Highlights of Women's Earnings in 2008 - Bureau of Labor Statistics

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Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2008 125 YEARS

BLS

U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics July 2009 Report 1017

men’s earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds, for example, rose from 68 percent in 1979 to 89 percent in 2008, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 75 percent. The earnings ratios for teenagers (87 percent in 2008) and for workers aged 65 and older (75 percent in 2008) fluctuated from 1979 to 2008, but their long-term trends have been essentially flat. (See table 12.)

Introduction

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n 2008, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median weekly earnings of $638, or about 80 percent of the $798 median for their male counterparts. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women earned about 62 percent as much as men. After a gradual rise in the 1980s and 1990s, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio peaked at 81 percent in 2005 and 2006. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

• Asian women and men earned more than their white, black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2008. Among women, whites ($654) earned 87 percent as much as Asians ($753), while blacks ($554) and Hispanics ($501) earned 74 percent and 67 percent as much, respectively. In comparison, white men ($825) earned 85 percent as much as Asian men ($966), black men ($620) earned 64 percent as much, and Hispanic men ($559), 58 percent. (See chart 2 and tables 1 and 14.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Information on earnings is collected from one-fourth of the CPS sample each month. Readers should note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences. For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used, see the accompanying technical note.

• Earnings differences between women and men were widest for Asians and for whites. Asian women and white women earned just under 80 percent as much as their male counterparts in 2008. By comparison, black women and Hispanic women had earnings that were around 90 percent of those of their male counterparts. (See table 1.)

Highlights Full-time workers • Median weekly earnings were highest for women and men aged 45 to 64. Within this broad age range, there was little difference in the earnings of 45- to 54-year-olds and 55to 64-year-olds ($707 and $711, respectively, for women and $944 and $943, respectively, for men). Young women and men aged 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings at $420 and $461, respectively. (See table 1.)

• Across the major race and Hispanic ethnicity categories, women’s inflation-adjusted earnings grew from 1979 to 2008 while those for men were flat or down. Among women, growth in real earnings for white women has outpaced that of their black and Hispanic counterparts. Between 1979 and 2008, inflation-adjusted earnings for white women rose by 29 percent, while earnings growth among black and Hispanic women was 19 percent and 15 percent, respectively. In contrast, real earnings for white men and for black men in 2008 were about the same as they were in 1979, while Hispanic men’s earnings fell by about 8 percent. (See table 15.)

• Women aged 35 and older earned about 75 percent as much as their male counterparts. Among younger workers, the earnings differences between women and men were not as great. Women earned about 89 percent as much as men among workers 25 to 34 years old, and 91 percent as much among 16- to 24-year-olds. (See table 1.)

The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods—CPI-U-RS—is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars for the inflation-adjusted comparisons in this report. Asians could not be included in this analysis because of the limited comparable data series available. (See note in table 15.)

• Between 1979 and 2008, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women’s-to-

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• Women’s long-term earnings growth reflects, in part, gains in their education levels and their movement into higher paying occupations over time. Although men’s educational attainment also has improved since 1979, the relative gains have not been as great, nor has the occupational distribution of employed men changed as significantly as that of women. In 1979, among women aged 25 to 64 in the civilian labor force, 20 percent were high school dropouts, 45 percent had only a high school diploma, and 35 percent had been to college. By 2008, just 7 percent lacked a high school diploma, 27 percent had a high school diploma, and 66 percent had been to college after high school. Among 25to 64-year-old men in the civilian labor force, the proportion of high school dropouts fell from 23 to 11 percent over the same period, the proportion of high school graduates with no college went from 36 to 30 percent, and the share with some college or a college degree increased from 41 to 59 percent.

and finance, the highest paying occupations for women were chief executives and computer and information systems managers. Within professional and related occupations, women working as pharmacists or lawyers had the highest median weekly earnings. (See table 2.) • The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ significantly. Relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in administrative support jobs. (See chart 4 and table 2.) • Although women are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations, they are not as well represented in the higher paying job groups within this broad category. In 2008, only 9 percent of female professionals compared with 45 percent of male professionals were employed in the high-paying computer and engineering fields. Professional women were more likely to work in the education and health care occupations, in which pay was generally lower. Sixty-eight percent of female professionals worked in these fields in 2008, compared with 29 percent of male professionals. (See table 2.)

Data for 1979 are based on the March CPS; data for 2008 are annual averages. Prior to 1992, educational attainment data were based on the number of years of school completed. Since 1992, the data reflect the highest diploma or degree received. These historical educational attainment data are published in the annual CPS report, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook, online at http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlftable9-2008.pdf.

• The ratio of female-to-male earnings varied by place of residence, ranging from 68 percent in Wyoming to 92 percent in the District of Columbia. The differences among the States reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each State and in the age composition of each State’s labor force. Sampling error for the State estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates; thus, comparisons of State estimates should be made with caution. (See table 3.)

• Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational level. Among both women and men aged 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($378 for women and $497 for men) were less than half of those with a college degree ($955 for women and $1,285 for men) in 2008. Women and men with a high school diploma but no college earned about 55 percent of what college graduates did. (See tables 1 and 6.)

• Median weekly earnings for married women and men were higher than those for their unmarried counterparts. As a group, married workers tend to be older and so are more likely to be in their prime earning years. Among married workers of either sex, the earnings of those with children under age 18 differed only slightly from those without children. Among unmarried workers, women without children earned 13 percent more than those with children. The opposite was true among unmarried men: those with children earned 11 percent more than those with no children. (See table 8.)

• At all levels of education, women have fared better than men with respect to earnings growth. Although both women and men with less than a high school diploma have experienced declines in inflation-adjusted earnings since 1979, the drop for women was significantly less than that for men—10 percent as opposed to 29 percent. Earnings for women with college degrees have increased by 31 percent since 1979 on an inflation-adjusted basis, while those of male college graduates have risen by 18 percent. (Data pertain to workers aged 25 and older.) (See chart 3 and table 17.)

• Among full-time workers, that is, those working 35 hours or more per week in a job, men were more likely than women to have a longer workweek. In 2008, 26 percent of men working full-time jobs had workweeks of 41 hours or more, compared with 14 percent of female full-time workers. Women were 3 times as likely as men to work 35 to 39 hours per week—12 percent as opposed to 4 percent. A majority of both male and female full-time workers had a

• Women working in full-time management, business, and financial operations jobs had median weekly earnings of $941 in 2008, more than women earned in any other major occupational category. The second-highest paying job group was professional and related occupations, in which women earned $867 per week. In management, business,

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40-hour workweek; among these workers, women earned 87 percent as much as men. (See table 5.)

hourly earnings of $11.49, 85 percent of the median for men paid by the hour ($13.46). (See tables 9, 10, and 18-22.)

Part-time workers • Women are more likely than men to work part time, that is, fewer than 35 hours per week in her sole or principal job. Women who worked part time made up 24 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2008. In contrast, only 11 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. These proportions have not changed much over time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

• Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2008, 4 percent of women and 2 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage. (See tables 11 and 22.) On July 24, 2008, the Federal minimum wage level rose from $5.85 to $6.55 an hour. Minimum wage data in this report reflect the average number of workers who earned $5.85 or less from January 2008 through July 2008 and those who earned $6.55 or less from August 2008 through the end of the year. For information about workers with earnings below the Federal minimum wage, see the accompanying technical note.

• Median weekly earnings of female part-time workers were $223, compared with $209 for their male counterparts. The lower earnings for men in part reflect the fact that male part-time workers are more concentrated in the youngest age groups, which typically have low earnings. About half of male part-timers were 16 to 24 years old, compared with just under a third of female part-timers. (See table 4.)

• Among both women and men, hourly paid workers aged 16 to 19 were the most likely to have earnings at or below the minimum wage. Eleven percent of all teenage workers earned the prevailing Federal minimum wage or less, compared with just 2 percent of hourly paid workers aged 25 and older. Among those aged 20 to 24, about 6 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage. (See table 11.)

Workers paid by the hour • Sixty-one percent of women and 56 percent of men employed in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour in 2008. Women who were paid hourly rates had median

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Chart 1. Women’s earnings as a percent of men’s, full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2008 annual averages Percent

Percent

90

90

85

85

80

80

75

75

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55 50

50 1979

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

Chart 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages Earnings (dollars)

Earnings (dollars)

1,000

1,000

$966

Women Men $825

$798

800

800

$753 $638

$654

600

$620 $559

$554

600

$501 400

400

200

200

0

0 Total

White

Black or African-American

4

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

Chart 3. Percent change in constant-dollar median usual weekly earnings, by educational attainment and sex, 1979–2008 Highest educational level 31 Bachelor’s degree and higher

Women

18

Men 8 Some college or associate degree

–9 2

High school, no college

–17 –10

Less than a high school diploma

–29 –40

–30

–10

–20

0

10

20

40

30

Percent change NOTE: Data relate to earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older.

Chart 4. Distribution of full-time wage and salary employment, by sex and major occupation group, 2008 annual averages Percent of total 40

Percent of total 40 Women

35

35

Men

30

30

27.7

25 20

19.7

18.8

18.1 15.8

15

25

23.6

20

15.8

14.9

15

12.4 9.6

10

9.4

10 6.7

6.6

5

5 1.0

0

0 Management, business, and financial operations occupations

Professional and related occupations

Service occupations

Sales and related occupations

5

Office and administrative support occupations

Natural Production, resources, transportation, and construction, material-moving and maintenance occupations occupations

Statistical Tables Page 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages ................................................................................................................................................................

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2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages ............................................................................................................................... ................................. 10 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by State and sex, 2008 annual averages ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages ................................................................................................................................................................. 38 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked and sex, 2008 annual averages ................................................................................................................................................................. 40 6. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages ......................................................................................................................... 42 7. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages . ............................................................................................................................................................... 43 8. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 2008 annual averages ......................................................................................... 45 9. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages ................................................................................................................................................................ 46 10. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages ................................................................................................................................................................ 48 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages .................................................................................................................... 50 12. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages ...................................................................................................................................................... 52 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages ............................................................................................................................................... 56 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages ........................................................................................................ 59 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages ................................................................................................. 63 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in current dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages .................................................................................................. 66 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages ................................................................................. 70

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Statistical Tables, continued

Page

18. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages ...................................................................................................................................................... 73 19. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages .............................................................................................................................................. 77 20. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages ....................................................................................................... 80 21. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages ........................................................................................ 84 22. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by sex, 1979–2008 annual averages .......................................................................................................................................... 87

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Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages Both sexes Characteristic

Number of workers (in thousands)

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$722 443 349 467 761 666 804 822 825 644

$2 3 4 3 2 3 5 5 6 11

47,209 4,625 633 3,992 42,584 10,974 11,385 12,258 6,827 1,140

$638 420 322 445 670 623 682 707 711 563

$2 3 4 5 2 3 5 5 6 13

86,022 12,821 5,266 15,807

742 589 861 529

2 3 12 4

36,940 6,790 2,347 5,846

654 554 753 501

2 6 10 4

27,981 60,901 17,767 11,891 4,210 1,667

585 812 678 722 589 639

2 3 4 5 6 14

12,165 24,839 10,205 6,856 2,094 1,255

564 692 624 658 538 606

5 4 4 6 12 9

14,561 16,029 90,620

886 880 691

5 4 2

6,077 6,823 40,386

809 800 615

8 7 2

96,027 8,120 27,392 26,526 33,990

761 453 618 722 1,115

2 4 2 3 6

42,584 2,566 11,451 12,756 15,812

670 378 520 628 955

2 3 2 3 4

AGE Total, 16 years and older................................ 106,648 16 to 24 years........................................................ 10,621 1,552 16 to 19 years..................................................... 9,069 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 96,027 25,643 25 to 34 years..................................................... 26,408 35 to 44 years..................................................... 26,640 45 to 54 years..................................................... 14,763 55 to 64 years..................................................... 2,573 65 years and older.............................................. RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American...................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.................................... MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status................................................ Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed............................................................. UNION AFFILIATION1 Members of unions 2 ............................................. Represented by unions 3 ........................................ Not represented by a union.................................... EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Total, 25 years and older....................................... Less than a high school diploma........................ High school, no college 4 ................................... Some college or associate degree..................... Bachelor's degree and higher 5 .......................... See footnotes at end of table.

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Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older................................ 16 to 24 years........................................................ 16 to 19 years..................................................... 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 25 to 34 years..................................................... 35 to 44 years..................................................... 45 to 54 years..................................................... 55 to 64 years..................................................... 65 years and older..............................................

59,439 5,996 919 5,077 53,444 14,669 15,023 14,382 7,936 1,434

$798 461 369 481 857 704 915 944 943 753

$3 4 6 3 3 4 6 6 8 17

79.9 91.1 87.3 92.5 78.2 88.5 74.5 74.9 75.4 74.8

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American...................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................................

49,082 6,031 2,919 9,961

825 620 966 559

3 5 15 6

79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

15,815 36,062 7,562 5,035 2,115 412

599 917 759 811 630 794

3 4 7 9 12 28

94.2 75.5 82.2 81.1 85.4 76.3

8,483 9,205 50,234

939 937 766

6 6 3

86.2 85.4 80.3

53,444 5,554 15,941 13,770 18,178

857 497 709 830 1,285

3 3 4 5 11

78.2 76.1 73.3 75.7 74.3

Characteristic

AGE

MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status................................................ Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed............................................................. UNION AFFILIATION1 Members of unions 2 ............................................. Represented by unions 3........................................ Not represented by a union.................................... EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Total, 25 years and older....................................... Less than a high school diploma........................ High school, no college 4 ................................... Some college or associate degree..................... Bachelor's degree and higher 5 .......................... 1

Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of male and female employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or geographic region. 2

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

3

Data refer to workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract, as well as to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. 4

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent. Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degree. NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. 5

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Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages Both sexes Occupation

Women

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

106,648

$722

$2

40,154

1,025

16,310 11,223 1,044 919 16 69 867 57 92 431 1,063 288 222 183

Total, 16 years and older…………………………………… Management, professional, and related occupations…… Management, business, and financial operations occupations…………………………………… Management occupations……………………………… Chief executives……………………………………… General and operations managers………………… Legislators……………………………………………… Advertising and promotions managers……………… Marketing and sales managers……………………… Public relations managers…………………………… Administrative services managers…………………… Computer and information systems managers…… Financial managers…………………………………… Human resources managers………………………… Industrial production managers……………………… Purchasing managers………………………………… Transportation, storage, and distribution managers……………………………… Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers……… Construction managers……………………………… Education administrators……………………………. Engineering managers………………………………… Food service managers……………………………… Funeral directors……….……………………………… Gaming managers……………..……………………… Lodging managers…………………………………… Medical and health services managers……………… Natural sciences managers………………………… Postmasters and mail superintendents……………… Property, real estate, and community association managers……….. ……… Social and community service managers…………… Managers, all other…………………………………… Business and financial operations occupations……… Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes…………………… Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products…… Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products………………………………… Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products………………………………………… Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators…………………………………… Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation………………………………………… Cost estimators………………………………………… Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists…………………………………………… Logisticians…………………………………………… Management analysts………………………………… Meeting and convention planners…………………… Other business operations specialists………………

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

47,209

$638

$2

4

20,535

892

4

1,128 1,204 1,903 1,229 (1) 1,097 1,345 1,232 1,003 1,576 1,134 1,233 1,253 1,139

7 14 11 29 (1) 121 27 55 56 44 19 50 61 59

7,463 4,535 251 274 7 52 357 31 26 120 583 194 30 72

941 979 1,603 993 (1) 1,000 1,024 (1) (1) 1,260 945 1,137 (1) 995

6 10 120 40 (1) 144 71 (1) (1) 211 17 44 (1) 48

218 76 586 725 99 619 25 14 119 500 15 36

877 775 1,189 1,170 1,752 676 (1) (1) 788 1,170 (1) (1)

39 85 35 33 26 18 (1) (1) 93 66 (1) (1)

38 13 49 447 5 296 6 4 56 351 2 19

(1) (1) (1) 1,000 (1) 628 (1) (1) 720 1,066 (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) 59 (1) 18 (1) (1) 76 42 (1) (1)

303 277 2,361 5,087

847 965 1,225 974

44 34 22 9

177 191 885 2,928

758 871 1,010 885

34 49 24 10

28 5

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

11 3

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

152

816

45

70

801

76

253

890

26

146

859

33

286

810

26

188

766

21

164 82

1,126 1,055

54 53

86 9

950 (1)

58 (1)

717 39 454 47 214

918 (1) 1,255 (1) 931

25 59 26 (1) 38

504 19 209 37 145

850 (1) 1,139 (1) 850

29 (1) 36 (1) 22

See footnotes at end of table.

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Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Total, 16 years and older..................................................

59,439

$798

$3

79.9

Management, professional, and related occupations…… Management, business, and financial operations occupations…………………………………… Management occupations……………………………… Chief executives……………………………………… General and operations managers………………… Legislators……………………………………………… Advertising and promotions managers……………… Marketing and sales managers……………………… Public relations managers…………………………… Administrative services managers…………………… Computer and information systems managers…… Financial managers…………………………………… Human resources managers………………………… Industrial production managers……………………… Purchasing managers………………………………… Transportation, storage, and distribution managers……………………………… Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers……… Construction managers……………………………… Education administrators……………………………. Engineering managers………………………………… Food service managers……………………………… Funeral directors……….……………………………… Gaming managers……………..……………………… Lodging managers…………………………………… Medical and health services managers……………… Natural sciences managers………………………… Postmasters and mail superintendents……………… Property, real estate, and community association managers……….. ……… Social and community service managers…………… Managers, all other…………………………………… Business and financial operations occupations……… Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes…………………… Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products…… Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products………………………………… Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products………………………………………… Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators…………………………………… Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation………………………………………… Cost estimators………………………………………… Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists…………………………………………… Logisticians…………………………………………… Management analysts………………………………… Meeting and convention planners…………………… Other business operations specialists………………

19,619

1,238

6

72.1

8,847 6,687 793 646 9 17 510 26 66 311 480 93 192 111

1,343 1,384 1,999 1,315 (1) (1) 1,601 (1) 1,012 1,641 1,457 1,433 1,285 1,251

8 11 128 65 (1) (1) 66 (1) 64 35 33 81 75 75

70.1 70.7 80.2 75.5 (²) (²) 64.0 (²) (²) 76.8 64.9 79.3 (²) 79.5

179 63 536 278 95 323 18 11 63 150 12 17

885 802 1,219 1,398 1,758 739 (1) (1) 877 1,504 (1) (1)

46 91 35 32 26 18 (1) (1) 89 55 (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) 71.5 (²) 85.0 (²) (²) 82.1 70.9 (²) (²)

126 86 1,477 2,159

1,054 1,254 1,359 1,167

68 159 17 18

71.9 69.5 74.3 75.8

17 2

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

82

826

63

97.0

107

923

87

93.1

99

891

61

86.0

78 73

1,245 1,082

32 105

76.3 (²)

213 21 245 10 69

1,158 (1) 1,391 (1) 1,157

63 (1) 72 (1) 42

73.4 (²) 81.9 (²) 73.5

See footnotes at end of table.

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Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Accountants and auditors…………………………… 1,494 Appraisers and assessors of real estate…………… 61 Budget analysts……………………………………… 62 Credit analysts………………………………………… 20 Financial analysts……………………………………… 84 Personal financial advisors…………………………… 313 Insurance underwriters……………………………… 77 Financial examiners…………………………………… 6 Loan counselors and officers………………………… 355 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents…… 53 Tax preparers………………………………………… 54 Financial specialists, all other………………………… 66 Professional and related occupations…………………… 23,845 Computer and mathematical occupations…………… 3,344 Computer scientists and systems analysts………… 752 Computer programmers……………………………… 470 Computer software engineers……………………… 955 Computer support specialists………………………… 379 Database administrators……………………………… 93 Network and computer systems administrators…… 212 Network systems and data communications analysts……………………………………………… 353 Actuaries……………………………………………… 24 Mathematicians………………………………………… 2 Operations research analysts………………………… 69 Statisticians…………………………………………… 33 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations………………………………… 2 Architecture and engineering occupations…………… 2,652 Architects, except naval……………………………… 150 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists………………………………… 34 Aerospace engineers………………………………… 131 Agricultural engineers………………………………… 4 Biomedical engineers………………………………… 10 64 Chemical engineers…………………………………… 303 Civil engineers………………………………………… Computer hardware engineers……………………… 62 Electrical and electronics engineers………………… 334 Environmental engineers……………………………… 29 Industrial engineers, including health and safety… 163 Marine engineers and naval architects……………… 15 41 Materials engineers…………………………………… Mechanical engineers………………………………… 300 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers…………………………… 12 Nuclear engineers…………………………………… 9 Petroleum engineers………………………………… 18 347 Engineers, all other…………………………………… 150 Drafters………………………………………………… 392 Engineering technicians, except drafters…………… Surveying and mapping technicians………………… 87 Life, physical, and social science occupations……… 1,080 Agricultural and food scientists……………………… 34 See footnotes at end of table.

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Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$981 1,089 1,197 (1) 1,378 1,194 957 (1) 916 850 911 964 980 1,242 1,184 1,218 1,529 893 1,274 1,189

$15 323 92 (1) 91 85 281 (1) 29 41 104 83 4 10 24 39 19 22 180 62

1,130 (1) (1) 1,259 (1)

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

904 22 37 11 39 117 62 3 201 35 36 35 13,072 828 213 105 196 105 25 46

$908 (1) (1) (1) (1) 935 917 (1) 812 (1) (1) (1) 867 1,088 1,082 1,003 1,351 878 (1) (1)

$19 (1) (1) (1) (1) 52 36 (1) 46 (1) (1) (1) 5 27 46 59 47 32 (1) (1)

33 (1) (1) 29 (1)

82 6 36 14

961 (1) (1) (1)

62 (1) (1) (1)

(1) 1,244 1,128

(1) 14 56

334 35

1,001 (1)

22 (1)

(1) 1,554 (1) (1) 1,546 1,332 1,258 1,443 (1) 1,311 (1) (1) 1,433

(1) 46 (1) (1) 83 36 30 34 (1) 64 (1) (1) 24

3 12 3 8 36 14 26 8 23 6 23

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) 1,418 881 905 794 1,035 (1)

(1) (1) (1) 41 31 25 58 27 (1)

1 1 39 31 59 6 477 11

(1) (1) (1) (1) 781 (1) 931 (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) 29 (1) 20 (1)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Accountants and auditors…………………………… 591 Appraisers and assessors of real estate…………… 39 Budget analysts……………………………………… 26 Credit analysts………………………………………… 9 Financial analysts……………………………………… 45 Personal financial advisors…………………………… 197 Insurance underwriters……………………………… 15 Financial examiners…………………………………… 4 Loan counselors and officers………………………… 154 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents…… 18 Tax preparers………………………………………… 18 Financial specialists, all other………………………… 30 Professional and related occupations…………………… 10,773 Computer and mathematical occupations…………… 2,516 Computer scientists and systems analysts………… 538 Computer programmers……………………………… 365 Computer software engineers……………………… 759 Computer support specialists………………………… 274 Database administrators……………………………… 68 Network and computer systems administrators…… 166 Network systems and data communications analysts……………………………………………… 271 Actuaries……………………………………………… 18 Mathematicians………………………………………… 2 Operations research analysts………………………… 34 Statisticians…………………………………………… 19 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations………………………………… 1 Architecture and engineering occupations…………… 2,319 Architects, except naval……………………………… 115 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists………………………………… 32 Aerospace engineers………………………………… 120 Agricultural engineers………………………………… 4 Biomedical engineers………………………………… 8 Chemical engineers…………………………………… 56 Civil engineers………………………………………… 268 Computer hardware engineers……………………… 48 Electrical and electronics engineers………………… 307 Environmental engineers……………………………… 21 Industrial engineers, including health and safety… 140 Marine engineers and naval architects……………… 15 Materials engineers…………………………………… 35 Mechanical engineers………………………………… 276 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers…………………………… 10 Nuclear engineers…………………………………… 9 Petroleum engineers………………………………… 17 Engineers, all other…………………………………… 308 Drafters………………………………………………… 119 Engineering technicians, except drafters…………… 332 Surveying and mapping technicians………………… 80 Life, physical, and social science occupations……… 603 Agricultural and food scientists……………………… 23 See footnotes at end of table.

13

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

$1,178 (1) (1) (1) (1) 1,370 (1) (1) 1,118 (1) (1) (1) 1,169 1,320 1,240 1,261 1,555 903 1,289 1,209

$55 (1) (1) (1) (1) 49 (1) (1) 88 (1) (1) (1) 7 34 36 24 17 30 163 62

77.1 (²) (²) (²) (²) 68.2 (²) (²) 72.6 (²) (²) (²) 74.2 82.4 87.3 79.5 86.9 97.2 (²) (²)

1,184 (1) (1) (1) (1)

45 (1) (1) (1) (1)

81.2 (²) (²) (²) (²)

(1) 1,286 1,273

(1) 21 174

(²) 77.8 (²)

(1) 1,622 (1) (1) 1,562 1,349 (1) 1,475 (1) 1,364 (1) (1) 1,445

(1) 120 (1) (1) 78 31 (1) 48 (1) 40 (1) (1) 25

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

(1) (1) (1) 1,425 924 933 801 1,156 (1)

(1) (1) (1) 47 39 45 56 25 (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) 83.7 (²) 80.5 (²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Biological scientists…………………………………… Conservation scientists and foresters……………… Medical scientists……………………………………… Astronomers and physicists………………………… Atmospheric and space scientists…………………… Chemists and materials scientists…………………… Environmental scientists and geoscientists………… Physical scientists, all other………………………… Economists…………………………………………… Market and survey researchers……………………… Psychologists………………………………………… Sociologists…………………………………………… Urban and regional planners………………………… Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers………………………………………………… Agricultural and food science technicians………… Biological technicians………………………………… Chemical technicians………………………………… Geological and petroleum technicians……………… Nuclear technicians…………………………………… Other life, physical, and social science technicians…………………………………………… Community and social services occupations………… Counselors……………………………………………… Social workers………………………………………… Miscellaneous community and social service specialists…………………………………………… Clergy…………………………………………………… Directors, religious activities and education………… Religious workers, all other…………………………… Legal occupations……………………………………… Lawyers………………………………………………… Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers…… Paralegals and legal assistants……………………… Miscellaneous legal support workers……………… Education, training, and library occupations………… Postsecondary teachers……………………………… Preschool and kindergarten teachers……………… Elementary and middle school teachers…………… Secondary school teachers…………………………… Special education teachers…………………………… Other teachers and instructors……………………… Archivists, curators, and museum technicians……… Librarians……………………………………………… Library technicians…………………………………… Teacher assistants…………………………………… Other education, training, and library workers……… Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations……………………………………………… Artists and related workers…………………………… Designers……………………………………………… Actors…………………………………………………… Producers and directors……………………………… Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers…

Median weekly earnings

Women Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

91 21 120 20 8 103 70 122 17 109 84 1 31

$1,023 (1) 989 (1) (1) 1,118 1,253 1,363 (1) 1,071 1,220 (1) (1)

$74 (1) 68 (1) (1) 169 108 79 (1) 128 98 (1) (1)

46 2 60 3 2 38 22 50 4 60 57 1 17

(1) (1) $948 (1) (1) (1) (1) 1,061 (1) 990 1,004 (1) (1)

(1) (1) $46 (1) (1) (1) (1) 38 (1) 138 53 (1) (1)

36 23 20 56 9 2

(1) (1) (1) 872 (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) 176 (1) (1)

13 9 8 20 3 1

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

103 1,908 522 639

752 788 787 784

47 17 29 24

50 1,117 355 503

752 753 787 779

83 12 34 23

261 388 38 60 1,199 645 51 304 198 6,677 862 506 2,627 1,086 343 351 25 136 17 651 74

736 882 (1) 669 1,174 1,751 1,281 796 738 866 1,149 591 890 949 944 858 (1) 878 (1) 421 1,071

25 26 (1) 64 36 25 224 20 30 6 18 17 8 13 30 26 (1) 77 (1) 7 77

159 43 21 36 693 247 24 267 155 4,883 379 493 2,127 596 291 209 13 111 14 595 55

680 (1) (1) (1) 962 1,509 (1) 790 702 818 1,056 589 871 920 949 812 (1) 811 (1) 413 886

25 (1) (1) (1) 20 99 (1) 19 32 8 31 16 8 19 28 22 (1) 35 (1) 7 121

1,570 74 540 2 108 117

882 985 811 (1) 938 825

18 103 23 (1) 55 148

689 23 268 1 42 25

777 (1) 744 (1) (1) (1)

20 (1) 18 (1) (1) (1)

See footnotes at end of table.

14

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Biological scientists…………………………………… Conservation scientists and foresters……………… Medical scientists……………………………………… Astronomers and physicists………………………… Atmospheric and space scientists…………………… Chemists and materials scientists…………………… Environmental scientists and geoscientists………… Physical scientists, all other………………………… Economists…………………………………………… Market and survey researchers……………………… Psychologists………………………………………… Sociologists…………………………………………… Urban and regional planners………………………… Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers………………………………………………… Agricultural and food science technicians………… Biological technicians………………………………… Chemical technicians………………………………… Geological and petroleum technicians……………… Nuclear technicians…………………………………… Other life, physical, and social science technicians…………………………………………… Community and social services occupations………… Counselors……………………………………………… Social workers………………………………………… Miscellaneous community and social service specialists…………………………………………… Clergy…………………………………………………… Directors, religious activities and education………… Religious workers, all other…………………………… Legal occupations……………………………………… Lawyers………………………………………………… Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers…… Paralegals and legal assistants……………………… Miscellaneous legal support workers……………… Education, training, and library occupations………… Postsecondary teachers……………………………… Preschool and kindergarten teachers……………… Elementary and middle school teachers…………… Secondary school teachers…………………………… Special education teachers…………………………… Other teachers and instructors……………………… Archivists, curators, and museum technicians……… Librarians……………………………………………… Library technicians…………………………………… Teacher assistants…………………………………… Other education, training, and library workers……… Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations……………………………………………… Artists and related workers…………………………… Designers……………………………………………… Actors…………………………………………………… Producers and directors……………………………… Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers… See footnotes at end of table.

15

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

45 18 60 16 6 65 48 72 13 49 27 13

(1) (1) $1,133 (1) (1) 1,430 (1) 1,535 (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) $267 (1) (1) 60 (1) 175 (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) 83.7 (²) (²) (²) (²) 69.1 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

23 14 13 36 6 1

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

54 791 167 135

751 860 787 812

53 23 50 80

100.1 87.6 100.0 95.9

102 346 18 24 506 398 27 37 43 1,794 483 14 500 490 52 142 11 25 3 56 19

874 899 (1) (1) 1,696 1,875 (1) (1) (1) 1,020 1,245 (1) 994 995 914 953 (1) (1) (1) 517 (1)

59 27 (1) (1) 100 36 (1) (1) (1) 17 31 (1) 23 26 36 41 (1) (1) (1) 20 (1)

77.8 (²) (²) (²) 56.7 80.5 (²) (²) (²) 80.2 84.8 (²) 87.6 92.5 103.8 85.2 (²) (²) (²) 79.9 (²)

882 51 271 1 65 91

951 1,103 899 (1) 983 837

22 40 48 (1) 56 28

81.7 (²) 82.8 (²) (²) (²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Dancers and choreographers………………………… Musicians, singers, and related workers…………… Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other…………………………………… Announcers…………………………………………… News analysts, reporters and correspondents…… Public relations specialists…………………………… Editors………………………………………………… Technical writers……………………………………… Writers and authors…………………………………… Miscellaneous media and communication workers… Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators…………………………….…… Photographers………………………………………… Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors………………………………… Media and communication equipment workers, all other……………………………………………… Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations…… Chiropractors…………………………………………… Dentists………………………………………………… Dietitians and nutritionists…………………………… Optometrists…………………………………………… Pharmacists…………………………………………… Physicians and surgeons…………………………… Physician assistants…………………………………… Podiatrists……………………………………………… Registered nurses…………………………………… Audiologists…………………………………………… Occupational therapists……………………………… Physical therapists…………………………………… Radiation therapists…………………………………… Recreational therapists……………………………… Respiratory therapists………………………………… Speech-language pathologists……………………… Therapists, all other…………………………………… Veterinarians…………………………………………… Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other……………………………………………… Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians… Dental hygienists……………………………………… Diagnostic related technologists and technicians… Emergency medical technicians and paramedics… Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians……………………...…………… Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses… Medical records and health information technicians…………………………………………… Opticians, dispensing………………………………… Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians…………………………………………… Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations……………………………………………

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

13 32

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

11 5

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

12 22 68 107 132 48 79 46

(1) (1) $947 1,000 971 (1) 945 (1)

(1) (1) $58 32 44 (1) 22 (1)

3 3 25 70 69 22 41 33

(1) (1) (1) $935 941 (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) $132 28 (1) (1) (1)

75 69

972 690

42 47

13 30

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

26

(1)

(1)

5

(1)

(1)

1 5,415 9 34 86 11 196 594 86 6 2,114 7 55 129 15 16 90 88 74 26

(1) 962 (1) (1) 672 (1) 1,883 1,731 1,251 (1) 1,022 (1) 1,019 1,176 (1) (1) 881 1,121 791 (1)

(1) 8 (1) (1) 50 (1) 16 100 45 (1) 13 (1) 28 32 (1) (1) 49 54 48 (1)

4,052 2 15 75 5 94 189 51 1 1,904 5 54 78 10 12 64 87 56 16

909 (1) (1) 674 (1) 1,647 1,230 1,077 (1) 1,011 (1) 1,016 1,019 (1) (1) 819 1,124 796 (1)

9 (1) (1) 75 (1) 170 101 143 (1) 11 (1) 27 88 (1) (1) 84 46 54 (1)

3 301 75 238 121

(1) 783 976 957 755

(1) 26 40 26 45

2 223 73 159 39

(1) 750 988 923 (1)

(1) 32 42 39 (1)

340 439

585 692

15 16

258 408

564 679

17 16

77 33

537 (1)

43 (1)

71 23

551 (1)

41 (1)

105

671

59

61

615

52

49

(1)

(1)

17

(1)

(1)

See footnotes at end of table.

16

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Dancers and choreographers………………………… Musicians, singers, and related workers…………… Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other…………………………………… Announcers…………………………………………… News analysts, reporters and correspondents…… Public relations specialists…………………………… Editors………………………………………………… Technical writers……………………………………… Writers and authors…………………………………… Miscellaneous media and communication workers… Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators………………………….……… Photographers………………………………………… Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors………………………………… Media and communication equipment workers, all other……………………………………………… Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations…… Chiropractors…………………………………………… Dentists………………………………………………… Dietitians and nutritionists…………………………… Optometrists…………………………………………… Pharmacists…………………………………………… Physicians and surgeons…………………………… Physician assistants…………………………………… Podiatrists……………………………………………… Registered nurses…………………………………… Audiologists…………………………………………… Occupational therapists……………………………… Physical therapists…………………………………… Radiation therapists…………………………………… Recreational therapists……………………………… Respiratory therapists………………………………… Speech-language pathologists……………………… Therapists, all other…………………………………… Veterinarians…………………………………………… Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other……………………………………………… Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians… Dental hygienists……………………………………… Diagnostic related technologists and technicians… Emergency medical technicians and paramedics… Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians……………………….………… Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses… Medical records and health information technicians…………………………………………… Opticians, dispensing………………………………… Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians…………………………………………… Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations…………………………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

17

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

1 27

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

9 19 43 37 63 26 38 14

(1) (1) (1) (1) $1,062 (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) $187 (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) 88.6 (²) (²) (²)

62 39

996 (1)

37 (1)

(²) (²)

21

(1)

(1)

(²)

1 1,362 8 19 11 5 102 405 34 5 210 2 1 51 5 5 26 18 10

(1) 1,210 (1) (1) (1) (1) 1,914 1,911 (1) (1) 1,168 (1) (1) 1,329 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) 30 (1) (1) (1) (1) 20 45 (1) (1) 39 (1) (1) 65 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) 75.1 (²) (²) (²) (²) 86.1 64.4 (²) (²) 86.6 (²) (²) 76.7 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

78 2 79 82

942 (1) 1,035 823

177 (1) 129 56

(²) 79.6 (²) 89.2 (²)

82 31

677 (1)

29 (1)

83.3 (²)

6 10

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

44

(1)

(1)

(²)

32

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Service occupations………………………………………… 14,814 Healthcare support occupations………………………… 2,222 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides……… 1,370 Occupational therapist assistants and aides……… 7 Physical therapist assistants and aides…………… 51 Massage therapists…………………………………… 32 Dental assistants……………………………………… 168 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations…………………………………………… 595 Protective service occupations…………………………… 2,683 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers………………………………………………… 43 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives……………………………………………… 120 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers……………………………… 53 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other… 94 Fire fighters…………………………………………… 283 Fire inspectors………………………………………… 24 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers…………… 387 Detectives and criminal investigators……………… 139 Fish and game wardens……………………………… 4 5 Parking enforcement workers………………………… Police and sheriff's patrol officers…………………… 674 Transit and railroad police…………………………… 3 Animal control workers……………………………… 9 Private detectives and investigators………………… 76 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers… 695 Crossing guards……………………………………… 20 Lifeguards and other protective service workers…… 54 Food preparation and serving related occupations…… 4,153 Chefs and head cooks………………………………… 295 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers…………………… 483 Cooks…………………………………………………… 1,312 Food preparation workers…………………………… 325 Bartenders……………………………………………… 204 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food………………………………… 141 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop……………………………………… 84 Waiters and waitresses……………………………… 852 Food servers, nonrestaurant………………………… 91 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers………………………..…………… 159 Dishwashers…………………………………………… 152 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop…………………………………………… 49 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other……………………………………………… 6 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations………………………………………………… 3,506 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers……………… 200 See footnotes at end of table.

18

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$475 465 429 (1) 700 (1) 531

$3 6 7 (1) 83 (1) 27

7,458 1,951 1,201 6 39 22 160

$418 459 424 (1) (1) (1) 524

$2 6 5 (1) (1) (1) 21

505 748

7 9

524 564

502 594

7 12

(1)

(1)

16

(1)

(1)

1,200

101

20

(1)

(1)

1,327 763 970 (1) 695 1,053 (1) (1) 893 (1) (1) 780 516 (1) 401 402 548

216 37 29 (1) 20 43 (1) (1) 23 (1) (1) 65 10 (1) 22 3 15

4 22 13 112 28 4 101 3 28 173 17 23 2,035 40

(1) (1) (1) 605 (1) (1) 731 (1) (1) 478 (1) (1) 376 (1)

(1) (1) (1) 19 (1) (1) 38 (1) (1) 14 (1) (1) 4 (1)

498 390 352 502

10 4 9 21

280 480 197 108

439 363 338 457

24 10 13 28

349

13

99

341

15

307 391 451

8 6 48

54 560 62

299 367 424

10 9 37

390 361

12 19

69 44

386 (1)

17 (1)

(1)

(1)

39

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

4

(1)

(1)

431

7

1,274

383

5

623

36

74

448

27

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Service occupations…………………………………… Healthcare support occupations……………………… Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides……… Occupational therapist assistants and aides……… Physical therapist assistants and aides…………… Massage therapists…………………………………… Dental assistants……………………………………… Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations…………………………………………… Protective service occupations…………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers………………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives……………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers……………………………… Supervisors, protective service workers, all other… Fire fighters…………………………………………… Fire inspectors………………………………………… Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers…………… Detectives and criminal investigators……………… Fish and game wardens……………………………… Parking enforcement workers………………………… Police and sheriff's patrol officers…………………… Transit and railroad police…………………………… Animal control workers……………………………… Private detectives and investigators………………… Security guards and gaming surveillance officers… Crossing guards……………………………………… Lifeguards and other protective service workers…… Food preparation and serving related occupations…… Chefs and head cooks………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers…………………… Cooks…………………………………………………… Food preparation workers…………………………… Bartenders……………………………………………… Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food………………………………… Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop……………………………………… Waiters and waitresses……………………………… Food servers, nonrestaurant………………………… Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers…………………………………… Dishwashers…………………………………………… Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop…………………………………………… Food preparation and serving related workers, all other……………………………………………… Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations………………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers……………… See footnotes at end of table.

19

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

7,355 271 169 1 12 10 8

$537 512 485 (1) (1) (1) (1)

$6 14 17 (1) (1) (1) (1)

77.8 89.6 87.4 (²) (²) (²) (²)

71 2,119

529 794

42 17

94.9 74.8

27

(1)

(1)

(²)

99

1,239

41

(²)

49 72 270 24 275 112 4 1 573 3 6 47 523 3 31 2,118 255

(1) 768 975 (1) 725 1,112 (1) (1) 929 (1) (1) (1) 540 (1) (1) 432 551

(1) 40 30 (1) 28 51 (1) (1) 23 (1) (1) (1) 17 (1) (1) 9 17

(²) (²) (²) (²) 83.4 (²) (²) (²) 78.7 (²) (²) (²) 88.5 (²) (²) 87.0 (²)

203 832 128 96

599 404 368 596

26 6 13 19

73.3 89.9 91.8 76.7

42

(1)

(1)

(²)

30 292 29

(1) 436 (1)

(1) 18 (1)

(²) 84.2 (²)

90 108

394 367

15 23

98.0 (²)

10

(1)

(1)

(²)

2

(1)

(1)

(²)

2,232

488

5

78.5

127

748

33

59.9

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

86 1,510 847 61 802 2,250

$687 460 378 611 420 475

$55 10 6 32 5 7

4 414 742 4 37 1,634

(1) $397 371 (1) (1) 441

(1) $8 5 (1) (1) 8

97

760

65

36

(1)

(1)

61 12 62 84 5 7

618 (1) 457 650 (1) (1)

32 (1) 30 33 (1) (1)

38 6 45 43 3

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

70 6 38 306 130 55 20 102 435 485 176 52 46

415 (1) (1) 496 462 581 (1) 717 396 414 514 584 (1)

21 (1) (1) 13 38 27 (1) 46 11 9 20 32 (1)

34 1 7 269 102 11 11 68 410 394 105 32 18

(1) (1) (1) 489 444 (1) (1) 637 393 404 487 (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) 13 39 (1) (1) 83 11 10 19 (1) (1)

Sales and office occupations………………………………… 25,232 Sales and related occupations…………………………… 10,113 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers………………………………………… 2,432 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers………………. ……………………… 788 Cashiers………………………………………………… 1,376 Counter and rental clerks…………………………… 93 111 Parts salespersons…………………………………… Retail salespersons…………………………………… 1,996 Advertising sales agents……………………………… 181 Insurance sales agents……………………………… 379 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents………………………………………… 290 Travel agents…………………………………………… 64 Sales representatives, services, all other…………… 431 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing………………………………………… 1,143 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters…… 25 462 Real estate brokers and sales agents……………… Sales engineers……………………………………… 41 95 Telemarketers………………………………………… Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers……………………… 55

614 656

2 7

15,635 4,518

578 516

2 5

669

11

1,050

556

11

882 360 586 519 521 838 767

35 5 35 22 9 57 17

233 1,018 35 12 848 99 198

765 349 (1) (1) 440 804 652

31 5 (1) (1) 12 57 29

1,127 685 926

109 35 37

84 45 148

760 (1) 841

31 (1) 44

986 (1) 794 (1) 457

22 (1) 24 (1) 26

299 18 251 2 61

846 (1) 682 (1) 473

44 (1) 67 (1) 29

507

44

26

(1)

(1)

Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Women

First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers……… Janitors and building cleaners……………………… Maids and housekeeping cleaners………………… Pest control workers…………………………………… Grounds maintenance workers……………………… Personal care and service occupations………………… First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers………………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers…………………..…………………… Animal trainers………………………………………… Nonfarm animal caretakers…………………………… Gaming services workers…………………………… Motion picture projectionists………………………… Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers………… Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers……………………………………… Funeral service workers……………………………… Barbers………………………………………………… Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists……… Miscellaneous personal appearance workers……… Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges………… Tour and travel guides………………………………… Transportation attendants…………………………… Child care workers…………………………………… Personal and home care aides……………………… Recreation and fitness workers……………………… Residential advisors…………………………………… Personal care and service workers, all other………

See footnotes at end of table.

20

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers……… Janitors and building cleaners……………………… Maids and housekeeping cleaners………………… Pest control workers…………………………………… Grounds maintenance workers……………………… Personal care and service occupations………………… First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers………………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers…………………..…………………… Animal trainers………………………………………… Nonfarm animal caretakers…………………………… Gaming services workers…………………………… Motion picture projectionists………………………… Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers………… Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers……………………………………… Funeral service workers……………………………… Barbers………………………………………………… Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists……… Miscellaneous personal appearance workers……… Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges………… Tour and travel guides………………………………… Transportation attendants…………………………… Child care workers…………………………………… Personal and home care aides……………………… Recreation and fitness workers……………………… Residential advisors…………………………………… Personal care and service workers, all other……… Sales and office occupations………………………………… Sales and related occupations…………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers………………………………………… First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers………………. ……………………… Cashiers………………………………………………… Counter and rental clerks…………………………… Parts salespersons…………………………………… Retail salespersons…………………………………… Advertising sales agents……………………………… Insurance sales agents……………………………… Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents………………………………………… Travel agents…………………………………………… Sales representatives, services, all other…………… Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing………………………………………… Models, demonstrators, and product promoters…… Real estate brokers and sales agents……………… Sales engineers……………………………………… Telemarketers………………………………………… Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers……………………… See footnotes at end of table.

21

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

82 1,096 105 57 766 615

$712 493 436 596 422 591

$54 8 37 31 6 14

(²) 80.5 85.1 (²) (²) 74.6

62

837

55

(²)

23 6 18 41 5 4

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

36 5 31 37 28 44 9 34 25 91 70 20 28

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 475 639 (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 49 48 (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) 85.1 76.2 (²) (²)

9,597 5,594

733 796

5 11

78.9 64.8

1,382

781

16

71.2

555 359 58 99 1,148 82 182

947 399 671 555 623 879 994

18 11 35 48 17 106 53

80.8 87.5 (²) (²) 70.6 91.5 65.6

206 19 283

1,272 (1) 957

115 (1) 38

59.7 (²) 87.9

844 8 211 39 34

1,064 (1) 952 (1) (1)

52 (1) 27 (1) (1)

79.5 (²) 71.6 (²) (²)

29

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Sales and related workers, all other………………… 149 Office and administrative support occupations………… 15,119 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers…………………… 1,500 Switchboard operators, including answering service………………………………………………… 40 Telephone operators………………………………… 37 Communications equipment operators, all other…… 7 Bill and account collectors…………………………… 206 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators… 428 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks……… 950 Gaming cage workers………………………………… 15 Payroll and timekeeping clerks……………………… 127 Procurement clerks…………………………………… 23 Tellers…………………………………………………… 338 Brokerage clerks……………………………………… 3 Correspondence clerks……………………………… 7 Court, municipal, and license clerks………………… 92 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks…………… 58 Customer service representatives…………………… 1,511 Eligibility interviewers, government programs……… 60 File clerks……………………………………………… 259 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks………………… 81 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan……………… 110 Library assistants, clerical…………………………… 41 Loan interviewers and clerks………………………… 114 New accounts clerks………………………………… 24 Order clerks…………………………………………… 98 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping…………………………………………… 48 Receptionists and information clerks………………… 960 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks……………………..…………………… 120 Information and record clerks, all other……………… 94 Cargo and freight agents……………………………… 17 Couriers and messengers…………………………… 178 Dispatchers…………………………………………… 243 Meter readers, utilities………………………………… 42 Postal service clerks………………………………… 157 Postal service mail carriers…………………………… 338 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators……………………… 84 Production, planning, and expediting clerks………… 249 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks……………… 478 Stock clerks and order fillers………………………… 1,059 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping………………………………………… 59 Secretaries and administrative assistants………… 2,575 Computer operators…………………………………… 112 Data entry keyers……………………………………… 339 112 Word processors and typists………………………… 3 Desktop publishers…………………………………… Insurance claims and policy processing clerks…… 264 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service………………………………… 98 See footnotes at end of table.

22

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$746 601

$27 2

731

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

90 11,117

$695 590

$42 2

11

1,029

688

13

(1) (1) (1) 605 584 606 (1) 690 (1) 469 (1) (1) 673 556 577 665 549 410 581 (1) 681 (1) 548

(1) (1) (1) 21 9 8 (1) 24 (1) 9 (1) (1) 32 25 8 20 21 19 22 (1) 38 (1) 27

34 27 4 139 386 865 13 110 15 284 3 4 70 39 1,015 50 217 58 88 35 97 20 54

(1) (1) (1) 597 575 603 (1) 700 (1) 468 (1) (1) 643 (1) 568 668 536 406 573 (1) 643 (1) 541

(1) (1) (1) 27 12 8 (1) 23 (1) 10 (1) (1) 28 (1) 11 31 21 23 24 (1) 55 (1) 26

(1) 503

(1) 6

40 896

(1) 502

(1) 6

572 639 (1) 724 653 (1) 877 908

32 23 (1) 55 24 (1) 30 18

70 87 5 24 134 6 80 101

538 624 (1) (1) 578 (1) 853 803

28 26 (1) (1) 23 (1) 27 42

830 750 543 468

59 32 17 11

35 147 140 371

(1) 690 516 466

(1) 42 18 14

604 616 673 586 571 (1) 593

23 5 32 14 31 (1) 13

26 2,485 58 261 102 3 219

(1) 614 632 565 560 (1) 588

(1) 4 33 23 35 (1) 13

494

20

50

446

15

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Sales and related workers, all other………………… Office and administrative support occupations………… First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers…………………… Switchboard operators, including answering service………………………………………………… Telephone operators………………………………… Communications equipment operators, all other…… Bill and account collectors…………………………… Billing and posting clerks and machine operators… Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks……… Gaming cage workers………………………………… Payroll and timekeeping clerks……………………… Procurement clerks…………………………………… Tellers…………………………………………………… Brokerage clerks……………………………………… Correspondence clerks……………………………… Court, municipal, and license clerks………………… Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks…………… Customer service representatives…………………… Eligibility interviewers, government programs……… File clerks……………………………………………… Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks………………… Interviewers, except eligibility and loan……………… Library assistants, clerical…………………………… Loan interviewers and clerks………………………… New accounts clerks………………………………… Order clerks…………………………………………… Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping…………………………………………… Receptionists and information clerks………………… Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks…………... ……………………………… Information and record clerks, all other……………… Cargo and freight agents……………………………… Couriers and messengers…………………………… Dispatchers…………………………………………… Meter readers, utilities………………………………… Postal service clerks………………………………… Postal service mail carriers…………………………… Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators……………………… Production, planning, and expediting clerks………… Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks……………… Stock clerks and order fillers………………………… Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping………………………………………… Secretaries and administrative assistants………… Computer operators…………………………………… Data entry keyers……………………………………… Word processors and typists………………………… Desktop publishers…………………………………… Insurance claims and policy processing clerks…… Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service………………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

23

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

58 4,003

$809 651

$56 8

85.9 90.6

470

848

26

81.1

6 10 3 67 42 85 2 17 8 54 3 22 19 496 9 42 24 22 6 17 3 45

(1) (1) (1) 618 (1) 645 (1) (1) (1) 471 (1) (1) (1) 607 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) 32 (1) 32 (1) (1) (1) 24 (1) (1) (1) 21 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) 96.6 (²) 93.5 (²) (²) (²) 99.4 (²) (²) (²) (²) 93.6 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

9 64

(1) 537

(1) 77

(²) 93.5

50 7 12 154 109 36 77 237

752 (1) (1) 755 722 (1) 905 939

48 (1) (1) 33 26 (1) 36 20

71.5 (²) (²) (²) 80.1 (²) 94.3 85.5

49 102 338 688

(1) 862 559 470

(1) 52 22 15

(²) 80.0 92.3 99.1

34 90 55 77 10 1 44

(1) 736 749 652 (1) (1) (1)

(1) 26 38 46 (1) (1) (1)

(²) 83.4 84.4 86.7 (²) (²) (²)

48

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Office clerks, general………………………………… 840 Office machine operators, except computer……… 30 11 Proofreaders and copy markers……………………… Statistical assistants…………………………………… 18 Office and administrative support workers, all other…………………………………………………… 464 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations………………………………………………… 11,609 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations……………… 756 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers………………………… 35 Agricultural inspectors………………………………… 28 Animal breeders……………………………………… 4 Graders and sorters, agricultural products………… 63 Miscellaneous agricultural workers………………… 564 Fishers and related fishing workers………………… 9 Hunters and trappers………………………………… 1 Forest and conservation workers…………………… 5 Logging workers……………………………………… 47 Construction and extraction occupations………………… 6,432 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers ……… 631 Boilermakers…………………………………………… 23 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons…… 161 Carpenters……………………………………………… 986 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers……… 118 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers……………………………………… 77 Construction laborers………………………………… 1,210 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators……………………………………………… 23 Pile-driver operators…………………………………… 2 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators………………………………… 360 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers… 158 Electricians…………………………………………… 728 Glaziers………………………………………………… 41 Insulation workers……………………………………… 35 Painters, construction and maintenance…………… 386 Paperhangers………………………………………… 4 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters… 492 Plasterers and stucco masons……………………… 42 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers………………… 15 Roofers………………………………………………… 153 Sheet metal workers………………………………… 112 Structural iron and steel workers…………………… 71 Helpers, construction trades………………………… 94 Construction and building inspectors……………… 84 Elevator installers and repairers……………………… 39 26 Fence erectors………………………………………… 19 Hazardous materials removal workers……………… Highway maintenance workers……………………… 97 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators……………………………………………… 16 See footnotes at end of table.

24

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$585 (1) (1) (1)

$8 (1) (1) (1)

727 15 8 14

$582 (1) (1) (1)

$8 (1) (1) (1)

657

14

357

636

16

702 420

4 7

450 144

607 392

18 16

(1) (1) (1) 463 394 (1) (1) (1) (1) 688

(1) (1) (1) 30 7 (1) (1) (1) (1) 6

4 14 3 39 83 1 139

(1) (1) (1) (1) 346 (1) 747

(1) (1) (1) (1) 18 (1) 28

947 (1) 622 656 621

37 (1) 49 14 35

15 1 11 2

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1)

574 564

49 18

31

(1)

(1)

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

3 -

(1) -

(1) -

749 559 807 (1) (1) 554 (1) 784 (1) (1) 558 732 871 504 854 (1) (1) (1) 659

31 28 23 (1) (1) 31 (1) 30 (1) (1) 29 42 32 17 25 (1) (1) (1) 29

6 3 6 3 20 8 1 7 5 7 3 2 1

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Office clerks, general………………………………… 113 Office machine operators, except computer……… 15 Proofreaders and copy markers……………………… 4 Statistical assistants…………………………………… 4 Office and administrative support workers, all other…………………………………………………… 107 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations………………………………………………… 11,159 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations……………… 612 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers………………………… 31 Agricultural inspectors………………………………… 14 Animal breeders……………………………………… 1 Graders and sorters, agricultural products………… 24 Miscellaneous agricultural workers………………… 481 Fishers and related fishing workers………………… 9 Hunters and trappers………………………………… 1 Forest and conservation workers…………………… 4 Logging workers……………………………………… 47 Construction and extraction occupations………………… 6,293 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers ……… 615 Boilermakers…………………………………………… 23 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons…… 160 Carpenters……………………………………………… 975 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers……… 116 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers……………………………………… 77 Construction laborers………………………………… 1,180 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators……………………………………………… 20 Pile-driver operators…………………………………… 2 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators………………………………… 354 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers… 154 Electricians…………………………………………… 722 Glaziers………………………………………………… 41 Insulation workers……………………………………… 31 Painters, construction and maintenance…………… 366 Paperhangers………………………………………… 4 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters… 484 Plasterers and stucco masons……………………… 42 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers………………… 15 Roofers………………………………………………… 152 Sheet metal workers………………………………… 105 Structural iron and steel workers…………………… 71 Helpers, construction trades………………………… 89 Construction and building inspectors……………… 77 Elevator installers and repairers……………………… 36 Fence erectors………………………………………… 26 Hazardous materials removal workers……………… 17 96 Highway maintenance workers……………………… Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators……………………………………………… 16 See footnotes at end of table.

25

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$602 (1) (1) (1)

$24 (1) (1) (1)

96.7 (²) (²) (²)

729

23

87.2

705 427

4 12

86.1 91.8

(1) (1) (1) (1) 402 (1) (1) (1) (1) 688

(1) (1) (1) (1) 8 (1) (1) (1) (1) 6

(²) (²) (²) (²) 86.1 (²) (²) (²) (²) 108.6

945 (1) 624 655 613

39 (1) 51 14 37

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

574 558

49 20

(²) (²)

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

744 556 809 (1) (1) 556 (1) 785 (1) (1) 560 733 871 500 849 (1) (1) (1) 656

33 28 22 (1) (1) 30 (1) 32 (1) (1) 29 41 32 19 24 (1) (1) (1) 29

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners…… Miscellaneous construction and related workers…… Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining………………………………… Earth drillers, except oil and gas…………………… Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters…………………………………………… Mining machine operators…………………………… Roof bolters, mining…………………………………… Roustabouts, oil and gas……………………………… Helpers--extraction workers………………………… Other extraction workers……………………………… Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations……… First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers……………………………… Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers……………………………………………… Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers……………………………… Avionics technicians…………………………………… Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers…… Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment……………… Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility……………………………………………… Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles………………………………………… Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers……………………………… Security and fire alarm systems installers………… Aircraft mechanics and service technicians………… Automotive body and related repairers……………… Automotive glass installers and repairers…………… Automotive service technicians and mechanics…… Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists…………………………………………… Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics………………………… Small engine mechanics……………………………… Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers……………… Control and valve installers and repairers………… Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers…………………………… Home appliance repairers…………………………… Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics…… Maintenance and repair workers, general………… Maintenance workers, machinery…………………… Millwrights……………………………………………… Electrical power-line installers and repairers……… Telecommunications line installers and repairers… Precision instrument and equipment repairers…… Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers………………………………

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

9 24

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

-

-

-

36 37

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

1 -

(1) -

(1) -

10 49 4 8 6 47 4,420

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) $774

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) $7

1 1 167

(1) (1) $779

(1) (1) $30

297

937

34

24

(1)

(1)

271

823

31

31

(1)

(1)

199 15 19

866 (1) (1)

32 (1) (1)

27 2 2

(1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1)

5

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

18

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

26

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

52 50 144 116 26 650

787 745 919 713 (1) 677

123 56 57 26 (1) 18

1 3 1 9

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1)

328

763

21

2

(1)

(1)

202 44

846 (1)

33 (1)

2 1

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

69 22

489 (1)

19 (1)

-

-

-

311 31 419 420 40 65 97 187 46

804 (1) 801 720 (1) 956 1,093 848 (1)

34 (1) 21 20 (1) 52 45 34 (1)

5 12 16 1 1 7 6

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

31

(1)

(1)

4

(1)

(1)

See footnotes at end of table.

26

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners…… Miscellaneous construction and related workers…… Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining………………………………… Earth drillers, except oil and gas…………………… Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters…………………………………………… Mining machine operators…………………………… Roof bolters, mining…………………………………… Roustabouts, oil and gas……………………………… Helpers--extraction workers………………………… Other extraction workers……………………………… Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations……… First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers……………………………… Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers……………………………………………… Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers……………………………… Avionics technicians…………………………………… Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers…… Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment……………… Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility……………………………………………… Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles………………………………………… Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers……………………………… Security and fire alarm systems installers………… Aircraft mechanics and service technicians………… Automotive body and related repairers……………… Automotive glass installers and repairers…………… Automotive service technicians and mechanics…… Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists…………………………………………… Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics………………………… Small engine mechanics……………………………… Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers……………… Control and valve installers and repairers………… Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers…………………………… Home appliance repairers…………………………… Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics…… Maintenance and repair workers, general………… Maintenance workers, machinery…………………… Millwrights……………………………………………… Electrical power-line installers and repairers……… Telecommunications line installers and repairers… Precision instrument and equipment repairers…… Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers……………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

27

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

9 24

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

36 37

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

9 48 4 8 6 47 4,253

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) $774

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) $8

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) 100.6

273

940

32

(²)

240

805

30

(²)

172 13 17

881 (1) (1)

55 (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²)

5

(1)

(1)

(²)

17

(1)

(1)

(²)

25

(1)

(1)

(²)

51 50 141 115 26 641

796 745 928 715 (1) 678

123 56 54 26 (1) 18

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

326

763

21

(²)

200 43

847 (1)

32 (1)

(²) (²)

69 22

489 (1)

19 (1)

(²) (²)

306 31 407 404 40 64 96 181 40

805 (1) 806 719 (1) 960 1,090 836 (1)

33 (1) 22 20 (1) 52 45 33 (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

27

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Commercial divers…………………………………… Locksmiths and safe repairers……………………… Manufactured building and mobile home installers… Riggers………………………………………………… Signal and track switch repairers…………………… Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers………………………………………………… Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers…………………………………………………

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

1 21 7 7 5

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

1 1 -

(1) (1) -

(1) (1) -

16

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

166

$639

$31

9

(1)

(1)

594 595

3 4

3,131 2,245

$462 464

$5 6

857

21

140

634

29

(1)

(1)

6

(1)

(1)

506 (1) (1) 531 426

14 (1) (1) 13 21

107 3 337 68

453 (1) 466 393

24 (1) 12 19

490

9

81

430

18

(1) 477 (1) 810

(1) 45 (1) 34

5 34 2 6

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

525

20

22

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

690

56

8

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

3

(1)

(1)

(1) 708 (1)

(1) 15 (1)

1 25 1

(1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1)

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

589

26

11

(1)

(1)

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations………………………………………………… 14,840 Production occupations…………………………………… 8,008 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers……………………………… 810 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers…………………………………………… 23 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers…………………………………………… 185 Engine and other machine assemblers……………… 14 Structural metal fabricators and fitters……………… 29 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators………… 959 Bakers………………………………………………… 143 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers………………………………… 303 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders…………………… 10 Food batchmakers…………………………………… 66 Food cooking machine operators and tenders…… 5 Computer control programmers and operators…… 65 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… 9 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, 10 metal and plastic……………………………………… Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, 12 metal and plastic……………………………………… Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… 104 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… 2 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and 52 plastic………………………………………………… Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… 23 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… 6 Machinists……………………………………………… 376 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders……… 25 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic………………………………………………… 9 Molders and molding machine setters, 52 operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… See footnotes at end of table.

28

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Commercial divers…………………………………… Locksmiths and safe repairers……………………… Manufactured building and mobile home installers… Riggers………………………………………………… Signal and track switch repairers…………………… Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers………………………………………………… Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers…………………………………………………

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

1 20 6 7 5

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

16

(1)

(1)

(²)

156

$638

$30

(²)

637 659

5 6

72.5 70.4

899

18

70.5

(1)

(1)

(²)

600 (1) (1) 581 478

25 (1) (1) 11 23

75.5 (²) (²) 80.2 82.2

512

11

84.0

(1) (1) (1) 820

(1) (1) (1) 35

(²) (²) (²) (²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

548

22

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1) 715 (1)

(1) 14 (1)

(²) (²) (²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

(1)

(1)

(²)

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations………………………………………………… 11,709 Production occupations…………………………………… 5,763 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers……………………………… 671 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers…………………………………………… 16 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers…………………………………………… 78 Engine and other machine assemblers……………… 11 Structural metal fabricators and fitters……………… 29 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators………… 622 Bakers………………………………………………… 75 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers………………………………… 223 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders…………………… 5 Food batchmakers…………………………………… 32 Food cooking machine operators and tenders…… 3 59 Computer control programmers and operators…… Extruding and drawing machine setters, 9 operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, 10 metal and plastic……………………………………… Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, 11 metal and plastic……………………………………… Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, 82 operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… Drilling and boring machine tool setters, 2 operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and 44 plastic………………………………………………… Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, 20 and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… Milling and planing machine setters, operators, 5 and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… 351 Machinists……………………………………………… 24 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders……… Model makers and patternmakers, metal and 9 plastic………………………………………………… Molders and molding machine setters, 40 operators, and tenders, metal and plastic………… See footnotes at end of table.

29

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic…………………………… Tool and die makers…………………………………… Welding, soldering, and brazing workers…………… Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic…………………………… Lay-out workers, metal and plastic………………… Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners………………… Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other………… Bookbinders and bindery workers…………………… Job printers…………………………………………… Prepress technicians and workers…………………… Printing machine operators…………………………… Laundry and dry-cleaning workers…………………… Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials… Sewing machine operators…………………………… Shoe and leather workers and repairers…………… Shoe machine operators and tenders……………… Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers…………………… Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders…………………………………………… Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders………………………………………………… Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders……………………………… Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders………… Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers…………… Fabric and apparel patternmakers…………………… Upholsterers…………………………………………… Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other… Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters……………… Furniture finishers……………………………………… Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood………………………………………… Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing…………………………….. Woodworkers, all other……………………………… Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers…………………………………………… Stationary engineers and boiler operators………… Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators…………………………………… Miscellaneous plant and system operators………… Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders……………………………… Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers…………………………………… Cutting workers………………………………………… Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders………… See footnotes at end of table.

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

3 64 536

(1) $946 666

(1) $66 16

2 1 22

(1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1)

10 8

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

3 1

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

12 5 356 29 36 37 197 179 47 175 3 3 25

(1) (1) 586 (1) (1) (1) 631 362 (1) 386 (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) 14 (1) (1) (1) 30 9 (1) 18 (1) (1) (1)

1 73 12 5 20 40 106 37 131 2 20

(1) $515 (1) (1) (1) (1) 345 (1) 383 (1) (1)

(1) $22 (1) (1) (1) (1) 9 (1) 21 (1) (1)

3

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

4

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

3

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

11

(1)

(1)

8

(1)

(1)

3 2 30 20 61 9

(1) (1) (1) (1) 641 (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) 31 (1)

1 2 7 6 4 2

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

38

(1)

(1)

2

(1)

(1)

18 17

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

6 4

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

53 97

960 848

70 37

6 1

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

73 34

705 (1)

59 (1)

4 1

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

51

918

50

6

(1)

(1)

106 72

596 502

51 22

18 18

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

29

(1)

(1)

8

(1)

(1)

30

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic…………………………… Tool and die makers…………………………………… Welding, soldering, and brazing workers…………… Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic…………………………… Lay-out workers, metal and plastic………………… Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic……………………… Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners………………… Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other………… Bookbinders and bindery workers…………………… Job printers…………………………………………… Prepress technicians and workers…………………… Printing machine operators…………………………… Laundry and dry-cleaning workers…………………… Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials… Sewing machine operators…………………………… Shoe and leather workers and repairers…………… Shoe machine operators and tenders……………… Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers…………………… Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders…………………………………………… Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders………………………………………………… Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders……………………………… Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders………… Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers…………… Fabric and apparel patternmakers…………………… Upholsterers…………………………………………… Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other… Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters……………… Furniture finishers……………………………………… Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood………………………………………… Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing…………………………….. Woodworkers, all other……………………………… Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers…………………………………………… Stationary engineers and boiler operators………… Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators…………………………………… Miscellaneous plant and system operators………… Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders……………………………… Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers…………………………………… Cutting workers………………………………………… Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders………… See footnotes at end of table.

31

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

1 64 514

(1) $952 673

(1) $66 15

(²) (²) (²)

7 7

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

11 5 283 17 30 17 157 73 9 45 3 5

(1) (1) 605 (1) (1) (1) 669 414 (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) 17 (1) (1) (1) 29 29 (1) (1) (1) (1)

(²) (²) 85.1 (²) (²) (²) (²) 83.3 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

3

(1)

(1)

(²)

3

(1)

(1)

(²)

2

(1)

(1)

(²)

3

(1)

(1)

(²)

2 23 14 57 7

(1) (1) (1) 655 (1)

(1) (1) (1) 30 (1)

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

35

(1)

(1)

(²)

12 13

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

47 96

(1) 849

(1) 36

(²) (²)

69 33

693 (1)

79 (1)

(²) (²)

45

(1)

(1)

(²)

88 55

576 514

59 24

(²) (²)

21

(1)

(1)

(²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders…………………………………………… Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers……………………………………………… Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers… Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians…………………………………………… Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders………………………………………………… Painting workers……………………………………… Photographic process workers and processing machine operators…………………………………… Semiconductor processors…………………………… Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders………………………………………………… Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders………………… Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders………………………………………………… Etchers and engravers………………………………… Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic…………………………………………… Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders………………………………………………… Tire builders…………………………………………… Helpers--production workers………………………… Production workers, all other………………………… Transportation and material moving occupations……… Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers………………………………………………… Aircraft pilots and flight engineers…………………… Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists…………………………………………… Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians…………………… Bus drivers……………………………………………… Driver/sales workers and truck drivers……………… Taxi drivers and chauffeurs…………………………… Motor vehicle operators, all other…………………… Locomotive engineers and operators……………… Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators……… Railroad conductors and yardmasters……………… Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers………………………………………………… Sailors and marine oilers……………………………… Ship and boat captains and operators……………… Ship engineers………………………………………… Bridge and lock tenders……………………………… Parking lot attendants………………………………… Service station attendants…………………………… Transportation inspectors…………………………… Other transportation workers………………………… Conveyor operators and tenders…………………… Crane and tower operators……………………………

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

11

(1)

(1)

3

(1)

(1)

711 28

$660 (1)

$19 (1)

301 13

$527 (1)

$21 (1)

73

582

20

39

(1)

(1)

240 163

449 565

18 29

131 19

401 (1)

16 (1)

32 5

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

16 3

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

9

(1)

(1)

3

(1)

(1)

2

(1)

(1)

-

-

-

1 3

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

1

(1)

(1)

33

(1)

(1)

3

(1)

(1)

41 12 31 866 6,832

(1) (1) (1) 545 593

(1) (1) (1) 14 5

12 3 5 251 886

(1) (1) (1) 485 455

(1) (1) (1) 13 12

215 92

761 1,390

28 63

38 4

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

26

(1)

(1)

7

(1)

(1)

16 372 2,729 208 33 53 5 53

(1) 561 702 503 (1) 1,223 (1) 1,067

(1) 20 9 16 (1) 80 (1) 155

4 171 116 30 6 2 2

(1) 507 542 (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) 23 39 (1) (1) (1) (1)

22 13 36 4 7 50 64 44 13 6 68

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 436 373 (1) (1) (1) 925

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 62 25 (1) (1) (1) 52

5 3 2 3 7 7 2 2

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

See footnotes at end of table.

32

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders…………………………………………… Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers……………………………………………… Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers… Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians…………………………………………… Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders………………………………………………… Painting workers……………………………………… Photographic process workers and processing machine operators…………………………………… Semiconductor processors…………………………… Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders………………………………………………… Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders………………… Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders………………………………………………… Etchers and engravers………………………………… Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic…………………………………………… Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders………………………………………………… Tire builders…………………………………………… Helpers--production workers………………………… Production workers, all other………………………… Transportation and material moving occupations……… Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers………………………………………………… Aircraft pilots and flight engineers…………………… Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists…………………………………………… Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians…………………… Bus drivers……………………………………………… Driver/sales workers and truck drivers……………… Taxi drivers and chauffeurs…………………………… Motor vehicle operators, all other…………………… Locomotive engineers and operators……………… Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators……… Railroad conductors and yardmasters……………… Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers………………………………………………… Sailors and marine oilers……………………………… Ship and boat captains and operators……………… Ship engineers………………………………………… Bridge and lock tenders……………………………… Parking lot attendants………………………………… Service station attendants…………………………… Transportation inspectors…………………………… Other transportation workers………………………… Conveyor operators and tenders…………………… Crane and tower operators…………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

33

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

8

(1)

(1)

(²)

409 16

$765 (1)

$20 (1)

68.9 (²)

34

(1)

(1)

(²)

109 144

501 579

11 25

80.0 (²)

16 2

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

6

(1)

(1)

(²)

2

(1)

(1)

(²)

1 2

(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(²) (²)

30

(1)

(1)

(²)

29 9 26 615 5,946

(1) (1) (1) 592 615

(1) (1) (1) 14 5

(²) (²) (²) 81.9 74.0

177 88

796 1,399

34 62

(²) (²)

19

(1)

(1)

(²)

12 201 2,613 179 27 51 5 51

(1) 605 709 514 (1) 1,207 (1) 1,080

(1) 19 9 17 (1) 87 (1) 123

(²) 83.8 76.4 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

16 13 33 4 5 46 56 37 11 6 66

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 378 (1) (1) (1) 933

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 29 (1) (1) (1) 32

(²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Both sexes Occupation

Number of workers (in thousands)

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators……………………………………………… Hoist and winch operators…………………………… Industrial truck and tractor operators………………… Cleaners of vehicles and equipment………………… Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand…………………………………………………… Machine feeders and offbearers…………………… Packers and packagers, hand……………………… Pumping station operators…………………………… Refuse and recyclable material collectors………… Shuttle car operators………………………………… Tank car, truck, and ship loaders…………………… Material moving workers, all other……………………

Women Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

41 4 551 227

(1) (1) $534 428

(1) (1) $16 23

1 40 19

(1) (1) (1)

(1) (1) (1)

1,392 29 315 23 70 5 4 43

501 (1) 388 (1) 475 (1) (1) (1)

6 (1) 10 (1) 50 (1) (1) (1)

198 13 186 1 10 8

$417 (1) 368 (1) (1) (1)

$14 (1) 9 (1) (1) (1)

See footnotes at end of table.

34

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Number of workers (in thousands)

Occupation

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators……………………………………………… Hoist and winch operators…………………………… Industrial truck and tractor operators………………… Cleaners of vehicles and equipment………………… Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand…………………………………………………… Machine feeders and offbearers…………………… Packers and packagers, hand……………………… Pumping station operators…………………………… Refuse and recyclable material collectors………… Shuttle car operators………………………………… Tank car, truck, and ship loaders…………………… Material moving workers, all other…………………… 1

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

39 4 511 208

(1) (1) $533 437

(1) (1) $16 31

(²) (²) (²) (²)

1,194 16 129 22 61 5 4 35

508 (1) 410 (1) 493 (1) (1) (1)

6 (1) 12 (1) 21 (1) (1) (1)

82.1 (²) 89.8 (²) (²) (²) (²) (²)

Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. Data not shown where base for either the numerator or the denominator is less than 50,000. NOTE: Dash indicates data not available or do not meet publication standards.

2

35

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by State and sex, 2008 annual averages Both sexes State

Number of workers (in thousands)

UNITED STATES..................... 106,648

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

$722

$2

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

47,209

$638

$2

Alabama....................................... Alaska.......................................... Arizona......................................... Arkansas...................................... California......................................

1,582 240 2,139 981 12,167

638 847 714 602 794

14 16 11 9 8

722 104 919 453 5,085

561 719 657 556 738

20 16 12 38 10

Colorado...................................... Connecticut.................................. Delaware...................................... District of Columbia...................... Florida..........................................

1,874 1,272 329 261 6,425

784 935 742 896 685

14 21 12 22 7

797 565 153 133 3,004

693 772 656 866 616

15 24 16 16 5

Georgia........................................ Hawaii.......................................... Idaho............................................ Illinois........................................... Indiana.........................................

3,506 458 481 4,639 2,351

723 723 658 732 696

13 14 13 8 13

1,591 204 196 2,032 1,046

635 652 560 634 615

15 20 14 11 13

Iowa............................................. Kansas......................................... Kentucky...................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine...........................................

1,137 1,027 1,376 1,496 441

697 694 645 654 691

13 15 16 11 13

503 448 602 700 196

619 589 551 565 607

12 12 18 24 13

Maryland...................................... Massachusetts............................. Michigan...................................... Minnesota.................................... Mississippi...................................

2,207 2,311 3,187 1,884 913

851 897 748 794 603

19 15 10 17 10

1,055 1,038 1,363 829 429

774 762 638 717 510

21 15 13 18 10

Missouri....................................... Montana....................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire...........................

2,135 297 673 1,027 501

668 639 662 688 808

14 11 12 13 20

981 132 296 440 222

586 528 583 614 689

11 15 13 9 24

New Jersey.................................. New Mexico................................. New York..................................... North Carolina.............................. North Dakota................................

3,222 666 6,811 3,225 243

824 672 751 639 643

14 13 6 11 12

1,441 295 3,134 1,472 112

726 606 687 586 547

13 9 10 10 19

Ohio............................................. Oklahoma.................................... Oregon......................................... Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island................................

4,008 1,318 1,221 4,435 361

701 647 715 735 775

9 11 15 7 20

1,786 590 510 2,016 160

614 551 633 642 679

7 27 12 9 21

South Carolina............................. South Dakota............................... Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah.............................................

1,489 295 2,121 8,558 930

637 621 636 639 700

12 8 13 7 12

682 135 969 3,582 353

576 568 583 586 594

15 15 12 7 11

Vermont....................................... Virginia......................................... Washington.................................. West Virginia................................ Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming......................................

220 3,002 2,329 615 2,062 197

690 758 822 636 706 748

15 12 18 16 12 15

97 1,381 981 264 931 80

625 674 709 546 624 599

15 18 18 17 11 13

See note at end of table.

36

Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by State and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men State

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

UNITED STATES.....................

59,439

$798

$3

79.9

Alabama....................................... Alaska.......................................... Arizona......................................... Arkansas...................................... California......................................

860 136 1,220 528 7,082

720 970 774 640 852

18 23 20 23 16

77.9 74.1 84.9 86.9 86.6

Colorado...................................... Connecticut.................................. Delaware...................................... District of Columbia...................... Florida..........................................

1,077 707 176 128 3,422

878 1,057 821 939 754

23 32 24 24 9

78.9 73.0 79.9 92.2 81.7

Georgia........................................ Hawaii.......................................... Idaho............................................ Illinois........................................... Indiana.........................................

1,914 254 286 2,607 1,305

821 785 736 814 807

24 28 19 17 23

77.3 83.1 76.1 77.9 76.2

Iowa............................................. Kansas......................................... Kentucky...................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine...........................................

634 579 774 796 245

762 808 719 777 764

12 26 16 32 21

81.2 72.9 76.6 72.7 79.5

Maryland...................................... Massachusetts............................. Michigan...................................... Minnesota.................................... Mississippi...................................

1,152 1,273 1,824 1,054 484

926 1,003 862 884 680

27 16 18 19 19

83.6 76.0 74.0 81.1 75.0

Missouri....................................... Montana....................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire...........................

1,154 165 377 588 278

778 715 737 766 945

17 13 17 14 20

75.3 73.8 79.1 80.2 72.9

New Jersey.................................. New Mexico................................. New York..................................... North Carolina.............................. North Dakota................................

1,782 372 3,677 1,753 131

942 749 820 704 721

13 16 12 14 16

77.1 80.9 83.8 83.2 75.9

Ohio............................................. Oklahoma.................................... Oregon......................................... Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island................................

2,221 728 711 2,419 202

776 727 795 815 863

12 15 23 14 23

79.1 75.8 79.6 78.8 78.7

South Carolina............................. South Dakota............................... Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah.............................................

807 160 1,153 4,976 577

716 692 716 697 818

15 17 21 9 20

80.4 82.1 81.4 84.1 72.6

Vermont....................................... Virginia......................................... Washington.................................. West Virginia................................ Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming......................................

123 1,621 1,348 352 1,131 117

761 862 915 739 787 883

24 24 21 21 18 18

82.1 78.2 77.5 73.9 79.3 67.8

NOTE: Data refer to persons 16 years and older.

37

Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages Both sexes

Women

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older................................ 16 to 24 years........................................................ 16 to 19 years..................................................... 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 25 to 34 years..................................................... 35 to 44 years..................................................... 45 to 54 years..................................................... 55 to 64 years..................................................... 65 years and older..............................................

22,497 8,055 3,914 4,141 14,442 3,575 3,260 3,090 2,631 1,885

$219 162 134 197 265 261 291 288 263 203

$1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 4 4

15,215 4,527 2,170 2,357 10,688 2,495 2,656 2,516 1,926 1,096

$223 161 131 197 261 256 282 282 259 193

$2 2 2 3 2 4 6 5 4 5

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American..................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................................

18,825 2,193 884 2,751

220 210 235 218

1 3 8 3

12,820 1,425 590 1,720

225 209 246 211

2 4 9 4

10,267 9,269 2,961 1,605 698 657

178 278 238 253 235 208

2 3 3 5 6 6

5,686 7,217 2,312 1,223 523 566

175 274 232 248 229 205

2 3 4 5 8 6

Characteristic

AGE

MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status............................................... Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed............................................................. See note at end of table.

38

Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older................................ 16 to 24 years........................................................ 16 to 19 years..................................................... 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 25 to 34 years..................................................... 35 to 44 years..................................................... 45 to 54 years..................................................... 55 to 64 years..................................................... 65 years and older..............................................

7,282 3,528 1,744 1,785 3,754 1,080 604 575 705 789

$209 164 137 196 276 274 329 316 276 222

$2 2 3 3 4 6 13 13 10 8

106.7 98.2 95.6 100.5 94.6 93.4 85.7 89.2 93.8 86.9

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American..................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................................

6,005 768 294 1,030

209 210 216 232

2 6 8 6

107.7 99.5 113.9 90.9

4,581 2,052 648 382 175 91

181 293 260 271 251 241

2 6 8 11 12 23

96.7 93.5 89.2 91.5 91.2 85.1

Characteristic

AGE

MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status............................................... Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed.............................................................

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

39

Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked and sex, 2008 annual averages Both sexes Hours of work

Number of workers (in thousands)

Women

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older................................

129,377

$626

$2

62,532

$537

$3

1 to 34 hours.......................................................... 1 to 4 hours........................................................ 5 to 9 hours........................................................ 10 to 14 hours.................................................... 15 to 19 hours.................................................... 20 to 24 hours.................................................... 25 to 29 hours.................................................... 30 to 34 hours....................................................

20,144 470 1,087 1,754 2,609 6,066 2,776 5,383

223 59 70 108 149 206 256 329

1 3 2 1 2 2 3 4

13,736 316 744 1,176 1,772 4,135 1,909 3,684

229 55 72 111 154 213 260 342

2 4 2 2 2 2 3 5

35 hours or more................................................... 100,997 35 to 39 hours.................................................... 7,890 40 hours............................................................. 72,040 41 hours or more................................................ 21,067 41 to 44 hours................................................. 1,326 45 to 48 hours................................................. 5,971 49 to 59 hours................................................. 9,393 60 hours or more............................................. 4,376

724 493 667 1,087 829 958 1,164 1,254

2 5 2 8 16 7 8 14

45,075 5,428 33,316 6,331 526 2,096 2,681 1,027

643 497 621 971 759 914 1,051 1,133

2 5 2 7 19 14 15 16

461 182 678

10 4 11

3,721 1,479 2,134

312 179 492

5 5 11

Hours vary…………………………………………… Usually less than 35 hours………………………… Usually 35 hours or more…………………………

8,236 2,352 5,652

See note at end of table.

40

Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked and sex, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men

Women's earnings as percent of men's

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older................................

66,846

$733

$3

73.3

1 to 34 hours.......................................................... 1 to 4 hours........................................................ 5 to 9 hours........................................................ 10 to 14 hours.................................................... 15 to 19 hours.................................................... 20 to 24 hours.................................................... 25 to 29 hours.................................................... 30 to 34 hours....................................................

6,409 154 342 579 837 1,931 867 1,699

212 66 68 104 141 194 246 311

2 6 3 2 3 3 5 4

108.0 83.3 105.9 106.7 109.2 109.8 105.7 110.0

35 hours or more................................................... 35 to 39 hours.................................................... 40 hours............................................................. 41 hours or more................................................ 41 to 44 hours................................................. 45 to 48 hours................................................. 49 to 59 hours................................................. 60 hours or more.............................................

55,922 2,461 38,724 14,736 800 3,875 6,712 3,349

799 484 717 1,142 871 987 1,218 1,310

3 9 3 6 19 11 14 29

80.5 102.7 86.6 85.0 87.1 92.6 86.3 86.5

4,515 873 3,518

655 188 790

15 7 15

47.6 95.2 62.3

Hours of work

Hours vary…………………………………………… Usually less than 35 hours………………………… Usually 35 hours or more…………………………

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers. Estimates for the above "hours vary" groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for a small number of multiple jobholders whose usual number of hours on the principal job is not identifiable.

41

Table 6. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages Upper limit of: Number of workers (in thousands)

Characteristic

First decile

First quartile

Second quartile (median)

Third quartile

Ninth decile

SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY Total, 16 years and older............................. Women..................................................... Men...........................................................

106,648 47,209 59,439

$346 322 375

$485 440 518

$722 638 798

$1,125 957 1,249

$1,693 1,411 1,889

White............................................................ Women..................................................... Men...........................................................

86,022 36,940 49,082

354 328 381

495 452 534

742 654 825

1,147 972 1,273

1,741 1,430 1,903

Black or African American............................ Women..................................................... Men...........................................................

12,821 6,790 6,031

310 299 327

409 392 435

589 554 620

865 810 918

1,265 1,204 1,342

Asian............................................................ Women..................................................... Men...........................................................

5,266 2,347 2,919

369 335 395

530 487 592

861 753 966

1,387 1,146 1,554

1,918 1,667 2,194

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.......................... Women..................................................... Men...........................................................

15,807 5,846 9,961

299 284 312

383 355 397

529 501 559

795 732 836

1,194 1,070 1,270

96,027 8,120 27,392 26,526 33,990

369 282 335 383 550

511 342 445 513 758

761 453 618 722 1,115

1,167 618 886 1,023 1,649

1,758 873 1,229 1,421 2,314

42,584 2,566 11,451 12,756 15,812

338 252 304 349 506

470 303 392 470 688

670 378 520 628 955

994 497 711 870 1,369

1,456 646 966 1,171 1,888

53,444 5,554 15,941 13,770 18,178

397 298 378 426 599

574 377 504 592 861

857 497 709 830 1,285

1,326 683 997 1,172 1,891

1,914 935 1,369 1,590 2,719

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Total, 25 years and older............................. Less than a high school diploma.............. High school, no college1 .......................... Some college or associate degree........... Bachelor's degree and higher

2

..............

Women, 25 years and older......................... Less than a high school diploma.............. High school, no college1 .......................... Some college or associate degree........... Bachelor's degree and higher

2

..............

Men, 25 years and older.............................. Less than a high school diploma.............. High school, no college1 .......................... Some college or associate degree........... Bachelor's degree and higher

2

..............

1

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent. 2 Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degree. NOTE: Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the

second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

42

Table 7. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages (In thousands) Number of workers by usual weekly earnings

Characteristic

Total employed

Under $150.00

$150.00 to $249.99

$250.00 to $349.99

$350.00 to $499.99

$500.00 to $749.99

$750.00 to $999.99

$1,000.00 to $1,499.99

$1,500.00 or more

AGE AND SEX Total, 16 years and older...... 106,648 16 to 24 years........................... 10,621 16 to 19 years........................ 1,552 20 to 24 years........................ 9,069 25 years and older.................... 96,027 25 to 34 years........................ 25,643 35 to 44 years........................ 26,408 45 to 54 years........................ 26,640 55 to 64 years........................ 14,763 65 years and older................. 2,573

844 186 58 128 658 160 173 159 111 55

1,750 485 163 322 1,265 398 323 302 159 84

7,830 2,132 540 1,592 5,698 1,950 1,447 1,316 713 272

18,146 3,577 486 3,091 14,569 4,705 3,726 3,552 2,096 491

26,412 2,706 234 2,472 23,707 7,611 6,082 6,141 3,307 566

18,380 932 41 891 17,447 4,688 4,777 4,917 2,682 384

18,687 471 24 446 18,217 3,974 5,378 5,491 3,045 328

14,599 133 5 127 14,467 2,157 4,503 4,763 2,650 394

Women, 16 years and older.. 16 to 24 years........................... 16 to 19 years........................ 20 to 24 years........................ 25 years and older.................... 25 to 34 years........................ 35 to 44 years........................ 45 to 54 years........................ 55 to 64 years........................ 65 years and older.................

47,209 4,625 633 3,992 42,584 10,974 11,385 12,258 6,827 1,140

451 102 31 72 349 75 101 92 62 19

1,029 280 83 197 750 208 198 192 107 46

4,488 1,067 253 815 3,421 1,019 915 898 447 141

9,368 1,487 179 1,307 7,881 2,220 2,073 2,116 1,201 272

12,823 1,137 72 1,065 11,685 3,426 2,972 3,209 1,785 293

8,001 365 8 358 7,635 1,928 2,010 2,281 1,256 160

6,994 154 8 146 6,840 1,480 1,915 2,085 1,236 124

4,055 33 33 4,022 618 1,201 1,384 735 84

Men, 16 years and older....... 16 to 24 years........................... 16 to 19 years........................ 20 to 24 years........................ 25 years and older.................... 25 to 34 years........................ 35 to 44 years........................ 45 to 54 years........................ 55 to 64 years........................ 65 years and older.................

59,439 5,996 919 5,077 53,444 14,669 15,023 14,382 7,936 1,434

392 84 27 56 309 85 72 67 50 36

721 205 80 125 516 190 125 110 52 39

3,342 1,065 288 777 2,277 931 532 418 266 131

8,778 2,090 307 1,783 6,688 2,485 1,653 1,435 895 219

13,590 1,569 162 1,407 12,021 4,184 3,110 2,931 1,522 273

10,379 567 33 534 9,812 2,760 2,766 2,636 1,426 223

11,693 317 17 300 11,377 2,494 3,463 3,406 1,810 203

10,544 100 5 95 10,444 1,539 3,302 3,378 1,915 309

See note at end of table.

43

Table 7. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued (In thousands) Number of workers by usual weekly earnings

Characteristic

Total employed

Under $150.00

$150.00 to $249.99

$250.00 to $349.99

$350.00 to $499.99

$500.00 to $749.99

$750.00 to $999.99

$1,000.00 to $1,499.99

$1,500.00 or more

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX White..................................... Women...................................... Men...........................................

86,022 36,940 49,082

660 340 320

1,268 751 518

5,851 3,286 2,565

13,914 7,023 6,891

21,031 10,130 10,901

15,184 6,428 8,757

15,697 5,690 10,007

12,417 3,293 9,125

Black or African American..... Women...................................... Men...........................................

12,821 6,790 6,031

120 75 45

337 190 146

1,421 887 534

2,993 1,725 1,268

3,615 1,854 1,761

1,966 973 993

1,570 736 835

798 350 448

Asian...................................... Women...................................... Men...........................................

5,266 2,347 2,919

53 31 22

89 54 35

302 172 130

704 353 351

1,063 523 540

857 440 417

1,055 431 624

1,144 343 801

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.... Women...................................... Men...........................................

15,807 5,846 9,961

116 63 53

433 231 201

2,237 1,035 1,202

4,232 1,574 2,658

4,244 1,510 2,733

2,011 697 1,314

1,641 510 1,131

895 225 670

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available or do not meet publication standards.

44

Table 8. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 2008 annual averages

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median weekly earnings

Standard error of median

Total, all marital statuses………………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old……………………………

47,209 17,219 10,684 6,536 29,990

$638 626 636 614 645

$2 3 5 4 3

Total, married, spouse present…………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old……………………………

24,839 11,583 7,089 4,494 13,255

692 680 672 694 702

4 5 6 9 5

22,370 5,636 3,595 2,041 16,734

593 537 590 481 608

2 7 5 5 3

Total, all marital statuses………………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old……………………………

59,439 21,747 11,814 9,932 37,693

798 901 949 840 745

3 5 7 8 3

Total, married, spouse present…………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old……………………………

36,062 20,078 10,856 9,222 15,984

917 918 960 869 916

4 5 7 8 5

23,378 1,668 958 711 21,709

642 708 836 592 636

4 12 22 12 4

Characteristic

WOMEN

1

Total, other marital statuses …………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old…………………………… MEN

1

Total, other marital statuses …………………………………… With children under 18 years old……………………………… With children 6 to 17 years, none younger………………… With children under 6 years old……………………………… With no children under 18 years old…………………………… 1

Includes never-married, divorced, separated, and widowed persons. NOTE: Children refer to "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded are other related children such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, as well as unrelated children.

45

Table 9. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages Both sexes Characteristic

AGE Total, 16 years and older................................ 16 to 24 years........................................................ 16 to 19 years..................................................... 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 25 to 34 years..................................................... 35 to 44 years..................................................... 45 to 54 years..................................................... 55 to 64 years..................................................... 65 years and older..............................................

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median hourly earnings

Women Standard error of median

Number of workers (in thousands)

Median hourly earnings

Standard error of median

75,305 15,680 5,137 10,542 59,626 16,893 15,478 15,625 8,987 2,642

$12.23 8.87 7.84 9.76 13.81 12.50 14.38 14.87 14.20 10.89

$0.03 .03 .02 .04 .04 .08 .12 .05 .11 .12

37,972 7,701 2,660 5,042 30,270 7,864 7,783 8,260 4,895 1,469

$11.49 8.43 7.71 9.16 12.48 11.72 12.89 13.16 13.00 10.53

$0.06 .04 .03 .04 .06 .08 .08 .07 .10 .16

60,464 9,866 2,844 13,070

12.54 11.20 13.01 10.97

.05 .08 .17 .06

29,931 5,457 1,543 5,313

11.70 10.78 12.25 10.07

.05 .09 .21 .04

26,790 35,783 12,732 7,967 3,242 1,523

10.02 14.28 12.77 13.58 11.48 11.90

.02 .06 .08 .13 .24 .14

12,532 17,649 7,790 4,803 1,768 1,219

9.60 12.92 11.91 12.47 10.50 11.27

.07 .05 .05 .14 .18 .24

9,752 10,580 64,725

17.96 17.77 11.84

.09 .13 .02

3,718 4,135 33,837

15.23 15.12 11.05

.16 .09 .03

59,626 7,636 22,367 18,999 10,623

13.81 10.16 12.97 14.53 18.39

.04 .03 .04 .10 .17

30,270 2,935 10,627 10,454 6,254

12.48 9.06 11.32 13.17 18.03

.06 .05 .07 .06 .15

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American...................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.................................... MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status................................................ Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed............................................................. UNION AFFILIATION1 Members of unions 2............................................... 3 Represented by a union ....................................... Not represented by a union.................................... EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Total, 25 years and older....................................... Less than a high school diploma........................ 4 High school, no college .................................... Some college or associate degree..................... Bachelor's degree and higher 5 ..........................

See footnotes at end of table.

46

Table 9. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued Men Characteristic

Number of workers (in thousands)

AGE Total, 16 years and older................................ 16 to 24 years........................................................ 16 to 19 years..................................................... 20 to 24 years..................................................... 25 years and older................................................. 25 to 34 years..................................................... 35 to 44 years..................................................... 45 to 54 years..................................................... 55 to 64 years..................................................... 65 years and older..............................................

Median hourly earnings

Standard error of median

Women's earnings as percent of men's

37,334 7,978 2,478 5,500 29,356 9,029 7,696 7,365 4,092 1,174

$13.46 9.24 7.98 10.00 15.03 13.47 16.02 16.82 15.90 11.50

$0.08 .05 .03 .03 .03 .15 .09 .13 .14 .37

85.4 91.2 96.6 91.6 83.0 87.0 80.5 78.2 81.8 91.6

30,533 4,408 1,301 7,756

13.85 11.99 14.03 11.83

.05 .07 .23 .05

84.5 89.9 87.3 85.1

14,258 18,134 4,941 3,164 1,474 304

10.25 15.85 14.72 15.21 12.56 14.80

.05 .07 .17 .14 .25 .59

93.7 81.5 80.9 82.0 83.6 76.1

6,034 6,446 30,888

19.78 19.47 12.45

.15 .21 .06

77.0 77.7 88.8

29,356 4,702 11,740 8,545 4,369

15.03 11.50 15.00 16.18 19.15

.03 .16 .04 .11 .37

83.0 78.8 75.5 81.4 94.2

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY White...................................................................... Black or African American...................................... Asian...................................................................... Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.................................... MARITAL STATUS Never married........................................................ Married, spouse present........................................ Other marital status................................................ Divorced............................................................. Separated........................................................... Widowed............................................................. UNION AFFILIATION 1 Members of unions 2............................................... 3 Represented by a union ....................................... Not represented by a union.................................... EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Total, 25 years and older....................................... Less than a high school diploma........................ 4 High school, no college .................................... Some college or associate degree..................... Bachelor's degree and higher 5 .......................... 1

Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of male and female employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or geographic region. 2

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

3

Data refer to workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract, as well as to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. 4

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent. Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degree. NOTE: Workers paid by the hour account for approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. 5

47

Table 10. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages (In thousands) Number of workers by hourly earnings Characteristic

Total employed

Under $4.00

$4.00 to $4.99

$5.00 to $5.99

$6.00 to $7.99

$8.00 to $9.99

$10.00 to $11.99

$12.00 to $14.99

$15.00 to $19.99

$20.00 or more

AGE AND SEX Total, 16 years and older...... 16 to 24 years............................. 16 to 19 years.......................... 20 to 24 years.......................... 25 years and older...................... 25 to 34 years.......................... 35 to 44 years.......................... 45 to 54 years.......................... 55 to 64 years.......................... 65 years and older...................

75,305 15,680 5,137 10,542 59,626 16,893 15,478 15,625 8,987 2,642

879 404 112 292 475 237 101 86 37 14

188 92 36 56 96 45 24 11 9 7

539 287 194 93 251 85 62 53 29 23

7,681 3,880 2,196 1,683 3,801 1,300 861 773 507 361

13,239 4,851 1,637 3,214 8,388 2,768 1,979 1,894 1,177 571

11,736 2,824 580 2,244 8,911 2,915 2,129 2,044 1,313 509

13,112 1,881 271 1,611 11,231 3,404 2,836 2,876 1,644 471

13,090 1,021 77 944 12,069 3,306 3,246 3,350 1,831 337

14,841 438 34 404 14,403 2,832 4,241 4,539 2,440 350

Women, 16 years and older. 16 to 24 years............................. 16 to 19 years.......................... 20 to 24 years.......................... 25 years and older...................... 25 to 34 years.......................... 35 to 44 years.......................... 45 to 54 years.......................... 55 to 64 years.......................... 65 years and older...................

37,972 7,701 2,660 5,042 30,270 7,864 7,783 8,260 4,895 1,469

631 299 88 210 332 164 73 57 28 11

121 54 24 30 67 30 18 5 9 5

335 175 113 62 160 57 35 37 16 16

4,757 2,195 1,214 981 2,562 791 613 587 352 218

7,589 2,443 836 1,607 5,147 1,511 1,266 1,281 764 324

6,248 1,188 241 948 5,060 1,452 1,233 1,265 809 301

6,647 803 110 693 5,844 1,509 1,461 1,657 950 268

5,766 380 25 355 5,386 1,258 1,434 1,602 921 170

5,877 164 9 156 5,713 1,093 1,649 1,770 1,045 156

Men, 16 years and older....... 16 to 24 years............................. 16 to 19 years.......................... 20 to 24 years.......................... 25 years and older...................... 25 to 34 years.......................... 35 to 44 years.......................... 45 to 54 years.......................... 55 to 64 years.......................... 65 years and older...................

37,334 7,978 2,478 5,500 29,356 9,029 7,696 7,365 4,092 1,174

249 106 23 82 143 74 28 29 9 3

66 37 12 26 29 15 6 6 2

204 112 81 31 91 28 27 16 13 7

2,924 1,685 982 702 1,240 509 248 185 155 142

5,649 2,408 801 1,607 3,241 1,256 712 613 412 247

5,488 1,636 339 1,297 3,852 1,463 897 779 504 208

6,465 1,079 161 918 5,387 1,896 1,375 1,219 694 203

7,324 641 53 589 6,683 2,048 1,811 1,748 910 166

8,964 274 26 249 8,690 1,740 2,591 2,770 1,395 195

See note at end of table.

48

Table 10. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued (In thousands) Number of workers by hourly earnings Characteristic

Total employed

Under $4.00

$4.00 to $4.99

$5.00 to $5.99

$6.00 to $7.99

$8.00 to $9.99

$10.00 to $11.99

$12.00 to $14.99

$15.00 to $19.99

$20.00 or more

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX White........................................ Women........................................ Men.............................................

60,464 29,931 30,533

745 543 203

165 109 56

417 266 151

5,955 3,647 2,308

10,191 5,806 4,385

9,281 4,865 4,416

10,421 5,240 5,181

10,766 4,663 6,102

12,523 4,793 7,730

Black or African American....... Women........................................ Men.............................................

9,866 5,457 4,408

79 50 29

10 6 4

92 52 40

1,252 822 430

2,110 1,232 878

1,690 979 712

1,903 1,001 902

1,481 710 771

1,247 605 642

Asian........................................ Women........................................ Men.............................................

2,844 1,543 1,301

31 18 13

5 1 4

18 9 9

213 137 76

501 302 199

412 232 180

447 241 206

486 240 246

731 363 369

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...... Women........................................ Men.............................................

13,070 5,313 7,756

101 61 40

22 12 10

84 49 35

1,452 846 606

3,111 1,462 1,649

2,408 925 1,483

2,342 844 1,499

1,998 677 1,321

1,551 437 1,114

NOTE: Workers paid hourly rates represent approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available or do not meet publication standards.

49

Table 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages (Numbers in thousands) Workers paid hourly rates

Characteristic Total

Below prevailing Federal minimum wage

At prevailing Federal minimum wage

Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Number

Percent of workers paid hourly rates

AGE AND SEX Total, 16 years and older....................................... 16 to 24 years.............................................................. 16 to 19 years........................................................... 20 to 24 years........................................................... 25 years and older....................................................... 25 to 34 years........................................................... 35 to 44 years........................................................... 45 to 54 years........................................................... 55 to 64 years........................................................... 65 years and older....................................................

75,305 15,680 5,137 10,542 59,626 16,893 15,478 15,625 8,987 2,642

1,940 961 437 524 979 441 219 172 83 63

286 161 108 53 125 41 23 29 23 9

2,226 1,122 545 577 1,104 482 242 201 106 72

3.0 7.2 10.6 5.5 1.9 2.9 1.6 1.3 1.2 2.7

Women, 16 years and older.................................. 16 to 24 years.............................................................. 16 to 19 years........................................................... 20 to 24 years........................................................... 25 years and older....................................................... 25 to 34 years........................................................... 35 to 44 years........................................................... 45 to 54 years........................................................... 55 to 64 years........................................................... 65 years and older....................................................

37,972 7,701 2,660 5,042 30,270 7,864 7,783 8,260 4,895 1,469

1,302 635 281 354 666 300 153 111 57 44

196 103 70 33 93 32 17 23 15 6

1,498 738 351 387 759 332 170 134 72 50

3.9 9.6 13.2 7.7 2.5 4.2 2.2 1.6 1.5 3.4

Men, 16 years and older........................................ 16 to 24 years.............................................................. 16 to 19 years........................................................... 20 to 24 years........................................................... 25 years and older....................................................... 25 to 34 years........................................................... 35 to 44 years........................................................... 45 to 54 years........................................................... 55 to 64 years........................................................... 65 years and older....................................................

37,334 7,978 2,478 5,500 29,356 9,029 7,696 7,365 4,092 1,174

638 326 155 170 313 141 66 61 26 19

90 58 39 20 32 9 5 7 9 3

728 384 194 190 345 150 71 68 35 22

1.9 4.8 7.8 3.5 1.2 1.7 .9 .9 .9 1.9

See footnotes at end of table.

50

Table 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages—Continued (Numbers in thousands) Workers paid hourly rates

Below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Characteristic Total

At prevailing Federal minimum wage

Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Number

Percent of workers paid hourly rates

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX White......................................................................... Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

60,464 29,931 30,533

1,568 1,073 495

215 151 65

1,783 1,224 560

2.9 4.1 1.8

Black or African American........................................ Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

9,866 5,457 4,408

259 154 105

49 32 17

308 186 122

3.1 3.4 2.8

Asian, 16 years and older......................................... Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

2,844 1,543 1,301

58 34 24

11 8 3

69 42 27

2.4 2.7 2.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................................... Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

13,070 5,313 7,756

285 168 117

39 23 15

324 191 132

2.5 3.6 1.7

Full-time workers...................................................... Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

56,837 25,474 31,363

778 464 313

95 68 27

873 532 340

1.5 2.1 1.1

Part-time workers...................................................... Women......................................................................... Men..............................................................................

18,334 12,431 5,903

1,162 837 325

191 128 63

1,353 965 388

7.4 7.8 6.6

FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX 1

1

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data do not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal or main job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

51

Table 12. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

BOTH SEXES 1979………………

$241

$172

$144

$186

$265

$255

$280

$276

$262

$198

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

262 284 302 313 326 344 359 374 385 399

187 200 208 211 217 224 232 243 249 259

154 161 164 164 169 174 178 186 196 204

200 213 220 223 231 240 248 259 266 276

286 308 327 343 362 379 391 403 414 427

276 296 311 321 335 349 360 373 383 394

302 326 354 370 389 406 419 435 450 472

298 320 345 367 385 400 416 429 453 472

285 309 325 346 366 381 397 405 419 431

203 222 253 261 272 297 298 310 323 334

412 426 440 459 467 479 490 503 523 549

269 277 276 282 286 292 298 306 319 341

209 213 212 214 221 231 240 252 268 281

285 291 290 297 300 306 312 321 339 363

449 467 479 491 500 510 520 540 572 592

407 415 422 436 439 451 463 481 502 518

486 498 503 517 537 550 559 579 597 611

489 507 522 542 566 582 594 607 620 652

457 469 483 492 501 514 535 558 592 604

343 381 378 393 384 389 384 393 405 404

576 596 608 620 638 651 671 695 722

361 375 381 387 390 397 409 424 443

297 305 305 311 309 318 324 337 349

383 394 399 402 406 411 423 450 467

609 630 646 662 683 696 718 738 761

549 576 591 594 604 610 621 643 666

625 657 668 687 713 731 748 769 804

669 693 706 723 743 748 773 790 822

620 638 674 708 725 742 765 803 825

463 488 502 516 560 569 583 605 644

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

52

Table 12. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

WOMEN 1979………………

$182

$154

$132

$161

$195

$199

$196

$192

$189

$170

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

201 219 239 252 265 277 291 303 315 328

167 180 192 198 203 211 219 227 235 246

145 154 158 158 162 166 170 172 184 197

175 191 201 207 213 221 231 242 251 260

213 233 255 268 283 296 308 321 335 351

218 239 258 272 285 296 306 316 327 340

214 238 258 272 292 307 319 337 354 370

209 225 252 264 279 292 308 324 339 357

205 222 245 257 270 285 296 308 317 333

175 189 211 212 219 242 256 261 280 292

346 366 380 393 399 406 418 431 456 473

254 266 267 273 276 275 284 292 305 324

198 205 205 205 211 215 223 240 249 266

269 280 280 289 290 291 298 306 319 343

369 387 400 415 421 428 444 462 485 497

356 371 382 395 397 403 415 427 451 470

390 407 418 435 448 453 463 482 498 503

377 398 417 440 450 464 481 495 516 534

348 363 376 395 398 403 420 433 476 492

300 319 328 335 336 353 334 348 350 370

493 512 529 552 573 585 600 614 638

344 353 367 371 375 381 395 409 420

283 288 295 299 293 304 305 318 322

366 375 385 387 391 396 413 426 445

516 543 568 584 599 612 627 646 670

493 512 530 546 561 573 583 597 623

521 547 571 590 608 621 645 668 682

564 587 602 609 625 644 659 677 707

508 536 574 601 615 639 658 679 711

392 390 430 435 478 492 510 534 563

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

53

Table 12. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

MEN 1979………………

$292

$196

$155

$211

$314

$295

$336

$338

$312

$219

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

313 340 364 379 392 407 419 434 449 468

208 218 225 223 231 241 246 257 262 271

162 168 170 168 174 183 186 196 205 209

224 237 244 242 250 258 264 275 279 290

339 372 393 407 422 443 463 477 487 500

314 340 358 371 382 394 402 412 421 434

367 397 422 442 471 487 499 510 517 542

367 396 419 444 470 489 506 520 549 569

345 377 399 416 439 467 484 495 509 521

229 266 300 308 328 367 358 380 395 393

481 493 501 510 522 538 557 579 598 618

282 285 284 288 294 303 307 317 334 356

218 219 218 221 228 244 251 262 281 291

298 300 297 303 307 315 321 338 357 379

512 523 536 555 576 588 599 615 639 668

449 458 466 476 479 490 499 515 544 577

560 576 581 596 617 624 632 651 677 702

591 612 634 653 671 685 698 713 732 763

546 563 579 586 603 623 643 669 699 725

403 467 421 451 441 441 477 452 482 470

641 670 679 695 713 722 743 766 798

375 391 391 398 400 409 418 443 461

306 319 312 321 318 330 348 357 369

395 408 410 412 417 422 435 472 481

693 720 732 744 762 771 797 823 857

598 617 627 628 639 644 661 687 704

728 754 759 775 804 822 836 873 915

771 799 807 834 857 853 897 909 944

735 760 802 827 843 855 902 933 943

522 565 583 612 641 644 658 686 753

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

54

Table 12. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued 16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

1979………………

62.3

78.6

85.2

76.3

62.1

67.5

58.3

56.8

60.6

77.6

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 19861……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

64.2 64.4 65.7 66.5 67.6 68.1 69.5 69.8 70.2 70.1

80.3 82.6 85.3 88.8 87.9 87.6 89.0 88.3 89.7 90.8

89.5 91.7 92.9 94.0 93.1 90.7 91.4 87.8 89.8 94.3

78.1 80.6 82.4 85.5 85.2 85.7 87.5 88.0 90.0 89.7

62.8 62.6 64.9 65.8 67.1 66.8 66.5 67.3 68.8 70.2

69.4 70.3 72.1 73.3 74.6 75.1 76.1 76.7 77.7 78.3

58.3 59.9 61.1 61.5 62.0 63.0 63.9 66.1 68.5 68.3

56.9 56.8 60.1 59.5 59.4 59.7 60.9 62.3 61.7 62.7

59.4 58.9 61.4 61.8 61.5 61.0 61.2 62.2 62.3 63.9

76.4 71.1 70.3 68.8 66.8 65.9 71.5 68.7 70.9 74.3

19901……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1994 1……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1997 1……………… 1998 1……………… 1999 1………………

71.9 74.2 75.8 77.1 76.4 75.5 75.0 74.4 76.3 76.5

90.1 93.3 94.0 94.8 93.9 90.8 92.5 92.1 91.3 91.0

90.8 93.6 94.0 92.8 92.5 88.1 88.8 91.6 88.6 91.4

90.3 93.3 94.3 95.4 94.5 92.4 92.8 90.5 89.4 90.5

72.1 74.0 74.6 74.8 73.1 72.8 74.1 75.1 75.9 74.4

79.3 81.0 82.0 83.0 82.9 82.2 83.2 82.9 82.9 81.5

69.6 70.7 71.9 73.0 72.6 72.6 73.3 74.0 73.6 71.7

63.8 65.0 65.8 67.4 67.1 67.7 68.9 69.4 70.5 70.0

63.7 64.5 64.9 67.4 66.0 64.7 65.3 64.7 68.1 67.9

74.4 68.3 77.9 74.3 76.2 80.0 70.0 77.0 72.6 78.7

76.9 76.4 77.9 79.4 80.4 81.0 80.8 80.2 79.9

91.7 90.3 93.9 93.2 93.8 93.2 94.5 92.3 91.1

92.5 90.3 94.6 93.1 92.1 92.1 87.6 89.1 87.3

92.7 91.9 93.9 93.9 93.8 93.8 94.9 90.3 92.5

74.5 75.4 77.6 78.5 78.6 79.4 78.7 78.5 78.2

82.4 83.0 84.5 86.9 87.8 89.0 88.2 86.9 88.5

71.6 72.5 75.2 76.1 75.6 75.5 77.2 76.5 74.5

73.2 73.5 74.6 73.0 72.9 75.5 73.5 74.5 74.9

69.1 70.5 71.6 72.7 73.0 74.7 72.9 72.8 75.4

75.1 69.0 73.8 71.1 74.6 76.4 77.5 77.8 74.8

Year and sex

WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS PERCENT OF MEN'S

1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 2003 1……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 2008 1……………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

55

Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

BOTH SEXES 1979………………

$666

$475

$398

$514

$732

$704

$773

$762

$724

$547

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

652 645 647 643 643 656 672 678 673 668

465 455 445 433 428 427 434 440 435 434

383 366 351 337 333 332 333 337 343 342

498 484 471 458 456 458 464 469 465 462

711 700 700 704 714 723 732 730 724 715

687 673 666 659 661 666 674 676 670 660

751 741 758 760 767 775 785 788 787 791

741 727 739 754 759 763 779 777 792 791

709 702 696 710 722 727 743 734 733 722

505 505 542 536 536 567 558 562 565 559

658 656 662 673 671 672 669 672 690 709

430 427 415 413 411 410 407 409 421 441

334 328 319 314 318 324 328 337 354 363

455 448 436 435 431 429 426 429 447 469

717 720 720 720 718 715 710 722 755 765

650 639 635 639 631 633 633 643 662 669

776 767 756 758 772 771 764 774 788 789

781 781 785 795 813 816 811 811 818 842

730 723 726 721 720 721 731 746 781 780

548 587 568 576 552 546 525 525 534 522

720 724 727 726 727 718 716 722 722

451 456 456 453 444 438 436 440 443

371 371 365 364 352 351 346 350 349

479 479 477 471 462 453 451 467 467

761 765 773 775 778 767 766 766 761

686 700 707 696 688 673 663 668 666

781 798 799 804 812 806 798 799 804

836 842 844 847 846 825 825 820 822

775 775 806 829 826 818 816 834 825

579 593 600 604 638 627 622 628 644

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

56

Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

WOMEN 1979………………

$503

$425

$365

$445

$539

$550

$541

$530

$522

$470

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

500 498 512 517 523 529 545 549 551 549

415 409 411 407 400 403 410 411 411 412

361 350 338 324 320 317 318 312 322 330

435 434 430 425 420 422 433 438 439 436

530 530 546 550 558 565 577 582 586 588

542 543 552 559 562 565 573 572 572 570

532 541 552 559 576 586 597 611 619 620

520 511 540 542 550 557 577 587 593 598

510 505 525 528 533 544 554 558 554 558

435 430 452 435 432 462 479 473 490 489

553 564 571 576 573 569 571 576 602 611

406 410 402 400 397 386 388 390 402 419

316 316 308 301 303 302 305 321 328 344

430 431 421 424 417 408 407 409 421 443

589 596 602 609 605 600 607 618 640 642

569 572 574 579 570 565 567 571 595 607

623 627 629 638 644 635 633 644 657 650

602 613 627 645 647 651 657 662 681 690

556 559 565 579 572 565 574 579 628 636

479 492 493 491 483 495 456 465 462 478

616 622 633 646 653 645 640 638 638

430 429 439 434 427 420 422 425 420

354 350 353 350 334 335 326 330 322

458 456 461 453 445 437 441 442 445

645 660 679 684 682 675 669 671 670

616 622 634 639 639 632 622 620 623

651 665 683 691 692 685 688 694 682

705 713 720 713 712 710 703 703 707

635 651 687 704 700 705 702 705 711

490 474 514 509 544 542 544 555 563

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

57

Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued 16 to 24 years

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

MEN 1979………………

$807

$541

$428

$583

$867

$815

$928

$934

$862

$605

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

779 773 779 778 773 777 785 786 785 784

517 495 482 458 456 460 461 466 458 454

403 382 364 345 343 349 348 355 358 350

557 539 522 497 493 492 494 498 488 486

843 845 842 836 832 845 867 864 851 838

781 773 767 762 753 752 753 746 736 727

913 902 904 908 929 929 934 924 904 908

913 900 897 912 927 933 948 942 960 953

858 857 854 854 866 891 906 897 890 873

570 605 642 632 647 700 670 688 691 658

768 760 753 748 750 755 761 774 789 798

450 439 427 422 422 425 419 424 441 460

348 337 328 324 328 342 343 350 371 376

476 462 447 444 441 442 439 452 471 490

818 806 806 814 828 825 818 822 843 863

717 706 701 698 688 687 682 689 718 745

895 888 874 874 886 875 863 870 893 907

944 943 953 957 964 961 954 953 966 986

872 867 871 859 866 874 878 894 922 937

644 720 633 661 634 619 652 604 636 607

801 814 812 814 812 796 793 795 798

469 475 468 466 456 451 446 460 461

383 388 373 376 362 364 371 371 369

494 496 490 482 475 465 464 490 481

866 875 876 871 868 850 851 855 857

748 750 750 735 728 710 705 713 704

910 916 908 907 916 906 892 907 915

964 971 965 977 976 940 957 944 944

919 923 959 968 960 943 963 969 943

653 687 697 717 730 710 702 712 753

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ……………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at

http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf. NOTE: The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. See Technical Note.

58

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$241

$248

$199

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

262 284 302 313 326 344 359 374 385 399

269 291 310 320 336 356 371 384 395 409

212 235 245 261 269 277 291 301 314 319

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

412 426 440 459 467 479 490 503 523 549

424 442 458 475 484 494 506 519 545 573

329 348 357 369 371 383 387 400 426 445

-

2000 1…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

576 596 608 620 638 651 671 695 722

590 610 623 636 657 672 690 716 742

474 491 498 514 525 520 554 569 589

$615 639 658 693 708 753 784 830 861

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

BOTH SEXES

See footnote at end of table.

59

-

$194 209 223 240 250 259 270 277 285 290 298 304 312 321 331 324 329 339 351 370 385 399 417 424 440 456 471 486 503 529

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$182

$184

$169

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861…………………………………… 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

201 219 239 252 265 277 291 303 315 328

203 221 242 254 268 281 294 307 318 334

185 206 217 232 241 252 264 276 288 301

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

346 366 380 393 399 406 418 431 456 473

353 373 387 401 408 415 428 444 468 483

308 323 335 348 346 355 362 375 400 409

-

20001…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

493 512 529 552 573 585 600 614 638

502 522 547 567 584 596 609 626 654

429 454 473 491 505 499 519 533 554

$547 563 566 598 613 665 699 731 753

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN

See footnote at end of table.

60

-

$157 172 190 203 215 223 230 241 251 260 269 278 292 302 313 305 305 316 318 337 348 366 388 397 410 419 429 440 473 501

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$292

$298

$227

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

313 340 364 379 392 407 419 434 449 468

320 350 375 387 401 418 433 450 465 482

244 268 278 294 303 305 319 327 348 348

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

481 493 501 510 522 538 557 579 598 618

494 506 514 524 547 566 580 595 615 638

361 375 380 392 400 411 412 432 468 488

-

20001…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

641 670 679 695 713 722 743 766 798

662 689 702 715 732 743 761 788 825

510 529 524 555 569 559 591 600 620

$685 732 756 772 802 825 882 936 966

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

MEN

See footnote at end of table.

61

-

$219 234 251 269 274 287 296 299 306 308 315 318 323 339 346 343 350 356 371 390 406 417 440 451 464 480 489 505 520 559

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS PERCENT OF MEN'S 71.7

85.3 86.1 88.2 88.8 86.5 86.4 87.9 86.8 85.5 83.8

-

84.1 85.8 90.3 88.5 88.8 89.3 87.8 88.8 89.4

79.9 76.9 74.9 77.5 76.4 80.6 79.3 78.1 78.0

87.8 88.2 88.0 88.4 87.3 87.7 87.1 91.0 89.6

1979……………………………………

62.3

61.7

74.4

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

64.2 64.4 65.7 66.5 67.6 68.1 69.5 69.8 70.2 70.1

63.4 63.1 64.5 65.6 66.8 67.2 67.9 68.2 68.4 69.3

75.8 76.9 78.1 78.9 79.5 82.6 82.8 84.4 82.8 86.5

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

71.9 74.2 75.8 77.1 76.4 75.5 75.0 74.4 76.3 76.5

71.5 73.7 75.3 76.5 74.6 73.3 73.8 74.6 76.1 75.7

20001…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

76.9 76.4 77.9 79.4 80.4 81.0 80.8 80.2 79.9

75.8 75.8 77.9 79.3 79.8 80.2 80.0 79.4 79.3

1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . NOTE: As of 2003, estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) include persons who selected this race

73.5 75.7 75.5 78.5 77.7 77.7 80.6 82.0 84.4 85.4 87.4 90.4 89.1 90.5 88.9 87.1 88.8 85.7 86.4 85.7

group only; persons who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data for 2000-2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Dash indicates data not available.

62

Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$666

$685

$550

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

652 645 647 643 643 656 672 678 673 668

669 661 664 657 663 679 695 696 691 685

527 534 525 536 531 529 545 545 549 534

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

658 656 662 673 671 672 669 672 690 709

677 681 689 696 695 693 691 694 719 740

526 536 537 541 533 537 529 535 562 575

-

2000 1…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

720 724 727 726 727 718 716 722 722

738 741 745 745 748 741 736 744 742

593 597 596 602 598 573 591 591 589

$769 776 787 811 806 830 837 862 861

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

BOTH SEXES

See footnote at end of table.

63

-

$536 520 507 514 513 511 515 519 516 507 499 486 481 483 485 466 461 463 469 488 497 499 507 507 515 519 519 519 522 529

Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$503

$508

$467

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861…………………………………… 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

500 498 512 517 523 529 545 549 551 549

505 502 518 522 529 536 551 556 556 559

460 468 465 476 475 481 494 500 503 504

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

553 564 571 576 573 569 571 576 602 611

564 575 582 588 586 582 585 594 617 624

492 498 504 510 497 498 495 501 528 528

-

20001…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

616 622 633 646 653 645 640 638 638

628 634 654 664 665 657 650 650 654

536 552 566 575 575 550 554 553 554

$684 684 677 700 698 733 746 759 753

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN

See footnote at end of table.

64

-

$434 428 432 435 441 440 439 451 455 455 451 444 450 454 459 438 428 432 425 445 450 458 471 475 480 477 473 470 491 501

Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$807

$823

$627

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 19861………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

779 773 779 778 773 777 785 786 785 784

796 795 803 795 791 798 811 815 813 807

607 609 595 604 598 582 597 592 608 583

19901…………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 19941…………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 19971…………………………………… 19981…………………………………… 19991……………………………………

768 760 753 748 750 755 761 774 789 798

789 780 773 768 786 794 792 795 811 824

577 578 571 575 575 576 563 578 617 630

-

20001…………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 20031…………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 20081……………………………………

801 814 812 814 812 796 793 795 798

828 837 840 837 834 819 812 818 825

638 643 627 650 648 616 631 623 620

$856 889 904 904 913 910 941 972 966

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

MEN

1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . NOTE: As of 2003, estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) include persons who selected this race group only; persons who selected more than one

-

$605 582 570 576 563 566 565 560 554 538 528 508 498 510 507 493 491 486 496 515 525 521 535 539 543 547 539 539 540 559

race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data for 2000-2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Dash indicates data not available. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. See Technical Note.

65

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in current dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

BOTH SEXES 1979……………………………………

$265

$210

$249

$282

$344

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

286 308 327 343 362 379 391 403 414 427

222 240 248 256 263 270 278 284 288 297

266 286 302 311 323 333 344 356 368 375

304 324 351 363 382 399 409 421 430 452

376 407 438 461 486 506 525 564 585 609

449 467 479 491 500 510 520 540 572 592

303 307 311 314 307 309 317 321 337 346

386 397 403 415 421 432 443 461 479 490

476 489 484 494 499 508 518 535 558 580

638 666 696 715 733 747 758 779 821 860

609 630 646 662 683 696 718 738 761

362 382 388 396 401 409 419 428 453

505 520 535 554 574 583 595 604 618

596 617 629 639 661 670 692 704 722

891 921 941 964 986 1,013 1,039 1,072 1,115

3

1990 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 3 1997 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 ………………………………… 3

2000 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 …………………………………

See footnotes at end of table.

66

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in current dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

WOMEN 1979……………………………………

$195

$152

$185

$211

$264

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

213 233 255 268 283 296 308 321 335 351

164 175 184 195 200 202 208 214 221 231

201 217 236 246 259 268 277 288 298 304

231 255 274 288 305 317 330 347 360 379

290 318 346 369 390 414 436 466 485 507

1990 3 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1997 3 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 …………………………………

369 387 400 415 421 428 444 462 485 497

240 250 256 263 257 262 268 275 283 290

315 328 337 347 351 356 365 378 396 405

395 409 407 422 423 427 442 459 476 488

535 562 594 611 634 644 657 672 707 740

516 543 568 584 599 612 627 646 670

304 316 325 329 334 341 358 369 378

420 443 458 474 488 493 500 512 520

505 520 543 560 577 587 602 609 628

756 786 809 832 860 883 905 932 955

3

2000 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 ………………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

67

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in current dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

MEN 1979……………………………………

$314

$252

$308

$329

$396

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

339 372 393 407 422 443 463 477 487 500

267 286 293 301 308 314 321 324 332 346

327 356 374 388 399 407 416 423 437 450

358 389 411 422 446 472 485 497 503 517

427 475 503 518 562 590 618 653 679 705

1990 3 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 3 1997 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 …………………………………

512 523 536 555 576 588 599 615 639 668

349 349 351 356 342 347 357 365 383 395

459 470 479 487 496 507 516 535 559 580

542 563 555 572 587 596 604 621 643 665

741 764 791 806 826 845 874 896 939 977

2000 3 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 …………………………………

693 720 732 744 762 771 797 823 857

406 419 421 429 446 455 469 481 497

591 609 617 628 645 652 678 689 709

691 723 731 740 761 766 796 810 830

1,020 1,067 1,090 1,131 1,143 1,167 1,205 1,243 1,285

See footnotes at end of table.

68

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in current dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS PERCENT OF MEN'S 1979……………………………………

62.1

60.3

60.1

64.1

66.7

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

62.8 62.6 64.9 65.8 67.1 66.8 66.5 67.3 68.8 70.2

61.4 61.2 62.8 64.8 64.9 64.3 64.8 66.0 66.6 66.8

61.5 61.0 63.1 63.4 64.9 65.8 66.6 68.1 68.2 67.6

64.5 65.6 66.7 68.2 68.4 67.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.3

67.9 66.9 68.8 71.2 69.4 70.2 70.6 71.4 71.4 71.9

72.1 74.0 74.6 74.8 73.1 72.8 74.1 75.1 75.9 74.4

68.8 71.6 72.9 73.9 75.1 75.5 75.1 75.3 73.9 73.4

68.6 69.8 70.4 71.3 70.8 70.2 70.7 70.7 70.8 69.8

72.9 72.6 73.3 73.8 72.1 71.6 73.2 73.9 74.0 73.4

72.2 73.6 75.1 75.8 76.8 76.2 75.2 75.0 75.3 75.7

74.5 75.4 77.6 78.5 78.6 79.4 78.7 78.5 78.2

74.9 75.4 77.2 76.7 74.9 74.9 76.3 76.7 76.1

71.1 72.7 74.2 75.5 75.7 75.6 73.7 74.3 73.3

73.1 71.9 74.3 75.7 75.8 76.6 75.6 75.2 75.7

74.1 73.7 74.2 73.6 75.2 75.7 75.1 75.0 74.3

3

1990 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 3 1997 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 ………………………………… 3

2000 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 ………………………………… 1

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.

and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

2

Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degree. 3

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological

69

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

BOTH SEXES 1979……………………………………

$732

$580

$688

$779

$950

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

711 700 700 704 714 723 732 730 724 715

552 545 531 526 519 515 521 514 503 497

662 650 647 639 637 635 644 645 643 628

756 736 752 745 753 761 766 763 752 757

935 925 938 947 959 966 983 1,022 1,023 1,020

717 720 720 720 718 715 710 722 755 765

484 473 468 460 441 433 433 429 445 447

617 612 606 609 605 606 605 616 632 633

760 753 728 724 717 712 708 715 736 749

1,019 1,026 1,047 1,048 1,053 1,048 1,036 1,041 1,083 1,111

761 765 773 775 778 767 766 766 761

453 464 464 464 457 451 447 444 453

631 632 640 649 654 643 635 627 618

745 750 752 748 753 739 739 731 722

1,114 1,119 1,126 1,129 1,123 1,117 1,109 1,113 1,115

3

1990 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 3 1997 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 ………………………………… 3

2000 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 …………………………………

See footnotes at end of table.

70

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

WOMEN 1979……………………………………

$539

$420

$511

$583

$729

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

530 530 546 550 558 565 577 582 586 588

408 398 394 400 394 385 390 388 386 387

500 493 505 505 511 511 519 522 521 509

575 580 587 591 602 605 618 629 629 635

721 723 741 758 769 790 816 844 848 849

1990 3 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1997 3 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 …………………………………

589 596 602 609 605 600 607 618 640 642

383 385 385 386 369 367 366 368 373 375

503 505 507 509 504 499 499 505 522 523

631 630 612 619 608 599 604 614 628 630

855 866 893 896 911 903 898 898 933 956

645 660 679 684 682 675 669 671 670

380 384 389 385 380 376 382 383 378

525 538 548 555 556 544 534 532 520

631 632 650 656 657 647 642 632 628

945 955 968 974 979 974 966 968 955

3

2000 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 ………………………………… See footnotes at end of table.

71

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and educational attainment, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 25 years and older

Less than a high school diploma

High school, no college1

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor's degree and higher 2

MEN 1979……………………………………

$867

$696

$851

$909

$1,094

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 3 1986 ……………………………….. 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

843 845 842 836 832 845 867 864 851 838

664 650 627 618 607 599 601 587 580 580

813 809 801 797 787 777 779 766 764 754

891 884 880 867 880 901 908 900 879 866

1,062 1,080 1,077 1,064 1,108 1,126 1,157 1,183 1,187 1,181

1990 3 ………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 3 1994 ………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 3 1997 ………………………………… 3 1998 ………………………………… 3 1999 …………………………………

818 806 806 814 828 825 818 822 843 863

558 538 528 522 491 487 488 488 505 510

733 724 720 714 713 711 705 715 737 749

866 867 835 839 843 836 825 830 848 859

1,184 1,177 1,189 1,182 1,187 1,185 1,194 1,198 1,239 1,262

2000 3 ………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 3 2003 ………………………………… 2004 ………………………………… 2005 ………………………………… 2006 ………………………………… 2007 ………………………………… 3 2008 …………………………………

866 875 876 871 868 850 851 855 857

508 509 504 502 508 502 501 499 497

739 740 738 735 735 719 724 715 709

864 878 874 867 867 845 850 841 830

1,275 1,296 1,304 1,324 1,302 1,287 1,286 1,291 1,285

1

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.

Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . NOTE: The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. See Technical Note.

2

Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degree. 3

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical

72

Table 18. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

$4.44

$3.49

$3.10

$4.02

$5.11

4.82 5.15 5.40 5.59 5.83 6.03 6.20 6.47 6.73 6.99

3.71 3.97 4.05 4.08 4.18 4.26 4.41 4.59 4.79 4.95

3.22 3.58 3.60 3.61 3.65 3.67 3.71 3.81 4.03 4.22

4.29 4.61 4.66 4.69 4.82 4.94 5.06 5.21 5.38 5.65

7.23 7.50 7.72 7.87 8.01 8.17 8.40 8.75 9.10 9.53

5.16 5.26 5.37 5.51 5.62 5.80 5.94 6.15 6.58 6.87

4.49 4.69 4.73 4.80 4.91 5.04 5.17 5.51 5.88 6.08

9.91 10.19 10.47 10.85 11.00 11.19 11.76 11.95 12.23

7.24 7.69 7.81 7.90 7.98 8.07 8.24 8.65 8.87

6.41 6.76 6.91 6.93 7.00 7.05 7.23 7.57 7.84

25 to 34 years

65 years and older

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

$5.20

$5.29

$5.16

$4.97

$3.23

5.55 5.99 6.28 6.55 6.84 7.05 7.23 7.46 7.74 7.94

5.66 6.09 6.35 6.50 6.77 6.92 7.01 7.19 7.43 7.64

5.76 6.20 6.61 6.91 7.17 7.49 7.79 7.94 8.17 8.56

5.65 6.01 6.42 6.73 7.08 7.37 7.73 7.86 8.16 8.42

5.39 5.81 6.11 6.41 6.62 6.91 7.17 7.42 7.48 7.82

3.56 3.92 4.12 4.40 4.63 4.74 4.97 5.08 5.23 5.42

5.91 6.00 6.03 6.15 6.22 6.42 6.69 6.91 7.24 7.74

8.16 8.48 8.73 8.95 9.12 9.36 9.62 9.87 10.13 10.47

7.90 8.04 8.17 8.27 8.38 8.71 8.82 9.04 9.65 9.98

8.82 9.17 9.38 9.61 9.92 10.02 10.14 10.36 10.86 11.02

8.79 9.11 9.52 9.86 10.02 10.13 10.24 10.60 10.96 11.33

8.02 8.19 8.48 8.90 9.02 9.20 9.39 9.73 10.08 10.38

5.75 5.94 6.14 6.39 6.39 6.65 6.77 6.89 7.40 7.70

8.07 8.38 8.47 8.66 8.78 8.91 9.16 9.66 9.76

10.88 11.40 11.83 12.05 12.23 12.48 12.94 13.16 13.81

10.18 10.67 10.98 11.25 11.37 11.76 11.95 12.05 12.50

11.35 11.97 12.18 12.46 12.89 13.11 13.49 13.93 14.38

11.82 12.17 12.46 12.97 13.23 13.48 14.03 14.39 14.87

10.82 11.37 11.85 12.19 12.58 12.95 13.33 13.71 14.20

8.05 8.53 9.07 9.19 9.62 9.93 10.15 10.37 10.89

Total

BOTH SEXES 1979……………… 1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989……………… 1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

73

Table 18. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

$3.62

$3.19

$3.03

$3.52

$3.90

3.95 4.28 4.61 4.80 4.97 5.13 5.33 5.60 5.84 6.11

3.45 3.71 3.78 3.82 3.93 4.01 4.11 4.22 4.48 4.69

3.14 3.52 3.55 3.55 3.59 3.61 3.65 3.71 3.91 4.10

3.79 4.09 4.19 4.26 4.36 4.56 4.71 4.89 5.05 5.23

6.44 6.75 6.96 7.12 7.25 7.46 7.73 7.94 8.23 8.64

4.95 5.08 5.16 5.27 5.32 5.49 5.68 5.95 6.24 6.60

4.35 4.64 4.69 4.73 4.83 4.94 5.09 5.42 5.78 5.98

9.06 9.64 9.89 10.08 10.17 10.31 10.65 10.98 11.49

7.00 7.25 7.45 7.59 7.71 7.80 7.99 8.15 8.43

6.23 6.61 6.80 6.85 6.86 6.92 7.11 7.41 7.71

25 to 34 years

65 years and older

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

$4.04

$3.97

$3.84

$3.75

$3.12

4.24 4.69 5.02 5.23 5.48 5.73 5.95 6.16 6.44 6.78

4.44 4.89 5.19 5.44 5.60 5.79 5.95 6.14 6.36 6.68

4.29 4.77 5.08 5.31 5.61 5.91 6.13 6.35 6.76 7.10

4.23 4.59 4.95 5.19 5.51 5.76 5.99 6.28 6.59 6.90

4.08 4.43 4.80 5.07 5.27 5.46 5.75 6.03 6.08 6.38

3.38 3.71 3.93 4.16 4.37 4.43 4.73 4.85 5.12 5.14

5.57 5.71 5.77 5.96 5.98 6.09 6.26 6.55 6.93 7.22

7.07 7.34 7.65 7.87 8.05 8.17 8.43 8.75 9.13 9.53

7.01 7.19 7.45 7.61 7.78 7.92 8.06 8.20 8.80 9.10

7.37 7.73 7.99 8.16 8.44 8.63 8.89 9.14 9.66 9.83

7.16 7.61 7.94 8.18 8.46 8.72 8.94 9.26 9.78 9.95

6.73 6.95 7.20 7.56 7.82 7.93 8.07 8.31 8.85 9.33

5.45 5.76 5.97 6.18 6.24 6.45 6.45 6.83 7.21 7.50

7.80 8.00 8.11 8.19 8.32 8.50 8.82 9.00 9.16

9.89 10.20 10.71 11.01 11.23 11.58 11.87 12.05 12.48

9.69 9.94 10.12 10.51 10.62 10.86 11.07 11.21 11.72

10.03 10.44 10.98 11.17 11.45 11.84 12.05 12.36 12.89

10.18 10.85 11.18 11.79 11.95 12.13 12.26 12.85 13.16

9.84 10.39 10.81 11.05 11.57 11.86 12.12 12.23 13.00

7.87 8.14 8.73 8.84 9.16 9.82 9.97 10.15 10.53

Total

WOMEN 1979……………… 1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989……………… 1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

74

Table 18. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

$5.65

$3.90

$3.19

$4.64

$6.69

6.10 6.57 6.85 6.92 7.12 7.33 7.59 7.77 7.91 8.10

4.10 4.31 4.38 4.38 4.57 4.68 4.79 4.91 5.03 5.17

3.37 3.64 3.66 3.67 3.72 3.75 3.82 3.95 4.14 4.39

4.92 5.11 5.12 5.05 5.16 5.23 5.43 5.68 5.79 6.02

1990 ……………… 8.27 1991……………… 8.59 1992……………… 8.67 1993……………… 8.86 1994 1 ……………… 9.00 1995……………… 9.23 1996……………… 9.52 1997 1 ……………… 9.83 1998 1 ……………… 10.06 1999 1 ……………… 10.31

5.44 5.58 5.65 5.75 5.88 6.04 6.17 6.45 6.91 7.12

4.64 4.74 4.80 4.87 4.98 5.14 5.25 5.61 5.98 6.18

7.63 8.01 8.05 8.14 8.21 8.42 8.79 9.13 9.24

6.64 6.90 7.02 7.02 7.15 7.21 7.43 7.77 7.98

25 to 34 years

65 years and older

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

$6.38

$7.12

$7.10

$6.59

$3.56

7.22 7.78 8.08 8.31 8.60 8.85 9.02 9.16 9.38 9.71

6.93 7.33 7.67 7.74 7.88 8.00 8.03 8.26 8.41 8.56

7.81 8.30 8.89 9.22 9.51 9.80 9.99 10.10 10.22 10.59

7.78 8.49 8.88 9.16 9.69 9.97 10.15 10.24 10.69 10.88

7.24 7.88 8.14 8.74 8.86 9.04 9.54 9.72 9.74 10.00

3.79 4.21 4.46 4.75 4.91 4.99 5.18 5.32 5.52 5.90

6.18 6.23 6.24 6.33 6.56 6.82 6.99 7.18 7.78 8.03

9.84 9.98 10.06 10.18 10.29 10.73 10.78 11.10 11.72 12.00

8.83 8.94 9.02 9.10 9.10 9.46 9.70 9.92 10.22 10.84

10.73 10.98 10.93 11.16 11.50 11.89 11.91 12.07 12.48 12.78

11.13 11.71 12.02 12.15 12.10 12.32 12.40 12.80 13.04 13.68

10.17 10.08 10.39 10.96 11.06 11.11 11.15 11.79 12.22 12.21

6.08 6.22 6.45 6.71 6.64 6.85 7.04 6.96 7.74 7.86

8.39 8.92 8.88 9.00 9.07 9.20 9.75 9.96 10.00

12.24 12.88 13.05 13.25 13.74 13.91 14.27 14.75 15.03

10.97 11.58 11.89 12.01 12.03 12.17 12.63 12.83 13.47

13.14 13.92 13.96 14.13 14.60 14.88 15.06 15.17 16.02

13.90 14.25 14.40 14.93 15.11 15.13 16.04 16.15 16.82

12.81 12.95 13.38 14.09 14.54 14.79 15.04 15.45 15.90

8.31 9.00 9.78 9.79 9.90 10.04 10.72 11.01 11.50

Total

MEN 1979……………… 1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989……………… 1

1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 2003 1 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 2008 1 ………………

10.81 11.32 11.64 11.89 12.02 12.16 12.68 12.95 13.46

See footnote at end of table.

75

Table 18. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

Total

16 to 19 years

25 years and older 20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS PERCENT OF MEN'S 1979………………

64.1

81.8

95.0

75.9

58.3

63.3

55.8

54.1

56.9

87.6

1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1 1986 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989………………

64.8 65.1 67.3 69.4 69.8 70.0 70.2 72.1 73.8 75.4

84.1 86.1 86.3 87.2 86.0 85.7 85.8 85.9 89.1 90.7

93.2 96.7 97.0 96.7 96.5 96.3 95.5 93.9 94.4 93.4

77.0 80.0 81.8 84.4 84.5 87.2 86.7 86.1 87.2 86.9

58.7 60.3 62.1 62.9 63.7 64.7 66.0 67.2 68.7 69.8

64.1 66.7 67.7 70.3 71.1 72.4 74.1 74.3 75.6 78.0

54.9 57.5 57.1 57.6 59.0 60.3 61.4 62.9 66.1 67.0

54.4 54.1 55.7 56.7 56.9 57.8 59.0 61.3 61.6 63.4

56.4 56.2 59.0 58.0 59.5 60.4 60.3 62.0 62.4 63.8

89.2 88.1 88.1 87.6 89.0 88.8 91.3 91.2 92.8 87.1

77.9 78.6 80.3 80.4 80.6 80.8 81.2 80.8 81.8 83.8

91.0 91.0 91.3 91.7 90.5 90.9 92.1 92.2 90.3 92.7

93.8 97.9 97.7 97.1 97.0 96.1 97.0 96.6 96.7 96.8

90.1 91.7 92.5 94.2 91.2 89.3 89.6 91.2 89.1 89.9

71.8 73.5 76.0 77.3 78.2 76.1 78.2 78.8 77.9 79.4

79.4 80.4 82.6 83.6 85.5 83.7 83.1 82.7 86.1 83.9

68.7 70.4 73.1 73.1 73.4 72.6 74.6 75.7 77.4 76.9

64.3 65.0 66.1 67.3 69.9 70.8 72.1 72.3 75.0 72.7

66.2 68.9 69.3 69.0 70.7 71.4 72.4 70.5 72.4 76.4

89.6 92.6 92.6 92.1 94.0 94.2 91.6 98.1 93.2 95.4

83.8 85.2 85.0 84.8 84.6 84.8 84.0 84.8 85.4

91.7 90.5 92.5 93.2 93.9 92.6 90.9 89.3 91.2

93.8 95.8 96.9 97.6 95.9 96.0 95.7 95.4 96.6

93.0 89.7 91.3 91.0 91.7 92.4 90.5 90.4 91.6

80.8 79.2 82.1 83.1 81.7 83.2 83.2 81.7 83.0

88.3 85.8 85.1 87.5 88.3 89.2 87.6 87.4 87.0

76.3 75.0 78.7 79.1 78.4 79.6 80.0 81.5 80.5

73.2 76.1 77.6 79.0 79.1 80.2 76.4 79.6 78.2

76.8 80.2 80.8 78.4 79.6 80.2 80.6 79.2 81.8

94.7 90.4 89.3 90.3 92.5 97.8 93.0 92.2 91.6

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ……………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

76

Table 19. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

$12.27

$9.64

$8.56

$11.10

$14.12

$14.36

$14.61

$14.25

$13.73

$8.92

11.99 11.70 11.56 11.48 11.50 11.51 11.61 11.72 11.77 11.71

9.23 9.02 8.67 8.38 8.24 8.13 8.26 8.32 8.37 8.29

8.01 8.14 7.71 7.41 7.20 7.00 6.95 6.90 7.05 7.07

10.67 10.48 9.98 9.63 9.51 9.43 9.48 9.44 9.41 9.46

13.81 13.61 13.45 13.45 13.49 13.45 13.54 13.51 13.53 13.30

14.08 13.84 13.60 13.35 13.35 13.21 13.13 13.03 12.99 12.80

14.33 14.09 14.15 14.19 14.14 14.29 14.59 14.38 14.28 14.34

14.05 13.66 13.75 13.82 13.96 14.06 14.48 14.24 14.27 14.10

13.41 13.20 13.08 13.16 13.06 13.19 13.43 13.44 13.08 13.10

8.86 8.91 8.82 9.03 9.13 9.05 9.31 9.20 9.14 9.08

11.55 11.56 11.61 11.54 11.51 11.46 11.48 11.70 12.01 12.31

8.24 8.10 8.08 8.08 8.07 8.13 8.11 8.22 8.68 8.88

7.17 7.23 7.11 7.04 7.05 7.07 7.06 7.37 7.76 7.86

9.44 9.24 9.07 9.02 8.94 9.00 9.14 9.24 9.55 10.00

13.04 13.07 13.13 13.12 13.10 13.13 13.14 13.20 13.36 13.53

12.62 12.39 12.29 12.13 12.04 12.22 12.05 12.09 12.73 12.89

14.09 14.13 14.11 14.09 14.25 14.05 13.85 13.85 14.33 14.24

14.04 14.04 14.32 14.46 14.40 14.21 13.99 14.17 14.46 14.64

12.81 12.62 12.75 13.05 12.96 12.90 12.83 13.01 13.30 13.41

9.19 9.15 9.23 9.37 9.18 9.33 9.25 9.21 9.76 9.95

12.39 12.38 12.52 12.70 12.53 12.34 12.55 12.41 12.23

9.05 9.34 9.34 9.25 9.09 8.90 8.79 8.98 8.87

8.01 8.21 8.27 8.11 7.97 7.77 7.72 7.86 7.84

10.09 10.18 10.13 10.14 10.00 9.82 9.78 10.03 9.76

13.60 13.85 14.15 14.11 13.93 13.76 13.81 13.67 13.81

12.73 12.96 13.13 13.17 12.95 12.97 12.75 12.51 12.50

14.19 14.54 14.57 14.59 14.68 14.45 14.40 14.47 14.38

14.78 14.79 14.90 15.19 15.07 14.86 14.97 14.94 14.87

13.53 13.82 14.17 14.27 14.33 14.28 14.23 14.24 14.20

10.06 10.36 10.85 10.76 10.96 10.95 10.83 10.77 10.89

BOTH SEXES 1979……………… 1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989……………… 1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

77

Table 19. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

$10.00

$8.81

$8.37

$9.72

$10.77

$11.16

$10.97

$10.61

$10.36

$8.62

1980……………… 9.83 1981……………… 9.73 1982……………… 9.87 1983……………… 9.86 1984……………… 9.80 1985……………… 9.79 1 1986 ……………… 9.98 1987……………… 10.14 1988……………… 10.21 1989……………… 10.23

8.58 8.43 8.09 7.84 7.75 7.65 7.70 7.64 7.83 7.86

7.81 8.00 7.60 7.29 7.08 6.89 6.84 6.72 6.84 6.87

9.43 9.30 8.97 8.75 8.60 8.70 8.82 8.86 8.83 8.76

10.55 10.66 10.75 10.74 10.81 10.94 11.14 11.16 11.26 11.36

11.04 11.11 11.11 11.17 11.05 11.05 11.14 11.12 11.12 11.19

10.67 10.84 10.88 10.90 11.07 11.28 11.48 11.50 11.82 11.89

10.52 10.43 10.60 10.66 10.87 10.99 11.22 11.38 11.52 11.56

10.15 10.07 10.28 10.41 10.39 10.42 10.77 10.92 10.63 10.69

8.41 8.43 8.42 8.54 8.62 8.45 8.86 8.79 8.95 8.61

10.29 10.40 10.47 10.44 10.42 10.46 10.56 10.61 10.86 11.16

7.91 7.83 7.76 7.73 7.64 7.70 7.76 7.95 8.23 8.53

6.95 7.15 7.05 6.94 6.94 6.93 6.95 7.25 7.63 7.73

8.90 8.80 8.68 8.74 8.59 8.54 8.55 8.76 9.14 9.33

11.29 11.31 11.50 11.54 11.57 11.46 11.52 11.70 12.04 12.31

11.20 11.08 11.20 11.16 11.18 11.11 11.01 10.96 11.61 11.76

11.77 11.91 12.02 11.96 12.13 12.10 12.14 12.22 12.74 12.70

11.44 11.73 11.94 11.99 12.16 12.23 12.21 12.38 12.90 12.86

10.75 10.71 10.83 11.09 11.24 11.12 11.02 11.11 11.68 12.05

8.71 8.88 8.98 9.06 8.97 9.05 8.81 9.13 9.51 9.69

11.33 11.71 11.83 11.80 11.58 11.37 11.37 11.40 11.49

8.75 8.81 8.91 8.89 8.78 8.60 8.53 8.46 8.43

7.79 8.03 8.13 8.02 7.81 7.63 7.59 7.69 7.71

9.75 9.72 9.70 9.59 9.48 9.37 9.41 9.35 9.16

12.36 12.39 12.81 12.89 12.79 12.77 12.67 12.51 12.48

12.11 12.08 12.11 12.31 12.10 11.97 11.81 11.64 11.72

12.54 12.69 13.13 13.08 13.04 13.05 12.86 12.83 12.89

12.73 13.18 13.37 13.81 13.61 13.37 13.08 13.34 13.16

12.30 12.62 12.93 12.94 13.18 13.08 12.93 12.70 13.00

9.84 9.89 10.44 10.35 10.43 10.83 10.64 10.54 10.53

Year and sex

WOMEN 1979………………

1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1 1994 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1 1997 ……………… 1 1998 ……………… 1 1999 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 1 2003 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 1 2008 ………………

See footnote at end of table.

78

Table 19. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex and age, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

16 to 24 years

25 years and older

Total

16 to 19 years

20 to 24 years

Total

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 to 54 years

55 to 64 years

65 years and older

$15.61

$10.77

$8.81

$12.82

$18.48

$17.62

$19.67

$19.61

$18.20

$9.83

15.17 14.93 14.67 14.21 14.04 13.99 14.21 14.08 13.83 13.57

10.20 9.80 9.38 8.99 9.01 8.93 8.97 8.89 8.79 8.66

8.38 8.27 7.84 7.54 7.34 7.16 7.15 7.16 7.24 7.35

12.24 11.61 10.96 10.37 10.18 9.98 10.17 10.29 10.12 10.08

17.96 17.68 17.30 17.06 16.96 16.89 16.89 16.59 16.40 16.26

17.24 16.66 16.42 15.89 15.54 15.27 15.04 14.96 14.70 14.34

19.43 18.86 19.04 18.93 18.76 18.70 18.71 18.30 17.87 17.74

19.35 19.30 19.01 18.81 19.11 19.03 19.01 18.55 18.69 18.22

18.01 17.91 17.43 17.95 17.48 17.25 17.87 17.61 17.03 16.75

9.43 9.57 9.55 9.75 9.68 9.52 9.70 9.64 9.65 9.88

13.21 13.24 13.04 12.99 12.93 12.95 13.01 13.14 13.27 13.32

8.69 8.60 8.50 8.43 8.45 8.47 8.43 8.62 9.12 9.20

7.41 7.30 7.22 7.14 7.16 7.21 7.17 7.50 7.89 7.98

9.87 9.60 9.38 9.28 9.43 9.57 9.55 9.60 10.26 10.37

15.72 15.38 15.13 14.93 14.78 15.05 14.73 14.84 15.46 15.50

14.11 13.78 13.56 13.34 13.07 13.27 13.25 13.26 13.48 14.01

17.14 16.92 16.44 16.36 16.52 16.68 16.27 16.14 16.46 16.51

17.78 18.04 18.08 17.82 17.39 17.28 16.94 17.11 17.20 17.67

16.25 15.53 15.62 16.07 15.89 15.58 15.23 15.76 16.12 15.78

9.71 9.58 9.70 9.84 9.54 9.61 9.62 9.30 10.21 10.16

13.51 13.75 13.92 13.92 13.69 13.41 13.53 13.45 13.46

9.54 9.73 9.63 9.53 9.35 9.28 9.38 9.48 9.24

8.30 8.38 8.40 8.22 8.14 7.95 7.93 8.07 7.98

10.49 10.84 10.62 10.54 10.33 10.14 10.41 10.34 10.00

15.30 15.65 15.61 15.52 15.65 15.34 15.23 15.32 15.03

13.71 14.07 14.22 14.06 13.70 13.42 13.48 13.32 13.47

16.43 16.91 16.70 16.55 16.63 16.41 16.07 15.75 16.02

17.38 17.31 17.22 17.48 17.21 16.68 17.12 16.77 16.82

16.01 15.74 16.00 16.50 16.56 16.31 16.05 16.04 15.90

10.39 10.94 11.70 11.46 11.28 11.07 11.44 11.43 11.50

MEN 1979……………… 1980……………… 1981……………… 1982……………… 1983……………… 1984……………… 1985……………… 1986 1 ……………… 1987……………… 1988……………… 1989……………… 1

1990 ……………… 1991……………… 1992……………… 1993……………… 1994 1 ……………… 1995……………… 1996……………… 1997 1 ……………… 1998 1 ……………… 1999 1 ……………… 1

2000 ……………… 2001……………… 2002……………… 2003 1 ……………… 2004 ……………… 2005 ……………… 2006 ……………… 2007 ……………… 2008 1 ……………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at

http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf. NOTE: The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. See Technical Note.

79

Table 20. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$4.44

$4.51

$4.11

-

$4.08

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

4.82 5.15 5.40 5.59 5.83 6.03 6.20 6.47 6.73 6.99

4.88 5.18 5.47 5.66 5.90 6.10 6.28 6.56 6.81 7.08

4.44 4.90 5.06 5.15 5.36 5.50 5.80 5.99 6.15 6.43

-

4.44 4.81 5.01 5.09 5.27 5.47 5.65 5.82 5.95 6.07

7.23 7.50 7.72 7.87 8.01 8.17 8.40 8.75 9.10 9.53

7.33 7.61 7.82 7.97 8.11 8.32 8.57 8.88 9.22 9.74

6.81 7.00 7.06 7.18 7.29 7.66 7.76 8.01 8.39 8.85

-

6.28 6.46 6.65 6.83 6.93 7.00 7.17 7.39 7.92 8.07

9.91 10.19 10.47 10.85 11.00 11.19 11.76 11.95 12.23

9.96 10.26 10.71 10.97 11.13 11.48 11.86 12.08 12.54

9.34 9.78 9.93 10.15 10.19 10.17 10.66 10.89 11.20

$10.07 10.75 10.36 11.12 11.10 12.01 12.53 12.22 13.01

8.54 9.06 9.22 9.76 9.81 9.95 10.12 10.24 10.97

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

BOTH SEXES

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 ……………………………………

See footnote at end of table.

80

Table 20. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$3.62

$3.62

$3.55

-

$3.44

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 …………………………………… 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

3.95 4.28 4.61 4.80 4.97 5.13 5.33 5.60 5.84 6.11

3.96 4.28 4.61 4.81 4.98 5.14 5.35 5.62 5.86 6.13

3.88 4.19 4.49 4.72 4.87 5.04 5.17 5.40 5.61 5.88

-

3.78 4.10 4.33 4.42 4.65 4.82 5.00 5.11 5.28 5.53

6.44 6.75 6.96 7.12 7.25 7.46 7.73 7.94 8.23 8.64

6.46 6.76 6.99 7.16 7.34 7.54 7.79 8.00 8.33 8.73

6.23 6.55 6.64 6.87 6.93 7.12 7.20 7.59 7.90 8.13

-

5.80 5.98 6.17 6.31 6.40 6.60 6.77 6.82 7.22 7.46

9.06 9.64 9.89 10.08 10.17 10.31 10.65 10.98 11.49

9.09 9.73 9.94 10.11 10.21 10.50 10.77 11.06 11.70

8.86 9.15 9.45 9.91 9.93 9.93 10.11 10.45 10.78

$9.77 10.07 10.10 10.68 10.57 11.64 11.95 11.83 12.25

7.89 8.28 8.54 8.88 9.04 9.18 9.50 9.80 10.07

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 …………………………………… See footnote at end of table.

81

Table 20. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

$5.65

$5.79

$4.89

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

6.10 6.57 6.85 6.92 7.12 7.33 7.59 7.77 7.91 8.10

6.23 6.71 6.98 7.07 7.26 7.58 7.78 7.93 8.06 8.28

8.27 8.59 8.67 8.86 9.00 9.23 9.52 9.83 10.06 10.31 10.81 11.32 11.64 11.89 12.02 12.16 12.68 12.95 13.46

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

MEN

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 ……………………………………

$4.79

5.18 5.81 5.97 5.96 6.16 6.15 6.57 6.74 6.94 7.07

-

8.55 8.82 8.89 9.07 9.21 9.62 9.79 9.96 10.18 10.61

7.37 7.57 7.62 7.67 7.92 8.16 8.18 8.67 9.09 9.77

-

6.74 6.88 6.99 7.12 7.17 7.26 7.62 7.90 8.24 8.61

10.95 11.61 11.86 12.03 12.16 12.47 12.88 13.22 13.85

9.98 10.18 10.24 10.81 10.88 10.90 11.42 11.57 11.99

$10.79 11.84 11.02 11.89 11.90 12.75 13.18 13.22 14.03

9.04 9.67 9.92 10.03 10.02 10.19 10.84 11.07 11.83

See footnote at end of table.

82

5.03 5.37 5.73 5.81 6.04 6.07 6.19 6.37 6.51 6.66

Table 20. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in current dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

1979……………………………………

64.1

62.5

72.6

-

71.8

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

64.8 65.1 67.3 69.4 69.8 70.0 70.2 72.1 73.8 75.4

63.6 63.8 66.0 68.0 68.6 67.8 68.8 70.9 72.7 74.0

74.9 72.1 75.2 79.2 79.1 82.0 78.7 80.1 80.8 83.2

-

75.1 76.4 75.6 76.1 77.0 79.4 80.8 80.2 81.1 83.0

77.9 78.6 80.3 80.4 80.6 80.8 81.2 80.8 81.8 83.8

75.6 76.6 78.6 78.9 79.7 78.4 79.6 80.3 81.8 82.3

84.5 86.5 87.1 89.6 87.5 87.3 88.0 87.5 86.9 83.2

-

86.1 86.9 88.3 88.6 89.3 90.9 88.8 86.3 87.6 86.6

83.8 85.2 85.0 84.8 84.6 84.8 84.0 84.8 85.4

83.0 83.8 83.8 84.0 84.0 84.2 83.6 83.7 84.5

88.8 89.9 92.3 91.7 91.3 91.1 88.5 90.3 89.9

90.5 85.1 91.7 89.8 88.8 91.3 90.7 89.5 87.3

87.3 85.6 86.1 88.5 90.2 90.1 87.6 88.5 85.1

Year and sex

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS PERCENT OF MEN'S

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 …………………………………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . NOTE: As of 2003, estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) include persons who selected this race group

only; persons who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data for 2000-2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Dash indicates data not available.

83

Table 21. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

BOTH SEXES 1979……………………………………

$12.27

$12.46

$11.35

-

$11.27

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

11.99 11.70 11.56 11.48 11.50 11.51 11.61 11.72 11.77 11.71

12.14 11.77 11.71 11.62 11.64 11.64 11.76 11.88 11.91 11.86

11.04 11.14 10.84 10.57 10.57 10.50 10.86 10.85 10.75 10.77

-

11.04 10.93 10.73 10.45 10.39 10.44 10.58 10.54 10.40 10.17

11.55 11.56 11.61 11.54 11.51 11.46 11.48 11.70 12.01 12.31

11.71 11.73 11.76 11.69 11.65 11.67 11.71 11.87 12.16 12.58

10.88 10.79 10.62 10.53 10.47 10.74 10.60 10.71 11.07 11.43

-

10.03 9.95 10.00 10.01 9.96 9.82 9.80 9.88 10.45 10.43

12.39 12.38 12.52 12.70 12.53 12.34 12.55 12.41 12.23

12.45 12.47 12.81 12.85 12.68 12.66 12.66 12.54 12.54

11.68 11.88 11.88 11.89 11.61 11.21 11.38 11.31 11.20

$12.59 13.06 12.39 13.02 12.64 13.24 13.37 12.69 13.01

10.68 11.01 11.03 11.43 11.17 10.97 10.80 10.63 10.97

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 ……………………………………

See footnote at end of table.

84

Table 21. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

WOMEN 1979……………………………………

$10.00

$10.00

$9.81

-

$9.50

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 …………………………………… 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

9.83 9.73 9.87 9.86 9.80 9.79 9.98 10.14 10.21 10.23

9.85 9.73 9.87 9.88 9.82 9.81 10.02 10.18 10.24 10.27

9.65 9.52 9.61 9.69 9.61 9.62 9.68 9.78 9.81 9.85

-

9.40 9.32 9.27 9.08 9.17 9.20 9.36 9.26 9.23 9.26

10.29 10.40 10.47 10.44 10.42 10.46 10.56 10.61 10.86 11.16

10.32 10.42 10.51 10.50 10.55 10.58 10.64 10.70 10.99 11.28

9.95 10.09 9.98 10.07 9.96 9.99 9.84 10.15 10.42 10.50

-

9.27 9.21 9.28 9.25 9.20 9.26 9.25 9.12 9.53 9.64

11.33 11.71 11.83 11.80 11.58 11.37 11.37 11.40 11.49

11.36 11.82 11.89 11.84 11.63 11.58 11.49 11.48 11.70

11.08 11.12 11.30 11.60 11.31 10.95 10.79 10.85 10.78

$12.21 12.24 12.08 12.51 12.04 12.83 12.75 12.28 12.25

9.86 10.06 10.22 10.40 10.30 10.12 10.14 10.18 10.07

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 …………………………………… See footnote at end of table.

85

Table 21. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, in constant (2008) dollars, by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued

Year and sex

Total, 16 years and older

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino

MEN $13.23

12.89 13.20 12.78 12.24 12.15 11.74 12.30 12.21 12.13 11.84

-

13.66 13.59 13.37 13.30 13.23 13.49 13.37 13.32 13.43 13.71

11.77 11.66 11.46 11.25 11.38 11.44 11.17 11.59 11.99 12.62

-

10.77 10.60 10.51 10.44 10.30 10.18 10.41 10.56 10.87 11.12

13.69 14.11 14.19 14.09 13.85 13.75 13.75 13.73 13.85

12.48 12.37 12.25 12.66 12.39 12.02 12.19 12.01 11.99

$13.49 14.39 13.18 13.92 13.55 14.06 14.07 13.73 14.03

11.30 11.75 11.87 11.74 11.41 11.23 11.57 11.50 11.83

1979……………………………………

$15.61

$15.99

$13.51

1980…………………………………… 1981…………………………………… 1982…………………………………… 1983…………………………………… 1984…………………………………… 1985…………………………………… 1 1986 ………………………………..... 1987…………………………………… 1988…………………………………… 1989……………………………………

15.17 14.93 14.67 14.21 14.04 13.99 14.21 14.08 13.83 13.57

15.50 15.25 14.95 14.52 14.32 14.47 14.57 14.37 14.09 13.87

13.21 13.24 13.04 12.99 12.93 12.95 13.01 13.14 13.27 13.32 13.51 13.75 13.92 13.92 13.69 13.41 13.53 13.45 13.46

1

1990 …………………………………… 1991…………………………………… 1992…………………………………… 1993…………………………………… 1 1994 …………………………………… 1995…………………………………… 1996…………………………………… 1 1997 …………………………………… 1 1998 …………………………………… 1 1999 …………………………………… 1

2000 …………………………………… 2001…………………………………… 2002…………………………………… 1 2003 …………………………………… 2004 …………………………………… 2005 …………………………………… 2006 …………………………………… 2007 …………………………………… 1 2008 …………………………………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . NOTE: As of 2003, estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) include persons who selected this race group only; persons who selected more than one race

12.51 12.20 12.27 11.93 11.91 11.58 11.59 11.54 11.38 11.16

group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data for 2000-2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Dash indicates data not available. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-URS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. See Technical Note.

86

Table 22. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by sex, 1979–2008 annual averages (Numbers in thousands) Workers paid hourly rates

Year and sex

Total wage and salary workers

Total

Percent of total wage and salary workers

Below prevailing Federal minimum wage

At prevailing Federal minimum wage

Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Number

Percent of workers paid hourly rates

BOTH SEXES 87,529

51,721

59.1

2,916

3,997

6,912

13.4

1980…………………………… 87,644 1981…………………………… 88,516 1982…………………………… 87,368 1983…………………………… 88,290 1984…………………………… 92,194 1985…………………………… 94,521 1 96,903 1986 ………………………… 1987…………………………… 99,303 1988…………………………… 101,407 1989…………………………… 103,480

51,335 51,869 50,846 51,820 54,143 55,762 57,529 59,552 60,878 62,389

58.6 58.6 58.2 58.7 58.7 59.0 59.4 60.0 60.0 60.3

3,087 3,513 2,348 2,077 1,838 1,639 1,599 1,468 1,319 1,372

4,686 4,311 4,148 4,261 4,125 3,899 3,461 3,229 2,608 1,790

7,773 7,824 6,496 6,338 5,963 5,538 5,060 4,698 3,927 3,162

15.1 15.1 12.8 12.2 11.0 9.9 8.8 7.9 6.5 5.1

104,876 103,723 104,668 106,101 107,989 110,038 111,960 114,533 116,730 118,963

63,172 62,627 63,610 64,274 66,549 68,354 69,255 70,735 71,440 72,306

60.2 60.4 60.8 60.6 61.6 62.1 61.9 61.8 61.2 60.8

2,377 1,939 1,707 1,995 1,699 2 1,863 2 2,990 2,834 2,194

1,096 2,906 2,982 2,625 2,132 1,956 2 1,861 2 1,764 1,593 1,146

3,228 5,283 4,921 4,332 4,128 3,656 2 3,724 2 4,754 4,427 3,340

5.1 8.4 7.7 6.7 6.2 5.3 2 5.4 2 6.7 6.2 4.6

122,089 122,229 121,826 122,358 123,554 125,889 128,237 129,767 129,377

73,496 73,392 72,508 72,946 73,939 75,609 76,514 75,873 75,305

60.2 60.0 59.5 59.6 59.8 60.1 59.7 58.5 58.2

1,752 1,518 1,579 1,555 1,483 1,403 1,283 2 1,462 2 1,940

898 656 567 545 520 479 409 2 267 2 286

2,650 2,174 2,146 2,100 2,003 1,882 1,692 2 1,729 2 2,226

3.6 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.2 2 2.3 2 3.0

1979……………………………

1

1990 ………………………… 1991…………………………… 1992…………………………… 1993…………………………… 1 1994 ………………………… 1995…………………………… 1996…………………………… 1 1997 ………………………… 1 1998 ………………………… 1 1999 ………………………… 1

2000 ………………………… 2001…………………………… 2002…………………………… 1 2003 ………………………… 2004 ………………………… 2005 ………………………… 2006 ………………………… 2007 ………………………… 1 2008 …………………………

See footnotes at end of table.

87

2 2,132 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Table 22. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by sex, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued (Numbers in thousands) Workers paid hourly rates

Year and sex

Total wage and salary workers

Total

Percent of total wage and salary workers

Below prevailing Federal minimum wage

At prevailing Federal minimum wage

Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Number

Percent of workers paid hourly rates

WOMEN 1979……………………………

38,129

23,329

61.2

2,070

2,644

4,714

20.2

1980…………………………… 1981…………………………… 1982…………………………… 1983…………………………… 1984…………………………… 1985…………………………… 1 1986 ………………………… 1987…………………………… 1988…………………………… 1989……………………………

38,944 39,672 39,777 40,433 42,172 43,506 44,961 46,365 47,495 48,691

23,626 24,294 24,365 24,989 26,003 26,869 27,863 29,078 29,820 30,702

60.7 61.2 61.3 61.8 61.7 61.8 62.0 62.7 62.8 63.1

2,104 2,394 1,651 1,492 1,348 1,198 1,192 1,105 1,008 994

2,990 2,778 2,561 2,603 2,499 2,356 2,125 1,946 1,542 1,056

5,095 5,172 4,212 4,095 3,847 3,554 3,317 3,051 2,550 2,050

21.6 21.3 17.3 16.4 14.8 13.2 11.9 10.5 8.6 6.7

19901 ………………………… 1991…………………………… 1992…………………………… 1993…………………………… 1 1994 ………………………… 1995…………………………… 1996…………………………… 1 1997 ………………………… 1 1998 ………………………… 1 1999 …………………………

49,323 49,105 49,842 50,626 51,419 52,369 53,488 54,708 55,757 57,050

31,069 30,988 31,454 31,937 33,021 33,934 34,418 35,214 35,680 36,233

63.0 63.1 63.1 63.1 64.2 64.8 64.3 64.4 64.0 63.5

1,582 1,286 1,133 1,322 1,157 2 1,244 2 1,843 1,794 1,426

711 1,792 1,751 1,534 1,241 1,161 2 1,106 2 1,092 965 700

58,427 58,582 58,555 59,122 59,408 60,423 61,426 62,299 62,532

36,777 36,848 36,508 37,093 37,133 37,957 38,321 38,082 37,972

62.9 62.9 62.3 62.7 62.5 62.8 62.4 61.1 60.7

1,170 1,021 997 1,062 1,013 944 861 2 1,002 2 1,302

579 409 350 332 310 290 263 2 181 2 196

1

2000 ………………………… 2001…………………………… 2002…………………………… 1 2003 ………………………… 2004 ………………………… 2005 ………………………… 2006 ………………………… 2007 ………………………… 1 2008 …………………………

See footnotes at end of table.

88

2 1,420 2

2

2

2 2,131 2

3,374 3,036 2,667 2,563 2,318 2 2,350 2 2,935 2,760 2,126 1,749 1,430 1,347 1,394 1,323 1,234 1,124 2 1,183 2 1,498

2 2

6.9 10.9 9.7 8.4 7.8 6.8 2 6.8 2 8.3 7.7 5.9 4.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.3 2.9 2 3.1 2 3.9

Table 22. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, by sex, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued (Numbers in thousands) Workers paid hourly rates

Year and sex

Total wage and salary workers

Total

Percent of total wage and salary workers

Below prevailing Federal minimum wage

At prevailing Federal minimum wage

Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage

Number

Percent of workers paid hourly rates

MEN 1979……………………………

49,400

28,392

57.5

846

1,353

2,199

7.7

1980…………………………… 1981…………………………… 1982…………………………… 1983…………………………… 1984…………………………… 1985…………………………… 1 1986 ………………………… 1987…………………………… 1988…………………………… 1989……………………………

48,700 48,844 47,591 47,856 50,022 51,015 51,942 52,938 53,912 54,789

27,709 27,576 26,481 26,831 28,140 28,893 29,666 30,474 31,058 31,687

56.9 56.5 55.6 56.1 56.3 56.6 57.1 57.6 57.6 57.8

983 1,119 697 585 490 440 408 364 311 379

1,696 1,533 1,587 1,658 1,626 1,544 1,336 1,283 1,066 733

2,678 2,652 2,284 2,243 2,116 1,984 1,743 1,647 1,377 1,112

9.7 9.6 8.6 8.4 7.5 6.9 5.9 5.4 4.4 3.5

55,553 54,618 54,826 55,475 56,570 57,669 58,473 59,825 60,973 61,914

32,104 31,639 32,155 32,337 33,528 34,420 34,838 35,521 35,761 36,073

57.8 57.9 58.6 58.3 59.3 59.7 59.6 59.4 58.7 58.3

712 795 653 573 674 542 2 619 2 1,147 1,039 768

63,662 63,647 63,272 63,236 64,145 65,466 66,811 67,468 66,846

36,720 36,544 36,000 35,853 36,806 37,652 38,193 37,790 37,334

57.7 57.4 56.9 56.7 57.4 57.5 57.2 56.0 55.9

582 497 582 493 470 459 422 2 460 2 638

1

1990 ………………………… 1991…………………………… 1992…………………………… 1993…………………………… 1 1994 ………………………… 1995…………………………… 1996…………………………… 1 1997 ………………………… 1 1998 ………………………… 1 1999 ………………………… 1

2000 ………………………… 2001…………………………… 2002…………………………… 1 2003 ………………………… 2004 ………………………… 2005 ………………………… 2006 ………………………… 2007 ………………………… 1 2008 ………………………… 1

The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf . 2

2

2

2

2

385 1,114 1,231 1,091 891 796 2 755 2 673 628 446 319 247 217 213 210 189 146 2 86 2 90

2

1,097 1,909 1,885 1,664 1,565 1,338 2 1,374 2 1,820 1,667 1,214 2

901 744 799 706 680 648 568 2 546 2 728

2 3.4 2

6.0 5.9 5.1 4.7 3.9 2 3.9 2 5.1 4.7 3.4 2.5 2.0 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.5 2 1.4 2 1.9

reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years. NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, to $5.15 in September 1997, to $5.85 in July 2007, and to $6.55 in July 2008. See Technical Note for more information about minimum wage workers.

Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-08

89

Technical Note

T

he estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a national sample of about 60,000 households, with coverage in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. The earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample. Material in this report is in the public domain and may be used without permission. This information is available to sensoryimpaired individuals upon request. Voice telephone: (202) 691– 5200; Federal Relay Service: 1–800–877–8339.

Over-the-year changes in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for specific groups may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated for the overall quantile boundary. The most common reasons for this possible anomaly are as follows: • There could be a change in the relative weights of the subgroups. For example, the medians of both 16- to 24-year-olds and those 25 years and older may rise, but if the lower earning 16to-24 age group accounts for a greatly increased share of the total, the overall median could actually fall. • There could be a large change in the shape of the distribution of reported earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary. This change could be caused by survey observations that are clustered at rounded values—for example, $300, $400, or $500. An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing such a cluster, or “spike,” tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals. For example, medians measure the central tendency of a multipeaked distribution that shifts over time. As such a distribution shifts, the median does not necessarily move at the same rate. Specifically, the median takes relatively more time to move through a frequently reported interval, but once above the upper limit of such an interval, it can move relatively quickly to the next frequently reported earnings interval. BLS procedures for estimating medians (and other quantile boundaries) mitigate such irregular movements of the measures; however, users should be cautious of these effects when evaluating short-term changes in the medians and in ratios of the medians.

Concepts and definitions The principal concepts and definitions used in connection with the earnings data in this report are described next. Usual weekly earnings. Data are collected on wages and salaries before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the principal or main job in the case of multiple jobholders). All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually, or other) and how much they usually earn in the period reported. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of “usual,” interviewers are instructed to define the term as “more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.”

Constant dollars. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars. BLS has made numerous improvements to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) over the years. Although these improvements make the CPI more accurate, the official histories of price index series are not adjusted to reflect the improvements. Because many researchers need a historical series that measures price change consistently over time, BLS developed the CPIU-RS to provide an estimate of the CPI that incorporates most of the methodological improvements made since 1978 into the entire series. For further information, see Kenneth J. Stewart and Stephen B. Reed, “CPI research series using current methods, 1978–98” Monthly Labor Review, June 1999 (http://www. bls.gov/opub/mlr/1999/06/art4full.pdf); and “Questions and Answers: Consumer Price Index Research Series Using Current Methods,” on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpirsdc. htm. This report uses the most recent version of the CPI-U-RS available at the time of production. Users should note, however, that the CPI-U-RS is subject to periodic revision. As a result, the rate of inflation incorporated into the constant-dollar earnings estimates in this report may differ from that in previous reports in this series or in other publications.

Medians (and other quantiles) of weekly earnings. Most of the earnings estimates shown in this report are medians. The median (or upper limit of the second quartile) is the amount that divides a given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the median. Ten percent of workers in a given distribution have earnings below the upper limit of the first decile (90 percent have higher earnings), 25 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the first quartile (75 percent have higher earnings), 75 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the third quartile (25 percent have higher earnings), and 90 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the ninth decile (10 percent have higher earnings). The BLS estimating procedure for determining the median of an earnings distribution places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into a $50-wide interval that is centered around a multiple of $50. The median is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

90

April 1, 1991; $4.75, effective October 1, 1996; $5.15, effective September 1, 1997; $5.85, effective July 24, 2007; and $6.55 effective July 24, 2008. Data for 1990–91, 1996–97, and 2007-08 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place during those years. Note that some States have established minimum-wage standards that exceed the Federal level. The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act because there are a number of exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, some workers might have rounded their hourly earnings in response to survey questions. As a result, some might have been reported with hourly earnings below the minimum wage when, in fact, they earned the minimum wage or higher.

Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Full-time workers. For the purpose of producing estimates of earnings, workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job are defined as working full time. Part-time workers. For the purpose of producing estimates of earnings, workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or principal job are defined as working part time.

Reliability Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. Whenever a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the “true” population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies with the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses generally are conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. Estimates of earnings and their standard errors can be used to construct approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values, that include the true population value with known probabilities. The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. This kind of error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information on all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in data collection or processing. For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating standard errors, see the “Reliability of the estimates” section of Household Data technical documentation on the Internet at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Workers paid by the hour. Historically, workers paid an hourly wage have made up approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers. Workers paid by the hour are included in the fulland part-time worker tables in this report, along with salaried workers and other workers not paid by the hour. Data for workers paid at hourly rates are presented separately in tables 9 to 11 and 18 to 22. Workers paid at or below the Federal minimum wage. The estimates of the numbers of workers with reported earnings at or below the Federal minimum wage in tables 11 and 22 pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other workers who are not paid by the hour are not included, even though some have earnings that, when converted to hourly rates, are at or below the minimum wage. Consequently, the estimates presented in this report likely understate the actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage. Research has shown, however, that the degree of understatement is small. BLS does not routinely estimate the hourly earnings of workers not paid by the hour because of data quality concerns associated with such an estimation process. The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90, effective January 1, 1979; $3.10, effective January 1, 1980; $3.35, effective January 1, 1981; $3.80, effective April 1, 1990; $4.25, effective

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Highlights of Women's Earnings in 2008 - Bureau of Labor Statistics

Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2008 125 YEARS BLS U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics July 2009 Report 1017 men’s earnings ...

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