etika pengendalian opt - From soil, eating soil, back to soil

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“CROP PROTECTION” PESTICIDE USE

AGST 3000 Agriculture, Society and the Natural World

Some Definitions Crop Protecting Agent = A politically correct term for Pesticides. Pesticide = a substance that kills a pest (insect, weed, bacteria, nematode…) 1. Herbicide = plant killer 2. Insecticide = insect killer 3. Rodenticide = rodent killer – Other “cides”??

Why are pesticides used in agriculture and the environment? 1. Agriculture: a. Use of “crop protecting” agents improves yield and quality of agricultural products, consumer preferences b. Prevents the spread of diseases to crops and livestock (Pierce’s Disease) c. The use of pesticides is regulated by the E.P.A. (Environmental Protection Agency), State law and County regulation)

Why are pesticides used in agriculture, society and the environment?...continued

2. Society & Environment: a. Aesthetics - used regularly in city parks and other recreational areas to control insect damage and weeds (ie Disneyland, ball parks, schools, etc) b. Protect humans from insect-borne diseases, mosquitoes transmit many diseases (Mosquito Abatement Programs) West Nile Virus, Malaria.

c. Protect our food supply. In developing countries (India), up to 1/3 of all harvested grain is destroyed by rodents and insects.

Concerns With Pesticide Use 1. Environmental concerns a. They kill beneficial insects and plants (non selective). b. Pollution – runoff of herbicides and insecticides into irrigation water and then into rivers - damages wildlife habitat, kills fish.

c. Cause cancer – organophosphates d. Disrupt the natural ecosystem and natural biodiversity e. Creates chemical resistance – insects and weeds. Examples?

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Pest management that utilizes several strategies to control insects and other pests rather than strictly relying on chemical control. Four Components…

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components 1. Pest identification – important for proper pest control – Confuse beneficial insects with harmful (not all bugs are bad!)

– Pest that’s on the plant may not be the one causing damage. – Damage may not even be caused by an insect (herbicide or nutritional deficiency, weather damage etc.)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components 2. Surveying for pests – systematically check for pests and pest damage



Pheromone traps



Sweeping the field



Random leaf, fruit and stem samples

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components 3. Encourage Beneficial Insect/Animal Populations – Use milder chemicals or selective sprays that don’t kill beneficial animals. – Examples – “Barn Owl Nesting Boxes” – rodent control – Predatory wasp populations – fly control in poultry and dairy operations – Natural insect enemies – lady bugs, lace wings, praying mantis, predatory mites

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components

4. Control Action Guidelines – Application of pesticides only after a certain number of pests have been found and there is a threat of economic loss.

A Little History…. • Early pesticides were developed from neurotoxins researched for germ-warfare in WWI and WWII. • DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethylene) • 1948 Paul Herman Mueller was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for his research on the benefits of DDT. • After WWII DDT was used in agriculture.

The Environmental Movement • Rachel Carlson (1962) – beginning of the modern environmental movement, created an awareness of the damage pesticides were causing on the environment with her book – “Silent Spring” • Near loss of the Bald Eagle and many fish-eating birds was attributed to DDT. • DDT – An example of an effective pesticide! – – – – –

Insect/disease control - Potent toxin, long half-life Still used to control mosquitoes in developing countries Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever – spread by mosquitoes Yellow Fever – nearly prevented the colonies from being settled More soldiers were lost in WWII due to mosquito-borne disease than in battle.

Sociology of Pesticides continued… •

Vietnam War – used defoliants to clear forests

• Post War Conditions – Refugee camps, many diseases • Modern Challenge…Disease could be used as a weapon (biological and chemical agents) • Bubonic Plague – infected fleas & dropped them on China during WWII; killed 50,000 people • Many people think all pesticides should be banned. • San Francisco has tried to ban all pesticides; this would include germ killers like Chlorine

Pesticide Routes of Entry •

Dermal (skin) most common



Oral



Respiratory



Ocular

Pesticide Toxicological Tests • U.S. food supply is the safest in the world

• “Risk Cup” – EPA evaluate scientifically the level of risk compared to benefits. • Fill the cup with all the risks an individual is exposed to during their lives.

Politics of Pesticides continued… • “Biocides” – easily manufactured & inexpensive • Petroleum industry was the generator • Pet pesticides – flea control, tick control • Pharmaceutical industry does much of the pesticide research today, patent lasts 17 years & it takes 10 years to complete research process. • How much does this cost?

Environmental Issues with Pesticides • Pesticides enter the environment through crop application. – Leach into aquifer – Drift from applying during wind – Improper usage and disposal of containers

• Central Valley has potential problems associated with continual pesticides and chemical applications. WHY? • Problem-“Bio-magnification”

“Bio-magnification” • Duration…Chlorodane – killed lots of bugs, 30 year half-life, very stable in soil. Improper application of insecticide caused it to be banned.

• Accumulation…DDT – stays in the environment, organisms pick up the molecules and it stays in the animal’s tissues…animals eat animals and it passes on…Raptor egg shell thickness • Resistance develops – kill 99%; 1% left that are resistant. Survivals detoxify chemicals used as pesticides low kill-rate. “Pesticide treadmill”

Some Answers to Reducing Pesticide Use • Control populations – work within ecological principles, IPM • Pest Control Advisors must use these practices, an old idea. – Select all the techniques to control pests. – Understand the ecological interactions of the pests. – More is not necessarily better…follow application guidelines strictly

• California has the strictest rules and regulations concerning pesticides in the nation.

Pesticide Regulations used in California Agriculture • ALL pesticide applicators must have a license which they obtain by successfully taking a test. “Private Applicator’s License” – CE is required to maintain the license.

• ALL Farm workers must use proper safety equipment – mask, gloves, safety glasses, coveralls. Must be trained in their native language. • Pesticide storage is monitored by the state government. County Health Dept. – Hazardous materials, pay a fee annually.

Pesticide Regulations used in California Agriculture • All pesticide run-off must be contained. • All farmers using pesticides must complete a NOI (Notice of Intent) with the county in order to apply ANY pesticide (even Round-Up). WHY? • Who monitors agriculture? What are the consequences for violators??

Organic Foods • Promoted as being “Healthier” because they’re farmed without the use of pesticides right?? • Wrong! – organic farmers use pesticides! What’s the difference? • Examples?

Future Challenges? • IPM – “requires people to work smarter” dealing with biology & ecology and utilizing… “Environmentally Friendly” pesticides – Mycotoxins – “aflatoxins” naturally occurring toxins in peanuts, mushrooms –

• Organic Farming – now will be regulated by the federal government, fringe element no more. • “Biotechnology” – fear of the unknown, no risk is acceptable according to anti-biotech groups.

Future of Chemicals & Pesticides Alternatives will be Key Issue…not a new concept! – – – –

Beneficial insects Mechanical control Chemical controls Hedgerows – create a place for native species- self perpetuating – Cover crops that produce nitrogen…lower fertilizer use – Cover crops that encourage beneficial insects... – Proper irrigation for various crops…reduce runoff

ETIKA PENGENDALIAN OPT

PENGERTIAN ETIKA • sebagai pandangan manusia dalam berprilaku menurut ukuran dan nilai yang baik • teori tentang tingkah laku perbuatan manusia dipandang dari segi baik dan buruk, sejauh yang dapat ditentukan oleh akal • cabang filsafat yang berbicara mengenai nilai dan norma moral yang menentukan prilaku manusia dalam hidupnya

MACAM ETIKA • ETIKA DESKRIPTIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha meneropong secara kritis dan rasional sikap dan prilaku manusia dan apa yang dikejar oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika deskriptif memberikan fakta sebagai dasar untuk mengambil keputusan tentang prilaku atau sikap yang mau diambil. • ETIKA NORMATIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha menetapkan berbagai sikap dan pola prilaku ideal yang seharusnya dimiliki oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika normatif memberi penilaian sekaligus memberi norma sebagai dasar dan kerangka tindakan yang akan diputuskan

SISTEM PENILAIAN ETIKA • Tingkat pertama, semasih belum lahir menjadi perbuatan, jadi masih berupa rencana dalam hati, niat. • Tingkat kedua, setelah lahir menjadi erbuatan nyata, yaitu pekerti. • Tingkat ketiga, akibat atau hasil perbuatan tersebut, yaitu baik atau buruk

VARIABEL REALISASI KEHENDAK • Tujuan baik, tetapi cara untuk mencapainya yang tidak baik. • Tujuannya yang tidak baik, cara mencapainya ; kelihatannya baik. • Tujuannya tidak baik, dan cara mencapainya juga tidak baik. • Tujuannya baik, dan cara mencapainya juga terlihat baik.

PENGERTIAN PROFESI • PROFESI, adalah pekerjaan yang dilakukan sebagai kegiatan pokok untuk menghasilkan nafkah hidup dan yang mengandalkan suatu keahlian. • PROFESIONAL, adalah orang yang mempunyai profesi atau pekerjaan purna waktu dan hidup dari pekerjaan itu dengan mengandalkan suatu keahlian yang tinggi

CIRI-CIRI PROFESI 1. Adanya pengetahuan khusus, yang biasanya keahlian dan keterampilan ini dimiliki berkat pendidikan, pelatihan dan pengalaman yang bertahun-tahun. 2. Adanya kaidah dan standar moral yang sangat tinggi. Hal ini biasanya setiap pelaku profesi mendasarkan kegiatannya pada kode etik profesi. 3. Mengabdi pada kepentingan masyarakat, artinya setiap pelaksana profesi harus meletakkan kepentingan pribadi di bawah kepentingan masyarakat.

CIRI-CIRI PROFESI 4. Ada izin khusus untuk menjalankan suatu profesi. Setiap profesi akan selalu berkaitan dengan kepentingan masyarakat, dimana nilainilai kemanusiaan berupa keselamatan, keamanan, kelangsungan hidup dan sebagainya, maka untuk menjalankan suatu profesi harus terlebih dahulu ada izin khusus. 5. Kaum profesional biasanya menjadi anggota dari suatu organisasi profesi.

SYARAT-SYARAT SUATU PROFESI • Melibatkan kegiatan intelektual. • Menggeluti suatu batang tubuh ilmu yang khusus. • Memerlukan persiapan profesional yang alami dan bukan sekedar latihan. • Memerlukan latihan dalam jabatan yang berkesinambungan.

SYARAT-SYARAT SUATU PROFESI • Menjanjikan karir hidup dan keanggotaan yang permanen. • Mementingkan layanan di atas keuntungan pribadi. • Mempunyai organisasi profesional yang kuat dan terjalin erat. • Menentukan baku standarnya sendiri, dalam hal ini adalah kode etik.

PRINSIP-PRINSIP ETIKA PROFESI 1. Tanggung jawab: 1. Terhadap pelaksanaan pekerjaan itu dan terhadap hasilnya. 2. Terhadap dampak dari profesi itu untuk kehidupan orang lain atau masyarakat pada umumnya.

2. Keadilan. Prinsip ini menuntut kita untuk memberikan kepada siapa saja apa yang menjadi haknya. 3. Otonomi. Prinsip ini menuntut agar setiap kaum profesional memiliki dan di beri kebebasan dalam menjalankan profesinya.

PERANAN ETIKA DALAM PROFESI • Nilai-nilai etika itu tidak hanya milik satu atau dua orang, atau segolongan orang saja, tetapi milik setiap kelompok masyarakat, bahkan kelompok yang paling kecil yaitu keluarga sampai pada suatu bangsa. Dengan nilai-nilai etika tersebut, suatu kelompok diharapkan akan mempunyai tata nilai untuk mengatur kehidupan bersama.

PERANAN ETIKA DALAM PROFESI • Salah satu golongan masyarakat yang mempunyai nilai-nilai yang menjadi landasan dalam pergaulan baik dengan kelompok atau masyarakat umumnya maupun dengan sesama anggotanya, yaitu masyarakat profesional. Golongan ini sering menjadi pusat perhatian karena adanya tata nilai yang mengatur dan tertuang secara tertulis (yaitu kode etik profesi) dan diharapkan menjadi pegangan para anggotanya.

PERANAN ETIKA DALAM PROFESI • Sorotan masyarakat menjadi semakin tajam manakala perilaku-perilaku sebagian para anggota profesi yang tidak didasarkan pada nilai-nilai pergaulan yang telah disepakati bersama (tertuang dalam kode etik profesi), sehingga terjadi kemerosotan etik pada masyarakat profesi tersebut.

KODE ETIK PROFESI • Kode: dapat berarti kumpulan peraturan yang sistematis. • Kode etik ; yaitu norma atau azas yang diterima oleh suatu kelompok tertentu sebagai landasan tingkah laku sehari-hari di masyarakat maupun di tempat kerja. • Kode etik profesi adalah pedoman sikap, tingkah laku dan perbuatan dalam melaksanakan tugas dan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

SANKSI PELANGGARAN KODE ETIK • Sanksi moral • Sanksi dikeluarkan dari organisasi, apabila terjadi pelanggaran berat, seperti: – Pelanggaran asusila – Kriminal – Terpidana berkekuatan hukum tetap – Dll pelanggaran yang oleh Organisasi Profesi dianggap pelannggaran berat

ETIKA PENGENDALIAN OPT • Integrated Pest Manajemen (IPT/PHT) – Pengendalian OPT melalui pendekatan manajemen agroekosistem – Meninggalkan pendekatan tunggal, apalagi hanya dengan pestisida – OPT sebagai anggota agroekosistem • Keberadaannya sebagai suatu hal yang wajar dalam agroekosistem • Mengendalikan dgn pestisida hanya boleh dilaksanakan apabila populasi mengancam merugikan secara ekonomi Konsep Ambang Ekonomi

ETIKA PENGENDALIAN OPT • Biodiversitas agroekosistem: – Sebagai modal dasar PHT – Biodiversitas meliputi:

harus dipelihara

• Di dalam tanah (mikroflora, mesofauna) • Di atas permukaan tanah (mikro-makroflora, mesofauna) • Di dalam tubuh tanaman (mikroflora)

– Pengendali alami OPT melalui sistem rantai makanan dan jaring2 makanan

ETIKA PENGENDALIAN OPT • Produk pangan yang aman: – Bebas (rendah) residu pestisida – Bebas bahan karsinogenik: • Senyawa kimia • Genetik, dll

ORGANIK

• Bahan tanaman (benih dan bibit) BEBAS OPT

KARANTINA & SPS

Sanitary dan Tindakan Fitosanitary Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS-Measures) • Masalah: Bagaimana anda memastikan bahwa konsumen negara Anda sedang disuplai dengan makanan yang aman untuk dimakan - "aman " dengan standar yang Anda anggap tepat? Dan pada saat yang sama, bagaimana Anda memastikan bahwa peraturan kesehatan dan keselamatan yang ketat tidak digunakan sebagai alasan untuk melindungi produsen dalam negeri?

• Suatu kesepakatan mengenai bagaimana pemerintah dapat menerapkan keamanan pangan dan hewan dan tindakan kesehatan tanaman (tindakan sanitary dan phytosanitary atau SPS) menetapkan aturan-aturan dasar dalam WTO

Code of Ethics • • • • • •

• •

Our Commitment to customers, workers and community. To provide consumers with well-informed and defined pest control options and services, that address and balance both customer and worker safety, as well as overall effectiveness. To create a reduced-stress, supportive atmosphere for consultation and guidance, in an otherwise stressful pest infestation situation. To provide a clearly written understanding for all mutually agreed services. To seek continuous improvements, as ecological stewards, through study, training, and field services, including “new-age” and leading-edge solutions. To educate the public about pesticide free approaches, reduced-risk labels, I.P.M. (Integrated Pest Management) and E.P.M. (Ecological Pest Management) alternatives. To hire, train and retain a staff committed to customer-centric principles and a sustainable earth. To support the welfare of our workers and their families, our customers and our community.

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etika pengendalian opt - From soil, eating soil, back to soil

“CROP PROTECTION” PESTICIDE USE AGST 3000 Agriculture, Society and the Natural World Some Definitions Crop Protecting Agent = A politically correct...

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