hell raiser - kocw

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11주차. Compounds

지난강의 • Derivation vs. inflection • Inflection, grammatical words, lexemes • Grammatical meanings of inflection - number, person, tense and aspect, gender and noun class, case, voice, mood/modality • Inflection in English • Irregular inflection • Why English has so little inflection?

학습내용 • Compounds, phrasal words, lexicalized phrases • The internal structure of compounds • The right-hand HEAD rule • Common patterns of compounding

학습내용 • Types of compounds - endocentric, exocentric, copulative compounds - root (= primary), synthetic (= verbal or secondary) compounds - compound nouns, compound adjectives, compound verbs - neoclassical compounds • Compound stress

11주차. Compounds

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Which syntactic units comprise a compound? • biology, electroscopy; biochemistry, astrophysics • parks commissioner, systems analyst • over-the-fence gossip, off-the-rack dress • gossip over the fence, dress off the rack

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Which syntactic units comprise a compound? - The left-hand member of a compound must be a root, a word, or a phrase. - The right-hand member must be a root or a word; it cannot be a phrase.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal compounds

• A phrasal compounds is a word that is made up of a phrase as its first element and a noun as its second element. - stuff-blowing-up effects - bikini-girls-in-trouble genre - comic-book-and-science-fiction fans

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal compounds

• It is impossible to insert a modifying word in-between the phrase and the HEAD of the compound. - exciting stuff-blowing-up effects - *stuff-blowing-up exciting effects (*girl pretty friend)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal compounds

• Even a whole sentence can take up the left-hand position. - God-is-dead theology

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal words

(1) jack-in-the-box (cf. book on the shelf) (2) good-for-nothing, dyed-in-the-wool

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal words

• What are the internal structures of (1) and (2)? • The right-hand member is a phrase: [[jack] [in the box]], [[good][for nothing]] , [[dyed][in the wool]] → phrase-like

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal words

• What is the plural form of (1)? • The plural form is marked on the whole expression: jack-in-the-boxes, not *jacks-in-the-box. (cf. [books on the shelf]NP) → word-like

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Phrasal words

• (2) can act like an adjective: your goodfor-nothing husband, a dyed-in-the-wool Republican → word-like • These are phrasal words.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Lexicalized phrases

• brother-in-law, grant-in-aid • What is the internal structure? • The right-hand member is a phrase: [[brother] [in law]] → phrase-like

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Lexicalized phrases

• What is the plural form? • The plural form is marked on the head noun, not on the whole expression: brothers-in-law, not *brother-in-laws (cf. [books on the shelf]NP) → phrase-like

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Lexicalized phrases

• But still, brother-in-law is idiosyncratic (or unpredictable) in meaning, and hence, is a lexical item. • Thus, brother-in-law is a lexicalized phrase.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exercises

- Exercise 6.1, Plag, p.163 Classify the following words as being products of either inflection, derivation, or compounding. Justify your analysis in the potentially problematic cases.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exercises

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blackboard eraser unacceptability flowerpots movie monster broad-shouldered hard-working speaking developmental

1 11주차. Compounds 8 The internal structure of compounds • Which one is correct? - [bathroom towel designer] - [[bathroom towel]] designer] - [bathroom [towel designer]]

• What is the meaning difference? - [[top hat] rack]] vs. [top [hat rack]] • We will get back to this next week.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 The right-hand HEAD rule

• If the right-hand member of a compound is a verb, the compound will be a verb (e.g. deep-fry, proof-read) • If the right-hand member of a compound is a count noun, the compound will be a count noun (e.g. drophammer, greenhouse)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 The right-hand HEAD rule

• If the right-hand member of a compound has feminine gender, the compound will be feminine (e.g. head waitress) • If the right-hand member of a compound is plural, the compound will be plural (e.g. parks commissioner vs. parks commissioners).

1 11주차. Compounds 8 The right-hand HEAD rule

• The compound as a whole inherits its syntactic information from its right-hand member. • Thus, the right-hand member of a compound is its ‘syntactic’ head (=HEAD). → The right-hand HEAD rule

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Common patterns of compounding left/right

noun

verb

noun

bathroom

brainwash sky-high

verb

pickpocket

stir-fry

adjective

greenhouse dry-clean

grey-green

preposition

afterbirth

inbuilt

outrun

(V+A compounds are rare.)

adjective

(fail-safe)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 • Compounds, phrasal words, lexicalized phrases • The internal structure of compounds • The right-hand HEAD rule • Common patterns of compounding • Types of compounds -

-

endocentric, exocentric, copulative compounds root (= primary), synthetic (= verbal or secondary) compounds compound nouns, compound adjectives, compound verbs neoclassical compounds

• Compound stress

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Types of compounds

• Depending on the category of the right-hand member: - compound nouns (= nominal compounds) - compound verbs (= verbal compounds) - compound adjectives (= adjectival compounds)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Types of compounds

• Depending on the status of the semantic head: - exocentric compounds - endocentric compounds - copulative compounds (endocentric compounds with multiple semantic heads)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Types of compounds

• Depending on whether the right-hand member is derived from a verb: - root (= primary) compounds - synthetic (=verbal or secondary) compounds

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Endocentric compounds

• There is a semantic head in an endocentric compound. • The referent of the compound (= the semantic head) is the same as the referent of the right-hand member of the compound.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Endocentric compounds

- a laser printer is a kind of printer - a book cover is a kind of cover - a letter head is a kind of head • semantic head = the right-hand member

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds

• ‘Exocentric compounds’ literally means that the semantic head is outside the compound (i.e. there is no semantic head in the compound). • The referent of the compound is not the referent of the right-hand member of the compound.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds

• There is no semantic head, but there is a syntactic head, usually the right-hand member, that determines the category of the compound. - turncoat, egghead, highbrow, redskin, redhead, redneck, bigfoot, loudmouth, greybeard, faintheart

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds

• But see to pickpocket, to cutthroat, to spoilsport, to killjoy, to cutpurse. → But examples like these are not common.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds (cont)

• Most exocentric compounds are forms denoting human beings (e.g. loudmouth) or higher animals (e.g. saber tooth).

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds

• The productive exocentric compounds are also called possessive compounds, because they denote an entity that is characterized (sometimes metaphorically) by the property expressed by the compound. - a loudmouth is a person that possesses ‘a loud mouth’ - a saber tooth is an animal with a saberlike tooth

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exocentric compounds

• Possessive exocentric compounds usually have an adjective as their left-hand element.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Plural forms of endocentric vs. exocentric compounds • How do we make plural forms? • Endocentric compounds - wisdom tooth → wisdom teeth - club foot → club feet - oak leaf → oak leaves

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Plural forms of endocentric vs. exocentric compounds • Exocentric compounds - saber tooth → saber tooths - bigfoot → bigfoots - Toronto Maple Leafs (an NHL ice hockey team) • An exocentric compound inflects regularly even when its right-hand member inflects irregularly.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Copulative compounds • Copulative compounds have multiple semantic heads, neither of them being subordinate to the other. → endocentric compounds with multiple semantic heads - singer-songwriter, scientist-explorer, poet-translator, hero-martyr, producerdirector, fighter-bomber, bitter-sweet, - the doctor-patient gap, the naturenurture debate, a modifier-head structure, the mind-body problem

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Copulative compounds • appositional compounds → denote one entity • coordinative compounds → denote multiple entities

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Copulative compounds • What is the plural form of ‘poettranslator’? • There are two semantics heads, but the syntactic properties of the compound is nonetheless determined by the right-hand member (e.g. poet-translators, *poetstranslator, *poets-translators)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Root vs. synthetic compounds • Synthetic (= verbal or secondary) compounds: - The right-hand member is derived from a verb, and the left-hand member is interpreted as an argument of that verb.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Root vs. synthetic compounds - dog walker, slum clearance, crime prevention, home invasion, cost containment → compound nouns - university-controlled, home made, Washington-based, hand-washing, hair-raising, awe-inspiring → compound adjectives

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Root vs. synthetic compounds (cont) • Root (= primary) compounds: - The right-hand member is not derived from a verb. - The interpretation of the semantic relationship between the right-hand member and the left-hand member in root compounds is quite free.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Root vs. synthetic compounds (cont) • Root (= primary) compounds: - What are the possible two meanings of marble museum? - Also compare the meanings of hairnet, butterfly net, and mosquito net.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exercises

- Exercise 6.3, Plag, p.163 Classify the following compounds as exocentric, endocentric, possessive, appositional, or coordinative.

frying pan maidservant

redhead author-reader (exchange)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exercises

Classify the following compounds as exocentric, endocentric, possessive, appositional, or coordinative. Austria-Hungary silkworm bootblack actor-manager

hardtop man-machine (interaction) German-English gas-light

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Exercises

• Exercise 8, Lieber, pp.56-57 - oil burner - light house - blue blood - hell raiser - scholar athlete - blue eyed - pickpocket - house-hunting

1 11주차. Compounds 8 • Compounds, phrasal words, lexicalized phrases • The internal structure of compounds • The right-hand HEAD rule • Common patterns of compounding • Types of compounds -

-

endocentric, exocentric, copulative compounds root (= primary), synthetic (= verbal or secondary) compounds compound nouns, compound adjectives, compound verbs neoclassical compounds

• Compound stress

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Common patterns of compounding left/right

noun

verb

noun

bathroom

brainwash sky-high

verb

pickpocket

stir-fry

adjective

greenhouse dry-clean

grey-green

preposition

afterbirth

inbuilt

outrun

adjective

(fail-safe)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound nouns • swearword, drophammer, playtime → V+N • hairnet, mosquito net, butterfly net, hair restorer → N+N • blackboard, greenstone, faintheart → A+N • in-group, outpost, overcoat → P+N

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound adjectives • knee-deep, dog-lean; universitycontrolled, Washington-based; sugar-free, girl-crazy → N+A • fail-safe → V+A (rare) • bitter-sweet, sweet-sour; French-German (cooperation), public-private (partnership) → A+A • inbuilt, incoming, outgoing → P+A

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound adjectives (cont) • N+A: The left-hand member as a modifier with various interpretations - capital-insensitive → intensive with respect to capital - knee-deep → deep to the height of one’s knee - dog-lean → as lean as a dog - blood-red → red like blood

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound adjectives (cont) • N+A: The left-hand member as an argument - university-controlled, Washingtonbased, hair-raising → synthetic compounds - sugar-free, girl-crazy, class-conscious

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound adjectives (cont) • A+A: copulative compounds - bitter-sweet, sweet-sour appositional - a French-German cooperation, the high-low alternation, a public-private partnership → coordinative

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compound verbs • to deep-fry, to shortcut, to blindfold, to broadcast → A+V • to proof-read, to ghost-write, to chainsmoke → N+V • to stir-fry, to dry-clean, to freeze-dry, to drink-drive → V+V • to download, to outsource, to upgrade → P+V

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Compounds with a preposition • Compounds with a preposition as the right-hand member violate the right-hand HEAD rule. - hanger-on, passer-by, sundown - Preposition is a closed class, which is reluctant to accepting new members.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Neoclassical compounds • pathology, pathogen, psychopath; dermatitis, dermatology, pachyderm, bronchitis; electroscopy, (two combining forms) • electrometer, electromagnet, electrochemistry; Sino-Korean, Sinophobia, Sino-Japanes (one combining form)

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Neoclassical compounds • Neoclassical compounds are similar to compounds: Just like a blackboard is a kind of board, pathology is a kind of study and dermatitis is a kind of disease.

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Neoclassical compounds (cont) • Unlike ordinary compounds, neoclassical compounds are nearly all technical terms of scientific vocabulary, coined out of non-English elements (mostly from Latin and Greek) called “combining forms.”

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Neoclassical compounds (cont) • Combining forms are bound morpheme, more root-like than affix-like, usually of Greek or Latin origin, that occurs only in compounds, usually with other combining forms (e.g. bio, ology in biology).

1 11주차. Compounds 8 Neoclassical compounds (cont) • If a word made up of combining forms is in common use, the morphemes within it tend to acquire the status of free morphemes (e.g. photo from photograph).

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hell raiser - kocw

11주차. Compounds 지난강의 • Derivation vs. inflection • Inflection, grammatical words, lexemes • Grammatical meanings of inflection - number, person, ten...

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