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Home (/) / Documents (/category/documents.html) / [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - San Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - Modeling, Design, Fabrication, and Performance of Rectangular µ-Coaxial Lines and Components (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-international-microwave-symposium-digest-san-francisco-5852569df1834.html)

1393 Modeling, Design, Fabrication, and Performance of Rectangular g-Coaxial Lines and Components D. S. RECOMMENDED Filipovic', Z. Popovic', K. Vanhille' M. Lukic' S. Rondineau' M. Buck' G. Potvin2 D. Fontaine2, C. Nichols3, D. Sherrer3, S. Zhou3, W. Houck3, D. Fleming3, E. Daniel4, W. Wilkins4, V. Sokolov4, and J. Evans5 Department [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-04252~~~~~2BAE Systems, Microwave Symposium Digest - San Nashua, NH 03060 3Rohm and Hass Electronic Materials LLC, Blacksburg, VA 24060 4Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 MN, 55905 5DARPA-MTO, Arlington, VA 22203-1714 Abstract - A miniature non-uniform copper-air rectangular (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave coaxial line with the inner conductor supported by periodic dielectric straps is demonstrated. The overall height Symposium Digest - Ridge Waveguide Coupled microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoof the line is 310gm with the outer conductor cross-section being 250gmx250gm. The measured loss is Stripline Resonator Filters and Multiplexers 584b357f33a77.html) 0.22dB/cm at 26GHz, while the isolation between two parallel lines with a center-to-center separation of 700gm is better than 60dB. Several quasi-planar components are designed and fabricated on the same wafer, and [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International presented here are a branch-line hybrid and a transmission line resonator. The through and coupled port Microwave Symposium Digest - San transmissions for the hybrid at 26GHz are -3.25dB and -3.35dB respectively, with phase misbalance below Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 0.2°. The transmission line resonator has an unloaded Q-factor of 110 at 25GHz. Index Terms - Branch line (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave hybrid, Coaxial line, Computer aided design, Transmission Line Resonator. I. INTRODUCTION Recent Symposium Digest - Low-voltage low-power Kmicrowave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoadvances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques [1-3], including surface and bulk band balanced RTD-based MMIC VCO 5846671c29f5a.html) micromachining, provide ample opportunities for the use of small rectangular coaxial lines (RCL), also known as recta-coax. Highly integrated designs and assembly of non-dispersive, high-isolation lines, components, and [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International sub-systems operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter bands are becoming feasible. A number of novel Microwave Symposium Digest - San recta-coax structures with heights from 50gm to 400gm have already been reported. For instance, air-filled Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 RCLs built using different variations of surface micromachining are demonstrated in [4]. Very promising results (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave with somewhat higher losses than the theoretical predictions are obtained. Branch line hybrids [5, 6] and filters Symposium Digest - 20W GaN HPAs for Next microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoDownload (/download/link/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-international-microwave-symposium-digest-san-francisco[7], are recent examples of miniature RCL components designed to operate up to V-band. These lines and Generation X-Band T/R-Modules 5852569df1834) 584bb0f9d6d50.html) components are typically analyzed using 3D finite element solvers. In this paper, we discuss modeling and All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report 1 design of miniature irnhomogeneous copper recta-coax lines and components as well as a novel sequential (/document/report/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-international-microwave-symposium-digest-san-francisco-5852569df1834) us to resolve them. [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International microfabrication process [8] that enables their practical implementation. The performance of the basic We are always happy to assist you. Microwave Symposium Digest - San transmission lines, branch-line hybrid, and transmission line resonator are compared with the developed Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 models. The paper is organized as follows: a brief discussion on modeling and fabrication is given in Section II, 212 [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave followed by the performance characterization of a basic recta-coax line in Section III. Several g-coaxial views SYMPOSIUM DIGEST - SAN FRANCISCO, CA (2006.06.11Symposium Digest - Quad Band CEIFS microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscocomponents are presented in Section IV. Fig. 1. Sketch of the ~i-recta-coax line. Structural parameters are: Antenna for Mobile Communication 2006.06.16)] 2006 IEEE MTT-S INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE 584ba182164c3.html) {w0, ho, wi, hi, Lp, Ls, hs, Lh, Wh} = (0.25, 0.25, 0.1, 0.1, 0.7, 0.1, 0.015, 0.2, 0.1 } mm; 8r=3.7, and tan&0.05. SYMPOSIUM DIGEST - MODELING, DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND II. MODELING AND FABRICATION A. Modeling Challenges andApproach Analysis of miniature rectangular PERFORMANCE OF RECTANGULAR -COAXIAL LINES AND coaxial lines and components is a challenging task. The issues can be argued from geometrical and [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International COMPONENTS Microwave Symposium Digest - San computational perspectives. Multi-layered configuration, the combination of small and large structural features, by j Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 homogeneous and irnhomogeneous cross-sections, sharp corners and roughness, misalignment of structural (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave on Dec 14, 2016 Category: Download: 0 layers, the need for release holes, etc. are just a few examples of geometrical concerns that must be Symposium Digest - Low Profile Slotted Flat microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoReport (/document/report/ieee-2006-ieeeComment: 0 DOCUMENTS considered. The analysis method needs to accommodate easy 2D and 3D 0-7803-9542-5/06/$20.00 ©2006 Waveguide Leaky Wave Antenna 584b82a3a484a.html) mtt-s-international-microwave-symposiumIEEE (/category/documents.html) digest-san-francisco-5852569df1834) 1394 formulations and solutions of closed domain structures. However, the effects of the release holes, 0 Share Share Share Tweet particularly radiation leakage through those must be also modeled. Also, the computational domain contains [IEEE 1996 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - San both small and large features, materials of different dielectric constants and high/low aspect ratios, and a Comments Francisco, CA, USA (17-21 June 1996)] 1996 combination of rough and smooth surfaces. All these demands place severe restrictions on the choice of (/documents/ieee-1996-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave modeling tools. Finally, a capability of easy definition of excitations, boundary conditions, material parameters, Symposium Digest - 20 GHz LTCC phased microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoand extraction of performance parameters must be also accounted for. To address all these issues, a modeling array module 584b586d92057.html) approach (see Fig. 2) combining robust 2D and 3D eigenanalysis (EA) and driven finite element method (FEM) formulations within Ansoft's High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS') and quasi-static (QS) singly and doubly connected Schwartz-Christoffel conformal mapping (SCCM) [9] are utilized. Finite Element Method [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - San Conformal Mapping 2D Quasi-static 2D FEM 3D FEM Quasi-static (QS) Eigenanalysis (EA) Full-wave (FW) Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 Description Eigenanalysis (EA) Determination of ZO, y PDE CEM choice for closed structures Efficient for time and memory (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave * Higher order expansion, exact BCs Adequate modeling of sharp corners * Freedom in modeling 3D structures Download [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - San Francisco, CA (2006.06.11Symposium Digest - A Low Phase Noise microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoEasier convergence with fine geom. details * Robust modeling of inhomogenities Determination of higher order Microwave Oscillator with a Miniaturized LTCC 2006.06.16)] 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - Modeling, Design, Fabrication, and 58521c98e4aac.html) modes (EA) * FE-BI for antenna design Fig. 2. Modeling approach followed in this work. B. Fabrication RectaResonator for SIP Design Performance of Rectangular µ-Coaxial Lines and Components coax lines and components are fabricated using a new sequential microfabrication process described in [8]. As in surface micromachining, the recta-coax structures are built up layer by layer by depositing a uniform copper [IEEE IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Transcript stratum (layer 1), and a sequence of strata comprised of photo-resist and copper (layers 2, 4, and 5). The Symposium Digest - Long Beach, CA, USA (13-15 June 1989)] IEEE MTT-S International polymer support for the inner conductor is a part of the 3rd layer. The heights of layers 1-5 are {10, 75, 100, 1393 Modeling, Design, Fabrication, and Performance of Rectangular g-Coaxial Lines and Components D. S. (/documents/ieee-ieee-mtt-s-internationalMicrowave Symposium Digest - Suppression of 75, 50} gim, respectively. Once the structure is built, the resist is drained through holes in the top and side walls Filipovic', Z. Popovic', K. Vanhille' M. Lukic' S. Rondineau' M. Buck' G. Potvin2 D. Fontaine2, C. Nichols3, D. resonant modes in microwave packages microwave-symposium-digest-long-beach-ca(see Fig. 1). These openings are referred to as release holes. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo of Sherrer3, S. Zhou3, W. Houck3, D. Fleming3, E. Daniel4, W. Wilkins4, V. Sokolov4, and J. Evans5 Department of 5851f2fc79ffc.html) a part of the fabricated wafer is shown in Fig. 3. Shown in the picture are different recta-coax lines, calibration Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-04252~~~~~2BAE Systems, Nashua, structures, test sets for isolation, and several different cavity resonators. The components are built on a 15cm NH 03060 3Rohm and Hass Electronic Materials LLC, Blacksburg, VA 24060 4Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905 diameter and 1mm thick high resistivity Si wafer, however, other substrates may also be used. III. RECTA[IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International 5DARPA-MTO, Arlington, VA 22203-1714 Abstract - A miniature non-uniform copper-air rectangular coaxial line COAX LINE Several 250gm tall rectangular and square 50Q coaxial lines are designed and fabricated. They Microwave Symposium Digest - San with the inner conductor supported by periodic dielectric straps is demonstrated. The overall height of the line is Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 are composed of five structural layers forming the inner and outer conductors. The inner conductor is 310gm with the outer conductor cross-section being 250gmx250gm. The measured loss is 0.22dB/cm at 26GHz, (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave supported by periodically (700gm) spaced 15gm tall and 100gm wide dielectric support straps (e =3.7, while the isolation between two parallel lines with a center-to-center separation of 700gm is better than 60dB. Symposium Digest - Dual-Band Bandpass and microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscotan6=0.05). As shown in Fig. 1, the release holes in the side (100gmx75gm) and top walls (200gmxlOOgm) are Bandstop Filters Using Composite Right/LeftSeveral quasi-planar components are designed and fabricated on the same wafer, and presented here are a 5847438c8c6f2.html) placed in the regions between the straps. HFSS and SCCM are used to fully characterize the performance of Handed Metamaterial Transmission Lines branch-line hybrid and a transmission line resonator. The through and coupled port transmissions for the hybrid at the line. Electrical effects of potential fabrication issues such as strap parameters including the protrusion into 26GHz are -3.25dB and -3.35dB respectively, with phase misbalance below 0.2°. The transmission line the vertical walls, offset layers, under/over etching, surface roughness are also investigated (see Fig. 4). It is [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International resonator has an unloaded Q-factor of 110 at 25GHz. Index Terms - Branch line hybrid, Coaxial line, Computer found that the performance of a line built within the limits of our fabrication tolerances is almost the same as the Microwave Symposium Digest - San aided design, Transmission Line Resonator. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in micro-electromechanical Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 performance of a perfectly fabricated structure. Fig. 3. SEM photograph of a portion ofthe fabricated wafer systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques [1-3], including surface and bulk micromachining, provide ample (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave showing a number of coaxial lines with various separation distances, as well as portions of cavity resonators opportunities for the use of small rectangular coaxial lines (RCL), also known as recta-coax. Highly integrated Symposium Digest - Ultra Compact X-Band microwave-symposium-digest-san-francisco(larger areas in the photo). The 25Ox3OOm feed ports (launches) into the lines are visible as rectangular designs and assembly of non-dispersive, high-isolation lines, components, and sub-systems operating in the GaInP/GaAs HBT MMIC amplifiers : 11W, 42% 585185277043a.html) coaxial openings at the end of each line/component. The holes in the top and side walls are used for releasing of PAE on 13mm2 and 8.7W, 38% of PAE on millimeter and sub-millimeter bands are becoming feasible. A number of novel recta-coax structures with heights the photoresist. The metal posts seen in the photo do not have any electrical effect. d .I I I Fig. 4. Sketches of 9mm2 from 50gm to 400gm have already been reported. For instance, air-filled RCLs built using different variations of several geometries used to study effects of: dielectric straps (top left); under/over etching (top right); [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International surface micromachining are demonstrated in [4]. Very promising results with somewhat higher losses than the misaligned layers (bottom left); and surface roughness (bottom right). As shown in Fig. 5, a 10% misalignment Microwave Symposium Digest - San theoretical predictions are obtained. Branch line hybrids [5, 6] and filters [7], are recent examples of miniature RCL of stratum 3 increases the line attenuation by about 300, decreases the characteristic impedance by 1% and Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 components designed to operate up to V-band. These lines and components are typically analyzed using 3D finite (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave barely affects the cut-off frequency of the first higher order mode. Also shown in the figure is excellent element solvers. In this paper, we discuss modeling and design of miniature irnhomogeneous copper recta-coax Symposium Digest - Computer Aided Design of microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscoagreement between the full-wave HIFSS and QS SCCM. The results are almost indistinguishable for the lines and components as well as a novel sequential microfabrication process [8] that enables their practical Wideband Orthomode Transducers based on 584bd751aa54f.html) 1395 characteristic impedance whereas there is a slight discrepancy for the attenuation constant. 104-- IM4 the Bifot Junction implementation. The performance of the basic transmission lines, branch-line hybrid, and transmission line DtiV *0 100 %®* S8 complete metal deposition can produce dangerous stress levels on the wafer, it is a risk resonator are compared with the developed models. The paper is organized as follows: a brief discussion on worth undertaking particularly in light of the reduced cross-talk between neighboring lines. The measured [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International modeling and fabrication is given in Section II, followed by the performance characterization of a basic recta-coax isolation and standard deviation (a) for several test structures are given in Table I. TABLE I MEASURED Microwave Symposium Digest - San line in Section III. Several g-coaxial components are presented in Section IV. Fig. 1. Sketch of the ~i-recta-coax ISOLATION FOR TWO ADJACENT PARALLEL LINES. f [GHz] |S311 [dB] |o(IS3I1) S411 [dB] o(5S411) 24 63.0 Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 line. Structural parameters are: {w0, ho, wi, hi, Lp, Ls, hs, Lh, Wh} = (0.25, 0.25, 0.1, 0.1, 0.7, 0.1, 0.015, 0.2, 0.1 } (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave 0.83 65.2 0.53 26 62.5 0.89 62.5 1.09 28 62.7 0.57 60.9 0.80 0 6 Fig. 5. Predicted effects ofmisaligned stratum mm; 8r=3.7, and tan&0.05. II. MODELING AND FABRICATION A. Modeling Challenges andApproach Analysis of Symposium Digest - Direct Synthesis of microwave-symposium-digest-san-francisco3 on the performance of the RCL (lower left drawing in Fig. 4). The attenuation constant ao0, characteristic miniature rectangular coaxial lines and components is a challenging task. The issues can be argued from Cascaded Singlets and Triplets by Non584a9b4741eb2.html) impedance Z,o and higher order cut-offfo of an ideal line are 0.161dB/cm at 26GHz, 50Q, and 467.5GHz, Resonating Node Suppression geometrical and computational perspectives. Multi-layered configuration, the combination of small and large respectively. The measured attenuation of a 50Q line is compared with simulations in Fig. 6 showing a loss of structural features, homogeneous and irnhomogeneous cross-sections, sharp corners and roughness, 0.22dB/cm at 26GHz. The measurements are calibrated using external short-open-load-thru (SOLT) [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International misalignment of structural layers, the need for release holes, etc. are just a few examples of geometrical concerns calibration. Shown in the same figure is the line loss at 25GHz as de-embedded from the t-coaxial transmission Microwave Symposium Digest - San that must be considered. The analysis method needs to accommodate easy 2D and 3D 0-7803-9542-5/06/$20.00 line (TRL) resonator measurements discussed in the next section. CFEK -0.05 -0.1 0 *F -0.15 & -0.2 -0.25 Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 ©2006 IEEE (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave Simulated ---- Measured 0 Measured: TRL Res 5 10 15 20 Frequency in GHz 25 30 Fig. 6. Measured and 1394 formulations and solutions of closed domain structures. However, the effects of the release holes, Symposium Digest - The Stacking of microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscocomputed transmission of a 1cm long line. The inset is a sketch of the launch cross-section. Shown in Fig. 7 is particularly radiation leakage through those must be also modeled. Also, the computational domain contains both Integrated Passive Devices, Substrates, and 584ba965910c6.html) the computed isolation between two lines with a center-to-center separation of 700gm. The computational small and large features, materials of different dielectric constants and high/low aspect ratios, and a combination RFICs to make ultra-thin modules using model is depicted in the same figure. It was determined that the main coupling mechanism of a non-metalized Organic Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP) of rough and smooth surfaces. All these demands place severe restrictions on the choice of modeling tools. layer 1 structure is through the launch opening, and that special care must be exercised for the mitigation Technology [IEEE IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Finally, a capability of easy definition of excitations, boundary conditions, material parameters, and extraction of thereof. Specifically, the coupling can increase by almost 20dB if layer 1 is not metalized. While co 7d -10 20 22 Symposium Digest - Long Beach, CA, USA performance parameters must be also accounted for. To address all these issues, a modeling approach (see Fig. 24 2 _RO"hd n _H 28 30 Fig. 7. Simulated return loss and cross-coupling for the structure shown in the inset. (13-15 June 1989)] IEEE MTT-S International 2) combining robust 2D and 3D eigenanalysis (EA) and driven finite element method (FEM) formulations within The wafer layout around the 4-port test structure is modeled exactly as fabricated. Denoted are structure's (/documents/ieee-ieee-mtt-s-internationalMicrowave Symposium Digest - Transient Ansoft's High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS') and quasi-static (QS) singly and doubly connected response of PIN limiter diodes ports, gold foil traces (Au), copper traces (Cu) and non-metallized silicon wafer (Si). IV. RECTA-COAX microwave-symposium-digest-long-beach-caSchwartz-Christoffel conformal mapping (SCCM) [9] are utilized. Finite Element Method Conformal Mapping 2D COMPONENTS Several passive components, including branch-line hybrids, cavity backed patch antennas, as 584f48741468c.html) Quasi-static 2D FEM 3D FEM Quasi-static (QS) Eigenanalysis (EA) Full-wave (FW) Eigenanalysis (EA) well as cavity and transmission line resonators are fabricated on the same wafer. Here we show results for a Determination of ZO, y PDE CEM choice for closed structures Efficient for time and memory * Higher order hybrid and a transmission line resonator. A. Branch-Line Hybrid t-coaxial branch-line hybrids have been expansion, exact BCs Adequate modeling of sharp corners * Freedom in modeling 3D structures Easier [IEEE 2009 IEEE MTT-S International demonstrated using a different fabrication technique with nickel as the structural metal and with the short Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT) - Boston, convergence with fine geom. details * Robust modeling of inhomogenities Determination of higher order modes metallic posts supporting the inner conductor [6,7]. Here, we followed a standard branch-line hybrid design MA, USA (2009.06.7-2009.06.12)] 2009 IEEE (EA) * FE-BI for antenna design Fig. 2. Modeling approach followed in this work. B. Fabrication Recta-coax lines procedure in a copper-air-polymer based RCL configuration described in previous sections. Special care was (/documents/ieee-2009-ieee-mtt-s-internationalMTT-S International Microwave Symposium and components are fabricated using a new sequential microfabrication process described in [8]. As in surface Digest - Modeling of complex exercised in studying the effects of the release holes and dielectric support. It was found that they have a small microwave-symposium-digest-mtt-bostonmicromachining, the recta-coax structures are built up layer by layer by depositing a uniform copper stratum (layer telecommunication satellite payloads effect on amplitude and phase balance. Measured and predicted amplitude and phase of transmission through 584c318ef1c9e.html) 1), and a sequence of strata comprised of photo-resist and copper (layers 2, 4, and 5). The polymer support for the direct and coupled ports are shown in Fig. 8 and 9, respectively. At the design frequency of 26GHz, the the inner conductor is a part of the 3rd layer. The heights of layers 1-5 are {10, 75, 100, 75, 50} gim, respectively. measured amplitude misbalance is 0.1dB (S31=-3.35dB, IS211=-3.25dB). Once the structure is built, the resist is drained through holes in the top and side walls (see Fig. 1). These [IEEE 2006 IEEE MTT-S International 1396 program. The authors acknowledge Mr. E. Adler and Mr. R. Polcawich from ARL for useful discussions on Microwave Symposium Digest - San openings are referred to as release holes. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo of a part of the fabricated the topic. 4[ 0 ..-t 4g t 1 p. ..~ Af r Q=6 *i A 344 a LatlLh Gap Rdekag ho6l o e. I_ IW 20 Fig. 8. Measured (dots) Francisco, CA (2006.06.11-2006.06.16)] 2006 wafer is shown in Fig. 3. Shown in the picture are different recta-coax lines, calibration structures, test sets for and simulated (solid) coupling to through and coupled ports. Shown in the inset is an SEM of the fabricated (/documents/ieee-2006-ieee-mtt-s-internationalIEEE MTT-S International Microwave isolation, and several different cavity resonators. The components are built on a 15cm diameter and 1mm thick Symposium Digest - A Miniature Low-Loss hybrid. fleikcr ... .....................Ne tkf&ri 247 248 24, 251 Freqercy ir GHz Fig. 10. Measured transmission of a microwave-symposium-digest-san-franciscohigh resistivity Si wafer, however, other substrates may also be used. III. RECTA-COAX LINE Several 250gm tall Slow-Wave Tunable Ferroelectric BandPass transmission line resonator. Shown in inset is a 1/2 of the structure's cross-section. REFERENCES / Dielectric 5849ab69c3022.html) rectangular and square 50Q coaxial lines are designed and fabricated. They are composed of five structural Filter From 11-14 GHz S21 20 22 24 2 Freqency in GHz Fig. 9. Measured (dots) and simulated (solid) pha coupled ports. Shown in layers forming the inner and outer conductors. The inner conductor is supported by periodically (700gm) spaced the inset is a 1/4 symmetry n B. Transmission Line Resonator A transmission line resonator is a useful 15gm tall and 100gm wide dielectric support straps (e =3.7, tan6=0.05). As shown in Fig. 1, the release holes in [IEEE 1999 IEEE MTT-S International characterizing attenuation. The 2-port half-wav 5.77mm long inner conductor supported by ei, dielectric straps Microwave Symposium Digest - Anaheim, CA, the side (100gmx75gm) and top walls (200gmxlOOgm) are placed in the regions between the straps. HFSS and separated (center-to-cente Coupling is achieved with 50tm wide capa measured IS211 is shown in Fig. 10, USA (13-19 June 1999)] 1999 IEEE MTT-S SCCM are used to fully characterize the performance of the line. Electrical effects of potential fabrication issues along with tl to compute the Q-factor and line loss. Al cross-section of the structure. The RCL loss, e) (/documents/ieee-1999-ieee-mtt-s-internationalInternational Microwave Symposium Digest such as strap parameters including the protrusion into the vertical walls, offset layers, under/over etching, surface transmission line resonator measurements, is g V. CONCLUSION High performance copper-air t-coaxial lines (Cat. No.99CH36282) - High-impedance microwave-symposium-digest-anaheim-caroughness are also investigated (see Fig. 4). It is found that the performance of a line built within the limits of our electromagnetic ground planes are designed and fabricated using a novel i process. The obtained results are discussed in t [1] R. Chen, 584bdf0f601e3.html) fabrication tolerances is almost the same as the performance of a perfectly fabricated structure. Fig. 3. SEM "Micro-fabrication techniques," Wireless Design and Development, pp. 16-20, Dec. 2004. [2] J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. photograph of a portion ofthe fabricated wafer showing a number of coaxial lines with various separation Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, "3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs distances, as well as portions of cavity resonators (larger areas in the photo). The 25Ox3OOm feed ports [IEEE IEEE MTT-S International Microwave using thick-metal surface micromachining technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 5 1, no. 1, (launches) into the lines are visible as rectangular coaxial openings at the end of each line/component. The holes Symposium Digest, 2005. - Long Beach, CA, pp. 279-288, Jan. 2003. 281 30, [3] I. Jeong, S.-H. Go, J.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Nam, "High-performance air-gap USA (12-17 June 2005)] IEEE MTT-S in the top and side walls are used for releasing the photoresist. The metal posts seen in the photo do not have any transmission lines and inductors for mm-wave applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 50, ise (/documents/ieee-ieee-mtt-s-internationalInternational Microwave Symposium Digest, electrical effect. d .I I I Fig. 4. Sketches of several geometries used to study effects of: dielectric straps (top left); at through and no.12, pp. 2850-2855, Dec. 2002. nodel. [4] E. Brown, A. Cohn, C. Bang, M. Lockard, B. Byrne, 2005. - A new planar marchand balun microwave-symposium-digest-2005-long-beachunder/over etching (top right); misaligned layers (bottom left); and surface roughness (bottom right). As shown in N. Vandlli, D. McPherson and G. Zhang, "Characteristics of microfabricated rectangular coax in Ka band," 584bc818096cb.html) Fig. 5, a 10% misalignment of stratum 3 increases the line attenuation by about 300, decreases the characteristic Microwave and Optical Tech. Lett., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 365-368, March 2004. component for [5] J. Reid and R. impedance by 1% and barely affects the cut-off frequency of the first higher order mode. Also shown in the figure Webster, "A 60GHz branch line coupler fabricatedcompsonentforhas using integrated rectangular coaxial is excellent agreement between the full-wave HIFSS and QS SCCM. The results are almost indistinguishable for lines," Proc. IEEE MTT-STe resonator has a Int. Microwave Symp, Fort Worth, TX, June, 2004, pp. 441-444. the ght 100gm wide [6] R. Chen, E. Brown and R. Singh, "A compact 30GHz low loss -r) by 0.7mm. balanced 1395 characteristic impedance whereas there is a slight discrepancy for the attenuation constant. 104-- IM4 DtiV hybrid coupler fabricated using micromachined citive gaps. The integrated coax," Proc. IEEE Radio Wireless. *0 100 %®* S8 complete metal deposition can produce dangerous stress levels on the wafer, it is a risk worth Conf:, pp. 227-230, heformulaeused Sept. 2004.he formulae used [7] J. Reid and R. Webster, "A compact undertaking particularly in light of the reduced cross-talk between neighboring lines. The measured isolation and integrated V-band bandpass Iso shown is a filter," Proc. 2004 IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., Monteray, CA, July standard deviation (a) for several test structures are given in Table I. TABLE I MEASURED ISOLATION FOR TWO [IEEE IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium stracted from the 2004, pp. 990-993. ;iven in Fig. 6. [8] D. Sherrer and J. Fisher, "Coaxial waveguide Digest - Long Beach, CA, USA (13-15 June 1989)] IEEE ADJACENT PARALLEL LINES. f [GHz] |S311 [dB] |o(IS3I1) S411 [dB] o(5S411) 24 63.0 0.83 65.2 0.53 26 62.5 microstructures and the method of formation thereof," U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2004/0 263 MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest - New 0.89 62.5 1.09 28 62.7 0.57 60.9 0.80 0 6 Fig. 5. Predicted effects ofmisaligned stratum 3 on the performance of 290A1, Dec. 30, 2004. [9] T. Driscoll and L. Trefethen, Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping, and components (/documents/ieee-ieee-mtt-s-international-microwaveuniaxial-ferrite millimeter-wave junction circulators the RCL (lower left drawing in Fig. 4). The attenuation constant ao0, characteristic impedance Z,o and higher Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. microfabrication his paper. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is funded by symposium-digest-long-beach-ca-584c1b0e33110.html) order cut-offfo of an ideal line are 0.161dB/cm at 26GHz, 50Q, and 467.5GHz, respectively. The measured DARPA-MTO under the 3D Micro- Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Systems (3D-MERFS) 150 31 100 r 50-.. attenuation of a 50Q line is compared with simulations in Fig. 6 showing a loss of 0.22dB/cm at 26GHz. The PFE ,5 a3 0 -50 150o measurements are calibrated using external short-open-load-thru (SOLT) calibration. Shown in the same figure is [IEEE IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005. - Long Beach, CA, the line loss at 25GHz as de-embedded from the t-coaxial transmission line (TRL) resonator measurements USA (12-17 June 2005)] IEEE MTT-S discussed in the next section. CFEK -0.05 -0.1 0 *F -0.15 & -0.2 -0.25 Simulated ---- Measured 0 Measured: TRL Please download to view (/documents/ieee-ieee-mtt-s-internationalInternational Microwave Symposium Digest, Res 5 10 15 20 Frequency in GHz 25 30 Fig. 6. Measured and computed transmission of a 1cm long line. The 2005. - LTCC compatible ferroelectric phase microwave-symposium-digest-2005-long-beachinset is a sketch of the launch cross-section. Shown in Fig. 7 is the computed isolation between two lines with a shifters 584b4559b2431.html) center-to-center separation of 700gm. The computational model is depicted in the same figure. It was determined that the main coupling mechanism of a non-metalized layer 1 structure is through the launch opening, and that View more (https://docslide.net/search/? special care must be exercised for the mitigation thereof. Specifically, the coupling can increase by almost 20dB if q=%5BIEEE+2006+IEEE+MTTlayer 1 is not metalized. While co 7d -10 20 22 24 2 _RO"hd n _H 28 30 Fig. 7. Simulated return loss and crossS+International+Microwave+Symposium+Digest+coupling for the structure shown in the inset. The wafer layout around the 4-port test structure is modeled exactly +San+Francisco%2C+CA+%282006.06.11as fabricated. Denoted are structure's ports, gold foil traces (Au), copper traces (Cu) and non-metallized silicon 2006.06.16%29%5D+2006+IEEE+MTTwafer (Si). IV. RECTA-COAX COMPONENTS Several passive components, including branch-line hybrids, cavity S+International+Microwave+Symposium+Digest+backed patch antennas, as well as cavity and transmission line resonators are fabricated on the same wafer. Here +Modeling%2C+Design%2C+Fabrication%2C+and+Performance+of+Rectangular+%CE%BCCoaxial+Lines+and+Components) we show results for a hybrid and a transmission line resonator. A. Branch-Line Hybrid t-coaxial branch-line hybrids have been demonstrated using a different fabrication technique with nickel as the structural metal and with the short metallic posts supporting the inner conductor [6,7]. Here, we followed a standard branch-line hybrid design procedure in a copper-air-polymer based RCL configuration described in previous sections. Special care was exercised in studying the effects of the release holes and dielectric support. It was found that they have a small effect on amplitude and phase balance. Measured and predicted amplitude and phase of transmission through the direct and coupled ports are shown in Fig. 8 and 9, respectively. At the design frequency of 26GHz, the measured amplitude misbalance is 0.1dB (S31=-3.35dB, IS211=-3.25dB). 1396 program. The authors acknowledge Mr. E. Adler and Mr. R. Polcawich from ARL for useful discussions on the topic. 4[ 0 ..-t 4g t 1 p. ..~ Af r Q=6 *i A 344 a LatlLh Gap Rdekag ho6l o e. I_ IW 20 Fig. 8. Measured (dots) NEWLETTER and simulated (solid) coupling to through and coupled ports. Shown in the inset is an SEM of the fabricated hybrid.

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