Goto School Best Practices - "SuperVision" for Effective Teaching: 2016

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Saturday, January 2, 2016


Intervention If Then - A Compendium by Gs

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t 2016 (14)

Further Evaluation (CFUs)

t January (14) Intervention If Then - A Compendium by Gs

Basic Skills

Ortografia: palabras paronimas Las palabras paro...

1. Listen to the student read several short passages from his or her story aloud. Record and analyze the error types made. Plan appropriate instruction to assist the studetn with word identification skills.

Mecanica de la escritura, parte dos Elementos de ...

Looks Like Sounds Like

Mecanica de la escritura en espanol Mayusculas: ...


Estructura de las oraciones sujeto: dice de que...

1. Before and as you teach the student any skill, build in an understanding of why the skill is important (the so what?) and how the skill is applied.

En espanol: Lectura: Como prepararse para las pr... Spanish Alphabet ActivitiesFollow the links for gr...

2. Help the student learn common reading terminology such as letter name, letter sound, word, syllable, snetence and paragraph. Explain before asking to show that you know it...

Teaching the Alphabet en espanol Most of clever i... Auditory Activities (Ga) Here are some other acti...

3. Discuss the student how improvement in basic reading skills will make reading easier and more enjoyable. Obtain a commitment from the student that s/he wishes to improve his or her basic reading skills.

Mathematics your way: Readiness: 1. Use concret... Gs Used in Social Studies Reading (L/S/R/W)

4. Until the student's sight vocabulary and/or word or letter attack skills improve, let him/her continue with subvocalization. S/he appears to need the auditory input to help identify and remember words. If auditory input is key to the child's learning style, allowing a PVC or Tubaloo pipe may also serve as an auditory reinforcement for mastery. 5. Provide ample practice with basic reading skills in context. Directly teach the student to recognize when and how to apply the skills s/he is mastering.

Understanding Cattell Horn Carroll Theory and How ... Response to the Right Intervention and/or Enrichme... 2015 (5)

6. Provide the student with systematic instruction in basic skills, as well as extensive opportunites to read meaningful texts. 7. Provide the student with the opportunity to teach any reading skill that is close to mastery to a peer or younger students who needs that skill. Letter Identification 1. When teaching the student the alphabet, begin with the letters in his/her first name, and then his/her last name. Using these letters help him/her to create and write simple words. Allow them to share product. 2. Simultaneously teach recognizing, naming and writing of letters. Use technology and tracing tools to achieve this if needed. 3. Use gross motor movements to help the student visualize and remember letter form.s For exmaple, have him/her stand up straight and stick both arms out to form the letter T. 4. Use visual imagery to help the student remember letter forms or their spatial orientation. For example, teach the student that "b" looks like a bat with a ball but the bat comes first. It's the story that counts! 5. Teach discrimination between upper and lower case letters by making a game out of circling all the uppercase letters on a page of text. Try also some of the plastic utensil matching games between upper and lowercase spoons. 6. As the student learns new letters, have him/her teach these letters to a younger child. Word Attack (Auditory Processing, Spelling) 1. Help the student understand the readon for learning letter sound associations and how these skills are applied in beginning reading tro determine unfamiliar words. 2. When introducing letter-sound instruction, use pictures that will help the student remember the letter shape and sound. Fro example, the letter "o as a drawing of an octopus, the letter "m" as two mountains, the letter "e" as an egg, and the letter "s" as a snake. 3. Play games with the student to help him/her activate, organize and develop his/her knowledge of the relationship between letters and words. For example, play the game My family owns a .... You may say My family owns a pet store and they sell something begins with the letter c With the student's help brainstorm as many words as you can generate in context. Continue the game with another letter. 4. Teach the student that letters are like animals in that they have both names and sounds. For example, show the student a picture of a lion and say, "His name is lion, but his sound is roar." When she understands this concept, teach about letter names and sounds. 5. When teaching the student the sound of a each letter of the alphabet, think up a word that s/he already knows that begins with the letter. This may help the student recall the letter through association with that letter. 6. Have the student create his or her own set of alphabet cards. On each card have him/her write a letter and then draw a picture of a word that begins with that letter. Phonics/Linguistics 1. Combine phonics instruction with a linguistic reading program -- that is select reading material where the majority of the words would have regular sound-symbol correspondence. 2. Teaching students new words in families. Select common word patterns , such as ama, at or am. and then identify and practice common words in the family. Help the student learn to identify the patterns rapidly and automatically.

Structural analysis 1. Make srue that the student understqands how improved ability to pronounce multisyllabic words will enhance his/her reading skill. 2. Teach structural analysis by cutting apart words into common clusters. Keep the letters of the words you are working with large. Combine the word parts in a variety of ways to make nonsense or real words to pronounce. Let the student then scramble the letters to make new words for you to pronounce. You may both take turns... 3. When pronouncing multisyllabic words, have the student slide his/her index finger slowly under the word parts as s/he pronounces them. 4. Emphasize the visual aspect of reading/spelling words to compensate for slow visual processing of symbol sequences. For example, have the student color-code or highlight the common word parts or affixes that you are teaching. 5. When you are working with the student on one particular morpheme, such as ing or ed , color code it each time it appears in the text prior to reading the passage. 6. Teach the student how to use structural analysis to decode multisyllabic words. Ensure that sh/e overlearns thes skills so that s/he begins to see unfamiliar words as a sequence of recognizable word parts. Teach him//her to identify both meaning parts (prefixes, suffixes, and root words) and pronunciation parts (common clusters and syllables). 7. Teach the student the most common syllabification rules (e.g. vc/cv, v/cv, vc/v). you may want to teach these for L1 and for L2. You can also help students deduce syllabification rules through e=learning sites: e.g.

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Ortografia: palabras paronimas Las palabras paronimas son aquellas que se pronuncian de forma parecida, pero tienen un significado y ortografia diferentes. Ejemplos de palabras paronimas perjuicio (dano) prejuicio (parcialidad) aptitud (capacidad) actitud (ademan) absorber (chupar) absolver (perdonar) omitir (olvidar) emitir (difundir) precedente (antecedente) procedente (originario) arador (que ara) orador (que habla) prendado (encantado) prendido (encendido) deferencia (cortesia) diferencia (discrepancia) afecto (carino) efecto (consecuencia) hartura (abundancia) altura (elevacion) adaptar (modificar) adoptar (asumir) Tenga presente el significado de las palabras paronimas para que no las utilice incorrectamente al redactar o al hablar. Incorrecto; No me permitieron el absceso al area restringida. Correcto: No me permitieron el acceso al area restringida. Correcto: Fue al medico para que le examinara un absceso en el brazo. Marque con una "X" la oracion donde se use correctamente la palabra paronima. a. El tribunal absolvio al acusado de todos los cargos que pesaban contra el. b. La tierra sedienta absolvio hasta la ultima gota de lluvia. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion a. La oracion en la opcion d debe ser: La tierra sedienta absorbio hasta la ultima gota de lluvia. Palabras homofonas Las palabras homofonas son aquellas que se pronuncian igual, pero su ortografia y significado son diferentes. Ejemplos de palabras homofonas a: proposicion ha: del verbo "haber" !ah!: interjeccion de sorpresa !ay! interjeccion de dano hay: del verbo "haber" abria: de abrir la botella habria: del verbo "haber" aceros; productors de metal haremos: del verbo "hacer" arte; artistico harte: de "hartarse" as; campeon has: del verbo "haber" asta: de madera hasta: hasta aqui masa: mezcla maza: arma casa: vivienda caza: del verbo "cazar" risa: acto de reir riza: del verbo "rizar" ves: del verbo "ver" vez: ocasion veras: del verbo "ver" veraz: que dice la verdad ceda: del verbo "ceder" seda: tela cocer: preparar alimentos coser: unir con hilo meces: del verbo "mecer" meses: plural de mes peces: plural de pez peses: del verbo pesar atajo: camino mas corto hatajo: una partida, un grupo de bandoleros aya: institutriz halla: del verbo "hallar" o "encontrar" haya: un arbol de buena madera; del verbo hacer baron: titulo nobiliario varon: un hombre basto: aspero vasto: extenso baya: el tomate, la fresa vaya: del verbo "ir" valla: la que cerca un terreno bienes: de fortuna vienes; del verbo "venir" EJEMPLO Marque con una X la oracion correcta. a. La tigresa halla a su presa y la ataca. b. La ciudad prohibio a la compania constructora que talara el halla centenaria del Parque Central. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion a. La opcion b debe ser: La ciudad prohibio a la compania constructora que talara el haya centenaria del Parque Central. ACENTUACION Las palabras se clasifican segun la silaba donde lleven la fuerza de pronunciacion. Las cuatro clasificaciones son: agudas, llanas, esdrujulas, y sobreesdrujulas. Agudas: Llevan la fuerza de pronunciacion en la ultima silaba (raton, escribi, catedral, historiador, llamar). Se escriben con tilde cuando terminan en n, s o vocal: camion, Tomas, recorde. Llanas: Llevan la fuerza de pronunciacion en la penultima silaba (fertil, lapiz, amigo, cuaderno,). S escriben con tilde cuando las palabras terminan en consonante, menos n o s: arbol, dificil. Esdrujulas: Llevan la fuerza de pronunciacion en la antepenultima silaba (rapido, fijate, damelo). Siempre se escriben con tilde. Sobreesdrujulas: Llevan la fuerza de pronunciacion en la antepenultima silaba (llevatela; digaselo, comamonoslo). Siempre se escriben con tilde. EJEMPLO - Marque con una "X" la oracion correcta. a. La leccion del instructor es vital para la comprension del tema. b. La leccion del instructor es vital para la comprension del tema. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion a. La palabra leccion es aguda, termina en n y debe llevar tilde. Posted by inalco at 8:30 AM

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Mecanica de la escritura, parte dos Elementos de introduccion y aposiciones Las palabras y frases que introducen o interrumpen la idea principal de una oracion se separan usualmente del resto de la misma por medio de comas. REGLA 1 Use la coma para separar elementos de introduccion (palabras o frases al inicio de una oracion) del resto de la misma. No, el banco estara cerrado el Dia de la Independencia. Como resultado de los gastos excesivos, los fondos de Rolando han mermado. REGLA 2: Use coma despues de una clausula dependiente ubicada al inicio de una oracion. Recuerde que una clausula dependiente contiene un sujeto y un verbo, per no esta completa y no puede existir por si misma. Esta comienza con una conjuncion subordinada como antes or si. Pero: Cuando le llegaron todas las cuentas, se sintio abrumado. Se sintio abrumado cuando le llegaron todas las cuentas. Una aposicion es una frase nominal que explica o describe mas detalladamente otro sustantivo o pronnombre. Si la aposicion se necesita para identificar el sustantivo o el pronombre, es esencial, y se le llama aposicion especificativa. REGLA 3: Use comas para separar una aposicion explicativa del resto de la oracion. No use comas en las aposiciones especificativas. Explicativa: Rolando, mi amigo, tiene 13 tarjetas de credito. Especificativa: Rolando esta leyendo el libro de la biblioteca Diez formas par salir de las deudas. Un enlace es una palabra o frase que no anade nada esencial al significado de una oracion. Muchos enlaces son adverbios y otros modificadores oracionales. Algunos de los enlaces mas utilizados son; finalmente, por ejemplo, en cambio, sin embargo y por otro lado. REGLA 4: Use comas para separar los enlaces. Rey, en cambio, nunca colecciono cartas de pelota. Marque con una X la oracion que use correctamente las comas. ____a. Ademas de las destrezas, la apariciencia es importante en una entrevista. ____b. Mi consejera laboral, Delia Ramirez me ayudo a elegir un vestuario adecuado para la entrevista. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion a. Ademas de las habilidades es una frase introductoria que debe ser seguida de una coma. En la opcion b se necesita una segunda coma despues de la aposicion explicativa Delia Ramirez. Posted by inalco at 8:14 AM

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Mecanica de la escritura en espanol Mayusculas: Cuando se deben usar las mayusculas Probablemente ya sabe que la primera palabra en una oracion o en un parrafo despues de un punto final siempre comienza con mayuscula. Las siguientes reglas le ayudaran cuando usar mayusculas en otros casos. REGLA 1 Se escriben con mayusculas todos los nombres propios, como los nombres de personas, lugares o cosas especificos. En 1951, William Boyle invento la tarjeta de credito. Vivia en la calle Independencia de San Jose. Este interprete trabajaba en la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas. La Tierra se encuentra en el Sistema Solar. REGLA 2 Se escriben con mayusculas los titulos de dignidad cuando se refieren a una persona especifica, pero no van acompanados del nombre de la persona, asi como las abreviaturas de las formulas de tratamiento. Todos se pusieron de pie para saludar al Presidente. La Senora Bermudez solicito un credito bancario para pagar una deuda. REGLA 3 Se escriben con mayusculas los dias festivos y los nombres de edades y epocas historicas. El Dia de Accion de Gracias es una buena oportunidad para reunirse en familia. Los dinosaurios vivieron en el periodo Jurasico. La Edad Media fue una epoca de oscurantismo. Marque con una X la oracion que contenga un error en el uso de las mayusculas. ___a. El Sistema Solar cuenta con nueve planetas y una estrella. ___b. El sol es la estrella que permite que existe la vida en nuestro planeta. Usted acierto si escogio la opcion b. El nombre propio sol debe iniciarse con mayuscula. Cuando no se deben usar las mayusculas Muchos escritores usan excesivamente las mayusculas, o sea, ponen mayusculas donde no debe haberlas. En necessario aprender a evitar las mayuculas innecessarias. REGLA 1 Los dias de la semana, los meses del ano y los nombres de las estaciones no se escriben con mayuscula. Incorrecto: Alicia vendra a almorzar con nosotros el Jueves. Correcto: Alicia vendra a almorzar con nosotros el jueves. REGLA 2 Los titulos de dignidad no se escriben con mayuscula cuando van seguidos del nombre de la persona o cuande se emplean en sentido generico. Incorrecto: El Presidente Obama asistio a la reunion. Correcto: El presidente Obama asistio a la reunion. Incorrecto: La Senadora Valdes nos acompanara. Corrector; La senadora Valdes nos acompanara. Correcto: El puesto de Senadora conlleva muchas responsabilidades. REGLA 3: Los nombres de cursos de estudio de escuela superior o universidad llevan mayuscula pero no el tema generico. Incorrecto: Estoy tomando un curso de Botanica. Correcto: Estoy tomando un curso de botanica. Correcto: Estoy tomando Botanica 102. REGLA 4: Los gentilicios se escriben siempre con minuscula, incluso cuando forman parte del nombre de un suceso historico. Incorrecto: La tia de Felipe es Mexicana. Correcto: La tia de Felipe es mexicana. Correcto: Vimos un programa sobre la Revolucion mexicana. REGLA 5: Las caracteristicas geograficas, como mar, rio, monte etc no se escriben con mayusucula. Solo se escribe con mayuscula el nombre del mar, rio, monte etc excepto cuando la caracteristica geografica forma parte del nombre del lugar. Incorrecto: El Rio Bravo divide a Estados Unidos y Mexico. Correcto: El rio Bravo divide a Estados Unidos y Mexico. Correcto: El ano proximo visitaremos los Grandes Lagos. Marque con una X la oracion que contenga un error en el uso de las mayusculas. ____a. Jose llevo el curso Matematicas I este verano. ____b. Gilberto ha viajado por todas las islas del Mar Caribe. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion b. La palabra mar no se debe escribir con mayuscula. Comas Elementos de una serie y oraciones compuestas La coma es una guia para el lector. Nos indica cuando debe hacerse una separacion en la oracion o cuales elementos necesitan separarse de forma que tengan sentido. El aprendizaje de las reglas para el uso de las comas le ayudara a leer y redactar mejor. REGLA 1. Use las comas para separar los elementos de una serie (une lista de tres o mas). Los elementos de una serie pueden ser palabras o frases. Correcto: En la fiesta de recaudacion benefica se venderan bizcochos pasteles y galletas. Varios comites han ayudado con la publicidad, las donaciones y la decoracion de los puestos. No se usan comas cuando hay solo dos componentes. Tampoco se escribe coma delante de las conjunciones y , e, ou , u par apsearar elementos que expresn un mismo contenido. REGLA 2 Separe las oraciones compuestas con una coma y una conjuncion coordinante. Recuerde que alguna conjunciones coordinantes son: y, pero, o, ni, pues, asi, asi que, sin embargo, ya que y no obstante. Correcto: Encontraron muchas parchas, pero algunas estaban partidas. REGLA 3 Escribe coma delante de y, e, o, u para separar una enumeracion cuyo ulitmo elemento exprese un contenido distinto al de los elementos anteriores. Correcto: Cerraron las cortinas hermeticamente, apagaron todas las luces de la casa, y permanecieron callados. REGLA 4 Una conjuncion va precedida de una coma cuando se enlaza con todos los elementos de una serie, y no solor con el ultimo elemento. Correcto: Alina compro azucar, harina y huevos, y se dirigio a su casa.

Marque con una X la oracion que contenga un error en el uso de la coma. ___a. Los nuevos billetes vienen en denominaciones de uno, diez, cinco y diez dolares. ___b. Algunas maquinas expendedoras nuevas contienen panecillos cafe y frutas frescas. Usted acerto si escogio la opcion b. porque la serie necesita una coma: Algunas maquinas expendedoras nuevas contienen panecillos, cafe y frutas frescas.


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Estructura de las oraciones sujeto: dice de que o de quien trata una oracion verbo: dice lo que el sujeto es o lo que hace Oraciones completas y fragmentos de oraciones Oraciones completas Para escribir con claridad, debe usar oraciones completas. Una oracion es completat si cumple con los siguientes requisitos. REGLA 1: Una oracion completa tiene un sujeto y un verbo. El sujeto nombra de quien o de que trata la oracion. El verbo dice lo que el sujeto es o lo que hace. Sin sujeto: Ensenar al hijo a manejar un carro de cambios. Completa: Gloria ensena al hijo a manjear un carro de cambios. Sin verbo: Los carrros de transmission automatica. Completa: Los carros de transmision automatica son faciles de manejar. A veces, el sujeto de una oracion es implicito, o sea, que no se expresa directamente. Sin embargo, se sobreentiende por la terminacion del verbo. Completa: Estudie la guia para aprender a manejar. (sujeto implicto yo). REGLA 2: Las oraciones completas expresan ideas completas. Incompleta: Porque obtiene mejor millaje. Completa: Ramon piensa comprar un carro con transmision estandar porque obtiene mejor millaje. REGLA 3: Las oraciones completas comienzan y terminan con signos de puntuacion. La mayor parte de las enunciados terminan con un punto. Las preguntas empiezan y terminan con signos de interrogacion. Los enuciados fuertes o mandatos empiezan y terminan con signos de exclamacion. Enunciado: Gloria prefiere manejar un carro de cambios. Pregunta: ?Maneja bien Ramon? Exclamacion: !Salvese quien pueda! Fragmentos de oraciones Fragmento de oracion: una oracion incompleta Ha estado trabajando con oraciones completas. Si escribe por error una oracion incompleta, habra escrito un fragmento de oracion. Cuando corrija un escrito y vea un fragmento de oracion, puede usar uno de los siguientes metodos. El metodo que escoja dependera de la situacion y de lo que usted crea que mejorara el trabajo escrito. Metodo 1 Si el verbo del fragmento no indica cual es el sujeto implicito, cambie el verbo a la persona corecta. Puede anadir un sujeto para que quede mas claro. Fragmento: Ir a la entrevista con su resume. Correcta: Fue a la entrevista con su resume (sujeto implicito, usted, el o ella). Correcta: Liana fue a la entrevista con su resume. Metodo 2: Si al fragmento le falta un verbo, anadalo. Fragmento: La Dra. Pastrana preguntandole por su ultimo trabajo. Correcta: La Dra. Pastrana esta preguntandole por su ultimo trabajo. Metodo 3: Anada o cambie palabras para completar una idea incompleta. Fragmento: Un trabajo normal, pero muy aburrido. Correcta: Su ultimo trabajo era normal, pero muy aburrido. Metodo 4: Una el fragmento a una oracion completa. Este metodo es bueno cuando el fragmento no exprese una idea completa aunque tenga sujeto y verbo. Fragmento: lia acepto el trabajo. Porque necesitaba un cambio estimulante. Correcta: Lia acepto el trabajo porque necesitaba un cambio estimulante. Correcta: Porque necesitaba un cambio estimulante, Lia acepto el trabajo. EJEMPLO El siguiente enunciado subrayado es un fragmento. Marque con una X la mejor manera de corregirlo. Jaime adelgazo, Una vez que empezo a hacer ejercicio. ____a. cambiar la persona del verbo ____b. anadir un verbo ____c. anadir palabras para completar la idea ____d. unirlo a la oracion anterior Usted acerto si escogio la opcion d. El fragmento ya tiene el sujeto implicito el (opcion a) y el verby empezo (obcion b), pero no expresa una idea completa. Puede anadirle palabras para que exprese una idea completa (opcion c). Sin embargo, la mejor manera de corregirlo es uniendolo a la oracion anterior, porque la primera oracion es corta y abrupta, y el significado del fragmento tiene mucho que ver con ella.

II. ORACIONES COMPUESTAS Conjunciones coordinantes Ha estado escribiendo oraciones completas, tambien llamadas oraciones independientes. Una oracion independiente es una oracion que puede formar una oracion simple por si misma. Dos o mas oraciones independientes pueden combinarse para formar una oracion compuesta. Escribir oraciones compuestas en una manera eficaz de expresar la relacion que existe entre las ideas de las oraciones independientes. METODO Para escribir una oracion compuesta, combine las oraciones independientes con una conjuncion coordinante. La conjuncion coordinante expresa la relacion entre las oraciones. Cuando consisten en mas de una palabra, se conocen como locuciones coordinantes y cumplen la misma funcion. Conjuncion coordinante y, e pero, aunque como asi

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En espanol: Lectura: Como prepararse para las pruebas: Destrezas necesarias para tomar las pruebas Como responder a las preguntas de las pruebas 1. Nunca vea superficialmente las instrucciones. Leaals con detenimiento para que sepa exactamente que e lo que tiene que hacer. Si no esta seguro, pregunteles al examinador si le puede explicar las instrucciones. 2. Lea todas las preguntas detenidamenete para asegurarse de que entiende lo que se le esta pregntando. 3. Lea todas las opciones de respuesta con mucha atencion, aun cuando piense que ya sabe cual es la respuesta correcta. Es posible que algunas de las respuestas no parezcan inocrrectas a primera vista, pero solo una sera la correcta. 4. Antes de responder a una pregunta, asegurese de que el problem panteado contenga la informaacion necessarioa para sustentar la respuesta que elija. No se base en conocimientos que no esten relacionandos con el contexto del problema. 5. Conteste todas las preguntas. Si no puede encontrar la respuesta correcta, reduzca el numero de respuestas posibles eliminando todas las que sepa son incorrectas. Luego, vuelva a leer la pregunta para deducir cual es la respuesta correcta. Si aun asi no puede deducir cual es, escoja la que le parezca mas acertada. 6. Llene la hoja de respuestas con cuidado. Para registrar sus respuestas, rellene uno de los circulos numerados que se encuentran a la derecha del numero que corresponde a la pregunta. Marque solamente un circulo como respuesta a cada pregunta. Si marca mas de una respuesta, esta se considerara incorrecta. 7. Recuerde que la Prueba de GED tiene un limite de tiempo. Cuando empiece la prueba, anote el tiempo que tiene para terminarla. Despues, vea la hora de vez en cuando y no se detenga demasiado en una sola pregunta. Responda cada una lo mejor que pueda y continue. Si se esta tardando demasiado en una pregunta, pase a la siguiente y ponga una hoja de respuestas. Si termina antes de que acabe el tiempo, regrese las preguntas que se salto o de cuyas respuestas no estaba seguro y piense un poco mas en las respuestas. No olvide borrar cualquier marca extra que haya hecho. 8. No cambie ninguna respuesta a menos que este completamente seguro de que la que habia marcado esta mal. Generalmente, la primera respuesta que se elige es la correcta. 9. Si siente que se esta poniendo nervioso, deje de trabajar por un momento. Respire profundamente unas cuantas veces y relajese. Luego, empiece a trabajar otra vez. Tecnicas de estudio Estudie con regularidad 1. Las distracciones pueden danar su concentracion. Explique a los demas por que es importante que lo dejen solo durante el tiempo que le ha destinado al estudio. 2. Busque un lugar comodo para estudiar. Si no puede estudiar en su casas, vaya a una biblioteca. Casi todas las bilbiotecats publicas cuentan con areas de lectura y de estudio. Si hay alguna institutcion de educacnion superio o unversidada cerca de su domicilio, avergue si puede usar la biblioteca. Organice sus materiales de estudio 1. Guarde todos sus materiales en un solo lugar para que no pierda tiempos buscandolos cada vez que vaya a estudiar. 2. Asigne una libreta o carpeta parar cada asignatura que este estudiando. Las carpetas con funda son muy utiles para guardar hojas sueltas. Lea con regularidad 1. Consiga una tarjeta para la biblioteca. Vuelvase un visitante permanente. Las bibliotecas guardan todo tipoe de materials. ?Tiene algun pasatiempo? Consulte la seccion de revistas para buscar publiccaciones de su interes. Si usted no esta familiarizado con la biblioteca, pidale ayuda al bibliotecario. Tome notas 1. Desarrolle un sistema para tomar notas. Tal vez le baste con algunas palabras clave que le ayuden a recordar un concepto. Puede tomar notas en forma de preguntas y respuestas: "?Cual es la idea principal?" La idea principal es... Algunas personas prefieren esbozar sus ideas o anotarlas en cuadros o diagramas. El objetivo es escribir informacion importante de modo que usted la pueda recordar. Enriquezca su vocabulario 1. Al leer no se salte ninguna palabra desconocida. Mejor, trate de deducir el significado de esa palabra aislandola primero del resto del la oracion. Lea la oracion sin la palabra y trate de colocar otra palabra en su lugar. ?El signficado de la oracion es le mismo? 2. Si no sabe el significado de alguna palabra, consulte un diccionario. Busque la palabra mientras tenga el texto frente a usted, porque algunas palabras tienen mas de un siginficado. Tal vez tenga que probar distintos significados de una misma palabra dentro del contexto hasta averiguar cual es la mejor. 3. Escriba una lista con nuevas palabras. Escriba sus definiciones en sus propias palabras.

Presentacion de las pruebas Antes de la prueba 1. Si nunca ha estado en en centro de evaluacion, vaya un dia antes de presentarse a la prueba. Si se va a ir manejando, busque donde puede estacionar su auto. 2. Prepare todo lo que necesite para la prueba: lapices del No. 2 con punta y goma de borrar, reloj, anteojos, chaqueta o sueter *por si hace frio) y algunos refrigerios para comer durante los recesos. 3. Duerma bien. Si la prueba va a empezar temprano en la manana, ponga el despertador. El dia de la prueba 1. Desayune bien, vistase con ropa comoda y asegurese de tener todos los materiales que necesita. 2. Trate de llegar al centro de evaluacion 20 minutes antes de la prueba. De esta manera, tendra tiempo adicional en caso de que, por ejemplo, haya un cambio de salon de ultimo minuto. Posted by inalco at 4:15 AM

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Spanish Alphabet Activities Follow the links for great pictures of these activities. 1. Make alphabet jars. Label containers with a letter and put items that start with that letter in the jar. 2. – Make an alphabet museum of found objects. I love this idea because as children learning Spanish acquire new vocabulary, they can add the object to the museum. For Spanish language learners, once an object is in the museum, the letter sound serves as reminder of the vocabulary. For native Spanish speakers, the object and the familiar word serve as a reminder of the letter sound. 3. Make a letter circle. – In the photo, kids are matching letters to letters. You can do the same activity matching pictures and objects to the letters. 4. Have an alphabet scavenger hunt. For this activity, kids are looking for objects that start with specific sounds, so they need to have more vocabulary. You can also do the activity together and help them by naming items as you search. They listen for the sound that matches the letter. For kids who have more vocabulary, this post describes a version of an alphabet scavenger hunt race. 5. Make an alphabet sticker match. This is a good activity because you can hang the poster and talk about it when you are done. It is unlikely that you have stickers for all the letters, but you can print the pictures I have included below, or your own, on sticker paper. Posted by inalco at 3:29 AM

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Teaching the Alphabet en espanol Most of clever ideas concerning teaching the alphabet will involve teaching the names of the letters in standard alphabetical order. Often this will be in the form of a song or chant. While teaching the alphabet in order seems logical, sometimes the most logical way is actually not the best way. Since our alphabets are basically the same, our students do not need to learn the concept of alphabetical order. They need to learn the new name for the symbol and, of course, the sound it makes. Teaching things in sequential order ties the learner to that order. (Every teacher has seen the student who cannot say cinco until he counts uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco in Spanish on his fingers.) In order to be able to use the letters randomly, because that's the way they will be needed in real life situations, the students need to learn them randomly. Here's a technique to “randomize.” Write the letters of the alphabet on cards. Start with these letters: G,H,J,W,X,Y,Z. Why? because they are the hardest to learn. All the other letters have names that seem to make sense to our students. Begin the lesson by having these letters in place around the room. For example, the G is on the door, so I say ¿Dónde está la letra G? Everyone looks around. I write “G” on the board or show them a card with the letter. ¿La letra G? They find it on the door and point. If they don't know the word yet, that's OK they can learn it at the same time. Give a clue by saying: ¿La letra G está en la ventana? (touch it) o en la puerta? (point to it) They will answer la puerta. Sí, la letra G está en la puerta. ¿Dónde está la letra H? En la pizarra. ¿J? en el reloj. It doesn't matter where you place the letters, but the more bizarre, the better. Continually “recycle” going back to the first letters, skipping around. Keep the pace very fast so that they do NOT have time to translate. If you notice that they don’t remember the name of the letter or the name of the location, give them choices, just like you would do your own small child learning English. ¿La letra en la puerta—es G o J? After these 7 are presented and practiced, start with the easier ones, but now you can involve the students more. For example, tape the M on someone's hand. Now we have to say: la letra M está en la mano de Miguel. (Sneaking in the structure of possessive--when I say ¿La letra M está en el pie de Miguel o en la mano de Miguel? everyone answers automatically, en la mano de Miguel, no one says en Miguel's mano because they don't have time to translate, they just respond) La letra P está el el libro de Juan. I do some very strange things like: La letra N está en la nariz de la maestra. Yes, I really do tape the N on my nose--or on my glasses—or my hair. All the while I am adding new letters, I keep "recycling" the ones previously mentioned, at first asking ¿Dónde está la letra ...? then alternating with ¿Qué letra está en la puerta? ¿Qué letra está en el brazo de la chica que lleva la blusa roja? ¿Qué letra está en el zapato derecho del chico que juega fútbol americano? ¿Qué letra está en el zapato izquierdo de la chica que juega vólibol? Obviously, they don't understand everything you are saying, nor can they repeat it, but they are unconsciously absorbing a lot of passive vocabulary and structure to be called up later. For one letter I show them a poster of Iguazú Falls in Argentina and tell them that I would like to see that place someday before I die. La letra T está en la foto de las Cataratas de Iguazú, un lugar que la maestra quiere visitar antes de morirse. You will be surprised. After all the letters are placed and talked about, the students remember not only the name of the letter, but where the letter was and who or what was associated with it. I saw a boy once at the mall years later, and he told me La letra C estaba en mi cabeza to help me remember his name and which class he was in. This phenomenon is called “paired associative learning.” Connecting facts to be learned to make the learning easier. This works because you are activating several parts of the brain. You are giving the brain some memory hooks to which it can tie the information concerning the name of the letter. You are asking for decision making as they look around the room, find the letter, name the place or person, etc. Higher level thinking skills are involved in making a Posted by inalco at 3:22 AM

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Auditory Activities (Ga) Here are some other activities you can do with things you typically have around the house or in the classroom to strengthen auditory processing. These activities are from Children With Learning Disabilities by Janet Lerner These activities can be done at home whether you are homeschooling or helping your child after school. These activities help those children with dyslexia, learning disabilities, ADHD, auditory processing problems such as auditory memory. Teaching strategies are just that, teaching strategies. A strategy can be done by a parent that is interested in helping thier child improve their auditory processing skills. Auditory Sensitivity to Sounds 1. Listening for sounds. Have the children close their eyes and become auditorily sensitive to environmental sounds about them.Sounds like cars, airplanes, animals, outside sounds, sounds in the next room etc., can be attended to and identified. 2. Recorded sounds.Sounds can be placed on tape or records and the child is asked to identify them.Planes, trains, animals, and typewriters are some of the sounds that may be recorded. 3. Teacher-made sounds.Have the children close their eyes and identify sounds the teacher makes.Examples of such sounds include dropping a pencil, tearing a piece of paper, using a stapler, bouncing a ball, sharpening a pencil, tapping on a glass, opening a window, snapping the lights, leafing through pages in a book, cutting with scissors, opening a drawer, jingling money, or writing on a blackboard. 4. Food sounds.Ask the child to listen for the kind of food that is being eaten, cut, or sliced: celery, apples, carrots. 5. Shaking sounds.Place small hard items such as stones, beans, chalk, salt, sand, or rice into small containers or jars with covers.Have the child identify the contents through shaking and listening. Auditory Attending 1. Attending for sound patterns. Have the child close his eyes or sit facing away from the teacher. Clap hands, play a drum, bounce a ball, etc.Have the child tell how many counts there were or ask him to repeat the patterns made.Rhythmic patterns can be made for the child to repeat.For example: slow, fast, fast. 2. Sound patterns on two objects provides a variation on the above suggestion; for example, use a cup and a book to tap out sounds patterns. Discrimination of Sounds 1. Near or far.With eyes closed, the child is to judge what part of the room a sound is coming from, and whether it is near or far. 2. Loud or soft.Help the child learn to judge and discriminate between loud and soft sounds. 3. High and low.The child learns to judge and discriminate between high and low sounds. 4. Find the sound.One child hides a music box or ticking clock and the other children try to find it by locating the sound. 5. Follow the sound.The teacher or a child blows a whistle while walking around the room.The child should try to follow the route taken through listening. 6. Blindman’s bluff.One child in the group says something like an animal sound, sentence, questions, or phrase.The blindfolded child tries to guess who it is. 7. Auditory figure-background. To help a child attend to a foreground sound against simultaneous irrelevant environment noises, have him listen for pertinent auditory stimuli against a background of music. Awareness of Phonemes or Letter Sounds For success at the beginning stages of reading the child must perceive the individual phoneme sounds of the language, and he must learn to discriminate each language sound that represents a letter shape from other sounds.Such abilities are essential for decoding written language. 1. Initial consonants. Have the child tell which word begins like milk.Say three words like “astronaut, mountain, bicycle.” 2. Ask the child to think of words that begin like Tom. 3. Find pictures of words that begin like Tom, or find pictures of words in magazines that begin with the letter T. Find the word that is different at the beginning: “paper, pear, table, past.” 4. Consonant blends, digraphs, endings, vowels.Similar activities can be devised to help the child learn to auditorily perceive and discriminate other phonic elements. 5. Rhyming words.Learning to hear rhyming words helps the child recognize phonograms.Games similar to those for initial consonants can be used with rhyming words.Experience with nursery rhymes and poems that contain rhymes is useful. 6. Riddle rhymes.Make up riddles that rhyme.Have the child guess the last rhyming word.For example: “It rhymes with book.You hang your clothes on a _________.” Posted by inalco at 3:16 AM

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Mathematics your way: Readiness: 1. Use concrete objects and manipulative s to teach all new concepts and to extend previously presented concepts. 2. Provide the student with discovery-oriented activities that will promote understanding of mathematical relationships. For example, have him/her describe, sort compare or order objects. 3. Provide the student with mathematical puzzles and patterns that will allow him/her to discover varying relationships based on quantity, order, sice and shape.

Classification: Creating Sets 1. Teach all sorting and ordering skills first using familiar objects, then using pictures. 2. Teach the student to order objects by a variety of attributes such as height, width, length, thickness, and weight. Teach the terms for these concepts as part of the activity. 3. Introduce the concepts of sets and develop classification ability by teaching the student to sort objects. 4. To teach the concept of sets an develop classification ability, provide sorting activities such as the following. Place pictures cut from magazines in a bag. Put one picture representing each category to be identified on the bottom of each of two or more shoe boxes. Can be transparent. Have the student dort the pictures from the bag into the appropriate boxes. Check his/her work in order to evaluate his/her understanding of the concept. 5. Provide the student practice in sorting through multiple objects to find all those that match a given object (e.g. all the balls on the toy shelves. Subsequently, have the student find sets of orally descri bed objects (e.g. all the balls in the room, all the tools that may be used for drawing). 6.Using manipulatives such as Attribute Logic Blocks, Cuisenaire Rods and flannel boards, guide the student to discover a variety of atrributes by which these materials may be sorted. Attribtres include color, shape, size, thickness, width, height and use. 7. To provide practice in classifying and creating sets, create experienes in which the students participate. Examples of sets amenable to experimentation are those objects that float/sink, those that feel heavy/light, and those that can be seen through/those that cannot. 8. Teach the student that the members of a set may or may not contain objects/pictures that have a common attribute. For example, a star, ball and a tree may all share membership in a set just because they are described as such. 9. Teach the student that sets in which members do have a common attribute may be named for that attribute. For example, a group of colored objects may be sorted into a red and/or a green set. 10. Help the student to develop conceptualization of sets at the semi-concrete level by representing physical objects by pictures. When the student clearly understands the representation, introduce new concepts with pictures. Assess comprehensions by asking questions about the relationship among objects in the environment. (sets of vocabulary with picture...then cloze practice with spelling word, then recognition of the word et al. 11. He3lp the student to develop conceptualization of sets at the semi-abstract level by teaching him/her to represent each member a a set with a tally, such as popsicle stick. This will encourage him/her to consider the number properties of sets rather other characteristics of the objects. 12. To hel the student learn that numbers may represent sets, teach the student to place sequential numbers, instead of tallies beneath each member of a set. Help him/her to understand that the set may now e named by the highest (lst number used. 13. Provide activities to develop the concept of the empty set, the idea that a set may nave no members. For example, give four students boxes with three, two, one and no crayons in them respectively. Have each student describe the contents of the box, ending with the student who has no crayons. Explain that his/her box contains the empty set . Or, ask questions for wich the asnwer is none such as the number of members in the set of zebras in the classroom. 14. Assist the student in comparing sets by their number properties, deciding which set has more, less or the same as other sets. One-to-One Correspondence/Counting 1. Teach the student the concept of one-to-one correspondence by having him/her match each member of onet set with a member in another set. Help him/her verbalize if one set has the same number as the other set, fewer or more. Concurrently, teach the associated quantitative terms such as "the same as." ":more than: and less/fewer than. 2. tEach the student the concept of one-to-one correspondnce ot help develop the conceptual basis for the condepts of additiona nd subtraction. 3. Provide the student with opportunities to count ojects that s/he uses daily such as silverware, books and shoes. Later, use tokesn such as poker chips or eads Show the student how to sepsaraete each item form teh gou as s/he counts it so that the same imtem iks not counted wice. 4. Tach the student how tuse an abacus for coutning. Manipulating the beads will help reinforce the concept of one0to-one correspondence and help the student develop an initial understanding of place value. 5. Give the student practice in counting and recognizing cardinal numbers by providing activitiessuch as counting buttons into numbered compartments of an egg carton. 6. Help the student to develop an awareness of how counting is use in everyday life by incorporating counting skills into classroom activities. For example, have the student count the students ordering milk, pass out a certain number of books or play board games that involves moving a marker according to a number on a chose card. 7. Teach the student o count to 100 using color coding to help him/her see the repeating pattern of number. 8. UIse games to reinforce number reocgnizion and countking skil.s For example, hacve the study pla domines with ap eer or parent who will encouarge accrate couting with commuent such as Seek it fou ahve domine with three dots ust like this one. 9 Ath ome, play games thar require couting with the studetn . Sugestions are boad famestthat requir emovcing amarker oa specfic numver of ssquare,s Cribbage and card gmes cu as Blackjeckt or 21. 10 Use a number line to help the student learn to count backwards.

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Gs Used in Social Studies Reading (L/S/R/W)

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Friday, January 1, 2016

Understanding Cattell Horn Carroll Theory and How To Build Intact Abilities Through Interventions

Current neuropsychological theory has identified and defined 16 broad cognitive abilities 1. Fluid Reasoning (Gf) - The deliberate but flexible control of attention to solve novel, on the spot problems that cannot be performed by relying exclusively on previously learned habits, schemas and scripts. 2. Crystallized Intelligence (Gc) - The depth and breadth and knowledge and skills that are valued by one's culture. 3. Quantitative Knowledge (Gq) - The depth and breadth of knowledge related to mathematics 4. Visual Processing (Gv) - The ability to make use of simulated mental imagery (often in conjunction with currently perceived images) to solve problems 5. Auditory Processing (Ga) - The ability to detect and process meaningful nonverbal information in sound 6. Short-Term Memory (Gsm) - The ability to encode, maintain, and manipulate information in one's immediate awareness 7. Long-Term Storage and Retrieval (Glr) - The ability to store, consolidate, and retrieve information over periods of time measured in minutes, hours, days and years. 8. Processing Speed (Gs) - The ability to perform simple, repetitive cognitive tasks quickly and fluently. 9. Reaction and Decision Speed (Gt) - The speed of making very simple decision or judgments when items are presented one at a time. 10. Reading and Writing (Grw) - The depth and breadth of knowledge and skills related to written language. 11. Psychomotor Speed (Gps) - The speed and fluidity with which physical body movements can be made. 12. Domain-Specific Knowledge (Gkn) - The depth, breadth and mastery of specialized knowledge (knowledge not all members of society are expected to have) 13. Olfactory Abilities (Go) - The ability to detect and process meaningful information in odors. 14. Tactile Abilities (Gh) - The abilities to detect and process meaningful information in haptic (touch) sensations. 15. Kinesthetic Abilities (Gk) - The abilities to detecf and process meaningful information in proprioceptive sensations 16. Psychomotor Abilities (Gp) - The abilities to perform physically body motor movements (e.g. movement of fingers, hands, legs) with precision coordination or strength. Posted by inalco at 6:01 PM

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Response to the Right Intervention and/or Enrichment involves Offering Menus of Choice Mercer and Lane (1996) assessed the needs relevant in an inclusive classroom: "Students who academically gifted, those who have had abundant experiences, and those who have demonstrated proficiency with lesson content typically tend to perform well when instruction is anchored at the "implicit" end of the instructional continuum. In contrast, low-performing students (i.e. students at risk for school failure, students with learning disabilities, and students with other special needs) and students with limited experience or proficiency with lesson content are most successful when instruction is explicit." However, another tier of distinction is relevant here: their analyses speaks to evidenced ability or capacity--not to the essence of the student. Student capacity is not fixed, as the brain and its capacities are dynamic and highly plastic. Recent neuroscientific findings would dictate, therefore, that we offer a menu of learning options as a means of aligning our instructional practices with what school neuropsychology tells us about the brains of most children. The brain itself gives us the most powerful argument for why we want our instruction to evidence--if not imbue--a growth mindset. Quantitatively (and ethically) for us, therefore, unless we have given a series of differentiated, assessment batteries with adaptive behavior and exclusionary factors weighed in, after systematically exposing said student to months of high-quality, evidence-based instruction that aligns with IDEA 2004, we cannot in all professionalism lightly refer to students in formal and/or informal instructional settings as "low." Nor should we discuss clinical or non-clinical conclusions in front of the child--in ways that might permanently tattoo and/or fix his self-concept or sense of potential.

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Goto School Best Practices - "SuperVision" for Effective Teaching: 2016

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