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We have been told that all the interventions we use must be scientifically based. Why shouldn’t we use other interventions that we have found to be effective in our classrooms? Why are you supporting RTI at the high school level when the research base for high school efficacy is not particularly strong?

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Is there any known relationship between RTI and retention of students? I am looking for any sources, research on the financial impact of RTI either because of reduced special education numbers or the impact on general education in any way.

Behavior Supports


Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Process of designing instruction that is accessible by all students; UDL includes multiple means of representation, multiple means of expression, and multiple means of engagement; the focus in creation of UDL curricula is on technology and materials. More Terms »


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I am looking for behavior interventions for older middle school students with serious and chronic discipline issues. We have used point sheets, mentoring and counseling with some success with younger students, but this older group has not been affected by

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For the purposes of determining data decision rules for individualized positive behavior support, how are "chronic" and "intense" behaviors defined? Under what circumstances, if any, would a student with "chronic" behavior qualify for individualized... What are the guidelines for parent permission on behavioral screenings. I am aware that permission is needed for mental health screenings and for screenings given directly to children, but what about screening measures that ask teachers to report... National drop-out rates are outrageous throughout the nation. What programs actually work and can be replicated and implemented for under-served students, especially in impoverished urban and rural areas? What are the legal issues we should consider, including parental consent, when exploring options for universal screenings for behavior/emotional problems? If a student is exhibiting behavior problems in school such as losing assignments, trouble staying on task, disruptive behavior, etc. how should I approach this problem using the RTI framework? Are there lists of research-based interventions for secondary and tertiary levels of both Response to Intervention (RTI) and Positive Behavior Support (PBS)? How do I get unmotivated students to perform? I work with grades 4-6 on reading fluency/comprehension interventions and I truly believe that they are so worried about their peer impression of them that they resist any help. They want to talk and play...

Diversity and Disproportionality Close All | Open All

How does Response to Intervention (RTI) affect English language learner (ELL) students who are already receiving ELL pull-out supports? Are we still providing Tier 2 interventions in addition to the ELL class? How does the RTI model support students in a Dual Immersion Program? In which language should students be receiving support? Should interventions be provided is their native language if the subject is only being taught in that student’s second language? Can you provide examples or research on implementing RtI in Dual Language Immersion Schools? What happens to non-struggling students during an intervention block? Does the RTI framework address students who are considered gifted? As we begin to implement the RTI framework, we are wondering how or if the Student Services Team (SST) or Child Support Team (CST) paperwork that already exists should come into play... What should we do if we feel that the fidelity of instruction was compromised in one of the tiers of intervention?

Tiered Instruction and Intervention - General Questions Close All | Open All

Our middle school is in its first year of implementation. There is a daily period built into the schedule for students to receive needed interventions. Students not needing interventions are assigned to an enrichment group. To begin the school year our... My school is planning a 30-minute “RTI TIME” this fall with ALL children receiving “RTI TIME”/Interventions in small groups during this block. The information I have on the subject say the 30 minute block is not what we are to do and that RTI is truly... I have been teaching for 16 years and have been moved to the position as the Instructional Support Teacher in two elementary buildings. We are slowly implementing RTI as best we can in all of our schools. There has been some controversy as to whether... I am a kindergarten teacher in St. Lucie County, Florida. This will be the third year using RTI with our students. How long should an RTI lesson last for 5 or 6 year olds? ... If a child is being serviced for Tier 3 and monitored as such, shouldn't the interventions in Tier 2 still be taking place for that child and also be monitored? Would that be an overlap of progress monitoring in both tiers, or should different aspects... Our school district is looking to decrease the reading specialist staff by almost half. Isn't it crucial that reading intervention be provided by specially trained experts, especially for students reading 2+ years below grade level? I am wondering if there is any exit criteria for exiting kids out of RTI using AIMSweb. For example, we progress monitor the students once a week. If the student stays above their target line, as well as meets the next benchmark, a minimum of 5 times... I am a 3rd grade teacher and my RTI group is “struggling writers.” I have 18 students by myself with 45 minutes each morning. How can I best utilize this time? What would a 5 day schedule look like? We have large numbers of middle school students (close to 40% of our students) who are being placed in an alternative core program in math based on their NWEA MAP and local assessments. Is there research to support placing students in core math programs.. Please direct me to links and resources regarding the use of computers for delivering teach programs tailored to an individual’s learning weaknesses. We have been doing intervention at an increasing level each year since 2005. Each year, we refine and extend. However, we have never developed an RTI Model that states clearly the entry and exit criteria, duration, etc. We know what we do and how we do... Should interventions in Tier 2 and Tier 3 follow the alignment of the core curriculum? What does it take to get a strategy or intervention program labeled as research based? What methodology is used to determine whether interventions are research based? When implementing RTI, is there a recommended ratio of students to teachers at different tiers of intervention? I understand RTI is based on instruction, but how and where does the actual curriculum fit in? Would you agree that no matter how intensely you teach a subject, if the curriculum is not appropriate, the student will never master the necessary skills? The current RTI literature focuses primarily on reading. How does RTI work with mathematics instruction? We are implementing RTI in our district using the tiered reading model. Does tiered reading mean you must group children by ability and thus switch classes or can this model be implemented successfully within the regular classroom using flexible... What type of scheduling in a middle school setting has proven to work well with the RTI model for Tier 2 and 3 pull out groups. Example: 55 minute classes, 90 minute classes, etc. We run 55 minute classes and just started the model. I am finding, in...

Tiered Instruction and Intervention - Tier 1 Close All | Open All

I have about 6 students that are in need of RTI Tier 1 interventions. I can group a couple into one intervention group, but the problem is the others have very different needs. I'm having a hard time because I can't get to reading groups. I feel like... Does a Tier 1 curriculum need to be researched-based? Currently we use a balance literacy program including small group guided reading from a leveled library. We would like to move away from using our basal to other shared reading materials etc. We use... Is Tier 1 strictly comprised of differentiated instruction of the core or essential curriculum using research based strategies, or does Tier 1 also have an intervention component that is implemented when the student(s) fails to understand a concept... Are there any recommended strategies for teachers to use with struggling elementary students prior to referring them to the RtI team?

Tiered Instruction and Intervention - Tier 2 Close All | Open All

Would a student’s Tier 2 plan reflect interventions in both math concepts/applications and math computation if both areas were found to be below standards? Is it possible to deliver RTI intervention services for Tier 2 using a total number of minutes per week rather than a set number of days? For example, can students receive intervention 2 days a week for 45 minutes rather than 3 days a week for 30... Our School Uses Tier 2 Interventions as being pull-out interventions. My question focuses on the instruction and interventions given at this level. Should the intervention strategist be doing the exact same activity each time they meet with kids?... Should Tier 2 take place in the classroom or should it be a pull out service? How many minutes a week is Tier 2 mandated? Is there a clearinghouse of Tier 2 interventions that can be implemented at a school site in the academic area of language arts, phonics, segmentation, multisyllabic words, blending, reading fluency, and reading comprehension? This is our first year... How frequently do you progress monitor at the secondary school level? What secondary level progress monitoring tools are available to facilitate that process?

Tiered Instruction and Intervention - Tier 3 Close All | Open All

Can students receiving Tier 3 interventions be pulled out of the Mathematics and/or Language Arts core curriculum block? Why is it important to have a student go through each Tier if you know a child needs an intense amount of assistance that can only be provided in Tier 3? If a student is currently receiving interventions in Tier 3, do they still receive Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions or is each tier separate? We are in the beginning stages of implementing RTI in our building. From our trainings, it has been suggested that Tier 3 students will benefit the most from a second core curriculum rather than attending the universal core and... We were told by our local SE support agency that our Tier 3 groups can have no more than 3 students. We have not found information to support this. Is it true? We look at intensity of the program and frequency as key factors along with size. So is an... I am interested in learning more about what the Tier 3 model really is and who it is for. I have read a lot of articles and talked to people at several different schools and I feel like I am getting a variety of answers. Is Tier 3 only for those...

Student Assessment - General Assessment Questions Close All | Open All

Can you grade a typical student (at either Tier 2 or 3) on a reduced number of problems; provide additional time on assessments; allow for oral responses? Is it okay to reduce the number of answer choices on classroom multiple choice tests? Our school district administers AIMS web assessments (both literacy and numeracy) to our students three times a year. Personally, I feel AIMS is one useful measure in gearing instruction and assisting us in identifying the needs of our students... I am concerned about the amount of assessments that my school schedule asks me to complete on all students and feel that time is taken away from helping these kindergartners adjust to the classroom...(more)... Must you assess a student before determining intervention strategies? My district is trying to decide between using the same screening tools as our progress monitoring and other tools that do not lend themselves to frequent progress monitoring. Do you have any published writings on this to which we can refer?...(more)... Are there specific ethical standards regarding data use internally in schools? My school currently uses AIMSWEB to progress monitor our students reading. I have a question regarding the statistical validity in testing procedures. For example, at the beginning of the year I test my students on passages 1, 2, and 3. When I retest...

Student Assessment - Universal Screening Close All | Open All

I have three questions based on our first year of implementing DIBELS as part of our RTI model. Our school has a high percentage of English Language Learners [ELLs], who typically score poorly on DIBELS. Are students who are in the Gifted and Talented classes, Algebra in a Jr. High setting, and Special Education students included in a Universal Screening? Please explain why or why not. Can assessments such as the NWEA’s Measures of Academic Performance be implemented as the Universal Screener for middle and high school RTI programs? Do ALL students need to take the Universal Screener, particularly students who continually demonstrate... Our district has been doing universal screening in reading for at least 5 years. We are moving our whole district toward the RTI model with the focus at K-1 this year. Should we try to implement a universal screening for math at this time? We are beginning the use of universal screeners this school year. Should students on IEP’s complete universal screeners with the agreed upon testing accommodations in the IEP? We hear a lot about the importance of addressing fluency when screening students. Is this the most important reading component to address? In regards to implementing RTI at the secondary level, how do you address the issue of universal screening? My question is about universal screening. How do you define fast, easy and inexpensive? When it says a “quick screener” is that quick for the teacher to give? Student to take? Both? What is the purpose for universal screenings to be done at least three...

Student Assessment - Progress Monitoring Close All | Open All

The school district I work in is trying to set up a successful RTI process. Our team is unable to agree on what adequate progress is. Some of us believe that Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions should “close the gap.” Others on the team say “any progress is.. Where are some resources for progress monitoring reading comprehension? We need something that is quick and accurate and can be used often. Does anyone have a good way to break reading comprehension down into smaller parts to progress monitor? Does... Can you suggest any progress monitoring tools to use with preschool students? We have some preschool students who have failed screenings with DIAL, PPVT, PALS and FLUEHARTY. Our special education department has requested data on pre-academic skills... When identifying a specific area of concern for a student, how specific does the progress monitoring tool need to be? For example, if we have identified that decoding is an issue for a student and have targeted interventions in place in the areas that... When measuring the progress of a student, in a tiered approach, how do you determine when the student may need to enter into another tier? (How do you determine what progress is good enough and how much time do you give them?) What if a child makes acceptable progress in data collection through intervention but is still not transferring these skills to the classroom? Where can I go to find effective progress monitoring tools? If I want to know whether students are on track to be proficient readers, why would I use a fluency measure? Our teachers monitor student progress now. We have end of unit tests, and so teachers always know what skills students have learned or not learned. Why would we want to add an additional measurement tool such as curriculum based measures,...

RTI and Special Education Close All | Open All

Please, if possible send me more information about unexpected underachievement, RTI, within the discipline of mathematics. What types of comprehensive tests should my students take to determine an LD issue? I am a K-12 reading specialist and ESL teacher. Our school and district has an RTI plan in place. According to RTI, do we have to wait until a student who is achieving far below average is in the 3rd grade to evaluate him? My son has an IEP but the school is insisting on services that are insisting on services that are not desired or needed, but, most importantly, not in his best interest. If I refuse the IEP can he still receive RTI as he is in Tier 3. Any and all What happens if a Child Study Team does not follow the recommendations of their attorney? Should the attorney remove himself from the position? If the attorney feels that the Child Study Team is breaking any laws or bending the laws regarding Special... I am a middle school teacher in Central Illinois. In January, there will be an EDC meeting that I will be asked to attend. The school psychologist has already indicated that he does not feel our data collected during the RTI process is adequate. I am... If a special education student is not able to access the general education classroom curriculum, can that student have an instructional aid in the classroom to teach what the child can access even if it is a parallel curriculum? Or, does the student... Can a school district deny allowable testing accommodations when taking the NWEA for students with a documents disability indicating the necessary modifications? Is procedural administration at the transgression of the district, or if the NWEA permits... Would a huge discrepancy in verbal and perceptual IQ (28 points) and in working memory and processing speed (30 points) be indicative of a learning disability? If a student scores in the upper percentile for reading and math, but tested low with... Does a student on an IEP for reading go through the universal screening? Does this student receive Tier 2 or 3 interventions in addition to Tier 1? How often should Tier 1 differentiated instruction in reading take place for a student currently on an... Head Start has a federal requirement to service children with an IEP (10% enrollment to children with disabilities). If school districts are using Response to Intervention and finding fewer children eligible for special education,... Can you tell me if the 2004 reauthorization of IDEA is forcing people to choose to either continue using the discrepancy model, move to RTI, or choose a hybrid of the two? I have searched the regulations and am having trouble understanding the language. Can students who are receiving special education services be included in an RTI framework? If a student has been identified with a language disability and is currently receiving IEP services but a new concern has come up regarding the student's math ability, must the school reconvene the RTI process to provide math supports or... How does "extended time" or other accommodations fit into the RTI model? Should a student’s grading be modified, similar to an IEP, when he/she is involved in the RTI process?...(more)... We are hoping that your answer will be coming to us quickly. We have a bit of a disagreement and there is a student with all the signs of LD. If the screening process is not started soon, this school year will be over before he can have the help he... How or will the new SLD ruling change the way the Title I services will be provided in a district? Will Title teachers still provide in classroom inclusion services without special education support? Will the Title and Special Ed. Departments be able... If a student shows obvious signs of a severe learning disability, should they have to go through the RTI process? What are the differences between an IEP and a RTI. I have been told by many professionals that my daughter needs an IEP and the school is providing a RTI. What should I do?? Is it acceptable for school districts to use RTI to delay or deny an evaluation to determine if a student has a disability? It is my understanding that RTI is not necessarily for SPED students. Students who do not show improvement in the intensive level of RTI should be considered for SPED referral. The SPED approach would then be different than the RTI approach. Am I correct? If a school has a student go through the RTI process, is tested and qualifies what are the laws as to services? This student currently has an active IEP with reading and writing goals. He also has a services time of 50 min. He is still being served by... If students go through a tier 3 for comprehension and meet the goal but still have a poor reading profile (i.e. failing grades on weekly tests, below grade level on reading diagnostic, below grade level Lexile, below grade level Running Reading Record)...

Gaining Support for RTI at the School Level Close All | Open All

I am a school psychologist acting as a RtI coordinator in a district that is attempting to start RtI. Many people in the district are having a hard time buying into the concept and do not want to change the framework within which schools are currently... Why should we undertake Response to Intervention (RTI) when we already have several other initiatives going on in our district? How do we get buy-in from staff? What is the difference between a pre-referral team and a problem-solving team? How can you garner buy-in from veteran teachers who have seen it all come and go before and believe RTI is just another swing of the pendulum?

Specialized Professionals Close All | Open All

I have been assigned to the new position of "RTI interventionist." I am currently a secondary LD teacher. Is there a guideline for what this position would entail? I am looking for a job description, if there is one, for taking on this role. Where does a school psychologist fit into the RTI model? What is the best way to involve and utilize non-certified support staff in RTI? Can you provide some information on using RTI for speech/language therapy? What type of success has there been? Is it possible to describe the models that have been successful for SLPs? Can Occupational Therapists provide direct services under RTI or does there need to be an IEP in place for a child to receive OT services? What is the role of a school psychologist in a private school setting? What is the role of the School Counselor in RTI?

Parents and Families Close All | Open All

My son started kindergarten this September 2011, he has no pre-k experience and had very little at home teaching. He began the year not knowing how to count, not being able to write his name, and had very little skill in color recognition. Since then... My 13-year-old 8th grade student is getting good grades. Thus, though she has a difficult chronic illness, ADHD, a mild anxiety disorder and a documented reading problem, I am told she does not qualify for special services from the school. Her school... I have a son in 2nd grade, he is having a hard time in reading. His Dad and Uncle have Dyslexia and all the signs are that he has Dyslexia also. His Grandmother is working with me in helping with his reading, but he is now having problems in Language... My son is having a problem reading. We are doing the best that we can at home. I am not a teacher and neither is my husband. I am told that my son is not low enough to qualify for Title I. My understanding is that Title I is the funding for RTI. My son...

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