Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Trichinellosis

Clinical Microbiology Reviews cmr.asm.org doi: 10.1128/CMR.00026-08 Clin. Microbiol. Rev. January 2009 vol. 22 no. 1 127-145 1 January 2009

Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Trichinellosis Bruno Gottstein1, *, Edoardo Pozio2 and Karsten Nöckler3 + Author Affiliations

SUMMARY Summary: Throughout much of the world, Trichinella spp. are found to be the causative agents of human trichinellosis, a disease that not only is a public health hazard by affecting human patients but also represents an economic problem in porcine animal production and food safety. Due to the predominantly zoonotic importance of infection, the main efforts in many countries have focused on the control of Trichinella or the elimination of Trichinella from the food chain. The most important source of human infection worldwide is the domestic pig, but, e.g., in Europe, meats of horses and wild boars have played a significant role during outbreaks within the past 3 decades. Infection of humans occurs with the ingestion of Trichinella larvae that are encysted in muscle tissue of domestic or wild animal meat. Early clinical diagnosis of trichinellosis is rather difficult because pathognomonic signs or symptoms are lacking. Subsequent chronic forms of the disease are not easy to diagnose, irrespective of parameters including clinical findings, laboratory findings (nonspecific laboratory parameters such as eosinophilia, muscle enzymes, and serology), and epidemiological investigations. New regulations laying down rules for official controls for Trichinella in meat in order to improve food safety for consumers have recently been released in Europe. The evidence that the disease can be monitored and to some extent controlled with a rigorous reporting and testing system in place should be motivation to expand appropriate programs worldwide.


* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Institute of Parasitology, University of

Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland. Phone: (41) 31 631 24 18. Fax: (41) 31 631 26 22. E-mail: b[email protected] American Society for Microbiology

We recommend Clinical aspects of infection with Trichinella spp. V Capó, Clin Microbiol Rev Validation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Human Trichinellosis Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales, Clin Vaccine Immunol Development and Evaluation of a Western Blot Kit for Diagnosis of Human Trichinellosis Hélène Yera, Clin Vaccine Immunol Reactivity and Specificity of Trichinella spiralis Fractions in Cutaneous and Serological Tests

Parasitic Infections Soumya Chatterjee, Cancer Therapy Advisor Veterinary treatment of fox casualties David Couper et al., In Practice Gram positive bacteria - Enterococcus Roman Pallares et al., Cancer Therapy Advisor Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study

Omar O. Barriga, J Clin Microbiol

Arash Etemadi et al., The BMJ

Serological Evaluation of Thin-Layer Immunoassay–Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Antibody Detection in Human Trichinellosis

How Long Can You Live With HIV? HIV 2

Alberto Gómez-Priego, Clin Vaccine Immunol

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Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Trichinellosis

Clinical Microbiology Reviews cmr.asm.org doi: 10.1128/CMR.00026-08 Clin. Microbiol. Rev. January 2009 vol. 22 no. 1 127-145 1 January 2009 Epidemiol...

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