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Hungarian An Essential Grammar

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This is a concise, user-friendly guide to the most important structures of this fascinating language. All students of Hungarian, whether beginners or at intermediate and advanced levels, will welcome its clarity of presentation and jargon-free explanations. It is ideal for those studying independently or following a taught course. Topics include:

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• • • • • •

Verbal prefixes Aspect and tense Word-formation mechanisms Linking vowels The case system and its uses Word order

Appendices include the formation of irregular verbs, complete noun declensions and irregular noun patterns. 0111 With numerous language examples bringing grammar to life, this truly essential reference work will prove invaluable to all students looking to master the patterns and irregularities of modern Hungarian. Carol Rounds lectures in Hungarian at Columbia University, New York.

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Routledge Essential Grammars Essential Grammars are available for the following languages: Chinese Danish Dutch Finnish Modern Hebrew Norwegian Polish Portuguese Swedish Urdu English Other titles of related interest published by Routledge: Colloquial Hungarian By Jerry Payne Hungarian: Descriptive Grammar By István Kenesei, Robert M Vago and Anna Fenyvesi

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Hungarian An Essential Grammar

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Carol Rounds

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RO



GE

l

ou

y Ta

or

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LE UT D

& F r n cis G a

r

London and New York

First published 2001 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002. © 2001 Carol Rounds All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rounds Carol, 1959– Hungarian: an essential grammar / Carol Rounds. p. cm. Includes index. 1. Hungarian language—Grammar. I. Title. PH2105 .R68 2001 494`.51182421–dc21 2001016014 ISBN 0–415–22611–2 (hbk) ISBN 0–415–22612–0 (pbk) ISBN 0-203-46519-9 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-77343-8 (Glassbook Format)

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Contents

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Preface Acknowledgements Abbreviations

xi xii xiii

PART I: ALPHABET, PRONUNCIATION AND VOWEL HARMONY

1

Chapter 1 Alphabet

3

Chapter 2 Pronunciation

4

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Consonants Consonant length Voicing and devoicing of consonants Assimilation of sibilants Vowels Stress Intonation

Chapter 3 Vowel harmony 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Suffixing and back vs. front vowels Suffixing and rounded vs. unrounded vowels Neutral vowels Application of the rules of vowel harmony

4 5 5 7 7 8 8

10 10 10 11 11

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Contents

PART II: PARTS OF SPEECH

Chapter 4 Verbs 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Verb stems Definite and indefinite conjugations Conjugation and usage Non-finite forms Productive derivational endings Coverbs

Chapter 5 Nouns 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Articles Nouns and suffixes Noun stems and the nominative case – singular and plural Number and usage

Chapter 6 The case system 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

Grammatical cases Locative case system Non-locative usage of locative cases Oblique cases Less productive cases Verbs and cases Plural declension Full declension of select nouns

Chapter 7 Pronouns

vi

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

Personal pronouns Polite forms of address Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronoun Possessive pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Interrogative pronouns Relative pronouns Cataphoric use of pronouns

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15 15 23 26 51 57 65

82 82 84 85 90

92 94 98 103 111 117 119 119 120

122 122 125 128 129 129 130 134 136 136

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7.10 Indefinite pronouns 7.11 Negative and universal pronouns

Chapter 8 Possession 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8

Singular possessive endings Plural possessive endings ó~a and ő~e stems Kinship terms Nominal possession Possession and formal forms of address Possessive declension Non-attributive possession: é, éi

Chapter 9 Postpositions 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7

Some postpositions of time Postpositions with possessive suffixes Postpositions of location Postpositions governing cases Complex postpositions Demonstratives and postpositions Postpositions as prepositions

Chapter 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10

Declension of adjectives Adjectives used as nouns Forming the comparative Using the comparative Superlative Demonstrative adjectives Interrogative adjectives Relative adjectives Indefinite adjectives Numerical adjectives

Chapter 11 11.1 11.2

Adjectives

Adverbs

Adverbs of manner: Hogy(an)? . . . How? Comparative and superlative of adverbs of manner

137 138

Contents

140 140 146 147 148 149 152 152 153

155 155 156 157 159 160 162 162

164 164 171 172 175 176 177 177 178 178 179

180 180 186

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Contents

11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6

Adverbs of number Adverbs of space Time expressions Adverbial pronouns

Chapter 12 Word formation 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

Noun-forming suffixes Adjective-forming suffixes Verb-forming suffixes Diminutives

Chapter 13 Conjunctions 13.1 13.2

Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions

Chapter 14 Numerals 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7

211 211 217 224 231

234 234 238

241 241 243 244 245 245 246 246

Chapter 15 Interjections

248

PART III: SENTENCE STRUCTURE

251

Chapter 16 Sentence elements and word order

253

16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 viii

Cardinal and ordinal numbers Declension of numerals Adverbial use of expressions of quantity Fractions Decimals Nouns and adjectives derived from numbers Multiplicative -szor/-szer/-ször

189 190 192 207

Sentence positions Verbal complements Neutral sentence structure Sentence structure with focus elements Word order of the quasi-auxiliary verbs: kell, akar, tud, lehet, szokott, tetszik, fog

254 256 258 260 265

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Chapter 17 Special constructions 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 17.10

Usage of van ‘be’ Negation and van ‘be’ Existential constructions ‘Have’ construction Comparison of possessive and ‘have’ constructions Differences in ‘have’ constructions Impersonal constructions Agent-less sentences (passive) Adverbial participle with van Answering questions

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs Appendix 2 Sample noun declensions Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions Index

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Contents

268 270 271 272 275 276 277 280 280 281

285 296 304 309

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ix

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Preface

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This book is designed for all students of Hungarian – but perhaps especially for those who have been told it is too hard to learn. College students, business men and women, people of Hungarian heritage or spouses of Hungarians can use this book as an anchor in their quest to master the intricacies of Hungarian. The Hungarian language is complex, wonderfully expressive and like no other language you know. This book guides you through the patterns of building words, phrases and sentences with clear explanations and paradigms. What at first seems complex to the Hungarian student becomes a regular and predictable – and therefore a learnable – pattern used to inspire your own Hungarian expression. Have fun with it!

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xi

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the people who have helped greatly in writing this book. I must begin by expressing my appreciation and great respect for my first Hungarian teacher, Daniel Abondolo, who taught me to look most systematically at this language and thereby help make it learnable; I also thank him for his helpful comments on the manuscript. I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to Erika Sólyom for her painstaking reading of the Hungarian examples and suggestions for improvement. I also thank Sophie Oliver at Routledge for her help and patience in seeing the project through. Finally, my greatest thanks are offered to my husband, John Schiemann, for his meticulous editorial comments, and numerous rereadings of the manuscript during the months of its preparation.

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Abbreviations

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abl. acc. adess. all. caus.-fin. dat. delat. def. distr. elat. ess.-for. illat. indef. iness. instr. intrans. lit. nom. part. pl. pl1 pl2 pl3 poss. pres. relat. s1 s2 s3 sg.

ablative accusative adessive allative causal-final dative delative definite distributive elative essive-formal illative indefinite inessive instrumental intransitive literal(ly) nominative participle plural first person plural second person plural third person plural possessive present relative first person singular second person singular third person singular singular

xiii

Abbreviations

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sociat. sublat. superess. sy term. transl.

sociative sublative superessive somebody terminative translative

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PART I

Alphabet, pronunciation and vowel harmony

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Chapter 1

Alphabet

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Hungarian uses the Roman alphabet in addition to some diacritics placed over some vowels. The accent mark(s) above the vowels indicate that the vowel is ‘long’ – see the pronunciation section to follow. Some consonants are digraphs, i.e., they consist of two letters; one consonant (dzs) is a trigraph. Although they are written with more than one letter, digraphs (and the trigraph) are each individual letters of the alphabet.

a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö o˝ p (q) r s sz t ty u ú ü u˝ v (w) (x) (y) z zs Unless found in the spellings of foreign words, the letters q, w and x are not used; the letter y is found only in old spellings (pronounced as the letter i) and in digraphs.

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3

Chapter 2

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2.1 Consonants 12111 3 4 2.1.1 5 6 Many of the consonants in Hungarian are pronounced as in English. All 7 consonants are pronounced – there are no silent letters. The following 8 are the consonants pronounced differently from those in English. 9 c as in cats cukor ‘sugar’ ecet ‘vinegar’ 20111 1 cs as in church bocsánat ‘excuse me’ csal ‘deceive’ 2 g (always hard) as in go igen ‘yes’ gaz ‘weed’ 3 4 j as in yes jó ‘good’ fáj ‘hurt’ 5 r trill the tongue on the kérem ‘please’ ró ‘carve’ 6 top of the mouth 7 8 s as in she este ‘evening’ sárga ‘yellow’ 9 sz as in sat szervusz ‘hi’ asztal ‘table’ 30111 1 zs as in azure garázs ‘garage’ zseb ‘pocket’ 2 3 4 2.1.2 The palatal series 5 6 The following four consonants are palatalized, i.e., they are pronounced 7 with the tongue gliding off the top of the palate. 8 gy similar to a dy sound magyar ‘Hungarian’ gyár ‘factory’ 9 as in during 40 41111

Pronunciation

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ly as in yes (thus the same személy ‘person’ lyuk ‘hole’ as the Hungarian letter j) ny as in canyon

kenyér ‘bread’ nyár ‘summer’

ty similar to a ty sound as in studio

kártya ‘card’ tyúk ‘hen’

2.2

Consonant length

Consonant length

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All consonants can be long or short. Long consonants are written as double consonants and are pronounced approximately twice as long as short ones. Great care should be paid to differences in length; it can change the meaning of a word, e.g.,

szeretem I love him/her

vs.

szerettem I loved him/her

Length of digraphs is indicated by doubling the first consonant of the digraph. For example, a long sz is written ssz: vissza ‘back’; long ny is written nny: lánnyal ‘with a girl’, etc.

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2.2.1 Lengthening of consonants before j The consonants d, gy, t, ty, n, ny are pronounced long when preceding the letter j (though this is not represented in the orthography):

ad + ja

→ adja

[addja]

s/he gives it

hagy + ja

→ hagyja

[haddja]

s/he leaves it

mutat + ja

→ mutatja

[mutattja]

s/he shows it

báty + ja

→ bátyja

[báttja]

his/her brother

kíván + juk

→ kívánjuk

[kivánnjuk]

we wish it

any + ja

→ anyja

[annja]

his/her mother

2.3

Voicing and devoicing of consonants

Consonants can be classified as voiced and unvoiced. The following are the voiced and unvoiced consonants of Hungarian: 5

2 Pronunciation

6

1111 2 3 Voiced b d g v z zs dz dzs gy j ly m n ny l r 4 5 6 7 2.3.1 Voicing of unvoiced consonants 8 9 Unvoiced consonants (except h) become voiced when preceding voiced 1011 1 consonants (except j, ly, m, n, ny, l, r, v). Some examples: 12111 Unvoiced Voiced Examples 3 4 p → b népdal [nébdal] folk song 5 t → d kertben [kerdben] in the garden 6 7 k → g lakbér [lagbér] rent 8 s → zs kisgyerek [kizsgyerek] (small) child 9 20111 c → dz ketrecbe [ketredzbe] into the cage 1 cs → dzs bográcsgulyás [bográdzsgulyás] kettle goulash 2 3 sz → z részben [rézben] in part 4 f → v kuglófban [kuglóvban] in (a) cake 5 6 7 2.3.2 Devoicing of voiced consonants 8 9 Voiced consonants (except j, ly, m, n, ny, l, r) are devoiced when preceding 30111 unvoiced consonants. Some examples: 1 2 Voiced Unvoiced Examples 3 b → p zsebkendo˝ [zsepkendő] handkerchief 4 5 d → t tudtok [tuttok] you (pl.) know 6 g → k megszeret [mekszeret] (start to) like/love 7 8 v → f nyelvtan [nyelftan] grammar 9 z → sz dolgoztok [dolgosztok] you (pl.) work 40 41111 zs → s varázspálca [varáspálca] magic wand

Unvoiced p t k f sz s

c cs ty h

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dz

→ c

edztek [ectek]

you (pl.) train

dzs

→ cs

bridzsto˝l [bricsto˝l]

from bridge

gy

→ ty

nagyterem [natyterem]

main hall

2.4

Assimilation of sibilants

Assimilation of sibilants

Hissing sibilants (sz, z) when preceding hushing sibilants (s, zs) become hushing sibilants (the above voicing and devoicing rules also apply if applicable).

Hissing

Hushing Becomes

Examples

sz

+ s

ss (long s)

egészség

[egésség] health

z

+ s

ss

igazság

[igasság] truth

sz

+ zs

zzs (long zs) horgászzsinór [horgázzsinór] fishing line

z

+ zs

2.5

Vowels

tíz zsinór

[tízzsinór] ten lines

Vowels can also be either long or short. Length in the vowels is marked by long marks over the vowel and long vowels are pronounced approximately twice as long as short ones. For two sets of vowel pairs, a ~ á and e ~ é there is a difference not only in length but of quality in the vowel as well. For all other vowel pairs the difference between them is primarily of length. Hungarian has no diphthongs, i.e., each vowel is pronounced separately.

a aw as in ‘awl’

nap day

á aa as in ‘baa’

ár price

e a sound between the a in ‘bat’ and the e in ‘bet’

reggel morning

é ay as in ‘say’, but without the y-sound (diphthong) at the end

kérem please 7

2 Pronunciation

8

i

e as in ‘he’

mi what

1111 2 í a longer version of the above, tíz ten 3 as the ee in ‘green’ 4 o oh as in ‘note’ kívánok I wish 5 6 ó a longer version of the above jó good 7 ö purse your lips as though to köszönöm thank you 8 say oh but say eh 9 1011 o˝ a longer version of the above hétfo˝ Monday 1 u oo as in ‘food’ tud know 12111 3 ú a longer version of the above út road 4 ü purse your lips as though to üveg bottle 5 say oo but say ee 6 7 ű a longer version of the above egyszeru˝ simple 8 9 20111 2.6 Stress 1 2 The first syllable of every word is stressed. 3 Unless otherwise emphasized, the articles a, az, egy, and the particle is 4 receive no stress. Thus in the following phrase, the only stressed element 5 is the first syllable of kutya: 6 7 a kutya is the dog too 8 9 30111 2.7 Intonation 1 2 2.7.1 3 4 Hungarian declarative sentences have a primarily descending intonation: 5 6 Szép ido˝ van. The weather is beautiful. 7 8 9 40 41111

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2.7.2

Intonation

A question containing a question word has a higher rise on the question word:

Milyen ido˝ van?

What is the weather like?

2.7.3 A yes–no question has a rise–fall intonation where a high rise in intonation is found on the penultimate syllable of the sentence, a sharp fall is on the last syllable.

Szép ido˝ van?

Is the weather nice?

(Note here that intonation may be the only way to differentiate between declarative and interrogative sentences.) In yes–no questions with fewer than three syllables, the rise in intonation takes place on the final syllable followed by an immediate drop:

Ez az?

Is this it?

Kedves?

Is she nice?

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Chapter 3

Vowel harmony

Hungarian vowels are classified according to front vs. back assonance and rounded vs. unrounded. These terms come from describing the tongue position in the mouth and the roundedness of the lips, respectively. The following is the vowel inventory of Hungarian:

Back vowels:

a, á, o, ó, u, ú

Front unrounded vowels:

e, é, i, í

Front rounded vowels:

ö, o˝, ü, u˝

Vowel harmony rules in Hungarian require that front or back assonance in the vowels of a stem be maintained throughout the entire word, thus for the most part – except for recent loan words – Hungarian words have either only back vowels in them or only front vowels.

3.1

Suffixing and back vs. front vowels

Because vowel assonance is maintained throughout the whole word, most suffixes have front and back vowel variants, e.g., the dative case -nak (back vowel) and -nek (front vowel). Thus, if a stem contains back vowels, it affixes back vowel suffixes; should the word contain only front vowels it can affix only front vowel suffixes.

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Suffixing and rounded vs. unrounded vowels

When words contain only front vowels, a second distinction in vowel type may be necessary: the rounded/unrounded distinction in the last vowel requires a second stage in vowel harmony rules: if the stem’s last vowel is front and rounded it takes a suffix with a front rounded vowel.

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If the stem’s last vowel is front and unrounded, it takes a front unrounded suffix. Although suffixes for most words have front/back vowel variants only a few endings have rounded/unrounded variants (examples include the allative case, -hoz/-hez/-höz, or the plural suffix, -ok/-ek/-ök).

3.3

Neutral vowels

Finally, the front unrounded vowels, i, í, e and é, may occur in stems containing either front or back vowels. As such they are considered neutral with respect to vowel harmony rules; a word containing back vowels and neutral vowels is considered a back vowel word. If only neutral vowels occur in a stem, however, the stem is considered to be of front vowel assonance and will require front vowel suffixes.1

3.4

Application of the rules of vowel harmony

To show how vowel harmony works, we will use the plural suffix, which has both front/back vowel harmony and the rounded/unrounded distinction. The plural ending is either -ok (back), -ek (front and unrounded), or -ök (front and rounded).

Stem

Description of stem

Plural

asztal

table

only back vowels

asztalok

gyerek

child

only neutral (front) vowels, last vowel unrounded

gyerekek

füzet

notebook

only front vowels, last vowel unrounded

füzetek

ismero˝s acquaintance

only front vowels, last vowel rounded

ismero˝sök

papír

back vowel with neutral vowel

papírok

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Neutral vowels

paper

1 This is particularly true for nouns although there are numerous exceptions; most verbs, however, that contain only the vowel i or í have back vowel assonance. Compare: szív ‘heart’ is a noun with front vowel assonance and szív ‘inhale’ is a verb with back vowel assonance.

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PART II

Parts of speech

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Chapter 4

Verbs

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The Hungarian conjugation includes the past and present indicative, the subjunctive (also used for the imperative) and conditional moods. There is no inflectional passive mood or future tense; the passive is expressed by means of other constructions with no agency, the future is expressed by the use of coverbs and/or the auxiliary verb fog. Conjugation of verbs includes the suffixing of tense or mood and personal endings. The personal endings indicate the subject and may indicate the presence of a direct object (see section 4.2). With few exceptions, the rules of vowel harmony extend through the conjugations. This chapter first illustrates the verb stem types of Hungarian followed by the conjugations and usage of the tenses and moods. The formation and usage of the non-finite forms (participles and the infinitive) as well as the highly productive verbal suffixes of modality (potential, causative, and frequentative) follow. For more on verbal derivational suffixes, see chapter 12 on word formation. Verbal prefixes, henceforth referred to as coverbs, cause a particular problem for students of Hungarian; the end of this chapter contains extensive descriptions of the common uses of the most frequently used coverbs. Although some reference is made in this chapter to the order of verbs and coverbs in the sections on usage, refer to chapter 16 for a more complete explanation of Hungarian word order.

4.1

Verb stems

In general, Hungarian verb stems are identical with the third person singular present tense indefinite form. This is the citation form found in good dictionaries.

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4 Verbs

16

The shape of the verb stem determines in part the shape of the suffix which 1111 attaches to it. For most verbs, the verb stem remains the same throughout 2 the conjugations. Some important exceptions are discussed in this section. 3 4 5 4.1.1 -ik verbs 6 7 A very large group of verbs end in -ik in the third person singular present 8 tense indefinite conjugation (and as such, appear as the citation form). 9 The verb stem for -ik verbs is found by removing the -ik ending; the 1011 verbs then conjugate on the -ik-less stem. For example, the verb utazik 1 ‘travel’ has the stem utaz- to which the verbal endings attach, e.g., utazni 12111 ‘to travel (infinitive)’. 3 4 In addition to the stem change, -ik verbs also display a regular alterna5 tion in the personal endings of some conjugations. In the present tense, 6 the ending -om/-em/-öm may be used for the first person singular indef7 inite conjugation instead of the regular ending (-ok/-ek/-ök).1 A similar 8 alternation is found in the first person singular in the subjunctive and 9 conditional paradigms as well, though in these conjugations the regular 20111 endings have all but replaced the now archaic -ik endings. 1 regular ending ~ -ik ending 2 3 Present tense: utazom ~ utazok I travel 4 Subjunctive: utazzam ~ utazzak that I travel 5 6 Conditional: utaznám ~ utaznék I would travel 7 In the subjunctive and conditional conjugations there is also a separate 8 ending for -ik verbs in the indefinite conjugation for third person singular: 9 -ék. This ending is also considered a more archaic form, and is rarely 30111 used in speech. 1 2 -ik ending ~ regular ending 3 Subjunctive: utazzék ~ utazzon that he/she play piano 4 5 Conditional: utaznék ~ utazna he/she would play piano 6 7 8 1 Much variation is found in the use of the first person endings of -ik verbs; this 9 is dependent not only on the idiolect of the speaker, but the verb as well – some verbs are prone to take the -ik verb endings, some to take the regular. However, 40 the -om/ -em/ -öm endings are always correct, if not always colloquial. 41111

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4.1.2 Fleeting vowel stems

Verb stems

In this large class of verb stems the last vowel is omitted when vowelinitial suffixes are added, yielding a stem-final consonant cluster. Although you cannot tell by its shape whether a verb is a fleeting vowel stem, a pattern emerges with familiarity. In all cases2 the vowel which elides is o/e/ö; at least one of the consonants in the resulting cluster is always j, l, ly, r, n, ny, m, z, or zs. The vowel is omitted only when the suffix attached begins with a vowel, thus there are no tri-consonantal clusters. Vowel-initial suffixes are found in the present and past tense conjugations as well as with present and past participles, and the noun-forming suffixes -at/-et and -ás/-és. The presence of a vowel-initial suffix does not always trigger vowel elision and, in fact, the absence of a consistent trigger is what makes this group of stems so irregular. Only the present participle -ó/-ő will consistently trigger the omission of the fleeting vowel.

mosolyog ~ mosolygmosolyognak they smile mosolyogni to smile

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mosolyogtam I smiled

mosolygok I smile mosolygott he/she smiled mosolygó smiling (pres. part.) érez ~ érzéreztem I felt (it)

érezzük we feel it

érezni to feel

érzem I feel it

érzitek you (pl.) feel it

érzés feeling

üdvözöl ~ üdvözl-

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üdvözölsz you (sg.) greet üdvözölni to greet

üdvözöltek they greeted (us)

üdvözlöm I greet him/her üdvözlet greeting

üdvözlik they greet him/her

With the one exception of őriz ‘guard’.

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4 Verbs

4.1.3 v-stems This is a small class of verbs whose third person singular form ends in a vowel, but requires a v-stem before suffixes beginning with a vowel.

The v-stem verbs are:

fo˝ cook

no˝ grow

ró carve

lo˝ shoot

nyu˝ wear out

szo˝ weave

With the exception of nyű, the final vowel is shortened before the v: ró: rov- ‘carve’. The present tense paradigm illustrates the pattern of v-stem verbs:

szo˝ ~ szöv indefinite

definite

ró ~ rov indefinite definite

én

szövök

szövöm

rovok

rovom

te

szo˝sz

szövöd

rósz

rovod

ő

szo˝

szövi



rója

mi

szövünk szo˝jük

rovunk

rójuk

ti

szo˝tök

szövitek

rótok

rójátok

ők

szo˝nek

szövik

rónak

róják

The following are the verb stems for the past, subjunctive and conditional as well as the non-finite verb forms for this class. (Note the deviation from the stem for the definite subjunctive te form.)

18

past tense subjunctive stem stem s2def

conditional present infinitive adverbial stem participle participle

fo˝tt-

fo˝j-

––

fo˝-

fövo˝

fo˝ni

fo˝ve

lo˝tt-

lo˝j-

lo˝dd

lo˝-

lövo˝

lo˝ni

lo˝ve

no˝tt-

no˝j-

no˝dd

no˝-

növo˝

no˝ni

no˝ve

nyu˝tt-

nyu˝j- nyu˝dd nyu˝-

nyu˝vo˝

nyu˝ni

nyu˝ve

rótt-

rój-

rovó

róni

róva

szo˝tt-

szo˝j- szo˝dd szo˝-

szövo˝

szo˝ni

szo˝ve

ródd

ró-

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111

4.1.4 -szik stems

Verb stems

Another class of verbs ends in -szik in the citation form. If a vowel precedes the -szik ending the verb conjugates normally. (Two exceptions are esküszik ‘swear’ and alkuszik ‘bargain’, to be discussed below.) If, however, a consonant precedes the -szik ending, the -sz of this ending alternates with other consonants throughout the verbal paradigm.3 The -szik verbs can be divided into four main groups, depending on which consonants -sz- alternates with.

011

2111

0111

(a) sz ~ d ~ v: This group include some very common verbs. There is considerable variation within this group; note in the following table the stem variants for the potential, causative and adverbial participles. The verbs alszik ‘sleep’ and fekszik ‘lie’ use the short form for the past tense, the rest of the verbs in this group use the long form. The sz ~ d ~ v alternation is also found with five frequentative verbs having the present tense forms ending in -kodik/-kedik alternating with -szik. The present tense conjugation may occur in either stem variant; the other verb forms conform to the pattern established in the table for cselekszik ~ cselekedik.

cselekszik ~ cselekedik

do, act

dicsekszik ~ dicsekedik

boast

gyanakszik ~ gyanakodik

suspect

növekszik ~ növekedik

grow, increase

törekszik ~ törekedik

strive, try

(b) sz ~ d: This alternation is found in a number of verbs including:

0111

0 1111

dulakszik ~ dulakodik

grapple, wrestle

furakszik ~ furakodik

push through

gazdagszik ~ gazdagodik

become rich

gyarapszik ~ gyarapodik

increase

3 Exceptions are hallatszik ‘be heard’, játszik ‘play’, látszik ‘appear’, and tetszik ‘be pleasing’ which do not have variable stems and conjugate regularly. The verb alapszik ‘found’, ‘establish’ is found only in the present tense and conjugates regularly. All other verb forms of alapszik require the synonymous verb (root) alapul.

19

4 Verbs

20

lerészegszik ~ lerészegedik

become drunk

1111 2 megelégszik ~ megelégedik be satisfied 3 meghidegszik ~ meghidegedik grow cold 4 5 melegszik ~ melegedik become warm 6 megbetegszik ~ megbetegedik become ill 7 8 mosakszik ~ mosakodik wash oneself 9 öregszik ~ öregedik become old, age 1011 1 tanakszik ~ tanakodik reflect, consider (tanakszik 12111 variant is rare) 3 telepszik ~ telepedik settle 4 5 tolakszik ~ tolakodik push oneself through, impose 6 ülepszik ~ ülepedik settle, deposit 7 8 vastagszik ~ vastagodik grow thick 9 verekszik ~ verekedik fight 20111 1 veszekszik ~ veszekedik argue, fight 2 vetekszik ~ vetekedik rival, vie 3 4 (c) sz ~ z: This alternation is found in only three verbs: 5 emlékszik ~ emlékezik remember 6 7 gyülekszik ~ gyülekezik assemble, gather 8 szándékszik ~ szándékozik intend 9 (d) sz ~ z ~ v: This alternation is found only with the verb igyekszik ~ 30111 1 igyekezik ‘strive’. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

-szik verbs and stem variants Consonant Present alternation tense stem

Past tense, Present part., subjunctive, past part. conditional, infinitival stem

Potential causative

alszsleep fekszsz ~ d ~ v lie esküszswear haragszbe angry nyugszbe calm alkuszbargain cselekszcselekeddo, act

alud-

al(ud)hat al(ud)va al(ud)tat fek(üd)het fek(üd)ve fek(üd)tet esküdhet esküdve esküdtet ~ esket haragudhat haragudva haragudtat nyug(od)hat nyugodva nyugtat alkudhat alkudva alkudtat cselekedhet cselekedve cselekedtet

sz ~ d

0111

0 1111

sz ~ z

alvó aludt feküdfekvo˝ feküdt esküdesküvo˝ esküdött haragud- haragvó haragudott nyugodnyugvó nyugodott alkudalkuvó alkudott cseleked- cselekvo˝ cselekedett

öregszöregedöregedgrow old veszeksz- veszekedveszekedargue mosaksz- mosakodmosakodwash

öregedo˝ öregedett

öregedhet ––––

strive

igyekez-

öregedve

veszekedo˝ veszekedhet veszekedve veszekedett veszekedtet mosakodó mosakodhat mosakodva mosakodott mosakodtat

emléksz- emlékez- emlékezo˝ emlékezhet emlékezemlékezett emlékeztet remember

sz ~ z ~ v igyeksz-

Adverbial part.

igyekvo˝

igyekezhet

igyekezett

igyekeztet

emlékezve

igyekezve

4 Verbs

4.1.5 The group of seven: lesz, tesz, vesz, hisz, visz, eszik, iszik This finite class of verbs exhibits a present tense -sz-stem which alternates with other consonants throughout the paradigms as illustrated in the following table. The personal endings for the tenses and moods attach regularly to the verb stems indicated by a dash; forms with no dash are complete second person singular forms; other exceptions are indicated. Full paradigms of these verbs are given in appendix 1.

The group of seven Present Past Subjunctive Conditional Infinitive tense tense stem4 stem stem stem lesz

lesz-

lett-

legy-

will be; become tesz

len-

lenni

ten-

tenni

ven-

venni

vin-

vinni

hin-

hinni

in-

inni

en-

enni

légy tesz-

tett- tegy-

put; do

tégy tedd

vesz

vesz-

vett- vegy-

take; buy

végy vedd

visz

visz-

vitt-

vigy-

take, carry hisz

vidd hisz-

hitt-

higgy-

believe iszik

hidd isz-

eat

22

igy5

drink eszik

itt-

ivott idd esz-

ett-

egy5

evett edd

4 There is a good deal of variation (in vowel length and stem shape) throughout the subjunctive paradigm for these verbs. See the full paradigm in appendix 1. 5 The third person singular indefinite past tense of these verbs is formed from a

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111

4.1.6 The verbs van ‘be’, jön ‘go’, and megy ‘come’

Verb stems

These three verbs are irregular in all moods and tenses. The past tense and conditional are formed regularly from the stems indicated in the table. The present tense and subjunctive forms exhibit some variation in the stems; for full paradigms see appendix 1.

Present tense stem(s)

Past tense stem

Subjunctive Conditional stem stem

Infinitive

van

vagy-

volt-

legy-

vol-

lenni

be

van(-)

légy

len-

jön

varied

jöjj-

jön-

jönni

men-

menni

011

2111

come

0 1111

gyere gyertek gyerünk

0111

0111

jött-

megy megygo

4.2

ment-

menj-

men-

Definite and indefinite conjugations

For each mood and tense, Hungarian verbs have two conjugations. The definite conjugation is used if the sentence contains a definite direct object. The indefinite conjugation is used at all other times. Thus, in the translation of the sentences ‘I see a house’ and ‘I see the house’ the verb lát is conjugated differently because of the presence or absence of a definite direct object.

Látok egy házat.

I see a house.

Látom a házat.

I see the house.

v-stem and is given here in full. The rest of the past tense conjugates regularly from the itt- and ett- stems.

23

4.2.1 Determining the definiteness of an object

4 Verbs

Several factors go into determining whether a direct object is to be considered definite. If a direct object does not conform to one of the points below, or if there is no direct object in the sentence at all, the indefinite conjugation of the verb is used. A direct object is considered definite if: (a) it is preceded by the definite article a or az.

Látom a házat.

I see the house.

(b) it is a demonstrative pronoun (az or ez, azok or ezek) or is modified by a demonstrative pronoun.6

Látom ezt/azt.

I see this/that.

Látom ezt/azt a házat.

I see this/that house.

The demonstrative pronouns are also frequently used cataphorically7 and as such they may be overt or implied. In either instance, they are still considered definite.

(Azt) látom, hogy esik az eso˝.

I see that it is raining.

(c) it has a possessive suffix.

Látom a házadat.

I see your house.

Látom a házát.

I see his/her house.

Since a possessed noun is almost always preceded by a definite article, this may also be considered a sub-class of (a). Although the definite article may be omitted in possessive constructions, any direct object with a possessive suffix is still considered definite. Note, also, that possessive and reflexive pronouns contain possessive suffixes and they are also considered definite.

Látom magam(at).

I see myself.

Mutasd meg a tiedet!

Show me yours!

6

A contextually frequent, though semantically singular, exception to this is found when the direct object azt has the meaning ‘that kind of’, ‘such a’; in this case, the indefinite conjugation is used: Azt kérek. I would like that kind.

24

7

See section 7.9 for discussion of cataphoric pronouns.

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111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

(d) it is a proper noun.

Látom Zsuzsát/Budapestet. I see Zsuzsa/Budapest. (e) it is a third person pronoun (overt or implied).

Látom (o˝t).

I see him/her.

Látom (o˝ket).

I see them.

Látom (magát).

I see you (singular, polite).

Látom (magukat).

I see you (plural, polite).

Látom (önt).

I see you (singular, very polite).

Látom (önöket).

I see you (plural, very polite).

Definite and indefinite conjugations

The third person direct object pronoun need not be overtly expressed and therefore the sentence Látom can mean ‘I see him/her/them/you’ (formal forms, sg. and pl.) – only context will provide the correct meaning. (It is common in speech, however, to overtly express the third person plural pronoun őket ‘them’ even when the context is otherwise clear.) (f) it is the reciprocal pronoun, egymás.

Látják egymást.

They see each other.

(g) it is a modifier ending in -ik, or is preceded by a modifier ending in -ik (e.g. melyik, hányadik).

Melyiket kéred?

Which one would you like?

Melyik könyvet kéred?

Which book would you like?

4.2.2 -lak/-lek There is one more personal form in all moods and tenses we shall include here in the definite conjugations (though not because the object is inherently definite). A unique verb conjugational form (-lak/-lek) exists for verbs when the subject is én and direct object is a second person pronoun (téged, titeket, benneteket). With any subject other than én, however, second person objects occur with indefinite conjugations.

Látlak (téged).

I see you (singular, familiar).

Látlak (benneteket/titeket). I see you (plural, familiar). 25

4 Verbs

4.3

Conjugation and usage

4.3.1 Present tense: conjugation The present tense (unlike the past and the other moods) has no marker of its own on the verb; personal endings are added directly to the stem.

4.3.1.1 Indefinite conjugation As illustrated in the following table, the personal endings for the present tense indefinite conjugation have either two or three vowel choices dependent on vowel harmony. Verb stems ending in two vowels or a long vowel plus -t require a linking vowel before the endings that begin with a consonant. Finally, for verb stems ending in the sibilants s, sz, z, dz, the personal ending for te is -ol/-el/-öl instead of the -sz found for non-sibilant stems.

Present tense indefinite – personal endings Front vowel Singular

Back vowel unrounded rounded

1st person én -ik verbs (optional) 2nd person te after two consonants or long vowel + t after s, sz, z, dz 3rd person o˝, maga, ön -ik verbs

-ok -om

-ek -em -sz

-asz -ol

-ök -öm -esz

-el –––– -ik

-öl

Plural

26

1st person mi 2nd person ti after two consonants or long vowel + t 3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök after two consonants or long vowel + t

-unk -tok -otok

-ünk -tek -etek

-tök -ötök

-nak

-nek

-anak

-enek

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111

Due to their different shapes, the following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

wait

vár

[back vowel]

ask for

kér

[front unrounded vowel]

translate

fordít

[back vowel ending in long vowel + t]

cook

fo˝z

[front rounded vowel ending in a sibilant]

play

játszik

[back vowel -ik verb with a stem ending in two consonants; the stem-final consonant is a sibilant]

011

Conjugation and usage

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Present tense indefinite conjugations vár

kér

fordít

fo˝z

játszik

én várok

kérek

fordítok

fo˝zök

játszok (~ játszom)

te vársz

kérsz

fordítasz

fo˝zöl

játszol



kér

fordít

fo˝z

játszik

mi várunk

kérünk

fordítunk

fo˝zünk

játszunk

ti

vártok

kértek

fordítotok fo˝ztök

játszotok

o˝k várnak

kérnek

fordítanak fo˝znek

játszanak

vár

4.3.1.2 Present tense definite conjugation In addition to observing vowel harmony rules, the personal endings of the present tense definite conjugation are subject to another phonological rule: the -j- of the j-initial endings (-ja, -juk/-jük, -játok, -ják) regularly assimilates to the final consonant of verb stems ending in a sibilant (s, sz, z, dz). Recall from chapter 1 that when digraphs (sz, dz, etc.) are long, i.e., doubled, they are written by doubling only the first letter of the digraph: sz + sz → ssz.

olvas + ja

→ olvassa

s/he reads (it)

vesz + jük

→ vesszük

we take (it)

hoz + játok → hozzátok edz + jük

→ eddzük

you (pl.) bring (it) we train him/her

27

4 Verbs

28

1111 2 Present tense definite – personal endings 3 4 Front vowel 5 Singular Back vowel 6 unrounded rounded 7 1st person én -om -em -öm 8 9 2nd person te -od -ed -öd 1011 3rd person o˝, maga, ön -ja -i 1 Plural 12111 3 1st person mi -juk -jük 4 2nd person ti -játok -itek 5 3rd person o˝k, maguk, -ják -ik 6 önök 7 8 1st person singular subject -lak -lek 9 with 2nd person object 20111 after two consonants -alak -elek 1 or long vowel + t 2 3 4 The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are 5 indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow. 6 7 give ad [back vowel] 8 read olvas [back vowel, ends in sibilant] 9 30111 play játszik [back vowel, ends in sibilant, -ik verb] 1 ask for kér [front unrounded vowel] 2 3 cook fo˝z [front rounded vowel, ends in sibilant] 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Conjugation and usage

Present tense definite conjugations ad

olvas

játszik

kér

fo˝z

én

adom

olvasom

játszom

kérem

fo˝zöm

te

adod

olvasod

játszod

kéred

fo˝zöd



adja

olvassa

játssza

kéri

fo˝zi

mi

adjuk

olvassuk

játsszuk

kérjük

fo˝zzük

ti

adjátok olvassátok játsszátok

kéritek fo˝zitek

o˝k

adják

kérik

olvassák

játsszák

fo˝zik

The form for verbs with the subject én ‘I’ and direct object téged, titeket, benneteket ‘you’ (familiar, sg. or pl.):

vár

wait

várlak

I wait for you

szeret

love

szeretlek

I love you

tart

hold

tartalak

I hold you

ért

understand

értelek

I understand you

4.3.2 Present tense: usage 4.3.2.1 The present tense can be used to indicate both present and habitual actions.

Sétálunk a parkban.

We are walking in the park.

Mari nagy cégnél dolgozik.

Mari works for a large firm.

Minden nap bemegyek a városba.

I go into the city every day.

4.3.2.2 The present tense may also be used to indicate future actions. In many instances coverbs and/or time expressions indicating a future date are

29

4 Verbs

30

used with the present tense of the verb to express the future. (See section 1111 4.6.3 on aspect and coverbs for more on the use of aspect to indicate 2 future.) 3 4 Holnap egész nap dolgozom. I will be working all day 5 tomorrow. 6 Jövo˝ héten lemegyek a Next week I’m going to the 7 Balatonra. Balaton. 8 9 Késo˝bb írom meg házi I’ll do my homework later. 1011 feladatomat. 1 12111 4.3.2.3 3 4 The present tense is often used in colloquial Hungarian when relating a 5 story that happened in the past. This is found in very colloquial English 6 as well. 7 Bemegyek a boltba, és kit látok? Egyik amerikai bará8 tomat, aki rögtön elkezdi mesélni, hogy mi történik vele, 9 amióta nem láttuk egymást. 20111 I go into the store, and who do I see? An American friend, who 1 immediately begins to tell me what has been going on with him 2 since we last met. 3 4 5 4.3.2.4 6 Reported speech: In English reported speech tolerates both the past and 7 present tense, for example, ‘You said that you were/are (still) reading.’ 8 In Hungarian, on the other hand, reported speech is expressed in the 9 tense in which it was originally stated. 30111 1 Lajos mondta, hogy Szegeden akar lakni. 2 Lajos said that he wants/wanted to live in Szeged. (At the time of 3 his statement he used the present tense.) 4 Lajos mondta, hogy három évvel ezelo˝tt Szegeden akart 5 lakni. 6 Lajos said that three years ago he wanted to live in Szeged. (At 7 the time of his statement, he used the past tense.) 8 9 40 41111

111

4.3.2.5 The present tense is used in time expressions meaning ‘since’, ‘for a period of time’ if the action continues into the present.

Conjugation and usage

Január óta dolgozom a könyvtárban. I have been working in the library since January. Mióta tanulsz magyarul? How long have you been studying Hungarian?

011

4.3.3 Past tense: conjugation

2111

0111

The past tense marker appears between the verb stem and the personal endings. It has two shapes: (1) the long form, -ott/-ett/-ött (where the vowel alternation is dependent on vowel harmony rules) and (2) the short form, -t. The shape of the verb stem determines whether it will take the long or short form. Three classes of verb stems are pertinent: Class A verbs always require the long form -ott/-ett/-ött and are defined as follows: 1 2 3

fut hat jut köt nyit süt üt vet

0111

0 1111

verbs ending in a long vowel + t verbs ending in two consonants monosyllabic verbs ending in a short vowel + t. Only eight verbs in the language have such a shape: run have an effect get, come to tie open bake strike cast

Class B verbs always require the short form t and are defined as follows: 1 2

verbs ending in (single) j, l, ly, n, ny, or r. many bisyllabic verbs ending in -ad or -ed.

Class C verbs require the long form in the third person singular indefinite conjugation and the short form for all other persons. Class C is (negatively) defined as containing all verbs not of class A or class B.

31

4 Verbs

32

Exceptions:

1111 2 (a) Some verbs that look as though they belong to Class A but 3 conjugate as Class C include lát ‘see’, küld ‘send’, mond ‘say’, kezd 4 ‘begin’, függ ‘hang’, ‘depend’, fedd ‘reprove’. 5 (b) Verbs that look as though they belong to Class A but conjugate as 6 Class B are áll ‘stand’, száll ‘fly’, varr ‘sew’, forr ‘boil’. 7 (c) The verb fürdik ‘bathe’ conjugates as either Class A or C: fürödtem 8 ~ fürdöttem ‘I bathed’, only the long form is used in the third 9 person singular: fürdött ‘she/he bathed’. 1011 1 12111 4.3.3.1 Past tense indefinite 3 After the correct past tense marker has been determined, the personal 4 endings are attached with no further changes to the stem. 5 6 7 Past tense indefinite – personal endings 8 9 Back Front 20111 Singular vowel vowel 1 2 1st person én -am -em 3 2nd person te -ál -él 4 3rd person o˝, maga, ön –––– 5 6 Plural 7 1st person mi -unk -ünk 8 2nd person ti -atok -etek 9 30111 3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök -ak -ek 1 2 The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are 3 indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow. 4 5 bake süt [Class A, front rounded vowel] 6 remain marad [Class B, back vowel] 7 8 love szeret [Class C, front unrounded vowel] 9 olvas read [Class C, back vowel] 40 41111

111

011

2111

Conjugation and usage

Past tense indefinite conjugations süt

marad

szeret

olvas

én sütöttem

maradtam

szerettem

olvastam

te

sütöttél

maradtál

szerettél

olvastál



sütött

maradt

szeretett

olvasott

mi sütöttünk

maradtunk

szerettünk

olvastunk

ti

maradtatok szerettetek olvastatok

sütöttetek

o˝k sütöttek

maradtak

szerettek

4.3.3.2 Past tense definite

Past tense definite – personal endings

0111

0111

0 1111

olvastak

Singular

Back vowel

Front vowel

1st person én

-am

-em

2nd person te

-ad

-ed

3rd person o˝, maga, ön

-a

-e

1st person mi

-uk

-ük

2nd person ti

-átok

-étek

3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök

-ák

-ék

1st person singular subject with 2nd person object

-alak

-elek

Plural

The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

strike

üt

[Class A, front rounded vowel]

ask for

kér

[Class B, front vowel]

introduce

bemutat

[Class C, back vowel]

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34

1111 2 üt kér bemutat 3 4 én ütöttem kértem bemutattam 5 te ütötted kérted bemutattad 6 7 o˝ ütötte kérte bemutatta 8 mi ütöttük kértük bemutattuk 9 ti ütöttétek kértétek bemutattátok 1011 o˝k ütötték kérték bemutatták 1 12111 3 The form for verbs with the subject én ‘I’ and direct object téged, titeket, 4 benneteket ‘you’ (familiar, sg. or pl.): 5 6 ütöttelek I struck you 7 kértelek I asked you 8 9 bemutattalak I introduced you 20111 1 2 4.3.4 Past tense: usage 3 4 4.3.4.1 5 6 The past tense is used, as in English, to express actions that occurred in 7 the past. 8 Tegnap bicikliztünk az Yesterday we were biking in the 9 erdo˝ben. woods. 30111 1 Múlt évben FranciaThey vacationed in France last 2 országban nyaraltak. year. 3 Befejeztem a munkát. I finished the work. 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

Past tense definite conjugations

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011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

4.3.4.2 Hungarian has only one past tense form. The use of time expressions and coverbs combine to express the meanings of the complex tense forms found in English. See 4.6.3 on aspect and coverbs.

Conjugation and usage

Elolvastam a könyvet. (past tense, with a coverb, only perfective aspect) I read the book. / I have read the book. / I had read the book. Olvastam a könyvet.

(past tense, without a coverb, imperfective or perfective aspect) I was reading the book. / I had been reading the book. / I read the book. 4.3.4.3 The auxiliary verb szokott ‘usually’ is found only in the past tense although its meaning may be either past or present.

Reggel kávézni szoktam, este inkább teázom. In the morning I usually drink coffee, in the evening I drink tea. Régen korcsolyázni szoktunk télen, de most már öregek vagyunk. In the old days we would go ice skating in the winter, but now we are too old. 4.3.4.4 The past tense may also be used (in compound sentences) to indicate the completion of an action in the future.

Ha megebédeltem, lefekszem egy órára. When I have finished my lunch, I will lie down for an hour. Mihelyt megírtam a levelet, rohanok a postára. As soon as I have written the letter I will rush to the post office.

4.3.5 Subjunctive/imperative: conjugation The subjunctive serves as the imperative as well and for the sake of brevity will be referred to here only as the subjunctive. Its marker is -j- and it

35

4 Verbs

36

is located between the verb stem and the personal endings. Depending 1111 on the verb stem, the -j- may be assimilated or otherwise altered. The 2 following are the regular alternations of the subjunctive marker -j-: 3 4 1 In verb stems ending in a sibilant (s, sz, z, dz), the subjunctive -j5 assimilates to the sibilant.8 6 7 keres + -j- → keress8 9 2 In verb stems ending in -st9 or -szt, the stem-final -t is lost and the 1011 subjunctive -j- assimilates to the sibilant. 1 ébreszt + -j- → ébressz12111 3 3 In verb stems ending in a long vowel + t or a consonant + t (except 4 as defined in the previous paragraph), the subjunctive -j- becomes -s-. 5 6 segít + -j- → segíts7 8 4 In verb stems ending in a short vowel + t, both the stem-final -t and 9 the subjunctive -j- become s. 20111 mutat + -j- → mutass1 2 The personal endings show some variation in the subjunctive. The second 3 person singular has both a long and short form; although the short form 4 is becoming more common in colloquial speech, the long form expresses 5 a somewhat milder command. 6 7 4.3.5.1 Subjunctive indefinite 8 9 The regular endings are used much more frequently with -ik verbs than 30111 the other optional endings found in the first and third persons singular; 1 the optional endings are more archaic and often found in older writings. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 Compare with the -j initial personal endings in the definite conjugation of the 40 present tense where the same assimilation occurs. 9 Only one verb ends in -st: fest ‘paint’. 41111

111

011

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Conjugation and usage

Subjunctive indefinite – personal endings Front vowel Singular

Back vowel unrounded rounded

1st person én

-ak

-ek

-am

-em

2nd person te

-(ál)

-(él)

3rd person o˝, maga, ön

-on

-ik verbs (optional)

-ik verbs (optional)

-en

-ön

-ék

Plural 1st person mi

-unk

-ünk

2nd person ti

-atok

-etek

3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök

-anak

-enek

The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

ask for

kér

[front unrounded vowel]

run

fut

[back vowel, ends in short vowel + t]

wake

ébreszt

[front unrounded vowel, ends in -szt]

play

játszik

[back vowel, -ik verb, stem ends in sibilant]

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4 Verbs

Subjunctive indefinite conjugations kér

fut

ébreszt

játszik

én kérjek

fussak

ébresszek

játsszak (~ játsszam)

te kérjél ~ kérj

fussál ~ fuss

ébresszél ~ ébressz

játsszál ~ játssz



fusson

ébresszen

játsszon (~ játsszék)

mi kérjünk

fussunk

ébresszünk

játsszunk

ti

fussatok

ébresszetek

játsszatok

o˝k kérjenek fussanak

ébresszenek

játsszanak

kérjen

kérjetek

4.3.5.2 Subjunctive definite In the definite conjugation, there is both a short and long form for the second person singular ending. The long form is given below in the table. The short form is arrived at by dropping the -j- of the subjunctive (or the consonant to which it had assimilated) and the vowel that follows it. For example,

kér + j + ed → kérjed (long form) ~ kérd (short form) nyit + j + ad → nyissad (long form) ~ nyisd (short form) ébreszt + j + ed → ébresszed (long form) ~ ébreszd (short form) The one regular exception to this pattern is found in verb stems ending in a long vowel + t or a consonant + t (other than st, szt). For verbs of this large class, only the vowel following the subjunctive marker -j- is lost, the subjunctive marker is kept (in this class, the -j- becomes an s). For example,

tart + j + ad → tartsad (long form) ~ tartsd (short form). Except for the short form in the second person singular, the personal endings of the subjunctive definite conjugation are identical to those for the past tense definite conjugation. 38

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Conjugation and usage

Subjunctive definite – personal endings Singular

Back vowel

Front vowel

1st person én

-am

-em

2nd person te

-ad

-ed

3rd person o˝, maga, ön

-a

-e

1st person mi

-uk

-ük

2nd person ti

-átok

-étek

3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök

-ák

-ék

1st person singular subject with 2nd person object

-alak

-elek

Plural

The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

wait

vár

[back vowel]

love

szeret

[front unrounded vowel, ends in short vowel + t]

hold

tart

[back vowel, ends in a consonant + t]

frighten

ijeszt

[front unrounded vowel, ends in -szt]

Subjunctive definite conjugations

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vár

szeret

tart

ijeszt

én várjam

szeressem

tartsam

ijesszem

te várjad ~ várd

szeressed ~ szeresd

tartsad ~ tartsd

ijesszed ~ ijeszd



szeresse

tartsa

ijessze

mi várjuk

szeressük

tartsuk

ijesszük

ti

szeressétek

tartsátok

ijesszétek

szeressék

tartsák

ijesszék

várja várjátok

o˝k várják

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4 Verbs

40

The form for verbs with the subject én ‘I’ and direct object téged, titeket, 1111 benneteket ‘you’ (familiar, sg. or pl.): 2 3 vár wait várjalak that I wait for you 4 szeret love szeresselek that I love you 5 6 tart hold tartsalak that I hold you 7 ijeszt frighten ijesszelek that I frighten you 8 9 1011 4.3.6 Subjunctive: usage 1 12111 The subjunctive conjugation is also used for the imperative, i.e., it is the 3 form used when giving commands. It is also used in several types of 4 subordinate clauses. 5 6 7 4.3.6.1 The subjunctive as imperative 8 The subjunctive is used to give commands – polite or otherwise. Any 9 coverb is removed to a post-verb position in commands. Imperative 20111 sentences always end in an exclamation mark. 1 2 Gyere ide! Come here! 3 Csukja be az ajtót, legyen szíves! Close the door, please! 4 5 Hívjál fel késo˝bb! Call me later! 6 Hagyjál békén! Leave me alone! 7 When giving commands in the negative, the forms ne, se replace nem, 8 9 sem, respectively. 30111 Ne menjen el! Don’t leave! 1 Ne edd meg azt a barackot! Don’t eat that apricot! 2 3 Senki se zavarjon! Don’t anyone bother me! 4 Stricter, more threatening commands can be formed by not removing the 5 coverb (or other adverbial) from the preverb position. 6 7 Megcsináld! Do it! 8 Lassan menjél! Walk slowly! 9 Strict negative commands are formed by placing the coverb before the 40 41111 negative particle.

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011

Meg ne edd azt a barackot!

Don’t (you dare) eat that apricot!

Ki ne nyissátok az ablakot!

Don’t (you dare) open the window!

Conjugation and usage

The subjunctive is used in the first person plural to mean ‘let’s’.

Együnk már!

Let’s eat already!

Menjünk moziba!

Let’s go to the movies!

Ne keljünk fel korán holnap!

Let’s not get up early tomorrow!

2111

The subjunctive combines with the frozen form hadd ‘let’ to express permission.

Hadd maradjon itthon, ha akar!

Let him stay home if he wants!

Hadd vegyem meg ezt az autót!

Let me buy this car!

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4.3.6.2 Subjunctive and questions The subjunctive is used in questions in the first person singular and plural, to express ‘should I/we . . .?’ or ‘shall I/we . . .?’ In this usage, the coverb is not removed from the verb (unless other focus elements are in the clause – see focus and word order chapter 16).

Megmondjam nekik az igazat? Should I tell them the truth? Táncoljunk?

Shall we dance?

The subjunctive is also used in indirect questions; the meaning is similar to the previous usage, expressing ‘should/shall one . . .?’

Megkérdezték, hogy felírják-e az új szavakat. They asked whether they should write down the new words. Megérdeklo˝dted, hogy elinduljál-e? Did you inquire as to whether you should leave? 4.3.6.3 Subjunctive and subordinate clauses The following are the most common uses of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Careful attention must be paid to the position of the coverb.

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4 Verbs

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In subordinate clauses containing requests or commands, the coverb is 1111 (usually) removed from the preverb to a post-verb position; in other subor- 2 dinate clauses the coverb remains in the preverb position. 3 4 5 4.3.6.3.1 Clauses containing indirect requests, commands 6 If the desire or will of the subject of the main clause is pressed upon the 7 subject of the subordinate clause, the subordinate clause will contain the 8 subjunctive verb. The verb in the main clause may be one of will: akar 9 ‘want’, kér ‘request’, ‘ask’, javasol ‘suggest’, ajánl ‘recommend’; or it may 1011 be any verb of communication through which a wish is conveyed: mond 1 ‘say’, ír ‘write’, üzen ‘send the message’, etc. 12111 3 Többen javasolták Lacinak, hogy udvaroljon a szomszéd 4 lánynak. 5 Several people had suggested to Laci that he date the girl next door. 6 Azt írták, hogy jöjjek haza. 7 They wrote me that I should come home. 8 9 Azt kérte a feleségéto˝l, hogy szokjon le a dohányzásról. 20111 He asked his wife to give up smoking. 1 If the main clause contains a prohibitive verb or expression, the subjunctive 2 is used in the subordinate clause. Unless there are other focussed elements, 3 a coverb in the subordinate clause remains in the preverb position. 4 5 Megtiltották, hogy elmenjen az országból. 6 They forbid him from leaving the country. 7 Nem engedték, hogy felhívjon. 8 They did not allow him to call me. 9 30111 1 4.3.6.3.2 Clauses of purpose 2 The subjunctive is used to express ‘in order to’ or ‘so that’; this is often 3 combined with a main clause introduced by azért ‘for that reason’. 4 5 (Azért) megyek Magyarországra, hogy meglátogathassam 6 a rokonaimat. 7 I am going to Hungary so that I can visit my relatives. 8 Sokkal többet kell gyakorolnom, hogy igazán jól tudjak 9 zongorázni. 40 I have to practice much more in order to play the piano really well. 41111

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Elviszi a pulóvert, hogy ne fázzon a kiránduláson. She is taking the sweater so she won’t be cold on the trip.

Conjugation and usage

If the subjunctive clause of purpose is negated, it may begin with hogy . . . ne or nehogy; with nehogy the coverb is not removed from the preverb position.

Vigyázz, nehogy elessél! Watch out that you don’t fall! Vigyázz, hogy ne essél el! Watch out that you don’t fall! Another kind of clause of purpose – more subtle than the previous type – is one in which the action in the subordinate clause is a desired or expected result of the main clause:

Arra törekszik, hogy új állást kapjon. He’s trying to get a new job. Figyelmeztetett arra, hogy ne felejtsem el. He reminded me so I wouldn’t forget. Arra készültünk, hogy két napon belül elutazhassunk. We were getting ready so that we could leave within two days. Felhasználtam az alkalmat arra, hogy elszökjek. I used the opportunity to get away. Sohasem lesz annyi tehetségem ahhoz, hogy három nyelvet beszéljek. I will never be talented enough to speak three languages. 4.3.6.3.3 Subordinate clauses following impersonal main clauses are also in the subjunctive.

Fontos, hogy elolvassák a cikket. It is important that they read the article. Szükséges, hogy elo˝re telefonáljak? Is it necessary that I call in advance? Illik, hogy pontos legyél. It is appropriate that you be punctual. 43

4 Verbs

4.3.6.3.4 The subjunctive is used in subordinate clauses where the main clause expresses a lack, absence or inability (to fulfill a goal).

Nincs kivel kártyázzak. I have nobody to play cards with. Nem volt leheto˝ségük, hogy bemutatkozzanak az új igazgatónak. They had no opportunity to introduce themselves to the new director.

4.3.7 The conditional (non-past): conjugation The conditional marker is

-na/-ne for the third person singular indefinite form; -né for the first person singular indefinite (i.e., there is no back vowel variant); -ná/-né for all other persons. The conditional is located between the verb stem and the personal endings. In verb stems ending in a long vowel + t or two consonants,10 the linking vowel a/e is required before the conditional marker.

olvas + né + k → olvasnék

(no linking vowel)

BUT

tanít + ané + k → tanítanék (linking vowel a required) ért + ené + k → értenék

(linking vowel e required)11

4.3.7.1 Conditional indefinite In contrast to all the other conjugations, in this paradigm there is no vowel harmony in the regular first person singular ending. The endings

10

44

Exceptions include áll ‘stand’, száll ‘fly’, varr ‘sew’, and forr ‘boil’. Recall that in the past tense, these verbs also conjugated as those ending in only one consonant. 11 This use of a linking vowel is identical to that found in forming the infinitive of the same verb types.

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for -ik verbs are rarely used in colloquial Hungarian. Because of the variations found in vowel length and vowel harmony, the following table combines the conditional and personal markers; thus these endings attach directly to the verb stem.

Conditional indefinite – personal endings Back vowel

011

Singular

2111

1st person én

0111

0111

0 1111

Conjugation and usage

Front vowel -nék

-ik verbs (optional)

-nám

-ném

2nd person te

-nál

-nél

3rd person o˝, maga, ön

-na

-ne

-ik verbs (optional)

-nék

Plural 1st person mi

-nánk

-nénk

2nd person ti

-nátok

-nétek

3rd person o˝k, maguk, önök

-nának

-nének

The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

translate

fordít

[back vowel, ends in long vowel + t]

help

segít

[front vowel, ends in long vowel + t]

dare

mer

[front vowel]

swim

úszik

[back vowel, -ik verb]

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4 Verbs

Conditional indefinite conjugations fordít

segít

mer

úszik

én fordítanék

segítenék

mernék

úsznék (~ úsznám)

te fordítanál

segítenél

mernél

úsznál



segítene

merne

úszna (~ úsznék)

segítenénk

mernénk

úsznánk

fordítana

mi fordítanánk ti

fordítanátok segítenétek mernétek úsznátok

o˝k fordítanának segítenének mernének úsznának

4.3.7.2 Conditional definite The personal endings for the definite conjugation exhibit no variation; the first and second person plural endings in the definite conjugation are identical to those in the indefinite conjugation. The following table combines the conditional marker with the personal endings; thus the endings given here attach directly to the verb stem.

Conditional definite – personal endings

Singular

Back vowel

Front vowel

1st person én

-nám

-ném

2nd person te

-nád

-néd

3rd person o˝, maga, ön

-ná

-né

1st person mi

-nánk

-nénk

2nd person ti

-nátok

-nétek

3rd person o˝k

-nák

-nék

1st person singular subject with 2nd person object

-nálak

-nélek

Plural

46

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011

The following verbs trigger different endings; the relevant triggers are indicated in brackets; their conjugations follow.

love

szeret

[front vowel]

hold

tart

[back vowel, ends in two consonants]

give

ad

[back vowel]

Conditional definite conjugations szeret

tart

ad

én szeretném

tartanám

adnám

te

szeretnéd

tartanád

adnád



szeretné

tartaná

adná

mi szeretnénk

tartanánk

adnánk

ti

tartanátok

adnátok

tartanák

adnák

2111

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Conjugation and usage

szeretnétek

o˝k szeretnék

The form for verbs with the subject én ‘I’ and direct object téged, titeket, benneteket ‘you’ familiar, sg. or pl.:

szeretnélek

I would love you.

tartanálak

I would hold you.

4.3.8 The past conditional The past conditional is formed simply by conjugating the substantive verb in the past tense and following it with the fixed form volna. An example paradigm is given below where the verb elmegy ‘leave’ is conjugated in the past tense and volna follows it:

elmentem volna

I would have left

elmentél volna

you (sg.) would have left

elment volna

he/she would have left

elmentünk volna

we would have left

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4 Verbs

elmentetek volna

you (pl.) would have left

elmentek volna

they would have left

When negating the past conditional construction, the negative particle is placed immediately before the conjugated verb; the coverb is removed to a position immediately after volna.

Nem mentem volna el. I would not have gone. Nem hívott volna fel.

She would not have called us.

Any other stressed or focussed element will change the word order in the same way as negation. (See section 16.4 on word order and focus.)

Kit látogattál volna meg, ha lett volna ido˝d? Whom would you have visited, if you’d had the time? Because the formation of the past conditional is based on the past tense forms, full paradigms need not be listed here.

4.3.9 Conditional: usage 4.3.9.1 The conditional is used to express hypothetical conditions in the present, future or past. When used to express ‘if . . . then . . .’ conditions, both clauses are conjugated in the conditional mood.

Ha több ido˝m lenne, akkor többet olvasnék. If I had more time, then I would read more. Nagyon örülne, ha meglátogatnád. She would be very happy if you would visit her. Azonnal elindulna, ha megtalálná a kulcsát. He would leave right now if he could find his keys. 4.3.9.2 The conditional is used to make a polite request.

Megkérnélek egy szívességre. I would like to ask you a favor. 48

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Kölcsön adnál egy ezrest? Would you loan me a thousand forints?

Conjugation and usage

Vennél nekem egy fagyit? Would you buy me an ice cream? Lenne egy kérdésem. I have a question. Bekapcsolhatnám a tévét? Might I turn on the television? 4.3.9.3 The conditional is used to express wishes and desires; it is always used after bárcsak ‘if only’.

Bárcsak esne a hó! If only it would snow! Szeretném, ha gyakrabban találkozhatnánk. I wish we could meet more often. Bár megnézhettem volna én is azt a filmet. If only I could have seen that film, too. 4.3.9.4 The conditional is used in clauses introduced by the conjunctions anélkül ‘without’, ahelyett ‘instead of’, and mintha ‘as if’.

Anélkül, hogy elbúcsúzott volna to˝lünk, hirtelen elhagyta az országot. Without saying goodbye, he suddenly left the country. Ahelyett, hogy cukrot tenne a teába, egy kis rumot tett bele. Instead of putting sugar in the tea, she put some rum in. Úgy nézel ki, mintha megijesztettek volna! You look as though you’ve been frightened!

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4 Verbs

4.3.10 The future tense 4.3.10.1 Although there is no inflectional future tense, future actions can be expressed in a number of ways. The present tense may combine with time expressions and/or coverbs to indicate the future.

Holnap felhívlak.

I’ll call you tomorrow.

Jövo˝ télen veszek egy új autót. Next winter I will buy a new car. 4.3.10.2 The auxiliary verb fog is used to express the future tense – primarily with verbs with no coverbs. Word order patterns with fog are like those of other auxiliary verbs (see section 16.5 on word order). When used as a future auxiliary, fog12 conjugates in the present tense in both definite and indefinite conjugations.

pihenni + fog will rest’ indefinite

látni + fog ‘will see’ definite

én pihenni fogok

I

will látni fogom rest

I

will see him/her/ etc.,

te pihenni fogsz

you

''

látni fogod

you

''



he/she ''

látni fogja

he/she ''

pihenni fog

mi pihenni fogunk we

''

látni fogjuk

we

''

ti pihenni fogtok you

''

látni fogjátok you

''

o˝k pihenni fognak they

''

látni fogják

''

they

Mikor lesz ido˝m, pihenni fogok. When I have time, I am going to rest. Mikor fogsz találkozni vele? When are you going to meet with her?

50

12 The verb fog has another meaning ‘catch’; in this meaning it conjugates in all moods and tenses.

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The verb fog also combines with verbs that do have coverbs; in this case, the expression is somewhat more emphatic.

Meg fogom várni.

I will wait for him.

Ne félj, meg fogja javítani az autót!

Don’t worry, he will fix the car.

4.3.10.3 The verb lesz ‘will be’, ‘become’ is the future of the verb van ‘be’; it is not an auxiliary verb.

Ha felnövök, orvos leszek. I will be a doctor when I grow up. Késo˝bb éhes leszel, ha nem reggelizel. You’ll be hungry later if you don’t have breakfast. Lesz can replace van in any construction to express the future.

‘have’ construction: Sohasem lesz elég pénze. He will never have enough money.

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Non-finite forms

the verb van with adverbial participles: Egy hét múlva be lesz fejezve a munka. The work will be finished in a week.

4.4

Non-finite forms

4.4.1 Past, present, and future participles: formation 4.4.1.1 The present participle is -ó or -ő. It is attached directly to the verb stem in regular verbs. The last vowel of fleeting-vowel verbs always elides and v-stem verbs always use the v-stem before the present participle.

ír

write

+ ó → író

writer; writing

játszik

play

+ ó → játszó

player; playing

énekel

sing

+ o˝ → éneklo˝

singer; singing

51

szo˝

4 Verbs

weave + o˝ → szövo˝

weaver; weaving

4.4.1.2 The past participle is usually the same as the third person singular indefinite form of the past tense.

ad

give

adott

given

ismer

know

ismert

known

kifest

paint

kifestett

painted

There are some exceptions in monosyllabic verbs belonging to Class B.13 Whereas the past tense always takes the short form -t, the past participle may take the long form o/e/ö + tt:

áll

stand

állt ~ állott

hal

die

halt ~ halott

ír

write

írt ~ írott

tör

break

tört ~ törött

4.4..1.3 The future participle is -andó/-endő. It is attached directly to the verb stem in regular verbs.

kel

sell well + endo˝ → kelendo˝

marad remain

(easily) marketable

+ andó → maradandó enduring

4.4.2 Present, past, future participles: usage The present, past, and future participles are similar in usage, though the future participle is by far a rarer form in Hungarian.

4.4.2.1 These participles may always be used as adjectives:

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13

For description of Class B see 4.3.3. Past tense.

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PRESENT

alszik

sleep

alvó kutya

sleeping dog

dolgozik

work

dolgozó emberek

working people

emelkedik rise

emelkedo˝ árak

rising prices

mosolyog smile

mosolygó gyerek

smiling child

tanul

tanuló fiú

studying boy

study

Non-finite forms

PAST

ismer

know jól ismert író

well known writer

kifest

paint

kifestett szoba

painted room

öltözik

dress

selyembe öltözött no˝ woman dressed in silk

FUTURE

lesz

will be leendo˝ anya

mother-to-be

tesz

do

work to do

teendo˝ munka

4.4.2.2 Many present and some past and future participles function as nouns: PRESENT

fest

paint

festo˝

painter

ír

write

író

writer

szerkeszt

edit

szerkeszto˝

editor

tanul

study

tanuló

student

befo˝

become thick by boiling

befo˝tt

fruit preserves

felno˝

grow up

felno˝tt

grown-up

vádol

accuse

vádlott

defendant

jön

come

jövendo˝

future

tesz

do

teendo˝

task, agenda

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FUTURE

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4.4.2.3 In prose the participles are found in adjectival constructions and compare (semantically – not stylistically) with relative clauses in colloquial speech. It may help to think of them as relative clauses (modifying a previously mentioned noun) which have been condensed into adjectival constructions. Often the participial–adjectival constructions translate best into English as relative clauses, though English may also use a similar participial construction.

Az a fiú, aki integet, az öcsém. (relative clause) That boy who is waving is my little brother. Az az integető fiú az öcsém. (participle as adjective) (lit.) That waving boy is my little brother. Zsuzsa egy olyan házba akar beköltözni, ami a múlt században épült. (relat. clause) Zsuzsa wants to move into a house which was built in the last century. Zsuzsa egy múlt században épült házba akar beköltözni. (participle as adjective) Zsuzsa wants to move into a house built in the last century. Participial-adjectival constructions can be rather lengthy in prose. When translating from Hungarian, it is best to identify the noun being modified and continue to translate from right to left.

4.4.3 Adverbial participle The adverbial participle is -va/-ve. It is attached directly to the stem.

mosolyog smile + va → mosolyogva énekel

sing

+ ve → énekelve

(while) smiling (while) singing

The adverbial participle modifies a conjugated verb; it expresses a continuing action occurring at the time of another action.

Mosolyogva lépett be a szobába. She entered the room smiling. 54

Tegyél le! – mondta nevetve a kisfiú. ‘Put me down!’ said the boy laughing.

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See section 17.9 for colloquial usage of the adverbial participle with van ‘be’.

4.4.4 Infinitive The infinitive ending is -ni and it is attached directly to verb stems. In verb stems ending in two consonants14 or long vowel + t, the linking vowel a/e is required before suffixing.15

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ért + eni → érteni

to understand

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fo˝z + ni → fo˝zni

to cook

hall + ani → hallani

to hear

olvas + ni → olvasni

to read

tanít + ani → tanítani

to teach

Undeclined infinitives are found as the complement of other verbs:

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Szeretek olvasni.

I like to read.

Aludni akarok.

I want to sleep.

If the direct object of the infinitive is definite, the definite conjugation is used on the conjugated verb unless the verb is impersonal (e.g., kell ‘is necessary’, lehet ‘is possible’) or inherently intransitive (e.g., megy ‘go’, igyekszik ‘strive’).

Szeretném befejezni ezt a dolgozatot. I would like to finish this paper. Nem tudom kinyitni az üveget. I can’t open the bottle.

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Non-finite forms

Ki akarja elkészíteni a vacsorát ma este? Who wants to make dinner tonight? Note the following emphatic, topical use of the infinitive; it implies, and is usually followed by, a de ‘but’ clause.

Olvasni olvastam a könyvet, de nem volt jó. (Well,) I read the book, but it wasn’t good. 14

Exceptions include áll ‘stand’, száll ‘fly’, varr ‘sew’, and forr ‘boil’. Compare with the conditional where the linking vowel is required under identical conditions. 15

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4 Verbs

Ebédelni ebédeltem, de még éhes vagyok. (Yes,) I did eat lunch, but I’m still hungry.

4.4.5 Declined infinitives Declined infinitives are used in impersonal constructions. They are formed by attaching personal (possessive) endings to infinitives. The infinitive is first reduced to (a/e)n, i.e., without the final i. The following personal endings are then attached. (See section 17.7 on the use of impersonal constructions.)

Declined infinitives – Personal endings Front vowel Singular

Back vowel unrounded rounded

1st person

-om

-em

-öm

2nd person

-od

-ed

-öm

3rd person

-ia

-ie

Plural

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1st person

-unk

2nd person

-otok

3rd person

-iuk

-ünk -etek

-ötök -iük

tanít teach

ad give

kezd begin

megy go

ül sit

tanítani

adni

kezdeni

menni

ülni

tanítanom

adnom

kezdenem

mennem

ülnöm

tanítanod

adnod

kezdened

menned

ülnöd

tanítania

adnia

kezdenie

mennie

ülnie

tanítanunk

adnunk

kezdenünk

mennünk

ülnünk

tanítanotok

adnotok

kezdenetek

mennetek

ülnötök

tanítaniuk

adniuk

kezdeniük

menniük

ülniük

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4.5

Productive derivational endings

Hungarian has three derivational endings which can be attached to most verbs before the tense and mood endings: the potential, causative, and frequentative. For more derivational endings occurring less productively, see chapter 12 on word formation.

Productive derivational endings

4.5.1 The potential: formation The potential is added to verb stems to add the meaning ‘may’, ‘can’, or ‘is possible’ to the verb. The potential ending is -hat/-het and may be added to all verbs. In regular verbs it attaches directly to the verb stem, thereby creating a new verb stem subject to all tenses, moods and conjugations.16

ad

give

adhat

may give

játszik

play

játszhat

may play

kér

ask for

kérhet

may ask for

kezd

begin

kezdhet

may begin

fo˝z

cook

fo˝zhet

may cook

When the potential is attached it redefines the verb type: once in place, the verbs then conjugate as any other verb type ending in a short vowel + t. So, for example, though játszik ‘play’ is considered Class A in the past tense because its stem ends in two consonants, játszhat ‘may play’ is Class C. The change in stem has repercussions throughout the verbal paradigm; all conjugational patterns apply to the new stem. Sample verb conjugations with the potential -hat/-het:

16 The potential form of van ‘be’ is formed from the lesz ‘will be’ root. See appendix 1 for the formation of the potential with irregular verbs.

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Present

Past

Indefinite

Definite

Indefinite

Definite

játszhat, may play

adhat, may give

kezdhet, may begin

kérhet, may ask for

én

játszhatok

adhatom

kezdhettem

kérhettem

te

játszhatsz

adhatod

kezdhettél

kérhetted



játszhat

adhatja

kezdhetett

kérhette

mi

játszhatunk

adhatjuk

kezdhettünk

kérhettük

ti

játszhattok

adhatjátok

kezdhettetek

kérhettétek

o˝k

játszhatnak

adhatják

kezdhettek

kérhették

én––téged/ benneteket

adhatlak

Subjunctive

kérhettelek

Conditional

Indefinite

Definite

Indefinite

Definite

fo˝zhet, may cook

kereshet, may look for

tanulhat, may study

küldhet, may send

én

fo˝zhessek

kereshessem

tanulhatnék

küldhetném

te

fo˝zhess(él)

kereshes(se)d

tanulhatnál

küldhetnéd



fo˝zhessen

kereshesse

tanulhatna

küldhetné

mi

fo˝zhessünk

kereshessük

tanulhatnánk

küldhetnénk

ti

fo˝zhessetek

kereshessétek

tanulhatnátok

küldhetnétek

o˝k

fo˝zhessenek

kereshessék

tanulhatnának küldhetnék

én––téged/ benneteket

kereshesselek

küldhetnélek

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4.5.2 Use of the potential The most common use of the potential is to denote ‘may’, ‘is allowed’.

Bejöhetsz.

You may come in.

Mehetünk?

May we go?

Jani itt maradhat, ameddig csak akar.

Jani can stay here as long as he wants.

Productive derivational endings

It can also have the meaning ‘might, could’ in expressions of doubt or uncertainty.

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Jó film lehet. It might be a good movie. Mennyibe kerülhet egy belvárosi lakás? How much might a downtown apartment cost? Hol szerezhettem ezt a tollat? Where could I have gotten this pen? It is often combined with the conditional to make a request very polite.

Megnézhetném azt a könyvet? Could I have a look at that book? Mondhatnék valamit? Might I say something? Combined with the past conditional, the potential has the meaning ‘could have + past participle’

Megvehetted volna azt az inget. You could have bought that shirt. Szorgalmasabban dolgozhattál volna a tervezeten. You could have worked harder on the draft. Meghívhattam volna, csak nem akartam. I could have invited him, I just didn’t want to. The potential combines with the present participle -ó/-ő and the suffix -atlan/-etlen ‘without’ to form adjectives:

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4 Verbs

ért understand

értheto˝ understandable

érthetetlen incomprehensible

eszik eat

eheto˝ edible

ehetetlen inedible

hisz believe

hiheto˝ believable

hihetetlen unbelievable

iszik drink

iható drinkable

ihatatlan undrinkable

lát see

látható visible

láthatatlan invisible

olvas read

olvasható legible, readable

olvashatatlan illegible, unreadable

4.5.3 The causative: formation The causative is added to verb stems to denote the subject has something done, i.e., the action is not done by the subject directly. The causative is -at/-et or -tat/-tet and is highly productive, though (for semantic reasons) it cannot be used on all verbs. The -tat/-tet ending is added to verbs ending in a vowel + t and most polysyllabic verbs:

keres

look for

kerestet

have someone look for

olvas

read

olvastat

have someone read

rendel

order

rendeltet

have someone order

tisztít

clean

tisztíttat

have someone clean

The -at/-et ending is added to verbs ending in a consonant + t and most monosyllabic verbs:

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ért

understand

értet

have someone understand

kér

ask for

kéret

have someone ask for

mos

wash

mosat

have someone wash

vár

wait

várat

have someone wait

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The following monosyllabic verb stems take the -tat/-tet ending.

ázik

become soaked áztat

soak something

bukik

fail

buktat

fail someone

él

live

éltet

keep someone alive

jár

go

jártat

to have someone/something walk or go

kel

rise

keltet

hatch

kopik

wear away

koptat

wear something down

lép

step

léptet

keep (a horse) at a slow pace

szokik get used to

szoktat accustom someone to

szopik suck

szoptat breastfeed

szu˝nik cease, stop

szüntet stop, interrupt

ül

ültet

plant, have someone sit

As with the potential ending, verbs re-formed in the causative form new stem types. Once attached, the verbs conjugate as any regular verb ending in a short vowel + t. Sample verb conjugations with the causative -at/-et, -tat/-tet.

Present

Past

Indefinite

Definite

Indefinite

rendeltet, have sy order

tisztíttat, have sy clean

mosat, kerestet, have sy wash have sy look for

én rendeltetek

tisztíttatom

mosattam

kerestettem

te rendeltetsz

tisztíttatod

mosattál

kerestetted



tisztíttatja

mosatott

kerestette

mosattunk

kerestettük

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sit

Productive derivational endings

rendeltet

mi rendeltetünk tisztíttatjuk ti

Definite

rendeltettek tisztíttatjátok mosattatok kerestettétek

o˝k rendeltetnek tisztíttatják

mosattak

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4 Verbs

Subjunctive

Conditional

Indefinite

Definite

Indefinite

Definite

várat, have sy wait

hívat, have sy call

küldet, have sy send

olvastat, have sy read

én várassak

hívassam

küldetnék

olvastatnám

te várass(ál)

hívas(sa)d

küldetnél

olvastatnád



hívassa

küldetne

olvastatná

mi várassunk

hívassuk

küldetnénk

olvastatnánk

ti

hívassátok

küldetnétek

olvastatnátok

hívassák

küldetnének olvastatnák

várasson várassatok

o˝k várassanak

A verb formed with the causative may add the potential to its stem.

olvas + tat + hat → olvastathat may have someone read rendel + tet + het → rendeltethet may have someone order

4.5.4 Use of the causative The causative is used to denote that it is not the subject, rather someone else who performs the action of the verb. The one who performs the action may or may not be included in the sentence; when the performer is included, it is usually marked with the instrumental case -val/-vel.

Kivasaltattam az ingemet a férjemmel. I had my husband iron my shirt. A no˝vérem elszívatta velem az elso˝ cigarettát. My older sister got me to smoke my first cigarette. Mátyással hívatott egy taxit. She had Mátyas call a taxi. Egy új kabátot varratott az anyjával. She had her mother sew her a new coat. 62

If there is no other direct object in the sentence, the performer of the activity is in the accusative case.

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A tanár vizsgáztatta a diákokat. The teacher had the students take an exam. Minden este a szomszédom sétáltatja a kutyáját. My neighbor walks her dog every night.

Productive derivational endings

Leültettem a gyerekeket. I had the children sit down. The causative ending is sometimes used to make an intransitive verb transitive.

Intransitive

Transitive

bukik fail

buktat fail someone

fürdik take a bath

fürdet give someone a bath

szu˝nik cease, stop

szüntet stop, interrupt

változik change

változtat change

Nagyon megváltozott a férje. Her husband has really changed. Tilos megváltoztatni az eredményeket. It is not allowed to change the results.

Megszu˝nt a szegénység. Poverty has ended. Megszüntették a rendeletet. They abolished the decree.

4.5.5 The frequentative: formation Frequentatives are added to verb stems to denote that the action is done repetitively, for a lengthy period of time, or without specific aim or purpose. The most common frequentative ending is -gat/-get (for other, less productive frequentative suffixes, see chapter 12 on word formation). It is attached directly to the verb stem; most monosyllabic stems, however, require a linking vowel (o/e/ö) before the frequentative.

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néz

watch

nézeget

look about

1111 2 olvas read olvasgat read a bit 3 rendez organize rendezget tidy up a bit 4 üt strike ütöget keep on striking 5 6 Verbs re-formed in the frequentative form new stem types. Once attached, 7 the verbs conjugate as any verb ending in a short vowel + t. 8 Sample verb conjugations with the frequentative -gat/-get. 9 1011 1 Present Past 12111 3 Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite 4 5 nézeget, ütöget, mosogat, keverget, 6 look about keep striking wash dishes keep stirring 7 én nézegetek ütögetem mosogattam kevergettem 8 9 te nézegetsz ütögeted mosogattál kevergetted 20111 o˝ nézeget ütögeti mosogatott kevergette 1 mi nézegetünk ütögetjük mosogattunk kevergettük 2 ti nézegettek ütögetitek mosogattatok kevergettétek 3 4 o˝k nézegetnek ütögetik mosogattak kevergették 5 6 7 Subjunctive Conditional 8 9 Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite 30111 1 sétálgat, hívogat, call rendezget, olvasgat, 2 stroll about repeatedly tidy up read a bit 3 én sétálgassak hívogassam rendezgetnék olvasgatnám 4 5 te sétálgass(ál) hívogas(sa)d rendezgetnél olvasgatnád 6 o˝ sétálgasson hívogassa rendezgetne olvasgatná 7 mi sétálgassunk hívogassuk rendezgetnénk olvasgatnánk 8 ti sétálgassatok hívogassátok rendezgetnétek olvasgatnátok 9 40 o˝k sétálgassanak hívogassák rendezgetnének olvasgatnák 41111

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The frequentative may change the meaning of the verb more radically:

beszél

speak

beszélget

chat

hall

hear

hallgat

listen, be quiet

kér

ask for

kéreget

beg

lát

see

látogat

visit

mos

wash

mosogat

do the dishes

Coverbs

The frequentative may add the potential to its stem.

olvas

read

olvasgathat

may read a bit

néz

look at

nézegethet

may look about

4.6

Coverbs

Coverbs are prefixes that can be attached to (and subsequently separated from) verbs. Coverbs modify verbs in a variety of ways, including indicating the direction of motion, the manner of an action, and the beginning or completion of an action (aspect). By no means is this the extent of their semantic reach; sometimes coverbs change the meaning of the verb entirely. Verbs attach only one coverb at a time. The position of coverbs in sentence word order is often affected when introducing focus, quasi-auxiliary verbs and imperatives. See chapter 16 for a complete discussion of word order and coverbs. In this section we will first examine the general (directional, manner, and aspectual) uses of coverbs and then focus on their more individual uses.

4.6.1 Direction The most common directional coverbs include be ‘in’, ki ‘out’, fel ‘up’, le ‘down’, el ‘away’, oda ‘toward there’, ide ‘toward here’, vissza ‘back’. Not surprisingly, verbs of motion are particularly inclined to take coverbs of direction, e.g., megy ‘go’ and jön ‘come’:

bemegy go in

bejön come in

kimegy go out

kijön come out

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felmegy go up

feljön come up

1111 2 lemegy go down lejön come down 3 elmegy go away, leave eljön come away 4 5 odamegy go there idejön come here 6 visszamegy go back visszajön come back 7 8 Beteszi a tollat a táskába. 9 He puts the pen into the bag. 1011 1 Visszajöttünk a szabadságról. 12111 We have returned from vacation. 3 Kiszedtem a pénzt a tárcából. 4 I took the money out of the wallet. 5 6 A pincér elviszi a tányérokat. 7 The waiter takes away the plates. 8 Felmennek a hegyre. 9 They are going up the mountain. 20111 1 Laci lement a boltba kenyérért. 2 Laci went (down) to the store for bread. 3 Odament a kerítéshez. 4 He went over toward the fence. 5 6 Kitette a széket a kertbe. 7 She put the chair out into the garden. 8 Felszállt a villamosra. 9 She got on the tram. 30111 1 Elvették az útlevelemet to˝lem. 2 They took my passport away from me. 3 Directional coverbs may also be used with verbs with no motion, thereby 4 adding motion to them: 5 6 áll stand feláll stand up odaáll stand over there 7 ül sit leül sit down odaül sit over there 8 9 ad give visszaad give back bead turn in, deliver 40 41111

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Géza a széken ül.

Géza is sitting on the chair.

Leült a székre.

He sat down on(to) the chair.

Felállt a székro˝l.

He stood up from the chair.

Coverbs

4.6.2 Manner Coverbs such as végig ‘all the way’, agyon ‘all the way’, ‘to death’, túl ‘beyond’, ‘too (excessive)’, újra ‘anew’ modify the verb with respect to how, or to what extent the action is executed.

ver

beat

agyonver

beat to death

él

live

túlél

survive

megy

go

végigmegy

go all the way

választ

elect

újraválaszt

re-elect

Végigmentek a piacon. They walked all the way through the market. A szülei túlélték a háborút. Her parents survived the war. Újraválasztották a népszeru˝ elnököt. The popular president was re-elected.

4.6.3 Aspect In English the past, present and future tenses have several forms, e.g., I was going, I went, I have gone are all past tense forms of the verb ‘to go’. Because Hungarian has only one form for each tense, it relies on the use of coverbs and word order to indicate progressive or completed actions. The aspect of the verb is termed imperfective when the action is progressive or ongoing; the perfective aspect refers to actions that were or will be completed. Although all coverbs can have a perfectivizing function, the two most common perfectivizing coverbs are meg and el. In the past tense, the use of a coverb (perfective aspect) indicates that the action is complete; verbs without coverbs indicate that an action was

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in progress. In the present tense, the verbs with no coverbs indicate actions in progress with no comment as to completion. Present tense verbs with coverbs, however, tend to be translated into the future tense in English17 (because for most verbs the completion of the action, in fact, comes at a time after the statement is made).

Írtam egy levelet.

I was writing a letter.

(imperfective)

Megírtam a levelet.

I wrote the letter.

(perfective)

Olvassa a könyvet.

She is reading the book.

(imperfective)

Elolvassa a könyvet.

She will read the book.

(perfective)

In the subjunctive/imperative, there is no tense; the use of coverbs still indicates perfective aspect.

Egyél valamit!

Eat something!

Edd meg a szendvicset!

Eat (up) the sandwich!

Although present tense verbs prefixed with coverbs often indicate future tense, verbs and coverbs may also combine with the future auxiliary fog; the aspect is perfective and the meaning is often simply one of emphasis, though it is not necessarily so.

Megtanulja a verset.

She will learn the poem.

Meg fogja tanulni a verset. She will learn the poem. Conversely, present tense verbs without coverbs combine with the future auxiliary fog to indicate imperfective future.

Sírok.

I am crying.

Sírni fogok.

I am going to cry.

Pihen.

She is resting.

Pihenni fog, mikor lesz ideje. She will rest when she has time. Imperfective aspect may co-occur with coverbs. Here word order is crucial: the coverb must be removed to a post-verb position.

Átmentem az utcán. I walked across the street. 17

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(perfective)

This does not mean, however, that the converse is true, i.e., you may not simply add a coverb to a verb to indicate future tense.

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Mentem át az utcán, mikor eszembe jutott, hogy otthon várnak. (imperfective) I was walking across the street when I remembered that I was expected at home.

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Coverbs may also indicate the beginning of an action:

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alszik

sleep

elalszik

fall asleep

haragszik

be angry

megharagszik

get angry

lát

see

meglát

espy, catch sight of

sír

cry

elsírja magát

burst into tears

szeret

like, love

megszeret

take a fondness or liking to

Amióta itt élek, megszerettem ezt a várost. I have come to love this city since I’ve been living here. Nagyon nehéz neki elaludni. It is very hard for him to fall asleep.

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Nagyon haragszik rám. Megharagudott, mikor késo˝n jöttem haza. She is very angry with me. She got angry when I came home late. Some verbs occur only with coverbs.

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Coverbs

megbetegszik

fall ill

megbénul

become paralyzed

megrészegszik

become drunk

megsüketül

go deaf

4.6.4 Common uses of some common coverbs Coverbs have an infinite number of uses – only the most common are listed here. Simply because a coverb has one meaning with one verb does not mean that any verb can attach to the same coverb and result in the same meaning. Each verb has its own inventory of possible coverbs, and it is sometimes surprising to find what coverbs may occur with certain verbs.18 18

One example: akaszt ‘hang (transitive)’:

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4 Verbs

4.6.4.1 Meg Use meg to indicate the completion of an action in the past, present or future.

Megírta a könyvet.

She wrote the book.

Megmosom a kezemet.

I (will) wash my hands.

Megvárlak.

I (will) wait for you (until you come).

Az orvos megvizsgálja a betegeket.

The doctor examines/will examine the patients.

Meg may indicate the beginning of an action:

Úgy megörültem neked, amikor megláttalak! I was so delighted when I caught sight of you! Apám két évvel ezelo˝tt megbetegedett. My father fell ill two years ago. Megfázol, ha nem vigyázol jobban magadra. You will catch cold if you don’t take better care of yourself. Use meg to indicate the single instance of an action.

Megcsillant a gyémánt a napfényben. The diamond flashed in the sunlight. Megzörrentek a levelek.

The leaves rustled.

Húzd meg azt a kart!

Give that lever a pull!

Meg will often indicate the expected or successful occurrence of an action.

Minden nap megjön a kenyér a sarki boltba. Every day the bread comes to the corner store. (It is expected to come.) Megtalálta a pénztárcáját. He found his wallet. (The use of meg presumes he had been looking for it.)

felakaszt ‘hang up’ Felakasztja a kabátját a fogasra. He hangs his coat on the rack.

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leakaszt ‘unhang’ Leakasztja a kabátját a fogasról. He takes his coat off the rack. (lit., he hangs it down.)

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Meg kell keresnem a szemüvegemet. I have to look for (and find) my glasses. (The use of meg presumes finding the glasses.)

Coverbs

Végre megjött a tavasz! Spring has finally arrived! Use meg with verbs of communication, to (briefly) utter a statement:

Megmondtam neki a véleményemet. I gave him my opinion. Megüzente, hogy jöjjek haza. She sent word for me to come home. Megkérdeztem to˝le, hogy mikor kell a pénz. I asked her when she needed the money. 4.6.4.2 El The coverb el has the directional meaning away.

Eltette a meleg ruhát jövo˝ télig. He put the warm clothes away until next winter. Elvették a jegyeket to˝lünk. They took (away) our tickets. Elrúgta a labdát. He kicked the ball away. Elkérte to˝lem a tollamat. He asked me for my pen Use el as a perfectivizing coverb to indicate the completion of an action.

Elolvasta a kötelezo˝ könyveket. He read the required books. Elvégezte a munkát. He finished the work. El may indicate the beginning of an action.

Elindult a vonat.

The train departed.

Elaludt a fiam a vonaton.

My son fell asleep on the train. 71

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Elgondolkozott azon, amit mondtam. He began to think over what I said.

1111 2 3 Elhallgattak a madarak. 4 The birds fell silent. 5 El may combine with a verb to indicate the action occurs all the way to 6 a place. 7 8 Ugye eljössz a buliba? 9 You are coming to the party, right? 1011 A fiúk elkísértek bennünket a buszmegállóig. 1 The boys escorted us to the bus stop. 12111 3 Use el with verbs to indicate covering over a (wide) area. 4 A gaz elborította a mezo˝t. 5 The field was covered with weeds. 6 7 Régen eltakarták az arcukat egy fátyollal. 8 In the old days they covered their faces with a veil. 9 El can change the meaning of the verb by indicating the action is done 20111 incorrectly. 1 2 Elírtam a címét, és most nem találom a házszámát. 3 I wrote down the wrong address and now I can’t find her 4 building number. 5 Elnéztem a menetrendet, és lekéstem a vonatot. 6 I misread the schedule and missed the train. 7 8 Use el to mean apart. 9 A szüleim 1990-ben váltak el. 30111 My parents divorced in 1990. 1 2 Elszakadt a szoknyám a villamoson. 3 My skirt tore on the tram. 4 El is found in construction with the postpositions előtt, mellett: the combi- 5 nation results in the meaning ‘along’. 6 7 Az a kocsi mindig elmegy a házunk elo˝tt. 8 That car is always going by our house. 9 Az egész város mellett folyik el a Tisza. 40 The Tisza flows along the side of the whole city. 41111

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Use el to indicate using something up.

Coverbs

Elkártyázta az összes pénzét. He spent all of his money on cards. (lit., He carded away all his money.) Elittuk az egész havi fizetését. We drank his whole month’s salary. Elhasználták a cukrot. They used up the sugar. El may indicate the lengthy duration of an action.

Jól elbeszélgették a napot. They talked the whole day through. Jó sokáig elüldögéltek a kávéházban. They lounged around a good long time in the coffee shop. Used with verbs of communication, el indicates that something is said or otherwise communicated (all the way) to the end.

Elmesélte az egész történetet. He told the whole story. Elmagyarázta, hogy kellett betörni a házba. He explained at length how he had to break into the house. Elénekelt nekem egy gyönyöru˝ népdalt. He sang me a beautiful folksong. It is useful to compare the uses of el and meg when combined with the same verbs. When combined with verbs describing a change in physical or mental condition, the coverb el indicates an unfortunate turn of events and meg indicates an expected or usual change.

Jól meghízott a disznó.

The pig got nice and fat.

Teljesen elhízott, és már alig tud menni.

He got really fat and now can hardly walk.

Megfagyott a víz a mélyhu˝to˝ben.

The water froze in the freezer.

Elfagyott a keze.

His hand got frostbite. 73

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Szépen megpirult a kenyér a su˝to˝ben.

The bread browned nicely in the oven.

1111 2 3 Elpirultam a szégyento˝l. I turned red with shame. 4 5 Megsóztam a levest. I put salt in the soup. 6 Elsóztam a levest. I put too much salt in the soup. 7 8 9 4.6.4.3 Be 1011 The coverb be has the directional meaning in, into. 1 12111 Benézett a szobába. He looked into the room. 3 Beszálltam a kocsiba. I got into the car. 4 5 Betette a ruhát a szekrénybe. She put the dress in the closet. 6 Beszippantotta a friss levego˝t. He breathed in the fresh air. 7 Be combines with verbs to mean ‘cover entirely’, ‘envelop’ by some means 8 9 or action. 20111 Betakarta a gyereket, hogy ne fázzon az éjjel. 1 She covered up the child, so he wouldn’t get cold in the night. 2 3 Befestettem feketére a székeket. 4 I painted the chairs black. 5 Teljesen befedte a házat a hó. 6 The house was completely covered with snow. 7 8 Kend be az orrodat, hogy ne égjen le! 9 Put some cream on your nose so it doesn’t burn! 30111 Use the coverb be with verbs meaning ‘close’, ‘fasten’. 1 2 Becsukta az ablakot. He closed the window. 3 Begomboltam a kabátomat. I buttoned up my coat. 4 5 Becsomagoltam az ajándékot. I wrapped up the present. 6 Be kell varrni a szakadást a He has to sew up the tear on 7 nadrágján. his pants. 8 9 Befu˝ztem a cipo˝met. I tied my shoes. 40 41111

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4.6.4.4 Ki

Coverbs

The coverb ki has the directional meaning ‘out’.

Kimentek a kertbe.

They went out to the garden.

Kiveszik az almát a kosárból. They will take the apples out of the basket. Kivitte a szemetet.

He took out the garbage.

Kinéztek az ablakon.

They looked out the window.

The coverb ki often combines with verbs to mean ‘undo’.

Kifu˝ztem a cipo˝met. I untied my shoes. Kibontották az összes csomagot. They opened up all of the packages. Ki kell csomagolni a bo˝röndöket, mielo˝tt elmegyünk várost nézni. We have to unpack before we go out to see the town. Ki combines with verbs to indicate selection.

Kinéztem magamnak egy szép új autót. I’ve picked out a nice new car for myself. Kikeresték és kiírták az ismeretlen szavakat a szótárból. They looked up and wrote out the unknown words in the dictionary. Kiválasztotta a legszebb rózsát. She chose the most beautiful rose. 4.6.4.5 Fel The coverb fel has the directional meaning ‘up’.

Felmászott a hegyre.

She climbed up the mountain.

Felnéztünk a csillagokra.

We looked up at the stars.

Feltette a vázát a polcra.

She put the vase up on the shelf.

Felszaladt a lépcso˝n.

He ran up the stairs. 75

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Fel combines with verbs to mean ‘on’.

1111 2 Felvette a legszebb öltönyét. 3 He put on his best suit. 4 Felpróbált egy új kabátot, de nem tetszett neki. 5 She tried on a new coat, but she didn’t like it. 6 7 Te soha nem írod fel, amit mondok neked. 8 You never write down (lit., write on) what I tell you. 9 Use fel with verbs to mean ‘furnish or supply with something’. 1011 1 Felfegyverezték a hadsereget. 12111 They armed the troops. 3 Ebbo˝l a pénzbo˝l nem tudok felruházkodni. 4 I can’t provide myself with clothes with this money. 5 6 Felhatalmazta az ügyvédet, hogy eladja a házát. 7 She gave the lawyer the authority to sell her house. 8 The coverb fel is used with verbs of motion to indicate ‘turning over’ or 9 ‘upside down’. 20111 1 Felfordították a hajót. 2 They capsized the boat. 3 Az utóbbi hír felkavarta a gyomrát. 4 The recent news turned his stomach. 5 6 Felborította a széket. 7 She knocked the chair over. 8 Teljesen fel van fordítva a ház. 9 The house is a mess (lit., turned upside down). 30111 1 Fel combines with verbs to mean ‘appear from somewhere’. 2 A kislány hirtelen felbukkant a bokor mögül. 3 The little girl suddenly appeared from behind the bush. 4 5 Ki fedezte fel a rádiumot? 6 Who discovered radium? 7 Hirtelen felkerültek a feketelistára. 8 They suddenly turned up on the blacklist. 9 40 41111

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Fel is used with verbs describing the change of a mental state denoting the onset of the change.

Coverbs

Korán ébredtem fel. I woke up early. Mire feleszmélt, a rablók már eltu˝ntek. By the time he came to, the burglars had disappeared. Feldühödtem, mikor hallottam, mi történt. I became enraged when I heard what had happened. Fel may indicate the (sudden) beginning of an action.

Felsírt, mikor az orvos beleszúrta a tu˝t. He cried out when the doctor stuck in the needle. Felragyogott az arca, mikor megpillantotta a régóta várt barátno˝jét. His face shone when he caught sight of his long awaited girlfriend. 4.6.4.6 Le The coverb le has the directional meaning ‘down’.

Mikor fog leszállni a repülo˝gép? When will the plane land? Gyere le onnan! Come down from there! Lefeküdt az ágyra, és rögtön elaludt. She lay down on the bed and fell asleep immediately. Lenéztek az udvarra, hogy ott van-e a kutya. They looked down into the courtyard to see if the dog was there. Le combines with verbs to mean ‘off’.

Lesegíted a kabátomat? Will you help me off with my coat? Levette a cuccait az asztalról. She took her things off the table. Letört az odvas ág a fáról. The rotten branch broke off the tree. 77

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Le akart szállni a villamosról. He wanted to get off the tram.

1111 2 Le combines with verbs meaning ‘to remove or take away’, ‘relinquish’, 3 4 ‘give up’. 5 Lefegyverezték a hadsereget. 6 The troops were disarmed. 7 8 Anne Boleynt 1536-ban fejezték le. 9 Anne Boleyn was beheaded in 1536. 1011 Télre kellett leszerelni a hajót. 1 The ship had to be dismantled for winter. 12111 3 Le kell szoknia a dohányzásról. 4 He must give up smoking. 5 Bármit mondasz, nem tudsz lebeszélni arról, hogy 6 elmenjek! 7 No matter what you say you can not talk me out of going. 8 9 Le is used with verbs meaning ‘to cover the surface of something’. 20111 Le kell takarni az ágyat valami szebb takaróval. 1 We have to cover the bed with a prettier spread. 2 3 Lehunytam a szememet, hogy pihenjek egy kicsit. 4 I closed my eyes to rest a bit. 5 Use the coverb le to indicate ‘copying’, ‘reproducing’ by some means. 6 7 Leírtam a címét a noteszembe. 8 I wrote his address into my notebook. 9 Le kell fényképezned azt a szobrot! 30111 You have to take a picture of that statue! 1 2 Bár nem lett volna szabad, lemásolta a könyvet. 3 She made a copy of the book though she wasn’t really allowed to. 4 Le combines with verbs to mean ‘to lessen or reduce in some way’. 5 6 Egy ido˝ után lecsillapodott a fájdalom. 7 After a while the pain lessened. 8 Lefogytál, amióta utoljára láttalak. 9 You have lost weight since I last saw you. 40 41111

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Lelassította a lépteit, mikor megpillantotta az idegent. He slowed his walk when he saw the stranger.

Coverbs

Le may provide a negative connotation to verbs.

Bár nem is ismertem a férfit, rögtön letegezett. Even though I didn’t know the man, he used the familiar te form with me. Az igazgató, sajnos, nagyon lenézi a kollégáit. Unfortunately the director looks down on his colleagues. Jól leszidta a sógorát, és azóta nem beszélnek egymással. He really put his brother-in-law down and since then they don’t speak.

4.6.5 More coverbs Many more coverbs exist in addition to those outlined in the preceding section. Coverbs are derived from all parts of speech; sometimes it is only a writing convention that distinguishes coverbs from adverbs (i.e., they are written as one word with the verb, not two).

Jólesett a séta.

The walk felt good. (jól is a coverb)

Jól érzi magát.

He feels well.

(jól is an adverb)

Egyetértek veled. I agree with you.

(egyet is a coverb)

Egyet sóhajtott.

(egyet is an adverbial)

She gave a sigh.

Some pronominalized cases may serve as coverbs; these are often restricted to the third person singular form.

bele

Beletette a cukrot a kávéba.

She put the sugar into the coffee.



Ránézett a fiúra.

He looked at the boy.

rajta

Rajtakaptam a hazugságon

I caught him in a lie.

hozzá Hozzáfordultam jó tanácsért.

I turned to him for good advice.

neki

I bumped into the wall.

Nekimentem a falnak.

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4 Verbs

Many postpositions may also serve as coverbs.

át

Kétszer kellett átírni a szöveget. They had to rewrite the text twice.

alá

Aláírta az oklevelet. She signed the document.

ellen

Makacsul ellenálltak nekem. They stubbornly resisted me.

keresztül

Keresztülmentek a mezo˝n. They passed through the field.

körül

Körülnéztünk az üzletben. We looked around the shop.

mellé

Mellébeszéltek. They didn’t speak to the issue. (lit., They spoke beside it.)

túl

Túlbecsüli a könyv értékét. He overestimates the value of the book.

végig

Végigjártuk a környéket. We walked throught the whole area.

Additional important coverbs include the following.

elo˝

forth

Elo˝vették a könyvüket. They took out their books.

félre

aside, mis-

Félretettek egy kis pénzt a jövo˝re. They put some money aside for the future. Félreértettem a helyzetet. I misunderstood the situation.

fenn

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above, up

Fenntartotta magát a vízben. He stayed afloat in the water. (lit, kept himself up)

hátra backward

Hátramaradtunk, mert fáradtak voltunk. We fell behind because we were tired.

haza homeward

Hazajött a hétvégére. She came home for the weekend.

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toward there Odamegyünk a kirakathoz. We will walk over to the display window.

ott

there

Szó nélkül otthagyta az állását. He left his job without a word.

össze

together

A pulóverem összement a forró vízben. My sweater shrank in the hot water. (lit., went together)

szét

apart

Szétesett a polc a nappaliban. The shelf fell apart in the living room.

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tovább further

Továbbadta az üzenetet. She passed the message on.

utána after

Utána tudsz nézni az ügynek? Can you look into the matter?

vissza back

Hat órakor jön vissza a munkahelyro˝l. She comes back from work at six o’clock.

Coverbs

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Chapter 5

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 5.1 Articles 12111 3 4 5.1.1 Definite article 5 6 The definite article is a or az ‘the’, the latter reserved for use before words 7 beginning with a vowel. It does not agree in case or number with its 8 noun. 9 a ház the house a házban in the house 20111 1 az esemény the event az események the events 2 3 5.1.1.1 4 5 The definite article is used similarly as in English with the following addi6 tional uses: 7 before possessed nominals: a gyerekem ‘my child’ (except in 8 ‘have’ constructions) 9 30111 before possessive pronouns: az enyém ‘mine’ 1 before nominals with a demonstrative pronoun: ez a gyerek ‘this 2 child’ 3 4 before many abstract nouns: Ilyen az élet. ‘Such is life.’ 5 before a noun in order to give it a generic connotation: 6 Szeretem a banánt. ‘I like bananas.’ 7 8 in colloquial speech before a person’s name: 9 Kedves a Péter. ‘Péter is nice.’ 40 41111

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5.1.2 Indefinite article

Articles

The indefinite article is egy ‘a’, ‘an’.

Tegnap este elolvastam egy könyvet. I read a book last night.

5.1.3 Zero article There are some cases where neither article is used:

5.1.3.1 Existential (there is/there are) and ‘have’ constructions:

Szép fa van a kertben.

There is a beautiful tree in the garden.

Neki gyönyöru˝ háza van.

She has a beautiful house.

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5.1.3.2 Before predicate nouns:

Csilla énekesno˝, Tamás rendo˝r.

Csilla is a singer, Tamás is a policeman.

5.1.3.3 Finally, articles need not be used before indefinite subjects, objects or adverbials occurring immediately before the verb. (When occurring after the verb, however, there is usually an article.)

Minden este János levest fo˝z.

János makes soup every night.

A Kovácsék (egy) szép lakásban laknak.

The Kovácses live in a nice apartment.

Abban a lakásban (egy) kedves család lakik.

A nice family lives in that apartment. 83

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5.2

Nouns and suffixes

5.2.1 Suffixes Hungarian is an agglutinative language, i.e., suffixes and prefixes can be attached to words to change their meaning and/or function in a sentence. Suffixes can be added to nouns to indicate plurality, possession, location, manner, etc. In fact, several suffixes can be added to the same word; for example we may attach two suffixes to the word zseb ‘pocket’: the plural -k, and a locative case -ben ‘in’ to yield zsebekben ‘in pockets’.

5.2.2 Vowel harmony For the most part vowel harmony is maintained when adding suffixes; most suffixes come with two or more vowel choices either within the suffix itself or as a linking vowel between the stem and the suffix. Examples are abundant: the illative case has the variants -ban/ben; the allative case has the variants -hoz/-hez/-höz.

5.2.3 Gender There is no gender in Hungarian in either nouns or pronouns.

5.2.4 Stem alternation Suffixes, e.g., the plural, cases, and possessive suffixes, are attached directly to the end of a word, sometimes creating a change in the word stem, e.g., ló ‘horse’ has the stem lov- when forming the plural. It is helpful to recognize the different types of noun stems since each type attaches endings in its own way. Sometimes the difference in the way nouns decline is subtle, hence careful attention must be paid to the differences. The rest of this chapter classifies nouns according to their stem alternations.

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5.3

Noun stems and the nominative case – singular and plural

Although not all suffixes cause a change in the noun stem, many do. For example, the delative case -ról ‘off’ attaches to the stem ló ‘horse’ with no change in the stem: lóról ‘off the horse’. When suffixing the plural -k, however, the noun reveals another stem, in this instance, a v-stem: lovak ‘horses’.

Noun stems and the nominative case

The singular nominative case is the dictionary entry form; however, almost all of the information about a noun stem is revealed when forming the nominative plural. Therefore noun stems and the nominative plural are presented simultaneously. Throughout this book reference will be made to noun stems and how the plural is formed. Any idiosyncrasies with respect to noun stems and other suffixes are found under the individual suffix entry. A list of highly irregular noun stems not presented here is found in appendix 3. PLURAL: The plural marker is -k. It is not used after numbers or other expressions of quantity – these are always followed by the singular. There is a separate plural paradigm for the possessive declension – there the -k plural is not used. Cases may be added to words already formed in the plural. Depending on the stem of the noun, the plural -k may or may not need a linking vowel preceding it; the plural -k is attached to nouns according to the following rules. (For discussion of vowel harmony rules, see chapter 3.)

5.3.1 Nouns ending in a vowel

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Word final vowel Noun ends in a or e

Noun ends in other vowels1

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

lamp

lámpa

lámpák

woman

no˝

no˝k

bag

táska

táskák

car

kocsi

kocsik

cup

csésze

csészék

boat

hajó

hajók

lesson

lecke

leckék

gate

kapu

kapuk

needle

tu˝

tu˝ k

5.3.2 Nouns ending in a consonant When nouns end in a consonant they require linking vowels before the plural (and other suffixes, too). Most nouns require the linking vowel choice o/e/ö before these suffixes, a smaller number require the vowel choice a/e. Some noun types also exhibit a change in the stem when adding linking vowels. The following are the most important noun stems grouped according to linking vowel choice and stem changes:

5.3.2.1 Nouns requiring the linking vowel a/e 5.3.2.1.1 Low vowel nouns2 This is a finite group of just over 100 nouns. There is no way of identifying these words by simply looking at them, hence they must be memorized. (A list of these nouns is found in appendix 3.) This group of nouns has a further subdivision: those that don’t lose the length of the last vowel when suffixing and those that do. (Of course, if the word does not have a long vowel in the final syllable, loss of length is irrelevant.) 1

Except férfi ‘man’ which has the plural férfiak. So called because the linking vowels these nouns require are the low vowel a/e. (Thus technically, v-stems and -alom/-elem volcabulary are low vowel nouns too.)

2

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Low vowel nouns

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Loses length

No loss of length

Singular Plural

Singular

Plural

hand

kéz

kezek

house

ház

házak

letter

levél

levelek

book

könyv

könyvek

glass

pohár

poharak

deer

o˝z

o˝zek

road

út

utak

pen

toll

tollak

water

víz

vizek

matter

ügy

ügyek

Noun stems and the nominative case

5.3.2.1.2 V-stems These nouns have a stem quite different from the nominative. The nominative ends in a long vowel, but the stem to which the plural ending attaches ends in a v preceded by a short vowel;3 this vowel may change in quality as well as length. For example, ló ‘horse’ has the stem lov-, but tó ‘lake’ has the stem tav-. There is some variation in suffixing within this group that will be pointed out for each suffix. A complete list of these nouns is found in appendix 3.

v-stems Singular Plural

Singular Plural

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pipe

cso˝

csövek

work

mu ˝

mu˝vek

grass

fu˝

füvek

maggot

nyu ˝

nyüvek

snow



havak

word

szó

szavak

stone

ko˝

kövek

lake



tavak

horse



lovak

stem

to˝

tövek

Except for mű: műv- where the vowel preceding v remains long.

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5.3.2.1.3 -alom, -elem nouns A large class of nouns ends in the derivation -alom or -elem. These decline as a combination of both fleeting vowel (see below) and low-vowel nouns,4 i.e., the last vowel is omitted and a/e is the linking vowel choice.

-alom/-elem nouns Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

reign uralom uralmak mystery rejtelem rejtelmek power hatalom hatalmak feeling érzelem érzelmek reward jutalom jutalmak mercy kegyelem kegyelmek

5.3.2.2 Nouns requiring the linking vowel o/e/ö 5.3.2.2.1 Fleeting vowel nouns The last vowel of the noun is omitted when suffixing the plural -k. This is a large group of nouns that, like the low vowel nouns, must simply be memorized, although a pattern emerges with familiarity: fleeting vowel nouns have o, e, or ö in the last syllable and a final consonant of l, m, n, ny, r, sz, s, k, g and, less commonly, cs or ly.

Fleeting vowel

bush tower VOWEL, LAST VOWEL UNROUNDED

FRONT

VOWEL, LAST VOWEL ROUNDED

FRONT

Singular twin iker strawberry eper

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BACK VOWEL Singular Plural bokor bokrok torony tornyok

Plural ikrek eprek

nail mirror

Singular köröm tükör

Plural körmök tükrök

Except cimbalom ‘Hungarian cymbalo’ which is a fleeting vowel word.

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5.3.2.2.2 Regular nouns Most nouns are of this type – negatively defined as not belonging to any of the previous types. The linking vowel o/e/ö is supplied before the plural suffix -k.

Noun stems and the nominative case

Regular nouns

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hat

kalap

kalapok

paper

papír

papírok

plate

tányér tányérok

drawer

fiók

VOWEL, LAST

FRONT

VOWEL UNROUNDED

fiókok VOWEL, LAST VOWEL

ROUNDED

Singular

Plural

chair

szék

székek

law

törvény törvények acquain- ismero˝s tance

0111

notebook füzet

füzetek

crime

fruit

Singular

Plural

bu ˝n

bu ˝ nök ismero˝sök

gyümölcs gyümölcsök

5.3.4 Summary of plural formation

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Nouns: plural Ends in a vowel final vowel is a or e

other final vowel

lengthen vowel add -k

Ends in a consonant low vowel (v-stems listed separately) stem loses no change length in stem add a/e + -k

-alom/ -elem

fleeting vowel

last vowel elides

regular

no change in stem

add o/e/ö + -k

5.4

5 Nouns

Number and usage

5.4.1 Singular The singular is unmarked. In addition to the standard use of the singular to mark non-plural items, the singular is used in some constructions differently than in English.

5.4.1.1 The singular is used after numbers and other expressions of quantity.

Hat ló van az istállóban.

There are six horses in the stable.

Hány diák van a teremben? How many students are in the classroom? 5.4.1.2 The singular is used with paired body parts and the clothing or accessories that accompany them.

kéz

hands

láb

legs; feet

szem

eyes

kesztyu˝

gloves

cipo˝

shoes

szemüveg

glasses

nadrág

pants

Koszos a cipo˝.

The shoes are dirty.

Drága volt a szemüveg.

The glasses were expensive.

If specific reference to only one of the pair is required, use fél ‘half’.5

fél szem one eye

fél kéz one hand

fél láb one leg

Csak fél szemmel követte az eseményeket. He followed the events only half-heartedly. (lit., ‘with half an eye’)

5

90

This does not work with cipő, however; félcipő denotes a kind of shoe, not a single shoe.

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5.4.1.3 The singular may be used when referring to a general category (the definite article is usually used in these constructions).

Number and usage

Az alma a sarokban, a körte a polcon van. The apples are in the corner, the pears are on the shelf. A bálna a legnagyobb emlo˝sállat. Whales are the largest mammals.

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5.4.2 Plural In Hungarian the plural is used as in English except for those areas described previously in the usage of the singular. The plural -k is not used in the possessive paradigm where another plural (-i-) is used (see section 8.2). The plural declension of nouns is formed by simply adding the cases to the plural form of the noun. The temporal, distributive and sociative cases are not used in the plural.

a diákok

the students

a diákokról

about the students

a gépek

the machines

a gépekben

in the machines

When forming the plural accusative, the linking vowel a/e is always required after the plural -k.

nominative

accusative

kutyák

dogs

kutyákat

levelek

leaves

leveleket

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Chapter 6

The case system

Hungarian has an extensive case system. Cases are used to mark the grammatical function of words in a sentence: the nominative case marks the subject; the accusative case marks the direct object. They are also used adverbially: they may indicate place, time, manner. Most often casemarked words correspond to prepositional phrases in English (Hungarian has no prepositions): for example könyv ‘book’ marked with the inessive case -ben ‘in’ becomes könyvben ‘in (a) book’. Cases attach to the ends of words; they may follow the plural suffix -k or possessive suffixes. Although one or more suffixes may precede them, cases are always the final suffix of a word: könyv + ek + ben ‘book + plural suffix + inessive case’ → könyvekben ‘in books’. Cases may also be attached to nouns already marked for possession: a könyvem ‘my book’ plus the inessive case yields a könyvemben ‘in my book’. Although most commonly used with nouns, cases may also attach to adjectives, numerals, and demonstrative and interrogative pronouns. Cases do not attach to most personal pronouns – there is a separate paradigm for these (see section 7.1.2). The complete paradigm of cases is called a declension. Cases attach directly to the end of a word; the following stem alternations occur regularly: (a) word-final a or e lengthens to á, é, respectively1 (b) the accusative -t, superessive -n, distributive -nként, sociative -stul/ -stül, and distributive-temporal -nta/-nte all require linking vowels when suffixing to consonant-final stems. This may trigger other changes in the word stem.

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1 The two exceptions are the temporal (-kor) and the essive-formal (-ként); here there is no lengthening of the final vowel.

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The case system

The Hungarian case system Grammatical cases nominative

––––

no ending; marks the subject

accusative

-t

marks the direct object

illative

-ba/-be

into

inessive

-ban/-ben

in

elative

-ból/-bo˝l

out of, out from

sublative

-ra/-re

onto

superessive

(-o/-e/-ö)-n

on, at

delative

-ról/-ro˝l

off, from, about

allative

-hoz/-hez/-höz

toward

adessive

-nál/-nél

near, at

ablative

-tól/-to˝l

(away) from

dative

-nak/-nek

to, for

instrumental

-val/-vel

with

translative

-vá/-vé

(turning) into

causal-final

-ért

for the purpose of

essive-formal

-ként

as

terminative

-ig

until, up to

distributive

(-o/-a/-e/-ö) -nként

per, each

Locative cases

Oblique cases

Less productive cases temporal

-kor

at (plus time expression)

distributivetemporal

(-o/-e/-ö)-nta

per, every (plus time expression)

sociative

(-o/-a/-e/-ö/) -stul/-stül

(together) with

locative

-t/(-o/-e/-ö)-tt

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6 The case system

Vowel harmony is maintained when suffixing cases. Several cases have a three-way vowel harmony choice (e.g., the allative -hoz/-hez/-höz); most cases, however have only a front or back vowel choice (e.g., the elative -ból/-ből or the adessive -nál/-nél) and several cases offer no choice in vowel harmony (e.g., the terminative -ig). The many cases in Hungarian may be divided into three groups: (1) the grammatical cases (nominative and accusative), (2) the locative cases (indicating place and/or motion to or from a place) and (3) the oblique cases (all the rest). All the locative and oblique cases will be referred to by both their name and shape (e.g., ‘adessive -nál/-nél’). In addition to the productive cases, there are several more unproductive cases found in only limited use. These are dealt with at the end of the chapter.

6.1

Grammatical cases

6.1.1 Nominative The nominative is the ‘zero’ case, i.e., there is no case-marking on the word. It is the citation form for nouns and adjectives in the dictionary.

6.1.1.1 Subjects are in the nominative case.

Elindult a vonat.

The train departed.

A lányok az egyetemen találkoztak.

The girls met at the university.

6.1.1.2 The nominative case is used as a modifier of quantity.

94

Egy korsó sört rendelt.

She ordered a mug of beer.

Egy fej salátát kellett vennem.

I had to buy a head of lettuce.

Megivott egy csésze teát.

He drank a cup of tea.

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6.1.1.3 The objects of most postpositions are in the nominative. (See section 9.4 for exceptions.)

Grammatical cases

A függöny mögött találtam egy ceruzát. I found a pencil behind the curtain. Betette a táskát az asztal alá. She put her bag down under the table.

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6.1.1.4 If, in a possessive construction, the possessor immediately precedes the possessed item, the possessor may be in the nominative case. (See chapter 8 for complete rules on possession.)

Elkértem Zsuzsa tollát. I asked for Zsuzsa’s pen. Kíváncsi volt a gyerek véleményére. He was interested in the child’s opinion. 6.1.1.5 Some time expressions use the nominative case. Time expressions ending in the word nap ‘day’:

Minden nap/egész nap/vasárnap tanul. She studies every day/all day/on Sunday. Time expressions of ‘ago’ and ‘since’ formed with the possessive:

Már három hete van itt.

He’s been here for three weeks already.

Hét hónapja utazott el.

He left seven months ago.

6.1.2 Accusative: -t 6.1.2.1 Formation The accusative -t is attached in much the same way as the plural -k with one difference: within the group of regular nouns there is a division.

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96

Regular nouns ending in the consonants j, l, ly, n, ny, r, s, sz, z, zs require 1111 no linking vowel when suffixing the accusative case.2 Regular nouns ending 2 in any other consonant still require the linking vowel o/e/ö. 3 4 The table opposite gives the accusative for the different noun stem types. 5 The plural nominative forms are provided here to illustrate the similari6 ties and differences in suffixing (note that the only difference is found 7 where the regular nouns require no linking vowel). 8 When suffixing the accusative case to a plural noun, the linking vowel 9 a/e is always required. 1011 1 12111 6.1.2.2 Usage 3 4 6.1.2.2.1 5 6 The accusative case marks the direct object of the verb. 7 Felolvastam a leveleket az apámnak. 8 I read the letters to my father. 9 20111 Jó napot kívánok. 1 Good day! (I wish you a good day.) 2 Meleg ruhát vettünk fel. 3 We put on warm clothes. 4 5 6 6.1.2.2.2 7 The accusative case may also be used in some time expressions: 8 9 Egy hetet töltöttünk a Balatonon. 30111 We spent a week at the Balaton. 1 2 6.1.2.2.3 3 4 The accusative may modify a verb: 5 Nagyot sóhajtott. He gave a big sigh. 6 7 Jót aludtak. They slept well. 8 9 2 Note that it does not matter what the final consonant is for low vowel or 40 fleeting vowel words – they always require a linking vowel. 41111

111

Accusative case suffixing Noun stem types

011

lámpa

lámpát

lámpák

a or e:

cup

csésze

csészét

csészék

stems ending in

woman

no˝

no˝t

no˝k

other vowels

car

kocsi

kocsit

kocsik

boat

hajó

hajót

hajók

gate

kapu

kaput

kapuk

needle

tu ˝

tu ˝t

tu ˝k

low vowel nouns

road

út

utat

utak

(lose length)

hand

kéz

kezet

kezek

low-vowel nouns

house

ház

házat

házak

(no loss of length)

pen

toll

tollat

tollak

book

könyv

könyvet

könyvek

deer

o˝z

o˝zet

o˝zek

lake



tavat

tavak

pipe

cso˝

csövet

csövek

reward

jutalom

jutalmat

jutalmak

mystery

rejtelem

rejtelmet

rejtelmek

bush

bokor

bokrot

bokrok

strawberry

eper

epret

eprek

mirror

tükör

tükröt

tükrök

regular noun

plate

tányér

tányért

tányérok

ending in j, l, ly,

painting

festmény

festményt

festmények

n, ny, r, s, sz, z, zs

acquaintance ismero˝s

ismero˝st

ismero˝sök

other regular

hat

kalap

kalapot

kalapok

nouns

chair

szék

széket

székek

fruit

gyümölcs

gyümölcsöt gyümölcsök

3

v-stems

-alom/-elem fleeting vowel

3

Nominative plural

lamp

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Accusative singular

stems ending in

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0111

Nominative singular

Two exceptions are: szó ‘word’ szót (acc.), jó ‘good’ jót (acc.)

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6 The case system

6.2

Locative case system

The locative cases serve mostly as adverbials and answer the question ‘where’, although they have other semantic uses as well.

6.2.1 Formation The locative cases are attached directly to the end of the word. They may be attached to words already formed for the plural or the possessive. All the locative cases require that words ending in a or e lengthen the vowel to á, é, respectively; for words ending in any other vowel, the cases attach directly with no change in the stem. With the exception of the superessive case -n, all the locative cases attach directly to stems ending in a consonant without requiring a linking vowel or making any changes in the stem of the word. The superessive case requires the linking vowel o/e/ö when suffixed to all words ending in a consonant (the superessive makes no distinction between low vowel and regular nouns). For v-stem vocabulary, the v-stem is required; -alom/-elem vocabulary and fleeting vowel words omit the last vowel before suffixing the superessive case. The table opposite illustrates the suffixing of locative cases with respect to noun type. Because the superessive -n case suffixes differently it is in a column of its own; all other locative cases suffix identically and are represented in the table by the inessive case -ban/-ben.

6.2.2 Usage The locative cases of Hungarian form a system with respect to three parameters of motion: motion toward, no motion, motion away,4 and three parameters of space: interior, exterior, near. Thus there is a case ending corresponding to the English prepositions ‘into’, ‘in’, ‘out of’, ‘from’, ‘onto’, ‘on’, ‘off’.

4

Here, ‘no motion’ means there is no explicit motion to or from a place; there may, however be motion within the space defined under ‘no motion’, e.g.,

98

Sétálnak a parkban. They are walking in the park.

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Suffixing of locative cases Noun stem types

Nominative singular

Superessive -n

All other locative cases e.g., -ban/-ben

stems ending in

lamp

lámpa

lámpán

lámpában

a or e

cup

csésze

csészén

csészében

stems ending in

woman

no˝

no˝n

no˝ben

other vowels

car

kocsi

kocsin

kocsiban

boat

hajó

hajón

hajóban

gate

kapu

kapun

kapuban

needle

tu ˝

tu ˝n

tu ˝ ben

road

út

úton

útban

hand

kéz

kézen

kézben

house

ház

házon

házban

book

könyv

könyvön

könyvben

plate

tányér

tányéron

tányérban

chair

szék

széken

székben

fruit

gyümölcs

gyümölcsön gyümölcsben

lake



tavon

tóban

pipe

cso˝

csövön

cso˝ben

reward

jutalom

jutalmon

jutalomban

mystery

rejtelem

rejtelmen

rejtelemben

bush

bokor

bokron

bokorban

strawberry

eper

epren

eperben

mirror

tükör

tükrön

tükörben

low-vowel and regular nouns

v-stems alom/-elem fleeting vowel

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6 The case system

100

1111 2 Locative system: parameters of motion and space 3 4 motion no motion 5 toward motion away 6 ➩➩● ● ●➩➩ 7 8 interior -ba/-be -ban/-ben -ból/-bo˝l 9 illative inessive elative 1011 exterior -ra/-re -(o/e/ö) n -ról/-ro˝l 1 sublative superessive delative 12111 3 near -hoz/-hez/-höz -nál/-nél -tól/-to˝l 4 allative adessive ablative 5 6 7 6.2.2.1 Interior 8 The interior set of cases correspond to the English prepositions in, into, 9 20111 out of, from (the inside of). They are used with 1 2 (a) geographic names including countries; Angliában ‘in England’ 3 (except Magyarország ‘Hungary’); 4 (b) most cities outside of Hungary, Párizsból ‘from Paris’; 5 (c) cities within Hungary whose final consonant is m, n, ny, j, r: 6 Debrecenbe ‘to Debrecen’; Tihanyba ‘to Tihany’; 7 (d) interiors of objects, buildings, and other spaces; a fiókban ‘in the 8 drawer’, a szívemben ‘in my heart’. 9 30111 6.2.2.1.1 1 The illative case -ba/-be is used to express motion to the interior of a 2 3 place. 4 Bemegyek a régi házba. I am going into the old house. 5 6 Imre elment Olaszországba. Imre went to Italy. 7 Zsuzsa betett egy tollat a Zsuzsa put a pen into her 8 zsebébe. pocket. 9 40 41111

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6.2.2.1.2 The inessive case -ban/-ben is used to express no motion in(side) a place.

Géza olvas a kertben.

Géza is reading in the garden.

Kétemeletes házban lakom.

I live in a two-storey house.

Három könyv van a táskámban.

There are three books in my bag.

The locative case system

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6.2.2.1.3 The elative case -ból/-ből is used to express motion out from the interior of a place:

A gyerekek kifutottak az terembo˝l. The children run out of the classroom. Kitéptem egy lapot a füzetembo˝l. I tore a page out of my notebook. Melyik városból jössz? From which city are you coming? 6.2.2.2 Exterior The exterior cases correspond to the English prepositions ‘on’, ‘at’, ‘onto’, ‘off’, ‘from (the surface of)’. They are used with (a) most place names within Hungary (or places that used to be governed by Hungary): Budapesten ‘in Budapest’; (b) the name of Hungary itself: Magyarországról ‘from Hungary’; (c) public transportation: villamoson ‘on a tram’; (d) events: sportmérkőzésen ‘at a sports match’; hangversenyre ‘to a concert’; (e) surfaces and open spaces: az asztalra ‘onto the table’, falon ‘on a wall’, jégen ‘on ice’.

6.2.2.2.1 The sublative case -ra/-re is used to express motion toward an exterior.

Elmegyünk Budapestre.

We are going to Budapest.

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6 The case system

A táskám leesett a földre.

My bag fell to the floor.

Felszállok erre az autóbuszra.

I will get on this bus.

6.2.2.2.2 The superessive case (o/e/ö) is used to express a position on or at an exterior.

Híres egyetemen dolgozunk.

We work at a famous university.

Ilona Magyarországon lakik.

Ilona lives in Hungary.

A szótár az asztalon van.

The dictionary is on the table.

6.2.2.2.3 The delative case -ról/-ről is used to express motion away from an exterior.

A szótár leesett az asztalról.

The dictionary fell off the table.

Tegnap feljöttek Pécsro˝l.

They came up from Pécs yesterday.

Levette a hirdetést a falról.

She took the advertisement off the wall.

6.2.2.3 Near The near cases correspond roughly to the English prepositions ‘near(by)’, ‘at’, ‘with’, ‘toward’, ‘away from’. They are used to express positions at, near, or away from the vicinity of (a) (b) (c) (d)

vertical objects: ajtóhoz ‘toward a door’ a fánál ‘by the tree’; people: Kingához ‘toward Kinga’; a person’s home: Dénesnél ‘at Dénes’ place/house’; a person’s place of business: az orvosnál ‘at the doctor’s office’.

6.2.2.3.1 The allative case -hoz/-hez/-höz expresses motion toward the vicinity of someone/something. 102

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011

2111

0111

Elmentünk a fogorvoshoz. We went to the dentist(’s office). Leültünk az asztalhoz.

We sat down at the table.

Odafutottak a kerítéshez. They ran up to the fence.

Non-locative usage of the locative cases

6.2.2.3.2 The adessive case -nál/-nél expresses a position near or in the vicinity of someone/something:

A kulcs Imrénél van. Imre has the key. (lit.: The key is by Imre.) A kutya az ágynál fekszik. The dog is lying near the bed. A Kovácséknál voltam két hétig. I stayed with the Kovácses for two weeks. 6.2.2.3.3 The ablative case -tól/-től expresses motion away from the vicinity of someone/something:

Erzsébetto˝l kaptam a könyvet. I got the book from Erzsébet. Boldogan jöttek el az orvostól. They came happily from the doctor’s (office). Felkeltünk az asztaltól. We stood up from the table.

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6.3

Non-locative usage of locative cases

The locative cases may have more abstract meanings as well. They can be used in time expressions and other adverbial, not strictly spatial, expressions. Often, a verb or adjective will require the use of a specific case. Examples of some abstract or metaphoric uses of the locative cases are given below.

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6.3.1 Illative -ba/-be 6.3.1.1 Verbs with the coverb bele ‘into’ take an illative complement:

Belefáradt a munkába.

He got tired of the work.

Mária beleszeretett Jánosba.

Mária fell in love with János.

6.3.1.2 The illative may be used with a condition somebody gets into:

Az a fiú mindig nagy bajba kerül. That boy always gets into big trouble. Dühbe jött, mikor meglátta a jegyét. She flew into a rage when she saw her grade.

6.3.2 Inessive -ban/-ben 6.3.2.1 The inessive is used in time expressions:

A születésnapom decemberben van. My birthday is in December. Melyik évben laktál külföldön? Which year did you live abroad? 6.3.2.2 Some verbs and adjectives require an inessive complement:

Biztos vagy benne?

Are you sure of it?

Nem vettünk részt a vitában. We did not take part in the debate.

104

Hiszel Istenben?

Do you believe in God?

Miben vagyunk bu˝nösek?

What are we guilty of?

Rákban halt meg.

He died of cancer.

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6.3.2.3 The inessive is used with the condition or state a person is in.

Bajban vagyunk.

We are in trouble.

Jóban vagyok a fo˝nökkel.

I’m in good with (I have a good relation with) the boss.

Non-locative usage of the locative cases

6.3.2.4

011

2111

The inessive may express the means by which an action occurs.

Dollárban fizetnek.

They pay us in dollars.

Nagy pelyhekben hullott a hó. The snow fell in large flakes.

6.3.3 Elative -ból/-bo˝ l 6.3.3.1

0111

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The elative may mark the origin of something – whether concerning persons, material or time.

Fizikus lett a bátyámból. My elder brother became a physicist. Milyen anyagból készült a ruha? What material is the dress made of? Melyik korból való az a festmény? What era is that painting from? 6.3.3.2 The elative may mark the cause or manner of an action.

Nemcsak szerelembo˝l házasodnak az emberek. It is not only out of love that people get married. Tévedésbo˝l vettem ezt a könyvet. I bought this book by mistake. Csak kíváncsiságból kérdeztem. I only asked out of curiosity.

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106

1111 2 The elative has a partitive use. 3 4 Csak keveset evett a halból, mert nem ízlett neki. 5 He only ate a little of the fish because he didn’t like it. 6 Kérsz még a süteménybo˝l? 7 Would you like some more pastry? 8 9 1011 6.3.4 Sublative -ra/-re 1 12111 3 6.3.4.1 4 The sublative is used in time expressions to indicate the time by which 5 an action is done. 6 7 Hat órára jön haza. He’ll be home by six o’clock. 8 Jövo˝ hétre lehu˝l az ido˝. The weather will cool down by 9 next week. 20111 1 Mához egy évre megint We’ll meet again a year from 2 találkozunk. today. 3 4 6.3.4.2 5 Some verbs (especially those with the coverb rá) and adjectives require a 6 7 sublative complement. 8 Büszke a gyerekeire. She is proud of her children. 9 30111 Kíváncsi vagyok Szabó új I am curious about Szabó’s new 1 filmjére. movie. 2 Nem emlékszel rám? Don’t you remember me? 3 4 Mire van szükségetek? What do you need? 5 Sokat gondol a barátno˝jére. He thinks about his girlfriend a lot. 6 7 Ránéztem az ablakra. I glanced at the window. 8 A rendo˝r rámutatott a The policeman pointed to the 9 jelzo˝táblára. sign. 40 41111

6.3.3.3

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6.3.4.3 The sublative may be used to mark the result or goal of an action.

Apró darabokra vágtam a hagymát. I cut the onion into small pieces. Magyarra fordította a könyvet. He translated the book into Hungarian.

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Könnyekre fakadt, mikor megnyerte a lottót. She burst into tears when she won the lottery.

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Fehérre festettünk minden falat. We painted every wall white.

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Non-locative usage of the locative cases

6.3.5 Superessive -(o/e/ö)n 6.3.5.1 The superessive is used with the days of the week and other time expressions.

Minden héten találkoznak. They meet every week. Hétfo˝n, szerdán és pénteken jár a francia órára. He goes to French class on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 6.3.5.2 The following postpositions require that the noun preceding them be in the superessive case.

alul below

fölül above

kívül outside, besides

át across

innen this side of

túl beyond

belül within

keresztül across

végig along, to the end

Egy órán belül készült el a leves. The soup was ready within an hour. Imrén kívül senki sem volt pontos. Besides Imre, nobody was on time.

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1111 2 Many verbs (especially those using the above postpositions as coverbs) 3 take a superessive complement. 4 5 Melyik terven dolgozol? 6 Which plan are you working on? 7 Sokáig gondolkozott az ügyön. 8 She thought about the matter for a long time. 9 1011 Átment az utcán. 1 He walked across the street. 12111 3 4 6.3.6 Delative -ról/-ro˝l 5 6 6.3.6.1 7 8 The delative often has the meaning ‘about’. 9 Nem szeret magáról beszélni. 20111 She doesn’t like to talk about herself. 1 2 Miro˝l szól a cikk? 3 What is the article about? 4 Nem tudnak sokat Budapestro˝l. 5 They don’t know much about Budapest. 6 7 8 6.3.6.2 9 The delative is found in adverbial constructions with the sublative -ra/-re. 30111 1 napról napra from day to day 2 szóról szóra word by word 3 4 ido˝ro˝l ido˝re from time to time 5 magyarról angolra from Hungarian into English 6 7 8 9 40 41111

6.3.5.3

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6.3.7 Allative -hoz/-hez/-höz

Non-locative usage of the locative cases

6.3.7.1 The allative is used with expressions of attaching something to, adding to, or communicating to someone or something (especially with verbs having the coverb hozzá).

Hozzászólt a kérdéshez.

He addressed the question.

Melyik párthoz akarsz csatlakozni?

Which party do you want to join?

Mit iszol a vacsorához?

What will you drink with dinner?

6.3.7.2 Some verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and postpositions require an allative complement.

Mihez van kedved ma?

What are you in the mood for today?

Közel lakik a Nemzeti Múzeumhoz.

She lives near the National Museum.

Nem értek a geometriához.

I am not good at geometry.

Udvarias volt hozzám.

He was polite to me.

Nagyon hasonlít az anyjához.

She resembles her mother very much.

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6.3.8 Adessive -nál/-nél 6.3.8.1 The adessive is used in comparative constructions:

Dénes magasabb Péternél.

Dénes is taller than Péter.

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1111 2 The adessive combines with plural pronouns to mean ‘in one’s country 3 or part of the world’. 4 5 Nálunk sokan csak kint dohányoznak, nálatok hogy van? 6 Where I live many people smoke only outside, how is it in your 7 country? 8 9 6.3.8.3 1011 The adessive may be used in expressions of a person’s condition or state. 1 12111 Nem vagy észnél! You are out of your mind! 3 4 Most már magánál van. He’s conscious now. 5 6 7 6.3.9 Ablative -tól/-to˝l 8 9 6.3.9.1 20111 1 The ablative is used with verbs expressing fear or separation. 2 Nem félek a kutyáktól. I am not afraid of dogs. 3 4 Megijedtünk a csontváztól. We were frightened by the 5 skeleton. 6 Elváltak egymástól. They separated from each other. 7 8 9 6.3.9.2 30111 The ablative is used to express the origin of an object or action in time 1 and space (often used in conjunction with the terminative -ig). 2 3 Ketto˝to˝l otthon leszek. 4 I’ll be home from two o’clock on. 5 Reggelto˝l estig dolgozik. 6 He works from morning till night. 7 Kito˝l kaptad a virágokat? 8 From whom did you get the flowers? 9 40 Budapestto˝l Párizsig beszélgettek a vonaton. 41111 They talked on the train from Budapest to Paris.

6.3.8.2

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6.3.9.3 The ablative may be used to denote the cause of an action.

Reszket a hidegto˝l.

She is shivering from the cold.

Kivagyok a sok gondtól.

I am worn out with all the worry.

Elájult a ho˝ségto˝l.

He fainted from the heat.

6.4

Oblique cases

Oblique cases

In addition to the locative cases, there are cases denoting the English prepositions ‘for’, ‘with’, ‘as’, ‘until’, ‘per’, ‘at’ (with respect to time) and more.

6.4.1 Formation The oblique cases are added to stems in the same way as the inessive with the following exceptions: (a) The initial v- of the instrumental -val/-vel and translative -vá/-vé always assimilates to the stem-final consonant to which it suffixes.

víz + vé → vízzé

(turning) into water

bor + vá → borrá

(turning) into wine

barátok + val → barátokkal

with friends

barátom + val → barátommal

with my friend

If the consonant to which the case assimilates is a digraph, only the first letter of the digraph is doubled.

lány + val → lánnyal

with (a) girl

ész + vel → ésszel

with (a) mind

If the consonant to which the case assimilates is a double consonant, the resulting tri-consonant cluster is simplified to a double consonant.

toll + val → tollal

with (a) pen

orr + val → orral

with (a) nose

(b) The causal-final -ért, the terminative -ig, the essive-formal -ként, and the temporal -kor have no vowel harmony counterparts.

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(c) The temporal -kor and the essive-formal -ként attach to words ending 1111 in a and e without lengthening the vowel. 2 3 (d) The distributive -nként, the sociative -stul/-stül, and the distributive4 temporal -nta5 require a linking vowel when suffixing to stems ending in 5 consonants. This is the same linking vowel required when forming the 6 plural; all the stem alternations effected in the plural are found when 7 forming these cases as well. 8 9 1011 6.4.2 Usage of oblique cases 1 12111 6.4.2.1 Dative -nak/-nek 3 4 5 6.4.2.1.1 6 The dative case marks the indirect object or the beneficiary of an action. 7 8 Csillának adtam egy könyvet. 9 I gave a book to Csilla. 20111 Megmutatja Nórának a fényképeit. 1 She shows her pictures to Nóra. 2 3 Kinek telefonálsz? 4 Whom are you calling? 5 6 6.4.2.1.2 7 8 Many verbs and some adjectives take a dative complement. 9 Fekete Gyulának hívják. 30111 His name is Gyula Fekete. 1 2 Fáradtnak látszol. 3 You look tired. 4 Jó barátomnak tartalak. 5 I consider you a good friend. 6 7 Unalmasnak találtam a cikket. 8 I found the article boring. 9 40 5 hó ‘month’, havonként, havonta ‘monthly’, ‘per month’ are exceptions. 41111

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Ez a lakás nem alkalmas nagy családnak. This apartment does not suit a large family.

Oblique cases

6.4.2.1.3 The dative is also used in impersonal constructions (see section 17.7 for more on impersonal constructions):

Gábornak tanulnia kell ma este. Gábor must study this evening. (lit.) It is necessary for Gábor to study this evening. Zsófiának fontos minden nap zongoráznia. It is important for Zsófia to play the piano every day. 6.4.2.1.4 The dative marks the possessor in ‘have’ constructions (see section 17.4 for more on ‘have’ constructions):

Gyulának két húga van. Gyula has two younger sisters. Láza van a lányomnak.

My daughter has a fever.

6.4.2.1.5 The dative may mark the possessor in possessive constructions (see chapter 8 on possessives for discussion of obligatory and optional uses of the dative).

Ennek az árát nem tudom. I don’t know the price of this/its price. Annak a férfinak a kocsija eladó. That man’s car is for sale. Kinek a labdája ez? Whose ball is this? Gábornak fáj a lába. Gábor’s leg hurts.

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1111 2 3 6.4.2.2.1 4 The instrumental denotes the person, material, manner or means of trans- 5 6 portation with which an action is done. 7 Inkább ceruzával írok, mint I prefer to write with a pencil 8 tollal. than a pen. 9 1011 Eljössz velem? Are you coming with me? 1 Már régóta jár Évával. He’s been going with Éva for a 12111 long time. 3 4 Busszal vagy metróval Shall we go by bus or metro? 5 menjünk? 6 Örömmel! With pleasure! (I’d be delighted.) 7 8 9 6.4.2.2.2 20111 The degree of comparison and other measures are expressed with the 1 instrumental. 2 3 Imre két évvel fiatalabb, mint Kornél. 4 Imre is two years younger than Kornél. 5 Régen sokkal hosszabb volt a hajam. 6 My hair was much longer in the old days. 7 8 Vizet iszol? Én is kérek egy pohárral. 9 Are you drinking water? I would also like a glassful. 30111 1 6.4.2.2.3 2 3 The agent of causative constructions is in the instrumental. 4 A szabóval varrattam egy új öltönyt. 5 I had the tailor sew me a new suit. 6 7 Jánossal hívattunk egy taxit. 8 We had János call a taxi. 9 40 41111

6.4.2.2 Instrumental -val/-vel

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6.4.2.2.4 Many verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and the two postpositions együtt ‘together’ and szemben ‘across’ take an instrumental complement.

Oblique cases

Mikor találkoztok az elnökkel? When are you meeting the president? A láda tele van régi ruhával. The chest is full of old clothes. A házzal szemben van egy gyönyöru˝ park. There is a beautiful park across from the house. 6.4.2.3 Translative -vá/-vé The translative has a fairly limited use; it combines with the verbs denoting a change in state, e.g., válik ‘become’, ‘turn into’, lesz ‘become’, tesz ‘make’ and változtat ‘change’ to express what something or someone changes into.

Hallgatag emberré vált, miután meghalt a felesége. He become a quiet man after his wife died. Ezt a kunyhót valódi palotává változtatták. They have changed this shack into a real palace. 6.4.2.4 Causal-final -ért 6.4.2.4.1 The causal-final denotes cause, reason or purpose; it is often translated as ‘for’.

Mindent megtesz a családjáért. He does everything for his family. Elküldtem a boltba kenyérért. I sent him to the store for bread. Zsuzsa eljön a repülo˝térre értem. Zsuzsa is coming for (to meet) me at the airport.

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1111 2 It is used in financial transactions, marking either the price or merchan- 3 dise – whichever is in the ‘for’ phrase in English. 4 5 Hatezer forintot fizetett a cipo˝ért. 6 She paid six thousand forints for the shoes. 7 Hatezer forintért vette a cipo˝t. 8 She bought the shoes for six thousand forints. 9 1011 Mennyiért lehet kapni egy jó üveg bort? 1 How much (money) can you get a good bottle of wine for? 12111 3 6.4.2.4.3 4 5 The demonstrative pronoun in the causal-final case azért ‘for the 6 (following) reason’ introduces clauses of purpose. 7 Azért megyünk a hegyekbe, hogy végre pihenhessünk egy 8 kicsit. 9 The reason we are going to the mountains is so we can finally 20111 rest a bit. 1 2 Azért tanul angolul, hogy többet keressen a munkahelyén. 3 The reason he is studying English is to earn more money at 4 work. 5 6 6.4.2.5 Essive-formal -ként 7 8 The essive-formal means ‘as’ and can be used instead of a clause intro9 duced by mint ‘as’. 30111 Egy évig tanárként dolgozott. She worked as a teacher for a 1 year. 2 3 Egy évig dolgozott, mint tanár. '' 4 Rabszolgaként bánnak velem. They treat me like a slave. 5 6 Úgy bánnak velem, mintha They treat me as if I were a 7 rabszolga lennék. slave. 8 9 40 41111

6.4.2.4.2

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6.4.2.6 Terminative -ig The terminative is used in both temporal and spatial expressions to denote ‘until’. It is often paired with the ablative -tól/-től.

Elkísért bennünket a sarokig.

He accompanied us to the corner.

Nyolctól ötig dolgozik.

She works from eight until five.

Az út csak egy óráig tartott.

The trip lasted only an hour.

Less productive cases

6.4.2.7 Distributive -nként The distributive expresses a regular division and can be translated as ‘per’, ‘by’, ‘every’.

Mennyibe kerül a vacsora fejenként? How much does the dinner cost per person? Óránként fizetnek. They pay by the hour. Egyenként léptek be a terembe. They entered the hall one by one.

6.5

Less productive cases

The following cases are limited in use.

6.5.1 Temporal -kor This denotes ‘at’ for time expressions only.

Hat órakor jön haza. He is coming home at six o’clock. Szép, ha karácsonykor esik a hó. It’s pretty when it snows at Christmas. Éjfélkor szoktam lefeküdni. I usually go to bed at midnight. 117

6 The case system

6.5.2 Distributive-temporal -nta/-nte This suffix attaches to words denoting time expressions to mean ‘per’, ‘every’.

Hetente háromszor van magyar óra. Hungarian class is three times per week. Óránta közlik a híreket. They broadcast the news every hour.

6.5.3 Sociative -stul/-stül The sociative denotes ‘with’ with people or objects closely associated with each other.

Mindig családostul utazik. He always travels with his family. Mindenestül érkezett meg. She arrived with all her belongings/bag and baggage.

6.5.4 Locative -t/-ott/-ett/-ött A few towns and several words may use this locative case to mean ‘in’.6

Pécsett

in Pécs

Gyo˝rött

in Gyo˝r

Kolozsvárt or Kolozsvárott in Kolozsvár

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oldal

side

oldalt

sideways

egyenes

straight

egyenest

straight ahead

6 This is the same ending as found in some adverbs of place: itt ‘here’, ott ‘there’, másutt ‘elsewhere’; and postpositions: alatt ‘under’, előtt ‘in front of’, etc.

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6.6

Verbs and cases

Verbs and cases

The above examples illustrate how cases can have several meanings; of course words and phrases change in meaning when adding different cases; this is comparable to the use of different prepositional phrases in English.

Hiszek Jánosban.

I believe in János.

Hiszek Jánosnak.

I believe János.

Istvánról beszélek.

I am speaking about István.

Istvánnal beszélek.

I am speaking with István.

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In the preceding examples, the meaning of the verb doesn’t change, only the complement of the verb. Often, however, the meaning of a verb can change depending upon which case it governs.

Nem értem a leckét.

I don’t understand the lesson.

Nem értek a fizikához.

I am no good at physics.

Sokáig tartott az elo˝adás.

The lecture lasted a long time.

Sokáig tartotta a síró gyereket.

He held the crying child for a long time.

Attól tartok, hogy rossz jegyet fogok kapni.

I’m afraid I will get a bad grade.

Because the meaning of the verb can change so much, it is important to use a dictionary carefully; a good one will list the meanings of a verb (or other expression) according to the case it governs.

6.7

Plural declension

The plural declension is arrived at by simply forming the plural first and then adding the case suffix to the plural form. A case suffix is added directly to the plural form with the following exceptions: (a) The linking vowel a/e is required after the plural form when suffixing the accusative case. (b) The linking vowel o/e/ö is required after the plural when suffixing the superessive case -n. (c) The temporal -kor, distributive -nként, distributive-temporal -nta/ -nte, and sociative -stul/-stül are not used in the plural.

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Examples of the plural paradigm

6.8

Back vowel

Front unrounded vowel

Front rounded vowel

lány

kert

ismero˝s

girl

garden

acquaintance

nominative

lányok

kertek

ismero˝sök

accusative

lányokat

kerteket

ismero˝söket

inessive

lányokban

kertekben

ismero˝sökben

superessive

lányokon

kerteken

ismero˝sökön

instrumental lányokkal

kertekkel

ismero˝sökkel

Full declension of select nouns

For declensions of all noun types, see appendix 2.

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család

családot

családba

családban

családból

családra

családon

családról

családhoz

családnál

családtól

családnak

családdal

családdá

családért

családként

családig

családonként

––––

családostul

(Kolozsvárt)

accusative

illative

inessive

elative

sublative

superessive

delative

allative

adessive

ablative

dative

instrumental

translative

causal-final

essive-formal

terminative

distributive

temporal

sociative

locative

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nominative

––––

––––

––––

családokig

csészéstül

––––

csészénként

csészéig

csészeként

csészéért

csészévé

csészével

csészének

csészéto˝l

csészénél

csészéhez

csészéro˝l

csészén

csészére

csészébo˝l

csészében

csészébe

csészét

csésze

––––

––––

––––

csészékig

csészékként

csészékért

csészékké

csészékkel

csészéknek

csészékto˝l

csészéknél

csészékhez

csészékro˝l

csészéken

csészékre

csészékbo˝l

csészékben

csészékbe

csészéket

csészék

Plural ‘cups’

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családokként

családokért

családokká

családokkal

családoknak

családoktól

családoknál

családokhoz

családokról

családokon

családokra

családokból

családokban

családokba

családokat

családok

Singular ‘cup’

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Plural ‘families’

órástul

órakor

óránként

óráig

óraként

óráért

órává

órával

órának

órától

óránál

órához

óráról

órán

órára

órából

órában

órába

órát

óra

Singular ‘hour’

11

Singular ‘family’

––––

––––

––––

órákig

órákként

órákért

órákká

órákkal

óráknak

óráktól

óráknál

órákhoz

órákról

órákon

órákra

órákból

órákban

órákba

órákat

órák

Plural ‘hours’

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Chapter 7

Pronouns1

Pronouns replace nouns; personal pronouns refer to people; demonstrative pronouns usually refer to things. Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns refer back to the subject(s) of a sentence. The personal pronouns of Hungarian include both familiar and several formal forms. The demonstrative pronouns have important discourse functions not found in English.

7.1

Personal pronouns

The formation and usage of pronouns in the grammatical cases is different from their formation and usage from the locative and oblique cases.

7.1.1 Nominative and accusative cases

I nom. én

you (sg.)2 she/he we

you (pl.)

te

ti



acc. engem ~ téged ~ o˝t (engemet) (tégedet)

mi

they o˝k

minket ~ titeket ~ o˝ket bennünket benneteket

The first and second person singular pronouns have the option of omitting the accusative ending; it is common to do so – especially in the Budapest dialect. The first and second persons plural have two accusative 1

Adverbial pronouns are treated in chapter 11. The second person forms discussed here are familiar forms. The polite pronouns are discussed in 7.2. 2

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forms; they are used in free variation with no difference in style or meaning. All first and second person pronoun direct objects are considered indefinite.

Personal pronouns

Hungarian sentences do not require the use of a personal pronoun in the nominative or accusative case unless the pronoun is emphasized, contrasted, or referred to specifically. Otherwise it is most often omitted. Third person direct objects are implicit in the definite conjugation of the verb; it is common however to use the pronoun őket and omit the pronoun őt (unless otherwise emphasized). As there is no gender marking in Hungarian, there is only one pronoun for he and she. In the nominative case, the third person pronouns can refer only to people; in the accusative, őket may refer to animals or objects, though őt is usually reserved for humans only; non-human direct objects may be referred to by the demonstrative pronouns, azt, azokat, ezt, ezeket. Nominative pronouns:

Én egy sört fogok rendelni, te mit iszol? I will order a beer, what will you have? Mi angolul beszélünk, o˝k meg magyarul. We speak English and they speak Hungarian. ˝ is, ti is jöttök szombaton. O Both he and you are coming on Saturday. Accusative pronouns:

Látsz engem? Do you see me? Jánost is, téged is látlak. I see both you and János. Ott van Kati, most o˝t is látom. There is Kati, now I see her, too. Várom. I am waiting for him/her/it. Szeretem (o˝t). I love him/her. Szeretem o˝ket. I love them. 123

Mikor hívsz meg minket/bennünket vacsorára? When will you invite us to dinner?

7 Pronouns

Holnap elviszlek titeket/benneteket a moziba. I’ll take you (pl.) to the movies tomorrow. Because pronouns are often omitted, in the absence of context sentences with no overt direct objects are ambiguous in meaning.

Látsz? Do you see me? Do you see us? Do you have the ability to see? Látod? Do you see him/her/it? Do you see them? Várunk. We are waiting for you (singular or plural). We are waiting. Várnak. They are waiting for me/us/you (singular or plural). They are waiting. 7.1.2 Locative and oblique cases The pronouns of the non-grammatical cases are formed by using the case as a stem and suffixing the possessive endings. Pronominal forms do not exist for all cases; the existing pronominalized case forms are given here.

Declension of personal pronouns

Illat. Iness. Elat. Sublat.3 Superess. Delat. All. Adess. Abl. Dat. Instr. Caus.-fin.

sg. 1

sg. 2

sg. 3

pl. 1

pl. 2

pl. 3

belém bennem belo˝lem rám rajtam rólam hozzám nálam to˝lem nekem velem értem

beléd benned belo˝led rád rajtad rólad hozzád nálad to˝led neked veled érted

bele, belé(je) benne belo˝le rá(ja) rajta róla hozzá(ja) nála to˝le neki vele érte

belénk bennünk belo˝lünk ránk rajtunk rólunk hozzánk nálunk to˝lünk nekünk velünk értünk

belétek bennetek belo˝letek rátok rajtatok rólatok hozzátok nálatok to˝letek nektek veletek értetek

beléjük bennük belo˝lük rájuk rajtuk róluk hozzájuk náluk to˝lük nekik velük értük

3

Also, less colloquially, reám, reád, reá(ja), reánk, reátok, reájuk.

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We are speaking about them.

Hiszek benned.

I believe in you.

Rám vársz?

Are you waiting for me?

Mikor jöttök hozzánk?

When will you come to our place?

Adok neki egy rózsát.

I’ll give him/her a rose.

Nincs sok pénz nálam.

I don’t have much money with me.

Polite forms of address

Emphasis of the pronominalized cases is obtained by prefixing the nominative pronoun to the case form; the third person plural prefix, however, is ő (without the final k):4

énbennem, tebenned, o˝benne, mibennünk, tibennetek, o˝bennük, etc. Terád várok, senki másra. I am waiting for you and nobody else. Énnekem küldd el a pénzt, ne a bátyámnak! Send the money to me, not my brother!

0111

Tiveletek akarok menni! I want to go with you! ˝ bennük egyáltalán nem lehet hinni! O You can not believe in them at all!

7.2

Polite forms of address

7.2.1 Usage

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0 1111

Beszélünk róluk.

The pronouns te and ti are used to address friends, relatives, children and animals. The pronouns maga (singular) and maguk (plural) are used to address people you are not as familiar with as well as strangers with whom you wish to maintain a reserved but not too formal relation. They can, however, be quite rude or condescending and it is best to wait until someone addresses you as such before using them. The pronouns ön (singular) and önök (plural) are used to address people with whom you wish to maintain a formal relation. In letters, the polite pronouns are 4

Recall that this is also true with the postpositions and possessive constructions.

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7 Pronouns

126

capitalized. As with all pronouns, when they are subjects or direct objects 1111 they may be omitted. 2 3 (Maga) milyen könyvet keres? 4 What kind of book are you (singular) looking for? 5 6 (Maguk) felszállnak a buszra? 7 Are you (plural) getting on the bus? 8 Kérdezhetek önto˝l valamit? 9 May I ask you (singular) a question, sir/ma’am? 1011 1 Önök ott lesznek a tárgyaláson? 12111 Will you (plural) be at the meeting? 3 Another common and polite form of address uses no pronoun at all. 4 Instead the person’s name or title is used with the third person conju5 gations of the verb. 6 7 Siet a professzor úr? Are you in a hurry, professor? 8 Finally, the use of the verb tetszik (plural: tetszenek) plus the infinitive 9 is a polite form often used by children with adults or by adults with 20111 much older adults. It uses no pronouns. 1 2 Nem tetszik/tetszenek tudni, mennyi az ido˝? 3 Do you (singular/plural) know what time it is? 4 5 6 7.2.2 Declension of polite pronouns 7 The polite pronouns are considered third person pronouns; as such they 8 conjugate with the third person forms of the verb (both singular and 9 plural); when they are direct objects (either overtly stated or implied) they 30111 1 are considered definite (see definite conjugation, section 4.2). 2 Maga and maguk are identical with the reflexive pronouns and decline 3 as any possessed noun. Ön and önök decline as regular nouns. None of 4 the polite pronouns decline as personal pronouns, rather as nouns. 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

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0111

Nom.

maga

maguk

ön

önök

Acc.

magát

magukat

önt

önöket

Illat.

magába

magukba

önbe

önökbe

Iness.

magában

magukban

önben

önökben

Elat.

magából

magukból

önbo˝l

önökbo˝l

Sublat.

magára

magukra

önre

önökre

Superess.

magán

magukon

önön

önökön

Delat.

magáról

magukról

önro˝l

önökro˝l

All.

magához

magukhoz

önhöz

önökhöz

Adess.

magánál

maguknál

önnél

önöknél

Abl.

magától

maguktól

önto˝l

önökto˝l

Dat.

magának

maguknak

önnek

önöknek

Instr.

magával

magukkal

önnel

önökkel

Caus.-fin.

magáért

magukért

önért

önökért

7.2.3 Possessive constructions with polite pronouns The polite pronouns, in keeping with their ‘nounness’, form possessives identical to the nominal possessive constructions:

your (sg.) book

a maga könyve ~ magának a könyve az ön könyve ~ önnek a könyve

your (pl.) book

a maguk könyve ~ maguknak a könyve az önök könyve ~ önöknek a könyve

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Polite forms of address

Declension of polite pronouns

your (sg.) books a maga könyvei ~ magának a könyvei az ön könyvei ~ önnek a könyvei your (pl.) book

a maguk könyvei ~ maguknak a könyvei az önök könyvei ~ önöknek a könyvei

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7.3

Reflexive pronouns

The reflexive pronouns are used when the subject is referred to again in the same clause. It translates as myself, yourself, himself/herself/oneself, etc. Some idioms require the use of the reflexive pronoun where English does not. The reflexive pronouns are the possessive forms of a stem mag-; as such they attach suffixes as any possessed noun and are considered definite when a direct object. It is common in the Budapest dialect to omit the accusative endings on the magam and magad forms.5

Declension of reflexive pronouns sg.1

sg.2

sg.3

pl.1

pl.2

pl.3

Nom.

magam

magad

maga

magunk

magatok

maguk

Acc.

magam(at) magad(at) magát

magunkat

magatokat

magukat

Illat.

magamba

magunkba

magatokba

magukba

Iness.

magamban magadban magában magunkban magatokban magukban

Elat.

magamból

magadból magából magunkból magatokból magukból

Sublat.

magamra

magadra

magára

magunkra

magatokra

magukra

Superess. magamon

magadon

magán

magunkon

magatokon

magukon

Delat.

magamról

magadról magáról magunról

All.

magamhoz magadhoz magához magunkhoz magatokhoz magukhoz

Adess.

magamnál

magadnál nagánál

Abl.

magamtól

magadtól magától magunktól magatoktól maguktól

Dat.

magamnak magadnak magának magunknak magatoknak maguknak

Instr.

magammal magaddal magával magunkkal magatokkal magukkal

Caus.-fin. magamért

128

magadba

magába

magatokról magukról

magunknál magatoknál maguknál

magadért magáért magunkért magatokért magukért

5 Recall that this is true of the first and second person singular personal pronouns as well.

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111

Jól érezzük magunkat ebben a városban. We feel (ourselves) comfortable in this city.

Reciprocal pronoun

Vidd el magaddal a pénzt! Take the money with you. Ilona nem szeret magáról beszélni. Ilona doesn’t like to speak about herself.

7.4

Reciprocal pronoun

011

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The reciprocal pronoun is egymás and is translated as ‘each other’, ‘one another’. The same pronoun is used regardless of person. Egymás declines as a regular noun; when it is the direct object, it is considered definite.

Gyakran látogatjuk egymást. We visit each other often. Egymás mellett ülnek.

They are sitting next to each other.

Sokat várunk egymástól.

We expect a lot of each other.

7.5

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns translate as ‘mine’, ‘yours’, ‘his/hers’, etc. In Hungarian forms exist for plural as well as singular possession. They must always be preceded by the definite article. Possessive pronouns decline as any possessed noun; the possessive endings for polite pronouns are the same as those for regular nouns (see section 8.8).

Possessor

Singular possession

Plural possession

mine

az enyém

yours (te) his/hers yours (maga) yours (ön) ours yours (ti) theirs yours (maguk) yours (önök)

a tied (tiéd) az övé a magáé az öné a mienk (miénk) a tietek (tiétek) az övék a maguké az önöké

az enyéim ~ az enyémek a tieid az övéi a magáéi az önéi a mieink a tieitek az övéik a magukéi az önökéi 129

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130

Megmutattam neked az én fényképeimet, most mutasd meg a tieidet! I showed you my pictures, now you show me yours.

1111 2 3 4 Ezek a könyvek az övéi. 5 These books are his/hers. 6 7 Ez a tied? 8 Is this yours (singular)? 9 A ti lakásotokban öt szoba van, a mienkben csak négy. 1011 In your apartment there are five rooms, in ours there are only 1 four. 12111 3 4 7.6 Demonstrative pronouns 5 6 Hungarian has demonstrative pronouns to replace nouns, adjectives, 7 number and adverbs. (The adverbial pronouns are treated in chapter 11 8 on adverbs.) 9 20111 1 7.6.1 Ez/Az 2 3 The demonstratives ez ‘this’ and az ‘that’ have some anomalies in their 4 declension. 5 6 In the singular declension of the non-grammatical cases, the final 7 -z of the demonstrative pronouns assimilates to the initial 8 consonant of most suffixed cases. 9 Because the initial v- of the instrumental case (-val/-vel) regularly 30111 assimilates to the consonants to its left, two forms exist for 1 the demonstrative pronoun in the singular of this case. 2 3 Note the irregularity (-dd-) in the terminative -ig case formation. 4 5 The plurals and accusatives are formed regularly. 6 7 8 9 40 41111

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011

2111

0111

Demonstrative pronouns

Declension of demonstrative pronouns ez, az Singular

Plural

Nom.

ez

az

ezek

azok

Acc.

ezt

azt

ezeket

azokat

Illat.

ebbe

abba

ezekbe

azokba

Iness.

ebben

abban

ezekben

azokban

Elat.

ebbo˝l

abból

ezekbo˝l

azokból

Sublat.

erre

arra

ezekre

azokra

Superess. ezen

azon

ezeken

azokon

Delat.

erro˝l

arról

ezekro˝l

azokról

All.

ehhez

ahhoz

ezekhez

azokhoz

Adess.

ennél

annál

ezeknél

azoknál

Abl.

etto˝l

attól

ezekto˝l

azoktól

Dat.

ennek

annak

ezeknek

azoknak

Instr.

ezzel, evvel azzal, avval ezekkel

azokkal

Caus.-fin. ezért

azért

ezekért

azokért

Termin.

eddig

addig

ezekig

azokig

Transl.

ezzé

azzé

ezekké

azokké

Ess.-form. ekként

akként

ezekként azokként

Temp.

akkor

––––

ekkor

––––

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7.6.2 Usage of ez and az 7.6.2.1 The demonstrative pronouns may be used to replace a noun or have a deictic function.

Azt láttam.

I saw that/it.

Ezeket megvesszük.

We will buy these (things). 131

7 Pronouns

7.6.2.2 Demonstrative pronouns may also modify nouns. As modifiers the demonstrative pronoun must (1) agree in case and number with the noun it is modifying and (2) the noun must always be immediately followed by the definite article.

Azt a filmet akarom megnézni. I want to watch that movie. Ennek a lánynak fekete a haja. This girl’s hair is black. Erre a buszra szállunk fel. We are getting on this bus. Azokról az emberekro˝l beszéltünk. We were talking about those people. Whether used as a modifier or a noun replacement, the demonstrative pronoun is considered definite when it is the direct object.

7.6.2.3 A more literary demonstrative pronoun is e. This pronoun is used only attributively. Unlike its regular counterpart ez, it does not decline nor is the noun it modifies preceded by the definite article.

E házban lakott az egész család. The entire family lived in this house. E nagyszeru˝ lovon ült a herceg. The prince sat on this magnificent horse. 7.6.2.4 Demonstrative pronouns may also combine with the prefix ugyan- to connote ‘the same’. As with the unprefixed forms, they can replace nouns or modify them.

János megnézte a Szerelem címu˝ filmet. Ugyanezt láttam én is. János saw the movie titled ‘Love’. I saw the same one. 132

Ugyanazt a térképet vettem meg, mint te. I bought the same map as you.

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7.6.3 Adjectival demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns

7.6.3.1 The following pronouns can modify nouns or replace adjectives:

ilyen6

such, this kind

olyan6

such, that kind

ugyanilyen

the same kind (as this)

ugyanolyan

the same kind (as that)

efféle, ilyenféle

this sort of

afféle, olyanféle

that sort of

ekkora

this big

akkora

that big, so big

ugyanekkora

the same size (as this)

uganakkora the same size (as that)

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Ilyen az élet. Such is life. Olyanokat tud mondani, hogy nem hiszek a fülemnek. She says such things, that I can’t believe my ears. Akkora a háza, mint egy kastély. Her house is as big as a castle. Ugyanekkora házat vettem én is. I bought a house the same size. 7.6.3.2 The pronouns ilyesmi ‘such a thing (as this)’ and olyasmi ‘such a thing (as that)’ are demonstrative pronouns. They are very common in colloquial usage and decline as regular nouns.

Ilyesmit soha életemben nem hallottam. I never heard such a thing in my life. Nem szokott olyasmiket mondani. She doesn’t usually say things like that.

6 Less colloquial forms include ily, emilyen ‘such’, ‘this kind’ and oly, amolyan ‘such’, ‘that kind’.

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7 Pronouns

134

1111 2 3 These demonstrative pronouns replace expressions of quantity. 4 ennyi this much/many annyi so/that much/many 5 6 ugyanennyi this same amount/ ugyanannyi that same amount/ 7 number number 8 Én ugyanannyit fizettem az autóért, mint te. 9 I paid as much for the car as you did. 1011 1 Sohasem láttam ennyi embert egy helyen! 12111 I have never seen this many people in one place! 3 4 5 7.7 Interrogative pronouns 6 7 7.7.1 8 9 The interrogative pronouns ki ‘who’ and mi ‘what’ decline exactly as 20111 regular nouns. They can be singular or plural. When direct objects, they 1 are considered indefinite. 2 3 Kit láttál tegnap este az étteremben? 4 Who did you see last night in the restaurant? 5 Mik azok a kezedben? 6 What are those in your hand? 7 Kito˝l kaptad azt a könyvet? 8 From whom did you receive that book? 9 30111 Miro˝l szól a film? 1 What is the movie about? 2 Kire vártok? 3 Who are you waiting for? 4 5 6 7.7.2 7 8 The interrogative pronoun melyik ‘which’ is considered definite when a 9 direct object. Its plural is melyek, and otherwise declines regularly. 40 41111 Melyik tollat kéred? Which pen would you like?

7.6.4 Numerical demonstrative pronouns

111

It can also take the plural possessive suffixes:

melyikünk

which of us

melyiketek, melyiko˝tök

which of you

melyikük

which of them

Interrogative pronouns

Melyiko˝tök Kis György? Which one of you is György Kis?

011

7.7.3

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

The adjectival interrogative pronouns are:

milyen

what kind of

mely

which

miféle, mifajta

what sort of

mekkora

how large

Milyen húst veszel ma? What kind of meat are you buying today? Mekkora a lakása?

How big is her apartment?

Miféle filmet szeret?

What sort of movie do you like?

7.7.4 The numerical interrogative pronouns are mennyi ‘how much’, hány ‘how many’, hányadik ‘what ordinal number’. They may either modify nouns or replace numerals.

Mennyi pénz van nálad? How much money do you have on you? Mennyibe kerül a vonatjegy? How much does the train ticket cost? Hány kiló krumplit kér? How many kilos of potatoes would you like? Hányadik emeleten laknak? Which floor (lit., what numbered floor, fourth?, fifth?, etc.) do they live on? 135

7 Pronouns

7.8

Relative pronouns

The relative pronouns aki ‘who’, ami ‘what’, ‘which’, ‘that’ decline exactly as their corresponding interrogative pronouns. Amely is another relative pronoun with the same meaning as ami; ami is more common in colloquial speech. When direct objects, these pronouns are always considered indefinite. Relative pronouns are always preceded by a comma.

Ismered a lányt, akiro˝l beszélek? Do you know the girl (who) I’m talking about? Elolvastam a könyvet, amit küldtél nekem. I read the book that you sent me. A kedvenc szobrom, amelyet Varga Imre alkotott, Óbudán áll. My favorite statue, which Imre Varga sculpted, is in Óbuda. Additional relative pronouns are formed by prefixing a- to the interrogative pronoun; they decline as their corresponding pronouns do: amelyik, amilyen, amekkora, ahány, amennyi.

Nem keresünk annyit, amennyit szeretnénk. We do not earn as much as we would like. Nem ismered a színdarabot, amelyikro˝l beszélek? Don’t you know the play which I am talking about?

7.9

Cataphoric use of pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns (of nouns, adjectives and number) are commonly used cataphorically, i.e., to refer ahead or refer back to something previously mentioned. Most commonly, the back vowel forms (az, olyan, annyi, etc.) refer to a later, forthcoming clause; the front vowel forms (ez, ilyen, ennyi, etc.) refer to an earlier clause, sentence or utterance. English does not have a close equivalent to these pronouns; they are often left untranslated or another circumlocution is employed. Their importance in clear Hungarian prose cannot be underestimated.

136

János nem szerette azt, hogy beszéltek róla. Ezt én sem szeretem. János didn’t like (the fact) that they were talking about him. I don’t like it either.

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111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Annak örülök, hogy hazamehetek karácsonyra. I am glad (of the fact) that I can go home for Christmas.

Indefinite pronouns

Megnyerte a lottót, és ekkor kezdo˝dött a baj. He won the lottery and that is when the trouble started. Annyi cipo˝je van neki, hogy nem fér el a szekrényben. She has so many shoes that they don’t fit in the closet.

7.10

Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are formed by adding the prefix vala- to the interrogatives.

nouns: valami valaki valamelyik

something someone one or the other

adjectives: valamilyen valamiféle valamekkora

some kind of some kind of of some size

numerical expressions some amount of valamennyi7 valahány some number of Other indefinite pronouns are formed by attaching the prefixes akár‘(just) any’, ‘no matter (who, what,’ etc.), bár ‘any’ to the interrogative pronouns.

Akármit mondasz, elindulok holnap. No matter what you say, I’m leaving tomorrow. Melyik CD-t akarja hallgatni? Bármelyiket, nekem mindegy. Which CD would you like to Any one at all, it’s all the listen to? same to me.

7 valamennyi, paradoxically, also means ‘every’, ‘all’: Valamennyien jöttek. ‘Everyone came.’

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138

There can be a slight difference in the meaning between the two prefixes: 1111 2 Akárki jöhet a konferenciára. 3 Bárki jöhet a konferenciára. 4 Anyone may come to the conference. 5 The first sentence has the meaning that any type of individual may come 6 to the conference; the second that the conference is open to all, i.e., the 7 first sentence says more about the pronoun subject, the second says more 8 about the whole situation. 9 1011 1 7.11 Negative and universal pronouns 12111 3 The negative pronouns are formed by attaching the prefix se-/sem- to the 4 interrogative pronoun. The universal pronouns are usually formed by 5 prefixing the word minden. There are several exceptions in prefixing as 6 the table below shows. The negative and universal pronouns decline 7 exactly as their corresponding pronouns (except minden, which declines 8 as a regular noun). 9 20111 nouns: 1 ki who mindenki everyone senki nobody 2 mi what minden/ everything, semmi nothing 3 mind all 4 melyik which mindegyik each, every semelyik not one 5 adjectives: 6 milyen what kind semmilyen no kind 7 8 miféle what kind mindenféle all kinds semmiféle no kind 9 mekkora how big semekkora of no 30111 size 1 2 numerical expression: 3 mennyi how much minden, mind every4 thing, 5 all 6 semennyi none at all hány how many 7 Double negation is always required in sentences containing a negative 8 pronoun. The negatives nem/ne/nincs can be replaced by sem/se/sincs if 9 a negative pronoun precedes it in the sentence; otherwise, nem/ne/nincs 40 must be used. 41111

111

Itt mindenki magyarul beszél. Itt senki sem/nem beszél magyarul. Everyone speaks Hungarian here. No one speaks Hungarian here. Nem találkoztam senkivel az úton. I didn’t meet anybody on the trip.

Senkivel nem/sem találkoztam az úton. I didn’t meet anybody on the trip.

011

Nincs semmi a szekrényben.

2111

There is nothing in the closet.

Semmi nincs/sincs a szekrényben. There is nothing in the closet.

Negative and universal pronouns

0111

0111

0 1111

139

Chapter 8

Possession

Hungarian indicates possession with a personal possessive ending attached to the noun. Thus, for example, in the word autóm the ending -m ‘my’ is attached to the word autó ‘car’ to mean ‘my car’. Cases may subsequently follow possessive endings: autóm + ban ‘in my car’. The plural -k may not be used with possessive endings; instead there is a separate plural possessive paradigm which uses the plural marker -i: autóim ‘my cars’. Although the possessive is usually attached to nouns, it may sometimes attach to adjectives being used as nouns: drága ‘dear’; drágám ‘my dear (one)’. Nouns marked with a possessive ending are usually preceded by the definite article. Although the definite article is rarely omitted in colloquial speech, it is often omitted in writing – especially at the beginning of sentences. For emphasis or purposes of contrast, the personal pronoun may precede the possessed word. In this case, the definite article is always used. The personal pronouns are always in the nominative form with one exception: the third person plural pronoun is ő (not ők!), i.e., it is identical with the third person singular pronoun.1 In the following tables the personal pronouns are used for the sake of clarity.

8.1

Singular possessive endings

Possessive endings (as with the plural and accusative endings) may effect a change in the word stem and may or may not need a linking vowel when suffixed. The third person endings are the trickiest (and least predictable) to form; the first and second person endings are stable.

140

1

Compare with the postpositions and declension of personal pronouns.

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8.1.1 Vowel-final stems For words ending in a vowel, the possessive endings are always

my

-m

our

-nk

your (sg.)

-d

your (pl.)

-tok, -tek, -tök

his/her

-ja, -je

their

-juk, -jük

Singular possessive endings

011

2111

For words ending in a or e the vowel is lengthened to á, é, respectively, when adding the possessive ending. Other vowel-final words have no change in the stem.

Vowel-final stems-possessive singular táska bag

csésze cup

autó car

bábu puppet

cipo˝ shoe

csészém

autóm

bábum

cipo˝m

táskád

csészéd

autód

bábud

cipo˝d

his/her

az o˝ táskája

csészéje

autója

bábuja

cipo˝je

our

a mi táskánk csészénk autónk bábunk

0111

my

az én táskám

your (sg.) a te

your (pl.) a ti their

cipo˝nk

táskátok csészétek autótok bábutok cipo˝tök

az o˝ táskájuk csészéjük autójuk bábujuk cipo˝jük

0111

0 1111

8.1.2 Consonant-final stems For words ending in a consonant the possessive endings are somewhat different than for those ending in a vowel. The same noun classes recognized for the nominative plural must be recognized here. (See section 5.3 for a review of noun classes.) The noun classes determine both the shape of the stem and the linking vowel choice when suffixing the possessive.

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8 Possession

stems which require the linking vowel choice a/e: low vowel nouns (both classes: loss of length/no loss of length) v-stem (v-stem is required when suffixing possessive) -alom/-elem class (omits the last vowel when suffixing) all other nouns require the linking vowel choice o/e/ö: fleeting vowel nouns (omit last vowel when suffixing) regular nouns

Possessive endings for consonant-final stems (V stands for linking vowel) my

-Vm

our

-unk, -ünk

your (sg.)

-Vd

your (pl.)

-Vtok, -Vtek, -Vtök

his/her

-(j)a, -(j)e

their

-(j)uk, -(j)ük

As the table illustrates, the én, te, and ti forms require a linking vowel (which is determined by stem-type).

regular noun:

barát

low vowel noun: toll regular noun:

friend

a barátom

my friend

pen

a tollad

your (sg.) pen

testvér sibling a testvéretek your (pl.) sibling

The mi possessive ending begins with a vowel; therefore, no linking vowel is required.

szomszéd

neighbor

a szomszédunk

our neighbor

hely

place

a helyünk

our place

The third person forms do not use a linking vowel; here, however, it must be determined whether the ending includes a j. (Both the third person singular and plural suffixes behave identically, i.e., if one includes the j in the suffix, then so does the other.) There are some rules, tendencies and much free variation in determining the presence or absence of j.

Rules:

142

Words ending in j, gy, ly, ny, ty, s, sz, z, zs, c, cs do not take a j (except nagy).

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Low vowel words (including v-stems) do not take a j (the exceptions are kád, nád, vad, rúd, lúd, út, kút, föld2). Fleeting vowel words do not take a j. Nouns ending in f and ch do take a j.

Singular possessive endings

Tendencies: Nouns formed with the derivational ending -at/-et rarely take a j. Back vowel words ending in p, t, k, b, d, g usually take a j. Words ending in consonant clusters often take a j. Words ending in h usually do not take a j (exceptions are pléh, sah).

Examples of third person possessives description

his/her

their

ends in ny

a festménye

a festményük

garázs garage ends in zs

a garázsa

a garázsuk

tál bowl

low vowel word

a tála

a táluk

kosár basket

low vowel word

a kosara

a kosaruk

ló horse

v-stem

a lova

a lovuk

festmény painting

tükör mirror fleeting vowel word a tükre

a tükrük

feladat task

derivation -at

a feladata

a feladatuk

szomszéd neighbor

back vowel, ends in d

a szomszédja a szom0szédjuk

barát friend

back vowel, ends in t

a barátja

a barátjuk

kert garden

ends in consonant cluster

a kertje

a kertjük

2 Note that these exceptions all end in the dentals d or t; with the exception of hát ‘back’, we may say that all low vowel words ending in d or t require the jinitial third person possessive suffixes. Also note that the words, híd, rúd, lúd, út and kút, which customarily lose length of the vowel when adding the plural, accusative, and first and second person possessive suffixes, do not lose length when adding the third person possessive suffixes.

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8 Possession

For any stem-type not described above there is no consistent way to guess whether the third person suffixes include a j or not. In addition, there is free variation in some vocabulary where the suffix takes either the j-initial or the j-less suffix; however, the j-initial suffix is becoming more common in the modern language.

8.1.2.1 Possessive paradigms according to stem-type

Low vowel possessive singular (No loss of length) váll könny shoulder tear my

az én vállam

(Loss of length) pohár ész glass mind

könnyem

poharam

eszem

your (sg.) a te

vállad

könnyed

poharad

eszed

his/her

az o˝

válla

könnye

pohara

esze

our

a mi vállunk könnyünk poharunk eszünk

your (pl.) a ti

vállatok könnyetek poharatok eszetek

their

válluk

az o˝

könnyük

poharuk

eszük

v-stem possessive singular

144

ló horse

cso˝ pipe

my

az én

lovam

csövem

your (sg.)

a te

lovad

csöved

his/her

az o˝

lova

csöve

our

a mi

lovunk

csövünk

your (pl.)

a ti

lovatok

csövetek

their

az o˝

lovuk

csövük

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Singular possessive endings

-alom/-elem stems possessive singular jutalom reward

érzelem feeling

my

az én

jutalmam

érzelmem

your (sg.)

a te

jutalmad

érzelmed

his/her

az o˝

jutalma

érzelme

our

a mi

jutalmunk

érzelmünk

your (pl.)

a ti

jutalmatok

érzelmetek

their

az o˝

jutalmuk

érzelmük

Fleeting vowel possessive singular álom dream

terem hall

ököl fist

my

az én

álmom

termem

öklöm

your (sg.)

a te

álmod

termed

öklöd

his/her

az o˝

álma

terme

ökle

our

a mi

álmunk

termünk

öklünk

your (pl.)

a ti

álmotok

termetek

öklötök

their

az o˝

álmuk

termük

öklük

Regular possessive singular

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0 1111

nadrág pants my

az én nadrágom

szék chair

ismero˝s acquaintance

székem

ismero˝söm

your (sg.) a te

nadrágod

széked

ismero˝söd

his/her

az o˝

nadrágja

széke

ismero˝se

our

a mi

nadrágunk

székünk

ismero˝sünk

your (pl.) a ti

nadrágotok

széketek

ismero˝sötök

their

nadrágjuk

székük

ismero˝sük

az o˝

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8.2

8 Possession

Plural possessive endings

The plural possessive paradigm marks the plurality of the possessed item,3 e.g., my dogs, his sisters. In the possessive paradigm the plural suffix is -i (never -k), followed by the personal endings. The personal endings are slightly different in the plural paradigm, but unlike the singular paradigm, they are unchanging:

my

-i-m

our

-i-nk

your (sg.)

-i-d

your (pl.)

-i-tok/-i-tek4

his/her

-i

their

-i-k

8.2.1 Vowel-final words The plural -i attaches directly to words ending in a vowel. If the vowel is a or e, it is lengthened to á or é.

Vowel-final stems – possessive plural óra clock my

az én óráim

csésze cup

szeplo˝ freckle

kapu gate

csészéim

szeplo˝im kapuim

your (sg.) a te

óráid

csészéid

szeplo˝id

kapuid

his/her

az o˝

órái

csészéi

szeplo˝i

kapui

our

a mi óráink

csészéink szeplo˝ink kapuink

your (pl.) a ti

óráitok csészéitek szeplo˝itek kapuitok

their

óráik

az o˝

csészéik

szeplo˝ik

kapuik

3 Note that (unlike English) if each possessor has only one of a particular item, then the singular possessive paradigm is used.

Az orvos megvizsgálta a torkukat. The doctor examined their throats (they each have one throat). 4

146

There is no -tök option here because in the plural there is never a front rounded vowel immediately preceding the personal ending.

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8.2.2 Consonant-final words The plural -i can not attach directly to words ending in a consonant. Instead, it must be preceded by -(j)a/-(j)e (identical with the third person possessive singular). As a rule, if the third person possessive includes a j in the singular paradigm for consonant-final words, then the j-initial suffix is employed throughout the plural paradigm as well.5

011

Consonant-final stems – possessive plural

2111

toll pen

my

0 1111

az én tollaim

your (sg.) a ti

0111

0111

Plural possessive endings

tollaid

kert garden

bu ˝n crime

köröm kalap (finger/toe) hat nail

kertjeim bu ˝ neim

körmeim

kalapjaim

kertjeid

bu ˝ neid

körmeid

kalapjaid

bu ˝ nei

körmei

kalapjai

his/her

az o˝ tollai

kertjei

our

a mi tollaink

kertjeink bu ˝ neink körmeink kalapjaink

your (pl.) a ti their

8.3

tollaitok kertjeitek bu ˝ neitek körmeitek kalapjaitok

az o˝ tollaik

kertjeik

bu ˝ neik

körmeik

kalapjaik

ó~a and o˝ ~e stems

Several nouns display an alternation in their final vowel in the third person forms of possession: in back-vowel stems the word-final ó becomes a before the third person possessive suffixes. Similarly, in front-vowel stems, word-final ő becomes e before the suffix. Because the plural possessive is based on the singular possessive third person forms, this alternation may be continued there as well.

5

There are, however, numerous exceptions, e.g., barátjuk ‘their friend’ ~ barátaik ‘their friends’.

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8 Possession

148

ido˝ time

ajtó

szülo˝

1111 2 my az én ido˝m ajtóm ajtaim ~ ajtóim szülo˝m szüleim 3 4 your (sg.) a te ido˝d ajtód ajtaid ~ ajtóid szülo˝d szüleid 5 his/her az o˝ ideje ajtaja ~ ajtai ~ ajtói szüleje~ szülei 6 ajtója szülo˝je 7 our a mi ido˝nk ajtónk ajtaink ~ ajtóink szülo˝nk szüleink 8 9 your (pl.) a ti ido˝tök ajtótok ajtaitok ~ ajtóitok szülo˝tök szüleitek 1011 1 their az o˝ idejük ajtajuk ~ ajtaik ~ ajtóik szülejük~ szüleik 12111 ajtójuk szülo˝jük 3 There is much free variation among these forms. Other nouns which 4 exhibit this alternation are: 5 6 csikó foal erdo˝ forest vesszo˝ stick 7 disznó pig ero˝ force vo˝ son-in-law 8 hintó carriage esztendo˝ year 9 20111 hordó vat fo˝ head, person 1 koporsó coffin mezo˝ field 2 orsó spindle teto˝ roof 3 tinó steer tüdo˝ lung 4 5 zászló flag velo˝ marrow 6 nouns formed with the suffix -so˝ 7 belso˝ interior, elso˝ (the) first, felso˝ upper (part), külso˝ exterior 8 9 30111 8.4 Kinship terms 1 2 The following terms are irregular in forming the possessive: 3 apa6 anya bátya öcs 4 father mother older brother younger brother 5 sg. pl. sg. pl. 6 my az én apám anyám bátyám bátyáim öcsém öcséim 7 8 your (sg.) a te apád anyád bátyád bátyáid öcséd öcséid 9 40 6 An older form for ‘father’, atya, used mostly in religious terminology, declines 41111 exactly as apa. door

doors

parent

parents

111

his/her

az o˝

apja

anyja

bátyja

our

a mi

apánk

anyánk

bátyánk bátyáink öcsénk öcséink

your (pl.)

a ti

apátok anyátok bátyátok bátyáitok öcsétek öcséitek

their

az o˝

apjuk

anyjuk

bátyjuk

bátyái

bátyáik

fiú7 son

011

2111

öccse

öcséi

Nominal possession

öccsük öcséik

néne aunt

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

my

az én

fiam

fiaim

néném

nénéim

your (sg.)

a te

fiad

fiaid

nénéd

nénéid

his/her

az o˝

fia

fiai

nénje

nénéi

our

a mi

fiunk

fiaink

nénénk

nénéink

your (pl.)

a ti

fiatok

fiaitok

nénétek

nénéitek

their

az o˝

fiuk

fiaik

nénjük

nénjeik

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8.5

Nominal possession

In addition to pronouns indicating possession (my book, our garden, etc.) other nouns may possess items (John’s book, the story of his life, etc.).

8.5.1 Marking the possessor In Hungarian the nominal possessive relationship has two variants: (1) the possessor is unmarked (i.e., in the nominative case) and (2) the possessor is marked with the dative case. In both instances, the possessed item is marked with a third person possessive ending.

Kornél kalapja ~ Kornélnak a kalapja

Kornél’s hat

egy anya gyerekei ~ egy anyának a gyerekei

a mother’s children

7

When fiú means ‘boy’, the possessive declension is regular; it is only irregular with the meaning ‘son’.

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8 Possession

Magyarország fo˝városa ~ Magyarországnak a fo˝városa

the capital of Hungary

8.5.1.1 When the possessor is in the nominative case, the possessed noun is not preceded by the definite article and the possessor must immediately precede the possessed noun or noun phrase.

Nem értettem a szöveg lényegét. I did not understand the point of the text. Gyula kutyája nem harap. Gyula’s dog does not bite. A lakosság húsz százaléka a fo˝városban lakik. Twenty percent of the population lives in the capital. 8.5.1.2 When the possessor is in the dative case the possessed noun is most often preceded by the definite article and the possessor may occur before or after the possessed noun (or may be entirely displaced).

Imrének fáj a lába. ~ Fáj a lába Imrének. ~ Imrének a lába fáj. Imre’s foot hurts. The definite article is not used if the possessed noun is otherwise determined.

A lakosságnak húsz százaléka a fo˝városban lakik. Twenty percent of the population lives in the capital. 8.5.1.3 The possessor must be in the dative case if

(a) it is ez, az, ezek, or azok: Annak a címét elfelejtettem. I forgot its title. (b) it is modified by ez, az, ezek, or azok:

150

Ezeknek a szobáknak fehérek a falai. The walls of these rooms are white.

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Ennek az iskolának a homlokzata nagyon régi. This school’s facade is very old.

Nominal possession

(c) it is ki/kik or mi/mik. Kinek a kutyája ez? Whose dog is this? Minek az ára ez? What is this the price of?

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8.5.2 Marking the possessed The following table illustrates the possessive endings for singular and plural nominal possession. Note that, unlike the pronominal paradigm, the number (singular or plural) of the possessor is indicated on the possessor, the number of the possessed is indicated on the possessed.

Singular possessed

Plural possessed

the boy’s book (one boy, one book)

the boy’s books (one boy, several books)

Singular possessor a fiú könyve ~ a fiúnak a könyve

a fiú könyvei ~ a fiúnak a könyvei

the boys’ book (several the boys’ books (several boys, one book) boys, several books)

Plural possessor a fiúk könyve ~ a a fiúknak a könyve

a fiúk könyvei ~ a fiúknak a könyvei

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Note the difference in the way anya is marked in the following. In both sentences anya ‘mother’ is possessed by a plurality of individuals; in the first sentence, however, it is possessed by a pronoun, in the second, by a noun.

Pronominal possession: Ismerem az (o˝) anyjukat. I know their mother.

Nominal possession: Ismerem a fiúk anyját. I know the boys’ mother. 151

8.6

8 Possession

Possession and formal forms of address

The terms maga, maguk, ön, and önök form their possessives as nominal possession.

Meleg a maga kabátja ~ magának a kabátja? Is your coat warm? Ezek az önök fényképei ~ önöknek a fényképei? Are these your pictures?

8.7

Possessive declension

8.7.1 Accusative Third person singular possessive forms end in a vowel and therefore do not require a linking vowel; a and e are lengthened to á and é before the accusative.

Keressük a kocsiját/szemüvegét/leveleit. We are looking for his car/glasses/letters. The linking vowel for the accusative case is a or e after all other possessive endings.

Elkérték a jegyünket.

They asked for our tickets.

Elveszik a kabátotokat.

They’ll take your coats.

The accusative is optional after nouns possessed by the first or second persons singular; after all other possessive endings it may not be omitted.8

Ismerem a bátyád ~ bátyádat. I know your brother. Meglátogattuk az egyik ismero˝söm ~ ismero˝sömet. We visited a friend of mine. Otthon hagytam a könyveim ~ könyveimet. I left my books at home.

152

8

Compare with the accusative case of the personal and reflexive pronouns.

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8.7.2 Other cases All other cases suffix regularly. For complete paradigms, see appendix 2.

Beszálltunk a kocsijába.

We got into his car.

Olvastam a sikereidro˝l.

I’ve read about your successes.

Nonattributive possession

Állandóan gondol a barátaira. She is always thinking about her friends. Sokat fizetett a házáért.

She paid a lot for her house.

011

8.8

Non-attributive possession: é, éi

2111 The suffix é, plural éi, is attached to nouns to denote ‘belonging to’. It is added directly to nouns; it lengthens final vowels a, e to á, é; otherwise no other stem changes occur. It can attach to singular, plural, or possessed nouns and may be followed by a case. The interrogative form is kié in the singular; the plural kiéi is seldom used.9

friend

singular

plural

barát

baráté

barátéi

sg1poss

barátom

barátomé

barátoméi

sg2poss

barátod

barátodé

barátodéi

sg3poss

barátja

barátjáé

barátjáéi

p1poss

barátunk

barátunké

barátunkéi

pl2poss

barátotok

barátotoké

barátotokéi

pl3poss

barátjuk

barátjuké

barátjukéi

barátok

barátoké

barátokéi

sg1poss

barátaim

barátaimé

barátaiméi

sg2poss

barátaid

barátaidé

barátaidéi

sg3poss

barátai

barátaié

barátaiéi

p1poss

barátaink

barátainké

barátainkéi

pl2poss

barátaitok

barátaitoké

barátaitokéi

pl3poss

barátaik

barátaiké

barátaikéi

0111

friends

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non-attributive possessive

9

In the plural, a question form with a nominal possession construction is preferred: Kinek a táskái azok? ‘Whose bags are those?’ replaces Kiéi azok a táskák? ‘Whose are those bags?’.

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8 Possession

Ez a lakás Zsuzsáé. Zsuzsa lakását már béreltem, de Imréét sohasem. This apartment is Zsuzsa’s. I have rented Zsuzsa’s apartment, but never Imre’s. Ezek a kulcsok a barátodéi. Ezek a kulcsok az övéi, de nem találom az apáméit. These keys are your friend’s. These keys are hers, but I can’t find my father’s.

154

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Chapter 9

Postpositions

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Postpositions supplement the case system and provide additional ways of expressing temporal, spatial, or other abstraction realtionships. As the name implies, postpositions follow a noun phrase instead of preceding it. The noun phrase is usually in the nominative case, though some postpositions require a noun phrase marked with a different case. Postpositions share several characteristics with cases. In addition to the abstract postpositions there is a locative system; postpositions may be used as roots to which personal suffixes are attached; demonstrative pronouns exhibit a pattern of agreement as similarly found with cases; verbs may govern postpositional phrases; and like phrases marked with the oblique cases, postpositional phrases function as adverbials, thus they also share word order patterns.

9.1

Some postpositions of time

közben

during

múlva

in, after (+ time expression)

óta

since

tájt

around, about

Három nap múlva jövök haza. I’ll come home in three days. Az elo˝adás közben senki sem beszélt. No one spoke during the lecture. 155

9 Postpositions

9.2

Postpositions with possessive suffixes

Possessive suffixes attach to postpositions ending in consonants as they would to low-vowel noun stems. Added emphasis may be supplied by prefixing the personal pronoun to the postposition. As with the possessive declension of nouns, the third person plural possessive pronoun in this case is ő (not ők).

9.2.1 Some postpositions taking possessive suffixes által

by (means of)

miatt

because of

ellen

against

nélkül

without

helyett

instead of

szerint

according to

iránt

towards, for

után

after

kívül

besides, except

9.2.2 Sample possessive paradigms of postpositions1 (emphatic)

156

szerintem

énszerintem

according to me

szerinted

teszerinted

''

you (sg.)

szerinte

o˝szerinte

''

him/her

szerintünk

miszerintünk

''

us

szerintetek

tiszerintetek

''

you (pl.)

szerintük

o˝szerintük

''

them

1 Recall that for most purposes the formal forms of address behave like nouns; thus the postposition paradigms for maga, maguk, ön, önök are like those for nouns: Maga nélkül ‘without you’, önök után ‘after you’, etc.

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(emphatic)

111

miattam

énmiattam

because of me

miattad

temiattad

''

you (sg.)

miatta

o˝miatta

''

him/her

miattunk

mimiattunk

''

us

miattatok

timiattatok

''

you (pl.)

011

miattuk

o˝miattuk

''

them

2111

Velem vagy, vagy ellenem? Are you with me or against me?

Postpositions of location

János nélkül nem megyünk, o˝ se megy nélkülünk. We will not go without János, he won’t go without us either. Ne aggódjatok o˝miattuk! Don’t worry on account of them!

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9.3

Postpositions of location

The following are postpositions that adhere to the same tri-part directional system as found with the locative cases.

Motion toward ➩●

No motion ●

Motion away ●➩

elé

elo˝tt

elo˝l

in front of

mögé

mögött

mögül

behind

fölé

fölött/felett

fölül

above

alá

alatt

alól

below

mellé

mellett

mello˝l

next to

közé

között

közül

between

köré

körül

––––

around

felé

––––

felo˝l

in the direction of 157

9 Postpositions

158

Négy szék van az asztal körül. There are four chairs around the table.

1111 2 3 Felakasztotta a festményt a két ablak közé. 4 She hung the painting up between the two windows. 5 A szo˝nyeg alá seperte a port. 6 He swept the dust under the rug. 7 8 9 9.3.1 1011 1 These postpositions may also add possessive suffixes. Note that with post- 12111 positions ending in a vowel (elé, mögé, fölé, alá, közé, köré, and felé), the 3 third person singular forms may occur with or without the -ja/-je suffix. 4 5 elém, eléd, elé(je), elénk, elétek, eléjük 6 toward in front of me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 7 elo˝ttem, elo˝tted, elo˝tte, elo˝ttünk, elo˝ttetek, elo˝ttük 8 in front of me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 9 20111 elo˝lem, elo˝led, elo˝le, elo˝lünk, elo˝letek, elo˝lük 1 from in front of me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 2 3 alám, alád, alá(ja), alánk, alátok, alájuk 4 toward beneath me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 5 alattam, alattad, alatta, alattunk, alattatok, alattuk 6 beneath me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 7 8 alólam, alólad, alóla, alólunk, alólatok, alóluk 9 from beneath me, you (sg.), him/her/it . . . 30111 1 Gyere ide mellém! 2 Come here next to me! 3 Ki áll mögötted? 4 Who is standing behind you? 5 6 Elénk tárult a balatoni táj. 7 The Balaton landscape unfolded before us. 8 9 40 41111

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9.4

Postpositions governing cases

The following postpositions govern cases other than the nominative.

superessive (-o/-e/-ö)-n +

alul

at the bottom

át

across, through

belül

within

felül/fölül

at the top

011

innen

this side of

2111

keresztül

through

kívül2

besides, outside of, except for

túl

beyond

Egy órán belül elkészül. It will be ready within an hour. Tiszán innen, Dunán túl . . . This side of the Tisza, beyond the Danube . . . (folk song)

0111

sublative

-ra/-re +

nézve

with respect to

Rám nézve végtelenül nehéz volt az út. The trip was extremely difficult for me. delative

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Postpositions governing case

-ról/-ro˝l +

nézve

as seen from

Közelebbro˝l nézve láttuk, hogy az aláírás hamis volt. Upon closer inspection we saw that the signature was fake.

2

kívül has two paradigms with personal endings: kívülem, kívüled, kívüle, kívülünk, kívületek, kívülük as well as rajtam kívül, rajtad kívül, rajta kívül, rajtunk kívül, rajtatok kívül, rajtuk kívül.

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9 Postpositions

allative

-hoz/-hez/-höz + hasonlóan similar to képest

compared to

Hozzád képest Ilona gyakran megy moziba. Compared you, Ilona goes to the movies a lot. ablative

-tól/-to˝l +

fogva

from, since

kezdve

starting from

Januártól kezdve szorgalmasabban tanul. He has been studying more diligently ever since January. instrumental -val/-vel +

együtt

together

szemben

opposite to, facing

A házzal szemben van egy gyönyöru˝ gesztenyefa. There is a beautiful chestnut tree across the way from the house.

9.5

Complex postpositions

9.5.1 Some postpositions are formed of a root, a possessive suffix, and a case.3 The third person singular forms can be used nominally as well as pronominally, thus the preceding noun phrase may be in either the nominative or dative case.

(az én)

számomra for my part

(a te)

számodra

(az o˝), valaki, mindenki, etc. számára

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for your (sg.) part for his/her, someone’s, everyone’s part

3 Structurally these are simply nominal possessive constructions; they are included here as postpositions by convention only.

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(a mi)

számunkra for our part

(a ti)

számotokra for your (pl.) part

(az o˝)

számukra

Complex postpositions

for their part

The following postpositions pattern identically:

ellenemre, ellenedre, ellenére,etc. in spite of me, you, him/her/it . . . kedvemért, kedvedért, kedvéért, etc. for my, your, his/her sake . . . részemre, részedre, részére, etc. for my, your, his/her part . . . javamra, javadra, javára, etc. in my, your, his/her favor . . . Számomra is lesz hely? Will there be room for me too? Annak ellenére, hogy esett az eso˝, a fiúk tovább fociztak a kertben. Despite the fact that it was raining, the boys continued to play soccer in the yard. A maga kedvéért tettem meg. I did it for your sake.

9.5.2 The following postpositions occur with the third person possessive suffix only, i.e., they are not used with pronouns:

folyamán

in the course of

jóvoltából

thanks to, due to

következtében

as a consequence of

mentén

along

révén

through, by means of

során

in the course of

útján

through, by means of

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A patak mentén találtam egy aranygyu˝ru˝t. I found a gold ring along by the stream. A hosszú tárgyalás folyamán mindenki el tudta mondani a véleményét. Everyone was able to voice his opinion in the course of the long discussion.

9.6

Demonstratives and postpositions

In the same way that demonstratives agree in case and number with the noun they modify, so do they agree in postposition. Compare the following:

ezek elo˝tt a házak elo˝tt in front of these houses

ezekben a házakban in these houses

Similarly, the final -z of the demonstratives is not tolerated before postpositions (and cases) beginning with a consonant:4

e mögött a ház mögött behind this house

ebben a házban in this house

As is found with cases, postpositional phrases with ez, ezek may be reduced:

ez alatt a szék alatt → e szék alatt under this chair ezek között a szekrények között → e szekrények között between these cupboards

9.7

Postpositions as prepositions

The following postpositions may also be used as prepositions. They require the same cases as when used as postpositions.

162

4 Although the spelling does not reveal it, correct pronunciation of these phrases is like those of case-marked demonstratives where the final -z assimilates to the following consonant: compare ez + ben → ebben with e + mögött → [emmögött], a + fölött → [affölött], i.e., in both instances the pronunciation includes a doubling of the consonant: the written down form of the postposition, however, does not indicate this doubling.

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át

through, across

szemben

facing, opposite

együtt

together

túl

beyond

keresztül

through

Postpositions as prepositions

Túl a Tiszán van egy csikós . . . There is a cowboy beyond the Tisza river . . . (folksong)

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Chapter 10

Adjectives

Adjectives qualify nouns and pronouns. When used attributively, adjectives in Hungarian precede the noun they modify and do not agree in case or number with the noun.

Hosszú szoknyákat viselnek.

They are wearing long skirts.

Érdekes cikkro˝l beszélnek.

They are talking about an interesting article.

10.1

Declension of adjectives

Adjectives, when not used as modifiers, decline for case and number. Predicate adjectives must agree in number with their subjects:

A fiú magas.

The boy is tall.

A fiúk magasak.

The boys are tall.

Adjectives may occur in all cases (though never when used attributively).

Kérem a pirosat.

I would like the red one.

A barnáról beszél. He is speaking about the brunette. Megitta a feketét.

She drank the coffee (lit., the black one).

Fáradtnak látszol.

You seem tired.

10.1.1 Nominative plural of adjectives

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The plural suffix -k is added to adjectives in a slightly different manner than nouns. When required, the linking vowel choice is a/e (exceptions are listed below).

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10.1.1.1 Adjectives ending in a vowel 10.1.1.1.1

Declension of adjectives

Adjectives ending in a/e

Word-final a or e is lengthened to á, é, respectively.

singular

plural

brown

barna

barnák

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dear

drága

drágák

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10.1.1.1.2

singular

plural

black

fekete

feketék

gray

szürke

szürkék

Adjectives ending in -i/-ú/-u˝

These adjectives require the linking vowel a/e.

singular

plural

singular

Canadian kanadai kanadaiak one from pesti Pest long

hosszú

hosszúak

simple

plural pestiek

egyszeru˝ egyszeru˝ek

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10.1.1.1.3

Some exceptions singular

plural

small

kicsi

kicsik

vain

hiú

hiúk

thick

su˝ru˝

su˝ru˝k

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10.1.1.1.4 Adjectives ending in ó or ő witness some variation in forming the plural. Participles, for example, allow both variants – with or without the linking vowel:

singular

plural

visible

látható

láthatóak ~ láthatók

intelligible

értheto˝

értheto˝ek ~ értheto˝k

permanent

állandó

állandóak ~ állandók 165

10 Adjectives

166

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10.1.1.1.5

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10.1.1.2.3 Adjectives formed with the derivation -atlan/-etlen or its variants decline as nouns; therefore they use o/e1 for the linking vowel in the plural.

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plural

unhealthy

egészségtelen

egészségtelenek

unhappy

boldogtalan

boldogtalanok

impatient

türelmetlen

türelmetlenek

invisible

láthatatlan

láthatatlanok

10.1.1.2.4 Ethnonyms are the words used to indicate someone’s ethnicity, home country or city. In Hungarian these words are not capitalized. Ethnonyms that do not end in -i decline as nouns and require the o/e/ö linking vowel choice. Ethnonyms ending in -i decline as adjectives and require the linking vowel a/e.

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singular

Declension of adjectives

singular

plural

Hungarian

magyar

magyarok

Spaniard/Spanish

spanyol

spanyolok

Greek

görög

görögök

Czech

cseh

csehek

Pole/Polish

lengyel

lengyelek

Turk/Turkish

török

törökök

one from Budapest

pesti

pestiek

one from Vienna

bécsi

bécsiek

American

amerikai

amerikaiak

Londoner

londoni

londoniak

1

The ö linking vowel option found with nouns is never used since these adjectives never have a last vowel that is front and rounded.

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10.1.2 The accusative of adjectives

10 Adjectives

The accusative is suffixed to adjectives slightly differently than to nouns.

10.1.2.1 Adjectives ending in vowels Adjectives ending in vowels suffix the accusative case -t in the same way as nouns ending in vowels.

10.1.2.1.1 Adjectives end in a or e lengthen to á, é, respectively, when adding the accusative -t.

nominative

accusative

yellow

sárga

sárgát

ugly

csúnya

csúnyát

weak

gyenge

gyengét

blond

szo˝ke

szo˝két

10.1.2.1.2 Adjectives ending in any other vowel add the accusative -t directly to the end of the word.2

2

168

nominative

accusative

awful

borzasztó

borzasztót

edible

eheto˝

eheto˝t

dense

su˝ru˝

su˝ru˝t

sad

szomorú

szomorút

old

régi

régit

curious

kíváncsi

kíváncsit

Note how this differs from the formation of plural adjectives: in the plural, a linking vowel is needed before adjectives ending in -i/-ú/-ű.

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10.1.2.2 Adjectives ending in consonants 10.1.2.2.1 Regular adjectives ending in a consonant require the linking vowel a/e before the accusative -t.3

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Declension of adjectives

nominative

accusative

blue

kék

kéket

valuable

értékes

értékeset

ready

kész

készet

tall

magas

magasat

low

alacsony

alacsonyat

sure

biztos

biztosat

10.1.2.2.2 The following adjectives are exceptions and require the linking vowel o before the accusative -t.

nominative

accusative

nominative

accusative

big

nagy

nagyot

happy

boldog

boldogot

rich

gazdag

gazdagot

blind

vak

vakot

thick

vastag

vastagot

free

szabad

szabadot

10.1.2.2.3 Adjectives formed with the derivation -atlan/-etlen or its variants decline as nouns; since they end in -n they take no linking vowel before the accusative.

nominative

accusative

unnecessary

szügségtelen

szügségtelent

unknown

ismeretlen

ismeretlent

3

Note how this differs from the formation of the accusative in the noun: in the noun no linking vowel is required if the word ends in j, l, ly, n, ny, r, s, sz, z, zs.

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10 Adjectives

nominative

accusative

unchangeable

megváltozhatatlan

megváltozhatatlant

carefree

gondtalan

gondtalant

10.1.2.2.4 Ethnonyms ending in a consonant decline as nouns: there is no linking vowel after the consonants j, l, ly, n, ny, r, s, sz, z, zs; otherwise, the linking vowel is o/e/ö before the accusative -t. (See section 6.1.2.1 on the accusative of nouns.)

nominative

accusative

Croat

horvát

horvátot

Dutch

holland

hollandot

German

német

németet

Serbian

szerb

szerbet

Turk

török

törököt

Greek

görög

görögöt

Finn

finn

finnt

Hungarian

magyar

magyart

Albanian

albán

albánt

Pole

lengyel

lengyelt

10.1.3 Other irregularities in the accusative and plural of adjectives 10.1.3.1 The following adjectives witness a change in the stem when forming the plural and accusative:

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sg.

nominative plural

accusative

difficult

nehéz

nehezek

nehezet

honest

derék

derekak

derekat

few

kevés

kevesek

keveset

brave

bátor

bátrak

bátrat

10.1.3.2 kicsi––kis The adjective kicsi ‘small’ has a short form kis. The short form is used when it is used attributively; otherwise the long form kicsi is used. (Similarly kettő – két ‘two’, see section 14.1.2.)

Kis lakásban lakom.

I live in a small apartment. (attribute)

Egy kis kávét kérek.

I would like a little coffee. (attribute)

A lakásom kicsi.

My apartment is small.

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Adjectives used as nouns

Csak egy kicsit tudok I only know a bit of franciául. French.

10.2

(predicate adjective) (accusative)

Adjectives used as nouns

Adjectives may function as nouns; when they do, they decline as nouns.

Azok az épületek ismero˝sek. Those buildings are familiar. Azok ismero˝sök. They are acquaintances.

10.2.1 Full declension of adjectives Other than in the accusative, adjectives suffix cases exactly as nouns. 171

1111 2 Declension of adjectives 3 4 singular plural singular plural 5 ‘high, tall’ ‘kind’ 6 7 nominative magas magasak kedves kedvesek 8 accusative magasat magasakat kedveset kedveseket 9 illative magasba magasakba kedvesbe kedvesekbe 1011 inessive magasban magasakban kedvesben kedvesekben 1 12111 elative magasból magasakból kedvesbo˝l kedvesekbo˝l 3 sublative magasra magasakra kedvesre kedvesekre 4 superessive magason magasakon kedvesen kedveseken 5 delative magasról magasakról kedvesro˝l kedvesekro˝l 6 7 allative magashoz magasakhoz kedveshez kedvesekhez 8 adessive magasnál magasaknál kedvesnél kedveseknél 9 ablative magastól magasaktól kedvesto˝l kedvesekto˝l 20111 dative magasnak magasaknak kedvesnek kedveseknek 1 2 instrumental magassal magasakkal kedvessel kedvesekkel 3 translative magassá magasakká kedvessé kedvesekké 4 causal-final magasért magasakért kedvesért kedvesekért 5 essive-formal magasként magasakként kedvesként kedvesekként 6 7 terminative magasig magasakig kedvesig kedvesekig 8 9 30111 1 10.3 Forming the comparative 2 3 The comparative expresses the degree of an adjective, e.g., old: older. To 4 form the comparative the suffix -bb is added to the adjective. 5 6 7 10.3.1 8 9 If the adjective ends in the vowels a or e, the vowel is lengthened when 40 adding -bb; adjectives ending in other vowels witness no change in the stem. 41111 172

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drága

dear, expensive drágább

dearer, more expensive

értheto˝

understandable

értheto˝bb

more understandable

fekete

black

feketébb

blacker

keseru˝

bitter

keseru˝bb

more bitter

olcsó

cheap

olcsóbb

cheaper

régi

old

régibb

older

szomorú sad

Forming the comparative

szomorúbb sadder

10.3.2 The following adjectives lose their final vowel -ú/-ű (compare these with their adverbial forms):

hosszú

long

hosszabb

longer

ifjú

young

ifjabb

younger

könnyu˝

easy

könnyebb

easier

lassú

slow

lassabb

slower

szörnyu˝

awful

szörnyebb

more awful

10.3.3 The linking vowel a/e is used to link the suffix to adjectives ending in a consonant.

édes

sweet

édesebb

sweeter

különös

special

különösebb

more special

piros

red

pirosabb

redder

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1111 2 3 The following are some common exceptions: 4 jó good jobb better 5 6 kicsi small kisebb smaller 7 sok many, a lot több more 8 szép beautiful szebb more beautiful 9 1011 1 10.3.5 12111 Of the exceptional adjectives forming their plural and accusative with the 3 linking vowel o, only nagy ‘big’, nagyobb ‘bigger’ is exceptional in the 4 5 comparative. 6 7 10.3.6 8 9 Adjectives with a v-stem4 20111 bo˝ abundant bo˝vebb more abundant 1 2 hu˝ faithful hu˝bb ~ hívebb more faithful 3 4 10.3.7 5 6 Note the stem changes in the following: 7 bátor brave bátrabb braver 8 9 derék decent derekabb more decent 30111 kevés few, little kevesebb fewer, less 1 2 nehéz difficult, heavy nehezebb more difficult, heavier 3 4 10.3.8 5 6 Some stems are already a comparative degree: 7 alsó lower felso˝ upper 8 9 belso˝ inner külso˝ outer 40 4 Compare with the adverbial forms where the v-stem is also evident. 41111

10.3.4

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10.3.9

Using the comparative

Adjectives with the comparative suffix decline as regular adjectives.

10.4

Using the comparative

10.4.1 Comparative statements are commonly made with the conjunction mint ‘than’.

Pál érdekesebb történeteket mesél, mint Attila. Pál tells more interesting stories than Attila. Az apám jobban fo˝z, mint én. My father cooks better than I.

10.4.2 If the noun in the mint clause is in the nominative case, it can instead be inflected with -nál/-nél; the conjunction mint is subsequently omitted.

Pál érdekesebb történeteket mesél Attilánál. Pál tells more interesting stories than Attila. Az apám jobban fo˝z nálam. My father cooks better than I.

10.4.3 If the compared item or action is something other than a pronoun or noun in the nominative, comparison can only be made with the mint construction.

Rózsa szebben ír, mint rajzol. Rózsa writes more beautifully than she draws. István kevesebb húst eszik, mint zöldséget. István eats less meat than vegetables. 175

10 Adjectives

10.4.4 egyre Used before the comparative degree, this means ‘more and more’/’less and less’.

Péter egyre magasabb lesz. Péter is getting taller and taller. Zsuzsa egyre jobban síel.

Zsuzsa is skiing better and better.

Egyre kevesebbet beszél az órán.

He speaks less and less in class.

10.4.5 minél . . ., annál . . . Used before the comparative degree, these words join two clauses of comparison:

Minél szorgalmasabban tanul István, annál jobban szereti a matematikát. The more diligently István studies, the more he likes mathematics. Minél többet eszem, annál éhesebb leszek. The more I eat, the hungrier I get.

10.4.6 Degree of comparative The degree of a comparison, e.g., three meters higher, uses the -val/-vel case on the degree preceding the comparative form:

három méterrel magasabb

three meters higher

sokkal boldogabb

much happier

mennyivel könnyebben?

how much more easily?

két órával hosszabb

two hours longer

10.5

Superlative

The superlative (old: oldest) is formed by attaching the prefix leg- to the comparative. No changes are otherwise effected in the stem. 176

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wider

szélesebb widest

legszélesebb

cheaper

olcsóbb

cheapest

legolcsóbb

upper

felso˝

uppermost

legfelso˝

lower

alsó

lowermost

legalsó

10.6

Demonstrative adjectives5

(These are also used pronominally, see 7.6.3.)

nominative nominative accusative singular plural singular

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such, like that olyan

olyanok

olyat

(less common: olyant)

such, like this ilyen

ilyenek

ilyet

(less common: ilyent)

what kind of

milyenek milyet

10.7

milyen

(less common: milyent)

Interrogative adjectives

(These are also used pronominally, see 7.7.3.)

10.7.1 milyen (‘what kind of’, ‘what is (something) like’) When used as a predicate adjective, milyen translates as ‘what is (something) like’.

Milyenek azok a férfiak?

What are those men like?

Milyen az a könyv?

What is that book like?

Otherwise, attributively, milyen translates as ‘what kind of’.

Milyen gyümölcsöt akarsz vásárolni? What kind of fruit do you want to buy? 5

See section 7.6.3.1 for more on the use of these adjectival demonstratives.

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10.7.2 For emphasis, milyen may be used to modify adjectives.

Milyen jó zongorista a Tamás!

What a good pianist Tamás is!

Milyen szép ez a virág!

What a beautiful flower this is!

10.7.3 When modifying adverbs, milyen translates into English as ‘how’ – both interrogatively and emphatically.

Milyen gyorsan fut?

How fast does she run?

Milyen gyorsan fut!

How fast she runs!

10.8

Relative adjectives

(These are also used pronominally, see 7.8.) Subordinate clauses with relative adjectives may begin with the conjunction mint ‘as’; they may omit mint; or the clause may begin with mint and omit the relative adjective.

amilyen as, such as Olyan fekete a szeme, mint amilyen a korom. Olyan fekete a szeme, amilyen a korom. Olyan fekete a szeme, mint a korom. Her eyes are as black as soot.

10.9

Indefinite adjectives

10.9.1 ‘Some’ When modifying mass nouns, the word ‘some’ is implied in Hungarian; the phrase egy kis ‘a little’, ‘some’ may also be used.

Kávét és vajat szeretnék venni. ~ Egy kis kávét és vajat szeretnék venni. I would like to buy (some) coffee and butter. 178

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Kérsz teát? Would you like some tea?

Numerical adjectives

When modifying count nouns, use néhány ‘several’, ‘a few’, ‘some’ or egy pár ‘a couple’.

Néhány körtét evett.

She ate several pears.

Tegnap este írtam egy pár levelet.

I wrote a couple of letters last night.

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Hungarian does not have the equivalent of English ‘any’ (found in negative sentences). It is already implied in the negative sentence.

Sohasem olvas újságot. He never reads (any) newspapers. Ezen a nyáron nem veszek új ruhát. I am not buying (any) new clothes this summer. For emphasis, the constructions egy . . . sem ‘not one’ or egyetlen . . . sem ‘not a single . . .’ may be used.

Egy szót sem szólt. He didn’t say one word. Ebben az évben egyetlen jó filmet sem láttunk. We haven’t seen one good film this year. Egyetlen rossz tanítványom sincs. I don’t have a single bad student.

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10.10

Numerical adjectives

Numbers may be used as adjectives by suffixing -s. (See section 12.2.2 for forming and using -s.)

Az ötvenes években született. She was born in the fifties (lit., the fifty-ish years). Az egyes villamos ma nem jár. The number 1 tram is not running today. A 408-as irodában dolgozik. He works in Room 408.

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Chapter 11

Adverbs

Adverbs are the part of speech addressing manner, place and time of an action.

11.1

Adverbs of manner: Hogy(an)? . . . How?

11.1.1 -an/-en Most adverbs of manner are made by adding the suffix -(a)n/-(e)n to the corresponding adjective. No linking vowel is required when suffixing to adjectives ending in -a/-e; this vowel, however, is lengthened to á/é:

csúnya

ugly

csúnyán not nicely

drága

dear, expensive

drágán

dearly, expensively

fekete

black

feketén

pessimistically, on the black market

furcsa

strange

furcsán

strangely

ritka

rare

ritkán

rarely, seldom

The linking vowel a/e is usually used when combining with adjectives ending in -í/-ú/-ű:

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célszeru˝

expedient

célszeru˝en

expediently

keseru˝

bitter

keseru˝en

bitterly

kíváncsi

curious

kíváncsian

curiously

savanyú

sour

savanyúan

sourly

szomorú

sad

szomorúan

sadly

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There is some variation in the use of linking vowels when combining with adjectives (these are mostly participles) ending in -ó/-ő. With some exceptions, however, the linking vowel is preferred:

értheto˝

understandable

értheto˝en

understandably

forró

hot, boiling

forrón

hotly

kiváló

outstanding

kiválóan

outstandingly

látható

visible

láthathóan

visibly

olcsó

inexpensive

olcsón

inexpensively

Adverbs of manner

The linking vowel a/e is always required when suffixing to adjectives ending in a consonant:

aranyos

sweet, cute

aranyosan

sweetly, charmingly

biztos

sure

biztosan

surely

boldog

happy

boldogan

happily

kedves

nice

kedvesen

nicely

szép

beautiful

szépen

beautifully

Exceptions:

The following adjectives cannot combine with -an/-en: derék

honest, good

derekul

honestly



good

jól

well

remek

splendid

remekül

splendidly

rossz

bad, poor

rosszul

badly, poorly

vad

wild

vadul

wildly

The following adjectives form their adverbs with -on: gazdag

rich

gazdagon

richly

nagy

big

nagyon

very, greatly, strongly

szabad

free

szabadon

freely

vastag

thick

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The following adjectives lose their final vowel when forming the adverb:1

1111 2 3 hosszú long hosszan at length 4 5 ifjú young ifjan young, at an early age 6 könnyu˝ easy, light könnyen easily, lightly 7 8 lassú slow lassan slowly 9 szörnyu˝ awful szörnyen awfully 1011 1 Other stem changes: 12111 3 bátor brave bátran bravely 4 5 bo˝ abundant bo˝ven abundantly 6 hu˝ faithful híven faithfully (or hu˝en) 7 8 nehéz heavy, difficult nehezen heavily, with difficulty 9 20111 1 11.1.2 -lag/-leg 2 The suffix -lag/-leg also forms adverbs from adjectives (and participles). 3 Although it is difficult to predict when adverbs are formed with -lag/-leg 4 as opposed to -an/-en, the former is most often used with adjectives formed 5 6 with -i, and the two variants are rarely used with the same adjective. 7 eredeti original eredetileg originally 8 9 gyakorlati practical gyakorlatilag in practice, practically 30111 leheto˝ possible leheto˝leg possibly 1 2 politikai political politikailag politically 3 valószínu˝ probable valószínu˝leg probably 4 5 Ezt a konferenciát eredetileg csak évente egyszer 6 tartották. 7 Originally this conference was held only once a year. 8 9 40 1 Compare with the comparative. 41111

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Mária politikailag jól ismeri Kínát, de nyelvismerete gyenge. Mária knows China well politically, but her knowledge of the language is poor.

Adverbs of manner

This suffix is sometimes attached to nouns as well:

arány

proportion

aránylag

proportionately

eset

case, instance

esetleg

perhaps

tény

fact

tényleg

really

viszony

relation

viszonylag

relatively

11.1.3 The essive -ul/-ül This ending lengthens word-final a and e to á and é, respectively; otherwise there are no changes in the stem when suffixing. The essive case -ul/-ül is used to form adverbs from adjectives ending in (a)tlan/-(e)tlen:

Váratlanul toppant be a sógorom. My brother-in-law showed up unexpectedly. Egészségtelenül táplálkozol. You eat unhealthy foods (lit., ‘not healthily’). Ismeretlenül is üdvözlöm a férjedet. My regards to your husband though we haven’t even met yet. The essive case is required when expressing an action ‘in a language’: magyarul ‘in Hungarian’, görögül ‘in Greek’. Note in the following examples that the English expressions may translate as direct objects, not adverbs:

Tudok magyarul, angolul és franciául. I know Hungarian, English and French. Zsuzsa már jól beszél oroszul, és most németül is tanul. Zsuzsa speaks Russian well and is studying German now, too. This case may also be added to nouns to denote how the noun is used.

István feleségül vette a húgomat. István married my younger sister (lit., took her as a wife).

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Ez a régi épület iskolául szolgál. This old building serves as a school.

1111 2 3 Segítségül kellett hívnom a szomszédomat. 4 I had to call my neighbor for (lit., as) help. 5 6 7 11.1.4 The essive-formal case -ként 8 9 Similar to the essive, -ként is used with nouns to denote how the noun 1011 is used. This is usually translated as ‘as’ in English. 1 12111 Mérnök, de egyelo˝re tanárként dolgozik. 3 She is an engineer, but for the time being she is working as a 4 teacher. 5 Egy emberként beszéltek a tárgyalások alatt. 6 They spoke as one man during the negotiations. 7 8 Laci önként jelentkezett a rendo˝rségen. 9 Laci turned himself in voluntarily at the police station. (lit., ‘as 20111 himself’) 1 2 3 11.1.5 -képp(en) 4 The suffix -képp(en) has the same meaning as the essive-formal and is 5 6 found in a few forms: 7 aképpen in that way 8 9 eképp(en) in this way 30111 mindenképpen in any case 1 2 tulajdonképpen actually, really, properly 3 4 5 11.1.6 More adverbs of manner 6 7 alig hardly igen indeed 8 9 általában in general, usually ingyen free, gratis 40 annyira so much, to such an extent is is so so 41111

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bizony

surely, certainly

kevéssé

a little, somewhat

csak

only

körülbelül

approximately

csaknem

almost

külön

separately

csupán

merely, only

majdnem

almost

egyáltalán nem

not at all

még

still, yet

egyedül

alone

méltán

deservedly, worthily

elég

fairly, rather

önként

voluntarily

eléggé

fairly, rather

össze-vissza randomly, confusedly

egészen

entirely, completely

pusztán

merely, only

egyébként otherwise

részint

partly, to a certain extent

egy kicsit

a little

so˝t

moreover

egyúttal

at the same time, in addition

szinte

almost, all but

együtt

together

teljesen

fully, completely

éppen

just, exactly

többékevésbé

more or less

folyton

incessantly

túl

too, over-

hiába

in vain

valahogy

somehow

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Adverbs of manner

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11.1.7 With some expressions, the accusative case is used adverbially:

elég

enough

eleget

Eleget hallottam már róla. I have heard enough about him.



good

jót

Jót aludtam. I had a good sleep./I slept well.

kevés few

keveset Keveset sportolsz. You play (very) few sports.

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nagy

big

nagyot Nagyot nevettünk. We had a good laugh.

sok

many

sokat

Sokat beszél a barátno˝jéro˝l. He talks a lot about his girlfriend.

11.1.8 Verbs of seeming, sounding like, looking like, feeling, may take an adverbial complement – not an adjective, as in English. The adverbial may be an adverb of manner or an adjective or noun marked in the dative case.

Jól nézel ki.

You look good.

Jól esett ez a séta.

That walk felt good.

Rosszul érzi magát.

He feels bad, poorly, not well.

Ez nekem jól hangzik.

That sounds good to me.

Jó ötletnek hangzik.

It sounds like a good idea.

Fáradtnak látszol.

You seem tired.

Eleinte könnyu˝nek tu˝nt.

It seemed easy at first.

11.1.9 Adverbial participles Adverbial participles are adverbs of manner made from verbs. See section 4.4.3 on how to form them.

Tréfálkozva mondta, hogy tíz gyereket akar. She said jokingly that she wants ten children. Ásítva kávézott. He drank his coffee yawning.

11.2

186

Comparative and superlative of adverbs of manner

The comparative and superlative of adverbs of manner are formed by adding the adverbial suffix -an/-en to adjectives already formed for the

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comparative and superlative (See sections 10.3 and 10.5 to form the comparative and superlative of adjectives.)

adjective positive comparative

adverb comparative superlative

beautiful szép

szebb

szebben

legszebben

rare

ritka

ritkább

ritkábban

legritkábban

loud

hangos hangosabb hangosabban leghangosabban

good



jobb

jobban

legjobban

few

kevés

kevesebb

kevesebben

legkevesebben

much, many

sok

több

többen

legtöbben

Comparative and superlatives of adverbs of manner

Kati sokkal szebben énekel nálam, de Csilla énekel a legszebben. Kati sings much more beautifully than I, but Csilla sings the most beautifully. Ebben az évben többen iratkoztak be a magyar tanfolyamra, mint tavaly. This year more people signed up for the Hungarian course than last year. Hol lehet legolcsóbban benzint venni? Where can one buy gas most cheaply? Csinosabban öltözködik most, mint régen. She dresses more prettily now than before. Note also the following irregular adverbial forms:

positive

comparative

superlative

nagyon very much inkább more so, rather

leginkább mostly, most of all

egy kicsit a little

kevésbé less

legkevésbé least

rosszul badly

rosszabbul worse legrosszabbul worst

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Nagyon szeretem a svájci csokoládét is, de leginkább a belga csokoládét szeretem. I like Swiss chocolate very much, but I like Belgian chocolate most of all.

1111 2 3 4 5 Márta egy kicsit tud németül, kevésbé tud franciául, és 6 legkevésbé olaszul tud. 7 Márta knows a little German, less French and knows the least 8 Italian. 9 1011 1 11.2.1 12111 Adjectives with the derivational suffix (a)tlan/-(e)tlen (or its variants) and 3 4 comparative or superlative affixes use the adverbial ending -ul/-ül. 5 cruel kegyetlen kegyetlenebb 6 kegyetlenebbül legkegyetlenebbül 7 8 unhappy boldogtalan boldogtalanabb 9 boldogtalanabbul legboldogtalanabbul 20111 1 Az öreg még kegyetlenebbül is bánik a szomszédjaival 2 most, hogy beteg lett. 3 The old man treats his neighbors even more cruelly now that he 4 has become ill. 5 6 7 11.2.2 egyre 8 Use egyre with the comparative form of adverbs to mean more and more 9 30111 so or less and less so. 1 A szülei egyre gyakrabban utaznak külföldre. 2 His parents travel abroad more and more frequently. 3 4 Egyre többen tanulnak angolul az iskolában. 5 More and more people study English in school. 6 Imre egyre korábban kel fel. 7 Imre gets up earlier and earlier. 8 9 40 41111

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11.2.3 minél . . ., annál . . .

Adverbs of number

Use this with the comparative of adverbs to compare clauses.

Minél jobban tudsz fo˝zni, annál többen jönnek hozzád vacsorázni. The better you know how to cook the more people come to your house for dinner. Minél ritkábban írsz nekem, annál ritkábban gondolok rád. The more seldom you write me, the more seldom I think about you.

11.2.4 The instrumental case -val/-vel is used to express the degree of comparison of the adverb.

Sokkal kedvesebben bánik velem, mint régen. She treats me much more nicely than before. Péter egy kicsivel jobban tud svédül, mint a húga. Péter knows Swedish a little bit better than his sister.

11.3

Adverbs of number

Expressions of quantity can be used as adverbs when denoting the number of people in the subject. In these constructions the subject is translated into English as either a pronoun or ‘people’.

Százan álltak a sorban. A hundred people stood in line. Hányan mentek Szentendrére vasárnap? How many of you are going to Szentendre on Sunday? Kevesen voltunk az elo˝adáson. There were few of us at the lecture.

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11.4

Adverbs of space

Most expressions of space are formed with the case system and are discussed in chapter 6.

11.4.1 Locative system Consistent with the locative system in case-marking, adverbs of space have a tri-part distinction with respect to motion toward, no motion, and motion away. The following table illustrates the locative system for deixis and interrogatives of place.

Motion toward (comparative) ➩●

Motion toward ➩● hova? (to) where?

idébb more toward here

ide (toward) here

No motion ●

Motion away ●➩

hol? honnan? where? from where? itt here

innen from here

odább ~ odébb oda ott more toward there (toward) there there

onnan from there

merre? in which direction?

merre? where about?

merro˝l? from which direction?

errébb further this way

erre in this direction, this way

erro˝l from this direction

arrább ~ arrébb further that way

arra in that direction, that way

arról from that direction

Hol van a táskam? Itt van az asztal alatt. Where is my bag? Here it is under the table.

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Merre vezet ez az ösvény? Menjünk arra! Where does this path lead? Let’s go in that direction.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

Honnan jössz? Where do you come from?

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Adverbs of space

Hova mentek fürödni? Where are you going swimming? The following common adverbs occur with one or more directional pendants, some with comparative or superlative forms as well. As can be seen in the table, the paradigm is not as complete as with the other deictic elements.

011

Motion toward

No motion

home home together together

haza haza együvé össze

inside inside, within outside outside, besides down(stairs) up (above), upstairs above below, bottom

bentre belülre kintre kívülre lentre fentre föntre felülre alulra

itthon2 otthon együtt össze összébb benn~bent belül kinn~kint kívül lenn~lent fenn~fent ~fönn~fönt felül alul

near

közelre

közel

front back

elo˝re hátra hátrébb félre máshova

elo˝l hátul

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0 1111 2

far

oldalt másutt máshol messzire messze

distant

távolra

távol

No motion comparat./superlative

Motion away itthonról otthonról

összébb beljebb legbelül kijjebb legkívül lejjebb fejjebb~följebb legfejjebb~legföljebb legfelül alább legalul közelebb legközelebb legelo˝l leghátul

bentro˝l belülro˝l kintro˝l kívülro˝l lentro˝l fentro˝l föntro˝l felülro˝l alulról közelro˝l elo˝lro˝l hátulról oldalról máshonnan

messzebb legmesszebb távolabb legtávolabb

messziro˝l távolról

itthon refers to home when the speaker is at the home; otthon refers to home when the speaker is elsewhere.

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1111 2 3 from the . . . in the . . . to the . . . 4 5 north észak északról északon északra 6 south dél délro˝l délen délre 7 8 east kelet keletro˝l keleten keletre 9 west nyugat nyugatról nyugaton nyugatra 1011 1 northwest észak-nyugat 12111 3 northeast észak-kelet 4 southwest dél-nyugat 5 6 southeast dél-kelet 7 8 9 11.5 Time expressions 20111 Time expressions may be conveyed with the use of cases, postpositions, 1 2 a combination of the two, or no marking at all. 3 4 5 11.5.1 6 Many time expressions are fixed – requiring no further case marking or 7 8 postpositions: 9 addig up until then máskor at some other time 30111 1 akkor at that time; then még yet, still 2 az elo˝bb just a moment ago még nem not yet 3 4 az idén this year még mindig still 5 azonnal immediately mindig always 6 7 eddig up until now mindjárt soon, immediately 8 ekkor at this time; then most now 9 40 eleinte at first mostanában nowadays 41111

11.4.2 Compass points

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elo˝ször

first, the first time múltkor

last time, recently

egyelo˝re

for the time being néha

sometimes

egy pillanat

(in) a moment

recently

nemrég

éppen (most) just now

nemsokára soon

gyakran

often

nyomban

at once

hamar

soon

örökké

forever

holnap

tomorrow

régen

a long time ago

holnapután

day after tomorrow

régóta

since a long time

jövo˝re

next year

ritkán

rarely

késo˝bb

later

rögtön

immediately

késo˝n

late

sokáig

for a long time

korán, korábban

early, earlier

tavaly

last year

ma

today

tegnap

yesterday

majd

soon, in a while, later

tegnapelo˝tt day before yesterday

már

already, now

többé nem no longer

már nem

no more, no longer

többé soha never more

Time expressions

Holnap Budapesten leszek, és holnapután Prágába utazom. Tomorrow I will be in Budapest and the day after tomorrow I travel to Prague. Tavaly rengeteget havazott, de az idei évre inkább eso˝t jósolnak. Last year it snowed a lot, but this year they are predicting more rain. Nemsokára otthon leszünk. We’ll be home soon. Majd felhívlak, mikor több ido˝m lesz. I’ll call you (soon, later) when I have more time.

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Régen gyakran szokta mondani, hogy szeret, de most már nagyon ritkán mondja. A long time ago he would often tell me that he loved me, but now he says it very rarely. Mikor elo˝ször volt Londonban, nem tudott még angolul. The first time he was in London he didn’t yet speak English.

11.5.2 Vague time akármikor

whenever

bármikor

anytime, whenever

valaha

once, in the past

valamikor

at some time, sometime

Bármikor jöhetsz, csak gyere! You can come any time, just come! Valaha egy hatalmas kastély volt itt. Once there was an enormous castle here. Valamikor biztosan hallottam már azt a darabot, csak nem emlékszem, hogy mikor. I’m sure I’ve heard that piece at some time, I just don’t remember when.

11.5.3 Dates Dates are expressed by giving the year first, then the month, and finally the day of the month expressed as the ordinal number with the third person singular possessive suffix. There is a period after the year and the month is not capitalized.

1989. október 23-a (Ezerkilencszáznyolcvankilenc október huszonharmadika) 2000. június 17-e

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(Kétezer június tizenhetedike)

To indicate ‘on’ a certain date, add the superessive case (o/e/ö-n) to the date:

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Június 17-én születtem.

I was born on June 17.

Január elsején pihenni szoktunk.

We usually relax on the first of January.

Hatodikán jön.

He’s coming on the sixth.

11.5.4 Times of day

011

hajnal

2111

délelo˝tt morning, before noon nappal

during the day

délután

(in the) afternoon

alkony

twilight

este

(in the) evening

éjszaka (at) night

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Time expressions

dawn

reggel

(in the) early morning

11.5.5 Days of the week Use the superessive case (o/e/ö-n) to indicate ‘on’. (Except for vasárnap ‘on Sunday’.) Note that the days of the week are not capitalized.

hétfo˝

Monday

hétfo˝n

on Monday

kedd

Tuesday

kedden

on Tuesday

szerda

Wednesday

szerdán

on Wednesday

csütörtök

Thursday

csütörökön

on Thursday

péntek

Friday

pénteken

on Friday

szombat

Saturday

szombaton

on Saturday

vasárnap

Sunday

vasárnap

on Sunday

Hétfo˝n megyünk vissza dolgozni. We are going back to work on Monday. Szerdán lesz a zongoraórám. My piano lesson will be on Wednesday. Vasárnap meglátogatjuk a szüleinket. On Sunday we’ll visit our parents. 195

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Only when modified by ez ‘this’ or az ‘that’ does vasárnap ‘Sunday’ 1111 require the superessive (-n). 2 3 Ezen a vasárnapon lemegyünk Szegedre. 4 This Sunday we are going to Szeged. 5 6 7 11.5.6 Months 8 9 The inessive case (-ban/-ben) is used to express ‘in’, ‘during’ a month. 1011 Note that names of the months are not capitalized in Hungarian. 1 január januárban in January 12111 3 február februárban in February 4 március márciusban in March 5 6 április áprilisban in April 7 május májusban in May 8 9 június júniusban in June 20111 július júliusban in July 1 2 augusztus augusztusban in August 3 szeptember szeptemberben in September 4 5 október októberben in October 6 november novemberben in November 7 8 december decemberben in December 9 30111 Júliusban lemegyünk a Balatonra. 1 In July we are going to the Balaton. 2 Decemberben jönnek a barátaim. 3 My friends are coming in December. 4 5 Novemberben esni szokott az eso˝. 6 It usually rains in November. 7 8 9 40 41111

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11.5.7 Time expressions using cases

Time expressions

These are sometimes limited to certain lexical items.

11.5.7.1 Superessive: (o/e/ö)-n Use with the following words to mean ‘during’ or ‘in’.

hét

week

héten

during the week

nap

day

napon

on (a) day

nyár

summer

nyáron

in/during the summer

tél

winter

télen

in/during the winter

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Minden héten írok a szüleimnek. I write my parents every week. Múlt nyáron Japánba utaztunk. We traveled to Japan last summer.

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Télen korcsolyázni lehet a tavon. In the winter one can skate on the lake. Melyik napon jössz? What day are you coming? 11.5.7.2 Inessive (-ban/-ben) Use with the following words to mean ‘during’ or ‘in’.

hónap

month

év

year

század

century

pillanat

moment

perc

minute

másodperc

second

ido˝

time

kor

age

dél

noon

Melyik hónapban születtél? (In) which month were you born? Rossz ido˝ben érkeztek. They arrived at a bad time.

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Ebben az évben kezdett iskolába járni. She began school this year.

1111 2 3 Délben ebédelni szoktak. 4 They usually eat lunch at noon. 5 6 11.5.7.3 Sublative (-ra/-re) 7 8 Use this case to indicate ‘by’ a specified time: 9 Hatra/Hat órára otthon leszek. 1011 I’ll be home by six. 1 12111 Hétfo˝re kell befejezni a munkát. 3 The work must be done by Monday. 4 Use to indicate ‘intended’ time (note the opposition with the -ig case): 5 6 Egy hétre mentem, de egy hónapig maradtam. 7 I went for a week, but I stayed a month. 8 Mennyi ido˝re utazol el? 9 How long are you traveling for? 20111 Use in tandem with the allative (-hoz/-hez/-höz) in the following con- 1 2 struction: 3 mához egy hétre a week from today 4 5 Use with the delative (-ról/-ről) in the following construction: 6 napról napra from day to day 7 8 ido˝ro˝l ido˝re from time to time 9 30111 11.5.7.4 Terminative -ig 1 Use this case to mean ‘for’ or ‘until’ a terminal point of time (often used 2 3 in conjunction with the ablative -tól/-től). 4 3-tól 6-ig leszek az irodámban. 5 I will be in my office from 3 to 6. 6 7 Reggelto˝l estéig beszéltek. 8 They spoke from morning until night. 9 Két évig laktunk Debrecenben. 40 We lived in Debrecen for two years. 41111

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A tanfolyam egy hónapig tartott. The course lasted one month.

Time expressions

Reggelig vártak. They waited until morning. 11.5.7.5 Instrumental -val/-vel Use this case with the following words to mean ‘during’ or ‘in’.

tavasz

spring

tavasszal

in the spring

o˝sz

fall

o˝sszel

in the fall

éj

night

éjjel

at night

nap

day

nappal

during the day.

Tavasszal találkoztunk. We met in spring. ˝ sszel sokat esik az eso˝. O It rains a lot in the fall. Ebben a városban az autóbuszok éjjel-nappal járnak. In this city the buses run day and night. 11.5.7.6 Distributive (-Vnként) (See section 6.4.1 on how to suffix the distributive.) This case is used to express regularly recurring time.

Hetenként hívja fel az édesanyját. He calls his mother every week. Óránként közlik a híreket. They announce the news every hour. A buszok tíz percenként járnak. The buses run every ten minutes. 11.5.7.7 Temporal (-kor) This case is used with the hours of the day and some holidays.

Karácsonykor a gyerekek aranyosan viselkednek. At Christmas children behave nicely.

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Hétkor fog telefonálni. She will call at seven o’clock.

1111 2 3 4 11.5.7.8 Temporal-distributive (-nta/-nte) 5 Use with the following words to mean ‘per’, ‘every’. 6 7 nap day naponta daily, every day 8 hó month havonta monthly, every month 9 1011 hét week hetente weekly 1 12111 óra hour óránta hourly 3 4 Havonta fizetnek. 5 I get paid monthly. 6 Hetente háromszor találkoznak. 7 They meet three times per week. 8 9 11.5.7.9 Multiplicative (-szor/-szer/-ször) 20111 1 Add this case to numbers and some expressions of quantity to indicate 2 the number of times. 3 4 egyszer once hétszer seven times 5 kétszer twice nyolcszor eight times 6 7 háromszor three times kilencszer nine times 8 négyszer four times tízszer ten times 9 30111 ötször five times sokszor many times 1 hatszor six times többször several times 2 3 Milliószor puszillak. 4 I send you a million kisses. (lit., I kiss you a million times.) 5 Csak egyszer voltam Lengyelországban. 6 I’ve only been to Poland once. 7 8 Naponta többször telefonál. 9 He calls several times a day. 40 41111

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Add -szor/-szer/-ször to fractions to indicate the ‘first’, ‘second’, ‘third’, etc. time. Note the irregular form for ‘first’.

elo˝ször

(the) first time

Time expressions

harmadszor (the) third time

másodszor (the) second time negyedszer

(the) fourth time

Most elo˝ször vagyok Tahitin. I am in Tahiti now for the first time. Csak akkor értettem, mikor másodszor mondta. I only understood it the second time he said it.

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11.5.7.10

Accusative (-t)

This case has a limited use in time expressions, usually occurring with only a few verbs.

Két hetet töltöttünk Spanyolországban. We spent two weeks in Spain. Egy órát vártunk. We waited one hour.

11.5.8 Time expressions with postpositions (Note that some postpositions require a case on the time expression preceding them.)

közben during Senki nem beszél az elo˝adás közben. No one speaks during the performance. alatt

during (With this meaning alatt is a synonym of közben.) A háború alatt sokan éheztek. Many people went hungry during the war.

alatt

under/ (With this meaning alatt is a synonym of belül.) (with)in Egy óra alatt fejeztem be a házi feladatot. I finished the homework in (under) an hour.

után

after

elo˝tt

before Magyar óra elo˝tt mindig találkoznak. They always meet before Hungarian class.

Hívjál fel tíz óra után. Call me after ten o’clock. 201

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fogva/ from/ kezdve since

Use with the ablative case -tól/-to˝l: Januártól kezdve/fogva már nem jár az elo˝adásra. She has not been coming to the lecture since January.

során/ folyamán

in the A tárgyalások során sokat tanultak course egymásról. of They learned a lot about each other in the course of the negotiations.

belül

(with)in Use with the superessive case o/e/ö-n. A fiunk egy hónapon belül jön haza. Our son will be home (with)in a month.

át/keresz through Use with the superessive case o/e/ö-n: -tül Egész életen át vártam rá. I waited a lifetime for her. között between Négy és öt óra között az irodámban leszek. I’ll be in my office between four and five o’clock. hosszat long

Hét óra hosszat dolgoztak a házi feladatukon. They worked for seven hours long on their homework.

múlva

in, after Három nap múlva kezdo˝dik a vizsgaido˝szak. The exam term begins in three days.

felé

toward Tíz óra felé kezd fáradt lenni. Towards ten o’clock he starts to get tired.

körül, about, These are all synonyms. tájban, around Nyolc óra körül vacsorázunk. táján We eat dinner around eight o’clock. Éjfél tájban szokott hazajönni. She usually comes home around midnight. Az ünnepek táján jön meglátogatni. He will come to visit us around the holidays.

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-számra for . . . Though not a true postposition, -számra on end combines with nouns similarly. A régi barátok óraszámra tudtak beszélni. The old friends could talk for hours on end.

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Hétszámra várták a hivatalos engedélyt. They waited for weeks on end for official permission.

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Time expressions

11.5.9 ‘Since’ Hungarian has two ways of expressing ‘since’ or ‘for’ a period of time. Note that because the action continues into the present, the verb must be in the present tense.

the postposition óta: 1995 óta Budapesten lakunk. We have been living in Budapest since 1995. Két év óta vagyok itt. I have been here for two years. Mióta tanulsz magyarul? How long have you been studying Hungarian? the third person singular possessive (j)a/(j)e: Két éve vagyok itt. I have been here for two years. Három hónapja dolgozunk rajta. We have been working on it for three months. Mennyi ideje tanulsz magyarul? How long have you been studying Hungarian?

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11.5.10

‘Ago’

Two constructions can be used to express ‘ago’. The verb must be in the past tense. The posposition ezelőtt with -val/-vel:

Egy évvel ezelo˝tt kezdtem magyarul tanulni. I began to study Hungarian one year ago. Itt volt három perccel ezelo˝tt. He was here three minutes ago.

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The third person singular possessive (j)a/(j)e:

Egy éve kezdtem magyarul tanulni. I began to study Hungarian one year ago. Itt volt három perce. He was here three minutes ago. Since both the ‘since’ and ‘ago’ constructions use the third person singular possessive the verb tense may be the only way to distinguish between the meaning of the two:

Három hónapja dolgozunk rajta. We have been working on it for three months. Három hónapja dolgoztunk rajta. We worked on it three months ago.

11.5.11

Every

The word ‘every’, can be expressed with either the distributive case (-Vnként) or the word minden may be used before the time expression.

Minden kedden/Keddenként találkoztak. They met every Tuesday. Minden hónapban/Havonként legalább egyszer mennek hangversenyre. Every month they go to at least one concert.

11.5.12

Usually

The word ‘usually’ may be expressed by either the adverbial általában or the verbal construction with szokott. Szokott may conjugate for any person in both the indefinite and definite conjugations; though it means ‘usually’, szokott is only used in the past tense conjugation. It takes an infinitival complement.

Reggel teázni szoktam. I usually drink tea in the morning.

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Hétkor szokott felkelni. She usually gets up at seven o’clock.

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Tavasszal eso˝s ido˝ szokott lenni. In the spring the weather is usually rainy.

Time expressions

Mit szoktál csinálni a szabad ido˝dben? What do you usually do in your free time?

11.5.13

Clock time

The question Mennyi az idő? or Hány óra van?/Hány óra? ‘What time is it?’ may be answered using quarter-hour segments. The expressions refer to the coming full hour. The word óra ‘hour’ cannot be used with any fraction of the hour. The word van ‘is’ is always optional.

It is 1:00. Egy óra (van). It is 1:15. Negyed ketto˝ (van). (lit.) a quarter (on the way) to two It is 1:30. Fél ketto˝ (van).

(lit.) half (on the way to) two

It is 1:45. Háromnegyed ketto˝ (lit.) three quarters (on the way) (van). to two Otherwise clock time is expressed with reference to the nearest quarter using the following pattern of postpositions:

X perc múlva = in X minutes X perccel múlt = X minutes past 5:55 öt perc múlva hat (óra) (lit.) in five minutes it will be 6:00 These postpositional patterns are also used with quarter-hour time segments:

2:13 két perc múlva negyed három (lit.) in two minutes it will be 2:15 3:47 két perccel múlt háromnegyed négy (lit.) it is two minutes past 3:45 7:33 három perccel múlt fél nyolc (lit.) it is three minutes past half of eight Official times may be stated using the full numbers. The 24-hour clock may be used:

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15:55 tizenöt óra ötvenöt perc (lit.) fifteen hours fifty-five minutes

1111 2 3 3:47 három óra negyvenhét perc 4 (lit.) three hours forty-seven minutes 5 In response to the question Mikor? ‘when’, Hánykor?/Hány órakor ‘at 6 what time (on the clock)’ the temporal case -kor must be added to the 7 end of the time expression. 8 9 Hánykor jöttek? Hétkor/Hét órakor. 1011 When did they come? At seven/seven o’clock. 1 Tizenhárom óra negyvenhárom perckor indul a vonat. 12111 The train leaves at 13:43. 3 4 5 11.5.14 Interrogatives of time 6 7 Mikor? When? 8 9 Hánykor? At what time (on the clock)? 20111 Mennyi ido˝re? For how long? By what time? 1 2 Mikorra? By what time? 3 Mikortól (kezdve/fogva)? Since when? From what time? 4 5 Metto˝l (kezdve/fogva)? Since when? From what time? 6 Meddig? Until when? For how long? How 7 much time? 8 9 Mennyi ideig? Until when/for how long? 30111 Mennyi ido˝t? How much time? 1 2 Mióta? Since when? 3 Mennyi ido˝ múlva? In (after) how much time? 4 5 Miközben? During what time? When? 6 Mennyi ido˝vel ezelo˝tt? How long ago? 7 8 Mennyi ido˝ alatt? During how much time? 9 Mennyi ido˝n belül? Within how much time? 40 41111 Mennyi ido˝n keresztül? For how long a time?

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11.6

Adverbial pronouns

The adverbial pronouns reflect all the meanings of manner, space and time found among the adverbs. The following chart summarizes the possible adverbial pronouns. (The relative adverbials are formed by prefixing a- to the interrogatives.)

Adverbial pronouns Interrogative Demonstrative Negative

Indefinite

hova where to

ide to here oda to there

sehova from nowhere

valahova akárhova to somewhere bárhova to anywhere

mindenhova mindenüvé to everywhere

hol where

itt here ott there

sehol nowhere

valahol somewhere

akárhol bárhol anywhere

mindenhol mindenütt everywhere

honnan where from

innen from here onnan from there

sehonnan from nowhere

valahonnan from somewhere

akárhonnan bárhonnan from anywhere

mindenhonnan mindenünnen from everywhere

merre in which direction

erre this way arra that way

semerre in no direction

valamerre in some direction

akármerre bármerre in any direction

mindenfelé in every direction

meddig how far how long

eddig until now/here addig until now/there ekkor at this time akkor at that time

semeddig for no length of time or distance

valameddig for some length of time or distance

akármeddig mindeddig bármeddig so far, for any length up until now of time or distance

semmikor at no time soha sohasem sosem never sehogy(an) in no way

valaha once, sometime valamikor at some time

akármikor bármikor whenever

mikor when

hogy(an) how

így in this way úgy in that way

Indefinite-2

Universal

mindig mindenkor always

valahogy(an) akárhogy(an) mindenképpen in some way mindenhogy(an) bárhogy(an) in any way anyway, in any case

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1111 2 3 Mikor született Bartók? When was Bartók born? 4 Hova akarsz menni ma este? Where do you want to go 5 tonight? 6 7 Honnan jön a lárma? Where is the noise coming from? 8 9 1011 11.6.2 Relative 1 The relative adverbials are formed by prefixing a- to the interrogative. 12111 An exception is amíg ‘while’, which often replaces ameddig ‘as long as’. 3 4 Odaraktam a kabátomat, ahol a többi kabát van. 5 I put my coat where the other coats are. 6 7 Amióta találkoztam vele, másra nem is tudok gondolni. 8 Since I met him I can’t think of anything else. 9 Amíg veszekedtek a nappaliban, leégett a vacsora a 20111 konyhában. 1 While they were arguing in the living room, the dinner burned in 2 the kitchen. 3 4 5 11.6.3 Demonstrative 6 7 Erre gyere, erre! 8 Come here, this way! 9 30111 Úgy kell vágni a hajamat, hogy ne lássák, hogy kopa1 szodom. 2 You have to cut my hair so that you can’t see that I’m going 3 bald. 4 All demonstrative pronouns may be prefixed with ugyan- to denote ‘same’. 5 6 Szólt a telefon és ugyanakkor csengettek. 7 The phone rang and at the same time the doorbell did too. 8 Most már ugyanúgy teniszezel, mint a tanárod. 9 You play tennis the same way now as your teacher. 40 41111

11.6.1 Interrogative

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11.6.4 Cataphoric use of demonstrative adverbials

Adverbial pronouns

As with other demonstrative pronouns, the demonstrative adverbials may be used to refer ahead to a forthcoming clause or back to an earlier statement. The back vowel demonstratives refer ahead; front vowel demonstratives refer back.

Úgy beszél franciául az a német lány, mintha Párizsban született volna. That German girl speaks French as if she were born in Paris. Bárcsak így tudnék franciául én is. If only I knew French like that. Arra megyek, amerre viszel. I’ll go where you take me. Addig üsd a vasat, amíg meleg! Strike while the iron is hot! Ott akarok lakni, ahol csend van. I want to live where it is quiet.

11.6.5 Negative The verb must always be negated when using negative adverbials (double negation); the exceptions are sohasem, sosem ‘never’ where the negative particle is already built into the word.

Sohasem/sosem voltunk Kuala Lumpurban. We have never been to Kuala Lumpur. Sehova sem megyek késo˝ este. I never go anywhere late at night.

11.6.6 Indefinite As is found in the nouns and adjectives, there are several indefinite pronouns. The vala- prefix denotes ‘some (undefined)’ and the akár- and bár- prefixes denote ‘any, ~ever’

Valamikor szeptemberben ismerkedtek meg. They became acquainted sometime in September.

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Akármikor telefonálok, elfoglalt. Whenever I call she’s busy. Bármikor jöhetsz, csak gyere! You may come any time, just come!

11.6.7 Universal Mindenképpen keress fel, ha Budapesten vagy. No matter what, look me up if you are in Budapest. Mindenhol koszos volt. It was dirty everywhere. Imre mindig csak enni akar. Imre always wants to eat.

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Chapter 12

Word formation

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Word formation (also called derivation) is perhaps the richest area of Hungarian grammar. Suffixes can be added singly or in combination to change one part of speech into another or otherwise qualify the root. The verb megszentségtelenít ‘defile’, ‘profane’ is an illustration of how several suffixes and a prefix combine with a single root.

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Noun-forming suffixes

12.1.1 Nouns formed from verbs 12.1.1.1 -ás/-és

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dohányzik

smoke

dohányzás

act of smoking

énekel

sing

éneklés

act of singing

ír

write

írás

act of writing

olvas

read

olvasás

act of reading

Abbahagyta az olvasást.

He stopped reading.

Nem tetszett neki az éneklés.

He didn’t like the singing.

The -ás/-és suffix may also denote the result of an action.

főz

cook

főzés

cooking, cuisine

ír

write

írás

writing (sample)

kér

ask for

kérés

request

mond

say

mondás

saying

Nagyon találó az a közmondás.

That proverb is quite apt.

Lenne egy pár kérésem.

I have a few requests.

12.1.1.2 -at/-et This suffix is added to verb stems to denote a result of the verb.

épül

build

épület

building

felad

assign

feladat

assignment

felel

answer

felelet

answer, response

ír

write

irat

document

mond

say

mondat

sentence

12.1.1.3 -alom/-elem, -(a)dalom/-(e)delem This suffix is attached to verbs to form collective or abstract nouns

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forr

boil

forradalom

revolution

hat

have an effect

hatalom

power

ír

write

irodalom

literature

jön

come

jövedelem

income

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késik

be late

késedelem

delay

történik

happen

történelem

history

Nounforming suffixes

12.1.1.4 -(o)mány/-(e)mény This suffix is added to verbs to denote a result of the action.

ad

give

adomány

grant

fest

paint

festmény

painting

gyu˝jt

collect

gyu˝jtemény collection

kezd

begin

kezdemény initiative

költ

compose, invent költemény

poetry, poem

olvas read

olvasmány

a piece/selection of reading

süt

bake

sütemény

pastry

tud

know

tudomány

knowledge, science

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12.1.1.5 -vány/-vény This suffix is added to verbs to denote a result or product of an action.

áll

stand

állvány

stand, scaffolding

igazol

justify

igazolvány

certificate

jön

come

jövevény

newcomer

kér

ask for

kérvény

questionnaire

kiad

publish

kiadvány

publication

köt

tie

kötvény

bond, security

mutat

show

mutatvány

specimen; spectacle

12.1.2 Nouns formed from noun, adjective or verb stems 12.1.2.1 -ász/-ész This suffix is added to stems (of nouns, adjectives or verbs) to form occupations.

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bánya

mine

bányász

miner

épít

build

építész

architect

erdo˝

forest

erdész

forester

gyógy-1

cure

gyógyász

doctor

hal

fish

halász

fisherman

mu˝

opus

mu˝vész

artist

nyelv

language

nyelvész

linguist

szín

scene

színész

actor

szobor

statue

szobrász

sculptor

szül

give birth

szülész

obstetrician

12.1.2.2 -ászat/-észet This suffix (formed by adding -at/-et to the previous suffix) is added to stems to denote the field of work associated with the aforementioned occupations.

épít

build

építészet

architecture

gyógy-2

cure

gyógyászat

medicine

mu˝

opus

mu˝vészet

art

nyelv

language

nyelvészet

linguistics

szobor

statue

szobrászat

sculpture

szül

give birth

szülészet

obstetrics

12.1.2.3 -ista Similar to the English suffix ‘-ist’, this suffix is added to roots to denote one belonging to the general activity or school of the root.

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alkohol

alcohol

alkoholista

alcoholic

egyetem

university

egyetemista

university student

The hyphen indicates that this form is found only as a stem, or combinatory form. i.e., it does not occur as a self-standing word. 2 See n. 1 above.

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gimnázium

high school

gimnázista

high school student

zongora

piano

zongorista

pianist

This suffix is found in many cognates with English.

buddhista

Buddhist

nacionalista

nationalist

germanista

Germanist

optimista

optimist

imperialista

imperialist

pesszimista

pessimist

kapitalista

capitalist

szocialista

socialist

Nounforming suffixes

12.1.2.4 -s This is perhaps the most widely used derivational suffix. In addition to making nouns, its most common use is in forming adjectives (see section 12.2.2). The suffix -s requires a linking vowel when attaching to stems ending in a consonant. In most cases, the choice of linking vowel is the same as in forming the plural. When adding the suffix -s to words ending in a or e, the vowel is lengthened to á, é, respectively; with stems ending in other vowels, there is no change in the stem. The suffix -s makes nouns from other nouns to denote the person who operates or works at or with that noun.

asztal

table

asztalos

carpenter

ének

song

énekes

singer

könyvtár

library

könyvtáros

librarian

óra

watch

órás

watchmaker

tánc

dance

táncos

dancer

taxi

taxi

taxis

taxi driver

telefon

telephone

telefonos

telephone operator

zöldség

vegetable

zöldséges

greengrocer

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12.1.2.5 -ság/-ség3 Another widely used suffix, -ság/-ség makes nouns out of adjectives and other nouns. Its general meaning is similar to the English suffixes ‘-ness’ or ‘-hood’, but it has a collective function as well.

anya

mother

anyaság

motherhood

barát

friend

barátság

friendship

boldog

happy

boldogság

happiness

buta

stupid

butaság

stupidity

egész

whole

egészség

health

hegy

mountain

hegység

mountain range

képtelen

incapable

képtelenség

inability

leheto˝

possible

leheto˝ség

possibility

12.1.2.6 -né This suffix is added to a name or noun to mean ‘Mrs.’ or the person’s wife.

Kövér Csaba

Csaba Kövér

Kövér Csabané

Mrs. Csaba Kövér

Kövérné

Mrs. Kövér

pék

baker

pékné

baker’s wife

pap

minister

papné

minister’s wife

12.1.2.7 -ék This suffix is added to a name or noun to denote the family, or usual entourage, of the person.

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3

Kovács

a Kovácsék

the Kovács family

Gyula

a Gyuláék

Gyula and his family and/or friends

This suffix never lengthens a final a or e when attaching.

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a barátom my friend

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12.2

Adjectiveforming suffixes

Adjective-forming suffixes

12.2.1 -i This suffix forms adjectives from nouns, adverbs and postpositions.4

12.2.1.1

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It is often added to expressions of place or time and can be translated by ‘of’ or a possessive construction in English.

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fent

above

fenti lakás

upstairs apartment

közel

nearby

közeli bolt

nearby store

ma

today

mai újság

today’s newspaper

tavaly

last year

tavalyi ido˝

last year’s weather

utóbb

later

utóbbi évek

recent years

12.2.1.2 It is added to nouns to give them an attributive function.

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a barátomék my friend and his family and/or friends

hegy

mountain

hegyi tó

mountain lake

hely

place

helyi ido˝

local time

no˝

woman

no˝i ruha

women’s clothing

tavasz

spring

tavaszi zápor

spring shower

12.2.1.3 The suffix -i may be added to postpositions to turn the entire postpositional phrase into an attribute.

4

a ház elo˝tt

in front of the house

a ház elo˝tti kert

the garden in front of the house

See n. 3 above.

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12 Word formation

az asztal fölött

above the table

az asztal fölötti festmény

the painting over the table

a háború után

after the war

a háború utáni évek

the post-war years

12.2.1.4 The suffix -i is 100 percent productive when added to place names to denote a person or other entity from that place. Note that although the place name is written with a capital letter, the adjectival form is not. Although the resulting forms always decline as adjectives, they may be used as nouns as well.

Budapest

budapesti

(a person/thing) from Budapest

London

londoni

(a person/thing) from London

Madrid

madridi

(a person/thing) from Madrid

Szeged

szegedi

(a person/thing) from Szeged

A budapestiek büszkék lehetnek a városukra. People from Budapest can be proud of their city. Külföldön a szegedi paprika a leghíresebb. Paprika from Szeged is the most famous abroad.

12.2.2 -s This suffix is added to nouns, adjectives and numerals to make new adjectives.

12.2.2.1 It has the meaning ‘endowed with’, ‘qualified as having’. This suffix also makes nouns (see section 12.1.2.4).

vaj

butter

erdo˝ forest 218

vajas kenyér

bread and butter (lit., buttery bread)

erdo˝s terület wooded area

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12.2.2.2 Concrete characteristics of a person or thing can be expressed with the use of -s.

név

name

neves professzor

famous professor

ötlet

idea

ötletes gyerek

clever or ingenious child

család

family

családos férfi

man with a family (children)

kalap

hat

kalapos hölgy

lady with a hat

kert

garden kertes ház

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Adjectiveforming suffixes

house with a garden

szemüveg glasses szemüveges bácsi man (uncle) with glasses 12.2.2.3 The suffix -s can be attached to time expressions to indicate duration. Note that the time expression is consequently written as one word.

tíz perc

ten minutes tízperces szünet

ten-minute break

egy év

one year

egyéves tanfolyam

one-year course

két hét

two weeks

kéthetes szabadság two-week vacation

egy óra

one hour

egyórás elo˝adás

one-hour lecture

12.2.2.4 Attached to an adjective -s can modify the meaning of the adjective.

barna

brown

barnás

brownish

beteg

sick

beteges

sickly, ailing

fiatal

young

fiatalos

youngish

magyar

Hungarian

magyaros

in a Hungarian style

zöld

green

zöldeskék

greenish-blue

12.2.2.5 It can be attached to numerals to yield both adjectives and nouns.

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hat

six

hatos villamos

number six tram

1111 2 hét seven a hetes szám the number seven 3 tíz ten tizes szoba room number ten 4 5 száz hundred százas one-hundred (forint) 6 banknote 7 8 9 12.2.3 -tlan/-tlen, -atlan/-etlen, -talan/-telen 1011 This suffix is attached to nouns, adjectives, and verbs and denotes 1 12111 ‘without’, or ‘qualified as not having’. 3 arány proportion aránytalan disproportionate 4 5 rend order rendetlen messy 6 ismer know ismeretlen unknown 7 The suffix has three variants. Although there are many exceptions, the 8 9 following are the tendencies in forming words with this suffix. 20111 1 1 -tlan, -tlen is added to stems ending in a vowel; word-final vowel a 2 or e is lengthened to á or é, respectively. 3 béke peace békétlen restless, turbulent, quarrelsome 4 erő force erőtlen weak, feeble, powerless 5 hiba mistake hibátlan faultless 6 só salt sótlan unsalted 7 8 2 -talan, -telen is added to stems ending in a single consonant: 9 30111 bátor brave bátortalan cowardly 1 érték value értéktelen worthless 2 haszon use haszontalan useless 3 4 3 -atlan, -etlen is added to all verb stems. 5 ismer know ismeretlen unknown 6 kér ask for kéretlen unrequested, unsolicited 7 vár expect, wait váratlan unexpected 8 9 40 41111

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12.2.3.1 Grammatical features of the -tlan/-tlen suffix

Adjectiveforming suffixes

12.2.3.1.1 This suffix is commonly found with verbs formed with the potential suffix -hat/-het and forms the antonym of the potential present participle.

eszik

eat

eheto˝

edible

ehetetlen

inedible

hiheto˝

believable

hihetetlen

unbelievable

látható

visible

láthatatlan

invisible

megváltoztatható

changeable

megváltoztathatatlan

immutable, irrevocable

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hisz

believe

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lát

see

megváltoztat change

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12.2.3.1.2 Sometimes more than one variant can be attached to the same root, yielding two different meanings.

íz

taste, flavor

gond worry, care

ízetlen

tasteless (abstract, as of decoration)

íztelen

tasteless (concrete, as of food)

gondatlan careless gondtalan carefree

lélek soul, spirit

lelketlen

heartless

lélektelen lacking in spirit or enthusiasm tárgy object, theme tárgyatlan (of sentences or verbs) having no object, intransitive tárgytalan (a matter) not worth discussion, invalid, unnecessary 221

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1111 2 Unlike most adjectives, those formed with -tlan/-tlen and their variants 3 form their adverbs with -ul/-ül. 4 5 hibátlan faultless hibátlanul faultlessly 6 váratlan unexpected váratlanul unexpectedly 7 8 9 12.2.3.1.4 1011 The suffixes -s and -tlan/-tlen (and its variants) often form antonyms. 1 12111 arányos proportionate aránytalan disproportionate 3 egészséges healthy egészségtelen unhealthy 4 5 figyelmes considerate figyelmetlen inconsiderate 6 hasznos useful haszontalan useless 7 8 no˝s married man no˝tlen bachelor 9 rendes tidy rendetlen disorderly 20111 1 rendszeres systematic rendszertelen unsystematic 2 sós salty sótlan saltless 3 udvarias polite udvariatlan impolite 4 5 ügyes clever, agile ügyetlen awkward, inept 6 7 8 12.2.4 -ú/-u˝ (-jú/-ju˝) 9 30111 This suffix has a similar meaning to the suffix -s. 1 2 12.2.4.1 3 4 It makes adjectives out of nouns and is used when it is in turn modified 5 by another adjective. 6 fekete haj black hair fekete hajú lány a girl with black hair 7 8 kék szem blue eyes kék szemu˝ kisfiú blue-eyed boy 9 jó étvágy good appetite jó étvágyú beteg a patient with a 40 good appetite 41111

12.2.3.1.3

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érdekes téma

interesting theme

érdekes témájú könyv

book with an interesting theme

Adjectiveforming suffixes

12.2.4.2 Adjectives derived by -ú/-ű may have a stronger (more permanent, inalienable) connection to the noun they are modifying. Adjectives derived by -s (may) have a looser (more temporary) connection to the noun.

hosszú ruhás lány

a girl with a long dress

hosszú hajú lány

a girl with long hair

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12.2.4.3 The variants -jú and -jű are attached to stems ending in a vowel; if the final vowel is a or e it is lengthened to á or é, respectively.

ero˝

force

nagy ereju˝

having great power

téma

theme

tabu témájú

having a taboo theme

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12.2.5 -ékeny/-ékony This suffix forms adjectives from verb stems. It denotes an inclination to the activity expressed in the next stem.

érez

feel

érzékeny

sensitive

félt

fear for; be jealous of

féltékeny

jealous

folyik

flow

folyékony

fluent

hajlik

bend, lean

hajlékony

flexible, pliable

tör

break

törékeny

fragile

12.2.6 -nyi This suffix is added to nouns to form adjectives of measure or size.

méter

meter

méternyi

(one) meter long

pillanat

moment

pillanatnyi

(lasting) a moment

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12 Word formation

tenyér

palm

tenyérnyi

palm-sized

ujj

finger

ujjnyi

width of a finger

12.3

Verb-forming suffixes

12.3.1 -z(ik)5 This suffix yields perhaps the most common way of making verbs out of nouns. When added to stems ending in a consonant it requires a linking vowel – usually the same vowel as is required for forming the plural; when added to stems ending in a or e, the vowel is lengthened to á or é, respectively. These verbs may or may not take the -ik ending. The -z(ik) suffix has many uses; only a few are mentioned here.

12.3.1.1 This suffix is commonly added to stems to denote using the stem in playing sports or music or otherwise spending time at an activity.

foci

soccer

focizik

play soccer

fuvola

flute

fuvolázik

play the flute

kosárlabda

basketball

kosárlabdázik

play basketball

levél

letter

levelezik

correspond

tenisz

tennis

teniszezik

play tennis

zongora

piano

zongorázik

play the piano

12.3.1.2 It can be used with foods or meals.

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kávé

coffee

kávézik

drink coffee

reggeli

breakfast

reggelizik

eat breakfast

If the stem is a low-vowel noun that loses length when forming the plural, it will usually lose length when suffixing -z(ik) and -l as well: út ‘trip’, utazik ‘travel’; nyár ‘summer’, nyaral ‘spend summer vacation’.

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beer

sörözik

drink beer

tea

tea

teázik

drink tea

vacsorázik

eat dinner

vacsora dinner

Verb-forming suffixes

12.3.1.3 To use an instrument or tool.

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csavar

screw

csavaroz

fasten with a screw

gereblye

rake

gereblyézik

use a rake

kocsi

car

kocsizik

go by car, drive

12.3.1.4 To supply/furnish with an object.

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fal

wall

falaz

put up a wall

fegyver

weapon

felfegyverezik

arm

12.3.2 -l6 This suffix is also widely used to form verbs from nouns. When added to stems ending in a consonant, it requires a linking vowel (usually the same one as required when forming the plural of the stem). When added to stems ending in a or e, the vowel is lengthened to á or é, respectively.

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sör

6

ebéd

lunch

ebédel

eat lunch

ének

song

énekel

sing

kéz

hand

kezel

handle, treat

lapát

shovel

lapátol

dig with a shovel

nyár

summer

nyaral

spend the summer (vacation)

vásár

market

vásárol

shop

See n. 5 above.

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Note that the same stem may take both verb-forming suffixes and result 1111 in two different meanings: 2 3 rend order rendez organize rendel place an order 4 vizsga test vizsgázik take a test vizsgál examine 5 6 7 12.3.3 -ít 8 9 This suffix makes transitive verbs. It is added to stems ending in a conso- 1011 nant; if the stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped before suffixing. 1 Verbs ending in -ít are often the transitive counterpart of the intransitive 12111 verbs ending in -ul/-ül; see section 12.3.5. 3 4 5 12.3.3.1 6 This suffix is commonly added to adjectives. 7 8 csúnya ugly csúnyít make ugly 9 éles sharp élesít sharpen 20111 1 fekete black feketít blacken 2 kész ready készít prepare 3 4 nagyobb bigger nagyobbít enlarge 5 széles wide szélesít widen 6 7 szép beautiful szépít beautify 8 9 12.3.3.2 30111 1 It may be added to nouns and other roots. 2 alak form alakít shape (something) 3 4 alap base alapít establish 5 gyógyít heal gyógy-7 cure 6 7 tan study tanít teach 8 9 40 7 See n. 1 above. 41111

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12.3.4 -esz/-aszt

Verb-forming suffixes

This suffix is found on transitive verbs. It is not nearly as productive as the transitive suffix -ít. It is often attached to stems that occur only as roots of derivations. These verbs often have intransitive counterparts ending in -ad/-ed; see section 12.3.6.

ébreszt

wake someone up

halaszt

postpone

fáraszt

tire (someone)

ijeszt

frighten, startle

fejleszt

develop

riaszt

alarmed

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12.3.5 -ul/-ül This suffix forms intransitive verbs and often is the counterpart to the transitive verbs formed with -ít. It is added to stems ending in a consonant; should the stem end in a vowel, the vowel is dropped.

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12.3.5.1 The suffix -ul/-ül is often added to adjectives.

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ép

intact

épül

be built

kész

ready

készül

become prepared, ready

sárga

yellow

sárgul

turn yellow

szép

beautiful

szépül

become beautiful

12.3.5.2 This suffix may be added to non-adjective stems as well.

8

alak

form

alakul

take shape

alap

base

alapul

be founded

gyógy-8

cure

gyógyul

be cured

tan

learn

tanul

learn

See n. 1 above.

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12 Word formation

12.3.6 -ad-/-ed This suffix makes intransitive verbs. Verbs with this suffix often find their transitive counterparts in verbs ending in -szt (see above, section 12.3.4).

ébred

wake up

ijed

become frightened

fárad

become tired

riad

become alarmed

halad

progress, advance

szárad

become dry

12.3.7 -kodik/-kedik/-ködik, kozik/-kezik/-közik This suffix makes intransitive verbs. There is no way to predict whether the suffix will contain a d (-kodik) or a z (-kozik). This suffix has many uses; only a few are listed here.

12.3.7.1 Often the meaning is reflexive, i.e., to do the activity to oneself. (The reflexive pronouns are never used with these verbs.)

fésül

use a comb

fésülködik

comb one’s hair

mos

wash

mosakodik

wash oneself

öltöz

dress (trans.)

öltözködik

get dressed

töröl

wipe

törölközik

dry oneself with a towel

12.3.7.2 It may be used to identify occupations.

lektor

lector

lektorkodik

work as a lector

pincér

waiter

pincérkedik

work as a waiter

12.3.7.3 This suffix may describe a way of behaving.

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szemtelen

impertinent

szemtelenkedik

misbehave

szerelmes

in love

szerelmeskedik

act lovey-dovey

szomorú

sad

szomorkodik

act sad

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12.3.7.4 It may be added to other roots to express mutual behavior.

barát

friend

barátkozik

make friends

szeret

love

szeretkezik

make love

Verb-forming suffixes

12.3.8 -skodik/-skedik/-sködik

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This suffix makes intransitive verbs. After stems ending in a consonant it requires the linking vowel o/e/ö; stems ending in a or e lengthen to á or é, respectively. It denotes behaving as the noun or adjective of its root.

cimbora

pal

cimboráskodik

fraternize

hülye

idiot(ic)

hülyéskedik

act stupidly

nagylelku˝

generous

nagylelku˝sködik

act generously

tanú

witness

tanuskodik

bear witness

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12.3.9 -odik/-edik/-ödik This suffix makes intransitive verbs. It is most often attached to adjectives, but is found with other roots as well. Verbs formed with this suffix usually find their transitive counterparts with verbs ending in -ít.

halvány

obscure, dim halványodik become obscure, fade

kanyar

curve

kanyarodik

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keskeny narrow

12.3.10

bend, curve (as in a road or river)

keskenyedik become narrow

-ódik/-o˝dik

This suffix makes intransitive verbs. It is often attached to transitive verb stems.

befejez finish

befejezo˝dik

come to an end, become finished

csuk

csukódik

close, shut (by itself)

close, shut

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elvégez finish

elvégzo˝dik

come to an end

kezd

begin

kezdo˝dik

start (intrans.)

zár

close, lock

záródik

close, lock (by itself)

Mikor kezdték az elo˝adást?

When did they start the lecture?

Mikor kezdo˝dött az elo˝adás? When did the lecture start? Becsukta az ajtót.

She closed the door.

Becsukódik az ajtó.

The door is closing.

12.3.11

-ll(ik)

This suffix is added to adjectives and expressions of quantity; the verb denotes that something appears to have the quality of the root – sometimes in excess. Stems ending in a consonant require the linking vowel (and other stem alternations) found in forming the adverb. Word-final a and e are lengthened to á and é, respectively.

sok

much

sokall

consider something too much

kevés

few

kevesell

consider something too little, not enough

fekete

black

feketéllik show, appear black

Kevesellte a fizetést.

12.3.12

He thought the pay was too low.

-ászik/-észik

This suffix forms verbs denoting a trade or hobby.

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vad

wild

vadászik

hunt

madár

bird

madarászik

hunt birds

sólyom

hawk

sólymászik

hunt hawks

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12.4

Diminutives

Diminutives

Diminutives are suffixes added to names, nouns, and sometimes adjectives and denote the smallness of, or fondness toward, a person or object. They are very common in Hungarian; parents almost always use them with the names of their children, and depending on the idiosyncracies of the speaker, they can find their way into many sentences. Diminutives take several shapes. The most common are given here.

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12.4.1 -cska/-cske This diminutive can be attached to most nouns and some adjectives. After nouns ending in a consonant, it requires the linking vowel used to form the plural; any other stem changes required in the plural are also required when attaching this suffix. Word-final vowels a or e are lengthened to á or é, respectively.

girl

lány

lányocska

face

arc

arcocska

cloud

felho˝

felho˝cske

hand

kéz

kezecske

milk

tej

tejecske

house

ház

házacska

fork

villa

villácska

horse



lovacska

big

nagy

nagyocska

bird

madár

madaracska

12.4.2 -ka/-ke This diminutive is usually attached to polysyllabic words not ending in -k or -g. It attaches directly to the stem and does not require the linking vowel or the stem changes found when forming the plural.

poor

szegény

szegényke

piece

darab

darabka

cow

tehén

tehénke

bird

madár

madárka

person

ember

emberke

table

asztal

asztalka

small

kicsi

kicsike

short

rövid

rövidke

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12 Word formation

12.4.3 -i This suffix is used with stems that have already been shortened.

cigarette

cigaretta

cigi

chocolate

csokoládé

csoki

thank you

köszönöm

köszi

12.4.4 Perhaps the most common use of diminutives is with people’s names. Often the names are shortened and several different diminutives may be attached. A name with front-vowel assonance may change to a nickname with back-vowel assonance and vice versa. The -ka/-ke suffix is the most common with names and the first person singular possessive suffix is often attached. Several common variations with names are given here.

John

János: Jani, Janika, Jánoska, Jancsi, Jancsika, Jancsó, Jancsóka

Charles

Károly: Károlyka, Karcsi, Karesz

George

György: Gyuri, Gyurika

Stephen

István: Isti, Istvánka, Pista, Pisti, Pistike, Pityu

Elizabeth

Erzsébet: Erzsi, Erzsike, Erzsó, Erzsóka, Zsóka, Bözsi, Bözsike, Böske, Örzse, Örzsi, Örzsike

Mary

Mária: Mari, Marika, Maris, Mariska, Marcsi

The first person singular possessive suffix is often attached to diminutives when addressing the person directly.

Erzsikém, gyere ide!

Come here, Erzsi!

Úgy szeretlek, Jánoskám.

I love you so much, János.

Children (and people speaking with them) commonly use the following diminutives:

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father

apa

apu, apuka, apus, apuska, api, apika, apuci, papus

mother

anya

anyu, anyuka, anyus, anyuska, anyuci

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rabbit

nyúl

nyuszi, nyuszika, nyulacska, nyuszóka

dog

kutya

kutyu, kutyus, kutyuska

cat

macska

cica, cica-mica, cicus

Diminutives

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Chapter 13

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 13.1 Coordinating conjunctions 12111 3 Coordinating conjunctions join clauses, phrases or words. A comma is 4 usually used before conjunctions joining clauses. The following are the 5 most important coordinating conjunctions in Hungarian. 6 7 8 13.1.1 Connecting conjunctions 9 20111 These may be single words or pairs of words: 1 2 és ‘and’ 3 Imre és János most Imre and János are eating 4 vacsorázik. dinner now. 5 6 Esik az eso˝ és fúj a szél. It’s raining and the wind is 7 blowing. 8 s ‘and’ (pronounced as one with the following syllable): 9 30111 Megjött a levél, s rögtön The letter arrived and he read 1 elolvasta. it immediately. 2 Zsófia s én együtt dolgozunk. Zsófia and I work together. 3 4 meg ‘and’ (when joining clauses, meg is usually in the second position of 5 the clause): 6 Péter moziba megy, én meg színházba megyek. 7 Péter is going to the movies and I am going to the theater. 8 9 Ketto˝ meg ketto˝, az négy. 40 Two and two are four. 41111

Conjunctions

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is ‘too’, ‘also’ (this word always follows the phrase to which it refers):

Nekünk van kutyánk, macskánk is. We have a dog and a cat (too).

Coordinating conjunctions

se, sem ‘neither’, ‘nor’

Nekem nem ízlett a bor, (s) Jánosnak sem. I didn’t like the wine, and neither did János. sőt ‘moreover’, ‘indeed’, ‘even’

Nagyon tetszik a húgod, so˝t, meghívtam vacsorára. I really like your sister, I even invited her to dinner. is . . . is ‘both . . . and’

Apám is, anyám is Budapesten lakik. Both my father and mother live in Budapest. mind . . . mind ‘both . . . and’

Mind a gyerekek, mind a felno˝ttek szerették azt a játékot. Both the children and the adults loved that game. sem . . . sem, se . . . se ‘neither . . . nor’

Sem kalapot, sem kesztyu˝t nem hord télen. He wears neither a hat nor gloves in the winter. Mi történt veled? Se nem írsz, se nem telefonálsz. What is up with you? You neither write nor call me. nemcsak . . . hanem . . . is ‘not just . . . but . . . too’

Nemcsak fo˝z a férjem, hanem porszívóz is! My husband doesn’t just cook, he vacuums too!

13.1.2 Contrasting conjunctions de ‘but’

Meghívtam a bátyámat, de nem tud eljönni. I invited my brother, but he is unable to come. 235

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hanem ‘but’, ‘rather’ (Always preceded by a nem-clause.)

1111 2 Nem Prágába akar menni, hanem Bécsbe. 3 She doesn’t want to go to Prague, rather to Vienna. 4 5 mégis ‘(but) still’, ‘even so’ 6 Az elo˝adás unalmas volt, mégis tanultam valamit belo˝le. 7 The lecture was boring, but I still learned something from it. 8 9 mégsem ‘(but) still . . . not’ 1011 Rengeteget eszik, mégsem hízik. 1 He eats so much, but still he doesn’t put on weight. 12111 3 azonban ‘however’, ‘but’ (This word is usually in the second position of 4 the clause.) 5 Hazavittem a számítógépemet, a könyveimet azonban az 6 irodában hagytam. 7 I brought my computer home, but I left my books in the office. 8 9 ellenben ‘on the other hand’ 20111 1 A bátyám nagyon gazdag, ellenben az öcsém elég 2 szegény. 3 My older brother is very rich, my younger brother on the other 4 hand is rather poor. 5 viszont ‘but, on the other hand’ 6 7 Imádom a nyarat, viszont a telet egyáltalán nem bírom. 8 I love summer, but I can’t stand winter at all. 9 30111 1 13.1.3 Conjunctions of choice 2 3 vagy ‘or’ 4 Eljössz velem, vagy itthon maradsz? 5 Are you coming with me or staying home? 6 7 vagy . . . vagy ‘either . . . or’ (Used when the choice between two options 8 results in two different outcomes.) 9 Ma este vagy moziba megyünk, vagy színházba. 40 We are either going to the movies or to the theater tonight. 41111

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akár. . . . .akár ‘whether . . . or’ (Used when the choice between two options results in the same outcome.)

Coordinating conjunctions

Akár hiszed, akár nem, a hatéves fiam már tud síelni. Whether you believe it or not, my six-year-old son already knows how to ski.

13.1.5 Explanatory conjunctions These conjunctions are used to explain or account for the assertion in the preceding clause. ugyanis ‘for’, ‘since’, ‘because’

A felesége jól beszél magyarul, ugyanis egy évig Budapesten élt. His wife speaks Hungarian well, for she lived in Budapest for a year. hiszen ‘for’, ‘since’, ‘because’

Nagyon berúgott, hiszen egymaga megivott egy egész üveg bort. He got very drunk, for he drank a whole bottle of wine by himself. tudniillik ‘because’, ‘since’

Nem tudom olvasni az újságot, tudniillik nem találom a szemüvegemet. I can’t read the newspaper, because I can’t find my glasses. The explanatory conjunctions azaz and vagyis provide a more detailed explanation of the preceding phrase or assertion. azaz ‘that is to say’

A pincér szorgalmasan dolgozott, azaz nem csak álldogált a konyhában. The waiter worked hard, that is to say, he did not just hang about the kitchen. vagyis ‘in other words’

A betegnek ágyban kell maradnia, vagyis nem szabad sokat mozognia. The patient must stay in bed, in other words, he must not move around much.

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1111 2 3 These conjunctions suggest the consequence of the preceding phrase. 4 ezért ‘for this reason’, ‘this is why’ 5 6 Késo˝n érkeztem haza, ezért nem hívtalak fel. 7 I came home late, that’s why I didn’t call you. 8 tehát ‘therefore’, ‘thus’ 9 1011 Gondolkodom, tehát vagyok. 1 I think, therefore I am. 12111 ennélfogva ‘consequently’, ‘thus’ 3 4 Egész nap csak énekelt, ennélfogva tönkretette a hangját. 5 She sang the whole day, consequently she ruined her voice. 6 7 8 13.2 Subordinating conjunctions 9 20111 hogy ‘that’ (used to introduce an imbedded sentence) 1 Tudod, hogy holnaptól megyek szabadságra? 2 Do you know that my vacation begins tomorrow? 3 4 Érted, hogy mit mondok? 5 Do you understand what I am saying? 6 mint ‘as’ (used in clauses of comparison) 7 8 A szeme olyan zöld, mint a smaragd. 9 His eyes are as green as emeralds. 30111 Úgy fut, mint a nyúl. 1 She runs like a rabbit. 2 3 ha ‘if’, ‘when’ 4 Ha Budapesten vagy, mindenképpen keress fel! 5 When you are in Budapest, by all means look me up. 6 7 Ha több ido˝m lenne, zongorázni tanulnék. 8 If I had more time I would learn to play the piano. 9 mintha ‘as if’, ‘as though’ (usually followed by the conditional form of 40 the verb) 41111

13.1.6 Concluding conjunctions

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Úgy tesz, mintha boldog lenne. She acts as though she is happy.

Subordinating conjunctions

hacsak ‘if only’

Hacsak tehetem, ott leszek a bulin. I’ll be at the party if I possibly can. (a)mikor ‘when’

Éppen leültünk, mikor megszólalt a telefon. We had just sat down when the phone rang. miután ‘after’

Miután megfürdetem a lányomat, egyszerre leteszem aludni. After I bathe my daughter, I’ll put her to bed. mielőtt ‘before’

Mielo˝tt hazamentek, megisztok egy kávét? Will you have a cup of coffee before you go home? (a)mióta ‘since’

Amióta megno˝sült, sokkal vidámabb. He is a lot more cheerful since he got married. bár ‘although’

Nem írtam a barátaimnak, bár gyakran gondoltam rájuk. I didn’t write my friends, though I thought of them often. mert ‘because’

Nem mentek el kirándulni, mert esni kezdett az eso˝. They didn’t go on the outing because it started to rain. mivel ‘because’, ‘since’

A lépcso˝n kellett felmenniük, mivel rossz a lift. Since the elevator is not working, they had to take the stairs.

13.2.1 -e ‘whether’ The particle -e is placed on the verb of the subordinate (‘whether’) clause (if the sentence contains no verb the particle is placed on the nominal

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predicate). In Hungarian, the ‘whether’ and ‘if’ clauses are not inter- 1111 changeable: if, in the English sentence, ‘whether’ can substitute for ‘if’, 2 use only the ‘whether’ construction in Hungarian. 3 4 Nem tudjuk, hogy Pál eljön-e. 5 We don’t know whether (if) Pál is coming. 6 Kíváncsi vagyok, hogy drága-e az étterem. 7 I wonder whether (if) the restaurant is expensive. 8 9 1011 13.2.2 Relative pronouns 1 12111 Subordinate clauses may be introduced by relative pronouns. These are 3 formed in Hungarian simply by prefixing a- to an interrogative pronoun. 4 5 Ismered a lányt, aki a másik asztalnál ül? 6 Do you know the girl who is sitting at the other table? 7 Nem értem az elméletet, amiro˝l beszélnek. 8 I don’t understand the theory they are talking about. 9 20111 Úgy készíti a rétest, ahogy a nagyanyám. 1 She makes strudel just as my grandmother does. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

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14.1

Cardinal and ordinal numbers Cardinal

Ordinal

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nulla

nulladik

1

egy

első

2

kettő (két)

második

3

három

harmadik

4

négy

negyedik

5

öt

ötödik

6

hat

hatodik

7

hét

hetedik

8

nyolc

nyolcadik

9

kilenc

kilencedik

10

tíz

tizedik

11

tizenegy

tizenegyedik

12

tizenkettő

tizenkettedik

13, etc.

tizenhárom

tizenharmadik

20

húsz

huszadik

21, etc.

huszonegy

huszonegyedik

30

harminc

harmincadik

31, etc.

harmincegy

harmincegyedik

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negyven

negyvenedik

1111 2 41, etc. negyvenegy negyvenegyedik 3 50 ötven ötvenedik 4 5 51, etc. ötvenegy ötvenegyedik 6 60 hatvan hatvanadik 7 8 61, etc. hatvanegy hatvanegyedik 9 70 hetven hetvenedik 1011 1 71, etc. hetvenegy hetvenegyedik 12111 80 nyolcvan nyolvanadik 3 4 81, etc. nyolvanegy nyolcvanegyedik 5 90 kilencven kilencvenedik 6 7 91, etc. kilencvenegy kilencvenegyedik 8 100 száz századik 9 20111 101 százegy százegyedik 1 200 kétszáz kétszázadik 2 3 1,000 ezer ezredik 4 1,100 ezeregyszáz ezeregyszázadik 5 6 2,000 kétezer kétezredik 7 10,000 tízezer tízezredik 8 9 100,000 százezer százezredik 30111 1,000,000 (egy)millió (egy)milliomodik 1 2 3 14.1.1 4 5 Hungarian uses the singular after all numbers or expressions of quantity: 6 7 Két bátyám van. 8 I have two brothers. 9 Körülbelül háromezer diák tanul ezen az egyetemen. 40 Approximately three thousand students are at this university. 41111

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Declension of numerals

The number two – or any number ending in two – kettő uses the shorter form két when preceding nouns.

Két kocsi van a ház elo˝tt. Two cars are in front of the house. Hány kocsi? Ketto˝.

How many cars? Two.

The long form may also be used before nouns to avoid a possible misunderstanding with the word hét.

Ketto˝száz forintba kerül. It costs two hundred forints.

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The accusative of cardinal numbers is irregular (the plural is rare, but formed along the same pattern):

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egyet

négyet

hetet

negyvenet

hetvenet

százat

ketto˝t

ötöt

nyolcat

ötvenet

nyolcvanat

ezret

hármat

hatot

kilencvenet

hatvanat

kilencvenet

milliót

tizet húszat harmincat

Csak egyet kérünk. We would like just one (of them).

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Declension of numerals

Ezret láttam.

I saw a thousand (of them).

Ezreket láttam.

I saw thousands (of them).

14.2.2 The accusative of the ordinal numbers requires the low linking vowel a/e before the -t:1

harmadikat

1

negyediket

Except első: (acc.) elsőt; (third person poss.) elseje.

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The rest of the declension is regular.2

14.2.4 The possessive third person singular possessive suffix (used in dates) is formed with a/e:3

február huszonkettedike

February 22

május tizenhatodika

May 16

Hányadika van ma?

What is today’s date?

14.3

Adverbial use of expressions of quantity

If the subject of a sentence is a number of people, the adverbial form of the number or other expression of quantity is often used. The verb must be in the plural and the word ember is omitted. Often it is only the verb conjugation that indicates the subject.

ketten

hatan

tízen

negyvenen

kevesen

hárman

heten

tizenegyen

százan

hányan

négyen

nyolcan

húszan

ezren

többen

öten

kilencen

harmincan

sokan

ezreken

Ketten mentünk moziba.

The two of us went to the movies.

Többen jöttek, mint múltkor. More people came than last time.

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3

Hányan maradtok itt?

How many of you are staying here?

Sokan voltunk az elo˝adáson.

Many of us were at the lecture.

Tízen vártak a sorban.

Ten people were waiting in line.

The word három ‘three’ declines as a fleeting vowel sound. See n. 1 above.

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14.4

Fractions

Fractions

14.4.1 Fractions are easily formed from the ordinal numbers by removing the last letters -ik. The word fél (or egyketted) ‘half’ is an exception. 1

2

1

2

1

2

⁄3 egyharmad ⁄4 egynegyed ⁄5 egyötöd

4

⁄6 kéthatod

⁄9 négykilenced

⁄7 kétheted ⁄8 kétnyolcad

14.4.2 The accusative is formed by adding the vowel o/e/ö before -t (fél ‘half’ loses vowel length: felet).

Csak egyötödöt kérek szépen.

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I would like only one fifth, please.

14.4.3 The third person singular possessive is formed with or without the j (unless used in dates, when it is always formed without the j):

harmada ~ harmadja

one third (of it)

negyede ~ negyedje

one fourth (of it)

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14.4.4 Also in use:

másfél

14.5

11⁄2

Decimals

Decimals are marked with a comma in Hungarian; the presence of a decimal may be articulated by the word egész ‘whole’.

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36.7

36,7

harminchat egész hét ~ harminchat egész héttized

20.07

20,07

húsz egész nulla hét ~ húsz egész hétszázad

14.6

Nouns and adjectives derived from numbers

Numbers are used to indicate tram, bus, metro or lines, addresses, banknotes, etc. When referring to something by its number, use the derivational ending -s. With the exception of kettő ‘two’ the numbers add this derivational ending exactly as though adding an accusative ending:

egyes

kettes

hármas

négyes

ötös

hatos

hetes

nyolcas

kilences

tizes

tizenegyes

huszas

harmincas

negyvenes

százas

ezres

hányas

Fel kell szállnom a négyes villamosra. I have to board the number 4 tram. Tudsz adni egy százast? Can you give me a 100 forint/dollar note? Zsuzsa az 512-es (ötszáztizenkettes) szobában dolgozik. Zsuzsa works in room 512. Hányas a cipo˝d? What size (lit. number) are your shoes?

14.7

Multiplicative -szor/-szer/-ször

14.7.1 This suffix is added to numbers, fractions and other expressions of quantity to mean ‘time(s)’. 246

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Csak egyszer voltam Londonban. I’ve only been to London once. Most már ötödször olvasom ezt a könyvet. I’m reading this book for the fifth time.

Multiplicative -szor/-szer/ -ször

Hányszor láttad már a kedvenc filmedet? How many times have you seen your favorite movie? Milliószor csókollak. I kiss you a million times.

14.7.2 This suffix is used to multiply numbers.

Háromszor négy az tizenketto˝.

Three times four is twelve.

Kétszer ketto˝ az négy.

Two times two is four.

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1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 Interjections are isolated words or phrases outside the rules of grammar. 12111 They may express joy, fear, frustration, pain, etc. The following are some 3 common interjections in Hungarian: 4 5 Csitt! Sshhh! 6 Ejnye, ejnye! Tsk, tsk! 7 8 Ejnye-bejnye! Tsk, tsk! 9 Ez az. That’s it. 20111 1 Hát . . . Well . . . 2 Hurrá! Hurray! 3 4 Hu˝-ha! Uh-oh. 5 Íme Behold, voilà! 6 7 Isten o˝rizz! God forbid! 8 Így van. Right, that’s the way it is. 9 30111 Ja? Really/Is that so? 1 Jaj, istenem! Oh my God! 2 3 Jaj-jaj Oh, no!/Oh, dear. 4 Jézus, Mária Jesus and Mary! 5 6 Kár. It’s a shame. 7 Lám. There we go. 8 9 Na! Well! 40 Naná. You see? (I told you so.) 41111

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Nini!

Look! (children’s word)

Nos . . .

Well . . .

Nosza . . .

Well . . .

Pfuj!

Yuck!

Tyu˝!

Wow!

Interjections

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PART III

Sentence structure

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Chapter 16

Sentence elements and word order

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Word order in Hungarian is quite different from English in a number of ways. In English, it is the word order of sentences that tells us what the subject and object are. For example in the sentence, ‘The dog chased the postman’, we know the subject is ‘the dog’. In ‘The postman chased the dog’ we know the subject is ‘the postman’. Though both sentences contain the same words, because of the difference in word order, the meanings of the two are entirely different – particularly from the postman’s point of view! Before examining the differences from English in Hungarian word order, the similiarities should be clear. The subject–verb–object word order found in English is very common in Hungarian too, especially when the object is preceded by an article:

Mária szereti az anyját.

Mária loves her mother. (subject–verb–object)

Lajos ír egy levelet.

Lajos is writing a letter. (subject–verb–object)

The above Hungarian sentences, however, may be written in a variety of word orders and would have English equivalents requiring either a change in intonation or a different expression altogether. The following Hungarian sentences have the possible English equivalents given (among others).

Szereti Mária az anyját.

Mária loves her mother.

Mária az anyját szereti.

Mária loves her mother.

In Hungarian, the extensive case system clearly marks the grammatical function, i.e., part of speech, of nouns or noun-phrases. Because subjects and objects are easily distinguished by their case markings, Hungarian need not rely on word order to determine grammatical function. Therefore, Hungarian allows a freedom of word order unknown in English. This,

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however, does not mean that Hungarian word order is free; word order is 1111 used instead as a means of backgrounding and/or highlighting information. 2 3 ‘Topic-comment structure’ is the term generally applied to Hungarian 4 word order. By this it is meant that topics, i.e., previously known or 5 background information, begin the sentence; the ‘comment’ (or new infor6 mation) follows. In this way topics set the communicative stage for the 7 essential points of discourse. In Hungarian, the topic typically includes 8 subjects, general time expressions or reference to previously mentioned 9 material. 1011 Two main sentence types are pertinent for Hungarian in the discussion 1 of word order; although both retain the topic-comment structure, word 12111 order restrictions are different for each type. The first type is the ‘neutral 3 sentence’, the second is traditionally referred to as the ‘focus’ type. Both 4 require an understanding of sentence positions; their characteristics are 5 outlined below. 6 7 8 16.1 Sentence positions 9 20111 To see how Hungarian word order works in neutral or focussed sentences, 1 it is helpful to establish the following sentence positions: 2 3 Topic –––– || Neutral Preverb || –––– Verb –––– X 4 || ~Focus Preverb || 5 6 7 16.1.1 Topic 8 9 The topic position is in the beginning of the sentence and is usually filled 30111 with subject(s), general time expressions, previously referred to expres- 1 sions (i.e., known information) and/or any other information which serves 2 to set the background for more essential information to come. It may 3 contain several constituents or remain empty. 4 5 6 16.1.2 Preverb 7 8 The preverb occupies the position immediately before the conjugated verb. 9 The preverb is the crux of the sentence for it is primarily here that the 40 grammaticality of a sentence is determined. It is filled by different elements 41111

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of speech depending on whether the sentence is neutral or focussed. Although the preverb position may be empty, it is rarely filled by more than one constituent.

Sentence positions

16.1.2.1 Neutral preverb In neutral sentences the preverb position is filled by (a) a coverb (be, ki, le, fel, el, meg, etc.), (b) an adverb or adverbial phrase (jól, itt, a házban, etc.) or (c) a verbal complement. See section 16.2 for a full description of verbal complements.

16.1.2.2 Focus preverb Focus is a category in Hungarian that consists of (a) (b) (c) (d)

question words or phrases, answers to questions, negation or negated phrases, stressed words or phrases.

When a focussed element is introduced in a sentence it must occupy the focus preverb position. As a consequence of this, any element which would occupy the preverb position in a neutral sentence is removed to a position immediately behind the conjugated verb. Thus it may be helpful to think of the focussed element as ‘kicking out’ the neutral preverb element. The topic position is unaffected by focus; it remains the communicative backdrop of the sentence.

16.1.3 Verb This is the position for the conjugated verb; other verbal forms (infinitives, participles, etc.) are found elsewhere in the sentence. In neutral sentences, if the verb is prefixed with a coverb, the coverb occupies the preverb position.

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16.1.4 X This position is filled by any part of speech (except the conjugated verb); it may contain several constituents; it may be empty. For the most part, the constituents may occur in the X position in any order without a difference in meaning. In sentences with focus, however, it is usual that the first element of X is the element that was removed from the neutral preverb position. (The initial position of X is identical with the position immediately following the verb.)

16.1.5 A note on grammaticality Broadly speaking, the well-formedness of a sentence depends on how the position immediately preceding the conjugated verb is filled; the sentence is ungrammatical if the preverb position is incorrectly filled. The topic and X positions have less to do with grammaticality and more to do with the logical flow or presentation of information; thus they exhibit a greater freedom of word order. The word order of the preverb and verb positions is fixed.

16.2

Verbal complements

Verbal complements may be any part of speech, but they are characteristically what might be considered a ‘natural’ complement to the verb.

16.2.1 The verbal complement may be the predicate nominative or predicate adjective.

Én mérnök vagyok. I am an engineer. Magasak vagytok.

You (pl.) are tall.

16.2.2 In there is/there are constructions, the verbal complement is the subject. 256

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Sok szék van a teremben.

There are many chairs in the room.

Víz van a pohárban.

There is water in the glass.

Verbal complements

16.2.3 In ‘have’ constructions, the verbal complement is what one has (the grammatical subject):

Nekem két testvérem van. I have two siblings. Lacinak kevés ideje van.

Laci has little time.

16.2.4 The verbal complement is often the direct object:

Dénes könyvet olvas.

Dénes is reading a book.

This sentence has the more literal, though clumsy, English translation ‘Dénes is book-reading’. The complement of the verb is the direct object könyvet ‘book’. This is a common sentence type in Hungarian which conveys the idea that a generic activity is taking place with no reference to specifics, i.e., in this case no individual book is mentioned. In Hungarian this sentence structure can be applied to many activities, as long as the verbal complement is not individuated. In English only a limited number of idiomatic constructions of this type occur (some examples would include babysitting, apartment-hunting, people-watching). More examples of direct object verbal complements include:

Apám újságot vesz.

My father is buying a newspaper.

Tévét nézek.

I am watching television.

János tollat keres.

János is looking for a pen.

16.2.5 Verbal complements may also be adverbials:

Moziba megyünk.

We are going to the movies.

Színházba mennek.

They are going to the theater.

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Erzsi egyetemre jár.

Erzsi attends college.

A Kovácsék vidéken laknak. The Kovácses live in the countryside. Whatever part of speech occupies the preverb position – whether it is a subject, object or adverbial – it is typically not preceded by an article – definite or indefinite.1

16.3

Neutral sentence structure

Neutral sentences have a level intonation pattern; they are further characterized by not containing elements with heavy stress or emphasis, interrogatives, answers or negation. With the sentence positions established as above, we may consider the word order of the following sentences:

1 Attila itt van. Attila is here. 2 Klára szépen énekel. Klára sings beautifully. 3 Az orvos megvizsgálja a beteget. The doctor will examine the patient. 4 Megvizsgálja az orvos a beteget. The doctor will examine the patient. 5 Múlt évben a szülei Budapesten laktak. Last year his parents lived in Budapest. 6 Múlt évben Budapesten laktak a szülei. Last year his parents lived in Budapest. 7 Dénes könyvet olvas a nappaliban. Dénes is reading a book in the living room. 8 Reggel a gyerekek a kertben játszanak. In the morning the children play in the yard. 9 Reggel a kertben játszanak a gyerekek. In the morning the children play in the yard.

1 The indefinite article, however, may be used and the same word order maintained (in this case, the verbal complement not a generic, but an individuated one):

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Apám egy újságot vesz. My father is buying a newspaper. János egy tollat keres. János is looking for a pen.

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10 Zsuzsa el akar utazni Prágába.2 Zsuzsa wants to travel to Prague. 11 Amerikaiak vagyunk. We are American. 12 Péter jól megtanulta a leckét. Péter learned the lesson well. The above sentences are categorized according to sentence position in the following table. Topic position is filled by subjects and/or time expressions or remains empty. The preverb position is filled with adverbs or adverbials of place (sentences 1, 5, 6, 8, 9), adverbs of manner (sentences 2, 12), verbal complements (sentences 7, 11, 12) or coverbs (sentences 3, 4, 10). Sentence 12 illustrates the word order for the preverb position containing two elements. The coverb is usually not separated from the verb in these instances. (But see focus structure below.)

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Topic

Neutral preverb

Verb

1

Attila

itt

van.

2

Klára

szépen

énekel.

3

Az orvos

meg-

vizsgálja

a beteget.

Meg-

vizsgálja

az orvos a beteget.

4

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Neutral sentence structure

5

Múlt évben a szülei

Budapesten laktak.

6

Múlt évben

Budapesten laktak

a szülei.

7

Dénes

könyvet

olvas

a nappaliban.

8

Reggel a gyerekek

a kertben

játszanak.

9

Reggel

a kertben

játszanak

a gyerekek.

10

Zsuzsa

el

akar

utazni Prágába.

Amerikaiak

vagyunk.

jól meg-

tanulta

11 12

2

X

Péter

See section 16.4 for more on this sentence type.

a leckét.

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16.4

Sentence structure with focus elements

Focussed sentences have an intonation pattern containing the main (often heavy) stress on the focussed element. Focus affects the word order of neutral sentences by usurping the preverb position for itself and removing the neutral preverb element to a position immediately behind the verb. The topic position remains unaffected. Focussed sentences contain interrogatives, answers, negation or emphasis (stressed words or phrases). Consider the following sentences with focus elements. These are all permutations of the neutral sentence (5) Dénes könyvet olvas. Dénes is reading a book.

13 Ki olvas könyvet? Who is reading a book? 14 Dénes olvas könyvet. Dénes is reading a book.

(Contains a question word)

(As answer to the previous sentence, Dénes is the answer, the focussed element)3 15 Dénes nem olvas könyvet. (Contains negation) Dénes is not reading a book. 16 Csak Dénes olvas könyvet. (Contains a stressed element – Only Dénes is reading a book. the csak-phrase.)

Sentence

Focus preverb

Verb

X

13

Ki

olvas

könyvet?

14

Dénes

olvas

könyvet.

nem

olvas

könyvet.

Csak Dénes

olvas

könyvet.

15 16

Topic

Dénes

The table illustrates the permutations of word order for focussed elements in a sentence. In sentence (13), although Ki ‘who’ is the sentence subject, 3

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The answer Dénes need not begin the sentence, but it must be in the focus preverb position.

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it is found in focus position because it is a question word. In sentence (14), Dénes, though it is the subject, is the answer to the question Ki? of the previous sentence, and therefore is found in the focus position. Negation occupies the focus position in sentence (15). Emphatic or stressed phrases (as illustrated here by the phrase beginning with csak ‘only’) are found in focus position. In all four sentences the focus position has usurped the preverb position of neutral sentences. The word könyvet ‘book, acc.’, which had occupied the preverb position in the neutral sentence (5), has consequently been removed to a position immediately behind the verb. To further examine the possibilities of word order, consider again sentence (8):

Reggel a gyerekek a kertben játszanak. In the morning the children play in the yard. We may rephrase the sentence as a question ‘Where do the children play in the morning?’ In Hungarian it is most common to begin questions with the interrogative, but there is nonetheless a flexibility of word order which depends on how the speaker wishes to frame the question. The only firm requirement is that the interrogative hol ‘where’ be immediately before the conjugated verb. The topic position may be filled or empty.

‘Where do the children play in the morning? Topic

Focus Verb

X

Hol

játszanak reggel a gyerekek?

Hol

játszanak a gyerekek reggel?

Reggel

hol

játszanak a gyerekek?

A gyerekek

hol

játszanak reggel?

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Reggel a gyerekek hol

játszanak?

A gyerekek reggel hol

játszanak?

Similarly, other sentences with focussed elements relative to sentence (8) include questions such as ‘who?, when? what do the children do in the morning?’ Naturally, answers can be offered as well. The sentence – or

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certain elements of the sentence – can be negated (i.e., it is not the children who play in the yard . . .). Finally, any part of the sentence can be stressed for communicative need. (It is easiest for our purposes here to demonstrate stress by creating a csak-phrase – always inherently stressed in Hungarian.) The following table illustrates the word order possibilities for such focussed sentences. Note the free variation of word order in the Topic and X positions and the fixed word order of the focus and verb positions.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17 Reggel kik játszanak a kertben? 1011 Who plays in the garden in the morning? 1 18 Reggel a gyerekek játszanak a kertben. (answer to (1)) 12111 The children play in the garden in the morning. 3 19a A gyerekek mikor játszanak a kertben? 4 19b Mikor játszanak a kertben a gyerekek? 5 When do the children play in the garden? 6 20 A gyerekek reggel játszanak a kertben. (answer to (19a, b)) 7 The children play in the garden in the morning. 8 21 A gyerekek sohasem játszanak a kertben reggel. 9 The children never play in the garden in the morning. 20111 22 A gyerekek nem reggel játszanak a kertben, hanem délután. 1 The children don’t play in the garden in the morning, rather in the 2 afternoon. 3 23 A gyerekek csak reggel játszanak a kertben, este soha. 4 It is only in the morning that the children play in the garden, never in 5 the evening. 6 24 Reggel a gyerekek csak a kertben játszanak, a házban soha. 7 The children play only in the garden, never in the house. 8 9 30111 Type of Topic Focus Verb X 1 focus 2 3 17 Question Reggel kik játszanak a kertben? 4 5 18 Answer Reggel a gyerekek játszanak a kertben. 6 19a Question A gyerekek mikor játszanak a kertben? 7 19b Question Mikor játszanak a kertben a 8 gyerekek? 9 20 Answer A gyerekek reggel játszanak a kertben. 40 41111

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Type of focus

Topic

Focus

Verb

X

21

Negation A gyerekek sohasem

játszanak

a kertben reggel.

22

Negation A gyerekek nem reggel játszanak

a kertben, hanem délután.

23

Stress

A gyerekek csak reggel játszanak

a kertben, este soha.

24

Stress

Reggel a gyerekek

a házban soha.

csak a kertben

játszanak,

Sentence structure with focus elements

In the above sentences the neutral preverb position of (8) a kertben has been ‘kicked out’ to a position immediately behind the verb by each element of focus – a position which coincides with the beginning of X. Note that this is not an exhaustive list of possible permutations. The topic position is filled according to context and previously mentioned material; often in natural dialogue, only one-word answers are given and questions usually begin with the question word.

16.4.1

More on focus

16.4.1.1 Questions Yes–no questions are characterized by not having a question word in them. In this instance the word or phrase being questioned is in the focus position. This may be any part of speech. If it is the verb, the coverb is in the focus position. It is often difficult for English speakers to determine what is specifically being questioned. See section 2.7.3 for intonation patterns of yes–no questions.

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264

1111 Topic Focus Verb X 2 3 Were they nice? Kedvesek voltak? 4 Did the people wait Sokáig vártak az emberek? 5 a long time? Az emberek sokáig vártak? 6 7 Will you wait for me? Meg vársz engem? 8 Meg fogsz várni 9 engem? 1011 Are you waiting for me? Engem vársz? 1 Are you looking for Ildikót keresed? 12111 Ildikó? 3 4 5 16.4.1.2 Questions and negation 6 If a sentence contains both a question word and negation, they both occur 7 in the focus preverb position; the question word precedes the negation. 8 9 20111 1 Topic Focus Verb X 2 3 Who doesn’t want coffee? Ki nem kér kávét? 4 Why doesn’t Péter want to Péter miért nem akar táncolni? 5 dance? 6 Whom didn’t you invite to Kit nem hívtál meg a 7 the party? bulira? 8 9 30111 1 16.4.1.3 Imperatives 2 An imperative sentence usually begins with the conjugated imperative verb 3 followed by the coverb. 4 5 Vedd meg azt az inget! Buy that shirt! 6 Gyertek ide! Come here! 7 8 If the imperative is negated, the negation fills the focus position. 9 Ne menjetek el nélkülem! Don’t go without me! 40 41111 Ne csukd be az ajtót! Don’t close the door!

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See the Subjunctive section 4.3.6 for further discussion on possible word orders.

16.5

Word order of the quasi-auxiliary4 verbs: kell, akar, tud, lehet, szokott, tetszik, fog

Word order of the quasiauxiliary verbs

The verbs kell ‘be necessary’, akar ‘want’, tud ‘know how, can, be able’, lehet ‘be possible’, szokott ‘used to, usually’, tetszik ‘be pleasing’, fog ‘will (future)’ often occur in constructions with a second verb in the infinitive. When they do, they require that the preverb position be filled. In such sentences, the quasi-auxiliary is the conjugated verb (accordingly it occupies the verb position) and the preverb position is filled with the verbal complement or modifier of the infinitive – not of the conjugated verb (16.5.1–2). If the infinitive has no verbal complement/modifier, then it fills the preverb position itself (16.5.3).

16.5.1

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Although the quasi-auxiliary verbs do not have coverbs, the coverb of the infinitive with which they occur fills the preverb position, thus separating itself from the infinitive.

Le tetszik szállni az autóbuszról? Are you getting off the bus?

(< leszáll)

Be tudod fejezni a munkát? Can you finish the work?

(< befejez)

Fel fog hívni holnap. He will call me tomorrow.

(< felhív)

Fel kell mennem Pestre. I have to go up to Budapest.

(< felmegy)

El szokott aludni a vonaton. He usually falls asleep on the train.

(< elalszik)

4 In addition to their use as auxiliary verbs, these verbs may also stand alone – hence, the term ‘quasi-auxiliary’.

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16 Sentence elements and word order

16.5.2 If the infinitive of the verb does not have a coverb, its modifying adverb, adverbial or verbal complement fills the preverb position of the quasiauxiliary verb.

A diákoknak sokat kell olvasniuk. The students must read a lot.

(< sokat olvas)

Anita levelet akar írni. Anita wants to write a letter.

(< levelet ír)

Gyula Pécsen fog lakni. Gyula will live in Pécs.

(< Pécsen lakik)

16.5.3 If the infinitive has neither a coverb, modifying adverb, adverbial or verbal complement, the infinitive itself occupies the preverb position.

Márta aludni akar.

Márta wants to sleep.

Reggel mosni szokott.

In the morning he usually does the laundry.

Nekünk tanulnunk kell. We have to study. Este zongorázni lehet.

At night you (one) may play the piano.

16.5.4 In non-neutral sentences, the focus element must occupy the focus position immediately before the conjugated verb; in this case the modifier of the infinitive (coverb, adverb, etc.) precedes the infinitive.

Neutral: Focus:

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Le tetszik szállni az autóbuszról? Are you getting off the bus? Nem tetszik leszállni az autóbuszról? Aren’t you getting off the bus?

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Neutral: Focus: Focus: Neutral: Focus: Focus: Neutral: Focus: Focus: Neutral: Focus: Focus:

Fel fog hívni holnap. He will call me tomorrow. Mikor fog felhívni? When will he call me? Holnap fog felhívni. (answer to question) He will call me tomorrow.

Word order of the quasiauxiliary verbs

A diákoknak sokat kell olvasniuk. The students must read a lot. Kinek kell sokat olvasnia? Who has to read a lot? Miért kell sokat olvasniuk? Why do they have to read a lot? Gyula Pécsett fog lakni. Gyula will live in Pécs. Gyula fog Pécsett lakni, nem a húga. Gyula is going to live in Pécs, not his sister. Gyula nem fog Pécsett lakni. Gyula is not going to live in Pécs. Márta aludni akar. Márta wants to sleep. Ki akar aludni? Who wants to sleep? Márta akar aludni. (answer to question) Márta wants to sleep.

16.5.5 More verbs that often follow the word order patterns of quasi-auxiliaries:

bír

can, manage to

próbál

try

kezd

begin

szándékozik

wish

kíván

wish

szeretne

would like

mer

dare

talál

happen to

óhajt

desire

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Chapter 17

Special constructions

17.1

Usage of van ‘be’

17.1.1 Present tense In the present tense van ‘be’ is used in the third person (singular and plural) only in sentences containing existential (i.e., there is/there are) constructions or adverbial complements. Otherwise predicate nouns and adjectives do not occur with the verb van/vannak. Compare the following:

Attila itt van./Attila jól van. Attila is here./Attila is well.

(adverbial complement)

Attila gazdag/tanár. Attila is rich/a teacher.

(predicate adjective/noun)

Van Isten? Is there a God?

(existential construction)

Régi könyvek vannak a szekrényben. (existential construction) There are old books in the closet. A könyvek régiek. The books are old.

(predicate adjective)

The first and second persons (singular and plural) always use the verb van ‘be’ (in its correctly conjugated form, of course).

268

Angol tanár/vidám vagyok. I am an English teacher/cheerful.

(predicate adjective/noun)

Jól vagyok, köszönöm. I’m well, thank you.

(adverbial complement)

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Magyarok vagyunk. We are Hungarian(s).

(predicate adjective/noun)

Egy gyönyöru˝ kertben vagyunk. We are in a beautiful garden.

(adverbial complement)

Szép vagy. You are beautiful.

(predicate adjective/noun)

Rosszul vagy? Are you ill?

(adverbial complement)

Usage of van ‘be’

17.1.2 Past tense Usage in the past tense is regular: the verb is used in all persons whether it is an adverbial construction or not. The past tense stem of van is volt. The verb lesz ‘will be, become’ has the stem lett in the past tense and means ‘became’.

Attila tanár volt, de most fogorvos. Attila was a teacher, but now he is a dentist. Meleg lett./Meleg volt. It got hot. /It was hot.

17.1.3 Subjunctive/imperative The subjunctive/imperative is formed from the lesz ‘will be, become’ variant and is used in all persons.

Legyél pontos!

Be on time.

Apám akarja, hogy mérnök legyek.

My father wants me to be an engineer.

17.1.4 Conditional The conditional may be formed from either the volna- or lenne- stem; the latter is somewhat more common.

Bárcsak itt lenne!

If only she were here.

Bárcsak itt volna!

If only she were here. 269

17 Special constructions

17.1.5 Future The verb lesz ‘will be’ is the future form of van ‘be’. It is used in place of the future fog construction. It is not used as an auxiliary verb.

Mikor lesz már jó ido˝?

When will there be some good weather?

Remélem, hogy boldog leszel.

I hope you will be happy.

17.2

Negation and van ‘be’

The negation of van is nincs/nincsen; the negation of vannak is nincsenek.

Attila nincs itt./Attila nincs jól./Attila nincs a házban. Attila is not here./Attila is not well./Attila is not in the house. Nincsenek régi könyvek a szekrényben. There are no old books in the closet. In all other cases the negation of verbs (or nominal and adjectival predicates) is nem.

Attila nem gazdag./Attila nem tanár. Attila is not rich./Attila is not a teacher. A könyvek nem régiek. The books are not old. Nem vagyok otthon./Nem vagyunk otthon. I am not at home./We are not at home. Péter nem rajzol jól. Péter does not draw well. Nem may be used to negate a phrase other than the verb, in which case it may occur in sentences containing van/vannak; a negated phrase usually requires a hanem ‘rather’, ‘but’ phrase later in the sentence:

Attila nem a házban van, hanem a kertben. Attila is not in the house, but in the garden. Nem Attila van a házban, hanem Tamás. It is not Attila who is in the house, rather Tamás. 270

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17.3

Existential constructions

17.3.1 Existential constructions, i.e., ‘there is/there are’ constructions, use the verb van in Hungarian. The verbal complement is ‘what’ there is/are and therefore fills the preverb position in neutral sentences.

011

Sok gyerek van a parkban. There are many children in the park.

2111

Víz van az asztalon.

There is water on the table.

Nincs igazság a Földön.

There is no justice in the world.

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Existential constructions

17.3.2 Hungarian also uses the existential constructions in many expressions of time and weather.

Hétfo˝ van.

It is Monday.

Szeptember 22-e van.

It is September 22.

Két óra van.

It is two o’clock.

Szép ido˝ van.

The weather is beautiful.

Hu˝vös/meleg/hideg van.

It is chilly/hot/cold.

Vihar/szél/van.

There is a storm/wind.

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17.3.3 It is helpful to consider the ‘have’ construction an existential construction (see section 17.4 for more discussion).

Zsuzsának három gyereke van. Zsuzsa has three children. (Nekünk) sok munkánk van.

We have a lot of work.

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17.4

‘Have’ construction

Hungarian does not have a verb with the meaning ‘to have’; instead it uses a compound construction using van ‘be’. The following are the components of the ‘have’ construction: (a) The possessor is in the dative case; should this be a pronoun, it may be omitted. (b) The possessed item is marked with a possessive ending which agrees with the possessor. In the ‘have’ construction, the definite article is never used before the possessed item.1 (c) The verb van is in the third person and agrees in number with the possessed item(s) (which, in fact, is the grammatical subject). (d) In neutral sentences the possessor is in the topic position, the possessed item is in preverb position (but see below for other word orders).

17.4.1 Possessed item is singular (Nekem) szép kutyám van. I have a beautiful dog. (Neked) szép kutyád van. You (sg.) have a beautiful dog. (Neki), Gábornak, Magának szép kutyája van. S/he/Gábor/You (polite sg.) have a beautiful dog. (Nekünk) szép kutyánk van. We have a beautiful dog. (Nektek) szép kutyátok van. You (pl.) have a beautiful dog. (Nekik), a lányoknak, Maguknak szép kutyájuk van. They/The girls/You (polite pl.) have a beautiful dog.

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1 Compare with the possessive construction where the definite article is almost always used.

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17.4.2 Possessed item is plural

‘Have’ construction

(Nekem) kedves testvéreim vannak. I have nice siblings. (Neked) kedves testvéreid vannak. You (sg.) have nice siblings. (Neki), Zsuzsának kedves testvérei vannak. S/he/Zsuzsa/has nice siblings.

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(Nekünk) kedves testvéreink vannak. We have nice siblings. (Nektek) kedves testvéreitek vannak. You (pl.) have nice siblings (Nekik) A barátaimnak kedves testvéreik vannak. They/My friends have nice siblings.

17.4.3 egy and the ‘have’ construction It is common to use an indefinite article before a (singular) possessed item. At such times, it usually follows the verb:

(Nekem) van egy jó ötletem! I have a good idea. (Nekünk) van egy régi szótárunk. We have an old dictionary.

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17.4.4 Moods and tenses of the ‘have’ construction The verb van may occur in all its forms yielding past and future tenses, subjunctive, conditional, and potential moods of the ‘have’ construction:

(Nekem) jó tanáraim voltak az egyetemen. I had good teachers in college. (Neked) jó állásod lesz, ha idejössz dolgozni. You will have a good job if you come here to work. Évának több pénze lenne, ha többet dolgozna. Éva would have more money if she would work more.

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17 Special constructions

Magának sok baja lehet vele. You (formal, sg.) must have a lot of problems with him/her/it.

17.4.5 Negation and the ‘have’ construction Negation of the ‘have’ construction is consistent with the regular rules of negation and focus word order: the negation of van, vannak is nincs(en), nincsenek, respectively; otherwise use the regular patterns of negation. Negation occupies the focus position; the possessed item is consequently removed to a position immediately behind the verb.

(Nekem) nincs tollam. I don’t have a pen. (Neked) nincsenek rokonaid Budapesten? Don’t you have (any) relatives in Budapest? Erzsinek soha nem volt saját kocsija. Erzsi never had her own car. (Nekünk) nem lesz elég ido˝nk. We will not have enough time. (Nektek) ne legyen már rossz kedvetek! Don’t be in a bad mood!

17.4.6 Common expressions with the ‘have’ construction (valakinek) kedve van (someone ) is in a mood (to do something)

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''

ideje van

''

has time

''

melege van

''

is (too) warm, hot

''

igaza van

''

is right

''

köze van (something) is somebody’s business (valamihez)

''

fogalma sincs

(someone) has no idea

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011

Nincs kedvünk dolgozni ma. We don’t feel like working today. Lesz ido˝d holnap?

Will you have some time tomorrow?

Melegem van.

I’m hot.

Anyámnak mindig igaza van.

My mother is always right.

Semmi közöd hozzá!

It’s none of your business!

Fogalmam sincs!

I have no idea!

Comparison of possessive and ‘have’ constructions

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17.5

Comparison of possessive and ‘have’ constructions

Because of the subtle differences between the two, it is helpful to compare the possessive paradigm with the ‘have’ construction. Note that in the possessive paradigm for nominal possessors the plurality of the possessor is marked on the possessor and not on the possessed. This difference in marking does not occur in the ‘have’ construction.

Possessive paradigm Pronominal possessors: Singular possessed:

Plural possessed:

az én szobám

my room

az én szobáim

my rooms

a te szobád

your (sg.) room

a te szobáid

your (sg.) rooms

az o˝ szobája

his/her room

az o˝ szobái

his/her rooms

a mi szobánk

our room

a mi szobáink

our rooms

a ti szobátok

your (pl.) room

a ti szobáitok

your (pl.) rooms

az o˝ szobájuk

their room

az o˝ szobáik

their rooms

Nominal possessors: a no˝ szobája ~ a no˝nek a szobája

the woman’s room (one woman, one room)

a no˝ szobái

the woman’s rooms (one woman, several rooms)

~ a no˝nek a szobái

a no˝k szobája ~ a no˝knek a szobája the women’s room (several women, one room) a no˝k szobái ~ a no˝knek a szobái

the women’s rooms (several women, several rooms)

17 Special constructions

276

1111 2 The ‘have’ construction 3 4 Singular possessed: Plural possessed: 5 6 (Nekem) szép szobám van. (Nekem) szép szobáim 7 vannak. 8 I have a nice room. I have nice rooms. 9 (Neked) szép szobád van. (Neked) szép szobáid vannak. 1011 You have a nice room. You have nice rooms. 1 12111 (Neki) szép szobája van. (Neki) szép szobái vannak. 3 She/He has a nice room. She/He has nice rooms. 4 A no˝nek szép szobája van. A no˝nek szép szobái vannak. 5 The woman has a nice room. The woman has nice rooms. 6 7 (Nekünk) szép szobánk van. (Nekünk) szép szobáink 8 vannak. 9 We have a nice room. We have nice rooms. 20111 (Nektek) szép szobátok van. (Nektek) szép szobáitok 1 vannak. 2 You have a nice room. You have nice rooms. 3 4 (Nekik) szép szobájuk van. (Nekik) szép szobáik vannak. 5 They have a nice room. They have nice rooms. 6 A no˝knek szép szobájuk van. A no˝knek szép szobáik 7 vannak. 8 The women have a nice room. The women have nice rooms. 9 30111 1 2 17.6 Differences in ‘have’ constructions 3 4 The verb ‘have’ in English may be translated into Hungarian in a variety 5 of ways depending on the circumstances of ownership and possession. 6 7 (a) Sok pénze van. She has a lot of money. (She’s rich.) 8 (b) Sok pénz van nála. She has a lot of money with her. 9 40 (c) Megvan a pénze. She’s got her money (for the train 41111 ticket, etc.).

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

The ‘have’ construction in (a) is used when someone possesses or owns something or has an inalienable relation to it.

Impersonal constructions

Gábornak háza/két húga/sok munkája/hosszú lába/van. Gábor has a house/two younger sisters/a lot of work/long legs. The construction with the adessive -nál/-nél case is used when a person is carrying something along with him or her.

Nincs nála az olvasószemüvege. She doesn’t have her reading glasses with her. Kinél van a kulcs? Who has the key? Nem volt nála szótár, tehát nem tudta lefordítani a reklámot. He didn’t have a dictionary with him, so he couldn’t translate the ad. The construction with megvan in (c) is used when a person has an expected item with him/her, it is not lost, and/or it is ready for use. Unlike the ‘have’ construction in (a) where a definite article is never used, sentences with megvan always use the definite article.

Megvan a házi feladatod? Have you got your homework?/Is your homework ready? Megvan a repülo˝jegyem, az útlevelem, kész vagyok az utazásra. I’ve got my plane ticket and my passport, I’m ready to travel. Ha nincs meg a kulcs, hogy tudunk bemenni? If we don’t have the key, how will we get in? This is also the construction used to express having something that belongs to someone else.

Megvan a telefonszámom, ugye? You’ve got my telephone number, haven’t you?

17.7

Impersonal constructions

Impersonal constructions are characterized by having no personal pronoun in subject position. In Hungarian, impersonal constructions consist of the following:

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17 Special constructions

(a) a dative-marked ‘subject’ (i.e., what would correspond to the subject in English). If this is a pronoun it may be omitted. (b) a third person verb or predicate adjective (c) an infinitive declined to agree with the person of the dative-marked ‘subject’

(Nekem) tanulnom kell.

I must study.

(Neked) tanulnod kell.

You (sg.) must study.

(Neki)/Tamásnak tanulnia kell.

She/he/Tamás must study.

(Nekünk) tanulnunk kell.

We must study.

(Nektek) tanulnotok kell.

You (pl.) must study.

(Nekik)/A fiúknak tanulniuk kell. They/The boys must study.

17.7.1 Verbs occurring in impersonal constructions fáj

hurt

lehet

may

illik

be suitable, fitting

muszáj

must

kell

must

sikerül

succeed, manage

Jeno˝nek várnia kell. Jeno˝ has to wait. Sikerült (neked) elérned a fo˝nököt? Did you manage to reach the boss?

17.7.2 Adjectives occurring in impersonal constructions

278

érdemes

be worth(while)

szabad

be allowed

hasznos

be useful

szükséges

be necessary



be good

szükségtelen

be unnecessary

könnyu˝

be easy

rossz

be bad

nehéz

be difficult

tilos

be forbidden

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011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Nem érdemes megnéznem a filmet. It is not worth it for me to see the film.

Impersonal constructions

Neked nem szabad tejet innod. You are not allowed to drink milk. (Neki) könnyu˝ volt válaszolnia. It was easy for him/her to answer. Nehéz dolgoznunk, mikor szép ido˝ van kint. It is hard for us to work when the weather is nice outside.

17.7.3 Impersonal constructions without declined infinitives It is very common to use the infinitive without the possessive endings in the impersonal constructions. Thus, the following three sentences have the same meaning:

(Nekem) dolgozonom kell.

I have to work.

Nekem dolgozni kell.

''

Dolgozni kell.

''

Conversely, the impersonal construction without a dative complement or declined infinitive may refer to any person at all:

Dolgozni kell. I, you, we, they, people, etc. have to work. The verb lehet is only used without declined infinitives; when the person must be specified, the potential suffix -hat/-het is used on the substantive verb (see section 4.5.2). Compare the following:

Itt lehet szép cipo˝t kapni. One can get nice shoes here. Itt kaphatunk szép cipo˝t.

We can get nice shoes here.

17.7.4 Impersonal ‘you’, ‘one’ Any construction may be made impersonal by using the impersonal az ember ‘one’; it may be any part of speech and may translate into English in a variety of ways.

Az embernek szórakoznia is kell néha. People have to/You have to/One has to have fun sometimes, too.

279

Sajnos az ember nem tud pénz nélkül élni. Unfortunately, we/you/people can’t live without money.

17 Special constructions

17.8

Agent-less sentences (passive)

Modern Hungarian does not have a passive inflection, but the use of the third person plural conjugation with no subject or subject pronoun can be translated as a passive in English.

Óránként közlik a híreket. They broadcast the news every hour./The news is broadcast every hour. Ritkán fordítják jól Kosztolányit. Kosztolányi is rarely translated well.

17.9

Adverbial participle with van

In the spoken language it is common to form constructions with the adverbial participle (-va/-ve)2 of a substantive verb and use the verb van as an auxiliary. This construction usually results in describing the state or condition of the subject and is often translated into the passive voice in English. In these constructions van is the conjugated verb and can occur in any mood or tense; in neutral sentences the preverb position is filled by the coverb of the substantive verb.

A kenyér meg van sütve.

The bread is baked.

Meg vagyok fázva.

I have a cold.

Meg lesztek híva.

You (pl.) will be invited.

A munka be lett fejezve.

The work got done.

In the absence of a coverb, the substantive verb marked with the adverbial participle is in the preverb position.

280

2

Az ajtó nyitva van.

The door is open.

Az üzlet zárva van.

The shop is closed.

See section 4.4.3 on how to form the adverbial participle.

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When these constructions are negated (or other focussed elements occur), the negation occupies the focus preverb position and the coverb is not separated from its verb.3

A kenyér nincs megsütve.

The bread is not baked.

Az ajtó nincs nyitva.

The door is not open.

Az üzlet nincs bezárva.

The shop is not closed.

Nem vagyok megfázva.

I do not have a cold.

Nem lesztek meghíva.

You will not be invited.

Answering questions

A munka nem lett befejezve. The work did not get finished.

17.10

Answering questions

17.10.1

Answering questions in the affirmative

Yes–no questions may be answered affirmatively in several ways.

17.10.1.1 They may always be answered by igen ‘yes’.

Eljössz moziba ma este?

Will you come to the movies tonight?

Igen.

Yes.

Lajos orvos?

Is Lajos a doctor?

Igen.

Yes.

3 It may be helpful to realize that the coverb has been removed from the neutral preverb position to a position immediately behind the conjugated verb – thereby re-prefixing to its verb. This is consistent with rules of word order and focus outlined in chapter 15.

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17 Special constructions

282

1111 2 If the question refers to the verb, the verb may be used to answer in the 3 affirmative (it may need to be reconjugated to fit the sense of the answer). 4 If the verb has a coverb, repetition of the coverb alone is sufficient. 5 6 Eljössz moziba ma este? Will you come to the movies 7 tonight? 8 El. Yes. 9 1011 Eljövök. 1 12111 Tanulsz? Are you studying? 3 Tanulok. Yes. 4 5 Kell a toll? Do you need the pen? 6 7 Kell. Yes. 8 9 17.10.1.3 20111 If the question pertains to a particular word other than the verb, the 1 2 affirmative answer may be a repetition of that word. 3 Lajos orvos? Is Lajos a doctor? 4 5 Orvos. Yes. 6 7 Lajos orvos? Is Lajos a doctor? 8 Lajos. Yes. 9 30111 1 17.10.1.4 2 The affirmative answer may be a combination of the above. 3 4 Tanulsz? Are you studying? 5 Igen, tanulok. Yes, I am. 6 7 Eljössz moziba ma este? Will you come to the movies 8 tonight? 9 40 Igen, el(jövök). Yes, I will. 41111

17.10.1.2

111

011

2111

0111

Lajos orvos?

Is Lajos a doctor?

Igen, orvos.

Yes, he is.

Answering questions

17.10.1.5 In sentences with predicate nouns or adjectives, the affirmative answer may take yet another shape:

Lauri finn?

Is Lauri Finnish/a Finn?

Igen, az.

Yes, he is (that).

Az.

Yes.

Toll ez?

Is this a pen?

Toll.

Yes.

Igen.

''

Az.

''

Igen, toll.

''

Igen, az.

''

Igen, ez az.

''

17.10.1.6 Emphatic affirmative answers are persze, hogyne ‘of course’.

Kifizetted a számlát?

Did you pay the bill?

Persze.

Of course.

Tetszett a szálloda?

Did you like the hotel?

Hogyne.

Of course.

0111

0 1111

17.10.1.7 When contradicting a question asked in the negative, use de or de, igen ‘but’, ‘yes’. The verb may or may not be repeated.

Nem kérsz már kávét?

You don’t want any more coffee?

De, igen, kérek.

Yes I do.

283

17 Special constructions

284

De, kérek.

''

1111 2 De, igen. '' 3 De. '' 4 5 6 17.10.1.8 7 To emphatically contradict a question asked in the negative use dehogy- 8 nem, dehogyisnem ‘but, of course’. 9 1011 Nem akarod megkóstolni ezt a vörösbort? 1 Don’t you want to have a taste of this red wine? 12111 Dehogynem (akarom). ~ Dehogyisnem. 3 Of course, I do. 4 5 6 17.10.2 Answering questions in the negative 7 8 9 17.10.2.1 20111 Yes–no questions are usually answered with nem ‘no’ in the negative. 1 2 Elolvastad a verset? Did you read the poem? 3 Nem. No. 4 5 17.10.2.2 Emphatic negative answers use dehogy, dehogyis ‘of course 6 7 not’. 8 9 Befejezted a munkát? Did you finish the work? 30111 Dehogy! Of course not. 1 2 Dehogyis! '' 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

6 7

011 112 111

lesz become, will be

6 7

0111

6 7

0111

present

past

subjunctive

conditional

én

leszek

lettem

legyek

lénnék

te

leszel

lettél

légy/legyél

lennél



lesz

lett

legyen

lenne

mi

leszünk

lettünk

legyünk

lennénk

ti

lesztek

lettetek

legyetek

lennétek

o˝k

lesznek

lettek

legyenek

lennének

infinitive: lenni

future participle: leendo˝

present participle: való, levo˝/lévo˝

adverbial participle: léve, lévén

past participle: volt, lett

potential: lehet

6 7

0 1111

1

The verb tesz is conjugated exactly as vesz.

285

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

vesz1 take; buy present

past

indef.

def.

indef.

def.

én

veszek

veszem

vettem

vettem

te

veszel

veszed

vetted def.

indef.

def.

vettél past indef.



vesz

veszi

vett

vette

mi

veszünk

vesszük

vettünk

vettük

ti

vesztek

veszitek

vettetek

vettétek

o˝k

vesznek

veszik

vettek

vették

present

én (téged/benneteket/ veszlek titeket) subjunctive

vettelek

indef.

def.

conditional indef. def.

én

vegyek

vegyem

vennék

te

végy/vegyél

vegyed/vedd vennél

vennéd



vegyen

vegye

venne

venné

mi

vegyünk

vegyük

vennénk

vennénk

ti

vegyetek

vegyétek

vennétek

vennétek

o˝k

vegyenek

vegyék

vennének

vennék

én (téged/benneteket/ vegyelek titeket)

286

infinitive: venni

future participle: veendő

present participle: vevő

adverbial participle: véve

past participle: vett

potential: vehet

venném

vennélek

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visz take, carry present

past

indef.

def.

indef.

def.

én

viszek

viszem

vittem

vittem

te

viszel

viszed

vittél

vitted



visz

viszi

vitt

vitte

mi

viszünk

visszük

vittünk

vittük

ti

visztek

viszitek

vittetek

vittétek

o˝k

visznek

viszik

vittek

vitték

én (téged/benneteket/ viszlek titeket) subjunctive

vittelek

indef.

def.

conditional indef. def.

én

vigyek

vigyem

vinnék

vinném

te

vigyél

vigyed/vidd

vinnél

vinnéd



vigyen

vigye

vinne

vinné

mi

vigyünk

vigyük

vinnénk

vinnénk

ti

vigyetek

vigyétek

vinnétek

vinnétek

o˝k

vigyenek

vigyék

vinnének

vinnék

én (téged/benneteket/ vigyelek titeket)

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

vinnélek

infinitive: vinni present participle: vivő past participle: vitt future participle: viendő adverbial participle: vive potential: vihet 287

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

hisz believe present

past

indef.

def.

indef.

def.

én

hiszek

hiszem

hittem

hittem

te

hiszel

hiszed

hittél

hitted



hisz

hiszi

hitt

hitte

mi

hiszünk

hisszük

hittünk

hittük

ti

hisztek

hiszitek

hittetek

hittétek

o˝k

hisznek

hiszik

hittek

hitték

én (téged/benneteket/ hiszlek titeket)

hittelek

subjunctive def.

indef.

én

higgyek

higgyem

hinnék

te

higgy/higgyél

higgyed/hidd hinnél

hinnéd



higgyen

higgye

hinne

hinné

mi

higgyünk

higgyük

hinnénk

hinnénk

ti

higgyetek

higgyétek

hinnétek

hinnétek

o˝k

higgyenek

higgyék

hinnének

hinnék

én (téged/benneteket/ higgyelek titeket) infinitive: hinni present participle: hívő past participle: hitt adverbial participle: híve potential: hihet

288

conditional def.

indef.

hinném

hinnélek

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011

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eszik eat present

0 1111

past

indef.

def.

indef.

def.

én

eszek ~ eszem

eszem

ettem

ettem

te

eszel

eszed

ettél

etted



eszik

eszi

evett

ette

mi

eszünk

esszük

ettünk

ettük

ti

esztek

eszitek

ettetek

ettétek

o˝k

esznek

eszik

ettek

ették

én (téged/ benneteket/ titeket)

(meg)eszlek

subjunctive

(meg)ettelek

conditional def.

indef.

def.

indef.

én

egyek ~ egye

egyem

ennék ~ enném

te

egyél

egyed/edd ennél



egyen ~ egyék

egye

enne ~ ennék

mi

együnk

együk

ennénk

ennénk

ti

egyetek

egyétek

ennétek

ennétek

o˝k

egyenek

egyék

ennének

ennék

0111

0111

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

én (téged/ benneteket/ titeket)

(meg)egyelek

enném ennéd enné

(meg)ennélek

infinitive: enni present participle: evő past participle: evett potential: ehet 289

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

iszik drink present indef.

past def.

indef.

def.

én

iszok ~ iszom iszom

ittam

ittam

te

iszol

iszod

ittál

ittad



iszik

issza

ivott

itta

mi

iszunk

isszuk

ittunk

ittuk

ti

isztok

isszátok

ittatok

ittátok

o˝k

isznak

isszák

ittak

itták

én (téged/ benneteket/ titeket)

(meg)iszlak

(meg)ittalak

subjunctive indef.

indef.

conditional def.

én

igyak ~ igyam igyam

innék ~ innám

innám

te

igyál

innál

innád



igyon ~ igyék igya

inna ~innék inná

mi

igyunk

igyuk

innánk

innánk

ti

igyatok

igyátok

innátok

innátok

o˝k

igyanak

igyák

innának

innák

én (téged/ benneteket/ titeket)

infinitive: inni present participle: ivó past participle: ivott 290

def.

potential: ihat

igyad ~ idd

(meg)igyalak

(meg)innálak

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megy come present

past

subjunctive

conditional

én

megyek

mentem

menjek

mennék

te

mész ~ mégy mentél

menj ~ menjél

mennél



megy

ment

menjen

menne

mi megyünk

mentünk

menjünk

mennénk

ti

mentetek

menjetek

mennétek

mentek

menjenek

mennének

mentek

o˝k mennek

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

infinitive: menni present participle: menő past participle: ment adverbial participle: menve potential: mehet

jön go present

past

subjunctive

conditional

én

jövök

jöttem

jöjjek

jönnék

te

jössz

jöttél

jöjjél ~ gyere

jönnél



jön

jött

jöjjön

jönne

mi jövünk

jöttünk

jöjjünk ~ gyerünk

jönnénk

ti

jöttetek

jöjjetek ~ gyertek

jönnétek

jöttek

jöjjenek

jönnének

jöttök

o˝k jönnek infinitive: jönni

present participle: jövő past participle: jött adverbial participle: jöve potential: jöhet

291

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

292

In the imperative the forms gyere, gyertek, gyerünk are more common; 1111 the forms jöjjél, jöjjetek, jöjjünk are more common in the subjunctive use 2 of this verb. 3 4 Gyere ide! Come here! 5 Ne gyertek be a házba! Don’t come into the house! 6 7 Azt üzente, hogy hazajöjjél. He sent word that you should 8 come home. 9 Nem akarja, hogy kijöjjünk He doesn’t want us to come 1011 a vízbo˝l. out of the water. 1 12111 3 4 The verb van ‘be’ 5 6 present past subjunctive conditional 7 8 én vagyok voltam legyek volnék ~ lennék 9 te vagy voltál légy~legyél volnál ~ lennél 20111 1 o˝ (van) volt legyen volna ~ lenne 2 mi vagyunk voltunk legyünk volnánk ~ lennénk 3 4 ti vagytok voltatok legyetek volnátok ~ lennétek 5 o˝k (vannak) voltak legyenek volnának ~ lennének 6 7 8 infinitive: lenni 9 30111 present participle: való ~ levő/lévő 1 past participle: volt 2 3 future participle: leendő 4 potential: lehet 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Sample inflectional/derivational paradigm (for first person singular) I(’ll) iron my shirt.

Kivasalom az ingemet.

I ironed my shirt.

Kivasaltam az ingemet.

Should I iron my shirt?

Kivasaljam az ingemet?

Iron my shirt!

Vasald ki az ingemet!

I would iron my shirt.

Kivasalnám az ingemet.

I would have ironed my shirt.

Kivasaltam volna az ingemet.

I may/can iron my shirt.

Kivasalhatom az ingemet.

I could iron my shirt.

Kivasalhatnám az ingemet.

I could have ironed my shirt.

Kivasalhattam volna az ingemet.

I must iron my shirt.

Ki kell vasalnom az ingemet.

I had to iron my shirt.

Ki kellett vasalnom az ingemet.

I should iron my shirt.

Ki kellene vasalnom az ingemet.

I should have ironed my shirt.

Ki kellett volna vasalnom az ingemet.

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

Lest I should have to iron my shirt. Nehogy ki kelljen vasalnom az ingemet. I’ll have you iron my shirt.

Kivasaltatom veled az ingemet.

I had you iron my shirt.

Kivasaltattam veled az ingemet.

Should I have you iron my shirt?

Kivasaltassam veled az ingemet?

I would have you iron my shirt.

Kivasaltatnám veled az ingemet.

293

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

I would have had you iron my shirt. Kivasaltattam volna veled az ingemet. I can/may have you iron my shirt.

Kivasaltathatom veled az ingemet.

I could have you iron my shirt.

Kivasaltathatnám veled az ingemet.

I could have had you iron my shirt. Kivasaltathattam volna veled az ingemet.

294

I must have you iron my shirt.

Ki kell vasaltatnom veled az ingemet.

I had to have you iron my shirt.

Ki kellett vasaltatnom veled az ingemet.

I should have you iron my shirt.

Ki kellene vasaltatnom veled az ingemet.

I should have had you iron my shirt.

Ki kellett volna vasaltatnom veled az ingemet.

My shirt is ironed.

Az ingem ki van vasalva.

My shirt was ironed.

Az ingem ki volt vasalva.

My shirt will be ironed.

Az ingem ki lesz vasalva.

Let my shirt be ironed!

Legyen kivasalva az ingem!

My shirt would be ironed.

Az ingem ki lenne/volna vasalva.

My shirt would have been ironed.

Az ingem ki lett volna vasalva.

My shirt may/might be ironed.

Az ingem ki lehet vasalva.

My shirt could be ironed.

Az ingem ki lehetne vasalva.

My shirt may have been ironed.

Az ingem ki lehetett volna vasalva.

I will iron my shirt.

Ki fogom vasalni az ingemet.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

And I ironed it too.

Ki is vasaltam.

I didn’t even iron it.

Ki sem vasaltam.

I was doing a little ironing.

Vasalgattam egy kicsit.

Appendix 1 Some irregular verbs

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

295

Appendix 2 Sample noun declensions

Low vowel, no loss of length

296

back vowel singular plural ‘house’ ‘houses’

front vowel singular ‘book’

plural ‘books’

nominative

ház

házak

könyv

könyvek

accusative

házat

házakat

könyvet

könyveket

illative

házba

házakba

könyvbe

könyvekbe

inessive

házban

házakban

könyvben

könyvekben

elative

házból

házakból

könyvbo˝l

könyvekbo˝l

sublative

házra

házakra

könyvre

könyvekre

superessive

házon

házakon

könyvön

könyveken

delative

házról

házakról

könyvro˝l

könyvekro˝l

allative

házhoz

házakhoz

könyvhöz

könyvekhez

adessive

háznál

házaknál

könyvnél

könyveknél

ablative

háztól

házaktól

könyvto˝l

könyvekto˝l

dative

háznak

házaknak

könyvnek

könyveknek

instrumental

házzal

házakkal

könyvvel

könyvekkel

translative

házzá

házakká

könyvvé

könyvekké

causal-final

házért

házakért

könyvért

könyvekért

essive-formal

házként

házakként

könyvként

könyvekként

terminative

házig

házakig

könyvig

könyvekig

distributive

házanként

––––

könyvenként

––––

sociative

házastul

––––

könyvestül

––––

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Low vowel, loses length

back vowel singular ‘glass’

plural ‘glass’

front vowel singular plural ‘hand’ ‘hands’

nominative

pohár

poharak

kéz

kezek

accusative

poharat

poharakat

kezet

kezeket

illative

pohárba

poharakba

kézbe

kezekbe

inessive

pohárban

poharakban

kézben

kezekben

elative

pohárból

poharakból

kézbo˝l

kezekbo˝l

sublative

pohárra

poharakra

kézre

kezekre

superessive

poháron

poharakon

kézen

kezeken

delative

pohárról

poharakról

kézro˝l

kezekro˝l

allative

pohárhoz

poharakhoz

kézhez

kezekhez

adessive

pohárnál

poharaknál

kéznél

kezeknél

ablative

pohártól

poharaktól

kézto˝l

kezekto˝l

dative

pohárnak

poharaknak

kéznek

kezeknek

instrumental pohárral

poharakkal

kézzel

kezekkel

translative

pohárrá

poharakká

kézzé

kezekké

causal-final

pohárért

poharakért

kézért

kezekért

essive-formal pohárként

poharakként kézként

kezekként

terminative

pohárig

poharakig

kézig

kezekig

distributive

poharanként

––––

kezenként

––––

sociative

poharastul

––––

kezestül

––––

Appendix 2 Sample noun declensions

297

Appendix 2 Sample noun declensions

298

Regular noun, ending in vowel

back vowel singular ‘bag’

plural ‘bags’

front vowel singular ‘melon’

plural ‘melons’

nominative

táska

táskák

dinnye

dinnyék

accusative

táskát

táskákat

dinnyét

dinnyéket

illative

táskába

táskákba

dinnyébe

dinnyékbe

inessive

táskában

táskákban

dinnyében

dinnyékben

elative

táskából

táskákból

dinnyébo˝l

dinnyékbo˝l

sublative

táskára

táskákra

dinnyére

dinnyékre

superessive

táskán

táskákon

dinnyén

dinnyéken

delative

táskáról

táskákról

dinnyéro˝l

dinnyékro˝l

allative

táskához

táskákhoz

dinnyéhez

dinnyékhez

adessive

táskánál

táskáknál

dinnyénél

dinnyéknél

ablative

táskától

táskáktól

dinnyéto˝l

dinnyékto˝l

dative

táskának

táskáknak

dinnyének

dinnyéknek

instrumental táskával

táskákkal

dinnyével

dinnyékkel

translative

táskává

táskákká

dinnyévé

dinnyékké

causal-final

táskáért

táskákért

dinnyéért

dinnyékért

essive-formal táskaként

táskákként dinnyeként

dinnyékként

terminative

táskáig

táskákig

dinnyéig

dinnyékig

distributive

táskánként

––––

dinnyénként

––––

sociative

táskástul

––––

dinnyéstül

––––

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Regular noun, ending in consonant

back vowel singular plural ‘girl’ ‘girls’

front, unrounded vowel singular plural ‘chair’ ‘chairs’

front, rounded vowel singular plural ‘guard’ ‘guards’

nom.

lány

lányok

szék

székek

o˝r

o˝rök

acc.

lányt

lányokat

széket

székeket

o˝rt

o˝röket

ill.

lányba

lányokba

székbe

székekbe

o˝rbe

o˝rökbe

iness.

lányban

lányokban

székben

székekben

o˝rben

o˝rökben

elat.

lányból

lányokból

székbo˝l

székekbo˝l

o˝rbo˝l

o˝rökbo˝l

sublat.

lányra

lányokra

székre

székekre

o˝rre

o˝rökre

sup.

lányon

lányokon

széken

székeken

o˝rön

o˝rökön

delat.

lányról

lányokról

székro˝l

székekro˝l

o˝rro˝l

o˝rökro˝l

allat.

lányhoz

lányokhoz

székhez

székekhez

o˝rhöz

o˝rökhöz

adess.

lánynál

lányoknál

széknél

székeknél

o˝rnél

o˝röknél

abl.

lánytól

lányoktól

székto˝l

székekto˝l

o˝rto˝l

o˝rökto˝l

dat.

lánynak

lányoknak

széknek

székeknek

o˝rnek

o˝röknek

instr.

lánnyal

lányokkal

székkel

székekkel

o˝rrel

o˝rökkel

transl.

lánnyá

lányokká

székké

székekké

o˝rré

o˝rökké

caus.-fin.

lányért

lányokért

székért

székekért

o˝rért

o˝rökért

ess.-for.

lányként

lányokként

székként

székekként

o˝rként

o˝rökként

term.

lányig

lányokig

székig

székekig

o˝rig

o˝rökig

distr.

lányonként ––––

székenként ––––

o˝rönként

––––

sociat.

lányastul

székestül

o˝restül

––––

––––

––––

299

Fleeting vowel

back vowel singular ‘bush’

plural ‘bushes’

front, unrounded vowel front, rounded vowel singular plural singular plural ‘twin’ ‘twins’ ‘mirror’ ‘mirrors’

nom.

bokor

bokrok

iker

ikrek

tükör

tükrök

acc.

bokrot

bokrokat

ikret

ikreket

tükröt

tükröket

ill.

bokorba

bokrokba

ikerbe

ikrekbe

tükörbe

tükrökbe

iness.

bokorban

bokrokban

ikerben

ikrekben

tükörben

tükrökben

elat.

bokorból

bokrokból

ikerbo˝l

ikrekbo˝l

tükörbo˝l

tükrökbo˝l

sublat.

bokorra

bokrokra

ikerre

ikrekre

tükörre

tükrökre

sup.

bokron

bokrokon

ikren

ikreken

tükrön

tükrökön

delat.

bokorról

bokrokról

ikerro˝l

ikrekro˝l

tükörro˝l

tükrökro˝l

allat.

bokorhoz

bokrokhoz

ikerhez

ikrekhez

tükörhöz

tükrökhöz

adess.

bokornál

bokroknál

ikernél

ikreknél

tükörnél

tükröknél

abl.

bokortól

bokroktól

ikerto˝l

ikrekto˝l

tükörto˝l

tükrökto˝l

dat.

bokornak

bokroknak

ikernek

ikreknek

tükörnek

tükröknek

instr.

bokorral

bokrokkal

ikerrel

ikrekkel

tükörrel

tükrökkel

transl.

bokorrá

bokrokká

ikerré

ikrekké

tükörré

tükrökké

caus.-fin.

bokorért

bokrokért

ikerért

ikrekért

tükörért

tükrökért

ess.-for.

bokorként

bokrokként ikerként

ikrekként

tükörként tükrökként

term.

bokorig

bokrokig

ikerig

ikrekig

tükörig

distr.

bokronként

––––

ikrenként

––––

tükrönként ––––

sociat.

bokrostul

––––

ikrestül

––––

tükröstül

300

tükrökig ––––

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

V-stems

singular ‘lake’

plural ‘lakes’

singular ‘stone’

plural ‘stones’

singular ‘word’

plural ‘words’

nom.



tavak

ko˝

kövek

szó

acc.

tavat

tavakat

követ

köveket

szót

szavak ~ szók szavakat

ill.

tóba

tavakba

ko˝be

kövekbe

szóba

szavakba

iness.

tóban

tavakban

ko˝ben

kövekben

szóban

szavakban

elat.

tóból

tavakból

ko˝bo˝l

kövekbo˝l

szóból

szavakból

sublat.

tóra

tavakra

ko˝re

kövekre

szóra

szavakra

sup.

tavon

tavakon

kövön

köveken

szavon

szavakon

delat.

tóról

tavakról

ko˝ro˝l

kövekro˝l

szóról

szavakról

allat.

tóhoz

tavakhoz

ko˝höz

kövekhez

szóhoz

szavakhoz

adess.

tónál

tavaknál

ko˝nél

köveknél

szónál

szavaknál

abl.

tótól

tavaktól

ko˝to˝l

kövekto˝l

szótól

szavaktól

dat.

tónak

tavaknak

ko˝nek

köveknek

szónak

szavaknak

instr.

tóval

tavakkal

ko˝vel

kövekkel

szóval

szavakkal

transl.

tóvá

tavakká

ko˝vé

kövekké

szóvá

szavakká

caus.-fin.

tóért

tavakért

ko˝ért

kövekért

szóért

szavakért

ess.-for.

tóként

tavakként

ko˝ként

kövekként

szóként

szavakként

term.

tóig

tavakig

ko˝ig

kövekig

szóig

szavakig

distr.

tavanként

––––

kövenként ––––

szavanként

––––

sociat.

tavastul

––––

kövestül

szavastul

––––

––––

301

Possessive declension

Low vowel (no loss of length) ház house singular plural ‘my house’ ‘my houses’

Low vowel (loss of length) levél letter singular plural ‘your letter’ ‘your letters’

nom.

házam

házaim

leveled

acc.

házamat

házaimat

ill.

házamba

iness.

V-stem ló horse singular ‘his/her horse’

plural ‘his/her horses’

leveleid

lova

lovai

leveledet

leveleidet

lovát

lovait

házaimba

leveledbe

leveleidbe

lovába

lovaiba

házamban

házaimban

leveledben

leveleidben

lovában

lovaiban

elat.

házamból

házaimból

leveledbo˝l

leveleidbo˝l

lovából

lovaiból

sublat.

házamra

házaimra

leveledre

leveleidre

lovára

lovaira

sup.

házamon

házaimon

leveleden

leveleiden

lován

lovain

delat.

házamról

házaimról

leveledro˝l

leveleidro˝l

lováról

lovairól

allat.

házamhoz

házaimhoz

leveledhez

leveleidhez

lovához

lovaihoz

adess.

házamnál

házaimnál

levelednél

leveleidnél

lovánál

lovainál

abl.

házamtól

házaimtól

leveledto˝l

leveleidto˝l

lovától

lovaitól

dat.

házamnak

házaimnak

levelednek

leveleidnek

lovának

lovainak

instr.

házammal

házaimmal

leveleddel

leveleiddel

lovával

lovaival

transl.

házammá

házaimmá

leveleddé

leveleiddé

lovává

lovaivá

caus.-fin. házamért

házaimért

leveledért

leveleidért

lováért

lovaiért

ess.-for. házamként

––––

leveledként

––––

lovaként

lovaiként

term.

házaimig

leveledig

leveleidig

lováig

lovaiig

házamig

302

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

-alom jutalom reward singular plural ‘our reward’ ‘our rewards’

fleeting vowel álom dream singular plural ‘your dream’ ‘your dreams’

regular noun kép picture singular plural ‘their picture’ ‘their pictures’

nom.

jutalmunk

jutalmaink

álmotok

álmaitok

képük

képeik

acc.

jutalmunkat

jutalmainkat

álmotokat

álmaitokat

képüket

képeiket

ill.

jutalmunkba

jutalmainkba

álmotokba

álmaitokba

képükbe

képeikbe

iness.

jutalmunkban

jutalmainkban álmotokban

álmaitokban

képükben

képeikben

elat.

jutalmunkból

jutalmainkból

álmotokból

álmaitokból

képükbo˝l

képeikbo˝l

sublat.

jutalmunkra

jutalmainkra

álmotokra

álmaitokra

képükre

képeikre

sup.

jutalmunkon

jutalmainkon

álmotokon

álmaitokon

képükön

képeiken

delat.

jutalmunkról

jutalmainkról

álmotokról

álmaitokról

képükro˝l

képeikro˝l

allat.

jutalmunkhoz

jutalmainkhoz álmotokhoz

álmaitokhoz képükhöz

képeikhez

adess.

jutalmunknál

jutalmainknál

álmotoknál

álmaitoknál

képüknél

képeiknél

abl.

jutalmunktól

jutalmainktól

álmotoktól

álmaitoktól

képükto˝l

képeikto˝l

dat.

jutalmunknak

jutalmainknak álmotoknak

álmaitoknak

képüknek

képeiknek

instr.

jutalmunkkal

jutalmainkkal

álmotokkal

álmaitokkal

képükkel

képeikkel

transl.

jutalmunkká

jutalmainkká

álmotokká

álmaitokká

képükké

képeikké

caus.-fin. jutalmunkért

jutalmainkért

álmotokért

álmaitokért

képükért

képeikért

ess.-for. jutalmunkként

––––

álmotokként ––––

képükként ––––

term.

jutalmainkig

álmotokig

képükig

jutalmunkig

álmaitokig

képeikig

0111

0 1111

303

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 Low vowel nouns 3 4 (Deviations from regular declension of these noun types are in parentheses. 5 Regular declensions are found in appendix 2.) 6 7 8 Monosyllabic (no loss of length) 9 20111 láb leg, foot ágy bed ín tendon (acc.: ínt) 1 kád tub (sg3px1: vágy desire meny daughter-in-law 2 kádja) háj fat árny shade 3 nád reed (sg3px: máj liver szörny monster 4 nádja) nyáj flock szárny wing 5 vád accusation száj mouth talp heel 6 (sg3px: vádja) táj landscape ár price 7 had army, troops héj peel ár awl (sg3px: árja) 8 hold moon íj bow gyár factory 9 föld land díj prize, fee nyár poplar 30111 (sg3px: földje) szíj strap szár stalk 1 térd knee nyak neck tár repository 2 ág branch lyuk hole (acc. tár(a)t) 3 fog tooth hal fish vár fortress 4 szög nail fal wall has belly 5 agy brain nyál saliva 6 7 8 9 40 1 41111 sg3px = ‘third person singular possessive suffix’.

Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions

304

111

011

hölgy lady tölgy oak völgy valley tőgy udder tárgy object ügy matter rügy bud szügy breast (zool.) báj charm (acc.: bájt)

szál stick, piece tál bowl áll chin váll shoulder jel sign mell breast toll pen, feather ól sty (acc.: ólat~ólt; sg3px: olja) fül ear hely place

vas iron hárs linden nyárs spit, skewer társ mate hát back ív arch ház house váz vase íz taste őz deer törzs trunk, tribe

Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

Monosyllabic loses length híd bridge (sg3px: hídja) lúd goose (sg3px: lúdja) rúd rod, pole (sg3px: rúdja) ég sky jég ice légy fly bél intestine dél south, noon fél half

nyél handle szél edge tél winter nyíl arrow nyúl rabbit szén coal nyár summer sár mud ér vein dér white frost tér space, plaza úr sir, gentleman

ész mind mész lime hét seven, week út road (sg3px: útja) kút fountain, (sg3px: kútja) kéz hand réz copper szűz virgin tűz fire víz water

Bisyllabic (no loss of length) oldal side (acc.: oldalt) fonal yarn, thread vonal line arany gold

305

Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions

306

Bisyllabic loses length

1111 2 veréb sparrow cserép tile mozsár mortar 3 elég enough közép center egér mouse 4 fenék bottom mocsár swamp szekér cart 5 kerék wheel madár bird gyökér root 6 kanál spoon agár greyhound kenyér bread 7 fonál yarn, thread bogár bug tenyér palm 8 fedél roof sugár ray, beam szemét garbage 9 kötél rope pohár glass nehéz difficult 1011 levél letter szamár donkey darázs wasp 1 tehén cow kosár basket parázs glowing 12111 embers 3 4 5 V-stems 6 7 Nominative singular and plural and singular accusative forms: 8 9 nom. sg. nom. pl. acc. sg. 20111 snow hó havak havat 1 good jó jók jót 2 horse ló lovak lovat 3 word szó szavak szót 4 lake tó tavak tavat 5 pipe cső csövek csövet 6 stone kő kövek követ 7 stem tő tövek tövet 8 grass fű füvek füvet 9 opus mű művek művet 30111 maggot nyű nyüvek nyüvet 1 2 Other sometime v-stems: 3 4 nom. (sg.) nom. (pl.) acc. (sg.) sg3px. adjective 5 louse tetu˝ tetvek tetu˝t tetu˝je ~ tetve tetves 6 village falu faluk ~ falvak falut ~ falvat faluja ~ falva 7 ash hamu hamuk ~ hamut ~ hamuja hamvas 8 hamvak hamvat 9 crane daru daruk ~ darvak darut daruja 40 hollow odú odúk ~ odvak odút ~ odvat odúja ~ odva odvas 41111

111

011

Metathesis Consonant switching takes place in the following nouns when suffixing endings requiring a linking vowel:

nom. sg.

nom. pl.

acc. sg.

load

teher

terhek (pl.)

terhet (acc.)

flake

pehely

pelyhek (pl.)

pelyhet (acc.)

chalice

kehely

kelyhek (pl.)

kelyhet (acc.)

Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions

2111

0111

Fleeting vowel words requiring the linking vowel a In the following words, the last vowel is omitted and the required linking vowel is a when suffixing endings requiring a linking vowel:

nom. sg.

nom. pl.

acc. sg.

sg3px.

lip

ajak

ajkak

ajkat

ajka

haystack

kazal

kazlak

kazlat

kazla

manger

jászol

jászlak

jászlat

jászla

veil

fátyol

fátylak

fátylat ~ fátyolt fátyla

canvas

vászon

tent

sátor

sátrak

vásznat

vászna

sátrat ~ sátort

sátra

Words with variation in accusative

0111

0 1111

The accusative singular may take either form with the following nouns. (There may be some nuanced change in meaning.)

nominative

accusative

greyhound

agár

agarat

~

agárt

tusk

agyar

agyarat

~

agyart

owl

bagoly

baglyot

~

bagolyt

veil

fátyol

fátylat

~

fátyolt

place

hely

helyet

~

helyt

307

Appendix 3 Noun types and exceptions

twin

iker

ikret

~

ikert

manger

jászol

jászlat

~

jászolt

sign

jel

jelet

~

jelt

bosom

kebel

keblet

~

kebelt

chalice

kehely

kelyhet

~

kehelyt

shroud

lepel

leplet

~

lepelt

glaze

máz

mázat

~

mázt

oil

olaj

olajat

~

olajt

bay/gulf

öböl

öblöt

~

öbölt

flake

pehely

pelyhet

~

pehelyt

Renaissance

reneszánsz

reneszánszot

~

reneszánszt

rye

rozs

rozsot

~

rozst

tent

sátor

sátrat

~

sátort

bag

szatyor

szatyrot

~

szatyort

store

tár

tárat

~

tárt

line

vonal

vonalat

~

vonalt

and nouns ending in -ns (the single -t accusative is always correct):

308

graduate student

aspiráns

aspiránsot

aspiránst

patient

páciens

pácienset

pácienst

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

Index

6 7

011 112 111

6 7

0111

6 7

0111

6 7

0 1111

ablative (-tól/ -to˝l) 93, 103, 110–111, 198 accusative adjectives 168–171 adverbial use 96, 185–186, 201 nouns 92–93, 95–97 personal pronouns 122–124 address, forms of 125–126 adessive (-nál/ -nél) 93, 103, 109–110, 175, 277 adjective-forming suffixes 217–224 adjectives 164–179 comparative 172–175 degree of comparative 175 declension of 164–172 demonstrative 177 derived from numbers 219–220 ethnonyms 167 indefinite 178–179 interrogative 177–178 irregular 165, 166, 169, 170–171 numerical 179 plural 164–167 relative 178 superlative 176–177 used as nouns 171 adverbial participle (-va/ -ve) 54–55, 186 with van 280–281 adverbs 180–210 comparative 186–189 demonstrative 208–209 indefinite 209–210 interrogative 208 irregular 181–182, 187

negative 209 of manner (-an/ -en) 180–182 (-ként) 184 (-képpen) 185 (-lag/ -leg) 182–183 (-ul/ -ül) 183–184, 188 of number 189, 244 of space 190–192 locative system 98–103, 190–191 of time 192–206 pronouns 207 relative 208 superlative 186–189 universal 210 agent-less constructions 280 ago 203–204 allative (-hoz/ -hez/ -höz) 93, 102–103 alphabet 3 answering questions affirmatively 281–284 negatively 284 yes-no questions 281–284 any 179 articles 82–83 definite 82 indefinite 83 zero 83 aspect 65, 67–69 assimilation sibilants 7 of -j- in present tense definite conjugation 27–29 in subjunctive conjugation 35–36

309

Index

310

back vowels 10 be 65, 74

of choice 236–237 relative pronouns 240 subordinating 238–240 consonants 4–7 coverbs 65–81 aspect 67–69 direction 65–67 manner 67 word order 254–255, 260–267

cardinal numbers 241–242 case suffixes 84, 92–121 and personal pronouns 122–127 exterior 101–102 formation 95–99, 111–112 governed by verbs 119 grammatical 93–94 interior 100–101 less productive 93, 117–118 locative 93, 98–111 near 102–103 oblique 93, 111–117 plural 119–121 cataphoric pronouns 136, 209 causal-final -ért 93, 111, 115–116 causative 60–63 clock time 205–206 collective (-ék) 216–217 comment 254–255 comparative adjectives 172–175 adverbs 186–189 degree of 175 compass points 192 conditional non-past 44–49 past 47–49 conjugation conditional 44–48 subjunctive 35–40 past tense 31–34 present tense 26–31 conjunctions 234–240 concluding 238 connecting 234–235 contrasting 235–236 coordinating 234–238 e whether 239 explanatory 237

direct object 96, 253–254, 257

of -z in demonstrative pronouns 130 of -v- in instrumental and translative cases 111 voicing and devoicing of consonants 5–7

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 dates 194–196 1011 dative (-nak/ -nek) 93, 112–113 1 as indirect object 112 as possessor 113, 149–151 12111 with ‘have’ construction 272–273 3 with impersonal constructions 4 113, 277–279 5 decimals 245–246 6 definite 7 articles 82 conjugation 23 8 conditional 46–48 9 past 33–34 20111 present 27–29 1 subjunctive 38–40 2 direct object 23–25 degree of comparison 175 3 delative (-ról /-ro˝l) 93, 102, 108 4 demonstrative pronouns 130–134 5 adjectival 133, 177 6 adverbial 208–209 7 agreement 132 8 cataphoric use 136, 209 declension 131 9 numerical 134 30111 derivation 57–65, 211–233 1 adjective-forming suffixes 2 217–224 3 gat/-get 63–65 hat/-het 57–60 4 noun-forming suffixes 211–217 5 (t)at/ -(t)et 60–63 6 verb-forming suffixes 57–65, 7 224–230 8 devoicing of consonants 6 9 digraphs 3 diminutive 231–233 40 diphthongs 7 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

definite 24 personal pronouns 25 understood 25 distributive (-nként) 92, 94, 112, 117, 119, 199 distributive-temporal (-nta/ -nte) 92, 94, 112, 118, 119 el 65–66, 67–68, 71–74 elative (-ból/ -bo˝l) 93, 101, 105–106 essive (-ul/-ül) 183–184, 188, 222 essive-formal (-ként) 94, 111, 112, 116, 184 existential constructions 256, 271 fel~föl 65–66, 75–77 fleeting vowel nouns 88, 300, 306 fleeting vowel verbs 17 focus 255, 260–265 fractions 245 frequentative 63–65 front vowels 10 rounded 10 unrounded 10 future 29–30, 50 fog 50–51 of van 51, 270 gender 84 gerund 211–212 hadd 41 ‘have’ construction 257, 272–277 ide 65–66 -ik verbs 16 illative (-ba/ -be) 93, 100, 104 imperative (see also subjunctive) 264–265 imperfective aspect 35, 67–69 impersonal constructions 43, 277–280 indefinite article 83 conjugation 23 conditional 44–48 past tense 32–33 present tense 26–27

subjunctive 36–38 pronouns 137–138 indirect object (see dative) inessive (-ban/ -ben) 93, 101, 104–105, 196, 197–198 infinitive 55, 278–279 declined 56, 278 instrumental (-val/ -vel) 93, 111, 114–115, 175, 189, 199 with causative 62 interjections 248–249 interrogative adjectives 177–178 interrogative pronouns 134–135 interrogatives of time 206 intonation 8–9 irregular nouns 304–308 irregular verbs 285–292 irregular verb stems 15–23

Index

-j- assimilation -in present tense 27–29 -in subjunctive 35–36 jön 23, 291 (-képpen) 184 ki 65, 75 kinship terms 148–149 le 65–66, 77–79 lesz 22, 51, 268–270, 285 locative (-t, -ott/ -ett/ -ött) 94, 118 locative system 98–103, 190–191 long consonants 5 long vowels 7–8 low vowel nouns 86–88, 296–297, 304–305 meg 67–71, 73–74 megy 23, 291 metathesis 307 multiplicative (-szor/ -szer/ -ször) 200–201, 246–247 negation 209, 264, 270, 274 double 209 word order 260–263, 264 neutral word order 255, 258–259 nincs, nincsenek 270 nominative 85, 94–95

311

Index

non-attributive possessive suffix (-e, -ei) 153–154 non-finite verb forms 51–56 adverbial participle 54–55 future participle 52–54 infinitive 55–56 past participle 52–54 present participle 51–54 non-past conditional 44–49 noun 82–91 declensions 121, 296–303 plural 85–89, 91 stems 84–89, 304–308 alom/ -elem 88, 212–213, 303 ending in a vowel 85–86, 298 fleeting vowel 88, 300, 306 low vowel – loss of length 86–87, 297, 305 low vowel – no loss of length 86–87, 296, 304–305 regular 89, 298–299 v-stems 87, 301, 306 noun-forming suffixes 211–217 numerals 241–247 adjectives derived from 179 adverbial use 189 cardinal 241–242 decimals 245–246 declension 243–244 fractions 245 multiplication 247 nouns derived from 219–220 ordinal 241–242 oda 65–66, 81 object (see direct object) oblique cases 111–117

312

palatal series 4 participles 52–55 adverbial 54–55, 119–120, 186 future 53–54 past 52–54 present 53–54 particle (-e) 239 passive 280 past conditional 47–49 past participle 52–54 past tense 31–35

perfective aspect 35, 67–69 personal pronouns 122–127 and possession 127, 140 declension 122–125 direct object 122–124 omission 122–124 polite forms 125–17 plural 9, 119–120 of adjectives 164–167 of nouns (non-possessive) 85–89, 91, 119–120 with possession 140, 146–147 possession 140–154 adjectives 140 and dative case 149–151 declension 152–153, 302–303 diminutives 232 final vowel alternation 147–148 kinship terms 148–149 nominal possession 127, 149–151, 275 non-attributive 153–154 nouns 140–154 plural 146–147 singular 140–145 pronominal possession 140–147, 275 with postpositions 156–158 possessive pronouns 129–130 possessive suffixes 140–147 with infinitives 56 postpositions 155–163 and demonstratives 162 and possession 156–58 as coverbs 80 as prepositions 162–163 complex 160–162 governing cases 159–160 of location 157–158 of time 155, 201–204 potential (-hat/ -het) 57–60 predicate adjective 268–269 noun 268–269 prefixes coverbs 65–81 superlative 176–177 prepositions 162–163 present participle 52–54

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

111

011

2111

0111

0111

0 1111

present tense 26–31 preverb position 254–255 pronouns 122–139, 207–210 adverbial 207–209 cataphoric use 136–137, 209 demonstrative 130–134 indefinite 137–138 interrogative 134–135 negative 138–139 personal 122–125 polite 125–127 possessive 129–130 reciprocal 129 reflexive 128–129 relative 136, 240 universal 138–139 quasi-auxiliary verbs 265–267 questions and subjunctive 41 and word order 260–264 how to answer 281–284 reciprocal pronoun 129 reflexive pronouns 128–129 reflexive suffixes 228 relative pronouns 136, 240 reported speech 30 same 132 sentence positions 254–256 since 31, 203 singular 90–91 with expressions of quantity 90, 242 sociative (-stul/ -stül) 92, 94, 112, 118, 119 some 178–179 stress 8 subject 94, 253–254 sublative (-ra/ -re) 93, 101–102, 106–107, 198 subordinate clauses 238–240 and subjunctive 41–44 suffixes adjective-forming 217–224 case 92–121 noun-forming 211–217 plural 85–89, 119–120

possessive 140–147 verb-forming 224–230 superessive (-o/-e/-ö/-n) 92, 93, 102, 107–108, 119, 195, 197 superlative adjectives 176–177 adverbs 186–189 szokott 35, 204–205

Index

temporal (-kor) 94, 111, 112, 117, 119, 199–200 temporal-distributive (-nta/ -nte) 200 terminative (-ig) 94, 111, 117, 198–199 time expressions 192–206 clock time 205–206 dates 194–196 interrogatives 206 using cases 96, 197–201 using postpositions 201–203 translative (-vá/ -vé) 93, 111, 115 trigraph 3 topic 253–254 topic-comment structure 253–254 topic position 254, 258–263 ugyan- 138 unrounded (front) vowels 10 van 23, 268–275 existential use 271 future of 51, 270 in ‘have’ constructions 272–274 negation of 270 omission 268 with adverbial participle 280-281 verb 15–81 conjugations 26–51 conditional (non-past) 44–47 future 29–30, 50 past 31–34 past conditional 47–48 present 26–31 subjunctive 35–40 ik-verbs 16 irregular 17–23 non-finite forms 51–56

313

Index

314

position in sentence 254–255 stems 15–23 fleeting vowel 17 szik stems 19–21 v-stems 18 verbal complements 255, 256–258 verb-forming suffixes 224–230 vissza 65–66, 81 voicing of consonants 6 vowel harmony 10–11, 84, 94

vowels 7–8, 10–11 v-stem nouns 87, 301, 306 word formation 211–233 adjective-forming suffixes 217–224 noun-forming suffixes 211–217 verb-form suffixes 224–230 word order 253–267 whether (-e) 239

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111

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Hungarian: An Essential Grammar - Readers StuffZ

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