Ethics : theory and practice

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Contents

Preface

VII

• CHAPTER 1

What Is Morality?

1

Objectives. What is Philosophy and Ethics' Relationship to It? Key Terms. Approaches to the Study of Morality. Morality and Its Applications. Where Does Morality Come From? Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality. Morality, Law, and Religion. Why Should Human Beings Be Moral? Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading .

• CHAPTER 2

Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality

39

Objectives. Psychological Egoism. Ethical Egoism. Utilitarianism. Difficulty with Consequentialist Theories in General. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

VII

Contents

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• CHAPTER 3

N onconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories of Morality and Virtue Ethics

63

Objectives. Act Nonconsequentialist Theories. Rule Nonconsequentialist Theories. General Criticisms of Nonconsequentialist Theories. Virtue Ethics. Conclusions. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 4

Absolutistn Versus Relativistn

93

Objectives. The Meanings of "Absolute." The Meanings of "Relative." Cultural Relativism and Cultural Absolutism. Propositions and Truth. Conclusion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 5

Freedotn Versus Detertninistn

113

Objectives. Meaning of Determinism. Types and Theories of Determinism. Fatalism and Hard and Soft Determinism. Indeterminism. Criticisms of Hard Determinism and Arguments for Freedom. Conclusion-Soft Determinism. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading.



CHAPTER 6

Reward and Punishtnent Objectives. Definition of Key Terms. Reward and Punishment in Relationship to Justice. Elements of Justice. Reward. Punishment. Theories of Punishment. Is a Synthesis Possible? Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading. Vlll

135

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Contents

• CHAPTER 7

Setting Up a Moral Systelll: Basic AssulllPtions and Basic Principles

171

Objectives. Conflicting General Moral Issues. Basic Assumptions. Basic Principles, Individual Freedom, and Their Justification. Priority of the Basic Principles. A General Way of Determining Priority-Two Categories. How the System of Humanitarian Ethics Works. Conclusion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Note. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 8

The Tal~ing of HUlllan Life

203

Objectives. The Taking of Human Life. Suicide. Cases for Study and Discussion. Defense of the Innocent (the Self Included). Cases for Study and Discussion. War. Cases for Study and Discussion. Capital Punishment. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 9

Allowing SOllleone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing

227

Objectives. Definition of Terms. Allowing Someone to Die. Cases for Study and Discussion. Mercy Death. Cases for Study and Discussion. Mercy Killing. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 10

Abortion

273

Objectives. Introduction to the Abortion Issue. When Does Human Life Begin? Arguments Against Abortion. Arguments IX

Contents

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for Abortion. The More Moderate Positions on Abortion. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 11

Lying, Cheating, Breal~ing Prolllises, and Stealing

301

Objectives. Introduction. Definitions of Key Terms. Nonconsequentialist and Consequentialist Views. Lying. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 12

Morality and HUlllan Sexuality

337

Objectives. Major Aspects of Human Sexuality. The Meaning and Purposes of Human Sexuality. Premarital Sex. Sex in Marriage-Type (Including Nonlegal) Relationships. Masturbation. Pornography. Prostitution. Sexual Perversion or "Unnatural" Sexual Activity. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

• CHAPTER 13

Bioethics-E thical Issues in Medicine

373

Objectives. Introduction and Definition of Terms. Health Care Professionals and Patients and Their Families-Rights and Obligations. Truth Telling and Informed Consent. Confidentiality. Guilt and Innocence in Treating Patients. Ethical Issues in Medicine. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.



CHAPTER 14

Business Ethics Objectives. Introduction. Rights and Obligations in Business.

x

407

o

Appendixes

Two Ways of Approaching Rights and Obligations in Business. The Moderate Position. Justice, Truth Telling, and Honesty in Business. Ethical Issues in Business. Sexual Harassment. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading .

• CHAPTER 15

Environntental Ethics

437

Objectives. Key Terms. Nature and Morality. Environmental Ethical Issues. Our Attitude Toward Nature and What Lies Behind It. Arguments for Use and Exploitation of the Natural Environment. Arguments Against the Use and Exploitation of Nature. Moderate Position. Criteria for Animal Rights. Ways of Dealing with Animal Rights. Use of Animals for Food. Use of Animals for Experimentation. Killing Animals for Sport. Protection of Endangered Species. Conclusion. Cases for Study and Discussion. Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Notes. Supplementary Reading.

Appendixes Introduction

469

APPENDIX 1

Applying HUlllanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problellls of the Taking of HUlllan Life

471

APPENDIX 2

Applying HUlllanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problellls of Allowing SOllleone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing

483

APPENDIX 3

Applying HUlllanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problellls of Abortion

495 Xl

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APPENDIX 4

Applying Hutnanitai"ian Ethics to the Moral Probletns of Lying, Cheating, Breal~ing Protnises, and Stealing

507

APPENDIX 5

Applying Hutnanitarian Ethics to the Moral Probletns of Hutnan Sexuality

517

APPENDIX 6

Applying Hutnanitarian Ethics to Moral Probletns in Medicine (Bioethics)

525

APPENDIX 7

Applying Hutnanitarian Ethics to Moral Probletns in Business (Business Ethics)

533

APPENDIX 8

Applying Hutnanitarian Ethics to Environtnental Ethics

541

Glossary

547

Index

565

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Ethics : theory and practice

Contents Preface VII • CHAPTER 1 What Is Morality? 1 Objectives. What is Philosophy and Ethics' Relationship to It? Key Terms. Approaches to the...

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