i SELF-MONITORING TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM FOR T-JUNCTION

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SELF-MONITORING TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM FOR T-JUNCTION OR MULTIPLE JUNCTIONS

AW FANG LI

This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Wireless Communication) With Honours

Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

MAY 2011

ii

UNIVERSTI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN

PROJEK SARJANA MUDA II SELF-MONITORING TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM FOR TJUNCTION OR MULTIPLE JUNCTIONS

Tajuk Projek :

Sesi Pengajian:

2010/ 2011

Saya …………………………AW FANG LI…………………………… (HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda ini disimpan di Perpustakaan dengan syaratsyarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1.

Laporan adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

2.

Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3.

Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4.

Sila tandakan ( √ ) :

SULIT*

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

TERHAD*

(Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TIDAK TERHAD

Disahkan oleh:

________________________________

___________________________________

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(COP DAN TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat Tetap: No. 238, TAMAN HARMONI, 28700, BENTONG, PAHANG, MALAYSIA.

Tarikh: 1

st

MAY 2011

Tarikh: 1

st

MAY 2011

iii

“I hereby declare that this report is result of my own effort except for works that have been cited clearly in the references.”

Signature

: ………………….

Author

AW FANG LL : ………………….

Date

1st May 2011 : ………………….

iv

“I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Wireless Communication) with Honours”

Signature

: …………………………..

Supervisor’s Name

: ENGR. SIVA KUMAR SUBRAMANIAM

Date

: …………………………..

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to express my greatest gratitude and sincere thanks to my supervisor, Mr Siva Kumar Subramaniam, for his valuable advice and assistance in the supervision and consultation of this Final Year Project. In fact, he gave me guidance when obstacles arise throughout this period of time. Once again, i thank him for his tolerance and endeavours.

vi

ABSTRAK

Projek ini membincangkan tentang rekacipta satu system pengawalan lampu isyarat yang berkesan. Sistem lampu isyarat ini beroperasi dengan menukar warna lampu secara berturutan selepas masa tertentu. Sistem pengawalan lampu isyarat ini akan mengesan bilangan kereta dalam jarak dan masa yang tertentu, dan beroperasi berdasarkan maklumat yang terkumpul. Tujuan system lampu isyarat ini adalah untuk mengurangkan pembaziran masa pengguna jalan raya. Berdasarkan objektif ini, satu system baru akan dicipta dan digunakan untuk meningkatkan taraf sistem lampu isyarat yang sedia ada.PLC akan digunakan dalam projek ini dan PLC akan mengendalikan lampu isyarat berdasarkan bilangan kereta di simpang jalan. Kelancaran lalu-lintas akan bertambah baik dengan menggunakan cara baru ini.

vii

ABSTRACT

This project is discussed about the design of an efficient control of an existing traffic light system. Traffic light control systems operate on a timing mechanism that changes the light after a given interval. Intelligent traffic light control system will sense the presence or absence of vehicles with certain range by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. The idea behind this intelligent traffic lights control system is that users are not spend unnecessary time waiting for the traffic light change. Based on this idea, a new sensing method will be design and develop to enhance the existing traffic light control system for multiple junctions. Programmable logic controller will be use in this project that will trigger the traffic light indicator according to the volume of vehicle on certain road junctions. Smoothness of traffic flow can be enhancing by using this method.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

PROJECT TITLE

i

RECOGNITION

iii

SUPERVISOR RECOGNITION

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

v

ABSTRAK

vi

ABSTRACT

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

viii

LIST OF FIGURE

xii

LIST OF TABLE

xv

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

xvi

LIST OF APPENDIXE

xvii

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction

1

1.2

Project Objective

2

1.3

Problem Statements

2

1.4

Scope of Work

3

1.5

Existing Traffic Light Control System (Controller /Sensor)

4

1.5.1

Computer Controller/ Camera

4

1.5.2

PLC Type (1 Sensor)

5

1.6

New Method

6

ix

II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

2.2

Sensors

8

2.1.1 Radar Traffic Sensor

9

2.1.2 Inductive Loop Detector

10

2.1.3 Magnetic Sensor

13

2.1.4 Laser Radar Sensor

14

Metal Detector Technology

15

2.2.1 Metal Detector Principles of Operation

15

2.2.1.1

Electromagnetic Induction

16

2.2.1.2

Eddy Current

17

2.2.2 Types of Metal Detector Technology 2.2.2.1

Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) Metal

18 19

Metal Detector 2.2.2.2

Very Low Frequency (VLF) Metal

19

Detector 2.2.2.3

Pulse Induction (PI) Metal Detector

2.2.3 Applications of Metal Detectors

2.3

19 20

2.2.3.1

Consumer-Oriented Metal Detectors

20

2.2.3.2

Industrial Metal Detectors

22

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

24

2.3.1 Background of Programmable Logic Controller

25

2.3.2 PLC Controller Components

26

2.3.3 Ladder Diagram

28

2.3.4 PLC Connections

28

2.3.5 Ladder Logic Inputs

29

2.3.6 Ladder Logic Outputs

30

x

III

METHODOLOGY

3. 1

3.2

IV

Flow Chart

32

3.1.1 General Flow Chart

33

3.1.2 Sensor Based Controller Flow Chart

34

3.1.3 First Condition (normal Sequence)

34

3.1.4 Second Condition (Sensor 1)

36

3.1.5 Third Condition (Sensor 1 and Sensor 2)

40

3.1.6 Fourth Condition (Sensor 1, Sensor 2 and Sensor 3)

44

Hardware Development

48

3.2.1 Metal Detector Circuit

48

3.2.2 Metal Detector Circuit Operation

49

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1

Circuit Development

50

4.1.1 Coil of Metal Detector

50

4.1.2 Metal Detector Circuit

51

4.1.2.1 Calibration and Adjustment for Metal

52

Detector 4.1.2.2

Observation and Analysis

53

4.1.3 Darlington Pair Circuit

53

4.1.4 Resistor Circuit

54

4.2

Hardware Layout

54

4.3

Results for the Program

56

4.4

Discussion

57

4.5

Comparison Between Existing System And New Method

59

xi

V

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.1

Conclusion

60

5.2

Future Work

61

REFERENCE

62

APPENDIXE A

64

APPENDIXE B

68

xii

LIST OF FIGURE

No.

TITLE

PAGE

1.1

Traffic Control and Command Centre in Thailand

4

1.2

Traffic Camera

5

1.3

Sensor mounted on the surface of road in traffic light

6

1.4

Block diagram for the system control for 1 sensor

6

1.5

Block diagram of controller system for new method

7

2.1

Radar Traffic Sensor

9

2.2

Inductive Loop Detector

10

2.3

Inductive Loop Detector System

11

2.4

Inductive Loop Installation Example

12

2.5

Inductive Loop Traffic Sensor

12

2.6

Magnetic anomaly induced in the Earth’s magnetic field by the

13

magnetic dipole

2.7

Perturbation of Earth’s magnetic field by ferrous metal vehicle

13

2.8

Scanning infrared laser radar two-beam pattern across a traffic

14

lane

2.9

3-D laser radar range image of a van pulling a boat

15

2.10

Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

17

2.11

Eddy Current

18

2.12

Archway detectors

20

2.13

Hand-Held Metal Detector Security Scanner

21

2.14

Ground Searching Metal Detector

21

2.15

Metal Detection System Used in Industry

23

xiii

2.16

Metal Detector

23

2.17

Telemcanique PLC Compact

24

2.18

Compact-PLC

25

2.19

System component of PLC

27

2.20

Simple relay layout and schematics

28

2.21

The separation of controller and process

29

2.22

Ladder logic inputs

29

2.23

Ladder Logic Outputs

30

2.24

Ladder Diagram for PLC Press Control

31

3.1

General Flowchart of Project Methodology

33

3.2

First Condition (normal sequence)

34

3.3

Block diagram for normal sequence

34

3.4

Flow Chart for first condition (lane 1, lane 2 and lane 3)

35

3.5

Second Condition (Sensor 1)

36

3.6

Block diagram for sensor 1

36

3.7

Flow Chart for second condition (lane 1)

37

3.8

Flow Chart for second condition (lane 2)

38

3.9

Flow Chart for second condition (lane 3)

39

3.10

Third condition (sensor 1 and sensor 2)

40

3.11

Block diagram for sensor 1 and sensor 2

40

3.12

Flow Chart for third condition (lane 1)

41

3.13

Flow Chart for third condition (lane 2)

42

3.14

Flow Chart for third condition (lane 3)

43

3.15

Fourth condition (sensor1, sensor 2 and sensor 3)

44

3.16

Block diagram for sensor 1, sensor 2 and sensor 3

44

3.17

Flow Chart for fourth condition (lane 1)

45

3.18

Flow Chart for fourth condition (lane 2)

46

3.19

Flow Chart for fourth condition (lane 3)

47

3.20

Schematic diagram of the BFO metal detector

48

3.21

The coil for the BFO metal detector

49

4.1

Coil of metal detector

51

4.2

Metal detector circuit (1 circuit sensor

51

4.3

Metal detector circuit board (10 circuit sensor)

52

xiv

4.4

Darlington Pair circuit (10 circuits)

53

4.5

Resistor Circuit board (6 traffic lights with 18 LED)

54

4.6

Hardware layout for Circuit board, PLC and power supply

55

4.7

Layout for coil of Metal detector

55

4.8

Surface Layout for T-junction traffic light

56

4.9

Ladder diagram by using Omron CX-Programmer

57

xv

LIST OF TABLE

NO 1.

TITLE Comparison between conventional traffic light control systems and self-monitoring traffic light control system .

PAGE 59

xvi

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

PLC

- Programmable Logic Controller

EMF

- Electromotive Force

BFO

- Beat-Frequency Oscillation

VLF

- Very Low Frequency

PI

- Pulse Induction

SCADA

- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

CPU

- Central Processing Unit

OSR

- One Shot Relay

L

- Latch

U

- Unlatch

IOT

- Immediate Output

LED

- Light-Emitting Diode

PCB

- Printed Circuit Board

xvii

LIST OF APPENDIX

NO.

APPENDIX A

TITLE

Program of Normal Sequence for

PAGE

64

T-junction Traffic Light

APPENDIX B

Program of Sensor 1 for T-junction Traffic Light

68

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter explains the conventional method of traffic controller in comparison with the proposal system.

1.1

Introduction

Stoplights or stop-and-go lights, which is commonly known as traffic lights are a source of signalling device used in junctions around the world. Traffic lights are usually positioned on a certain road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic in order to enhance the smoothness of traffic flow. Traffic lights have been installed in most cities around the world regardless of different standards. They assign timely directions for road users by demand in the form of colours which is Red, Amber and Green. Even though traffic lights are known as the best device in controlling traffic flow for road users, yet accidents reported at the traffic junction is very common.

There are 2 methods in controlling the traffic light system placed on a certain junctions. The most common method is sequencing method, whereby the traffic light system is designed to operate according to the pre-programmed sequence without any consideration of real time behaviour. The second method is sensor based

2 controller which response to the pre-programmed timer based on current demand on a certain road junction.

With both method widely used around the world, surety on traffic flow smoothness is not established. When authorities talk about efficiency and accuracy on real time traffic flow control, there are always room for further enhancement especially on the controlling and sensing method. In afford to provide a solution for such miseries, a novel implementation of sensing method which will be incorporated with self conditioning program will be a practical solution. The new sensing method is capable of counting the total number of vehicles entering a certain junction and exiting from a certain junction on real time basis. Based on this detection, the programmable logic controller will trigger the traffic light indicators according to real demand. The new method should also be easy for further enchantment of traffic light system in ensuring smoothness of traffic flow especially during peak hours.

1.2

Project Objective

The objectives of this project are: i.

To design an efficient controller for existing traffic light system that can reduce waiting time for road users.

ii.

To apply the knowledge of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in controlling traffic light system.

iii.

To design and develop a new sensing method for T- junction traffic control.

iv.

To develop a prototype of simple traffic light to show the function of the new sensing method.

1.3

Problem Statement

This project is proposed to reduce the waiting time at a certain traffic light junction for the road users. For the existing traffic light control system, there is only 1 sensor placed at the road end before the junction. Such a practice creates an inefficiency system because with only 1 sensor for all vehicle detection. The current

3 practice only detects the availability of vehicle present at a certain junction or road. If the sensor malfunction or faulty, the traffic light control system will operate in a pre programmed mode while the vehicle could not be detected at all.

To improve the current system and to create a better traffic flow controller, a new approach is attempted. This projects prone the use of more than 1 sensor for detection on each road or junction. Based on those sensors, the total number of vehicles entering a certain junction and existing from a certain junction on real time basis can be counted. Based on this method, the smoothness of traffic light can be enhancing. A precise new sensing method which using more than 1 sensor (approximately 10 meters for 1 sensor).

1.4

Scope of Work

This project will focus primarily on the hardware design (sensor type, sensor placement) and software design to implement an intelligent traffic light control system according to the volume of vehicles. Develop a new method to enhance the existing traffic light control system for multiple junctions (T-junction).

a) Hardware part: 1. The metal detector circuit. 2. Controller for the traffic light control system. 3. PLC is an interface used for controlling the traffic light control system.

b) Software part 1. To program a normal sequencing method for traffic light junction. 2. To enhance the condition based programming method with sequencing for better traffic flow using PLC as a platform.

4 1.5

Existing Traffic Light Control System (Controller /Sensor)

Conventional traffic light control system is mostly using the computer controller and camera. Only 1 sensor is using at the junction of conventional traffic light.

1.5.1

Computer Controller/ Camera

The conventional traffic light system is typically control by computer controller or the camera as shown in Figure 1.1 and Figure 1.2. A traffic enforcement camera or also road safety camera, road rule camera, photo radar, speed camera, Gatso, are an automated ticketing machine. It may include a camera which may be mounted beside on over a highway or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect traffic regulation violations, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, unauthorized use of a bus lane, for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area and others.

Figure 1.1: Traffic Control and Command Center in Thailand

5

Figure 1.2: Traffic Camera

1.5.2 PLC Type (1 Sensor)

Conventional traffic light is using 1 sensor for measuring the input of certain traffic junction as shown in Figure 1.3 below. The sensor will give the output to the controller and then the traffic indicator will change based on the output of the sensor. The block diagram for the system control for 1 sensor is shown in Figure 1.4.

6

Figure 1.3: Sensor mounted on the surface of road in traffic light

Figure 1.4: Block diagram for the system control for 1 sensor

1.6

New Method

The new methods for this propose system can measure the input and output of a certain traffic light junction. The volume of the vehicles entering and exiting certain junctions of traffic light can be counted. The block diagram of the control system for new method is shown in Figure 1.5.

7

Figure 1.5: Block diagram of controller system for new method

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i SELF-MONITORING TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM FOR T-JUNCTION

i SELF-MONITORING TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM FOR T-JUNCTION OR MULTIPLE JUNCTIONS AW FANG LI This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requir...

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