Emotion regulation of Employees - University of Tilburg

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Running head: MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Master thesis Human Resource Studies

Emotion regulation of Employees: A linking Pin in explaining Organizational change resistance during Organizational change processes?

Author note Author:

Janey Zweekhorst (141548)

University:

Tilburg University, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences

Supervisor:

Dr. K. Van Dam

Second assessor:

Dr. M.J.D. Schalk

Project theme:

Emotion Regulation

Project period:

February 2014 – July 2014

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MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Preface This thesis deals with the subject of emotion regulation. Dr. J. Gross is seen as the founder of emotion regulation and he has done a lot of experimental research on this topic. His studies contained a lot of different emotion regulation strategies that people can use to cope with their emotions. In this study, only two emotion regulation strategies were analyzed namely, cognitive re-appraisal and rumination. The reason for this is that in previous research these two emotion regulation strategies had the most effect on organizational outcomes during change. Dr. K. Van Dam provides an important and influential contribution to this topic because she studied emotion regulation strategies of employees during organizational change and developed scales for the emotion regulation strategies. I chose to study emotion regulation because I immediately could relate to this topic. At my work I am currently experiencing a change situation and it interested me that employees cope with their emotions and organizational change differently. In addition, I really liked the fact that emotion regulation is a psychological concept where the perspective of the employee is taken into account. I believe that employees have their own goals and motives at work besides achieving the goals of the organization. That is why employees have an important role when achieving successful organizational change. In my opinion, organizational change can be more effective when the process of emotion regulation of employees is better understood. When writing my thesis I have learned a lot and I would really like to express my gratitude to Dr. K. Van Dam. Thanks to her critical comments and useful feedback my second reader Dr. M.J.D. Schalk had not much feedback for improvement. I do want to thank him for reading my thesis and for providing helpful comments. I also would like to thank the respondents who participated in this study and filled out the questionnaire. At last, I would like to thank my family, friends and boyfriend for their mental support and understanding.

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MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Abstract Employees who have highly restructured tasks due to organizational change are likely to resist the change. The aim of this study was to investigate whether emotion regulation strategies played a role in this process. Two strategies of emotion regulation were studied; cognitive re-appraisal and rumination, as mediators of the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change using Affective Events Theory of Weiss and Cropanzano (1996) as theoretical framework. Data were collected among 111 employees working in nine Dutch organizations. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses, both with cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The longitudinal analysis revealed that task restructuring was positively related to rumination and that cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to resistance to change. Rumination was positively related to resistance to change, but the results support the view that this effect is temporary and not stable over time. The results did not support the expectations that emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change. Future research is recommended. Keywords: emotions, emotion regulation, resistance to change, task restructuring, cognitive re-appraisal, rumination, affective events theory

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Introduction Nowadays, organizations are faced with turbulent economic times and globalization of the world. Due to this external environment, organizations are operating with the pressure of increased competition, new technological developments and changed institutional demands. These economic, technological and institutional demands call for agile organizations that can adapt and change quickly to their external environment (Tros, 2004). Change processes are important for organizations to remain viable and inevitable to survive in this global world. Employees have an important role during change processes and can influence the success of organizational change (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). However, organizational changes often negatively affect employees, because their work tasks and methods are constantly changed due to updated work processes (Nikolova, Van Ruysseveldt, De Witte, & Syroit, 2014). Therefore, employees are often not that enthusiastic to embrace organizational changes (Dent, & Goldberg, 1999). According to the Affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), organizational change can be seen as an affective event which triggers specific emotions of employees. Organizational changes often gives rise to negative employee emotions such as fear of failure, anxiety and anger (Cummings, & Worley, 2009). How employees cope with their emotions during organizational change is important because this influences how employees respond to the change (Gross, 2002). Negative emotions of employees can jeopardize the intended benefits of the change process for organizations and fuel resistance to change (Kiefer, 2002). A better understanding of the emotion regulation strategies that employees use for coping with their

emotions

is

therefore

essential

to

manage

the

change

process

in

organizations more efficiently (Fugate, Prussia, & Kinicki, 2012). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the extent of changes in employees’ tasks and work methods have an effect on change resistance and whether emotion regulation strategies are playing a role in this process. How people cope with emotions and which emotion regulation strategies they use is generally studied in

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

experimental research (Gross, 1998; Richards, & Gross, 2000). Until now, organizational research has paid little attention to the emotion regulation strategies of employees in the context of organizational change. This research is relevant because it studies the process of emotion regulation over time through a longitudinal field study, and investigates whether the underlying mechanism of emotion regulation mediates the effect between task restructuring and resistance to change. When the process of emotion regulation is better understood and it is found that emotion regulation serves as a linking pin in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change, it will provide useful information. For instance, information about how to minimize resistance to change and how to make organizational change more effective. The conceptual model of this study is displayed in Figure 1. The following research question is developed: To what extent does emotion regulation mediate the relationship between task restructuring and employees’ change resistance in organizations?

Figure 1. Conceptual model with emotion regulation strategies as mediators

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MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Theoretical Framework Task restructuring and Resistance to change It is a common fact that most employees resist organizational change (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). When employees have resistance to change it can have negative consequences for the organization because it will drawback the change process and it will make the organizational change less successful (Lewin, 1951). Moreover, resistance to change is an important cause of failure when implementing organizational changes (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008; Piderit, 2000). Failure of organizational changes will result in high costs for the organization and less chance to survive in the environment (Lewis, 2011). The term resistance to change has gone through a transformation in meaning over time from a systems concept to a more psychological one (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). In this study, resistance to change is viewed as a multidimensional construct with affective, cognitive and behavioral components that each reflect a different aspect of employee responses to organizational change processes (Piderit, 2000). The affective component displays how employees are feeling about the change. The cognitive component involves how employees think about the change and the behavioral component involves how employees act upon the organizational change (Oreg, 2006). Employees might resist changes that involve task restructuring. Task restructuring refers to management-initiated changes in job tasks and work methods of employees with the purpose of organizational change (Nikolova et al., 2014). Management-initiated changes are not always voluntary for employees and thus can be seen as a threat (Rafferty & Griffin, 2006). In addition, the process of task restructuring is often conducted with general structural changes of the whole organization, such as downsizing where employees are being laid off. Research has indicated that task restructuring, due to organizational change, can be associated with unavoidable human cost (Campion & McClelland, 1993). The status quo of employees is deliberately changed during organizational change processes and this can result in negative employee

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outcomes (Lewin, 1951). Therefore, it is expected that task restructuring initiated by management in the context of organizational change can have negative effects on employee behavior, attitude and emotions. The study of Nikolova et al. (2014) indeed found that task restructuring was seen as a demanding situation and was negatively associated with employee well-being. Therefore, it is expected that task changes are negatively experienced by employees and that this will result in resistance to change. The relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change can be explained by Affective Events Theory (AET) of Weiss and Cropanzano (1996). Task restructuring can be seen as an affective event at work. This affective event generates specific emotions, which in turn influence affectively driven behavior of employees, like resistance to change. It is therefore assumed that the more job tasks and work methods are being restructured the more negative emotions are experienced and the more resistance employees have towards organizational change. The following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 1. Task restructuring is positively related to resistance to change. Emotion regulation during Change The relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change can be further explained by the role of emotion regulation strategies. Following AET, task restructuring can be seen as an emotional experience which elicit employees emotions. These emotions are episodic states that employees feel and experience (Watson & Clark, 1994). According to appraisal theory of emotion (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), it is crucial how employees appraise the situation of organizational change because this explains the way employees attend to changes and whether they have positive or negative emotions towards it. Their emotions also indicate the importance and relevance of the organizational change to them (Parkinson, 1995). Emotion regulation is the process where people try to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them (Gross, 1998). According to Gross' model (1998, 2002), of emotion regulation people use

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different kind of emotion regulation strategies to cope with their emotions, which helps them to influence their affective states (Gross & Thompson, 2007). Emotion regulation processes can be conscious or unconscious, and automatic or controlled (Gross, 1998). In this study, two emotion regulation strategies of Gross’ model of emotion regulation are included, cognitive re-appraisal and rumination. Both strategies are antecedent focused and occur before employees have an emotion response tendency (Gross, 2008). This means that the emotion of an employee is not fully activated yet because the response of the felt emotions is not yet expressed (Gross, 1998). Response-focused emotion regulation strategies are actions of employees after emotions are experienced (Gross, 2001). In this study the focus is on the response tendency of resistance to change as a consequence of the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination. Cognitive re-appraisal - The emotion regulation strategy of cognitive reappraisal refers to employees’ changing their interpretations or perspectives of a situation, for example the situation of organizational change with accompanied task restructuring (Gross, 1998; Van Dam, 2012). An employee could for example re-appraise this situation to a more positive view and interpret organizational change as an opportunity to learn new skills and broaden one’s task responsibilities. Cognitive re-appraisal decreases the emotional impact the situation has on an employee by looking at it more positively (Gross, 2002). Therefore, cognitive re-appraisal is considered as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy which can alter the negative subjective state of the employee (Gross, 2002; McRae, Jacobs, Ray, John, & Gross, 2012; Van Dam, & Visser, 2014). Rumination - Rumination is part of the emotion regulation strategy attentional deployment (Gross, 2002). The emotion regulation strategy of attentional deployment helps employees to regulate their emotions without changing the actual environment but changing aspects of it by directing their attention (Gross & Thompson, 2006). This refocusing of employees can be on more positive aspects of the situation or by changing their internal focus to provoke more positive thoughts (Gross, 1998). In contrast, when

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employees ruminate, their attention and focus is directed to negative emotions and feelings of the situation, for example the negative sides of organizational changes or task restructuring (Gross, 1998). Ruminating on negative events leads to more and longer depressive symptoms because it strengthens the negative cognitive state of an individual employee (Just & Alloy, 1997). Rumination is therefore considered to be a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy (Leahy, 2007).

Task restructuring and Emotion Regulation In the last decade, research has begun to focus on emotional reactions as a response to organizational change (Huy, 2002; Kiefer, 2005). Why does a change process in an organization trigger emotional responses in employees, and how do employees cope with these emotions? Changes in an organization can be viewed as ‘triggering events’ for employee emotions because new behaviors, thoughts and expertise are expected (Isabella, 1992). Research has indicated that employees often appraise organizational changes negatively as a harm or threat and that this elicits negative emotions and behaviors (Fugate, Kinicki, & Prussia, 2008; Kiefer, 2005; Scheck & Kinicki, 2000). In this study, it is assumed that the more tasks are being restructured the more emotions are experienced by employees (Kiefer, 2005). This is assumed because during change processes the status quo of employees is deliberately altered by management, whereby employees need to learn new behaviors, attitudes and work methods (Lewin, 1951). Employees need to adapt to the changed situation and when their tasks are more restructured, the greater the trigger is for an emotional reaction of an employee, according to AET (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Employees can regulate these emotions by using the emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal or rumination. Cognitive re-appraisal - Employees can look at the change process in a more positive way by using the emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal. By using this strategy, employees are focusing on the more positive aspects of organizational change (Gross, 2002). It is expected that the more task changes are experienced by

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employees, the harder it is for them to give a positive meaning towards the change process because their status quo is altered more. Because old work methods, behaviors and attitudes are outdated and no longer valid, employees can experience feelings of insecurity, uncertainty and task ambiguity (Cummings & Worley, 2009). These feelings are triggers for negative emotions towards the organizational change and impede reappraising the new working situation more positively. Van Dam, Kleine and Struijs (2013) found that job insecurity had a negative effect on cognitive re-appraisal; when employees experience more job insecurity they were less likely to re-appraise the change situation in a positive way. In addition, Van Dam and Visser (2013) observed that employees were less likely to use cognitive re-appraisal as an emotion regulation strategy when they perceived injustice in a change situation. These previous studies provide evidence for a negative relationship between aversive work conditions owing to the change and the use of cognitive re-appraisal. Therefore the following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 2. Task restructuring is negatively related to cognitive re-appraisal Rumination - The Job Demand-Control model of Karasek (1979) provides additional support for the assumption that task restructuring can elicit negative emotions. It is expected that employees will experience their job as more demanding when the organization is changing their tasks and work methods. Additionally, employees will experience less control about their new work situation because they did not master the new required behavior, attitudes and work methods yet. High job demands and low control about one’s tasks results in high-strain jobs (Karasek, 1979). High strain jobs have a negative effect on employees’ health and well-being and can result in burnout and psychological distress with accompanied negative thoughts, emotions and feelings (Van der Doef, & Maes, 1999). It is expected that when tasks are changed more, the experienced work strain of employees increases, which in turn leads to negative employee emotions and thoughts. When employees ruminate their attention is drawn to the negative

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aspects of the situation and by ruminating they try to regulate these negative emotions (Gross, 1998). Therefore, it is assumed that the more tasks and work methods are restructured the more employees will ruminate because more negative emotions towards organizational change are experienced. The study of Bambra, Egan, Thomas, Petticrew and Whitehead (2007) found that task restructuring interventions that increase demands and/or decrease control about one’s job affect the health of employees. This previous study and the Job Demand-Control model provide support for a positive relationship between task restructuring and the emotion regulation strategy of rumination. The following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 3. Task restructuring is positively related to rumination

Emotion Regulation and Resistance to change According to AET (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) emotions mediate the link between affective events and subsequent behavior and attitudes of employees. In this study the focus is on the outcome of resistance to change as a consequence of which emotion regulation strategies employees use. Research indicates that cognitive reappraisal has positive effects on employee health and well-being (Gross, & Thompson, 2007). Furthermore, cognitive re-appraisal is seen as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy where the emotional impact of the organizational change is decreased (Gross, 2002). It is expected that when employees are able to re-appraise the situation of organizational change, this will lead to more openness to organizational change because a more positive meaning is attached to the change process and negative emotions have been altered. Van Dam and Visser (2014) indeed found that employees were less likely to develop resistance to change when they use cognitive re-appraisal as an emotion regulation strategy. The following hypothesis is formulated:

Hypothesis 4. Cognitive re-appraisal is negatively related to resistance to change

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Rumination is seen as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy where the negative cognitive state of an employee is strengthened (Just & Alloy, 1997). Bovey and Hede (2001) studied the relationship between maladaptive defence mechanisms and resistance to change and found that these maladaptive defence mechanisms (denial, acting out and isolation of affect) were positively related to resistance to change. Therefore it is assumed that the more people ruminate the more resistance they will have towards the change. Van Dam and Visser (2014) indeed found a positive relationship between rumination and resistance to change. The following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 5. Rumination is positively related to resistance to change Task restructuring, Emotion regulation and Resistance to change Organizations need to neutralize negative emotions from employees and alter resistance to change for making the change process successful. Following AET (Weiss and Cropanzano, 1996), task changes are an affective event which trigger emotional responses from employees and subsequently influence resistance to change. In sum, when tasks are restructured more, employees are less able to reappraise the situation and will ruminate more, whereby they develop more resistance to the change. When the results of this study find that emotion regulation serves as a mediation between the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change, it will provide useful information for effective change processes in organizations on how to minimize resistance to change. The following hypothesis is formulated: Hypothesis 6. The relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change is mediated by cognitive re-appraisal and rumination.

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Method Study design This longitudinal study was part of a larger research project on emotion regulation strategies during organizational change. The variables that were used in this study were all measured twice in time. By measuring all variables twice, the causal relationships of the variables were better established. When testing the longitudinal study design, the independent and mediating variables in this study were used at time 1 (T1) and the dependent variable at time 2 (T2). In this way, common rater effect and method bias were tried to be reduced (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Lee, 2003). In addition, the conceptual model of this study was also tested cross-sectional, were all variables were analysed at T1.

Procedure The sample was comprised of employees from various organizations in the Netherlands operating in different industries. Convenience sampling was used to select organizations that experienced some form of organizational change. Nine different organizations participated in this study namely: Rabobank Zuid-Holland Midden (Bank), Cap

Gemini

(Consulting),

Dong Energy (Energy company), Gemeente

Oss

(Municipality), Itho Daalderop (Manufacturing), Koninklijke Landelijke Politie Dienst (Police), Open Universiteit (University), Insurance company, and Viecurie (Hospital). These organizations were approached by email, telephone, LinkedIn and personal contact. Then, the study was introduced and permission to conduct the study was requested. Upon consent, an announcement was sent to employees by email to explain and introduce the study. Two weeks after this announcement a link for the questionnaire was sent to all participants inlcuding a cover letter. The cover letter stated that anonymity of respondents was guaranteed and that all information would be used confidentially and only for the aim of research. The questionnaire was digital and developed in Qualtrics. At the end of the questionnaire, participants needed to fill out a verification code that was used to

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

anonimously connect participants when using a longitudinal study design. Participants of the study at T1 received an invitation one month later to fill out the questionnaire at T2. The second questionnaire was shorter than the first one because the personal characteristic variables of emotional stability, openness and self-efficacy were removed as they are considered constant characteristics that do not change over time. To increase the response rate, reminders were sent.

Sample Aproximately 720 employees were approached to participate in this study. From the 374 returned questionnaires from measurement number one 111 were removed because they obtained missing data. Only participants who filled out the entire questionnaire were used in the sample. The sample of measurement one consisted of employees only (N=263) and exceeds the minimum size requirement suggested by Tabachnick and Fidell (2007). The response rate at T1 was 36.37%. The participants who filled out the questionnaire at T1, received an invitation to fill out the questionnaire again at T2. In total 111 respondents from the original sample (N=263) filled out the questionnaire at T1 and T2. Only respondents who filled out the questionnaires twice were taking into account in this study. The response rate of measurement two was 42.21%. The final sample contained 48.6% men and 51.4% women. On average, participants were 42 years old (SD=10.3) and were working for 14 years at their organization (SD=11.63). Most employees had an higher vocational education (41,4%) or a university degree (26.1%). 28.8% had a lower vocational education and 3.6% had a secondary education. None of the respondents had only a primary education. 73.9% of the participants stated that their organization was in the middle of an organizational change process. At time one, 78.4% of the same participants stated this. Almost all of the organizations were downsizing due to a reorganization. The organization Dong Energy was restructuring due to a take-over.

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Independent-samples t-test An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare differences among two groups of the study sample. Group 1 are employees who filled out the questionnaire the first time (N=263) and Group 2 are employees who filled out the questionnaire twice (N=111). Variables that were included in the independent T-test were age, tenure, task restructuring, cognitive re-appraisal, rumination and resistance to change at T1. There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean scores for rumination and resistance to change. The mean score on rumination of Group 1 (M = 2.12, SD = .80) was higher than the mean score of Group 2 (M = 1.82, SD = .63). The mean difference was significant (t (260.78) = 3.38, p <.01, two tailed). The effect size is calculated using Cohen’s d (Cohen, 1988). The Cohen’s d for the difference in rumination was .42, which is a medium effect size. The magnitude of the differences in the means (mean difference = .30, 95% CI: .12 to .47) was small (eta squared = .04). In addition, the mean score on resistance to change of Group 1 (M = 2.45, SD = .73) was higher than the mean score of Group 2 (M = 2.16, SD = .69). The mean difference was significant (t (261) = 3.27, p <.01, two tailed). The Cohen’s d for the difference in resistance to change was .41, which is a medium effect size. The magnitude of the differences in the means (mean difference = .29, 95% CI: .12 to .41) was small (eta squared = .04).

Measures The measurements of the items in the questionnaires were as followed:

Task restructuring was measured with a three-item scale from Nikolova et al. (2014). An example item was: “The content of my job has changed”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was .90 at T1 and .92 at T2.

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Cognitive re-appraisal was measured with a five-item scale from Van Dam and Visser (2014) and Van Dam, Kleine, & Struis (2013). An example item was: “I emphasize the positive sides of organizational change”. Responses were given on a 5point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Principal axis factoring showed that one item did not contributed to the reliability and validity of the scale: “I think that there are worse things in life than this organizational change”. This item was therefore removed from the scale. Cronbach’s Alpha of the four-item scale was .90 at T1 and .85 at T2.

Rumination was measured with a four-item scale from Van Dam and Visser (2014) and Van Dam, Kleine and Struis (2013). An example item was: “I worry about what has happened”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Cronbach’s Alpha was .83 at T1 and .81 at T2.

Resistance to change was measured with a 15-item scale from Oreg (2006). Examples of items were: “I protest against the change” and “I tend to oppose to the change”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not applicable) to 5 (highly applicable). Principal axis factoring showed that two items did not contribute to the reliability and validity of the scale: “I am open to consider and try out the change” and “I believe that I could personally benefit from the change”. These items were therefore removed from the scale. Cronbach’s Alpha of the thirteen-item scale was .93 at T1 and .93 at T2.

Control variables were also taken into account. The personal characteristics variables of self-efficacy, openness and emotional stability were included as control variables in this study. The social-demographic variables in this study were gender, age, education, tenure and management position. These social-demographic and personal characteristics variables provided information about the participants in this study. In

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addition, these variables were taken into account to control for spuriousness of the relationships in this study. Spuriousness is found when one of the control variables correlates with both resistance to change and one of the predictors. To test the entire empirical model of this study, the control variables were included and analysed at T1. These control variables were chosen because previous research has shown that these variables can have an influence on change related attitudes like resistance to change. A number of studies found that change resistance and personal characteristics of employees were related (Lau & Woodman, 1995; Miller, Johnson, & Grau, 1994; Wanberg & Banas, 2000). According to Gross and John (2003) emotion regulation strategies are related to personality because they are partly genetic. In this study the personal characteristics of self-efficacy, openness and emotional stability were taken into account and it is believed that they are negatively related to change resistance. The measurements of the personal characteristic in the questionnaires were measured as follows:

Self-efficacy was measured with a five–item scale from Teeuw, Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1994). An example item was: “I always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not applicable) to 5(highly applicable). Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was .85.

Openness was measured with a five–item scale from Denissen, Geenen, Van Aken, Gosling and Potter (2008). An example item was: “I am somebody who has a vivid imagination”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not applicable) to 5 (highly applicable). Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was .81.

Emotional stability was measured with a four–item scale from Saucier and Goldberg (2002). An example item was: “I am easily stressed”. Responses were given on

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a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not applicable) to 5 (highly applicable). Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was .84.

It is argued that younger people are more adaptable to organizational changes. Organizational change is often embedded with new technological developments and the digitalization of work processes (Tros, 2004). An organization needs adaptable employees who have digital and computer skills to keep up with changes in the organization. According to Van Deursen and Van Dijk (2011), employees with a higher age are less skilled in computers and digitalized work processes. Therefore, it is plausible that employees with a higher age have more problems adapting to change and have more resistance. In addition, employees with a longer tenure at the organization are more likely to have problems adjusting to new ways of working because they must deviate from previous successful routines and work habits (Fossum, Arvey, Paradise & Robbins, 1986). This could explain why employees with a longer tenure have more resistance to change than employees with a shorter tenure. According to Cummings and Worley (2009), organizational restructuring often goes hand in hand with a redistribution of power and decentralization of the organization. As a result, management positions are deleted to break down functional barriers. It is therefore expected that employees in management positions have more resistance to change because there is a chance of privilege and status loss. In addition, this possible loss of status is for men more important than for women (Adams & Funk, 2012). That is why it is expected that men have more resistance to change than women. And at last, it is assumed that the level of education of employees is negatively related to resistance to change. Pulakos, Schmitt, Dorsey, Arad, Hedge and Borman (2002) argue that employees with a higher education level have a better ability to cope with changes than employees with a lower education level. Gender, education level and management position were measured as follows: The control variable gender was coded were 1 = woman and 2 = men. Education level was coded where, 1= primary education 2= secondary education, 3= lower vocational

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education, 4= higher vocational education and 5= university. Management position was coded where 1= no and 2= yes. The control variables age, tenure and the personal characteristics were measured using a continuous scale.

Factor analysis The structure of the dataset was examined with factor analysis. The data of this study met all of the required assumptions for using factor analysis namely: linearity, sample size, outliers, correlations, Bartlett’s test of sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value (Pallant, 2007). Bartlett’s test of sphericity reached statistical significance in both study designs (Bartlett, 1954). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was for the cross-sectional data .85 and for the longitudinal data .83, exceeding the recommended value of .06 (Kaiser, 1974). In the factor analysis all 27 items of the four variables in this study were subjected to Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) using a forced four-factor solution with Direct Oblimin rotation. The structure of the rotated pattern matrix corresponded with the four variables of this study in both study designs and revealed the presence of a simple structure (Thurstone, 1947). Hence, all factors showed a number of strong loadings in the pattern matrix and all variables loaded substantially on one component. In both the crosssectional and longitudinal study design the four factors explained a total of 62% of the variance. The outcomes of the factor analyses are displayed in table 1 and 2.

Statistical analysis Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between the variables in this study and to test the hypotheses. Preliminary analyses were conducted to verify if all assumptions for hierarchical regression analyses were met. The data met the required assumptions of multicollinearity, outliers, normality, linearity, homoscedasticity and independence of residuals in all hierarchical regression analyses (Pallant, 2006). To test the mediation effect of the emotion regulation strategies the rules of Baron and Kenny (1986) were applied and were executed in the following steps. First,

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the dependent variable of resistance to change was regressed on the independent variable task restructuring and control variables. As such, it was tested whether condition two of Baron and Kenny (1986) was met where the independent variable must predict the dependent variable. Second, the mediating variables of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination were seperately regressed on the independent variable task restructuring and the control variables. As such, it was checked whether condition one of Baron and Kenny (1986) was met where the independent variable must predict the mediation effect. Third, the dependent variable resistance to change at T1 was regressed on the control variables, the independent variable taks restructuring and the mediation variables of cognitive reappraisal and rumination. Herewith, it was tested whether condition three of Baron and Kenny (1986) was met where the mediation must predict the dependent variable. These steps for the hierarchical regression analysis were performed for both the longitudinal and the cross-sectional study design. In the cross-sectional study design all variables were analyzed at T1. In the longitudinal study design the independent variable of task restrucuturing and the mediation variables of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination were analyzed at T1 and dependent variable of resistance to change at T2. A Sobel test was used to investigate whether the mediation role of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination was significant.

Results In table 3 the means, standard deviations, bivariate correlations and internal consistencies of the variables are displayed.

Testing Hypotheses of Longitudinal data A preliminary analysis was performed to investigate whether the control variables had a significant relationship with the dependent variable. In the cross-sectional study design, the control variable emotional stability had a significant relationship with resistance to change at T1 (β= -.31, p<.01). In the longitudinal study design, emotional

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stability had an almost significant relationship with resistance to change at T2 (β= -.20, p=.06). Emotional stability was therefore entered in Step 1 of all hierarchical regression analyses of both study designs. First, the hypotheses were tested with the longitudinal data. Hence, resistance to change at T2 was regressed on task restructuring, cognitive re-appraisal, rumination and emotional stability. Table 4 presents the results of the hierarchical regression analysis of the longitudinal study design. Emotional stability was entered in Step 1 and task restructuring in Step 2. There was no significant relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change at T2 (β=.13, p<.15). Therefore hypothesis 1, which assumed a positive relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change was rejected. Cognitive re-appraisal and rumination were entered in Step 3. When including the mediation variables the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change becomes significant (β=.18, p<.05), suggesting that these emotion regulation strategies served as suppressor variables. The total model explained 26% of the variance in resistance to change (T2). To test hypothesis 2 and 3, cognitive re-appraisal and rumination were regressed separately on task restructuring and the control variable emotional stability. Table 5 presents the results of the hierarchical regression analyses on the mediators. Emotional stability was entered in Step 1 and task restructuring in Step 2 in both regressions. Hypothesis 2 assumed a negative relationship between task restructuring and cognitive reappraisal. The results showed that task restructuring was not significantly related cognitive re-appraisal (β=.09, p<.32). Therefore, hypothesis 2 was rejected. Hypothesis 3 assumed a positive relationship between task restructuring and rumination. Task restructuring made a significant contribution to the prediction of rumination (β=.19, p<.05). Hypothesis 3 was therefore accepted. This indicates that when tasks are more restructured employees tend to ruminate more. Hypothesis 4 assumed that there was a negative significant relationship between cognitive re-appraisal and resistance to change. This hypothesis was supported because

21

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

there was a negative significant relationship between these variables (β= -.44, p<.001). This indicates that when employees reappraise the situation more positively they have less resistance to the change. Rumination had no significant association with resistance to change at T2 (β= -.03, p=.78). Therefore, hypothesis 5 was rejected. Hypothesis 6 stated that the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change was mediated by cognitive re-appraisal and rumination. Unfortunately, this hypothesis was rejected in the longitudinal study design. No additional analysis was done because only hypothesis 3 and 4 were supported and no indirect effect was found.

Testing Hypotheses of Cross-sectional data Next, the hypotheses were tested using the cross-sectional data. Hence, it was checked whether the cross-sectional data provided a mediation effect for one of the emotion regulation strategies. Table 6 presents the results of the hierarchical regression analysis. Hypothesis 1 assumed a positive relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change (T1). In Step 1, the control variable emotional stability was entered and task restructuring in Step 2. When controlling for emotional stability, there was no significant effect between task restructuring and resistance to change (β=.11, p=.25). Therefore, hypothesis 1 was rejected. In Step 3, cognitive re-appraisal and rumination were entered into the hierarchical regression analysis. The total model explained 40% of the variance in resistance to change (T1). Hypothesis 2 and 3 do not differ between the longitudinal and cross-sectional study design because only variables of T1 were included. Hypothesis 2 was rejected because the results showed that task restructuring was not significantly related to cognitive re-appraisal (β=.09, p<.32). Hypothesis 3 was accepted because task restructuring made a significant contribution to the prediction of rumination (β=.19, p<.05). Again, Table 5 displays the regression analysis on the mediators. Hypothesis 4 assumed a negative relationship between cognitive re-appraisal and resistance to change. Hypothesis 4 was accepted because there was a significant negative effect between cognitive re-appraisal and resistance to change (β= -.51, p<.001).

22

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

This indicates that the more employees are reappraising the organizational change the less resistance to change they develop. Hypothesis 5 assumed a positive relationship between rumination and resistance to change. Hypothesis 5 was accepted because the relationship between them was significant and positive (β=.28, p<.001). This indicates that when employees are ruminating more they will develop more resistance to change. Hypothesis 6 stated that the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change was mediated by cognitive re-appraisal and rumination. Hypotheses 3, 4 and 5 were accepted in the cross-sectional study design. There was a possibility for rumination to be a mediation in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change. However, no significant relationship was found between task restructuring and resistance to change in this study, whereby condition one of Baron and Kenny (1986) was not met. According to MacKinnon, Lockwood, Hoffman, West and Sheets (2002) it is debatable if condition one of Baron and Kenny (1986) must be met to determine if there is a mediation effect. Therefore, additional analysis was done to investigate the mediation role of rumination. A Sobel test was exectuted but did not found a significant mediation effect for rumination (Sobel test = 1.81, p=.07). Hypotheses 6 was therefore also rejected in the cross-sectional study design.

Discussion The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination mediate the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change. Two different study designs were used to test all the hypotheses of the conceptual model of this study. The cross-sectional study design explained the conceptual model of this study better than the longitudinal study design. Three of the six hypotheses were supported in the cross-sectional study design and the explained variance in resistance to change at T1 was 40%. In the longitudinal study design only two of the six hypotheses were supported and the explained variance in resistance to change at T2 decreased to 26%.

23

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Hypothesis 1 stated that task restructuring and resistance to change were positively related. In both study design there was no significant effect between these two constructs. Surprisingly, when controlling for cognitive re-appraisal and rumination the regression analysis of the longitudinal data revealed that the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change becomes significant. When investigating a mediation effect with hierarchical regression analysis the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change is supposed to decrease or disappear. Therefore, it is suggested that the emotion regulation strategies served as suppressor variables in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change. Further research is recommended. Interestingly, the emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal did not show a significant relationship with task restructuring. In both study designs hypothesis 2 was rejected. Previous studies found that job insecurity (Van Dam, Kleine & Struijs, 2013) and perceived injustice (Van Dam & Visser, 2013) had a significant relationship with cognitive re-appraisal. These two concepts are more emotionally charged and are already reflecting the interpretations and perspectives that employees have against the organizational change. This is in contrast to task restructuring which is initiated by management and outside the control of employees. A methodological explanation for not finding the hypothesized relationship between task restructuring and cognitive reappraisal is that the sample size of this study is relatively small (N=111). Hypothesis 3 stated that task restructuring was positively related to the emotion regulation strategy of rumination. This indicates that the more tasks are restructured, the more employees will ruminate. Their significant relationship is found in both the crosssectional as the longitudinal study design. Their relationship is underpinned by the Job Demand-Control model of Karasek (1979) and AET of Weiss and Cropanzano (1996). When tasks are restructured employees need to adapt to the new situation and they need to learn new work behaviours, attitudes and work methods. As a result, it is believed that their job is more demanding and that employees have less control over the changed and

24

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

new situation. This high-strain situation as well as the deliberate attempt to change the status quo of employees is a trigger for an emotional reaction that needs to be regulated by ruminating (Lewin, 1951; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Hypothesis 4 stated that cognitive re-appraisal was negatively related to resistance to change and was accepted in both study designs. This finding is in accordance with previous research (Van Dam & Visser, 2014). This indicates that when employees use this adaptive emotion regulation strategy, they re-appraise the change situation, which results in less resistance to change. When employees are reappraising the situation, they are altering their negative emotions and are looking more positively towards organizational change (Gross, 2002; Van Dam, & Visser, 2014). In other words, they are more open towards organizational change and develop less resistance to change. Cognitive re-appraisal had an high positive association with the personal characteristic of emotional stability. This suggests that when employees are emotional stable they can reappraise the situation of organizational change more positive. In addition, the relationship between cognitive re-appraisal and resistance to change remained significant when resistance to change at T2 was taken into account in the longitudinal study design. Therefore, it is believed that the emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal is stable in time and not a state of being but rather a nature that is already present in an employee or a skill that can be learned. It should be noticed that further research is necessary on this topic. For example, including more measurements of cognitive reappraisal in time and larger time lags between measurements. Hypothesis 5 stated that when employees use the emotion regulation strategy of rumination they have more resistance to change. Hypothesis 5 was only accepted in the cross-sectional study design were rumination and resistance to change were measured at the same time. The cross-sectional study of Van Dam and Visser (2014) also found a significant effect between rumination and resistance to change. It seems that when rumination and resistance to change were not analyzed at the same measurement in time their significant positive relationship disappeared. A theoretical explanation for not

25

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

finding a significant relationship in the longitudinal study design is that the emotion regulation strategy of rumination has only a short-term effect on resistance to change and is not stable over time. Again further research is necessary, including more measurements in time and larger time lags between measurements. A methodological explanation for not finding a significant relationship between rumination and resistance to change in the longitudinal study design is common method bias. The broader research context in which the measures for the constructs were obtained were separated in time and location and thereby protected for method bias. Rumination and resistance to change had no significant relationship in the longitudinal study design, but it is possible that their significant effect in the cross-sectional study design was explained by common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Unfortunately, both study designs did not find a mediation role for one of the emotion regulation strategies. Therefore, hypothesis 6 is rejected in both study designs. The research question of this study was: To what extent does emotion regulation mediate the relationship between task restructuring and employees’ change resistance in organizations? This study provided no evidence that emotion regulation served as a linking pin in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change. This is remarkable because previous studies and AET theory gave a clear indication of possible hypothesized effects of this study. A possible methodological explanation for this is that the sample size of this study was relatively small (N=111), were it is possible that significant relationships of the variables of the conceptual model stayed unnoticed. When the sample size increases, the power of analysis will increase and the ability to provide a significant mediation effect for the emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change will be higher.

Strengths and Limitations This study has a couple of strengths. First of all, there is not much research on emotion regulation strategies in the context of organizational change. This study makes a

26

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

significant contribution to research because it studied the concept of emotion regulation strategies in the context of organizational change longitudinally. Second, this study compared a cross-sectional study design with a longitudinal study design and studied emotion regulation strategies over time while minimizing method bias. A longitudinal study design gives more credibility to the significant relationships of this study than a cross-sectional study design because causal relationships can be better established. Third, the sample of this study was diverse because nine different organizations participated in this study were no restrictions were made for selecting participants. This diverse sample provided on the one hand more variance to the data but on the other hand, its diversity contributed to external validity of the results. Finally most participants stated that their organization was currently in the middle of an organizational change at T1. Therefore, memory effects were not an issue in this study. It is an advantage that most employees do not had to recall their memory for feelings, behaviours and emotions caused by organizational change. In addition to these strengths, this study has a number of limitations. Participants were selected on their availability and accessibility. The researchers used convenience sampling when approaching organizations. As a result, generalization of the results from this study must be done carefully. It is recommended for future research to use some form of random sampling so that findings can be generalized. Another notable limitation is that information for this study was only provided by the employees themselves. The data was therefore restricted because only the perspective of the employee was taken into account. For future research it is important to include the perceptions from colleagues and managers, to prevent that data is contaminated with selfreport bias like social-desirability and consistency motive (Podsakoff et al., 2003). A limitation which was already mentioned is the relatively small sample size of this study. For future research it is recommend to increase the sample size. When the sample size increases, the power of analysis will also increase and the ability to provide a significant effect will be higher. Now possible significant effects may have stayed unnoticed. A final

27

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

limitation is that the independent-sample t-test revealed that employees who filled out the questionnaire the first time scored significant higher on rumination and resistance to change than employees who filled out the questionnaire twice. In this study, only the employees who fill out the questionnaire twice were taken into account. It is possible that hypnotized effects of this study stayed unnoticed due to the dropout of the employees who scored higher on rumination and resistance to change.

Theoretical implications and future research Despite these limitations, the findings of this study suggest that emotion regulation strategies play an important role during organizational change. Results showed that employees who reappraise the situation of organizational change have less resistance to change. This significant negative effect was already found by a previous study using a cross-sectional study design (Van Dam & Visser, 2013). This study used a longitudinal study design and laid the foundation for analysing the concept of cognitive re-appraisal over time. It seems that the relationship between cognitive re-appraisal and resistance to change remains significant over time and is stable. To support this statement, future research can focus on more measurements of cognitive re-appraisal in time and larger time lags between measurements. Future research is also needed to examine individual or contextual factors that might hinder or enhance the use of cognitive re-appraisal. Furthermore, this study found that task restructuring of employees is positively related to rumination. Rumination in turn has only a short-term effect on resistance to change in this study. When rumination and resistance to change were separated in time their significant effect disappeared. This study laid the foundation for a possible understanding that rumination is a strategy that is not stable over time. To support this statement, future research should focus on more measurements of rumination in time and larger time lags between measurements. Future research is also needed to examine individual or contextual factors that might advance or decrease the use of rumination.

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MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

At last, for future research it is recommend to investigate all emotion regulation strategies in the context of organizational change. These emotion regulation strategies are; situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment (rumination), cognitive re-appraisal and response modulation (Gross, 2002). Building on AET theory, emotions mediate the link between affective events and subsequent behavior and attitudes of employees (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Other important behaviors and attitudes of employees can be taken into account in future research like organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Then, it can be analyzed which emotion regulation strategies of employees might influence these important outcomes for the organization.

Practical implications There are some practical implications that can be derived from the findings of the study. For organizations it is of crucial importance to know how they can enhance the use of the adaptive emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal by employees to reduce resistance to change. The results of this study indicate that cognitive re-appraisal contributed to lower levels of resistance to change, which is important for organizations to survive and stay agile. Therefore, a practical implication advice for managers is to help employees use this emotion regulation strategy to improve the effectiveness of an organizational change. Managers could for example express the positive sides of the change and clarify the benefits of the change to employees. These practical implications lead to less resistance to organizational change according to the results of this study. Another practical implication for managers is that they should be focused on ruminating employees in their team. It is important that managers try to decrease rumination, because this maladaptive emotion regulation strategy has negative consequences like resistance to change (Leahy, 2007). According to the results of this study, the emotion regulation strategy of rumination had a short term effect on the development of resistance to change and was not stable over time. Therefore, managers must be on top of ruminating employees, because the focus of employees who use this

29

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

strategy are constantly directed towards the negative sides of the organizational change and thus will lead to more change resistance. This study also found that the more tasks and work methods are restructured by management the more employees will ruminate. A practical implication for managers is to restructure employees’ tasks and work methods as such that the demands of the job do not increase and the control in one’s job does not decreases. Then, there is not an increase in job strain and there is a deliberate attempt to maintain the status quo of employees. It is likely that this intervention will decrease the occurrence of rumination by employees because the trigger for an emotional reaction is less. The study of Bambra et al. (2007) found that such a task restructuring intervention improved the health of employees. Although, a significant mediation effect was not found, this study helps to better understand the concepts of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination in the field of research and indicates that these concepts are important during organizational change processes. When managers get more insight in employees emotions and the way they regulate them they will be more able to interpret one’s resistance to change and prevent and/or reduce it. In addition, when an organization can neutralize change resistance, it will benefit the change process and it will make the change more successful (Lewin, 1951). The emotion regulation strategy of cognitive re-appraisal seems to be an effective strategy for minimizing resistance to change and is stable over time. This study therefore supports the view that “if you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change” (Dyer, 2009).

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Running head: MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

36

Appendix Table 1. Factor analyses T1

Scale

Resistance to change

I tend to oppose to the change

.86

I feel resistance against the organizational change

.82

The change makes me angry

.80

I have a bad feeling about the change

.77

I look for ways to prevent the change from taking place

.76

The change stresses me out

.74

I protest against the change

.74

I present my objections regarding the change to management

.69

I complain about the change to my colleagues

.68

I am afraid of the change

.64

I believe that the change would harm the way things are done in the organization

.59

I believe that the change would make my job harder

.54

I believe that the change would benefit the organization

.38

Task restructuring

The content of my work has changed

-.94

Important changes have occurred in the tasks of my job

-.88

The way that I perform my job is different than before

-.79

Cognitive reappraisal

Rumination

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Item 5 Cognitive re-appraisal

.86

Item 2 Cognitive re-appraisal

.84

Item 3 Cognitive re-appraisal

.82

Item 4 Cognitive re-appraisal

.74

37

Item 3 Rumination

.84

Item 4 Rumination

.80

Item 2 Rumination

.75

Item 1 Rumination

.56

Eigenwaarde

7.43

2.70

4.39

2.60

Cronbach’s α T1

.93

.90

.90

.83

Cronbach’s α T2

.93

.92

.85

.81

Maximum likelihood, factor loadings <0.3 are not presented

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

38

Table 2. Factor analyses T1

Scale

Resistance to change

I tend to oppose to the change

.93

I protest against the change

.90

I present my objections regarding the change to management

.77

I feel resistance against the organizational change

.74

I look for ways to prevent the change from taking place

.74

The change makes me angry

.73

I complain about the change to my colleagues

.65

I believe that the change would harm the way things are done in the organization

.56

The change stresses me out

.55

I have a bad feeling about the change

.48

I believe that the change would benefit the organization

.48

I believe that the change would make my job harder

.40

I am afraid of the change

.35

Task restructuring

The content of my work has changed

-.98

Important changes have occurred in the tasks of my job

-.84

The way that I perform my job is different than before

-.82

Cognitive reappraisal

Item 3 Cognitive re-appraisal

.85

Item 5 Cognitive re-appraisal

.84

Rumination

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Item 2 Cognitive re-appraisal

.82

Item 4 Cognitive re-appraisal

.77

39

Item 3 Rumination

.81

Item 4 Rumination

.80

Item 2 Rumination

.78

Item 1 Rumination

.56

Eigenwaarde

7.77

2.79

5.27

3.68

Cronbach’s α T1

.93

.90

.90

.83

Cronbach’s α T2

.93

.92

.85

.81

Maximum likelihood, factor loadings <0.3 are not presented

40

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Table 3. Means, Standard deviations, Correlations and Reliability estimates M 1. Age

SD

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

42

10.35

2. Gender

1.49

.50

.17

3. Management position

1.11

.31

.17

.18

14

11.63

.68**

.05

.04

5. Education

3.90

.83

-.26**

-.08

.11

-.32**

6. Self-efficacy

3.96

.48

-.16

.03

.08

-.19*

.03

.85

7. Openness

3.90

.52

-.15

.13

.20*

-.12

.25**

.54**

.81

8. Emotional stability

3.68

.67

.00

.14

.25**

-.12

.04

.33**

.11

.84

9. Task re-structuring T1

2.77

1.04

.09

-.10

.14

.12

-.06

-.12

-.02

-.09

.90

10. Cognitive re-appraisal T1

3.43

.81

.10

.03

.27**

.03

-.05

.44**

.36**

.35**

.06

11. Rumination T1

1.84

.63

-.07

.08

.18

.03

.02

-.13

.16

-.35**

.22*

-.04

.83

12. Resistance to change T1

2.17

.69

-.14

.08

-.13

-.04

.12

-.21*

-.01

-.35**

.14

-.54**

.35**

.93

13. Task re-structuring T2

2.80

1.14

.01

.02

.09

.12

-.15

-.10

.04

-.05

.63**

.10

.28**

.08

.92

14. Cognitive re-appraisal T2

3.33

.86

.15

-.03

.29**

.06

-.00

.18

.18

.23*

.03

.58**

-.07

-.39**

-.02

15. Rumination T2

1.67

.56

.04

.10

.03

.21*

-.01

-.18

.18

-.37**

.20*

-.05

.43**

.31**

.29**

-.07

.81

16. Resistance to change T2

2.22

.68

-.03

-.09

-.22*

.08

.02

-.16

-.08

-.28**

.16

-.47**

.07

.54**

.14

-.51**

.28**

4. Tenure

16.

.90

.85

Note: N=111. Numbers in italics indicate internal consistency reliability estimates. Gender: 1= woman; 2 = man. Management position: 1= no; 2= yes. Education: 1=primary education; 2= secondary education; 3=lower vocational education; 4=higher vocational education; 5=university. * p < .05 ; ** p <.01

.93

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Table 4. Hierarchical regression analysis of the mediation effect of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change at T2

Resistance to change at T2 Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

β

β

β

Control variable Emotional stability

-.28**

-.27**

-.12

Independent variable Task restructuring

.13

.18*

Mediation variables Cognitive re-appraisal

-.44***

Rumination

-.03

R2

.08

 R2 F

.09

.26

.02

.17

2.07

11.97***

Note. N=111. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001

Table 5. Hierarchical regression analysis of task restructuring on the mediation effects of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination

Cognitive re-appraisal

Rumination

Model 1

Model 2

Model 1

β

β

β

Model 2 β

Control variable Emotional stability

.35***

.36***

-.35***

-.33***

Independent variable Task restructuring R2

.09 .12

.13

.190* .12

.16

 R2

.01

.04

F

1

4.58*

Note. N=111. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001

41

MEDIATION EFFECT OF EMOTION REGULATION DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Table 6. Hierarchical regression analysis of the mediation effect of cognitive re-appraisal and rumination in the relationship between task restructuring and resistance to change at T1

Resistance to change at T1 Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

β

β

β

Control variable Emotional stability

-.35***

-.34***

-.07

.11

.10

Independent variable Task restructuring Mediation variables Cognitive re-appraisal

-.51***

Rumination

.28***

R2

.12

 R2 F Note. N=111. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001

.14

.40

.01

.27

1.37

24.08***

42

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