrialled and validated for education and classroom-based work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies 


What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0: 

to create an interactive community of children and promoters of reading, who interact and engage in discussions in-person and online;



to increase levels of collaborative and collective reading and writing, with texts "deposited" online (cloud, wiki, blog)

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Title

The figure of Ulysses over time Le scritture del mito: la figura di Ulisse nel tempo [Writing the myth: the figure of Ulysses over time] by Donatella Vignola

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6142/

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to the present

Short Description (max. 200 words) A course on the persistence of the myth of Ulysses, from Homer to the present day, throughout Western literature, and in texts of various genres and with various codes (including in mixed form: words to music, words and images). A series of activities ranging from webquest to cooperative learning to reading, and textual, individual and collective cooperation. Objectives (General &Specific) 

To learn how to read and interrogate a text online



To perform an analytic reading



To perform an intratextual reading

Description of Main Activities and Methods Through collaborative learning techniques, students are guided in "learning through doing" and reading a "text", including image-based texts, according to their various points of intersection and levels. Readers experience the polysemy of the text and the role that each reader's experience has in their interpretation. The end of the course includes individual genre and mixed code (video + text) productions, which take account of the various reading interpretations. Results 

The project was made available to more than 500 teachers in more than 200 schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions;



The project was included in the INDIRE Repository, which collects materials trialled and validated by selected tutors, and has been used for in-class education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0 include: 

placing great emphasis on the centrality of the text in relation to the centrality of the reader



turning a literary text into a powerful cognitive tool, capable of making sense of human actions and interactions, but also of negotiating the social role and identity of adolescents

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Title

Don't be fooled by the appearance of shortcuts "Non t'inganni l'apparenza delle scorciatoie": massime, aforismi, epigrammi, enigmi ["Don't be fooled by the appearance of shortcuts": maxims, aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas] by Cristina Nesi

URL

http://forum.indire.it/repository/working/export/6617/

Funding Agency

Duration

INDIRE - Istituto Nazionale Documentazione Innovazione Ricerca Educativa [Italian National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Education Research]

From 2015 to today

Short Description (max. 200 words) Reflection on the mode of transmission of a message (from wax tablets to smartphones) as an essential element in the specificity of communication. The course delves into the use of the short form, central to social, smart and, in general, web 2.0 communication. Objectives (General &Specific) The project includes two parallel and complementary paths, one aimed at teachers and the other at students. General objectives 

Improve communicative skills through short forms



Develop short form textual comprehension and production skills

Objectives for the teachers -

Introduce students to, and encourage them to use, the linguistic structures of short forms and present their evolution over time.

Objectives for the students -

Read and write ancient and modern types of short forms.

-

Use all short form literary techniques to write more incisively and effectively from a communicative perspective, including on social networks and smartphones.

Description of Main Activities and Methods -

The activities use visual and multimedia communication tools with regard to the expressive strategies of the text.

-

The introductory stages draw on the recurrent sections of text to explain the formal continuities that differentiate a maxim from an aphorism, an ancient aphorism from a modern one, and an epigram from an enigma.

-

The aim is to entertain through reading and writing workshops on double meaning, word play games and creating enigmas

-

The course also aims to encourage teachers to reflect on the reading of short forms through questionnaires,

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and asks them to present their reflections in the form of an epigram -

The activities aim to reveal the great richness of meaning of short forms (aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas), which relies, in part, on the reader's intuition and interpretation.

Results 

The project was made available to more than 200 schools within the four Convergence Objective Regions;



The project was included in the INDIRE Repository of materials trialled and validated for in-class education and work in relation to basic disciplines and teaching technologies



The project was included in the INDIRE Repository of materials selected for use in training newly-hired teachers

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Ideas and activities that can be used for LiRe 2.0 include: 

increasing the number of reading and writing workshops focusing on short forms such as maxims, aphorisms, epigrams, enigmas



Creating a community of young people capable of interacting online, using epigrams, in particular, which Foscolo describes as "verses of conversation", making the students capable of using irony in an effective way.

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Title

Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers

URL

http://www.education.ie/en/Education-Staff/Information/NEPS-LiteracyResource/neps_literacy_good_practice_guide.pdf

http://www.education.ie/en/Education-Staff/Information/NEPS-LiteracyResource/neps_literacy_resource_pack.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

National Educational Psychological Service.

The synthesis of research findings reported are drawn from twelve studies all completed within the last 15 years.

Short Description (max. 200 words) Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers (National Educational Psychological Service, 2012): This is a guide for teachers, learning support and resource teachers in special education settings. This guide has been developed by psychologists from NEPS and aims to help teachers in primary, post-primary and special schools, by sharing information about evidence-based approaches to teaching reading for students aged 6-18 years old. It encompasses all students with reading difficulties, dyslexia, as well as those who have poor progress in reading and may have general learning difficulties. Information can be applied to students from disadvantaged backgrounds, minority groups, students with reading difficulties and for those whom English is not a first language. The focus of the guide is reading skills, the ability to decode and understand text.

Objectives (General & Specific) To assist teachers, learning support teachers, resource teachers and teachers in special education settings. Give assistance to struggling readers. Evidence-based approaches to teaching reading. Focus on reading skills. How to help students who struggle with reading.

Description of Main Activities and Methods 

The Good Practice Guide also comes with an accompanying resource pack. Throughout the Good Practice Guide there are links to relevant materials in the resource pack, linked to the relevant literature and guidance.



The guide collates research evidence from a range of sources and suggests how this evidence can be applied to teaching practice.

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The guide shows that the following areas should be part of an effective programme of effective reading instruction: -

Phonemic awareness and the teaching of phonics.

-

Decoding and word studies, including the learning of a sight vocabulary.

-

Language development, to include vocabulary development.

-

The explicit teaching of comprehension strategies.

-

Meaningful writing experiences

-

The development of fluent reading by reading and rereading familiar texts.

-

A wide-range of reading materials.

-

Opportunities for both guided and independent reading.

The research refers to Brooks (2007) and his use of ratio gains as a method of measuring progress in reading and sets a standard by which literacy interventions for failing readers can be measured. -

Ratio gain is the amount of progress a student makes in reading age, divided by the time spent between pre and post intervention.

-

The calculation of ration gains must be done by using a test that gives age equivalent scores.

-

Example: If a student makes one year’s progress in word reading over the course of one year, then the ratio gain is 12 months (progress) divided by 12 months (time spent) giving a ratio gain of 1.

-

Brooks (2007) suggests that we should be aiming for students to make ration gains of 2 and that we should be aiming for struggling readers to make two years progress in one year.



The guide emphasizes the need for structured, explicit and systematic teaching and refers to ‘structures specialized tuition’ (p. 10). Programmes that are described as enhancing progress for struggling readers are the systematic teaching of phonics and teaching sight vocabulary. Also included is a specific guide and advice on Teaching Sight Vocabulary/ High Frequency Words and other specific websites that contain high frequency words and related activities.



The guide recommends the use of small groups or 1:1 tuition for effective teaching of reading and that the teaching of reading in groups of more than 4 or 5, are less effective approaches for the teaching of reading.



The guide also advises on the frequency and duration of intervention and that short, intensive interventions, with daily, targeted support are most likely to be effective.



The guide advises on teaching to the point of automaticity as well as teaching students to read fluently.



The guide gives detailed reference to several forms of assessment that can be used by teachers in assessing literacy skills.

 Results (p. 8 & 9) The guide gives examples of results from interventions that are well targeted and well delivered and how these can be effective with students from a range of backgrounds and with a range of abilities.

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(p. 8) MacKay (2007) in relation to a ten year project in West Dunbartonshire to eradicate illiteracy with 60,000 students in Scotland claimed ‘only three pupils remained with Neale Analysis cores below the 9y 6m level of functional literacy’ ‘(p. 31).’ It also refers to results from Nugent (2010) who found that children from the Travelling Community made over a year’s progress in reading skills over a three month intervention period, while Kennedy (2010) found students in schools with disadvantaged status made very significant progress when their teachers engaged in focuses professional development. The raising of teacher expectation is also cited as being a feature of raising achievement and success. (Eivers et al., 2004) The guide refers to the need for small group and 1:1 tuition and refers to results that specify that ‘the largest size of an effective teaching group, has been found to be three students’ (Vaugh et al., 2000). Also referred to in the guide is that Shinn et al. (1997) found that an in-class model of support, was not effective in raising the achievement of failing readers. The guide refers to the fact that regular assessment and on-going monitoring of student literacy achievement is associated with positive outcomes. Co-operative Learning and Peer Support are referred to in the guide. There is also a specific guide to using Paired Reading and that is a highly effective intervention. The guide gives five evidence-based interventions that has been collected in Ireland over four years of research by NEPS. These are interventions that have been proven to be effective in Irish schools.

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? (p. 17) The guide refers to computer assisted learning. The NRP (2000) noted that computer assisted learning has a lot of potential particularly in relation to word processing approached, as reading and writing activities can be integrated. It is mentioned that specifically targeted programmes especially those with speech-feedback can have a significant impact. The guide gives specific advice and tips regarding motivating and engaging students which are relevant to the LiRe2.0 project of creating lifelong readers. (p. 17) The following approaches are recommended: - Make literacy experience relevant to student’ interest, everyday life and to current environmental events. - Provide a positive learning environment that promotes student autonomy in learning. - Allow choice. Empower students to make decisions. - Build strategies such as goal setting, self-directed learning and collaborative learning. - Give feedback that is motivational but not controlling. The best type of feedback is informational feedback that conveys realistic expectations and links performance to effort. It is better to praise students for effort rather than to praise for ability. - Give the students opportunities to engage in meaningful reading and writing activities, including reading their own

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and peers’ work. - Offer students access to a wide range of high quality reading material.

The guide includes a guidance document on the use of positive declarations in the classroom. This could be used in the LiRe2.0 project as a tool for teachers to promote reading. Psychological research has shown that making bold positive declarations about future reading achievement can have a significant impact on both reading ability and attitude to reading (see McKay 2006). The expectation is that each child will make a minimum of 3 positive declarations per day about future reading achievement and the enjoyment of books/ reading. Declarations can be general or specific and can be done individually, in groups or as a whole class group.

The guide emphasizes the need for effective reading instructors, teacher education and continuing professional development and how this is linked with attaining significantly higher student achievement. This correlates with the teacher training workshop output within the LiRe2.0. Reference is also made to non-teachers delivering programmes and tapping into the power of parents. This is also relevant to LiRe2.0 in creating lifelong readers and that many people play a role in supporting the development of literacy and reading skills of children. An awareness of supporting parents and non-teachers could also be acknowledged in the resource section and toolkit as part of the LiRe2.0 project. Everything that is included in the guide can be included as recommendations to teachers to promote reading and create lifelong readers and be adapted to include the promotion of the use of ICT and web 2.0 technologies in reading promotion. The inclusion of the effective usage of paired reading in the guide ties in with the use of Web 2.0 technologies in reading promotion and the ability of young people to engage, collaborate and react to what they read. All reference to pair reading in the guide can be adapted to be relevant to promoting reading through the use of ICT.

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Effective literacy and numeracy practices in DEIS schools. Effective literacy and numeracy practices in DEIS schools

Title URL

https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Inspection-ReportsPublications/Evaluation-ReportsGuidelines/insp_deis_effective_literacy_and_numeracy_09_pdf.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

Department of Education and Science Short Description (max. 200 words) In this publication (Department of Education and Science, 2009), inspectors from the department of education and science describe ways in which schools can help children to learn better in the areas of literacy and numeracy. The publication is intended to support the sharing of good practice among schools and teachers. It describes a range of approaches that schools and teachers have taken in the teaching of literacy and numeracy in eight schools designated as serving areas of considerable socio-economic disadvantage. The work of each of the eight schools is described in individual chapters. Chapters 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 describe effective best practices in relation to literacy and reading promotion. Chapters 3, 5 and 7 focus on mathematics and numeracy. Objectives (General & Specific) It is hoped that other teachers and schools will be inspired by the success and progress of the eight schools mentioned and will use the best practices given to promote and literacy and numeracy within their own schools. Over several days with each of the schools the inspector reviewed relevant school documents and assessment data, observed teaching and learning in various settings, interacted with pupils, staff, management and parents. The report uses the findings of each school in order to offer best practice for other schools, teachers and parents. It is recommended that schools and teachers use the good practice of each school and adapt the recommendations to their own school.

Description of Main Activities and Methods One particular school is discussed as showing best practice in maximising literacy achievement. Observations and recommendations that were made were: -

A systematic, whole-school approach to raising literacy standards.

-

In school literacy team

-

Targeting specific language needs

-

Significant number of teachers have completed, or are currently pursuing, post-graduate studies.

-

The school has prioritised the development of early-literacy skills.

-

Carried out a whole-school literacy review.

-

Willingness of staff to update their teaching skills

-

Devised a co-teaching approach to literacy called ‘literacy work station model.’

-

Completed a pilot of the model.

-

Production by the school of a training DVD for the literacy work station model for the staff.

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Literacy Work Station Model: (p. 13-16). -

Participation is timetables for an hour each day.

-

Each class displays the session’s timetable.

-

Throughout the hour, students must spend time at four out of the five different work stations.

-

The stations are listening, guided reading, independent reading, writing, word- detective work.

-

Each students spends twelve minutes at each station.

-

The stations are then followed by a whole-class plenary session.

-

The mainstream class teacher directs the guided reading station.

-

The learning support teacher manages the word-detective station.

-

All activities have clear learning objectives.

The Listening Station: -

The listening station is managed by the pupils themselves.

-

A group led by a captain, listens to the recording of a story or a shared-reading session.

-

The station is set up with headphones and a listening device.

The Guided Reading Station: -

This is compulsory in every literacy session.

-

The teacher teaches reading skills and strategies using texts that provide an appropriate level of challenge.

-

The choice of texts is monitored closely.

-

This session includes re-reading of texts, reviewing difficult words, new words and new books.

-

The teacher uses encouraging prompts and questioning techniques to encourage new words.

-

The teacher records students reading in a reading log.

Library Station: -

The aim of the library station is to enable students to read independently.

-

This station has cushions, rugs, posters, large-format books and displays of students work.

-

Reading material is presented in four browsing baskets.

-

There is a reference book basket, a comic/newspaper/ periodicals basket, a poetry basket, and a basket for the pupils’ own anthologies and word-detective books.

-

The reading material varies depending on reading abilities.

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-

The group captain logs the reading texts.

-

Students select and read themselves.

The Writing Station: -

Students are offered a variety of writing tools such as coloured pencils, pens, and crayons as well as various types of paper.

-

The teacher provides a number of writing activities.

-

These can include: fact files, menus, letters and reports.

-

Students are encouraged to brainstorm and plan what they will write.

-

Also included are interactive word walls, word families, posters with grammar and punctuation conventions.

-

The students select their best effort to be placed on display in the writing corner.

The Word Detective Station: -

This is the most highly structured session.

-

Involves direct, systematic teaching of phonics, new vocabulary and sentence construction.

-

Teachers use flashcards, charts, posters and word walls as part of this station.

-

This session also includes a kinaesthetic approach to learning punctuation.

Plenary Session: -

Each literacy lesson concludes with an eight minute plenary session called ‘Newstalk’.

-

This is when students give feedback about the last activity that they completed and what they found helpful in completing the task.

The findings also include collaborative planning and co-teaching of phonological awareness are pivotal in raising literacy standards. In relation to leading success in reading, a whole-school phonic programme is included as being a best practice programme within one particular school. Included in this programme is teaching manuals, teaching materials, charts, photo-copiable books, flashcards and a tutorial video. Whole-school approach to the teaching of reading is also mentioned in the report as being a key feature of best practice within one particular school. This includes a policy on integrating reading, targets that students must meet and are expected to achieve as well as resources, materials and methodologies. Activities such as DEAR- Drop Everything And Read are also considered to be best practice in reading and literacy promotion.

Results

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The Literacy Work Station Model is described has having many beneficial results. Evidence is reported as being seen in how adept the students are at describing what they are learning and how they are learning. Teachers report students being able to read with much greater fluency and expression. The results of standardized assessment have also increased with students becoming more independent as learners and move confidently through the stations choosing books to read and selecting topics for writing. Teachers also spoke about the confidence that they have gained from the literacy work station model. Teachers are referred to having great success in standardized tests due to the implementation of the phonics programme in every classroom. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Each area identified in each of the schools as being beneficial in reading and literacy promotion and can be recommended to other schools and teachers as a guide of what programmes or activities can be included. These recommendations can be included as part of the LiRe2.0 resource collection on the website or as part of the toolkit.

Title

The Reading Process- A Guide to the Teaching and Learning of Reading. Dublin, 2014.

URL http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Reading%20Booklet%20%20to%20circulate.pdf Funding Agency

Duration

PDST- Professional Development Service for Teachers Department of Education and Skills. Short Description (max. 200 words) This manual has been compiled by members of the Professional Development Service for Teachers (Professional Development Service for Teachers Department of Education and Skills, 2014). Its sole purpose is to enhance teaching and learning in Irish primary schools and will be mediated to practising teachers in the professional development setting. Objectives (General & Specific) The booklet attempts to highlight the main components that should be considered in when teaching reading. Such as, varied and rich vocabulary, development of phonological processes, the need for relevant comprehension strategies, focus on reading fluency, and attitude and motivation. The booklet seeks to provide background knowledge on each of these areas by outlining practical suggestions that can be applicable in the classroom. Recommendations are given for the planning and teaching of reading as well as a suggested 6 Step Approach to a Reading Lesson.

Description of Main Activities and Methods

398

Attitude and Motivation (p. 7-8): The booklet advises that teachers can promote excitement and motivation to read by providing students with: -

Interesting and rich texts

-

Choice of text

-

Authentic purposes for reading

-

Opportunities to explore, interact and experiment with text.

Best Practice tips are also given as way of fostering enjoyment of reading and is recommended as being achieved in several ways such as: -

A print rich environment

-

Choice and control

-

Reading to students

-

Optimal challenge

-

Opportunities for collaboration and social interaction

Also included is a detailed explanation of ways of motivating students such as reading time, sharing, reading to students, using fads, films and TV, poetry, inventories and surveys, book discussion groups, class-created books, publicity campaigns, different audiences, reading timeline, read with a friend, this is your life, lonely texts, TV vs. Reading and Where in the World. There is also an inclusion of tips to work effectively with unmotivated students.

Reading Fluency: The booklet describes a range of activities that can be used at home and at school to support the development of fluent reading such as guided reading, reading partners, peer tutoring, C.A.P.E.R, Readers Theatre and Shared Reading. Recommended websites are also given that would be useful for teachers looking for resources on reading fluency such as http://www.pdst.ie/node/294 http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/RTE.html http://www.thebestclass.org.rtscripts.html http://www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm

Comprehension Strategies: (p. 12-14) The booklet suggests the importance of comprehension strategies that need to be taught in order to develop independent readers. It is mentioned that dividing instruction time into pre-reading, during reading and post-reading. This allows teachers to design activities around each area and provides an opportunity for teachers to demonstrate strategies that readers can use at each stage of the reading process. Examples of reading strategies given are predicting, connecting, comparing, inferring, synthesizing, creating images, self-questioning, skimming, scanning, determining importance, summarizing and paraphrasing.

Word Identification Strategies: (p. 15) The concept of word attack is described as a way of tackling unfamiliar words. Word identification strategies need to be taught such as ‘sounding out’ ‘chunking’ ‘re-reading’ ‘reading on’ ‘using analogy’ ‘consulting a reference’ and ‘adjusting

399

your reading rate.’

Vocabulary: (p. 16) Activities to support vocabulary development are included in the booklet such as small words in big words, semantic gradient, compound words, multiple meanings, vocabulary deep processing activity, word wall, word taxonomy, valuing vocabulary, vetting vocabulary and word of the week. Phonological Awareness and Phonics: (p. 22) The booklet emphasizes the importance of phonics and how they are key to the reading process. Methodologies such as syllabic awareness, onset-rime awareness, rhyming games and phonic awareness. Other strategies for phonics that are included as best practice are making and breaking words and chunking.

The booklet gives evidence of assessment in reading that can be used to monitor a students reading development and the impact of reading initiatives. Reading Assessment Continuum is included in the booklet with best practice assessment initiatives such as selfassessment, conferencing, portfolio assessment, concept mapping, questioning, teacher observation, teacher-designed tasks and tests, standardized testing and diagnostic tests.

Top Tips for Parents/ Guardians are also given for students in 5th and 6th class. (p. 41) 11. Encourage your child to visit the local library as often as possible. 12. Recognise and praise your child’s effort in reading. 13. Ensure your child has access to a wide range of reading material- newspapers, magazines, guides etc. 14. Take an internet in different children’s authors. 15. Discuss ideas and points of view proposed by newspaper articles etc. 16. Provide a well-lit study/reading area. 17. Ensure that you value and enjoy reading yourself. 18. Allow your child to choose his/her own reading material. 19. Encourage your child to read for information- timetables/ weather/ forecasts/ menus. 20. Encourage your child to try and guess unknown words.

Results

There are no specified results mentioned in the guide.

400

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? All strategies, activities and methodologies in the manual can be used and adapted for the LiRe2.0 project. They can be used as part of the teaching training tutorials, as part of the Toolkit and online in the resource section. These areas are all relevant for teachers in their teaching of reading.

401

Imago 2010 Title Imago 2010 URL http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/projects/public_parts/documents/comenius/acc_mes_final_report_2007/com_m p_142381_imago2010.pdf Funding Agency EU Comenius Project

Short Description (max. 200 words) In the media age, children face reading literacy and visual literacy challenges even at pre-school and primary school age. The development of broad literacy skills, which go far beyond a purely text-based approach (e.g. critical and competent use of visual material, coding and decoding of pictures) would, therefore, appear necessary. However, school education has traditionally focused primarily on the acquisition of written language. The need for an "aesthetic literacy" remains mostly ignored. The early years are critical in the development of language and reading skills. Working with images is particularly appealing to children, promotes non-linear, lateral thinking and can motivate learning. Including (visual) literacy is particularly valuable in language learning programs for children from an immigrant background.

Objectives (General & Specific) The main goal of this project was to develop and test a European-style curriculum for visual literacy for teachers and student teachers in pre-primary and primary schools. The purpose of this project was therefore to develop, test and evaluate new materials and curricula, where the use of symbols, images and texts can be practiced and shared. The materials aim to develop elementary visual skills, evoke interest in visual forms of expression, promote individual articulacy and help to advance verbal and non-verbal linguistic skills in the form of bestpractice examples.

Description of Main Activities and Methods Elementary and primary school teachers were given the necessary professional skills and trained in visual skills and level-of-learning diagnosis in training sequences and further training modules. The international comparison in the project gives some insight into cultural differences and visual communication. The reference to three different scripts (Latin, Cyrillic and Greek alphabets) makes this a particularly exciting project.

Results The results of the project have been published for practicing teachers and it has been augmented by including publications for children. Articles intended for specialists and teacher trainers have also been published.

402

What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The project addressed aesthetic literacy, which is important because the visual presentation of a given text is very important in determining whether it will be read by students in the target group and whether the reader will suggest it to a peer. This aspect also applies to reading using ICT materials. Title

Let’s Introduce a Book – The Little Prince

URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_ and_pro/profile.cf m?f=2&l=en&n=43099 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p43099/welcome http://ourlittleprince.wikispaces.com/01.Home

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2012

Short Description (max. 200 words) Three primary school classes worked together on turning a chosen book, ‘The Little Prince’ into a theatrical performances, slide presentations and comic books published on the Internet. To make the experience more real, pupils produced a Little Prince visit to their own country, presented it on stage and organized an exhibition about the project. Objectives (General & Specific) The pupils were 10-12 years old. The aims of the project were to motivate pupils to love reading, to help them improve their foreign language skills, to make contact with peers from other countries and to improve their computer, theatre, drawing, writing and speaking skills. Description of Main Activities and Methods Pupils use various techniques to design/draw scenes from the book. Pupils' drawings were then scanned, exchanged between the classes and printed. As part of the finale, pupils organized an exhibition in their schools. The slide presentations made by pupils in all the classes were put together in order to create a joint presentation. Similarly, all the videos from the theatre performances were merged to create a joint movie. Results The final presentation and comic were published on the Internet. To make the experience more real, pupils also produced a Little Prince visit to their own country, presented it on stage and organized an exhibition about the project. It encouraged collaboration between the classes in all phases of the execution. There were a variety of

403

teaching methods used which were stimulating for the pupils. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The collaboration and the culmination in fun and stimulating activities, which included the active participation of the pupils. There were also several methods exploited, giving the range of pupils a choice to exploit their talents in the area where they felt most comfortable.

404

Lifelong Readers: A European Reading Promotion Framework for Primary School Librarians, Educators and Administrators Title

Lifelong Readers: A European Reading Promotion Framework for Primary School Librarians, Educators and Administrators

URL

http://www.lifelongreaders.org/

Funding Agency

Duration

EU Comenius Multilateral project

2011-2013

Short Description (max. 200 words) Lifelong Readers (LiRe) aimed to provide school librarians, teachers, and administrators with guidance and tools for encouraging children aged 6-12 to develop lifelong reading habits. Because low levels of young Europeans' literacy skills have been repeatedly documented, the EU emphasizes and encourages the need for lifelong learning. Lifelong reading goes hand-in-hand with lifelong learning.

Objectives (General & Specific) LiRe collected, developed, and exchanged good practices for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures. As only a small number of EU member states have achieved good results in the field and have produced innovative reading promotion products and processes, the project, via pertinent and concrete European cooperation, aimed to benefit reading education and improve the training of school librarians, educators and administrators across the EU. Another aim was to initiate change by implementing reading promotion programmes in all participating countries. Description of Main Activities and Methods To achieve these aims, the LiRe project built a reading promotion framework which featured: (i) Summary descriptions of successful reading promotion programs; (ii) Principles, strategies and approaches for promoting the joy of reading, building reading communities, and sustaining reading cultures; (iii) An extensive collection of reading promotion actions, grouped under such categories such as Reading Promotion through Play/ ICT/ Volunteerism/ Awards/ the Arts; (iv) An annotated catalogue of relevant sources and resources; (v) Reading promotion evaluation tools. Results The LiRe Training Modules addressed the reading promotion training of teachers, school librarians, and administrators. The material was piloted, implemented and the results were disseminated by all partners. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? There are many parallels between the LiRe1.0 program and LiRe2.0. The initial program touched upon reading promotion through ICT skills and it addressed a target audience of approximately the same age range as the LiRe2.0 project, though it was more limited.

Title

Bookraft

URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_and_pro/profile.cf

405

m?f=2&l=en&n=28256 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p28256/welcome http://etwinningbookraft.blogspot.be/

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2011

Short Description (max. 200 words) In this project, school librarians cooperated with teachers in Poland, Cyprus and Greece to enhance pupils' enjoyment of books through crafts and creative activities. The pupil age range was between 11-17 years of age.

Objectives (General & Specific) The project aimed to encourage reading pleasure through a variety of creative activities and crafts, to teach library services and media education through e-Twinning, to apply peer education on the teacher level, as well as on a student level, to make the libraries more interesting and attractive and to make the pupils "library ambassadors."

Description of Main Activities and Methods A number of subject areas, including cross-curricular areas, were considered in this project: Drama, History of Culture, Informatics / ICT, Language and Literature, Media Education and Music. The activities were conducted in Greek and English. Among the tools used were: audio conferencing, chat, e-mail, forums, mp3 recordings and other software (PowerPoint, video, pictures and drawings), Video conferencing, Virtual learning environments (communities, virtual classes) and web publishing. Results The result was the creation of a common blog with all the pupils’ work. In addition, because of the display of the student’s crafts related to the books, the libraries became more interesting and attractive. Pupils successfully collaborated across many subject areas and learning platforms, thus broadening their educational experience. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Factors which LiRe2 can benefit from include the cooperation between schools, the engagement of pupils in crosscurricular subject areas and the use a variety of ICT tools to finalize and ‘publish’ their projects.

Title Young Poets Society URL

http://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/connect/browse_people_schools_and_pro/profile.cfm?f=2&l=en&n=35771 http://new-twinspace.etwinning.net/web/p35771/welcome

406

Funding Agency

Duration

eTwinning

2010-2011

Short Description (max. 200 words) Poetry can motivate students and present a wide range of learning opportunities. Through the “Young Poets Society” project, students aged 12-15 from three different countries selected and exchanged poems by great poets of their countries, explored their characteristics. They then cooperated with each other in an effort to write their own poems using various structures and styles. Objectives (General & Specific) Therefore, the project aimed to introduce students to the world of poetry and to learn to read many different styles of poetry. In addition, they were required to work collaboratively and communicate with each other, share ideas and concerns, and discover ways in which the pupils themselves share common characteristics with the students from other countries, using poetry as the means for self-expression and self-realization. Furthermore it aimed to motivate students to improve their use of the English language through reading and writing poetry and reinforce their grammar, vocabulary skills, creativity and development of their imagination. Description of Main Activities and Methods The ‘Young Poets’ wrote their own poems using various structures and styles (haiku, cinquain, quatrain, sensory-emotion poems, couplets, diamonte poems, limericks, shape poems, tanka, ballad, and free verse). All these poems were accompanied by illustrations made by the students themselves. Their combined work was incorporated into an e-book under the title "Young Poets Society: Collection of Poems". Students also use their poems creatively to make their own video or audio files, dramatize them or make them into songs. The resulting material was hosted in a blog specially designed for this project.

Results The students successfully completed the project. In the process they became acquainted with the different types of poetry through the hands-on approach afforded them by the project, and rounded up the effort through digital means. A blog was also created. There was the added benefit of using a language that was not their native tongue, to communicate. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The collaboration with students from other schools and other countries is a main motivating factor as is using ICT tools. It is a good idea to have as a project finale an activity that the students select and which will necessitate the use of technology.

407

Digital Book Library Title

Biblioteca de Livros Digitais (Digital Book Library)

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/bibliotecadigital/

Funding Agency

Duration ongoing

Ministry of Education Short Description (max. 200 words) The Digital Book Library is a Web 2.0 initiative, structured by the aggregation of a number of shared individual projects, interwoven in a dynamic links and RSS web. The Library aims to create a community space on the Internet, that lies beyond the traditional concept of place of publication on the network, understood as a mere repository of work. Objectives (General & Specific) The Library is a place of sharing, exchange of experiences, gathering of all those who promote and enjoy the pleasure of reading and are interested to expand their cycle of friends and acquaintances. Main objectives: -

Improve reading and writing skills;

-

Share expertise and knowledge;

-

Participate in initiatives integrated into multiple forms of reading and writing characteristics of the 21st century.

Description of Main Activities and Methods Integrated in the multiple actions of the National Reading Plan, the Digital Books Library is a dynamic space for initiatives related to reading and writing, which is assumed as an aggregate of established authors of books and approved by the National Reading Plan and simultaneously as a repository of works done by people interested in creating other texts motivated by the book you just read. Results The digital books library is the first official initiative and properly regulated with quality assurance of the Ministry of Education of Portugal. Taking into account the fact that young people do appreciate reading in digital form, this repository is an excellent resource for teachers. This feature provided more opportunities leading to an increase in reading habits by young students. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? For Lire 2.0 project this repository is a feature already tested and known by teachers and students. which may facilitate its use for research purposes. Another added advantage has to do with the fact that it is a repository certified by the Ministry of Education which gives it a quality assurance label.

408

Novas Leituras Title

Novas Leituras

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/novasleituras/

Funding Agency

Duration

Porto Editora Publishing House and the Ministry of Education

2015-

Short Description (max. 200 words) This site is designed to showcase more books and it has as main objective to make authors and illustrators known. The site contains three tabs: Highlights; authors; books. This site facilitates access to a biography of the author or illustrator in text and multimedia format. In the tab "highlights” users may publish online comments and questions directed at authors and illustrators. This creates conditions for a closer relationship between the reader (students) and the authors and illustrators. Objectives (General & Specific) The main goal is to bring readers (students) closer to authors and illustrators through digital interaction (digital mail). The web interface allows you to make comments and promote discussion between authors / illustrators and readers (students and teachers). Another objective is to disclose a brief biography of authors and illustrators. Description of Main Activities and Methods The site aims to be a place that creates conditions for a review and more reflective discussion of the available books. By providing an email form, it reduces the "distance" between readers (students and teachers) and authors / illustrators. This makes readers (students) feel closer to authors and creates greater empathy. This emotion may provide a greater willingness to read and thus increase the reading habits of the younger students. Results No actual immediate results. However, this is a process that needs time for readers (students and teachers) to get used to including it in their routines. However, it should be highlighted that its impact has been positive due to its innovative character. It is the first time the Ministry of Education has allowed the rapprochement between readers and authors / illustrators. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? For Lire 2.0 Project this site is important because it will develop activities and data collection with authors and illustrators. The site lets you get closer to the authors and illustrators of books which will enable dialogue and deepen knowledge, answer questions and also establish partnerships and collaborations between contente creators (writers and illustrators) and students.

409

Title

Digital Storytelling (Project TALES) Digital Storytelling (Project TALES)

URL

http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/?page_id=37&lang=en

Funding Agency

Duration

LLP - Comenius

2013-2015

Short Description (max. 200 words) TALES (in which Portugal was a partner) investigates the educational impact of oral and digital storytelling in formal education. It includes state of the art about digital storytelling, documentation on examples of good practice and pilot studies, “stories” created by schools (age range 6-18) and, most importantly, a manual for teachers (November 2015).

Objectives (General & Specific) To investigate the impact of oral and digital storytelling in formal education and to create a set of cognitive tools to empower teachers to introduce storytelling into their practice effectively. To create an innovative educational approach to be introduced and applied Europe wide. To develop new teaching methods and materials involving storytelling and include them as innovative approach and new content in initial and in-service teacher training courses. Description of Main Activities and Methods State of the art analysis. Investigation of the position of storytelling and storytelling techniques in school education, initial and in-service teacher training in the partners’ countries. Collection of good practice in Europe. 20 examples of good practices will be collected, assessed and described. Creation of draft training material. The first steps will serve as the basis for a set of publications (manual, guidelines, teacher training modules) in English and in each partner language (+ French) to be used by teachers, trainers and teacher trainers. Pilot storytelling projects. All partners will pilot a storytelling project in a school in their country. Digital storytelling. An authoring tool for creation and publishing of digital stories will be used in the frame of a European contest, as well as during some of the pilots. All the digital stories will be gathered in an innovative exploratory portal (in this website). National training days. Each partner will organise a national dissemination & training day in his/her country. An international conference. At the end of the project, an international conference will be organized for dissemination (location to be defined) Results 7. State of the Art Report

410

8. In order to allow students from all over Europe to create and share multimedia stories, an authoring tool, 1001voices, has been developed within the frame of the TALES project. The tool supports the creation of interactive multimedia (combining text, audio, images and video), multilingual stories. 9.

The CREATING A MULTIMEDIA NARRATIVE WITH “1001Voices” USER MANUAL (downloadable from http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/assets/1001voices_ENG.pdf) is particularly useful for planning digital storytelling with children. It uses a free tool that can be gotten from the following mail through registration: [email protected]

10. There is also a Good Practices Report which includes, for example, a chapter on “Making digital stories with MS PowerPoint or MS Movie Maker – KHLim – Belgium”; What does the teacher say? – KHLM – Belgium; Of Cuberdons, Belgian Waffles, Beer and meatballs from Liege – KHLim – Belgium; Is there a Moocy Way? – KHLim – Belgium; the project Under the same sky: my food is your food athttp://www.1001storia.polimi.it/generate/INTERNATIONAL/1620/ by the Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Multi Lingual Digital Story telling – Peace School London - United Kingdom; 11. A manual aimed at teachers and teacher trainers on how to implement storytelling practices into formal education. 12. Training modules http://www.storiesforlearning.eu/assets/TALES_training_modules.pdf What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The parts that concern multimedia narratives done by children and the training of teachers. The state of the art report that concerns digital storytelling.

411

Title

Spoken Books Livros Falados / Spoken Books

URL

http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/escolas/projectos.php?idTipoProjecto=93 http://area.dge.mec.pt/pnllf/default.aspx

Funding Agency

Duration Ongoing

Ministry of Education /PNL / Visão Júnior (magazine)/ School Libraries Network (RBE) Short Description (max. 200 words) The project aims at producing audiobooks through digital tools. The project is developed in two parts, one concern the audio and graphic record of readings performed by the students. In addition to targeting the incentive to read through, the project aims to facilitate access to a wide range of texts to minority groups.

Objectives (General & Specific) The project has two main objectives: -To promote reading through diverse ways of reading; -To encourage the production and dissemination of audiobooks by schools and by students.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The proposed activities aim at training reading skills, promote ways of reading, such as reading aloud, re-telling and interpreting texts, as well as develop projects on creating audiobooks in two distinct thematic areas (in accordance with the objectives of the PNL and Curricula standards): Oral Health and Nutrition; and The Oceans.

Results The project was a success in schools. The children-produced audiobooks were released online by the school libraries, Visão magazine and on the PNL website. The project is still running; therefore it is early to assess its real impact, especially in terms of evaluation of its potential for WEB 2.0 educational technologies. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Fundamentally the idea of creation and dissemination of audiobooks through the web and other digital platforms by students for the promotion of reading; and the dissemination of these children’s productions among other children with special educational needs. This peer to peer project and its involving children in the creation of content may be good starting points for LIRE 2.0

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Spoken Books 2 Title

Livros Falados / Spoken Books

URL http://www.planonacionaldeleitura.gov.pt/caminhodasletras/

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education /PNL

2008/2010

Short Description (max. 200 words) “O Caminho das Letras” is a pilot R&D project within the framework of reading to be used in the early stages of schooling. The project had as its main purpose the design of an interactive app to be made available online to the teaching of reading in schools. It promotes and sustains the autonomous reading of students through digital books, among other aims. Objectives (General & Specific) The project offers to students the possibility to explore an amazing universe of very appealing images, texts and sounds, which may awaken their curiosity for words and texts. The main objectives of the project are: - to provide an interactive learning tool for reading and writing; -to give students a digital online tool to stimulate autonomous reading and writing; - to give students, teachers and families the opportunity to experiment with reading digital books.

Description of Main Activities and Methods The interactive platform available on the WEB offers an integrated set of images, words and texts with which students interact to build their own reading pathways or be oriented in their reading. The tool offers possibilities for the development of several reading competences: autonomous reading; reading with parents and the family; practice reading in the classroom. Results The WEB app was made available as an important support tool for teachers and learning supported by the National (Curricular) Plan for Teaching of Portuguese Mother Tongue (PNEP). It has been widely used in schools and in the family context of pupils for the practice of reading. Descriptions of teacher users show it be a motivating application for students that stimulates reading. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? In the perspective of the Lire 2.0 this project highlights the relationship between learning and the training processes of reading through games and digital books. The games and interactive texts proposed may be a reference to the project LIRE 2.0.

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Portal das Escolas Title

Portal das Escolas

URL

https://www.portaldasescolas.pt/

Funding Agency

Duration

Ministry of Education

Ongoing

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project Portal for Schools is an online platform of the General Direction of Education – Ministry of Education, through which the Resources and Educational Technology team ensures the management of digital educational resources created and made available by schools themselves (teachers and classes). It is a platform for sharing resources. Objectives (General & Specific) The main objectives of the portal are the sharing and use of digital educational resources teachers can create and make available on the Portal of educational resources. The integration of the repository of digital educational resources Portal with the European Bank of Digital educational resources guarantees the access of schools to thousands of educational digital resources. Description of Main Activities and Methods The Portal of the schools is the reference site for schools and is the largest collaborative online network of education in Portugal. The Portal is intended for schools, educational communities of Basic Education and Secondary Education, including teachers, students and families. Results The schools Portal was created within the technological plan of education and is used by schools and by teachers. It plays a key role in sharing WEB 2.0 resources created by teachers and students. Is the largest collaborative online network of educational digital resources in Portugal. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? Within the framework of the Lire 2.0 Project, it is relevant to highlight this shared collaborative space that works as a repository of digital resources for use by schools, teachers, students and families, as well as explore how it may be further explored in the sense of purposeful networking that supports teachers and students in their learning and teaching.

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Title

Books which became movies Books which became movies

URL

http://www.biblionet.ro/upload/documents/document/24718/attachement/172166/Ghid%20ad olescenti%20-%20Cluj.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

“Octavian Goga” Cluj County Library

October 2012 – march 2013

Short Description (max. 200 words) The project “Centres of excellence for facilities offered to teenagers and young people aged 14 to 25” was conceived to help librarians to meet young people’s needs and interest and, as a result, one of the outcomes of the project is a Good practices Guide for services and programmes dedicated to teenagers and young people. The guide includes a detailed description of the services and programmes dedicated to teenagers and young people which have been implemented by “Octavian Goga” Cluj County Library or other public libraries in Cluj County. One of these programs is “Books which became movies” which was offered to college students aged between 14 to18. Objectives (General & Specific) “Books which became movies” program aimed:

4.

to present a series of films based on literary works;

5.

to make the students discuss about those literary works;

6.

to develop the students capacities of identifying in a movie details which are related to the techniques of production, such as image, light, sound, scenery, motion, costumes etc. in order to stimulate their critical perception, the communication ability and the pleasure of reading by this type of media education. Description of Main Activities and Methods “Books which became movies” program started from a very simple idea: developing the young people critical spirit regarding reading a literary text and also watching a movie. This was the very reason why the organizers chose several movies based on novels in Romanian literature, which could be found among the obligatory texts in the Romanian literature curricula, considering these could also be possible items at the baccalaureate exam. While at Romanian literature classes the students learnt to analyze a literary text in a critical way, in several perspectives, they did the same with the movies so, through these movies, the organizers managed to develop certain debates novel vs. movie. Preparations for the activities involved collaboration with college teachers and a student in Film and Television at University of Cluj. After choosing the movies, the most important parts in them were selected, considering the relevant parts in the movies from the novel perspective. The fragmentation of the movies was necessary in order to stress the most important elements which had to be pointed out. The first effective activity in the program consisted in a visit to the library, which aimed to make the students familiar with the cinema techniques, so the participants learned about the beginnings of cinema, about types of movies. They also

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found out what is behind the screen, from the producer to sound engineers. At the end of the meeting the students were asked to form several teams and to make short movies on a subject they prefer. The following three activities were similar and consisted in watching a set of sequences from a movie based on a novel, but they were asked to read the novel previously. Each sequence was discussed together a teacher and the discussion focused on the extent the movie director’s approach respects the novel, how the characters are presented in the movie vs. the novel etc. The students could come closer to the literary text by means of the movie. The fifth activity represented a Movie maker workshop, coordinated by a librarian and the students learnt how to paste photos, to add text, music or comments to the image and other facilities the application offers. The result of their work, the short movie, participated in a competition which represented the final activity in the program. At the end of the program the students were asked to express their opinions about the activities and they manifested their pleasure of taking part in other similar projects. Results “Books which became movies” program was complementary to the educational process in school and within family. The impact of such a program is greater as it uses audio-video resources which are carefully selected, in order to help young students to be more exigent in choosing the texts they read or the movies they watch. Such a program can be used in other domains (history, sciences or ecology) by watching documentaries. The commentaries that follow watching the documentaries should be coordinated by a specialist. This type of program helps school to move to the library and this is a way to encourage teenagers to read more. At the same time, this is an opportunity to show them that the library could be used as a place for socialization. The cinema education stimulates critical learning and perception, the analyses and the debates on the emotions and topics triggered by watching a movie. The teenagers also learn how to use the movie as a support of their own creativity. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? This type of program which involves different materials and resources could be considered attractive by teenagers, as, in general, they are interested in new technologies such as the techniques involved in producing a movie, and they could associate reading novels with watching movies and discussing then about differences and specific features of the two art works. The library involvement in the program may show teenage students that this is not only “a book storehouse”, but also a modern place, where it could be “cool” to spend their free time.

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DIGIFOLIO

Title

DIGIFOLIO

URL

http://www.biblionet.ro/upload/documents/document/24719/attachement/172173/Ghid% 20copii%20-%20Brasov.pdf

Funding Agency

Duration

„George Bariţiu” Braşov County Library

16 weeks

Short Description (max. 200 words) DIGIFOLIO program addresses to 8-14 aged children and to their teachers and it aims to develop multimedia skills and to improve knowledge about the way electronic portfolios are made. The main advantage of this program is that it does not teach students about computers, but about the way it is used to learn. The method is “learning by doing” and it uses a free platform dedicated to education which is easy to use, intuitive. DIGIFOLIO can be implementted with limited resources in county libraries or in school libraries and it has a major impact for children, as it ensures access to different technological devices, the necessary knowledge to use them effectively and, support and advice in making the electronic portfolios, the possibility of sharing their performances. Objectives (General & Specific) DIGIFOLIO aimed : 1. to develop knowledge related to the way the electronic portfolios are made; 2. to develop children’s multimedia communication skills ; 3. to support developing and presenting the electronic portfolios made. Description of Main Activities and Methods 1. Instructing children about the procedure of making the electronic portfolios. This activity may be organized as a quiz. 2. Opening the accounts on the administration system for electronic portfolios (Weebly). The librarian creates an account on the platform for each group, then the username and password are given to each student. Each student accesses his/her own work space by introducing the username and password, then realizes a message for the page “about”, using the text instrument. 3. Developing multimedia communication skills consists in: using the web 2.0 instruments for making the electronic portfolios - Voki; using the web 2.0 instruments for making the electronic portfolios – Prezi; using the video camera and digital recorder; using the photo camera and making a banner in Photoshop Elements; using the web 2.0 instruments for the electronic portfolios – Youtube; using the web 2.0 instruments for the electronic portfolios Wikispace; using the scanner; using the graphic tablet. 4. Finalizing the electronic portfolio by integrating all the resulted objects within the project, saving and editing them in free access. 5. Making a presentation of the activities developed within the project by means of Glogster.

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6. Making a video for promoting the program by means of an instrument called Animoto. Results The main features of the project are creativity and interactivity, so it had a major impact on every group involved in: students, librarians, teachers and even parents. Students became more and more eager to learn something new from the librarians at every meeting. The intense work, much information, many web 2.0 instruments presented, using and applying them the alert rhythm of work imposed by students became a real challenge for both librarians and teachers. What parts of this program or ideas derived from it can be adapted for the LiRe 2.0 project? The approach used in this program can be used in Lire2.0 because it ensures: - students’ access to different technological devices, the necessary knowledge for effectively using them, assistance in making the electronic portfolios, the possibility of valorization and sharing their performances; - teachers’ digital skills improvement and developing new competences, assistance for implementing new technologies in class; - parents’ opportunity to know and easily inform about their children’s activity and performances.

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Self -Assessment Evaluation Plan - Whole school reading promotion through ICT Please tick the box that is closer to describing reading promotion through ICT in your school. Only tick one box in each row. Based on which stage your school is in, please identify areas for improvement within each heading and any necessary tasks which need to be completed to order to be effectively efficient in reading promotion through the use of ICT.

READING PROMOTION THROUGH ICT AREA

NOT YET INITIATED

AT INITIAL STAGE

AT DEVELOPED STAGE

AT ENHANCED STAGE

E-Learning and the use of ICT for reading promotion does not take place within the school.

There is some use of ICT in areas of teaching and learning to include teacher lesson preparation for learning and direct IT subject work.

Relevant and effective ICT tools are used on a regular basis across a range of teaching and learning areas to include cross-curricula subjects and reading promotion.

A wide and varied range of ICT tools and devices are used across all areas of teaching and learning such as apps, e-readers, games, blogs, social media.

An ICT policy does not exist.

Students and staff are aware of an existing ICT policy.

An ICT policy is in place that sets out all of the schools aims, principles and strategies for the delivery and integration of ICT.

An ICT policy outlining the ICT vision and agreed approach of the school to include the use of ICT to promote reading is known to all staff and students and is regularly monitored and updated.

There is no

A designated

The co-

An ICT steering

E-LEARNING

ICT POLICY

ICT COORDINATOR

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LITERACY POLICY

ICT READING PROMOTION INITIATIVES

designated ICT coordinator within the school.

staff member is responsible for engaging ICT and its development .

ordinator regularly monitors, reviews and updates the ICT needs and developments within the school. There is an emphasis on the promotion of reading through the use of ICT by the IT coordinator.

committee has been formed to include senior management, teachers, parents who will collectively plan and develop ICT and its use for reading promotion.

There is no literacy policy in the school.

The literacy policy of the school includes a commitment to the use of ICT for reading promotion.

The vision for the use of ICT for reading promotion in the form of ereaders, apps and web 2.0 technologies is acknowledged by all staff and integrated into the school literacy policy.

Consistent use of varied forms of ICT and devices to promote reading, assess literacy and create lifelong readers. Scheduled reading time is timetabled and an up to date library with a variety of content and literature in book and device format is readily available.

There is no reading through ICT promotion initiatives in our school.

Reading through ICT is part of the curriculum for English and language subjects.

Reading through ICT is integrated across a range of subjects as well as designated time and area

Regular and varied events, activities, initiatives and displays to encourage and promote reading through ICT occurs. A wide range of reading material is accessible to students. 420

available for students to read for pleasure.

BYOD

ICT IN THE CURRICULUM

ICT SUBJECT INTEGRATION

There is no Bring Your Own Device policy in place.

Existence of device hardware within the school.

Devices are configured with applications and programmes to facilitate reading promotion.

Regular use and integration of devices for wide ranges of reading including cross-curricular subjects and reading for pleasure.

ICT is not taught or used in the school.

ICT is used as a teaching and learning tool and to deliver lessons.

ICT is a subject taught to students to include the internet, computer applications and word processing.

ICT exists as a specific subject as well as being consistently integrated within other crosscurricular subjects and through the teaching and learning experience of students.

ICT is not integrated into subjects other than ICT specific modules.

ICT is used to deliver teaching and learning outcomes such as through the use of Microsoft, PowerPoint and visual displays.

ICT programs, applications and tools are used across a range of different subjects to deliver lessons and as part of students learning process.

ICT is taught as a subject, used as a teaching tool, integrated within various subjects, used for assessment and as well as for pleasure.

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SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS

STORING OF ICT

ICT AVAILABILITY

ICT is not used in the support of students with special educational needs.

ICT resources are sometimes used to support the learning of students with special educational needs.

ICT programs, websites, applications that focus on literacy, numeracy and reading are regularly used to support students with special educational needs.

A differentiated curriculum using the supports of ICT is used to teach students with special educational needs individually and as part of a group.

There is no procedure or policy in place for the storing of ICT.

The ICT instructor is the primarily responsible for the storing of ICT equipment and devices.

There is an ICT policy in place which outlines the necessary guidelines to ensure accessibility and security for all ICT equipment and devices.

ICT infrastructure procedure and policy for restoring, storing and back up of devices and data. Accessible to all teachers and students. Monitored and secured.

ICT is not available for general usage.

ICT is available to use during designated IT classes and subjects such as the use of PCs, the internet, word processing and PowerPoint.

ICT equipment and devices are available and accessible within each classroom. For example, PCs, laptops, ereaders, overhead projectors, interactive whiteboards, video recorders etc.

All students and teachers have access and use a wide range of programs and software. ICT is readily available, updated and accessible. Students have their own personal device that includes a wide range of programs and software.

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BROADBAND AVAILABILITY

There is no broadband infrastructur e in the locality.

Establish a procurement framework for broadband providers.

High speed access available. (110m/bits)

There is a strong broadband and wireless network connection with the capabilities of withstanding high volume of traffic.

ICT equipment and devices are not regularly updated or upgraded.

ICT equipment is regularly checked and monitored to include program and system updates.

ICT and IT devices and programs are regularly monitored and upgraded.

ICT devices and programs are used to full efficiency, regularly updated and upgraded and are closely monitored for areas for improvements identified.

Teachers do not engage in ICT professional development or training.

IT teachers participate in ICT related training and continuous professional development .

Teachers engage in regular training and professional development on the use of IT for teaching and learning such as the use of IT equipment e.g., tablets, IPad, interactive whiteboard.

All teachers take part in regular professional development and are efficiently trained on how to best utilise ICT in the classroom and how to effectively promote reading through ICT and any relevant programs or software that can be used in their subject area.

Our school does not have an online platform.

Our school has a website and all teachers have a

Teachers and students have a registered email within the school

Our school has a virtual learning platform that is used to organise, map and implement curriculum activities. 423

ICT UPGRADE

ICT PROESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T FOR TEACHERS

ONLINE LEARNING PLATFORM

registered email account within the school domain.

domain that is used for communicatio n and class related activities. The school also has an active social media platform.

Students have their own personal online space to communicate with teachers and students as well as to send/receive/access/stor e their work. Students have online portfolios and assessments.

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Self-Assessment Evaluation Plan - Areas identified for improvement for effective use ICT for reading promotion: When the self-assessment evaluation has been completed, please use the below template to identify areas for improvement and tasks that need to be completed in order to be effectively efficient in reading promotion through the use of ICT. READING PROMOTION THROUGH ICT AREA IDENTIFIED:

TARGET TO BE ACCOMPLISHED:

TASKS TO BE COMPLETED:

TIMEFRAME:

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LiRe2.0 Toolkit Conclusion This Toolkit included a list of effective reading promotion programmes, a list of Digital Tools that can be used to support reading promotion through ICT as well as best practices in reading promotion through ICT. All areas of the Toolkit can be used in a practical and active way as well as being easily transferable and adaptable to the needs of users. It is hoped that the Toolkit will be used by educators in order to assist in the promotion of reading through ICT. To combat low levels of literacy and engage at risk students in reading and academic learning. It is hoped that the Toolkit will provide innovative pedagogical methods, best practice guidelines and strategies towards systemic use of ICT for reading promotion. The aim of this Toolkit is to empower all users to use innovative ICT-based educational practices and resources in enhancing people’s reading attitudes, reading engagement, and reading skills. The Toolkit inspires, guides, and facilitates the creation of reading cultures, communities through the use of Web 2.0 technologies. The Toolkit will implement ways in which technology can encourage reading for pleasure and engagement in various settings, and for diverse readers.

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