IEEE Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size (V3) - ijsrst

Loading...
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology Print ISSN: 2395-6011 Online ISSN : 2395-602X

Volume 1, Issue 5, November-December-2015 International Peer Reviewed, Open Access Journal Bimonthly Publication

Published By Technoscience Academy (The International Open Access Publisher)

Email: [email protected] Website: www.technoscienceacademy.com

Advisory/Editorial Board Dr. Manish Shorey, Bangalore, Karnataka Dr. M. K. Rameshaiah, Bangalore, Karnataka Dr. V. S. Majumdar, Pune, Maharashtra Prof. Shardul Agravat, Surendranagar, Gujarat, India Dr. Sundeep Sinha, Delhi, Gujarat, India Dr. Ashish Sharma, Delhi, Gujarat, India Prof. Vaishali Kalaria, RKU, Rajkot, Gujarat, India Prof. H. B. Jethva, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Prof. Bakul Panchal, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Prof. Bhavesh Prajapati, Government MCA College Maninagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Prof. Amod Pandurang Shrotri, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India Prof. Sunil Kulkarni, Datta Meghe College of Engg. Airoli,Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Prof. Atishey Mittal, S.R.M. University, NCR Campus, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Dr. Syed Umar, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, KL University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India Dr. S. Ahmed John, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli, India Prof. S. Jagadeesan, Nandha Engineering College Erode, Tamil Nadu, India Dr. Faisal Talib, IIT Roorkee(PhD), Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India Prof. Joshi Rahul Prakashchandra, Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology, Vadodara, Gujarat, India Dr. Aftab Alam Tyagi, Department of Mathematics, SRM University NCR Campus, Uttar Pradesh, India

Dr. Sudhir Kumar, Department of Mathematics, S.D. (P.G.) College, Uttar Pradesh, India Dr. Rimple Pundir, Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India Prof (Dr.) Umesh Kumar, Dept of Science & Technology, Govt. Women’s Polytechnic, Ranchi,Jharkhand,India Abhishek Shukla, R. D. Engineering College Technical Campus, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Dr. Balram Panigrahi, Soil & Water Conservation Engineering, College of Agricultural Engg. & Techn. Orissa University Of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubanmeswar, Odisha, India Dr. Anant Lalchand Chaudhari, Department of Electronics, Arts, Science & Commerce College, Chopda, Jalgaon, Maharashtra India Dr. V. Ananthaswamy, Department of Mathematics, The Madura College (Autonomous), Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India Dr. Arvind Bijalwan, Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) (Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India) Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Dr. Aditya Kishore Dash, Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research (ITER), SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Dr. Subha Ganguly, Department of Veterinary Microbiology Arawali Veterinary College, Bajor, Rajasthan, India Dr. Shivakumar Singh, MVS Govt UG & PG College, Palamuru University, Mahabubnagr, Telangana, India Md Irfan Ahmed, Power System, Sityog Institute Of Technology Aurangabad, Bihar, India A. Dinesh Kumar, Mathematics, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu, India Shyam Lal Sharma, Mechanical Engineering, Department, AFSET, Al Falah University, Dhauj, Faridabad, India Prof (Dr.) Hardeep Singh, Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, Indo Global College of Engineering, Abhipur, District Mohali, Punjab, India S. R. Boselin Prabhu, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

N. R. Shingala, Department of Mechanical Engineering, VVP Engineering College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India R. G. Vaghela, Mechanical Engineering, Atmiya Institute of Technology & Science, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

International Advisory/Editorial Board Prof. Sundeep Singh, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Dr. Joseph Easton, Boston, USA Dr. M. Chithirai Pon Selvan, Mechanical Engineering, Amity University, Dubai Dr. Md. Abdullah Al Humayun, School of Electrical Systems Engineering, University Malaysia, Perlis, Malaysia Dr. V. Balaji, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Lusekelo Kibona, Department of Computer Science, Ruaha Catholic University (RUCU) , Iringa, Tanzania Dr. Mohamed Abdel Fattah Ashabrawy, Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt Dr. Abul Salam, UAE University, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, UAE Ayisi Larbi Christian, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai China Md. Amir Hossain, IBAIS University/Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh Dr. Amer Taqa, Department of Dental Basic Science College of Dentistry, Mosul University, Iraq Prof. Dr. H. M. Srivastava, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada AJENIKOKO Ganiyu Adedayo, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

Atanda Saburi Abimbola, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Yaba Lagos Nigeria, Nigeria Dr. A. Heidari, Ph.D., D.Sc., Faculty of Chemistry, California South University (CSU), Irvine, California, USA Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research,Crops Research Administration, Sugar Beet Department, Baramqa, Damascus, Syria Md. Kamrul Hasan, English Language Institute, United International University Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia Dr. Eng. Ramzi R .Barwari, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University - Hawler (SUH), Erbil - Kurdistan, Iraq Kerorsa, Lubo Teferi [Environmental Law and Governance], Seoul National University; Family Dormitory. Seoul, South Korea Dr. C. Viswanatha, Department of Chemistry, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Tsunatu Danlami Yavini, Chemistry Department, Faculty Of Science, Taraba State University, Jalingo , Taraba State, Nigeria Bello Alhaji Buhari , Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Department of Mathematics, Computer Science Unit, Sokoto, Nigeria Ramzi Raphael Ibraheem AL Barwari, ANKAWA - ERBIL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University - Hawler (SUH), Erbil - Kurdistan Innocent E. Bello, National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Abuja, Nigeria Ang Kean Hua,Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environment Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

CONTENTS Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Article/Paper OPIOID Pharmacology : A Review Vivek Sharma, Sunil Dutt, Rahul Kumar, Pankaj Sharma, Athar Javed, Rajender Guleria A Review paper on Viral Mobile Communications System Dr. Deepak Singh Yadav, Rajesh Kumar Pandey Perfectly g*b-Continuous Functions S. Bharathi Ultrasonic Velocity in Potassium Sodium Tantalate Mixed System Manish Uniyal, S. C. Bhatt Assessment of Shoreline Dynamics at Bonny Island, Nigeria using Geospatial Techniques Brown Joshua, Adekunle I. A Comparison of L-moments of Probability Distributions for Extreme Value Analysis of Rainfall for Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge for Ungauged Catchments N. Vivekanandan Students' Perception to Psychological Counselling Services at Omdurman Islamic University in Khartoum State-Sudan Eldood Yousif Eldood Ahmed, Husain Abdallah Ahmed, Eman Elkheir Awad Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor Based on Pulse Width Modulation using Microcontroller Ayman Y. Yousef, M. H. Mostafa A Review on Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process of Steel Vikash, Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, Ritesh Sharma, Shailendra Bohidar Roadside Sand Deposits as Toxic Metals' Receptacles along three Major Roads in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria Christian Mathew, K. J. Orie Review of Earth Tube Heat Exchanger Sharda Chauhan, Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, Shailendra Bohidar, Ritesh Sharma Status, Characterization and Conservation Practices of Local Chicken Ecotypes, Ethiopia Addis Getu, Kefyalew Alemayehu, Atnaf Alebie

Page No 01-11 12-16 17-20 21-22 23-34

35-41

42-51

52-60

61-64

65-70

71-74

75-82

13

14

15 16 17 18

19

20

21

22 23 24 25 26

27

Isopropanol Fractionation of Coconut Oil into its Olein and Stearin Fractions Sanjukta Kar, Rajib Ghosh, D. K. Bhattacharyya,Minakshi Ghosh A Review of Membrane Technology for Gas Separation Sanket D. Awasare, G. S. kulkarnib, Prashant P. Patilc, S. M. Chavand, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadine An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology on Secondary School Teachers in Kebbi State, Nigeria Nwoji J. O Effluent Treatment Plant of Sugar Wastewater – A Review Sanket D Awasare, Harshavardhan U Bhosale, NIta P Chavan PEGASIS : Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems Alpesh R. Sankaliya Agricultural Land Suitability Assessment using Fuzzy Logic and Geographic Information System Techniques Atijosan A, Muibi K, Ogunyemi S, Adewoyin J, Badru R, Alaga A, Shaba A Right to Life with Dignity also includes Right to Die with Dignity: - Time To Amend Article 21 of Indian Constitution and Law of Euthenesia Pyali Chatterjee Challenges Facing Secondary School Managers in Strategic Planning in Kenya Ms Annette Wanyonyi, Judah M. Ndiku, John O. Shiundu Investigation of the Optical Properties of Liquid Deposition Cuso4 thin Film Nafie A. Almuslet, Yousif H. Alsheikh Adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ion Removal from Aqueous Solution using Acid Activated Madhuca longifolia Stem M. Elamaran, S. Arivoli, N. Ingarsal, V Marimuthu Research and Studies on Vinegar Production - A Review Sunil Jayant Kulkarni FEM Simulations of Z-axis MEMS Capacitive Energy Harvester using Various Beams Hitesh Kumar Sharma, Jit.Dutta An Investigation of Malaria Predictors Using Logistic Regression Model Abubakar Boyi Dalatu, Mukhtar Garba, Nwoji Jude Oguejiofor Transformation of Palm Oil over H3PO4 / SiO2 Catalysts NÃdia M. Ribeiro Pastura, Eduardo L. G. Filho, Renata B. P. Machado, Cynthia F. Scofield, Lucia R. Raddi de Araújo, Wilma A. Gonzalez

An Approach to Survival Analysis when Frailty is Evident Jude Nwoji Oguejiofor, AbubakarBoyi Dalatu, KabiruYanusa Gorin Dikko

83-88

89-93

94-101 102-107 108-112 113-118

119-123

124-131

132-136

137-145 146-148 149-152 153-157 158-162

163-169

28

29 30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

A Review of False Smut Disease in Rice Ali Sattari, H-Nohtani, HO-Nasirpour, M-Ghadami, MO-Madahinasab, KMoradi, Mo-Noorozi Brown Spot Resistance in Rice : A Review Ali Sattari, H Nohtani, Na Azhdarpoor, M Ghadami, MO Madahinasab, K Moradi, Mo Noorozi Role of biotechnology in cancer control Mahin Ghorbani, Hamed Karimi Development of Guava Probiotic Dairy Beverages : Application of Mathematical Modelling between Consumer Acceptance Degree and Whey Ratio Hamad M. N. F., M. K. El-Nemr Economic Evaluation of Selexol – Based CO2 Capture Process for a Cement Plant Using Post – Combustion Technology Tsunatu D. Yavini, Mohammed-Dabo I. Ali, Waziri S. Muhammad 3D Cartographic Model And Animation of As-built Educational Landuse of UNIBEN, Nigeria Innocent E. Bello, ISI A. Ikhuoria Sensitivity of Initial Abstraction Coefficient on Prediction of RainfallRunoff for Various Land Cover Classes of 'Ton Watershed' Using Remote Sensing & GIS Based 'Rinspe' Model Narasayya Kamuju A Review of on the Spikelet Number in Rice Ali Sattari, ZA-Jahantigh Haghighi, HO-Nohtani, MO-Noorozi, AbNokhbeh Zaeim, K-Moradi, Na-Mirzaie Amirabad Blast Disease in Rice: A Review Farshad Karamian, AM-Heydari Nezhad, Ab-Nokhbeh Zaeim, K-Moradi, AH-Drakhshan A Review for Rice Sheath Blight Disease Abdolreza Nokhbeh Zaeim, Na-Mirzaie Amirabad, Ah-Drakhshan, MoNoorozi, K-Moradi Temperature Dependence of Polarizability in Sodium Potassium Tantalate Mixed Ceramic System Manish Uniyal, H. K. Semwal, S. C. Bhatt Farmer's perception of sustainable alternatives to the use of chemical fertilizers to enhance crop yield in Bauchi state Nigeria Gizaki L. J., Alege A. A., Iwuchukwu J. C.

170-174

175-179 180-185

186-193

194-203

204-212

213-221

222-227

228-232

233-237

238-241

242-250

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

OPIOID Pharmacology : A Review Vivek Sharma*, Sunil Dutt, Rahul Kumar, Pankaj Sharma, Athar Javed, Rajender Guleria Department of Pharmacology, Government College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Pain is an unpleasant sensation that originates from ongoing or impending tissue damage. Management of different types of pain (acute, postoperative, inflammatory, neuropathic cancer) is challenging and yet the most frequent issue encountered by clinicians. Pharmacological therapy is the first line of approach for the treatment of pain and opioid drugs are prescribed for acute and chronic pain of moderate/severe intensity arising from malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The opium poppy was cultivated as early as 3400BC in Mesopotamia. The term opium refers to a mixture of alkaloids from the poppy seed. Opiates are naturally occurring alkaloids such as morphine or codeine and opioid is the term used broadly to describe all compounds that work at the opioid receptors. The physiologic modulation of noxious stimuli involves a highly complex system that integrates the actions of multiple opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides. Opioids produce their actions at a cellular level by activating opioid receptors. These receptors are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) with high concentrations in the nuclei of tractus solitarius, peri-aqueductal grey area (PAG), cerebral cortex, thalamus and substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. They have also been found on peripheral afferent nerve terminals and many other organs. The efficacy of centrally applied opioids is well recognized, but when applied peripherally, for example in posttraumatic and inflammatory states, their actions are less reliable. Although they are associated with addiction, dependence, tolerance and abuse liability even then their place in pain management remains undebatable and unchallenged. Keywords: Endorphins, Morphine, Opioids, Pain

I. INTRODUCTION Pain transcends the boundaries of all medical specialties and impacts almost everyone at some stage of their life. Every second patient in most hospitals suffers from pain and every third patient complains of severe pain [1]. Since pain has a tremendous impact on the patient‟s physical and psychological well-being [2], inadequate pain therapy can greatly increase healthcare costs. The International Association for the Study of Pain has called unrelieved pain “a major global healthcare problem” [3]. Adequate pain therapy improves the patient's performance of daily activities, minimise sufferings, promote recovery and earlier discharge from hospital. Providing a rapid and effective pain relief without compromising the patient‟s general condition has remained a challenge for physicians till date. World

Health Organization (WHO) has designed a pain ladder (originally established for cancer pain) that has been used successfully in many diseases. According to this model, different classes of analgesic drugs are recommended based on the intensity of pain. At the first level, patients with mild pain (1-4 on a 10 point scale) are recommended to use non-opioids such as acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or a cox-II inhibitor. At the second level, a weak opioid such as codeine and Tramadol (TRA) should be added for treatment of patients with moderate (5-6) pain. At the third level, the weak opioid is changed to a strong opioid such as morphine. This regimen clearly states that opoids are integral and indispensable part of pain management system. Severe inflammatory pain respond better to NSAIDs than an opioid while opioids are effective for nociceptive pain. Nociceptive pain commonly arise from tissue injury or inflammation, for example trauma, burns, infection, arthritis and ischemia.

IJSRST151514 |Received: 03 November 2015 |Accepted: 11 November 2015 | November-December-2015 [(1)5: 01-11]

1

Neuropathic pain is less responsive to opioids and requires the use of adjuvant medications like tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants (gabapentin). Neuropathic pain occurs after damage to peripheral and central nervous system. Diabetic neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia and post-traumatic neuralgia are some examples. The term opiate refers to compounds structurally related to products found in opium, a word derived from opos, the Greek word for "juice". Opiate is used to describe alkaloid molecules that include morphine and codeine. While the term opioid refers to compounds having functional properties like opiates; the opioid category includes not only the opiates but also semi-synthetic non-alkaloids and even endogenous peptides. The first undisputed reference to "poppy juice" is found in the writings of Theophrastus in the third century B.C. Opium is obtained from the unripe seed capsules of the poppy plant, Papaver somniferum. The milky juice is dried and powdered to make powdered opium, which contains a number of alkaloids. Opioids can be categorized into three subgroups; 1) naturally occurring compounds (termed opiates) such as morphine and codeine) chemically modified natural compounds (semisynthetic) such as hydrocodone, buprenorphine and oxycodone) and completely artificial compounds (synthetic) such as fentanyl, tramadol and ketobemidone. Some opioids act as agonists to all kind of opioid receptors (morphine) and some act as both agonist and antagonist (buprenorphine). Morphine (the prototypical MOP-r agonist) is the main active alkaloid in opium, whereas the baine can be used as a starting point for production of semisynthetic MOP-r(mu opioid receptor) ligands Opium has been used for thousands of years, and its clinical value cannot be overstated. Although mild to moderate pain is typically treated with acetaminophen or aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but the mainstay of pain management for severe pain remains the opiates. Their effects on pain are quite intriguing. Unlike local anesthetics that relieve pain by blocking all sensory transmission, opiates selectively modulate the perception of pain without interfering with basic senstions, such as light, touch, temperature, position sense and discrimination of sharp and dull. The opioids target the subjective component of

pain, an integrated sensation and it is common for a patient to remark after taking an opiate that “the pain is still there, but it does not hurt.”[4]. The initial pharmacologic studies of opiates focused on the general effects of morphine in humans[5] which was isolated from opium in 1805 [6] and first sold by Merck in 1827, with its popularity increasing with the developmentof the hypodermic needle in 1857. Its synthesis was delayed by its complex ring structure until 1956[7]. Opioids were first used for their actions on gastrointestinal motility, as they decrease propulsive peristaltic contractions, while increasing circular muscle tone and intraluminal pressure[8]. Morphine and its derivates are used today for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is now understood that morphine and other opioid drugs act on an endogenous opioidergic system, which is not only involved in setting pain (nociceptive) threshold and controlling nociceptive processing but also participates in modulation of gastrointestinal, endocrine and autonomic function, as well as a possible role in cognition [9]. The modern era of opioid research came with the demonstration of opioid receptors in 1973 [10,11] using binding assays based upon stereo selectivity [12]. Althogh opioids are effective pain-relieving drugs, however they are associated with side effects and fortunately most of these are reversible. The most frequently appearing side effects are nausea, vomiting, pruritus and constipation; these also happen to be the most bothersome. Respiratory depression is uncommon at standard analgesic doses, but can however be lifethreatening. Opioids produce analgesia by actions in the CNS. They activate pain-inhibitory neurons and directly inhibit pain-transmission neurons. The pharmacology of the opioids is quite similar. They differ mainly in potency, duration of action and optimal route of administration.

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL A. Opioid Receptors The opioids were among the earliest neuropeptides identified in the nervous system [13]. Opioid receptors are most abundant in the CNS [14], but have also been localized in many peripheral tissues of the mammalian organism [15] Opioid receptors are a group of G protein-

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

2

coupled receptors (GPCR). Each receptor consists of an extracellular N-terminus, seven transmembrane helices, three extra- and intracellular loops, and an intracellular C-terminus characteristic of the GPCRs. The opioid receptor types are approximately 70% identical with differences located at N and C termini. The greatest diversity is found in their extracellular loops.

bind to μ receptor with lower affinity [17].Two subtypes of μ receptors have been proposed: μ 1 : Has higher affinity for morphine, mediates supraspinal analgesia and is selectively blocked by naloxone.

μ 2 : Has lower affinity for morphine, mediates spinal Three major type of opioid receptor have been identified, analgesia, respiratory depression and constipating action mu (μ), delta (δ) and kappa (κ). The G-protein coupled [18]. opiate receptor-like protein (ORL1 or NOP) was included to other members of the opioid receptor family, Mu (μ) (agonist morphine) Mu receptors are found based on its structural homology (48-49% identity) to primarily in the brainstem and medial thalamus. Mu the other opioid receptors. μ-opioid receptor was receptors are responsible for supraspinal analgesia, identified in binding assays in 1973 and was cloned respiratory depression, euphoria, sedation, decreased about 20 years later. Other opioid receptors have also gastrointestinal motility and physical dependence. Mu1 been proposed, such as zeta (δ) opioid receptor, which is related to analgesia, euphoria, and serenity, while has been shown to be a cellular growth factor modulator Mu2 is related to respiratory depression, pruritus, and epsilon (ε) opioid receptor. However, efforts to prolactin release, dependence, anorexia, and sedation. locate a gene for ε- receptor have been unsuccessful and These are also called OP3 or MOR (morphine opioid epsilon-mediated effects were absent in μ/δ/ κ. It has receptors) [19]. been suggested that μ-, δ- and κ- receptors have several subtypes, μ1-3, delta1-2 and κ- 1-3. It has also been Activation of the mu opioid receptor (mu is named for postulated that μ-1 receptors produce analgesia while μ- morphine) results in: inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, 2 mediates respiratory depression. The function of the μ- closure of voltage-gated calcium channels, opening of 3 receptor is unknown. The existence of opioid receptor potassium channels and membrane hyperpolarisation subtypes has not been confirmed in either cloning (Ben Snyder, 2014). These cellular events can inhibit studies or experiments with knock out animals. neuronal firing and neurotransmitter release. All of the opioid analgesics act as agonists at the μ receptor. Mu Physiological roles for each of the opioid receptors have activation inhibits the ascending pain pathway, which not been clearly defined. Pain relief effects are mediated includes neurons passing through the dorsal horn of the by all three receptor types, but in different degree. μ- spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus and cortex. Mu agonists Receptor mediates the most potentant nociceptive effects, also activate the inhibitory descending pain pathway, accompanied however by the development of which involves sites in the brainstem. Peripheral mu dependence. δ-Receptor has lower efficacy in mediating receptors located at the site of tissue injury and pain relief but also a reduced addictive potential. κ- inflammation may also mediate analgesia (Inturissi Receptor mediates analgesic effects in peripheral tissues CE2002).Mu receptor agonism is responsible for the [15]. The nociceptinopioid receptor (NOP receptor), is euphoria associated with opioids. This effect is distinct phylogenetically related to δreceptor, μ receptor, and κ from the pain pathways and depends on the mesolimbic receptor, it does not bind the same ligands [16]. dopaminergic system [20]. μ Receptor: The receptor is characterized by its high affinity for Morphine. It is the major receptor mediating action of morphine and its congeners. Endogenous ligands for μ receptor are Endomorphins-1 and Endomorphin-2, found in mammalian brain, produce biological effects ascribed to this receptor. Other opioid peptides like -endorphins, Enkephalins and Dynorphins

Kappa (k) Receptor: is defined by its high affinity for ketocyclazocine and Dynorphin A. Norbinaltorphimine is a selective -antagonist.Two subtypes of receptors K1 and K3 are functionally important. Analgesia caused by agonist is primarily spinal (K1) or supraspinal ( K3) [17]. Kappa receptors are found in the limbic and other diencephalic areas, brain stem, and spinal cord, and are responsible for spinal analgesia, sedation, dyspnea,

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

3

dependence, dysphoria, and respiratory depression. These are also known as OP2 or KOR (kappa opioid receptors).

phosphorylation. The MAP-kinase pathways were initially discovered to be drivenby growth factors but were also found to be involved in cross-talk between GPCR and growthfactor signaling [21]. ERKs Delta (d) (agonist delta-alanine-delta-leucine-enkephalin) (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) one of the major Delta receptors are located largely in the brain and their MAPKs,plays a central role in regulation of cellular effects are not well studied. They may be responsible for processes as proliferation, differentiation and cell-cell psychomimetic and dysphoric effects. They are also communication [22]. called OP1 and DOR (delta opioid receptors). Opioids also modulate pain perception by acting throgh Sigma (s) (agonist N-allylnormetazocine) Sigma recep- AKT or protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathway. The tors are responsible for psychomimetic effects, dys- best known effect of activated AKT is inhibition of phoria, and stress-induced depression. They are nolonger apoptosis, programmed cell death and activation of considered opioid receptors, but rather the target sites protein syntheses. AKT is activated via a protein kinase for phencyclidine (PCP) and its analogs [19]. called PI3-kinase (PI3K) that in turn is activated by the G βγ subunits of GPCR [23,24]. PI3K can also activate ERK. Opioid receptor signaling has been associated with B. Transduction Pathways both cell proliferation and cell death in various cells The signaling pathways of opioid receptors well expressing opioid receptors [25]. understood and characterized now. The conformation changes of receptor occur when ligand binds to the It has been suggested that binding of opioid ligands receptor that replaces GDP bound to G α-subunit by triggers the same signaling pathways as in neuronal cells, GTP. The activated Gα dissociates from trimeric G- in other words modulation of cAMP, Ca2+ channels and protein complex and inhibits the adenylyl cyclase and kinases.Stimulation of opioid receptors on leucocytes thereby inhibits the formation of cAMP, which modulates proliferation, chemotaxis and cytotoxicity of subsequently activates the ion channels in the membrane. leucocytes[26,27]. Ion channels can also be regulated by direct interaction with G βγ subunits. Activation of Ca2+ channel, Within the central nervous system, activation of MOP suppresses Ca2+ influx, and thereby attenuates the receptors in the midbrain is thought to be a major excitability of neurons and/or reduces neurotransmitter mechanism of opioid-induced analgesia. Here, MOP release such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related agonists act by indirectly stimulating descending peptide (CGRP) (pro-nociceptive and pro-inflammatory inhibitory pathways which act upon the periaqueductal neuropeptides). At the postsynaptic membrane, opioid grey(PAG) and nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis receptors mediate hyperpolarization by opening G (NRPG) with the net effect of an activation of descendprotein-coupled K+ channels thereby preventing ing inhibitory neurons. This leads to greater neuronal neuronal excitation. traffic through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), Opioid receptors located on the presynaptic terminals of the nociceptive C-fibers and A delta fibers, when activated by an opioid agonist, will indirectly inhibit these voltage dependent calcium channels, decreasing cAMP levels and blocking the release of pain neurotransmitters such as glutamate, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from the nociceptive fibers, resulting in analgesia [19]. Opiods also modulate protein kinases. The MAP kinases signaling system comprises a series of hierarchical kinases that transduce signals through successive

increasing stimulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and enkephalin-containing neurons which connect directly with the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn. This in turn results in a reduction of nociceptive transmission from the periphery to the thalamus. Exogenous and endogenous opioids can also exert a direct inhibitory effect upon the substantia gelatinosa (in the dorsal horn) and peripheral nociceptive afferent neurones, reducing nociceptive transmission from the periphery. This series of cellular events and mechanisms produces much of the analgesic effect commonly seen following the administration of MOP agonists [28].

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

4

C. Endogenous Neurotransmitters Morphine and its alkaloid derivatives are used extensively in the treatment of pain [29]. These compounds are the most potent class of analgesics used clinically. The high potency and specificity of morphine suggest that it may bind to specific receptors in the nervous system to induce its biological effects. In the early 1970s, several groups of researchers identified specific opioid receptors in brain and peripheral tissues [30]. While these receptors were highly sensitive tomorphine, morphine is not endogenously expressed in the body and therefore could not be the endogenous ligand for these receptors.This led to the search for the endogenous neurotransmitters at the opiate receptors. The endogenous ligands for the opioid receptors are the enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins, encoded by separate genes. These pentapeptides vary in their affinity for the opioid receptor, but none binds exclusively to one type. A new class of highly selective u selective endogenous peptide the endomorphines has recently been described. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are tetrapeptides structurally unrelated to the other endogenous opioid peptides. Their distribution in the central nervous system mirrors that of the mu -opioid receptors and they display extremely high affinity and selectivity for the u receptor. Their affinity for receptor binding sites is more than 1000-fold greater than for delta or kappa receptors and they are thought to be the endog-enous ligands for the u receptor [31,32]. Both the enkephalins and dynorphins are neurotransmitters in the brain involved in pain perception, cognitive functions, affective behaviors and locomotion, and they are involved in the central control of certain endocrine functions such as water balance [33]. Both peptides are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) but localized to discrete neuronal pathways [34]. Betaendorphin is expressed at much lower levels in the brain and only synthesized in a few neuronal pathways in the CNS, in particular in those originating from hypothalamic nuclei. As a result, the enkephalins and dynorphins are considered the predominant central opioid peptide transmitters. Endorphins: Endorphins are endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during strenuous exercise [Partin1983], excitement, pain

and orgasm and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. Endorphins work as “natural pain relievers.” They can be found in more than twenty different parts in the body, such as the pituitary glands as well as in many parts of the brain and nervous system [35, 36]. The term "endorphin" implies a pharmacological activity as opposed to a specific chemical formulation. The term endorphin is a general name for many opioid-like proteins. (It consists of two parts: endo and orphin; these are short forms of the words endogenous metersorphine which means "a morphine-like substance which is produced by the human body") [37]. Types of Endorphins: Four types of endorphins are created in the human body. They are named alpha , beta, gamma and sigma endorphins[38].The four types have different numbers and types of amino acids in their molecules; they have between 16 and 31 amino acids in each molecule. More endorphins are released in the pituitary gland during times of pain or stress. Exercise increases the endorphin release too. For the same reason, exercise results in a better mood. Endorphins are the most powerful endogenous opioid peptide neurotransmitters and are found in the neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system. They are present abundantly in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. They are released when the body encounters any sort of stress or pain. During severe pain the endorphins in our body cause an analgesic effect to occur, to lessen the pain that is inflicting our body. But during stress, endorphins act differently. They are released in the limbic system which reduces the extent of anxiety that our body is feeling. Not only does the opiate cause the pain to decrease it also causes the feelings of euphoria to occur as well as the release of many sex hormones [Koltyn2000]. Endorphins act through opiate receptors. endorphinshave the highest affinity for the μ 1-opioid receptor, slightly lower affinity for the μ 2 and -opioid receptors and low affinity for the 1 opioid receptors. Enkephalins: Enkephalins are pentapeptides involved in regulating nociception in the body. Discovered in 1975, two forms of enkephalin were revealed, one containing leucine ("leu") and the other containing methionine ("met"). Both are products of the proenkephalin gene [39].

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

5

Dynorphins Dynorphins are produced in many different parts of the brain, including hypothalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, medulla, pons and the spinal cord and has many different physiological actions, depending upon their site of production. For example, dynorphins that are made in magnocellular vasopressin neurons of the supraoptic nucleus are important in the patterning of electrical activity. Dynorphins produced in magnocellular oxytocin neurons cause negative feedback inhibition of oxytocin secretion. Dynorphin produced in the arcuate nucleus and in orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus affects the control of appetite. Dynorphins are stored in large (80-120 nm diameter) dense-core vesicles that are considerably larger than vesicles storing neurotransmitters. These large dense-core vesicles differ from small synaptic vesicles in that a more intense and prolonged stimulus is needed to cause the large vesicles to release their contents into the synaptic cleft. Densecore vesicle storage is characteristic of opioid peptides storage [40]. Dynorphins primarily exert their effects through the opioid receptor and act as modulators of pain response, maintain homeostasis through appetite control and circadian rhythm, weight control and regulation of body temperature [18]. Beta-endorphin and the enkephalins have relatively high affinity at mu and delta receptors and much lower at kappa. The dynorphins, by contrast, have relative selectivity for kappa receptors over the mu and delta. These receptors mediate a complex, partially overlapping array of physiologic and neurobio-logic functions [41]. Beta-endorphin is a product of proopiomelanocort in which is produced primarily in the anterior pituitary of humans. It is also produced in the central nervous system and in the periphery. The mu receptors mediate both the analgesic and rewarding effects of opioid compounds (be they heroin or prescription opioids) as well astheir effects on many systems in the body, such as in thehypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, immune, gas-trointestinal (GI), and pulmonary function.

D. OPIOID Receptor Ligands Two types of ligands at opioid receptors can be differentiated in view of their chemical structure: alkaloids and peptides. 1. Alkaloids The original opiates, morphine and codeine were isolated from opium. Their structures provided the scaffolds upon which many of the current mu opiates are based. Thebaine, another major component of opium, is a valuable precursor in the synthesis of many of these derivatives. Agonists. The first known opiate alkaloid was morphine, isolated from the poppy seeds in 1803 by Seturner. The structure of morphine was elucidated 120 years later [42], and its full systematic name is: 7, 8 – didehydro -4 , 5 – epoxy – 17 - methyl - ( 5α , 6α ) – morphinan - 3, 6 diol. Morphine and other opiates are widely used in clinical practice for blockade of most severe pain syndromes or for anesthetic purposes. Morphine is primarily an agonist ligand for the μ receptor. Its affinities for δ and κ receptors are sufficiently low that it is used as a selective μ receptor ligand in pharmacological studies [43]. Antagonists. Opioid antagonists most frequently used by pharmacologists are synthetic alkaloids such as naloxone and naltrexone [44]. Naloxone, which was the first pharmacologically pure antagonist identified, is considered to be a “universal”, non-selective opioid antagonist. The action of an agonist is characterized as opioid only if its effects are “naloxone-reversible” [45]. Although naloxone and its analog naltrexone bind to all three opioid receptors, they have the highest affinity for the μ receptor [46]. 2. Peptides Kosterlitz and Hughes were the first to sequence the pent peptide enkephalins[13] which soon expanded into the following three families of peptides, each with its own precursor peptide: preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, and b- lipotropin [47]. The “typical” opioid peptides, including enkephalins, dynorphins and β-endorphin are derived from three precursor molecules; pro-enkephalin, pro-dynorphin and

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

6

pro- opiomelanocortin, all of which are expressed in the CNS, but their presence in peripheral tissues has also been confirmed [48]. The “atypical” opioid peptides originate from the variety of precursor proteins and carry various amino acid sequences at their N-terminal regions, only the Nterminal Tyr residue is conserved [49]. The N-terminal tetrapeptide of most atypical opioid peptides represents the minimum sequence for full opioid activity.

barrier. The two main families of drug transporters of relevance to opioid pharmacokinetics are (i) the ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters [e.g. Pglycoprotein (P-gp)], which restrict the passage and (ii) the solute carrier (SLC) influx transporters which facilitate the passage [57,58]. Distribution

After being absorbed the opioids distribute throughout the body tissue i.e. the site of main action within the The first group of “atypical” opioid peptides, central nervous system (CNS). To reach the CNS identifiedby Brantl et al. [50] in 1979 were milk protein opioids have to cross the blood–brain barrier. Fentanyl, derived β-casomorphins (β-CM), which are obtained by morphine and methadone have been shown to be proteolytic fragmentation of β-casein. Aside from substrates for the P-gp efflux transporters [59,60]. The butorphanol and nalbuphine, all clinically available clinical aspects of fentanyl have been confirmed in a opioids are mu -opioid receptor preferring agents. The k single human study, where an increased respiratory -opioid agonists, butorphanol and nalbuphine, are depression was seen in patients with a decreased P-gp limited by partial agonist activity as well as central side expression. Oxycodone is not a substrate for the P-gp effects, primarily dysphoria, sedation, and hallucinations, efflux transporters, but it is substrate for the SCL influx and arelittle used in the treatment of chronic pain. transporters thus being actively transported into the Oxycodone has only recently been suggested to be a K - brain. Most of the research elucidating the transport of opioid preferring agonist [51] and has not been opioids across the blood–brain barrier has been done in systematically examined in the treatment of chronic pain. rodents and thus caution should be taken when Thus, although there is strong preclinical evidence for extrapolating the findings to humans. However, as for efficacy of k-opioidagonists in chronic pain treatment, the absorption, this may play a role in treatment current agents are inadequate, and novel agents are heterogeneity [58]. underexperimental study in humans [52]. Metabolism Pharmacokinetics of OPOIDS Absorption After absorption most opioids undergo first pass The majority of opioids i.e. morphine, oxycodone, metabolism in the liver and here there are major hydro-morphone, methadone, ketobemidone, tramadol, differences between classes of drugs as well as tapentadol, fentanyl, sufentanil, buprenorphine and individual differences in responses to the same opioid. codeine all show a high gastrointestinal permeability, The chemical class phenylpiperidines are metabolized and thus they are readily and completely absorbed from by CYP3A4. This enzyme has many genetic the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. polymorphisms but until recently none has been shown However, the bioavailability of fentanyl, sufentanil and to be of major clinical relevance. Within the class 4,5buprenorphine is very low and highly variable since epoxymorphinans (which additionally are alkyl esters at these opioids are subjected to high hepatic first pass the 3-phenolic hydroxyl group i.e. codeine, hydrocodone metabolism [J53-55]. As a consequence they are not and oxycodone) drugs are subject to O-dealkylation, available in pharmaceutical formulations intended for catalyzed by CYP2D6 enzymes. Opioids of the 4,5oral administration. Recent research has revealed that epoxymorphinan class are also subject to N-dealkylation. low and variable bioavailability seen after oral This results in nor-derivatives, which bind to the m administration may partly be explained by the receptors, but show lower affinities than the parent substances being substrates for transporters present in compounds. The N-dealkylation is mainly catalyzed by the intestinal epithelium [56]. Drug transporters are CYP3A4[58]. present all over the body in the gastrointestinal tract, in the kidneys, in hepatocytes and at the blood–brain

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

7

Excretion The vast majority of opioids are excreted as metabolites though the kidneys. Thus for substances transformed to pharmacologically active metabolites, decreased kidney function may influence the overall clinical effect due to accumulation of the metabolites and this may explain differences in effects and side effects between opioids. The best described examples of clinically relevant active metabolites are morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine3-glucuronide. As stated above the 6-glucuronide is thought to be an active analgesic like the parent compound, morphine. Although the potency ratio to morphine still remains to be established it plausible that in steady-state conditions and in patients with impaired kidney function it contributes more to analgesia. Results from some studies have suggested the 3-glucuronide possess anti-analgesic and excitatory effects. However results from other studies have failed to prove that. Thus clinical relevance of accumulation of this metabolite in patients with impaired kidney function still remains controversial [61].

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF OPIOID AGONISTS Central Nervous System Analgesia: Most effective in relieving dull, continuous and poorly localised pain arising from deeper structures, for example the gut. Less effective against superficial and sharp pain. Neuropathic pain can be very resistant, but patients may report that pain is still present, but the intensity is decreased and it no longer bothers them as much. Sedation: Drowsiness, feeling of heaviness and difficulty in concentrating are common. Sleep may occur with relief of pain, although they are not true hypnotics. Euphoria and dysphoria: Morphine and other opioids cause a sense of contentment and well-being (euphoria). If there is no pain, morphine may cause restlessness and agitation (dysphoria). Hallucination: These are more common with KOP agonists, but morphine and other MOP agonists may also cause hallucinations.

Tolerance and Dependence: Tolerance is the decrease in effect seen despite maintaining a given concentration of a drug. The mechanism is not fully understood but could involve down regulation of opioid receptors or decreased production of endogenous opioids. Dependence exists when the sudden withdrawnof an opioid, after repeated use over a prolonged period, results in various physical and psychological signs. These include; restlessness, irritability, increased salivation, lacrimation and sweating, muscle cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea. Cardiovascular System: Mild bradycardia is common as a result of decreased sympathetic drive and a direct effect on the sino-atrial (SA) node. Peripheral vasodilatation caused by histamine release and reduced sympathetic drive may result in a slight fall in blood pressure that may be significant in hypovolaemic patients. Respiratory System: Respiratory depression is mediated via MOP receptors at the respiratory centres in the brainstem. Respiratory rate falls more than the tidal volume and the sensitivity of the brain stem to carbon dioxide is reduced. Its response to hypoxia is less affected but if hypoxic stimulus is removed by supplemental oxygen then respiratory depression may be augmented. Concurrent use of other CNS depressants, for example benzodiazepines or halogenated anaesthetic, may cause marked respiratory depression. Opioids suppress cough. Codeine suppresses cough to a degree similar to morphine but has lesser analgesic activity. Morphine and diamorphine are used in paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, as they produce sedation, reduce preload and depresses abnormal respiratory drive. Gastrointestinal System : Stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone causes nausea and vomiting. Smooth muscle tone is increased but motility is decreased resulting in delayed absorption, increased pressure in the biliary system (spasm of sphincter of Oddi) and constipation. Endocrine System: The release of ACTH, prolactin and gonadotrophic hormone is inhibited. Secretion of ADH is increased. Ocular effects: MOP and KOP receptors in EdingerWestphal nucleus of occulomotor nerve are stimulated

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

8

by opioids resulting in constriction of the pupils (meiosis). Histamine release and itching Some opioids cause histamine release from mast cells resulting in urticaria, itching, bronchospasm and hypotension. Itching occurs most often after intrathecal opioids Muscle rigidity Large doses of opioids may occasionally produce generalised muscle rigidity especially of thoracic wall and interfere with ventilation. Immunity: The immune system is depressed after longterm opioid abuse Effects on Pregnancy and Neonates All opioids cross the placenta and if given during labour, can cause neonatal respiratory depression. Chronic use by the mother may cause physical dependence in utero and lead to a withdrawal reaction in the neonate at birth that can be life threatening. There are no known teratogenic effects [62].

IV. CONCLUSION Opioid agonists inhibit adenylyl cyclase (decreasing cyclic AMP production), close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels, and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels. This results in hyperpolarization and a reduction in neuronal excitability. Changesin intracellular Ca2+ influence the release of neuro-transmitters and modulate the activity of protein ki-nases. Opiates are one of the most valuable drugs in medicine. Their ability to alleviate pain and suffering led Thomas Sydenham, an English doctor in the nineteenth century to call them „God‟s own medicine‟. Their use to allevaiate pain dates back thousands of years. Despite their medical effectiveness they are in news for wrong reasons too that include use of these drugs on the street and the potential for addiction that has led to an „opiophobia‟ in clinical medicine. Thus their place althogh is prerequisite, and undebatable yet their precationary use is highly recommended.

V. REFERENCES [1] Strohbuecker B et al. Pain prevalence in hospitalized patients in a Germanuniversity teaching hospital. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005; 29(5):498-506. [2] Yates P et al. The prevalence and perception of pain amongst hospital in-patients. J Clin Nurs 1998; 7(6):521-30.

[3] Goldberg DS and McGee SJ. Pain as a global public health priority. BMC Public Health2011;11: 770. [4] Gavril W P and Ying-Xian Pan. Mu Opioids and Their Receptors: Evolution of a Concept. Pharmacol Rev.2013;65:1257–1317. [5] Martin WR.Opioid antagonists. Pharmacol Rev.1967;19:463–521. [6] Macht DI. The history of opium and some its preparations and alkaloids.JAMA.1915;477–481. [7] Gates M and Tschudi G. The synthesis of morphine. J Am Chem Soc.1956;78: 1380–1393. [8] Reisine T and Pasternak GW. Opioid analgesics and antagonists, in Goodman& Gilman‟s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (Hardman JG and LimbirdLE, eds, ed).1996;521–556, McGraw-Hill, New York. [9] McDonald J, Lambert DG. Opioid receptors; Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain.2005;5(1):22-25 [10] Pert A and Yaksh TL. Sites of morphine induced analgesia in the primatebrain: relation to pain pathways. Brain Res.1974; 80:135–140. [11] Simon EJ, Hiller JM, and Edelman I. Stereospecific binding of the potentnarcotic analgesic ( 3 H) Etorphine to rat-brain homogenate. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA.1973;70:1947–1949. [12] Goldstein A, Lowney LI and Pal BK. Stereospecific and nonspecific inter-actions of the morphine congener levorphanol in subcellular fractions of mousebrain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.1971; 68:1742–1747 [13] Hughes J, Smith TW, Kosterlitz HW et al. Identification of Two RelatedPentapeptides from the Brain with Potent Opiate Agonist Activity.Nature. 1975 ; 258:577-580. [14] Mansour A, Watson SJ. In Handbook of ExperimentalPharmacology 104/1; Herz, A.; Akil, H.; Simon, E.J.; Eds.;Springer: Berlin, 1993;79105. [15] Anna Janecka, Jakub Fichna and Tomasz Janecki. Opioid Receptors and their Ligands. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2004; 4: 1-17 [16] Shang Y, Filizola M. Opioid receptors: Structural and mechanistic insights into pharmacology and signaling. Eur J Pharmacol. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.05.012i

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

9

[17] Tripathi KD. Opioid Analgesics andAntagonists. In Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, 6 th Edition, Jaypee Brothers.2008; 462-464. [18] Koneru A, Sreemantula Satyanarayana and Shaik Rizwan; Endogenous Opioids: Their Physiological Role and Receptors;Global Journal of Pharmacology.2009.3 (3): 149-153. [19] Trescot AM, Sukdeb D, Marion Lee and Hans Hansen. Opioid Pharmacology. Pain Physician. 2008;11: 133-153. [20] Snyder B. Revisiting old friends: update on opioid pharmacology.Aust Prescr. 2014;37:56–60. [21] Miyatake M et al., Inhibition of EGF-induced ERK/MAP kinase-mediated astrocyte proliferation by mu opioids: integration of G protein and betaarrestin 2-dependent pathways. J Neurochem. 2009; 110(2):662-74. [22] Raman M, Chen W and Cobb MH. Differential regulation and properties of MAPKs. Oncogene. 2007;26(22):3100-12. [23] Schwindinger WF et al. Synergistic roles for Gprotein gamma3 and gamma7 subtypes in seizure susceptibility as revealed in double knock-out mice. J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(10):7121-33. [24] Murga C et al. Activation of Akt/protein kinase B by G protein-coupled receptors. Arole for alpha and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins acting through phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinasegamma. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(30):190805. [25] Tegeder I and Geisslinger G.Opioids as modulators of cell death and survival--unraveling mechanisms and revealing new indications. Pharmacol Rev. 2004;56(3):351-69. [26] Sharp BM. Multiple opioid receptors on immune cells modulate intracellular signaling. Brain Behav Immun. 2006; 20(1):9-14. [27] Sacerdote P E et al. Experimental evidence for immunomodulatory effects of opioids. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 521: 106-16. [28] Pathan H and Williams J. Basic opioid pharmacology: an update; British Journal of Pain. 2012; 6(1):11-16. [29] Gilman A, Rall J, Nies A and Taylor P., eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990. [30] Pert C and Snyder SH. Opiate receptor: Demonstration in nervous tissue. Science. 1973;179:1011-1014.

[31] Stone LS, Fairbanks CA, Laughlin TM et al. Spinal analgesicactions of the new endogenous opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and -2. Neuroreport 1997;8:3131–5. [32] Goldberg IE Rossi GC, Letchworth SR, et al. Pharmacologicalcharacterization of endomorphin-1 andendomorphin-2 in mouse brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;286:1007–13. [33] Simon E. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides. Med Res Rev.1991;11:357-374. [34] Khachaturian H, Lewis M and Watson SJ. Enkephalin systems indiencephalon and brainstem ofrat. J Comp Neurol.1983; 220:310-320. [35] Chapman CL and JM De Castro. Running addiction: measurement and associatedpsychological characteristics. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.1990; 30: 283-290. [36] Sprenger T A, BertheleS, Platzer H, Boecker and Tolle TR. What to learn from in vivo opioidergic brain imaging? European Journal of Pain.2005; 9: 117-121 [37] Przew ocki R. Some aspects of physiology andpharmacology of endogenous opioid peptides. Polish J. Pharmacol. Pharmacy.1984; 36(2-3): 13758. [38] Dalayeun JF, Norès JM and Bergal S. Physiology of beta-endorphins. A close-up view and a review of the literature. Biomed Pharmacotherapeutics. 1993; 47(8): 311-20. [39] Comb M, Seeburg PH et al. Primary structure of the human Met-and Leu-enkephalin precursor and its mRNA.Nature.1982; 295: 663-666. [40] Day R C, Lazure A, Basak A et al.Prodynorphin processing by proprotein convertase2. Cleavage at single basic residues and enhanced processing in the presence of carboxypeptidase activity. J. Biol. Chem.1998;273(2): 829-36. [41] Gutstein H, Akil H. Opioid analgesics. In: Brunton L, Lazo L, ParkerK, eds. Goodman & Gilman‟s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics,11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005:547–590. [42] Gulland JM, Robinson R. The Morphine Group. Part I. ADiscussion of the Constitutional Problem. J. Chem. Soc. 1923;123: 980-998. [43] Takemori AE, Portoghese PS. Evidence for the Interaction ofMorphine with Kappa and Delta Opioid Receptors to InduceAnalgesia in Beta-

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

10

[44]

[45] [46]

[47]

[48] [49]

[50]

[51]

[52]

[53] [54]

[55]

[56]

[57]

funaltrexamine-treated Mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987; 243: 91-94. Blumberg H, Dayton HB. Naloxone, Naltrexone, and RelatedNoroxymorphones. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 1973;8:33- 43. Leslie FM. Methods Used for the Study of Opioid Receptors. Pharmacol. Rev. 1987;39:197-249. Magnan J, PatersonSJ et al. TheBinding Spectrum of Narcotic Analgesic Drugs with Different Agonist and Antagonist Properties. Naunyn. Schmiedebergs. Arch. Pharmacol. 1982:319:197205. Berezniuk I and Fricker LD. Endogenous opioids, in The Opiate Receptors(Pasternak GW, ed, ed).2011;93–120, Springer, New York. Hoellt V. Multiple Endogenous Opioid Peptides. Trends in Neuroscience. 1983;6; 24-26. Teschemacher H. In Handbook of experimentalPharmacology 104/1; Herz, A.; Akil, H.; Simon, E.J.; Eds., Springer, Berlin.1993; 499528. Brantl V, Teschemacher H et al. NovelOpioid Peptides Derived From Casein (betaCasomorphins). I.Isolation from Bovine Casein Peptone. Hoppe-Seyler‟s Z. Physiol. Chem. 1979;360;1211-1216. Ross FB and Smith MT. The intrinsic antinociceptive effects of oxycodone appear to be k -opioid receptor mediated. Pain.1997;73:151–157. Thomas JM and James CE. Parmacology of Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics in Chronic Pain States ; JPET.2001; 299:811–817. Joshi GP. Sufentanil for chronic pain management. FutNeurol.2010; 5: 791–6. Strain EC, Walsh SL, Preston KL, Liebson IA, Bigelow GE. The effects of buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintainedvolunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997; 129: 329–38. Poklis A. Fentanyl: a review for clinical and analytical toxicologists. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1995; 33: 439–47. Kharasch ED, Hoffer C, Altuntas TG, Whittington D.Quinidine as a probe for the role of pglycoprotein in theintestinal absorption and clinical effects of fentanyl. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 44: 224–33. Somogyi AA, Barratt DT, Coller JK. Pharmacogenetics ofopioids. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81: 429–44.

[58] Asbjørn MD, Rasmus DJ et al. Differences between opioi s:pharmacological,experimental, clinical and economical perspectives. British Journal of ClinicalPharmacology. 2012;75:1:60– 78. [59] Wandel C, Kim R, Wood M, Wood A. Interaction ofmorphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and loperamide with the efflux drug transporter Pglycoprotein. Anesthesiology. 2002; 96: 913–20. [60] Rodriguez M, Ortega I, Soengas I, Suarez E, Lukas JC,Calvo R. Effect of P-glycoprotein inhibition on methadoneanalgesia and brain distribution in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004; 56: 367–74. [61] Osborne R, Joel S, Grebenik K, Trew D, Slevin M. Thepharmacokinetics of morphine and morphine glucuronides in kidney failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993; 54: 158–67. [62] Dr mahesh trivedi, dr shafee shaikh, dr carl gwinnutt. Pharmacology of opioids – part 1anaesthesia tutorial of the week 64;atotw 64 pharmacology of opioids -part 1 12/08/2007;1-7

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

11

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

A Review paper on Viral Mobile Communications System Dr. Deepak Singh Yadav*, Rajesh Kumar Pandey Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Sachdeva Institute of Technology, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India ABSTRACT In this paper a research has been done to overview the viral mobile communication technology. In the modern era the GSM technology is obsolete and a new concept of viral mobile communication in the form of 3G as well as 4G CDMA in spite of GSM for the point-to-point information transportation when the network is stabilised through the research and analysis in the field of viral mobile communication. Due to this research and analysis a new perception with new conception for a new model of the viral mobile technology will be formed. Keywords: Cross Entropy, Hard handover, Soft Handover, Viral Mobile Communication.

I. INTRODUCTION Along with the development of 3G and 4G mobile communication system, neither TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous code division multiple access) nor WCDMA (Wide Band Code Division Multiple access) and CDMA2000 (is also known as multi-carrier code division multiple access) can satisfy the mobile service provider and mobile subscriber (MS) with their performance [1,2], which will make new standard and technology develop constantly, supporting the system performance more mature and perfect [3]. The theory of viral mobile communication (VMC) will apply itself to solve the problem of point-to-point information transportation of MS in network [4,5,6], trying to make the MS get rid of the participation and support of the upper equipments, more making vast MS achieving point-to-point information transportation and switch[7,8]. This study introduces the viral communication theory into mobile communication system of 3G and 4G and analyses the corresponding performance. This new technique explores the enabling principles wireless communicators and will demonstrate their fundamental ability to scale and automatically configure themselves through a diverse set of applications including live voice, secure transmission, low power/ high-availability signaling, and sensors with a sense of place.

This paper is divided into eight parts. Starting with introduction (Section-I), next section covers the conception of viral mobile communication (Section-II). Moving ahead, viral architecture requirement is discussed (Section-III). After that design principles of viral architecture are discussed (Section-IV), the model of viral mobile communication are discussed (SectionV), the process of MSA soft handover communication are discussed (Section-VI), link capacity equation of the viral mobile communication network are discussed (Section - VII). Finally, conclusions summarize the last section (Section-VIII).

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL A. The Conception of Viral Mobile Communication The definition of viral mobile communication (VMC) is to apply the theory of viral communication to 3G and 4G mobile communication system without direct support of upper equipment, devoting itself to realize point-to-point information transportation and switch of MS. Its characteristics are shown below: a. b. c. d.

Mutual independency Scalability Share resources Rapid reproduction

IJSRST15152 | Received: 30 October 2015 |Accepted: 11 November 2015 | November-December-2015 [(1)5: 12-16]

12

New technologies allow us to make wired and wireless devices that are ad hoc, incrementally installed and populous almost without limit. They need no backbone or infrastructure in order to work as an alternative, they use neighbours to bootstrap both bit delivery and geo location. This re-distributes privileges of communications from a vertically integrated provider to the end-user or end-device and segregates bit delivery from services. Communications can become something you do rather than something you acquire. This is very important issue in economic and social cases that include telephony, media distribution, safety and rising markets.

systems are fairly scalable, many are not viral, because they require a critical mass of adoption before any benefit is achieved [9].

The key idea is communications devices that work with no central backbone and scale almost without bound. They are based on reinterpreting the basic principles of wireless in the glow of efficiently viable digital radios that can expand spectrum capacity even as they use it. This obvious challenge is resolved by real-time RF processing that collaboratively distributes signals and reduces the power required at each node. As with the PC, this fundamental shift in architecture, moves communications intelligence from the core of a network to the ends, and builds upon a viral architecture that enables infinite growth and very much reduced costs of improvement.

Ad hoc network is a decentralized type of wireless network. The network is said to be ad hoc because it does not really pre-existing infrastructure. Scalability of a network is defined as the capability of a process, to handle growing amounts of work in a graceful manner or its ability to be distended to accommodate that growth.

Our study boundary entails conception of infrastructure free, scalable networks that preserve operating power, interoperate with existing systems, adapt to new radio techniques as they appear, and minimize the cost of functional evolution. This is practicable in the near term. We will demonstrate it through sample applications in domains as diverse as sensor nets and personal telephony. Viral communication architecture is one where elements are independent, scalable and where each new element adds capacity to the system, so that it can be adopted incrementally from a small base and gains accelerating value with scale. B. Viral Architecture Requirements We use the term viral architecture to mean a system that is adopted “virally”. Viral adoption refers to a system architecture that can be adopted incrementally, and gains momentum as it scales. The growth behaviour of such a system can be called viral growth. Although many

Figure 1: Basic architecture of viral system

For example, it can refer to the capability of a system to increase total throughput under an increased load when resources (typically hardware) are added. Each new element of a viral architecture must not reduce the capabilities of those that were there before to gain momentum, each new element must create more value from connecting into the system than from operating alone (Fig.1). That is, each adoption is a “win-win” decision the existing elements gain a little more benefit from the new element, and each new element has a stronger value proposition for joining the system. Momentum results from this process, because a reluctant adopter will eventually be attracted to adopt when the scale reaches his cost/benefit trade-off even when the architecture still has small reach. C. Design Principles of Viral Architecture There are two primary design principles that lead to a viral architecture scalability and independence [10]. The first states that viral systems have to be able to grow almost without bound, and the second requires that its elements operate autonomously, without connection to a central authority. In fundamental nature, one should be able to freely add elements and they should work without connection to a backbone. This works for

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

13

automobiles as long as there are sufficient infrastructures, and we will show that it can work for communications and that the roadways are fundamentally infinite.

existing ones. A communications device should work indefinitely no matter what other communicators enter the environment and no matter how the underlying communications technology evolves.

 Scalability

 Independence

From the point of view of a single handed radio receiver, capacity in bits per second is limited primarily by bandwidth of signals coming into its antenna. Signals whose frequencies overlap cannot be easily distinguished, hence the notion of interference. When the bulk of information services were broadcast services and radios where expensive, this view of spectrum made intelligence.

The second criterion for a viral system is independence of operation. While this is almost understood by impression of the manner by which they scale, it is a requirement for decentralized growth. It is dictated by the applications we require independence in order to extend communications to cases for which an account or registration process simply does not apply. But more important, “de-centrality” includes a range of autonomous, distributed devices as diverse as remote However, from the perspective of electromagnetic controls for home entertainment equipment, portable and propagation in space, information capacity is unlimited. wearable health monitoring equipment, things placed in The limit is defined by the processes of detection, not the physical world such as security cameras, burglar the space itself. The technology of the receivers and the alarms, environmental sensors, thermostats, and computational architecture of the radio system, not the consumer equipment such as digital cameras, personal physics of the space, are the limits to communications recorders, and so onward. It is unreasonable to expect capacity. There are a number of methods in common use that a radio-operated TV remote control would require that prove this point. Space division multiplexing, for an account with the local cellular operator or that one example, as used in microwave and satellite links, re- would need permission to download the photo from a uses the spectrum by restricting either the direction of digital camera. Independence results from the use of a emission or requiring directivity in the receiving antenna. collaborative scheme for spectrum use. The principle is License is granted to a place, not a merely a band. The that each participant in a communication has the full fundamental nature of scalable wireless networks is capability of the network. Routing, relaying, and signal cooperation, a generalization of the phased array. regeneration are alive in each device. Sheppard’s packet repeater network design works because each node forwards packets of information on The notion is not radical and is implicit in ad-hoc behalf of each other node. Since the power needed to networks. There, the general definition is that each node reach an adjacent node is reduced by a factor equal or is a router. We likewise include routing in the devices, greater to the square of the distance, the total amount of but we extend that notion to the radio layer itself and use energy used to carry a bit from source to destination is the RF signal itself as a routing control parameter. reduced. And since the energy radiates over a narrower Rather than complicate the design, this allows viral region, the total amount of information that can be elements to literally sneak a signal around corners or simultaneously travelling in the network increases as the through gaps in the local spectral flux. nodes in the network get denser. In effect, each node is a “tower” for all of the nodes that are nearby the “cells” D. The Model of Viral Mobile Communication are defined by who wishes to communicate with whom rather than the topography or zoning requirements of the There are two kinds of call process of MS in CDMA place. mobile communication system: one is hard handover that MS only communicate with one base Secondary concerns are that a viral system be future station(BS),which means the connection of MS and BS proof and adaptable. In automobiles, the presence of is broken off firstly and connected successively. The call either new cars or new routes does not obsolesce process is shown in figure 2(MSC is the mobile switch

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

14

center) ; the other is soft handover that the MS communicate with two or more BSs, which means the connection of MS and BSs is connected firstly and broken off successively. The call process is shown in figure 3; the corresponding zone of two segments of arc is soft handover zone. Reason of handover failure will be minimize if we consider viral mobile communication network the process of information transportation among the MSs is shown in fig 4, In the general communication processes shown in fig 2 and fig 3, MSs carry through corresponding call under certain condition viral mobile communication is needed; the algorithm of the information transportation process is given below [11].

2.

Define BSi and MSi, where i=1, 2, 3, 4;

3. The information transportation between MS1 and MS3 can be completed by MS2 indirectly or can be completed by MS4 indirectly. 4. MS1 may choose not to transport the information to corresponding BS1. 5. MS3 may choose not to transport the information to corresponding BS3. 6. Return to general communication process after the VMC finishes. E. The Process of Msa Soft Handover Communication • • • •

Soft handover is that the MSB and MSC connect to their corresponding BS1 and BS2 separately. Construct corresponding forward and backward link. Soft handover is the MSA connects to BS1 and BS2 together. The soft handover communication link of MSA and MSB shows in this figure based on above assumption.

Figure 2: Hard handover call process

Figure 5: Soft handover call process (MSA) F.

Link Capacity Equation of the Viral Mobile Communication Network

Figure 3: Soft handover call process 1.

Assume that Base Station (BS) is microcell.

The viral mobile communications system is controlled under ideal power; the reverse link equation in every cell can be written as:

W Eb Rbi  Ns 1 I  No  j 0 X j  S  S



Where

Figure 4: Viral Communication Process

N

i 1

Eb is the energy per bit, No is the noise spectral density, W is the CDMA bandwidth, Rbi is the service bit rate, N is the number of services,

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

15

Ns is the users/cell, I is the total interference, S is the desired signal power, ƞ is the background noise, xj is the voice activity factor, In addition assume that the signal-to-noise threshold received by BS is q, q 

S



.

In the viral communication network for each cell, defining the parameter of viral mobile communication network, then the link capacity equation can be resulted from formula.

 iN1

W Rbi

 Eb   vmc  I  N o   ( N svmc  1) X j   S S N svmc  Psho N s Pvmc • In above formula, Psho is the soft handover probability of MS in microcell. • Pvmc is the probability of viral mobile communication for MS in microcell during soft handover.

III. CONCLUSION Finally, I am concluding through deep thinking as this is an under developing technology and hence there is a vast field of expansion in the field of wireless communication. Due to this technology the fundamental ability to scale and auto configuration in life voice, secure transmission, low power / high- availability signaling etc. will be possible. The communication is a very giant field and yet a great exploration is to be done and this viral mobile communicate technology will enable the principle of wireless communication which the world has to see in future and these new principles will apply to the broad band 3G and 4G mobile communication for the betterment and comfort of humanity by point-to-point information system.

IV. REFERENCES [1]

Chang Soon Kang, Ho-Shin Cho, Dan Keun Sung, “Capacity Analysis of Spectrally Overlaid Macro/Microcellular CDMA Systems Supporting Multiple Types of Traffic”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,Vol.52, pp.333-346,March2003. [2] Zhiqiang Zhu, Junqiang Guo, Jiang Hui, “Performance Analysis of Soft Handover Based on Link Balance in Broadband CDMA Systems”,Computer Engineering and Applications, Vol.43, pp.146-148, Aug. 2007. [3] Zhu Zhiqiang, Xu Guangyin, Guo Junqiang, “Soft Handover Algorithm Analysis of Overlaid Cellular in CDMA System Based on Speed and Direction”, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Complex Systems and Applications, pp.753-756, June 2006. [4] AndyLippman,“ViralCommunications”,http://dl.media.mit. edu/viral/viral. Pdf, 2003. [5] Aggelos Bletsas, Andrew Lippman, “Efficient Collaborative (Viral) Communication in OFDM Based LANs” http://web.media.mit.edu/~aggelos/papers/bletsas_isart03.p df,2003. [6] Aggelos Bletsas, ”Low Complexity Virtual Antenna Arrays Using Cooperative Relay Selection”,IWCMC’06, pp.461— 466 ,July 2006. [7] Aggelos Bletsas, Ashish Khisti, Moe Z. Win. Opportunistic Cooperative Diversity with Feedback and Cheap Radios. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol.7, pp.1823—1827, May 2008. [8] Aggelos Bletsas, Hyundong Shin, M.Z.Win, “Cooperative Communications With Outage-Optimal Opportunistic Relaying”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol.6, pp.1-11, Sep. 2007. [9] Andy Lippman, “Viral Communications”, dl.media.mit.edu viral. pdf , 2003. [10] Andrew Lippman David P.Reed, “Viral Communications” Media Laboratory Research, Draft May 19th, 2003. [11] Zhiqiang Zhu, Guangyin Xu, Lin Xu, Junqiang Guo, “Performance Analysis of Viral CDMA Mobile Communication Based on Cross Entropy” IEEE- 978-14244-3693-4/09, 2009.

Bibliographies Rajesh Kumar Pandey was born at Raebareli (U.P.), in India. He received the B. Tech degree in Computer Science & Engineering in 2010 from Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli (U.P.), India. Presently, he is an M.Tech student in Computer Science & Engineering from Sachdeva Institute of Technology, Mathura (U.P.), India.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

16

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

Perfectly g*b-Continuous Functions S. Bharathi Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University PG Extension Centre, Erode, TamilNadu, India

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to introduce new classes of functions of g*b-irresolute function, strongly g*bcontinuous functions and perfectly g*b-continuous function in topological spaces. Some of their properties and several characterizations of these types of functions are discussed. Also we investigate the relationship between these classes of functions. Keywords: b closed sets, strongly continuous functions, g-continuous functions, b irresolute functions.

I. INTRODUCTION Several authors working in the field of general topology have shown more interest in studying the properties of generalizations of continuous and closed functions. Some of them are Arokiarani et al [1,3,4], Devi et al [5,6], Mashour et al [7]. Noiri [9] introduced strong forms of g-irresolute functions and studied their properties.. Iyappan and Nagaveni [10] introduced sgbcontinuous functions and semi generalized b-continuous maps. Recently R S Wali et al [11] introduced and studied the properties of αrω-continuous and αrωirresolute functions in topological spaces. The concept of regular continuous and Completely–continuous functions was first introduced by Arya. S. P. and Gupta.R [2]. In 1981, Munshy and Bassan [8] introduced the notion of generalized continuous (briefly g-continuous) functions which are called in as girresolute functions.

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL 2. Preliminaries We recall the following definitions which are useful in the sequel Definition 2.1 A function f : (X,τ) →(Y,) is called

(iii). perfectly g-continuous if the inverse image of every g-open set in (Y,) is both open and closed in (X,). (iv). glc-continuous if f -1 (V ) is glc-closed in (X,) for every V(Y,) (v).

irresolute if f -1 (V ) is semi-open in (X,) for each semi-open set V of (Y,),

(vi). gc- irresolute if f -1 (V ) is g-closed in (X,) for each g-closed set V of (Y,), (vii). αg- irresolute if f -1 (V ) is αg-closed in (X,) for each g-closed set V of (Y,), (viii). gs-irrresolute if f -1 (V ) is gs-closed in (X,) for each gs-closed set V of (Y,), (ix). gα-irresolute in (X,) if and only if g-irresolute in (X,α) . 3. g*b IRRESOLUTE FUNCTIONS Definition 3.2 A function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is called g* b-irresolute (g*b-irresolute) if the inverse image of every g*b-closed set V of (Y,) is g*b-closed in (X,). Remark 3.3 The following examples shows that the notion of gc-irresolute functions and g*b closed irresolute functions are independent. Example 3.4 (i)Let , X  Y  {a, b, c}

Strongly continuous if f -1 (V ) is both open and

  {X ,,{a},{b},{a, b}} and   {X ,,{a},{b, c}}

closed in (X,) for each subset V of (Y,). (ii). strongly g-continuous if the inverse image of every g-open set in (Y,) is open in (X,).

Then the identity function on X is g*b-irresolute but not gc-irresolute. Example 3.5 Let , X  Y  {a, b, c}

(i).

  {X ,,{a},{b, c}} and   {X ,,{a},{b},{a, b}} .

IJSRST151411 | Received: 06 October 2015 | Accepted: 13 November 2015 | November-December-2015 [(1)5: 17-20]

17

Then the function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) defined by

f (a)  b , f (b)  a , f (c)  c is gc-irresolute but not

Theorem 3.12 Let (X,τ) be any topological space, (Y,  ) be a Tg*b-space and f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be a function.

g*b-irresolute.

Then the following are equivalent (i) f is g*b-irresolute

Remark 3.6 The irresolute functions and g*b-irresolute functions are independent and can be seen from the following example. Example 3.7 Let , X  Y  {a, b, c}

(ii)

f is g*b-continuous.

Proof: (i)  (ii): obvious (ii)  (i) Let F be an g*b-closed set in (Y,  ). Since (Y,  ) is a Tg*b-space, F is a closed set in (Y,) and by

  {X ,,{b},{a, b}} and   {X ,,{a},{a, b}} . hypothesis, f 1 ( F ) is g*b-closed in (X,τ). Therefore Then the function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) defined by f (a)  b , f (b)  a , f (c)  c is irresolute but not g*b-irresolute. Example 3.8 X  Y  {a, b, c} ,   {X ,  ,{a},{a, b}}

f is g*b-irresolute.

Theorem 3.13 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is bijective, bopen and g*b-continuous then f is g*b-irresolute.

.Then the   {X ,,{a}} Proof: Let V be any g*b-closed set in Y and let function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) defined by f (a)  b , f 1 (V )  U where U is b-open in X. Then and

f (b)  a , f (c)  c is g*b-irresolute but not irresolute.

V  f (U ) . Since f (U ) is b-open in Y and V is g*bclosed in Y , then cl(V)  f (U ) implies that Theorem 3.9 A function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is g*b1 is g*b-continuous, irresolute if and only if the inverse image of every g*b- f cl (V )  U . Since f open set in (Y,  ) is g*b-open in (X,τ). Proof:Let f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) ) be g*b-irresolute and

U be a g*b-open set in (Y,). Then U c is g*b-closed in (Y,) and since f is g*b-irresolute, f 1 (U c ) is g*bclosed in (X,). But f 1 (U c ) = ( f 1 (U ))c and so

f 1 (U ) is g*b-open in (X,).

f 1cl (V )

is

g*b-closed

in

X.

cl ( f 1cl (V ))  U

Hence .Therefore

cl ( f 1 (V ))  cl ( f 1cl (V ))  U

.

That

is cl ( f 1(V ))  U . This shows that f is g*b-irresolute. Theorem 3.14 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is bijective,

1

(U ) is g*b-open closed and irresolute then the inverse function 1 in (X,) for each open set U in (Y,). Let f be a g*b- f : (Y ,  )  ( X , ) is g*b-irresolute. Conversely, assume that f

closed set in (Y,). Then U c is g*b-open in (Y,) and by assumption f 1 (U ) is g*b-open in (X,). Since

Proof:

Let

A

be

g*b-closed

in

(X,τ).

Let ( f 1 ) 1 ( A)  f ( A)  U , where U is g-open in

1 1 f 1 (U c ) = ( f 1 (U ))c , we have f 1 ( F ) is g*b- (Y,  ). Then A  f (U ) holds. Since f (U ) is g-

closed in (X,) and so f is g*b-irresolute.

open in (X,τ) and A is g*b-closed in (X,τ),

not g*b-closed in X.

g*b-open set in (Y,) is open in (X, τ).

bcl ( A)  f 1 (U ) and hence f (bcl ( A))  U . Since f Theorem 3.10 If a function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is g*b- is b-closed and bcl(A) is closed in (X,τ), f (bcl ( A)) is irresolute then it is g*b-continuous but not conversely b-closed in (Y,). Therefore bcl ( f (bcl ( A)))  U and Example 3.11 Let X  Y  {a, b, c, d} , hence bcl ( f ( A))  (U ) . Thus f (A) is g*b-closed in . Let   {X ,,{a},{b},{a, b},{a, b, c}}   (Y,) and so f 1 is g*b-irresolute. f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be defined by f (a)  b , f (b)  c , f (c)  d , f (d )  a . Then f is g*bDefinition 3.15 A function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is called continuous but not g*b-irresolute since f 1 (b)  {a} is strongly g*b-continuous if the inverse image of every

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

18

Theorem 3.16 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is strongly g*bcontinuous, then it is strongly g-continuous but not conversely. Example 3.17 Let , X  {a, b, c}

Proof: (i)  (ii) Follows from the Theorem 3.19. (ii)  (i) Let U be any g*b-set in (Y,). Since (Y,) is a g*b-space, U is a g*b-open subset of (Y,) and by hypothesis, f 1 (U ) is open in (X,). But (X,) is a

. Let   X ,  ,{a},{b},{a, b}   discrete space and so f 1 (U ) is also closed in (X,). f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be defined by f (a)  b , f (b)  a , 1 f (c)  c . Then f is strongly g-continuous but not That is f (U ) is both open and closed in (X,) and so

f is strongly continuous.

strongly g*b-continuous. Theorem 3.18 Let (X,τ)be any topological space and (Y,) be a Tg*b-space and f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be a function. Then the following are equivalent. (i) f is strongly g*b-continuous (ii)

Theorem 3.23 Let f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be a function and both (X,) and (Y,) be Tg*b -spaces. Then the following are equivalent. (i) f is strongly g*b-continuous, (ii)

f is continuous.

(iii) Theorem 3.19 If

f is continuous, f is g*b-continuous.

f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is strongly

continuous then it is strongly g*b-continuous but not conversely. Theorem 3.20 Let f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be onto, g*b-

Theorem 3.24 A function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is strongly g*b-continuous if and only if the inverse image of every g*b-closed set in (Y,) is closed in (X,) If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) and g: (Y,)

irresolute and b-closed. If (X,) is a Tb -space, then

Theorem 3.25

(Y ,  ) is also a Tb -space.

(Z,) are strongly g*b-continuous, then their composition g  f : ( X , )  (Z , ) is also strongly

Proof: Let A be a g*b-closed subset of(Y,). Since f is g*b-irresolute,

then

f 1 ( A)

is

g*b-closed

in

(X,).Since (X,) is a Tb -space, then f 1 ( A) is a bclosed in (X,).Thus A is b-closed in (Y,) because f is surjective. Hence (Y,) is a Tb -space. Theorem

3.21

Let

f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is g*b-

irresolute and closed. If (X,) is almost weakly Hausdroff, then (Y,) is almost weakly Hausdroff space. Proof: Let V be any g*b-closed set in Y. Since f is g*b-irresolute, f 1 (V ) is g*b-closed in X. Since (X,) is is almost weakly Hausdroff, f 1 (V ) is closed in X, then V is closed because f is closed and onto. Hence Y is almost weakly Hausdorff space. Theorem 3.22 Let (X,) be a discrete topological space, (Y,) be a g*b-space and f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) be a function. Then the following are equivalent. (i) f is strongly continuous (ii)

f is strongly g*b-continuous.

continuous. Proof: Let U be a g*b-open set in (Z,). Since g is strongly g*b-continuous, g 1 (U ) is open in (Y,). Since g 1 (U ) is open, it is g*b-open in (Y,). As f is also strongly

f

1

1

g*b-continuous, 1

( g (U ))  ( g  f ) (U ) is open in (X,) and so

gof is strongly continuous. Theorem 3.26 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) and g: (Y,) (Z,) be any two functions then their composition g  f : ( X , )  (Z , ) is (i) Strongly g*b-continuous if g is strongly g*bcontinuous and f is strongly g*b-continuous. (ii) g*b-irresolute if g is strongly g*b-continuous and f is g*b-continuous ( or f is g*b-irresolute). (iii) Strongly g*b-continuous if g is strongly continuous and f is irresolute. (iv) Continuous if g is g*b-continuous and f is strongly g*b-continuous. We next introduce perfectly g*b-continuous functions in topological spaces.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

19

Definition 3.27 A function f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is called perfectly g*b-continuous if the inverse image of every g*b-open set in (Y,) is both open and closed in (X,). Theorem 3.28 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is perfectly g*bcontinuous then it is strongly g*b- continuous. Proof: Since f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is perfectly g*bcontinuous, f 1 (U ) is both open and closed in X, for every g*b-open set Y in X. Therefore f is strongly g*bcontinuous. Theorem 3.29 If f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is strongly continuous then it is perfectly g*b-continuous. Proof: Since f : ( X , )  (Y ,  ) is strongly continuous, f 1 (U ) is both open and closed in (X,), for every g*b-open set U in (Y,). Therefore f is perfectly g*b-continuous. We have the following implications for the above results.

III. REFERENCES [1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

spaces, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kochi Univ. Ser. A Math., 12 (1991), 5–13. [5]. R.Devi, K.Balachandran and H.Maki, Semigeneralized homeomorphisms and generalized semi-homeomorphisms in topological spaces, Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 26(1995), 271-284. [6]. R.Devi, K.Balachandran and H.Maki, Generalized α-closed maps and α-generalized closed maps, Mem. Fac. Kochi Univ. Ser. A. Math., 14(1993), 41-54. [7]. A.S.Mashhour, I.A.Hasanein and S.N.El.Deep, α- continuous and α-open mappings, Acta. Math. Hunger., 41(1983), 213-218. [8]. B. M. Munshi and D. S. Bassan,g-continuous mappings, Vidya J. Gujarat Univ. B Sci.,24(1981), 63–68 [9]. T.Noiri, A Generalization of Some Forms of gIrresolute Functions, European journal of pure and applied mathematics vol. 2, no. 4, 2009, (473-493) [10]. continuous functions, Chaos Solitons Fractals 24 (2005), no. 2, 471 – 477. [11]. D.Iyappan and N.Nagaveni, On semi generalized b-continuous maps, semi generalized b-closed,maps in topological space, Int.Journal of Math. Analysis, vol.6, 2012, no.26, 1251-1264. [12]. R.S Wali and Prabhavati S Mandalgeri, On αrω– Continuous and αrω–Irresolute Maps in Topological Spaces, IOSR Journal of Mathematics, Volume 10, Issue 6 Ver. VI (Nov - Dec. 2014), PP 14-24.

I . Arokiarani, K.Balachandran and J.Dontchev, Some characterization of gp-irresolute and gpcontinuous maps between topological spaces, Mem. Fac. Kochi Univ. Ser. A. Math, 20(1999), 93-104. S. P. Arya and R. Gupta, On strongly continuous functions, Kyungpook Math. J. 14:131:143, 1974. I. Arokiarani, K. Barachandran and J. Dontchev, Some characterization of gp-irresolute and gpcontinuous maps between topological spaces, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kochi Univ. Ser. A Math., 20 (1999), 93–104. K. Balachandran, P. Sundarm and H. Maki, On generalized continuous maps in topological

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

20

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

Ultrasonic Velocity in Potassium Sodium Tantalate Mixed System Manish Uniyal*, S. C. Bhatt Department of Physics, H.N.B.Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhan, India

ABSTRACT Ultrasonic velocity in the ceramic pellets of material K 1-xNaxTaO3 (X=0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 & 1) have been investigated at temperature 320C and frequency 5MHz with the help of Ultrasonic c-scan system developed at NPL, New Delhi. The samples have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method and sintering process. Keyword: Ultrasonic Velocity, NPL, Potassium Sodium Tantalate, PST

I. INTRODUCTION Ultrasonic testing of materials is one of the widely used methods of nondestructive testing, in which beams of high frequency sound waves generally 0.5 MHz to 25 MHz are used to detect the cracks, laminations, shrinkages, cavities and other discontinuities. Inclusion and other inhomogeneties in the material can also be detected using partial reflection or scattering of ultrasonic waves. It has high sensitivity for detecting flaws, can penetrate extremely thick sections and need access to only one surface of the testing material. We have measured the Acoustical velocity in potassium sodium tantalate mixed ceramics at 320C and at frequency 5 MHz. The propagation of ultrasonic wave in any substance has become a fundamental test to investigate its properties. The velocity and attenuation coefficients are the basic propagation constants, which are related to the microscopic structure of the materials. Potassium Sodium Tantalate (PSN) with perovskite structures are widely used for transducer applications with broad ranges of technologically important dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric and electro-optic properties. Cross [1] has predicted, theoretically, the phase diagram of KTaO3-NaTaO3 mixture from phenomenological arguments. Due to the immense importance of these materials, Acoustical investigation has been carried out by several researchers [2-8]. Preparation of amorphous and nano crystalline Sodium Tantalate Oxide

photocatalysts with porous matrix structure for overall water has been investigated by Harun Tuysuz et.al. [9]. Microstructure of Sodium - Potassium niobate ceramics sintered under high alkaline vapour pressure atmosphere has been studied by Jerome Acker et.al.[10]. Fast synthesis of NaNbO3 and Na0.5K0.5NbO3 by microwave hydrothermal method was performed by Rigoberto Lopez-Juarez et.al.[11]. Synthesis, photo physical properties, and photo catalytic applications of Bi doped NaTaO3 and Bi doped Na2TaO3 nano particles was studied by Pushkar Kanhere et.al.[12]. Theoretical & experimental studies on Ceramic Samples of different ferroelectric material has been done to understand the salient features as these materials [13-17]

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL A. Preparation The raw materials used for preparing the compositions from this system were sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and niobium pentaoxide. The starting material was dried at 2000C for one hour to remove absorbed moisture. Different compositions of K1-xNaxTaO3 for (x=0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 & 1) were prepared by weighing the sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and niobium pentaoxide. The mixture was calcined in the platinum crucible, in air, at 9500C for 2h for carbonate removal. The pre-sintered mixture was ground and pressed into pellets of 10mm diameter. All the

IJSRST15153 | Received: 02 November 2015 | Accepted: 13 November 2015 | November-December-2015 [(1)5: 21-22]

22

IV. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

pellets were placed on a platinum crucible and sintered, in air, at 10500C for 26 h. B. Measurement In the present study we have investigated the ultrasonic velocity in pure and mixed system of Na1-xKxTaO3 where (x=0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 &1).The velocity has been measured at the transverse section of the prepared samples at frequency 5 MHz and at temperature 320C with the help of Ultrasonic c-scan system developed at NPL, New Delhi. Variation of Acoustical velocity by mixing K on NaTaO3 is tabulated in table 1 and figure 1.

The authors are thankful to Material Science Research Centre (MSRC), IIT Madras and National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi for providing laboratory facilities for sample preparation, characterization and ultrasonic velocity measurement respectively.

V. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3]

Table 1 [4]

Sample (Na1- xKxTaO3) (x=0,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6 &1) NaTaO3 Na0.8K0.2TaO3 Na0.7K0.3TaO3 Na0.6K0.4TaO3 Na0.5K0.5TaO3 Na0.4Na0.6TaO3 KTaO3

Acoustical velocity x104 m/s 0.3026 0.2679 0.2701 0.2626 0.2526 0.2448 0.1838

[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The study of the prepared samples aimed at understanding the Acoustical velocity and mechanism that could lead of the present PST system. From above figure 1, it is observed that as soon as potassium is mixed with sodium tantalate at temperature 320C and frequency 5 MHz i.e., K on Nax K1-x TaO3, the ultrasonic velocity decreases continuously.

[14] [15] [16] [17]

L E Cross, Philos Mag. 1 (1956) 56. S C Bhatt and B S Semwal, Ind.J. Pure & app. Phys.25(1980)174. S C Bhatt and B S Semwal, Solid State Ionics, 23(1987)77. S C Bhatt, G N Baluni, U C Naithani and B S Semwal, Ind.J.Pure & app. Phys.26(1988)356. C W Garland and Donald Novotny,Phy.Rev.177,no.2(1969)971-975. E Havlin, Litov and H Sompolinsky,Phy.Rev.B 13, no.1(1976). E Litov and C W Garland, Phy.RevB 8,no.11(1970) 971-975. Harrison H.Barret,Physical Review,178, No.2(1969). Harun Tuysuz,Candace K.Chan,Nano Energy,Issue 1,2(2013)116 123. Jerome Acker, Hans Kungi, Roland Achierholz, Susan Wagner,Rudiger-A.Eichel, Michael J.Hoffmann, Journal of European Ceramic Society, Issue 16, 34(2014) 4213- 4221. Rigoberto Lopez-Jurez, R.Castaneda-Guzman, Villafuerte M E- Castrejon, Ceramic International, Issue 9,40 Part-B (2014)14757-14764. Pushkar Kanhere, Yuxin Tang, Jianwei Zheng, Zhong Chen, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids,Issue 12,74 (2013)1708-1713. Manish Uniyal & S C Bhatt, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics 49(2011)350 Manish Uniyal & S C Bhatt, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics 50( 2012)248-251 S C Bhatt & Manish Uniyal, International Journal of materials and Chemistry, 2(2) (2012)47-50 Manish Uniyal, S C Bhatt & Gairola R P, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 50(2012)915-917 Manish Uniyal, S C Bhatt, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 52(2014)391-394

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

22

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

Assessment of Shoreline Dynamics at Bonny Island, Nigeria using Geospatial Techniques 1*

Brown Joshua, 2Adekunle I. A

1

MSc. Geospatial and Mapping Sciences, The University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK School of Environmental Technology, Rivers State Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria

2

ABSTRACT Bonny Island is a highly dynamic one as there is a high level of interplay between the forces of erosion and accretion. From previous studies by the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), the annual rate of erosion has been put at about 20 – 35 metres along the bonny shoreline. This claim was confirmed from the present study carried out along 12 transect points of 500 metres intervals along the Finima section of the Bonny beach. Geospatial techniques were used to carry out the assessment of the state of the bonny shoreline. Satellite imageries from 1976 – 2005 were used in the study and GPS receiver was also used to acquire the shoreline position along the transect points for 2011. From the result of the study, the Finima beach area was found to have the highest rate of shoreline dynamics. Erosion dominated in this area over accretion. This area experienced a total land area loss of 458.04 hectares of land out of which erosion and accretion recorded 280.47 and 177.57 hectares respectively. By this it means erosion claimed about 61.2% of the total land area while accretion recorded a 39.8% land increase. The changes were largely attributed to the presence of oil exploration activities as prior to the commencement of this anthropogenic activities there was lesser impacts of erosion as accretion predominated the area. There is therefore a cogent need to adopt some proactive measures to protect the bonny beach, from further land loss due to erosion and the untold hardship it brings to the coastal residents. Keywords: Nigeria, Bonny Island, Shorelines Dynamics, GIS, Remote Sensing and Global Positioning System

I. INTRODUCTION

The rates of erosion at 10 stations established along the Nigerian coastline, was determined by NIOMR in 1995. Coastline change is a global phenomenon; it has been in Erosion was found to be most dominant at Bar Beach, operation for as long as the ocean and land existed. It Victoria Island, with rates ranging between 25 and 70 has occurred in varying degrees around the globe with metres per annum. Awoye beach on the low-lying some areas more vulnerable to these changes than others. Mahin mud-beach in Ondo State recorded 27 metres of Nigeria is not spared from these global phenomenon it erosion. Slight accretion was recorded at the has had its own share from the time past. The processes Ugbogoro/Escravos beach. The erosion rate for Bonny are still in operation till date. The construction of oil was also recorded it was quite high ranging between 20refineries and wells, gas and oil pipelines, storage tanks 35metres per annum near the LNG site (NIOMR, 1995). with insufficient setbacks have been a main cause for Ibe further confirmed the erosion rate at Bonny station erosion in the coastal towns of Nigeria (GEF, 2002). The to be ranging between 20-24metres annually. retreat of Nigerian shorelines threatens most of the coastal settlements, recreational grounds and oil export In Nigeria, there has not been a sustained effort in the handling facilities which are almost invariably located in study of the national coastline. This has led to the poor coastal towns such as Brass, Bonny, Ibeno-Eket, and management and continuous degradation of the nation’s coastline. The major reason for this dearth of studies in Forcados (Ibe and Antia, 1983).

IJSRST151448 | Received: 29 October 2015 | Accepted: 17 November 2015 | November-December 2015 [(1)5: 23-34]

23

this all important area has been provided by Awosike, 1992. According to Awosike “Data acquisition programme for parameters such as winds, nearshore currents, bathymetry and so related to defining beach states are expensive”. Developing nations are therefore unable to provide an adequate data pool for studies on shoreline dynamics and coastal management (Hayes, 1984; Awosika, 1992). In recent time the use of geospatial techniques have been proven to be an extremely useful approach for the studies of shoreline changes, due to synoptic and repetitive data coverage, high resolution, multispectral satellite imageries and its cost effectiveness in comparison to conventional techniques. It is against this backdrop that this study employed geospatial techniques to analyse shoreline dynamics along Bonny Coastline covering a period of about 35years (1976-2011) using three sets of satellite imageries (Landsat MSS, Landsat ETM+ and Spot). Ground truthing of identified shoreline changes from the imageries were carried out to establish the extent of change. A. Objectives of the Study The aim of this research was to analyze trend of shoreline changes along the Bonny coastline over the past 30 years, using geospatial techniques. The specific objectives of this study are to:  Estimate shoreline changes (displacement and configuration) in study area over the past 30 years using geospatial models  Determine the factors responsible for the observed changes occurring along the bonny shoreline.  Produce a map of shoreline change in the area.  Recommend appropriate remediation and shoreline management best practices for the area B. Hypothesis of the Study Ho: There has been no significant change along the Bonny shoreline over the past 30 years. H1: there has been a significant change along the Bonny shoreline over the past 30 years.

C. Significance of the Study The research reveals the shoreline dynamics along the Bonny coastline in recent times. This achievement would further enhance the effective monitoring and mitigations of the changes that is ongoing in the area. Furthermore, the result of this research will provide more information for future research on shoreline dynamics. D. Assumptions of the Study The following assumptions are made for this research with the hope of all things been equal.  That the terrain would be easily accessible for the research  The finance would be made readily available at the time of the research. E. Study Area Geographic Location Bonny Island is situated at the southern edge of Rivers State in the eastern Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It was formally known as Ibani or Ubani town. It lies along the Bonny River (eastern distributaries and 6 miles upstream from the Bight of Biafra. It is located at latitude 40 26’ 57’’N and 40 31’ 42’’ longitude 70 3’ 8.1’’ and 70 9’ 38’’. The Bonny River flows in a southeasterly direction into a large body of water which also flows almost vertically and slightly southeasterly into the Bight of Bonny. It runs in between the two neighboring estuaries of the New Calabar River to the west and the Andoni River to the east. The Cawthome channel links the New Calabar channel and Bonny River estuary. Bonny covers a total land area of about 651.20km2

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL A. Research Design This study concerns itself with the assessment of the rate of shoreline dynamics at Bonny Island within 1976-2011 (i.e. 35years period). Research design as described by Baridam (2001) is “a frame-work or plan that is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data for a study. It is a model of proof that allows the researcher to draw inferences concerning casual relations among the variables under investigation”. With this in mind the

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

24

study adopted the One-Shot Case Study Correlational Research Design. Some elements of judgment sampling were also employed in the cause of data collection. Data derived where analyzed using geospatial techniques to assess the rate of change in the shoreline at Bonny Island. B. Research Population and Sample Size This study was focused mainly on assessing the shoreline dynamics along the Finima Coastline in Bonny town, stretching from Amariari-Kiri area to the LNG Residential Area (RA). The study area is located at the south-western part of the Bonny Coast (Fig.1). This area covering an approximate distance of 6km was chosen purposively for the study because it was observed to have the highest rate of erosion when compared to the other parts of the Bonny shoreline. Finita-Singi settlement being the high point of erosion activities within the 6km study area was selected for the purpose of administering of questionnaire. The sample size for the study was based on the availability of data for the study in line with the study objectives. Based on availability of data especially satellite imagery the sample size was restricted to a period of 35 years. Satellite data for the year 1976 to 2005 was available in addition with the GPS transect data acquired from the field in 2011. Although data for equal year interval were not readily available due to some factors some of which include cloud cover on some of the satellite imageries which made it unfit for the accurate delineation of the shoreline of the study area.

Also the high costs of acquiring some of these satellite data were also responsible for the inconsistency in the datasets. C. Sample Design The sample design employed in this research was The Grid Cell/Transect Design. The entire shoreline area was gridded, using a grid cell of 500meter interval. A transects was placed at every 500meter interval beginning from the west bank of the southern part of the Bonny Island to the edge of the eastern bank which are all adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The total length of the study area was approx. 6km. A total of 12 transects was taken and measurement was carried out at each transect points within the 500meter zone. The shorelines measured include 1976, 1986, 2000, 2004 and 2005 shorelines delineated from their respective images. The 1976 shoreline was used as the baseline upon which the other shorelines were compared and measured. GPS shoreline positions for 2011 were acquired along the 500m transect locations. The Measurements took place within ArcGIS software. Fig.2 below shows the gridded shorelines of the study area.

Figure 2: shorelines of the study area showing the grid cell approach used

D. Data Collection and Processing This study employed both secondary and primary data. The following approaches were utilised to acquire the data for the analysis. 1)

Figure 1 : Finima area showing the study location from Amariari-Kiri to LNG RA beach

Geographic Information System (GIS) & Remote Sensing approach

ArcGIS 9.3 software was used to handle all the GIS processes. The shoreline data from the satellite imageries were extracted for the project. Methods such as georeferencing, creation of a geodatabase and vectorisation were all employed to generate the

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

25

shorelines for measurement of the change. Using the 1976 shoreline as the baseline all other shorelines were measured for change along the 12 transects points. The measurement tool in ArcGIS 9.3 was used to execute the measurements. A repeated measurement was carried out and the mean was determined. This was to enhance the precision of the measure shorelines ERDAS Imagine 9.3 software was used to handle all the satellite imagery processing. The bands were stacked in the order of 4+3+2 to form false colour composite. 2)

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Mapping

Plate 2 Photo at transect 2 (T2) showing erosion site

GPS data for the current shoreline positions were acquired from the study area using a Garmin 12 dual frequency hand-held GPS. The XY coordinates were taken at a regular interval of 500m along the Finima beach area. GPS readings were taken at the same transects points identified from the satellite imageries so as to remove any form of errors that would arise during the analysis of results. The total transect points were 12 and GPS coordinates were all taken at each of them. The data so acquired enable the mapping of the 2011 shoreline position in the ArcGIS 9.3 environment in addition to the previous shoreline positions derived from the satellite imageries. 3)

Other Data Collected

Digital photographs showing evidence of shoreline dynamics in the study area were acquired. The photographs were taken at all the 12 transect points. The pictures show areas of erosion and accretion.

Plate 3 Photo at transect 3 (T3) showing a fishing boats at Finita-Singi

The Photographs acquired along the 12 transect points are shown in Plate.1 to 12 below.

Plate 4 Photo at transect 4 (T4) showing erosion site

Plate 1 Photo at transect 1 (T1) showing erosion site

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

26

Plate 5 Photo at transect 5 (T5) showing an estuary with active erosion

Plate 6 Photo at transect 6 (T6) showing accretion site

Plate 7 Photo at transect 7 (T7) showing erosion site

Plate 9 Photo at transect 9 (T9) showing erosion site

Plate 10 Photo at transect 10 (T10) showing erosion site

Plate 11 Photo at transect 11 (T11) showing erosion site

Plate 8 Photo at transect 8 (T8) showing active erosion site Plate 12 Photo at transect 12 (T12) showing erosion site

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

27

he symbol (a) in the null and alternate hypothesis above represents the means of the different periods. Analysis of variance sets out to compare these means by partitioning variance of dataset from x1 and y1 was calculated into two components; viz those that are due to within sample differences and those that are due to variations between samples. Snedecor’s F statistics is then computed by comparing the variance due to the two components, also referred to as Error of sum of squares (ESS) and between variables sum of squares (BSS) respectively. Let these be represented by ESS and BSS respectively while the total variance of sum of squares is represented by TSS.

E. Statistical Analysis/Hypothesis Testing The statistical method of analysis used was the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA was used to test for differences in the means of the shoreline datasets (1976-1986, 1986-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2011). 4)

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis of the study. The Null hypothesis states that there is no significant change of shoreline along the Bonny Coastline over the past 30 years. The ANOVA table is shown below in Table 1. Table 1 Analysis of Variance Format for the shoreline studies

Then, TSS = ESS + BSS ESS = TSS – BSS

In the comparison of the means over the k periods the null hypothesis is stated as:

TSS = ΣΣ x2jk – (ΣΣxjk)2 jk N 2 BSS = Σ (Σ xjk) _ (Σ Σ xjk)2 jk n j k N

H0: a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 = an H1: a1 ≠ a2 ≠ a3 ≠ a4 ≠ an Table 2 Analysis of Variance Format for the shoreline studies Location

PERIODS 1976-1986

1986-2000

2000-2005

2005-2011

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

A

X11

Y11

X21

Y21

X31

Y31

X41

Y41

B

X12

Y12

X22

Y22

X32

Y32

X42

Y42

C

X13

Y13

X23

Y23

X33

Y33

X43

Y43

N

X1n

Y1n

X2n

Y2n

X3n

Y3n

X4n

Y4n

X = Erosion Y = Accretion Table 3 Sums of x and y and sums of square Locations

PERIODS 1976-1986

1986-2000

2000-2005

2005-2011

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Erosion (m)

Accretion (m)

Sum of x ,y

∑x1

∑y1

∑x2

∑y2

∑x3

∑y3

∑x4

∑y4

Sum of x, y squared

∑x21

∑y21

∑x22

∑y22

∑x23

∑y23

∑x24

∑x24

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

28

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

recorded accretions. Fig.3 below shows the chart of the shoreline changes within 1976-1986.

A. Shoreline Dynamics along Finima Coastline The data on shoreline changes along section of the Bonny Coastline is presented herein in four different epochs. The extent of shoreline changes were determined through image analyses and field measurement carried out along the 12 transect points established along the shoreline of the Finima beach area. Below are the results of the analysis carried out in the study area within the 1976-2011. 1)

Shoreline Trend Within 1976-1986 periods:

Table.3 below shows the trend of shoreline change within 1976-1986 Table 4 Showing trend of shoreline change within 19761986.

Figure 3 : shoreline change trend along Finima beach area within 1976-1986 periods The total annual change within this period was recorded as 36.6m from the result of the analysis done in the previous sections. This result agrees with the result of the research carried out by NIOMR, 1995 which showed an annual land loss of 35metres around the LNG site. The highest annual land loss was recorded at Transect T6 with 13 hectares representing 35.5%. A total of 67.5 hectares of land was gained representing 80.45% of the general shoreline change within this period. The highest point of accretion was at NLNG RA1 beach area (T12) which recorded 12.3 hectares representing 18.2% gain in land area. Overall 8 locations out of the 12 transect points experienced accretion i.e. land gain. The map below (Fig.4) shows the shoreline change within the 1976 – 1986 epochs.

From Table.3 above erosion occurred at only four locations (T6, T7, T8 and T9) this claimed 16.4 hectares of land area. The highest land loss was recorded at Transect T7 around the Finita-Singi area. The areal land loss at this point was approximately 6.5 hectares of land representing 39.6% of the total land loss within the period. Transect T6 within Finita-Singi area recorded land loss of approximately 5.9 hectares of land representing 36.0% of the total land loss within the same period. The other areas are; T8 and T9 which recorded 3.4 and 0.6 hectares land loss respectively. Besides the four locations mentioned above, the rest locations

Figure 4 : showing shoreline map of the 1975-1986 period

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

29

2)

Shoreline Trend within 1986-2000 periods

The result of the shoreline trend within this period is presented below. Table 5 Shoreline change trend within 1986-2000

Figure 5: Shoreline change trend within 1986-2000

The result in Table.4 shows that there was no accretion within the 12 transects points measured within this epoch. All the transect points recorded a zero value which indicates no accretion. Base on this result it means this epochs was predominantly erosional. Figure.6 below shows the shoreline map of this period.

Figure 6 : showing shorelines of the two periods discussed above

The table above indicates that a total of 98.8 hectares of land was lost to erosion within this period. All the 12 transect points within this period experienced erosion unlike the previous period presented above that had more of accretion than erosion. The highest point of erosion within this period was at Transect point T5 located around Finita-Singi beach area. This recorded an approximately 12.1 hectares of land loss representing 12.3% loss. The lowest point of erosion from our data was recorded at transect T3 with a value of 2.7 hectares loss within the period. Figure.5 illustrates the shoreline erosion within this period.

3) Shoreline Trend within 2000-2005 epochs The result of the shoreline within this period is shown below. Table 6 Shoreline erosion trend within 2000-2005 periods

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

30

The shoreline trend for this period is represented in Fig.8 which shows the variations in the positions of the various shorelines.

Figure 8 : showing the shoreline positions within 1976-2005

4)

Shoreline Trend within 2005-2011 epoch

The result of the shoreline trend within this period is presented below. From Table.5 a total of 47 hectares of land was lost to erosion within this period. The highpoint of erosion was at transects T3 around Finita-Singi area recording 10.1 hectares of land loss which represents 21.5% of the total loss. The range of the erosion was within period was between 0.8 to 10.1 hectares. This result indicates that erosion occurred at the 12 transect points along the study area. Fig.7 below shows a chart of the erosion trend within this period.

Table.6 below shows the result of the shoreline erosion trend within this period. Table 7 Shoreline Erosion trend within 2005-2011 epochs

Figure 7 : showing shoreline changes trend within 2000-2005 epoch

From Fig.7 above transect point 3 recorded the highest annual rate of erosion while T10 recorded the least annual erosion. The result presented above in Table.5 shows that there was no accretion within this period rather there were prevalence of erosion at all the transect points.

From the table above the total land loss in area within the 2005-2011 epochs was recorded as 39.1 hectares. The high point of erosion was at transects T2 which was established along Finita-Singi beach area. Meanwhile

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

31

the lowest point was at T4 which recorded zero due to the prevalence of accretion at this station. Fig.9 below shows the shoreline erosion in a percentage bar graph. From the above result accretion occurred at only one location which was at Transect T4 along the Finima beach area. This represented a 100% of the total land accretion within this period. Fig.10 below shows the shoreline map for this period.

Figure 10: showing the shoreline positions of the different periods as obtained from the analyses

Figure 9 : showing shoreline change trend within the 20052011 epoch (Source: Author’s work)

B. Hypothesis Testing Two statistical methods were used to test for the two hypothesis of the study. The two hypotheses is briefly stated below H01: There has been no significant change along the Bonny shoreline over the past 30 years. H1: There is. Table.7 below shows the variance of ANOVA result for Hypothesis One

Table 8 Computing the variance of ANOVA

S/N

SITES

Period 1976-1986

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Lighthouse area/ T3 Finita-Singi settlement/T4 Finita-Singi area/ T5 Finita-Singi Area/ T6 Finita-Singi Area/ T7 Finita-Singi Area/ T8 Finita-Singi Area/ T9 Finita-Singi Area/ T10 Finita-Singi Area/ T11 Near NLNG RA1 beach/ T12 NLNG RA1 beach/ T13 NLNG RA1 beach area/ T14 Total

X 7.2 10.2 10.5 10 4.7 - 5.9 - 6.5 - 3.4 - 0.6 4 8.6 12.3 83.9

1986-2000 2

X 51.84 104.04 110.25 100 22.09 -34.81 -42.25 -11.56 -0.36 16 73.96 151.29 718.45

X -10 -3.9 -2.7 -6.4 -12.1 -6.2 -7.6 -7.8 -10.1 -11.3 -11 -9.7 101.5

2000-2005 2

X -100 -15.21 -7.29 -40.96 -146.41 -38.44 -57.76 -60.84 -102.01 -127.69 -121 -94.09 911.7

X -5.9 -7.2 -10.1 -2.3 -6.3 -5.1 -3.3 -2.6 -1.4 -1.1 -0.9 -0.8 47

2005-2011 2

X -34.81 -51.84 -102.01 -5.29 -39.69 -26.01 -10.89 -6.76 -1.96 -1.21 -0.81 -0.64 281.92

X - 3.64 - 5.70 - 4.78 1.86 - 3.66 - 4.77 - 4.12 - 2.83 - 3.43 - 2.54 - 2.01 -1.62 40.96

X2 -13.25 -32.49 -22.85 3.46 -13.4 -22.75 -16.97 -8.01 -11.77 6.45 -4.04 -2.62 158.01

Source: Author’s Work

The result of the computations for the sums of squares is presented in Table.8 below.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

32

Table 9 ANOVA Table for shoreline dynamics at Bonny Island Square of variations

Sum of squares

Degrees of freedom 3

Mean sum of squares

about 61.2% of the total land area while accretion recorded a 39.8% land increase.

F

This changes recorded was attributed to the changes in land use in the area. As at 1976 -1986 period there was more of accretion of land around the shorelines in the 352.03 44 8.0 study area. This was because during this period there were lesser anthropogenic activities within the area. The establishment of oil multinationals such as Nigeria 513.31 47 (Source: Author’s work) Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) came after this epoch. The activities of these companies such as dredging and The test statistics gives a value of 45.76 while from a 95% movement of their ocean liners led to the increased rate table of the F distribution the critical value at 3 and 44 of shoreline erosion. This was confirmed by the degrees of freedom is 2.72 i.e., residents as one of the major causes of erosion in the F0.05 = 2.72 area. Between Columns (samples) Within columns (Error) Total

161.28

53.76

45.76

Decision Rule: A large maximum difference indicates a wide difference between the distributions, leading to a rejection of the null hypothesis. From the ANOVA analysis above the critical F value at 95% probability level is less than the calculated F value of 45.76. Based on the rule it means the null hypothesis which states that there is no statistically significant difference in the rate of shoreline change at Bonny Island would be rejected, because there is a statistically significant difference in the rate of shoreline changes at the Bonny Island. C. Discussions This study was concerned with the assessment of shoreline dynamics at Bonny Island using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The assessment of the shoreline dynamics in Bonny Island was done using satellite imageries and GPS coordinate data acquired from the field. The shoreline positions within the past 35years were determined The findings of the study reveal that there has been a great change in the shoreline position in Bonny Island over the past 35years. The Finima beach area was found to have the highest rate of shoreline dynamics. Erosion dominated in this area over accretion. This area recorded a total land area loss of 458.04 hectares of land out which erosion and accretion recorded 280.47 and 177.57 hectares respectively. By this it means erosion claimed

The study further reveals that there have been several displacements of the settlements along the shoreline in the study area due to the high rate of shoreline erosion in the area. This discovery was ascertained from the residents in the Finita-Singi fishing settlement along the Finima land area. Their response agreed with the research findings which showed a large land loss during the 35years period of investigation Generally, the research finding shows that the Bonny shoreline is a highly dynamic one and despite this fact no serious adequate measures has been put in place to regulate this impacts. And this has resulted to large loss of land over the area. The study has shown that geospatial techniques can be effectively used to assess the state of shoreline dynamics in the Bonny Island.

IV. CONCLUSION The study thus far has shown the state of the Bonny shorelines, which is a very dynamic one. The shoreline has been found to be eroding away at an annual rate of 10m-30m along the Finita-Singi beach area. It is therefore pertinent for adequate measures to be put in place to curtail these incessant changes in the shoreline of the Bonny Island. The Bonny Island is an allimportant Island to the Nigerian economy this is because it houses most of the important oil installations upon which the Nigerian Economy depends on. The study has further displayed the capabilities of GIS and Remote

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

33

Sensing techniques in the studies of the ever dynamic Nigerian shorelines.

V. RECOMENDATIONS The Nigerian shoreline is a very dynamic one and for that reason there is the need to pay proper attention to the coastal processes ongoing along our shorelines. With the aim of controlling the impact of human activities that is changing the face of our ever dynamic shoreline. The use of geospatial techniques has proven over the years to be a more effective method of mapping and monitoring of shorelines because of its cost-effectiveness. It is with these problems in mind that the following recommendations are made.  A constant monitoring of the shorelines through geospatial techniques should be setup in Nigeria. This would enable early detection of any unprecedented changes taking place along the shorelines thereby making it possible for early arrest of such changes. Hence a monitoring unit is recommended that would have it as its responsibility to monitor our shorelines.  Funds should be made available for researches on this phenomenon; this would help make data readily available for future projects.  A conscious effort should be employed by the government either by enacting a law to control the activities within the Nigerian Shorelines. There should be an off limit as to where people are permitted to carry out any development project.

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

VI. REFERENCES [1]

[2]

[3]

Arkal, V. H, (2010) Coastal erosion and mitigation methods – Global state of art; Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025, India; Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 39(4), December 2010, pp. 521-530. Awosika, L. F. (1992) Coastal erosion in West Africa: causes, effects and response options. Paper presented at an International Conference on the Rational Use of the Coastal Zone (Bordeaux, France, 30 September-3 October). Awosika, L. F. (1993) Coastline erosion in Nigeria and some other West African coastal states: regional approach to response measures. Paper presented at the

[12]

[13]

[14]

3rd Meeting of the Inter-Africa Committee on Oceanography, Sea and Inland Fisheries (Cairo, Egypt, 12-17 April). Balogun, A. P. (1995) Prediction of possible impacts of sea level rise on Victoria Island. MSc Project Report, Department of Surveying, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Bird, E.C.F. 2000. Coastal geomorphology: an introduction. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 2000. Federal Ministry of Environment 1996, Environmental Impact Assessment of the Bonny Channel Dualisation Project, EIA, 1996. Ibe, A. C. (1990) Global climate change and the vulnerability of the Nigerian coastal zone to accelerated sea level rise: impacts and response measures. A lecture delivered at the 1st Federal Ministry of Science and Technology Monthly Seminar for 1990 (24 January 1990). Ibe, A. C, and Anitia, E. E (1983) Preliminary Assessment of impact of erosion long the Nigerian shoreline; Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research; technical paper No.3 Jimmy O.A, Mofoluso F, Godstime J, Ganiyu A, Temi E.O, (2010), An Assessment of Recent Changes in the Niger Delta Coastline Using Satellite Imagery, Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3 December, 2010. NDES, 2000 Hydrological Characteristics of the Niger Delta, Vol.49, NDES 2000, unpublished Scientific Research. Nwilo, P. C. & Onuoha, A. (1993) Environmental impacts of human activities on the coastal areas of Nigeria. In: Coastlines of Western Africa (ed. by L. F. Awosika & O. Magoon), American Society of Engineers. Nwilo, P. C. (1995) Sea level variations and the impacts along the Nigerian coastal areas. PhD Thesis, Environmental Resources Unit, University of Salford, Salford, UK. Pritam, C. and Prasenjit, A. (2010) Shoreline Change and Sea Level Rise Along Coast Of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa: An Analytical Approach Of Remote Sensing And Statistical Techniques; International Journal Of Geomatics And Geosciences Volume 1, No 3, 2010 Reide D, Walsh J.P, Cowart L, Riggs S.R, Ames D.V, Culver S.J, (2008), Shoreline change within the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, North Carolina. A white Paper Department of Geological Sciences, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences and 1Institute for Coastal Science and Policy East Carolina University Rivis, R (2005) Dynamics in Estonia Associated With Climate Change Shoreline

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

34

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Scienceand Technology

Comparison of L-moments of Probability Distributions for Extreme Value Analysis of Rainfall for Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge for Ungauged Catchments N. Vivekanandan Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge (PFD) at a desired location on a river is important for planning, design and management of hydraulic structures. For ungauged catchments, rainfall depth becomes an important input in derivation of PFD. So, rainfall depth can be estimated through frequency analysis by fitting of probability distributions to the rainfall data. In this paper, the series of annual 1-day maximum rainfall derived from daily rainfall data recorded at Una district is used to estimate the 1-day maximum rainfall adopting six probability distributions. Method of L-moments is used for determination of parameters of distributions. Goodness-of-Fit tests viz., Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov are applied for checking the adequacy of fitting of probability distributions to the recorded data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used for the selection of most suitable probability distribution for estimation of rainfall. Based on GoF test results and RMSE values, the study identifies the Extreme Value Type-1 (EV1) is better suited distribution for rainfall estimation. By applying the procedures, as described in CWC guidelines, the 1-hour value of distributed rainfall is computed from the estimated 1-day maximum rainfall using EV1 distribution and adopted for computation of PFD for ungauged catchments. The study suggests the computed PFD from rational formula could be considered for design of flood protection measures for river Swan and its tributaries joining the Beas river basin, Himachal Pradesh.

Keywords: Chi-square, Extreme Value, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mean Square Error, Rainfall, Peak Flood I. INTRODUCTION Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge (PFD) at a desired location on a river is important for planning, design and management of hydraulic structures such as dams, bridges, barrages and design of storm water drainage systems. These include different types of flood such as standard project flood, probable maximum flood and design basis flood. In case of large river basins, the hydrological and stream flow series of a significant duration are generally available. However, for ungauged catchments, more data is not available other than rainfall (NIH, 2011). The rainfall data is also of shorter duration and may pertain to a neighbouring basin. Rainfall depth thus becomes an important input in derivation of PFD (Singh et al., 2001). For arriving at such design values, Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) of rainfall is carried out. Out of number of probability distributions, Exponential (EXP), Extreme Value Type-1 (EV1), Extreme Value

Type-2 (EV2), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Generalized Pareto (GPA), and Normal (NOR) distributions are generally used in EVA of rainfall (Neslihan et al., 2010). Generally, Method of Moments (MoM) is used for determination of parameters of the distributions. But, the MoM is not giving satisfactory results though the method exists for a longer period. It is sometimes difficult to assess exactly what information about the shape of a distribution is conveyed by its moments of third and higher order; the numerical values of sample moments particularly when the sample is small, can be very different from those of the probability distribution from which the sample was drawn; and the estimated parameters of distributions fitted by the MoM are often less accurate than those obtained by other estimation procedures such as maximum likelihood method, method of least squares and probability weighted moments. To overcome this, the alternative approach, namely L-moments (LMO) is discussed in this paper and also used in EVA of rainfall (Hosking, 1990).

IJSRST151515 | Received: 15 November 2015 | Accepted: 20 November2015 | November-December2015 [(1)5: 35-41]

35

In the recent past, number of studies has been carried out by different researchers on adoption of probability distributions for Rainfall Frequency Analysis (RFA). Topaloglu (2002) reported that the frequency analysis of the largest, or the smallest, of a sequence of hydrologic events has long been an essential part of the design of hydraulic structures. Guevara (2003) carried out hydrologic analysis using probabilistic approach to estimate engineering design parameters of storms in Venezuela. Kumar and Chatterjee (2005) employed the LMO to define homogenous regions within 13 gauging sites of the north Brahmaputra region of India. Di Balldassarre et al. (2006) used the LMO for regionalization of annual precipitation in northern central Italy. Eslamian and Feizi (2007) carried out RFA using monthly maximum rainfall for an arid region in Isfahan Province (Iran) through LMO.

Error (RMSE) is used for the selection of most suitable probability distribution for estimation of rainfall. The objective of the paper is to compute PFD using rational formula for ungauged catchments of Beas River Basin (BRB) upstream of river Swan. The methodology adopted in EVA of rainfall using six probability distributions, estimation of PFD using rational formula, computation of GoF tests statistic and diagnostic index are briefly described in the ensuing sections.

Gonzalez and Valdes (2008) applied LMO for regionalization of monthly rainfall in the Jucar River basin. Yurekli et al. (2009) found GEV and 3-parameter Log-Normal (LN3) distributions (using LMO) as the regional distribution functions for the daily maximum rainfall of Cekerec watershed, Turkey. Gubareva and Gartsman (2010) analysed the extreme hydrometeorological characteristics adopting GEV, GPA, LN3 and Pearson distributions through LMO. Badreldin and Feng (2012) carried out the regional RFA for the Luanhe Basin, Hebei-China by using LMO and Cluster Techniques. But there is no general agreement in applying particular distribution for RFA for different region or country. Moreover, when different distributional models are used for modelling of rainfall data series, a common problem that arises is how to determine which model fits best for a given set of data. This can be answered by formal statistical procedures involving Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) tests and diagnostic index; and the results are quantifiable and reliable.

Theoretical Description of LMO

Qualitative assessment is made from the plots of the recorded and estimated rainfall. For quantitative assessment on rainfall within in the recorded range, Chi-square (2) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests are applied. A diagnostic index, say Root Mean Square

II. METHODOLOGY LMO is analogous to the conventional moments but can be estimated linear combination of order statistics, i.e., by L-statistics. LMO is less subject to bias in estimation and approximate their asymptotic normal distribution more closely in finite samples.

Method of LMO is a modification of the probability weighted moments method explored by Hosking and Wallis (1993). Parameters of the distribution are estimated by equating the sample LMO (lr) with the distribution of LMO (br). In practice, LMO must be estimated from a finite sample. Let R1N  R 2 N...R NN be the ordered sample of size N. The sample LMO is given by: (1)r  k (r  k )! bk 2 k  0 ( k!) ( r  k )! r

lr 1  

… (1)

where, l r 1 is the r+1th sample moment and bk is an unbiased estimator of k with

(i  1)(i  2).....( i  k ) R iN i  k 1 ( N  1)( N  2).....( N  k ) N

b k  N 1 

… (2)

The first two sample LMOs are expressed by:

l1  b0 and l2  2b1  b0

… (3)

Table 1 gives the details of quantile function and parameters six probability distributions considered in the study (Hosking and Wallis, 1997).

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

36

TABLE 1 QUANTILE FUNCTION AND PARAMETERS OF SIX PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS S.No. 1

Distribution EXP

Quantile function (RT) R T  ψ  μ log(1  F)

Parameters by LMO ψ (known); μ  l1

2

EV1

R T  ξ  α log( log F)

ξ  l1  0.5772157 α ; α  l2 / log 2

3

EV2

R T  αe(  ln(  ln( F)) / k

By using the logarithmic transformation of the recorded data, parameters of EV1 are initially obtained by LMO; and used to determine the parameters of EV2 from α  e ξ and k=1/(scale

4

GEV

R T  ξ  α(1   log F ) / k k

parameter of EV1). z  (2 /(3  t 3 )  (ln 2 / ln 3); k  7.8590 z  2.9554 z 2 ; α  l2k /(1  2 k )Γ(1  k ); ξ  l1  (α(Γ(1  k)  1) / k)

5

GPA

R T  ξ  α(1  1  F ) / k k

ξ  l1  l2 (k  2) ; k  (4 /(t 3  1))  3

α  (1  k)(2  k)l2 6

NOR

R T  μ  σφ1 (F)

μ  l1; σ  l 2 π

In Table 1, F(R) (or F) is the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of R; P is the probability of exceedance;

 1 is the inverse of the standard normal distribution function and φ 1  Z P  (P 0.135  (1  P) 0.135 ) / 0.1975 ;

ξ , α , k are the location, scale and shape parameters respectively; µ (or R ),  (or SR) and CS (or ) are the average, standard deviation and coefficient of skewness of the recorded rainfall data; sign(k) is plus or minus 1 depending on the sign of k ; R T is the estimated rainfall by probability distributions corresponding to return period T (in year). Goodness-of-Fit Tests GoF tests are essential for checking the adequacy of probability distributions to the series of recorded rainfall data. Out of a number GoF tests available, the widely accepted GoF tests are 2 and KS, which are used in the study. The theoretical descriptions of GoF tests statistic (Charles Annis, 2009) are as follows: 2statistic: NC

χ2  

j1

O (R)  E (R) j

j

2

... (4)

E j (R )

where, O j (R ) is the observed frequency value of j

th

class, E j (R ) is the expected frequency value of jth class and NC is the number of frequency classes. The

rejection region of 2 statistic at the desired significance level () is given by χ C2  χ12η, NCm1 . Here, m denotes the number of parameters of the distribution and χ C2 is the computed value of 2 statistic by PDF. KS statistic: KS  MaxFe R i   FD R i  N

... (5)

i1

where, Fe R i   M /(N  1) is the empirical CDF of R i and FD R i  is the computed CDF of R i (Zhang, 2002). Here, M is the rank assigned to each R i . If the computed values of GoF tests statistic given by the distribution are less than that of the theoretical values at the desired significance level () then the distribution is found to be acceptable for modelling the series of rainfall data. Diagnostic Index The selection of most suitable distribution for estimation of rainfall is performed through diagnostic index, say RMSE, which is defined by: RMSE = 1 N  R i  R *i  N

2

… (6)

i 1

Here, Ri is the recorded rainfall of ith sample and R *i is the estimated rainfall ith sample by probability distribution. The distribution having the least RMSE is considered as better suited distribution for estimation of rainfall.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

37

III. APPLICATION In this paper, a study on estimation of PFD for different return periods for 12 catchments of BRB upstream of river Swan is carried out. The estimated 1-day maximum rainfall obtained from the selected probability distribution through GoF tests and diagnostic index is considered as an input to estimate the PFD using CWC guidelines. The Annual 1-day Maximum Rainfall (AMR) recorded at Una district for the period of 20 years from 1995 to 2014, as presented in Figure 1, is used. The descriptive statistics such as

estimation of 1-day maximum rainfall for different return periods. Table 2 gives the 1-day maximum rainfall estimates for different return periods adopting six probability distributions. These estimates were used to develop the rainfall frequency curves and presented in Figure 2.

average rainfall ( R ), standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Coefficient of Skewness (CS) and coefficient of kurtosis of the recorded AMR are computed as 173.0 mm, 70.3 mm, 40.6 %, 0.885 and 0.378 respectively.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS By applying the procedures of LMO of six probability distributions, parameters were determined and used for

Figure 1: Times series plot of recorded AMR

TABLE 2 ESTIMATED 1-DAY MAXIMUM RAINFALL USING SIX PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Probability Distribution EXP EV1 EV2 GEV GPA NOR

2-year 148.7 161.0 149.1 158.8 156.6 173.0

Estimated rainfall for different return periods 5-year 10-year 20-year 50-year 100-year 221.3 276.1 331.0 403.5 458.4 225.7 268.6 309.7 362.9 402.7 208.9 261.1 323.3 426.5 524.8 223.4 268.4 313.1 373.7 421.0 233.7 278.7 314.6 351.3 372.7 232.1 262.9 288.4 317.1 336.2

Rainfall Frequency Curves (RFCs) The 1-day maximum rainfall estimates obtained from six probability distributions (using LMO) are used to develop the RFCs and presented in Figure 2. From the trend lines of the fitted curves, as presented in Figure 2, it can be seen that there is a perfect line of agreement in the upper and lower tail regions while estimating the rainfall using EV1 distribution for the data under study.

Figure 2: Plots of recorded 1-day maximum rainfall and RFCs using six probability distributions

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

37

Analysis Based on GoF Tests For the present study, the degree of freedom (NC-m-1) is considered as one for 3-parameter distributions (GEV and GPA) and two for 2-parameter distributions (EXP,

EV1, EV2 and NOR) while computing the 2 statistic values for the data under study. The GoF tests results were computed from Eqs. (4) and (5), and given in Table 3.

TABLE 3 COMPUTED AND THEORETICAL VALUES OF GOF TESTS Probability distribution EXP EV1 EV2 GEV GPA NOR

Computed value 2.000 2.000 4.000 2.000 2.500 4.000

2 Theoretical value at 5% level 5.990 5.990 5.990 3.841 3.841 5.990

Computed value 0.149 0.090 0.163 0.091 0.099 0.120

KS Theoretical value at 5% level 0.294 0.294 0.294 0.294 0.294 0.294

From Table 3, it may be noted that the computed values of 2 and KS tests results obtained from six probability distributions are not greater than the theoretical values at 5% level of significance, and at this level, all six distributions are found to be acceptable for modelling the series of AMR recorded at Una district.

the corresponding values of other probability distributions. But, from Figure 2, it can be seen that the rainfall estimates obtained from GPA and GEV distributions are not convincible in upper tail region when compared to the rainfall estimates of EV1 distribution.

Analysis Based on Diagnostic Index

By considering the trend lines of the fitted curves by the probability distributions in the tail regions, it is identified that the EV1 is the most appropriate distribution for estimation of rainfall at Una district, which was also confirmed through GoF tests results.

For the selection of most suitable probability distribution for estimation of rainfall, the diagnostic index, say RMSE values of six probability distributions are computed from Eq. (6) and given in Table 4.

Computation of Peak Flood Discharge TABLE 4 COMPUTED VALUES OF RMSE OF SIX PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Data RMSE (mm) values using series EXP EV1 EV2 GEV GPA NOR Una 13.6 13.0 17.9 12.8 11.4 19.4

It was required to estimate PFD for 12 catchments of BRB upstream of river Swan. The area of the catchments is presented in Table 5. From an observation of catchment size and at the Google Earth of the region of these catchments it was estimated that these are small catchments that respond quickly to rainfall, tc (time of concentration)  1-hour.

From Table 4, it may be noted that the RMSE values computed from GPA, GEV and EV1 distributions are the first, second and third minimum when compared to

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

39

TABLE 5 CATCHMENT AREA OF DIFFERENT STREAMS S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Name of catchment Babchar Khad Raipur Khad Mundwara Khad Bhatoli Khad Dangah Khad Pithripur Khad

Area (km2) S.No. Name of catchment 3.750 7 Joh Khad 3.125 8 Bangi Khad 4.625 9 Kothi Khad 4.375 10 Jhakhar Khad 7.250 11 Kohwali Khad 12.000 12 Phakruwali Khad

In the absence of the short duration rainfall, say,1-hour, 2-hour, 3-hour, etc., the same was computed from estimated 1-day maximum rainfall by using conversion factors, as given in Central Water Commission (CWC) report entitled „Flood estimation report for Western Himalayas-Zone 7‟ (CWC, 1994). For the present study, the estimated 1-day maximum rainfall is multiplied with the factor of 0.425 to compute the 1-hour value of distributed rainfall and presented in Table 6. TABLE 6 1-HOUR DISTRIBUTED RAINFALL FOR DIFFERENT RETURN PERIODS 1-hour distributed rainfall (I: mm) for 25102050100year year year year year year 68.4 95.9 114.2 131.6 154.2 171.1

Area (km2) 14.500 5.500 7.250 12.250 5.250 3.750

The distributed 1-hour rainfall was used as input for computation of PFD as the catchment areas of different tributaries of BRB are in the range of 3.125 km2 to 14.5 km2. These streams are ungauged and hence the PFD for ungauged catchments is computed by using rational formula, which is given below: q = 0.278 * C I A … (7) 3 where, q is peak discharge (m /s), C is runoff coefficient, I is rainfall intensity (mm/hour) and A is catchment area (km2). By considering topography of the river basin, the value of the C is considered as 0.55 while computing the PFD. The computed PFD for 12 catchments of BRB are presented in Table 7, which could be taken as design flood for the streams.

TABLE 7 PEAK FLOOD DISCHARGE (m3/s) FOR 12 CATCHMENTS OF BRB S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Name of the catchment Babchar Khad Raipur Khad Mundwara Khad Bhatoli Khad Dangah Khad Pithripur Khad Joh Khad Bangi Khad Kothi Khad Jhakhar Khad Kohwali Khad Phakruwali Khad

2-year 39.2 32.7 48.4 45.8 75.9 125.5 151.7 57.5 75.9 128.2 54.9 39.2

5-year 55.0 45.8 67.8 64.2 106.3 176.0 212.7 80.7 106.3 179.7 77.0 55.0

PFD (m3/s) for 10-year 20-year 65.5 75.5 54.5 62.9 80.7 93.1 76.4 88.0 126.5 145.9 209.5 241.5 253.1 291.8 96.0 110.7 126.5 145.9 213.8 246.5 91.6 105.7 65.5 75.5

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

50-year 88.4 73.7 109.1 103.2 171.0 283.0 341.9 129.7 171.0 288.9 123.8 88.4

100-year 98.1 81.8 121.0 114.5 189.7 314.0 379.4 143.9 189.7 320.6 137.4 98.1

40

V. CONCLUSIONS The paper describes briefly the study carried out for EVA of rainfall using a computer aided procedure for determination of parameters of six probability distributions (using LMO). The selection of most suitable distribution was evaluated by GoF tests (using 2 and KS) and diagnostic index (using RMSE). By using the maximum value of 1-hour distributed rainfall, runoff coefficient and catchment area of different streams, the PFD for 12 ungauged catchments of BRB were computed through rational formula. The following conclusions are drawn from the study: i) The GoF tests results supported the use of all six probability distributions (using LMO) for modelling the series of AMR. ii) Based on GoF tests results, diagnostic index and rainfall frequency curves, EV1 distribution was found to be most suitable distribution for estimation of 1-day maximum rainfall. iii) The estimated 1-day maximum rainfall was used to compute 1-hour maximum value of distributed rainfall adopting CWC guidelines described in Flood estimation report for Western HimalayasZone 7. iv) By using the 1-hour distributed rainfall, the PFD for 12 ungauged catchments of BRB upstream of river Swan was computed from rational formula. v) The study suggested that the PFD, as given in Table 7, could be considered for design of flood protection measures for river Swan and its tributaries joining the BRB, Himachal Pradesh.

VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is grateful to Dr. S. K. Srivastava, Director In-charge, Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), Pune, for providing the research facilities to carry out the study. The author is thankful to Dr. R. G. Patil, Scientist-D, CWPRS, for the supply of rainfall data.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8] [9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

VII. REFERENCES [1]

Charles Annis, P.E., Goodness-of-Fit tests for statistical distributions, http://www.statistical engineering.com/ goodness.html], 2009. Central Water Commission (CWC), Flood estimation report for Western Himalayas-Zone 7, CWC Design Office Report No.: WH/22/1994, New Delhi, 1994. Di Balldassarre, G., Castellarin, A. and Brath, A., Relationships between statistics of rainfall extremes and mean annual precipitation: an application for design-storm estimation in northern central Italy, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2006, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 589–601. Eslamian, S.S, and Feizi, H,, Maximum monthly rainfall analysis using L-Moments for an arid region in Isfahan Province, Iran, Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 2007, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 494-503. Gonzalez, J. and Valdes, J.B., A regional monthly precipitation simulation model based on an L-moment smoothed statistical regionalization approach, Journal of Hydrology, 2008, Vol. 348, No. 1, pp. 27-39. Gubareva, T.S. and Gartsman, B.I., Estimating distribution parameters of extreme hydrometeorological characteristics by L-Moment method, Water Resources, 2010, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 437–445. Guevara, E., “Engineering design parameters of storms in Venezuela”, Hydrology Days, pp. 80-91, 2003. Hosking, J.R.M, L-moments: Analysis and estimation of distributions using linear combinations of order statistics, Royal Statistical Society, Series-B, 1990, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 105-124. Hosking, J.R.M. and Wallis, J.R., Some statistics useful in regional frequency analysis”, Water Resources Research, 1993, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 271-281. Hosking, J.R.M. and Wallis, J.R., Regional frequency analysis: an approach based on L-moments, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Kumar, R. and Chatterjee, C., Regional flood frequency analysis using L-Moments for north Barhamputra region of India, Hydrologic Engineering, 2005, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1–7. National Institute of Hydrology (NIH), Technical note on hydrological process in an ungauged catchment, 2011, pp. 1-163. Neslihan, S., Recep, Y., Tefaruk, H. and Ahmet, D., Comparison of probability weighted moments and maximum likeli-hood methods used in flood frequency analysis for Ceyhan river basin, Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, 2010, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 49-69. Singh, R.D., Mishra, S.K. and Chowdhary, H., Regional flow duration models for 1200 ungauged Himalayan watersheds for planning micro-hydro projects, ASCE Journal of. Hydrologic Engineering, 2001, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 310-316. Topaloglu, F., Determining suitable probability distribution models for flow and precipitation series of the Seyhan River basin, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2002, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 189 – 194. Yurekli, K., Modarres, R. and Ozturk, F., Regional daily maximum rainfall estimation for Cekerek Watershed by Lmoments, Meteorological Applications, 2009, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 435-444. Zhang, J., Powerful goodness-of-fit tests based on the likelihood ratio, Journal of Royal Statistical Society, 2002,Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 281-294.

Badreldin, G.H.H. and Feng, P., Regional rainfall frequency analysis for the Luanhe Basin using L-moments and cluster techniques, International Conference on Environmental Science and Development, 5-7 January 2012, Hong Kong, Vol. 1, pp. 126–135.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

41

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Science and Technology

Students' Perception to Psychological Counselling Services at Omdurman Islamic University in Khartoum State-Sudan Eldood Yousif Eldood Ahmed, 2Husain Abdallah Ahmed, 3Eman Elkheir Awad

1*

1

Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jazan-K.S.A. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Omdurman Islamic-Sudan

2,3

ABSTRACT This study was conducted during (2012- 2013) in Omdurman Islamic University, Khartoum State-Sudan. The study aimed to investigating the student perception toward psychological counseling services. Researchers used descriptive methods, by applied psychological counseling services questionnaire which designed by researchers. The community of this study consisted of (950) students. Sample was chosen randomly included (61) students included male (29) and female (32). The researchers used statistical package for social sciences program (SPSS). Also, the researcher used a number of statistical processes which are: T-test for one sample, T-test for independent sample, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the results are following: The level of psychological counseling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student, is significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the gender, no significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence, no relationship between the view of students about psychological counseling services and age variable. Key words: Perception, Psychological Counseling, Counseling Services.

I. INTRODUCTION The study of Chemba (2009) showed that the term “school counseling” broadly refers to the process of meeting the needs of students in several areas of development, such as academic, career, and personal. Experts agree that professional school counseling programmes should be “comprehensive in scope, preventative in design and developmental in nature.” counseling is that while guidance focuses on helping individuals choose what they value most, counseling focuses on helping them make changes”. Geoffrey & et al (2012) showed that counseling maintains a small yet growing presence in Jamaica as a profession. Practitioners are confronted with several societal problems. The authors provide a historical overview of Jamaica and a synopsis of the development of counseling. The emergence of counseling services through the limitations of psychiatry and psychology

sets the stage for current practices and notable involvement of guidance counselors. It is concluded that the continued growth and effectiveness of counseling is dependent on overcoming negative attitudes and economic barriers. Meral (2014) point that investigated the activities of school counselors, their perceptions of collaboration with school staff, and their feelings of efficacy when working as school counselors indicated that classroom and group guidance activities were performed regularly at the schools, especially for personal-social needs and student development. Among the responsive services, individual counseling was the activity in which the most time was spent, followed in order by consultation, crisis counseling, and referrals to outside agencies. In addition, personal-social issues and problems were most common in individual interviews and counseling, followed by educational and career issues. All the school counsellors in the study expressed that they perceived themselves as efficacious and

IJSRST151516 | Received: 15 November 2015 | Accepted: 23 November 2015 | November-December 2015 [(1)5: 42-51]

42

attributed this perception to various counselor-related factors. Furthermore. Wyndolyn & et al (2012) indicated seven primary themes perceived by the participants, some of which included their understanding and purpose of professional school counselors and their perceptions of students who received the most support. Janeé & et al (2015) aimed at explored master's-level counseling students' (N = 804) perceptions of training in the Council for accreditation of counseling and related Educational Programs. Indicate that training perceptions and quantitative research attitudes were low to moderate. Qi & et al (2014) found that female students rated school counselors' availability significantly higher than male students did. Also, students who had received prior counseling services rated counselors significantly higher in the following areas than did students who had never received counseling services: knowledge of achievement tests, friendliness and approachability, understanding students' point of view, advocating for students, promptness in responding to requests, ability to explain things clearly, reliability to keep promises, availability, and overall effectiveness. found an interaction effect between gender and use or nonuse of counseling services. In general, students gave positive evaluations of school counselors and were satisfied with counseling services. Delila & et al (2011) participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic and personal/social performance. The study of Bo Young & et al (2013) attitudes toward counseling had positive effects on their WTP, whereas the year in college and social stigma had negative effects. The results provide policy makers with preliminary evidence of the monetary value of career counseling. The study of Peiwei. L & et al (2013) pointed that controlling for attitudes toward psychological help-seeking and past counseling experience, academic stress was significantly and positively related to willingness to seek counseling for academic problems. The qualitative analyses revealed positive perceptions of counseling as well as a personal reluctance to seek counseling. Renee & et al (2013) suggest student athletes have strong preferences for counselor characteristics, including familiarity with sports, gender, and age. Neeta & et al(2011) indicated no difference in perceptions of career counseling between a holistic career counseling role induction and one that included socialized male perceptions of

counseling. Tracy & et al (2011) revealed that students did not perceive that they were competent or confident conducting career counseling. Mia & et al (2014) pointed that hispanic students are overrepresented at institutions not offering counseling to their students and underrepresented in institutions offering some form of counseling. Yii-Nii (2012) pointed that counselors highlight diverse and multi-channelled counselling services as key to ever-changing students, and emphasize counseling services to match characteristics, leverage strengths, and complement weaknesses of students. In addition, counselors emphasize the importance of advocacy of counseling services and the establishment of a professional image and reputation for university counseling centers. Yilfashewa (2011) showed that students do not have sufficient knowledge on the kind and the extent of guidance counseling services offered in the university campuses. However, about 80 percent of the respondents claimed that they have favorable attitudes toward the guidance counseling services in general. In the study, examination on the differences with respect to certain variables (such as programs, sex, and locality) in perceptions and attitudes toward the guidance counseling services are vigilantly scrutinized. At the end, pertinent suggestions that would assist Ethiopian universities in the sector of guidance counseling are included. Timothy& et al (2013) found that their professional roles continue to be narrowly focused on special education-related activities, such as individualized assessment and eligibility determination. The current study focused specifically on school psychologists' provision of school-based counseling, perceptions of the importance for school psychologists to assume the responsibility of providing school-based counseling services. Sung-Kyung & et al(2014) indicated that working alliance fully mediated the relationship between client expectations of counseling success and counseling outcome. In addition, moderation of counseling expectations by working alliance on counseling outcome was supported. Fred & et al (2010) pointed that college students revealed more positive attitudes toward counseling than did South Asian students. Second, in terms of mediation, increased personal stigma, but not perceived stigma, expressed by South Asians partially mediated and accounted for 32% of the observed difference in attitudes toward counseling services. These findings support a longstanding conjecture in the literature regarding the increased significance of stigma processes on disparities

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

43

in majority-minority help-seeking attitudes. They also suggest that efforts to reduce disparities in attitudes toward counseling for South Asian students specifically should incorporate interventions to reduce the increased stigma expressed by this community, particularly related to a desire for social distance from persons with a mental illness. Jennifer & et al (2014) showed that through in-depth interviews, the authors examined 10 master's-level counseling students' perceptions of gatekeeping. Case analysis resulted in 3 major themes pertaining to the necessity of gatekeeping, vital components, and counseling student characteristics. Brian & et al (2014) investigated college and university counseling center directors' perceptions of the adequacy of the preparation of master's-level counselors for work in college and university counseling centers. Results indicated that counselors were rated on average as prepared; however, many directors had concerns about counselors' ability to work with students presenting more severe mental health issues. Literature Review The study conducted by Nathalie (2010) pointed that the qualitative case study explored teachers' perceptions and attitudes toward counselling services and alternative programs for students with emotional and behavioural disabilities. suggested that counselling is an effective method of educating students with disabilities that allows them to gain social, communication, and problem solving skills. Teachers reported alternative programs as being successful in assuring the high school graduation of this population of students. Alternative programs were found successful when they followed untraditional graduation requirements. Students with emotional and behavioural disabilities who received such services gained confidence, academic success and ameliorated their relationships. Geoff & et al (2014) revealed that self-concealment was negatively related to attitudes toward both f2f and online counselling, while openness to experience and disclosure expectations were positively related. However, whereas self-stigma was associated with negative attitudes toward f 2f counselling, it was not related to attitudes toward online counseling. In addition, disclosure expectations accounted for f 2f attitudes more than online attitudes. Jon & et al (2014) found from the difference of actual pre counseling well-being to current well-being scores. Retrospective methods for assessing pre counselling

functioning are best suited for comparison among clients or counseling processes. Marjorie (2010) explored that teacher attitudes and characteristics relating to recognizing and identifying students' needs for family counselling and their self-reported likelihood to refer them for school-based family counseling services. Blanca (2015) point that a need to improve community college counseling services. Thus, based on the research findings and other published research, this study proposes a set of the following: (a) guidelines for applying cultura (culture) to community college counselling that can assist relationship building between students and counsellors; (b) questions that can be included in students' evaluation of counsellors; (c) counsellor interview questions that may elicit behavioural response and assess cultural competence; and (d) community college students' preferred counsellor characteristics that may be used by hiring committees. Christopher (2011) indicated that after watching a simulated video counselling session students placed greater value in video counselling, felt less discomfort with video counselling, and expected video counseling to be an effective and satisfactory approach. Byrne & et al(2014) pointed that the present study explored the use of counseling among counsellor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Non consumers indicated that they coped with problems in other ways but would consider counseling if they experienced trauma. Adebayo I. Onabule & et al (2013) pointed that international students experience significant stressors while studying in American colleges and universities, yet they use psychological services far less than domestic students. Factors such as previous experience with counseling, perceived effectiveness of counselling style, and nationality were found to be factors affecting international students' use of counseling services. Mine & et al (2014) indicated that five main themes: counseling Skills, Specific Skills Training Methods, Perceptions of counseling, Being a Counselor Candidate, the Learning and Teaching Process of counseling Skills. The results also showed that within the scope of systematic counseling skills training programs, using various skill training methods and instructional technologies which are integrated compatibly was effective. At the same time, the results indicated that counseling skills training provided an

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

44

increase in professional competency and helped to develop the professional identity of counsellor candidates. Eric & et al (2012)In this qualitative study, eight school counselors participated in a series of reality play counselling trainings introducing techniques appropriate for counselling upper-grade elementary school students to enhance positive relationship building and problem solving skills. Participants were interviewed and their transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods which yielded four core categories: positive aspects of perceptions. Walter & et al (2015) demonstrated that being female, teaching at the elementary level, and holding special education certification are predictors of a teacher's positive perception. Sarika & et al (2014) pointed that there were few notable and significant differences in either utilization or perceptions of care, based on sociodemographic or health status characteristics. showing positive perceptions of care suggest that adolescents would be amenable to additional counseling or education services. Ghaleb (2013) pointed that this study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. The findings indicated that teachers hold positive attitudes toward transition services. Also, this study found no differences in teachers' attitudes based on their gender. Bong & et al(2014) indicated that international students underutilized counselling services in all but one year examined, more female international students used the service than males, the majority of international students who did access counseling services were Asian, and the majority of students who accessed services kept appointments after intake sessions. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed. Lagena (2010) indicated that there is a need for further student training in career transition from the community college to employment. Results from this study indicate that the majority of community college students who responded perceive that more career counseling services would assist them in their transition into the world of work after graduation. Kathleen(2012) investigated differences in perceptions of heterosexual dating IPV and help-seeking recommendations for a friend as a function of scenario type (male perpetrator/female

victim and female perpetrator/male victim) and participant sex. The study also examined gender role attitudes and attitudes toward dating violence that have been associated with perceptions of dating showed that women were more likely than men to hold more egalitarian gender role attitudes, be less accepting of dating violence, perceive the behaviours in the dating scenario as more serious, and be more likely to recommend that a friend seek help at the counselling center. Sibel & et al (2012) pointed that positive contribution of the technology and the importance of counseling services were wished to be indicated. School counselling services were conducted to illustrate the importance of online counselling services in the study. and qualitative data analysis was done according to Thematic analysis. Nationality, Gender differences, school counsellors views about online counseling services, school counsellors students' numbers and academicians' views about online counseling services are significant variables for the study. The findings indicate that online counselling services are essential for school environment to make contribution and to provide more services to students about school counseling services. Joshua (2006) pointed that the perceptions of counselling services held by student-athletes might be changing. Time management continues to be a factor in not seeking counseling help for many student-athletes while perceptions of others and social stigma appear to be less important factors for student-athletes than they may have been in the past. Ashley & et al (2014) indicated that these services are underutilized. Perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may potentially serve as barriers to treatment. The results of the present study illustrate a range of perceptions and highlight the value of educating future consumers and practitioners about the roles of various MHSPs in providing mental health services. Future research is proposed. Ginger & et al (2008) showed that student perceptions of program cultural ambience predicted positive cognitive attitudes toward racial diversity. Participatory instructional strategies predicted positive affective attitudes toward racial diversity. Eunju & et al (2008) indicated less exposure to counseling, less self-perceived need for counselling, greater discomfort/shame with counselling, less openness to counseling, a greater preference for a directive style, and a greater preference for a flexible counseling format. Language and cultural concerns were barriers to seeking counselling. Maynard & et al (1997) indicate that

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

45

scenarios depicting a 15-year-old were rated as less abusive, and less responsibility was attributed to the adult, relative to vignettes involving a 7-year-old. Respondents also rated scenarios depicting opposite-sex interactions as less abusive relative to scenarios describing same-sex interactions. When vignettes depicted a 15-year-old, less blame was attributed to the adult relative to when vignettes depicted a 7-year-old with an adult of either sex, with the least amount of blame being attributed to the adult involved with an adolescent of the opposite-sex. Gender-role attitudes were not significantly related to ratings of abusiveness or attributions of responsibility and blame. Banikiotes& et al(1981) show that (a) S's ratings of comfort in disclosing was greater with female rather than male and with egalitarian rather than traditional Cs, (b) female egalitarian Cs were perceived as most expert, whereas female traditional Cs were perceived as least expert, and (c) male traditional Cs were perceived as least trustworthy. The presence of C gender and C sex role effects and the absence of effects as a function of problem type and Ss' sex role orientation are discussed. Nelson (1933) pointed that most effect sizes for gender have been small to moderate. A social psychological model of gender differences that might inform the research on counselling process and outcome is presented. Nagalakshmi & et al (2002) revealed that patients' positive perceptions of their counsellors. Bett & et al (2013) found that the perception of head teachers and teacher counsellors on the effectiveness of peer counselling among students was negative. It also found that the designation and gender of an individual does not influence their perceptions. Beidoğlu & et al (2015) revealed that the school counsellors had overall positive opinions about the use of ICT in school counselling. No significant differences were found according to gender and age. The study conducted by Repetto (2002) pointed that the first dimension relates to the attitudes of counsellors and beliefs concerning race, culture, ethnic groups, gender and sexual orientations; the need to assess prejudices and stereotypes and to develop counselling that is positive towards multiculturalism, and the way in which the values and thoughts of counsellors can affect the counselling and therapy, positive concept of self and of self-esteem, as well as the development of inter-personal relationships and mutual respect amongst students from different backgrounds. Christopher &et al (2001) expected that men who were gender-role conflicted had negative

reactions to all 3 treatment formats. Janet & et al (1989) showed that the average difference between ratings of men and women is negligible. Furthermore, although the effect sizes are not homogeneous. Ojeda & et al (2011) indicated that perceived educational barriers significantly predicted students' educational aspirations above and beyond the influence of gender, generation level, and parents' education level. Aims of Study The aims of this study to a. Explore the level of psychological counseling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student. b. Know the differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the gender. c. Know the differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence. d. Know the relationship between the view of students about psychological counseling services and age variable. Question of Study 1. The question of this study, to verify their aims by answer following question are: 2. What the level of psychological counseling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student? 3. What the differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the gender? 4. What the differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence? 5. What the relationship between the view of students about psychological counseling services and age variable?

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL 2.1 Method Research Approach: In a study, the researchers used descriptive method, depend on analytical technique. In addition, were consists of questionnaire adapted by the researcher.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

46

2.2 Study Group: It formed from male and female student in Omdurman Islamic university, Khartoum state, Sudan (800) of male and female student in Omdurman Islamic university. 2.3 Sampling: The researchers used a simply random sampling method. The sample was consist of (61) student in Omdurman Islamic university.

greater than the sig value (0.05), this is means that the level of psychological counselling services among of Omdurman Islamic university student is significant. Table 1. Showed the level of psychological counselling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student. Variable

Mean Standard

Means

In order to ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire form, it distributed to four instructors who had completed their doctorates and this form developed in accordance with the opinions of the instructors, then pilot were conducted and the value of reliability was found. It was about (0.90) and after that, the questionnaire forms became ready for application. 2.5 Practical Procedures:

Counseling Services

70

T

Sig

value

2.4 Supervisors-Questionnaire Techniques: The questionnaire was prepared by the researchers, is formed from (20) phrases distributed into two types positive and negative phrases.

Std

58.2

12.5 36.4

0.00

3.2 What the differences in view of students about psychological counselling services according to the gender? To answer this question, the researcher used (T) test for independent sample, table (2) shows the result. When we compare the mean of male (57.7), with mean of female (58.7). I found the mean is greater than standard mean and the significant level (0.76) is greater than the sig value (0.05), this is means no significant differences of psychological counselling services according to the gender variable.

The principle of voluntarism was the pre-condition of participating in questionnaire. For the questionnaire, an explanation was prepared. The goal of the research and Table 2. Showed the differences in view of students how the study would be carried out were clearly stated about psychological counselling services according in it. In addition, it was emphasized that the identities of to the gender the participants would remain confidential. During the questionnaire, written forms were used. Questionnaire Variable N Mean Std T Value df sig took place between 1-2 weeks, and the researcher used mail 29 57.7 14.4 -0.31 59 0.8 E-mailing technique to answering the questionnaire. 2.6 Data Analysis:

female

After collecting data, the researcher used: T- test for one sample, T-test for independent samples test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pearson correlation coefficient, to examine the study hypotheses depend to SPSS program.

III. RESULTS 3.1.What the level of psychological counselling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student? To answer this question, the researcher used (T) test for one sample, table (1) shows the result. When we compare the mean respectively (58.18), with standard mean (70). Researchers found the mean is greater than standard mean and the significant level (0.00) is

32

58.7 10.7

3. 3 What the differences in view of students about psychological counselling services according to the place of residence? To answer this question, the researcher used pearson correlation, table (3) shows the result. When we compare the city value (58.10), with village level (56.69). I found the it , greater than significant level (0.05), this is means that no significant differences of psychological counselling services according to the place of residence. Table 3. Shows the differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

47

Variable

N

Mean

Std

city

43

58.10 12.86

village

16

56.69 10.04

T Value

df

sig

0.64

59

0.5

3.4 What the relationship between the view of students about psychological counselling services and age variable? To answer this question, the researcher used pearson correlation, table (3) shows the result. When we compare the correlation value (0.23), with standard sigma level (0.08). I found the mean is greater than significant level (0.05) this is means that, no relationship between psychological counselling services and age variable. Table 4. Showed the relationship between the view of students about psychological counselling services and age variable Variable Counselling & age

Correlation value 0.23

Sig 0.08

IV. DISCUSSION When the researcher analysed the data the results are as following: 1. The level of psychological counseling services among Omdurman Islamic university student is positive, this means psychological counseling services is good. This result is On line many studies. Walter & et al (2015) indicated that female, teaching at the elementary level, and holding special education certification are predictors of a teacher's positive perception. Qi & et al (2014) students gave positive evaluations of school counselors and were satisfied with counseling services. Nathalie (2010) pointed that counseling is an effective method of educating students with disabilities that allows them to gain social, communication, and problem solving skills. Bo Young & et al (2013) pointed that attitudes toward counseling had positive effects on their WTP. Brian & et al (2014) indicated that teachers hold positive attitudes toward transition services. Ginger & et al (2008) showed that student perceptions of program cultural ambience predicted positive cognitive attitudes toward racial diversity. Joshua(2006) suggested that the perceptions of counseling services held by studentathletes might be changing. Eric& Mary A. Clark (2012)Indicate that positive aspects of perception of counseling. Eunju& et al (2008) indicated less exposure to counseling. Marjorie (2010) indicated that teacher attitudes and characteristics relating to recognizing and

identifying students' needs for family counseling and their self-reported likelihood to refer them for schoolbased family counseling services. Delila &et al (2011) indicate that positive feelings toward their school counselors. Peiwei & et al (2013) positive perceptions of counseling as well as a personal reluctance to seek counseling. Byrne & et al (2014) showed that systematic counseling skills training programs are integrated compatibly was effective, an increase in professional competency and helped to develop the professional identity of counselor candidates. Christopher (2011) Mine & et al(2014) indicate that perceptions of counseling was effective. Amita (2014) indicated that perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may potentially serve as barriers to treatment. Nagalakshmi & et al (2002) revealed that patients' positive perceptions of their counselors. Beidoğlu & et al (2015) revealed that the school counselors had overall positive opinions about the use of ICT in school counseling. Repetto (2002) pointed that the need to assess prejudices and stereotypes and to develop counseling that is positive towards multiculturalism. Neeta & et al (2011) indicate that influence of role induction on men's perceptions of career counseling and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Disagreement the study conducted by, Janeé & et al (2015) indicate that Training perceptions and quantitative research attitudes were low to moderate. Sigilai (2013) found that the perception of head teachers and teacher counselors on the effectiveness of peer counseling among students was negative. Bett & et al (2013) found that the perception of head teachers and teacher counselors on the effectiveness of peer counseling among students was negative. Mia & et al (2014) Hispanic students are overrepresented at institutions not offering counseling to their students and underrepresented in institutions offering some form of counseling. Yilfashewa (2011) indicate that students do not have sufficient knowledge the extent of guidance counseling services offered in the university campuses. However, about 80 % of the respondents claimed that they have favorable attitudes toward the guidance counseling services in general. Tracy & et al (2011) revealed that students did not perceive that they were competent or confident conducting career counseling. Renee & et al (2013) point that student athletes have strong preferences for counselor characteristics. Geoff & et al (2014) Indicate that negative attitudes toward counseling, it was not related to attitudes toward online counseling. Bett & et al (2013) found that the perception of head teachers and teacher counselors on the effectiveness of peer counseling among students was negative. 2. There is no significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

48

the gender. On line The study conducted by Ghaleb (2013) indicate that no differences in teachers' attitudes based on their gender. Bett & et al (2013) found that the gender of an individual does not influence their perceptions. Maynard & et al (1997) indicate that Gender-role attitudes were not significantly related to ratings of abusiveness or attributions of responsibility and blame. Christopher & et al (2001) expected that men who were gender-role conflicted had negative reactions to all 3 treatment formats. Nelson, Mary(1933) pointed that most effect sizes for gender have been small to moderate. A social psychological model of gender differences that might inform the research on counseling process and outcome is presented. In addition this result is not agreed the study of, Banikiotes & et al (1981) showed the presence of counseling gender effects as a function of problem type. Qi & et al (2014) indicated that female students rated school counselors' availability significantly higher than male students did in addition point that an interaction effect between gender and use or nonuse of counseling services. Yilfashewa (2011) indicated that differences with respect to in perceptions and attitudes toward the guidance counseling services according to sex. Robert & et al (2014) indicated that more female international students used the service than males, the majority of international students who did access counseling services were Asian, and the majority of students who accessed services kept appointments after intake sessions. Kathleen (2012) showed that women were more likely than men to hold more egalitarian gender role attitudes. Walter &et al (2015) demonstrated that being female, teaching at the elementary level, and holding special education certification are predictors of a teacher's positive perception. Janet& et al (1989) showed that the average difference between ratings of men and women is negligible. Beidoğlu & et al (2015) pointed that no significant differences were found according to gender. Repetto (2002) specialists in the subject consider that multiculturalism should include differences based on gender. Sibel & et al (2012) indicate that counseling services are significant differences according to the gender variable. 3. There are significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence (culture). On line the study conducted by Shali & et al (2007) showed that the effect of this cultural difference in focus on how people remember and perceive. Repetto (2002) pointed that multiculturalism should include differences based on levels of acculturation, as well as the development of inter-personal relationships and mutual respect amongst students from different backgrounds. Gašević (2015) indicate that the respondents were in the action stage had exhibited a lesser level of resistance to treatment.

4. no relationship between the view of students about psychological counselling services and age variable. On line the study conducted by Renee & et al (2013pointed that student athletes have strong preferences for counsellor characteristics, including age. Beidoğlu & et al (2015) indicate that no significant differences were found according to age. Repetto (2002) indicate that multiculturalism should include differences based on age. Finally: As to realize the students not to the availability of psychological counselling services, researcher believe on the importance of the availability of psychological counselling services at universities, which confirms the help of psychological counselling centers in the treatment of students' problems and academic, emotional, social, and related psychological stability on campus, which is reflected a negative impact on academic performance, and academic achievement. In addition researcher fund it natural that the sexes need for psychological counselling services desperately and very an urgent as a result of the size of the problems facing the student at the university level. In addition researcher pointed that age is an impact on the nature of the students' perception of the availability of psychological counselling services, and the reason for that older students understand the importance of psychological counselling more than others. V. CONCLUSION This study was conducted during (2012- 2013) in Omdurman Islamic University, Khartoum State- Sudan. The study aimed to investigating the student perception toward psychological counseling services. Finally, the results are following: The level of psychological counseling services according to the view of Omdurman Islamic university student, is significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the gender, no significant differences in view of students about psychological counseling services according to the place of residence, no relationship between the view of students about psychological counseling services and age variable.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

49

VI. REFRENCES [15] [1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

Adebayo I. Onabule & Susan R. Boes (2013)International Students' Likelihood to Seek Counseling While Studying Abroad, Journal of International Students, v(3) n1 p52-59 Spr 2013, http://jistudents.org Ashley M. Ackerman , Richard.A. Wantaz, Michael. W. Firmin, Dawn. C. Poindexter @ Amita.L. Pujara (2014)Mental Health Service Providers: College Student Perceptions of Helper Effectiveness, Professional Counselor, v(4) n1 p49-57 2014, http://tpcjournal.nbcc.org Beidoğlua. M, Dincyurekb. S & Akintugb. Y (2015)The opinions of school counselors on the use of information and communication technologies in school counseling practices: North Cyprus schools. Computers in Human Behavior, v(52), 2015, P 466–471. Bett. C. Judith & Sigilai. M. Richard (2013) ptions between Head Teachers and Teacher Counselors of the Effectiveness of Peer Counseling Among Students in Public Secondary Schools in Molo Sub-County, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science V(3) n10 , May 2013. Blanca E. Arteaga (2015)Applying Cultura in the Community College Counseling Practice, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, v(39)n8 p708-726 2015, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals Bo Young. C, Hee. J. Lee, Areum. K, Daeyeon. C. Boram & Min. S. Lee (2013)The Economic Value of Career Counseling Services for College Students in South Korea, Career Development Quarterly, v(61) n2 p168-178 Jun 2013, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Brian M. Shaw, Theodore.P. Remley , Christine. W (2014)The Preparation of Master's-Level Professional Counselors for Positions in College and University Counseling Centers, Journal of College Counseling, v(17) n3 p236-248 Oct 2014, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Byrne, J. Stephen& Shufelt, Brett(2014)Factors for Personal Counseling among Counseling Trainees, Counselor Education and Supervision, v(53)n3 p178-189. Sep 2014, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Chemba. R (2009)Gender Issues in Counseling and Guidance in Post-Primary Education - Advocacy Brief, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, 2009. Christopher J. Quarto (2011)Influencing College Students' Perceptions of Videocounseling, Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, v(25)n4 p311-325 2011, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals Christopher. B & Lawrence I. Marks (2001) College men's affective reactions to individual therapy, psychoeducational workshops, and men's support group brochures: The influence of gender-role conflict and power dynamics upon help-seeking attitudes. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, v (38)n3 , 2001, 297-305. Delila. O, Tiffany. A. Stewart & Rhonda. M. Bryant (2011)Urban African American Males' Perceptions of School Counseling Services, Urban Education, v46 n2 p165-177 Mar 2011, http://sagepub.com Delila. O; Tiffany A. Stewart & Rhonda M. Bryant (2012)Urban African American High School Female Adolescents' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Experiences with Professional School Counselors: A Pilot Study, Georgia School Counselors Association Journal, v(18) n1, p34-41 Nov 2011, http://www.gaschoolcounselors.com Eric S. Davis & Mary Ann. Clark (2012)Elementary School Counselors' Perceptions of Reality Play Counseling in Students' Relationship Building and Problem-Solving Skills,

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

[25]

[26]

[27]

Journal of School Counseling, v(10) 11, 2012 , http://jsc.montana.edu Eunju. Y& David A. Jepsen (2008)Expectations of and Attitudes toward Counseling: A Comparison of Asian International and U.S. Graduate Students, International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, v30 n2 p116-127 Jun 2008, http://www.springerlink.com Fred. L; Radhika. R & Stephen P. Hinshaw (2010)Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling, Journal of Counseling Psychology, v(57)n4 p484490 Oct 2010, http://www.apa.org/publications Gašević. R. Gabrijela (2015) The challenges of creating the treatment readiness scale for youths taking part in mandatory psychosocial counseling, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Education and Rehabilitation Sciences, Croatia, Children and Youth Services Review, v(54), July 2015, Pages 8–19. Geoff. J. Bathje, Eunha. K , Ellen. R , Aam. M. Bassiouny & Taehoon. K (2014)Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students, International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, v(36) n4 p408422 Dec 2014, http://www.springerlink.com Geoffrey J. Palmer; Ransford W. Palmer & Jacqueline.P (2012)Evolution of Counseling in Jamaica: Past, Present, and Future Trends, Journal of Counseling & Development, v(90) n1 p97-101 Jan 2012http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Ghaleb. A (2013)Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia, Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, v48 n4 p531-544 Dec 2013, http://daddcec.org/Publications/ETADDJournal.aspx Ginger L. Dickson; David A. Jepsen & Phillip W. Barbee (2008)Exploring the Relationships among Multicultural Training Experiences and Attitudes toward Diversity among Counseling Students, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, v(36)n2 p113 Apr 2008, http://www.counseling.org Janeé M. Steele & Glinda J. Rawls (2015) Quantitative Research Attitudes and Research Training Perceptions among Master's-Level Students, Counselor Education and Supervision, v(54) n2 p134-146 Jun 2015 , http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Jennifer M. Foster; Monica. L &Tracy S. Hutchinson (2014)Students' Perspectives on Gatekeeping in Counselor Education: A Case Study, Counselor Education and Supervision, v53 n3 p190-203 Sep 2014, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Joshua C. Watson (2006)Student-Athletes and Counseling: Factors Influencing the Decision to Seek Counseling Services, College Student Journal, v(40)n1 p35-42 Mar 2006 http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html Kathleen M. Hutchinson (2012)Predictors of College Students' Dating Violence Perceptions and Help-Seeking Recommendations, Pro Quest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Akron, http://www.proquest.com/enUS/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml Lagena Arlette. L. Bradley (2010)Helping Prepare Community College Students to Make the Transition from College to Work, Pro Quest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, http://www.proquest.com/enUS/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml Marjorie. S. Star (2010)Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Needs for Family Counseling and Attitudes toward SchoolBased Family Counseling, Pro Quest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University, http://www.proquest.com/enUS/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

50

[28]

[29]

[30]

[31]

[32]

[33]

[34]

[35]

[36]

[37]

[38]

[39]

[40]

[41]

[42]

[43]

Maynard. C &Michael Wiederman(1997)Undergraduate students' perceptions of child sexual abuse: Effects of age, sex, and gender-role attitudes,Child Abuse & Neglect, v(21)n9 , September 1997, Pages 833–844. Meral. A (2014) Atici, Meral(2014)Examination of School Counselors' Activities: From the Perspectives of Counselor Efficacy and Collaboration with School Staff, Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, v(14) n6 , p2107-2120 2014, http://www.edam.com.tr/estp.asp Mia. O; Damian. H & Kobitta. H (2014)Racial Disparities, Perceptions, and Evaluations: Counseling Model Choice and the Florida College System, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, v(38) n12, p1142-1156 2014, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals Mine. A; Baris. Y & Ismet. K (2014)Opinions of Counselor Candidates Regarding Counseling Skills Training, Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, v(14) n3 p879-886 2014 http://www.edam.com.tr/estp.asp Nagalakshmi. D. Kasarabada, Hser. Y, Sharon. M. Boles & Huang. C.Yu(2002) Do patients' perceptions of their counselors influence outcomes of drug treatment? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, v(23)n4, December 2002, Pages 327–334 Nathalie. N (2010)Alternative Programs: Assuring Graduation for High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities, Pro Quest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University, http://www.proquest.com/enUS/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml Neeta. K, Fowell. H, Kraemer. M. Smothers & Stephen. R. Wester (2011)The Exploration of Role Induction as a Potential Method for Improving Men's Perceptions of Career Counseling, Career Development Quarterly, v(59) n3 p219231 Mar 2011, http://www.ncda.org Nelson. L. Mary (1933) A current perspective on gender differences: plications for research in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, v(40)n2 ,Apr 1993, 200-209. Ojeda. L & Lisa Y. Flores (2011)The Influence of Gender, Generation Level, Parents' Education Level, and Perceived Barriers on the Educational Aspirations of Mexican American High School Students. Article first published online: 23 DEC 2011. Paul G. Banikiotes & Thomas V. Merluzzi (1981)Impact of counselor gender and counselor sex role orientation on perceived counselor characteristics. Journal of Counseling Psychology, v(28)4,Jul 1981, 342-348. Peiwei. L; Wong, Y. Joel & Paul. T (2013)Asian International Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study, International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, v(35) n1, p1-15 Mar 2013, http://www.springerlink.com Qi. S; Xi. L& Wade. L(2014)Students' Perceptions of School Counselors: An Investigation of Two High Schools in Beijing, China, Professional Counselor, v(4) n5, p519-530 2014Web site: http://tpcjournal.nbcc.org Renee L. Lopez & Jacob J. Levy (2013)Student Athletes' Perceived Barriers to and Preferences for Seeking Counseling, Journal of College Counseling, v(16) n1, p19-31 Apr 2013, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Repetto. E(2002) ROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELING: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS, Orientación y Sociedad , 2002, v(3)p2,12. Robert. B. Hwang & James. B (2014)international Students' Utilization of Counseling Services, College Student Journal, v(48)n3 p347-354 Fall 2014, http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html Sarika R. Parasuraman& Leiyu. S (2014)The Role of SchoolBased Health Centers in Increasing Universal and Targeted Delivery of Primary and Preventive Care among Adolescents,

[44]

[45]

[46]

[47]

[48]

[49]

[50]

[51]

[52]

Journal of School Health, v(84)n8 p524-532 Aug 2014, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Shali. Wu & Keysar. B (2007)The Effect of Culture on Perspective Taking, The University of Chicago, Association for Psychological Science, v(18)n 7,p601. Sibel. D& Gulen.U(2012)Conduct of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Services over the Internet: Converging Communications, Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, v(11) n3 p77-81 Jul 2012, http://www.tojet.net Sung-Kyung. Y, Sehee. H , Nanhee. S & Karen. M. O'Brien (2014)Working Alliance as a Mediator and Moderator between Expectations for Counseling Success and Counseling Outcome among Korean Clients, Asia Pacific Education Review, v(15)n2, p271-281 Jun 2014, http://www.springerlink.com Timothy A. Hanchon &, Lori N. Fernald (2013)The Provision of Counseling Services among School Psychologists: An Exploration of Training, Current Practices, and Perceptions, Psychology in the Schools, v(50) n7, p651-671 Aug 2013, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA Tracy M. Lara; William B. Kline & Donald. P (2011)Attitudes Regarding Career Counseling: Perceptions and Experiences of Counselors-in-Training, Career Development Quarterly, v(59) n5 p428-440 Sep 2011, http://www.ncda.org Walter. C, Susan. S. Edgar-Smith, Ruth. B. Palmer, Stephaine. C , David. D.& Weihe. C (2015)An Examination of In-Service Teacher Attitudes toward Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Professional Practice, Current Issues in Education, v(18) n2 May 2015, http://cie.asu.edu Wyndolyn M. A. Ludwikowski, David. V ,Ian. P. Armstrong & John. M(2008)Helping Counselor Trainees Overcome Barriers to Seeking Help, Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, v(47) n1, p71 Spr 2008, http://www.counseling.org Yii-Nii. L (2012)female Veteran Counselors Regarding Student Characteristics and Resultant Service Strategies in Taiwan, College Student Journal, v(46) n4, p730-747 Dec 2012, http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html Yilfashewa. S (2011)Revitalizing Quality Using Guidance Counseling in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: Exploring Students' Views and Attitudes at Haramaya University, Online Submission, International Journal of Instruction v(4) n2 p161-192 Jul 2011.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

51

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Engineering and Technology

Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor Based on Pulse Width Modulation using Microcontroller Ayman Y. Yousef*1, M. H. Mostafa2

1

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt 2 Distribution Sectors, South Cairo Electrical Distribution Co., Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT This paper presents a design, simulation and implementation of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) speed control system of DC motor using microcontroller (MCU). The PIC16F877A microcontroller is programmed to generate two periodic PWM signals from its Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules. These output PWM signals from MCU with various duty cycle are used to controlling the speed and direction of DC motor through L293D driver chip which is used as an interface between MCU and DC motor. The PIC MCU has been programmed using flowcode software package and the complete PWM control system model has been simulated using proteus design suite software package. A hardware setup has been practically implemented for the proposed control system in order to check the simulation results and which were acceptable and satisfactory. Keywords: PIC Microcontroller, PWM Technique, CCP Module, Duty Cycle, DC Motor Driver.

I. INTRODUCTION DC motor drives are used for many speed and position control systems where their excellent performance, ease of control and high efficiency are desirable characteristics [1, 2]. The rotational speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to the mean (average) value of its supply voltage which applied to the motor terminals and by increasing this value up to its maximum value, the motor can rotate faster. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a digital technique used in many industrial applications mostly for controlling the motor speed by varying the amount of power delivered to the DC motor. In other words by increasing the voltage applied to the motor its speed will increases.

Figure 1: PWM time duration

The PWM means varying the ratio between the "ON" (tON) time and the "OFF" (tOFF) time durations, which called the "Duty Cycle". Then by varying the width of pulse, the motor voltage and hence the power applied to the motor can be controlled as shown in Fig. 1 which shows the ON and OFF time of simple PWM signal. The pulse period is given by:

T  TON  TOFF

(1)

Where: T is the Pulse period, TON is the ON time = Pulse width, and TOFF is the OFF time. The duty cycle is defined by the ratio of the pulse width to pulse period as:

Duty cycle 

Pulse width Pulse period

(2)

Duty cycle 

TON TON  T TON  TOFF

(3)

If the rated supply voltage of the DC motor is Vs, then the average DC output voltage fed to the motor is given by:

IJSRST151518 | Received: 18 November 2015 | Accepted: 23 November 2015 | November-December 2015 [(1)5: 52-60]

52

Vaverage  Duty cycle  Vs

(4)

Therefore, the motor speed can be controlled with regularly adjusting the time of turn-on and turn-off in order to changing the average value of the motor voltage Vav and then the rotational speed of the motor can be varied. Figure 2 illustrate the timing diagram of the PWM signals for various duty cycles with supply voltage of 12V. The motor speed is slow, medium and fast with duty cycle 25%, 50%, and 75% respectively.

These modules can support PWM signals by initializing the control register and duty-cycle register. The CCP1 and CCP2 modules are identical in operation, with the exception being the operation of special event trigger. Table. 1 show the resources and interactions of the CCP modules. TABLE I CCP MODE -TIMER RESOURCES REQUIRED

CCP Mode Capture Compare PWM

Timer Resource Timer1 Timer1 Timer2

The operation of a CCP module is described with respect to CCP1, whereas CCP2 operates the same as CCP1 except where noted [4]. The CCP1 Module is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls the operation of CCP1 module as shown in Fig. 3.

Figure 2: PWM Signals with Different Duty Cycles There are three methods could achieve the adjustment of duty cycle [ 3 ]: (a) Adjust frequency with fixed pulsewidth. (b) Adjust both frequency and pulse-width. (c) Adjust pulse-width with fixed frequency which is the method chosen in this work depending on the PWM module embedded in a PIC 16F877A microcontroller. Figure 3: Block diagram of PWM mode of CCP1 module.

II. Generation of PWM using PIC16F877A The PIC16F877A has two Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules [4]. Each module (CCP1 and CCP2) contains a 16 bit register (two 8-bit registers) and can operate in one of the three different modes as:

Also, the CCP2 Module is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR2L (low byte) and CCPR2H (high byte). The CCP2CON register controls the operation of CCP2 module. The special event trigger is generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1 and start an A/D conversion (if the A/D module is enabled) [4].

• 16-bit Capture register • 16-bit Compare register • PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle register

In Pulse Width Modulation mode, the CCP1 or CCP2 pins produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

53

Since the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch, the TRISC bit must be cleared to make the CCP1 pin an output. Clearing the CCP1CON register will force the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data latch [5]. The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register and has a time base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle) [6] as shown in Fig. (4). The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period).

Figure 4: Microcontroller PWM output

III. DC Motor Driver In order to control the DC motor, the motor armature winding must be driven by signals which are generated by the PIC16F877A microcontroller. Since the PIC microcontroller input and output ports terminals do not source a sufficient current to the motor therefore, an integrated power driver is used. A simple and low cost L293D device was chosen to drive a small DC motor. The pin assignment and the internal schematic diagram of L293D IC device are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively.

Figure 6: Internal L293D schematic diagram The L293D driver consist of four channel driver or dual H-Bridge channel and can be used to drive four motors in one direction only, or two motors bidirectional. The chip has a built-in freewheeling diodes to protect the circuit from the back EMF [7] . it can drive a motor with a maximum output voltage of 36v. It has output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel and 5 kHz switching frequency. It has two control inputs, one enable input and one output per each channel. The pins EN1, IN1, IN2, OUT1 and OUT2 control one of the motors while the pins EN2, IN3, IN4, OUT3 and OUT4 control the other if the driver used to control two motors. The Control inputs are used to control the direction while the enable input is used for turn the bridge ON or OFF. In addition, it has four ground center pins connected together and used as a heat sink. The device must be powered by two supply voltage; the first is the external voltage supply which also drives DC motor up to 36V and the other is +5V which is the logic supply voltage to control the IC.

IV. Control System Strategy The proposed control strategy based on PWM technique using PIC microcontroller and the L293D driver chip is shown in Fig. 7 .

Figure 5: L293D pin assignment diagram

Figure 7: Proposed PWM control strategy

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

54

The operation of the H-Bridge is fairly simple by Identify the logic state of Enable 1, Input 1, and Input 2 pins. Enable 1 pin is responsible for the motor turn on and off, while the Input pins are used to change the speed direction of the motor by changing the voltage across its terminals. For example, if Enable 1, Input 1pins are in HIGH state, and Input 2 pin in the LOW state, the motor will rotate clockwise. On the other hand, if Enable 1, Input 2 pins are in HIGH state, and Input 1 pin in the LOW state, the motor will turn to the other direction. If Input pins are both at the same level and the Enable pin is high then the motor will stall (or break) and with the Enable pin is low the motor will freewheel. Therefore, the idea of the control depends upon the two control inputs connected to the driver channel, when the microcontroller sends a logic value 1 to the motor it will start running in a certain direction, and when the logic value is 0 it will inverse the direction. The behavior of the DC motor for various input conditions are as in the following truth table 2. TABLE II MOTOR BEHAVIOUR WITH VARIOUS INPUT CONDITIONS Motor status

Input 1

Input 2

Motor Stops or brake

Low

Low

Motor Runs (Anticlockwise)

Low

High

Motor Runs (clockwise)

High

Low

Stops or brake

High

High

V. PWM Control System Description The proposed schematic diagram of the PWM control of DC motor is designed and simulated by Proteus 7.10 professional software package. The circuit is consists of the PIC16F877A microcontroller which is the main control element of the implemented control system and other electric and electronic devices as shown in Fig. 8.

Figure 8: Schematic diagram of the PWM control of DC motor designed by Proteus software A digital LCD (4x16) connected to port B and one 7segment unit connected to port D are used to display the details of DC motor control modes of operation. The PIC will generate the PWM signals from CCP1 and CCP2 modules at port C (RC2 and RC1) to drive the DC motor and control its speed. The motor driver chip L293D is interfaced with PIC microcontroller pin RC2 and RC1 at its input terminals IN1and IN2 while its EN1 pin is connected to pin RC7 at HIGH state signal constantly. Two push button switches (button1and button2) are used to select the direction of rotation (clockwise or anticlockwise) of the DC motor. Another push button switch (button 3) is used to make the motor in brake mode. Two toggle switches (switch 4 and switch 5) are used to increase/decrease the DC motor speed. The DC motor is connected to the output pins (OUT1 and OUT2) of the L293D driver chip. A 5V/12V DC power supply is used to drive the PIC microcontroller and L293D chip by 5V, and the DC motor by 12V.

VI. Software Algorithm Implementation The software and control algorithm of the implemented PWM control system was developed using Flowcode software package. Flowcode is graphical programming software which is used to programming the PIC microcontroller. Flowcode software contains a tool to compile the designed flowchart to the hexadecimal (HEX) file. This HEX file is loaded in the

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

55

microcontroller RAM in order to execute the control system. The software implementation of the control algorithm consists of main routine and a group of subroutines as shown in Fig. 9.

Figure 9: Structure of software implementation The program of main routine shown in Fig.(10) started by configuring the PIC microcontroller and loading it by the necessary system codes, its initialization and also call the start routine to display the motor status. The right and left direction routines are programed to generate the two PWM signals having duty cycle changing from 0 to 100% with period equals 4ms and frequency equals to 244 Hz by using of CCP1 and CCP2 PWM modules of the PIC microcontroller. These two PWM modules are configured as output pins and the PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The duty cycle 1 of the clockwise direction (right mode) and duty cycle 2 of the anticlockwise direction (lift mode) are stored in the microcontroller EEPROM. Two analogue to digital converter channels (ADC1 and ADC2) of the microcontroller are used to set the output at the target level by incrementing or decrementing the duty cycle values.

Figure 10: flowchart of the developed control algorithm. The simulation of the PWM control system with the different modes of operation using flowcode software is shown in Fig. 11. The right direction mode is simulated at duty cycle 1 equals 65% of PWM period using CCP1 module. The lift direction mode is simulated at duty cycle 2 equals 85% of PWM period using CCP2 module. The brake mode is simulated at duty cycle 3 equals 100% of PWM period using CCP1and CCP2 modules.

The duty cycle 1 is specified by writing to the CCPR1L register for CCP1 module and also the duty cycle 2 is loading to the CCPR2L register of CCP2 module. The brake mode is programed to load the CCPR1L register and CCPR2L register by duty cycle 3 which is equal to 100% of the PWM period.

Figure 11a: Start mode (CCP1 and CCP2 modules with Duty cycle = 0)

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

56

The minimum hardware development setup of the bidirectional PWM control system of DC motor having rated voltage V =12V and current I=0.5A. is shown in Fig. 12.

Figure 11b: Right direction mode (CCP1 module with Duty cycle 1 = 65%)

Figure 12: Photograph of hardware setup connection of PIC16F877A based PWM control system of DC motor The practical implementation of the three modes of operation (right, lift, and break) of the PWM control system of DC motor with LCD, 7-segment display, L293D driver is shown in Fig. 13. Figure 11c: Lift direction mode (CCP2 module with Duty cycle 2 = 85%)

Figure 13a: Right direction mode Figure 11d: Brake mode (CCP1 and CCP2 modules with Duty cycle 3 = 100%) Figure 10: Simulation of PWM control system on flowcode software panel

VII.

Hardware System Implementation

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

57

Figure 13b: Lift direction mode

Figure 14a: Output signals at duty cycle 25% Horizontal: 1 msec/div. Vertical; 5 volt/div. Upper Trace: PWM signal. Lower Trace: Terminal voltage (Vav = 3V).

Figure 13c: Brake direction mode Figure 13: Photograph of hardware setup connection of PWM control system with different modes of operation.

Figure 14b: Output signals at duty cycle 50% Horizontal: 1 msec/div. Vertical; 5 volt/div. Upper Trace: PWM signal. Lower Trace: terminal voltage (Vav = 6V).

VIII. Simulation and Excremental Results The simulation results of the digital PWM signals with period of 4ms and frequency of 244 Hz generated from PIC16F877A microcontroller of the proposed control system of DC motor using proteus software package are shown in Fig. 14. The output PWM signals and the corresponding DC motor terminal voltage for various values of duty cycle are shown also in Fig. 13. The chosen values of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% duty cycles gives motor terminal voltage as average values equals 3V, 6V, 9V, and 12V respectively.

Figure 14c: Output signals at duty cycle 75% Horizontal: 1 msec/div. Vertical; 5 volt/div. Upper Trace: PWM signal.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

58

Lower Trace: terminal voltage (Vav = 9V).

Figure 14d: Output signals at duty cycle 100% Horizontal: 1 msec/div. Vertical; 5 volt/div. Upper Trace: PWM signal. Lower Trace: terminal voltage (Vav = 12V).

Figure 15b: PWM signal at duty cycle = 50% Horizontal: 2 msec/div. Vertical; 10 volt/div.

Figure 13: PWM signals and DC motor terminal voltage at various values of Duty cycle. The hardware oscilloscope results of PWM signals with the same period and frequency at different values of PWM duty cycle are shown in Fig. 15.

Figure 15c: PWM signal at duty cycle = 75% Horizontal: 2 msec/div. Vertical; 10 volt/div.

Figure 15a: PWM signal at duty cycle = 25% Horizontal: 2 msec/div. Vertical; 10 volt/div.

Figure 15d: PWM signal at duty cycle = 100% Horizontal: 2 msec/div. Vertical; 10 volt/div.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

59

Figure 15: Photograph of PWM signals at various values of PWM duty cycle.

IX. CONCLUSION This paper has covered the design, simulation and practical implementation of a low-cost bidirectional speed control of DC motor based on PWM technique using PIC16F877A MCU. The PWM channels of the PIC microcontroller with its embedded CCP modules has been programed to generate two digital PWM signals with period 4ms and frequency of 244 Hz. The proposed control system model can control the DC motor speed and direction by varying the duty cycle of the output PWM signals. A dual H-Bridge channel built in L293D device was chosen to drive a DC motor and also used as interface between it and MCU. The PIC16F877A MCU can integrate all required functions in its single chip and therefore, it reduces the hardware setup of the overall control system. A very good agreement was achieved between the experimental and simulation results.

[6] Pallavi Papalkar and S. P. Phulambrikar, “Speed Control of DC Motor using Capture/Compare/Pulse Width Modulation Module of PIC Microcontroller” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology,Vol. 3, Issue 9, September- 2014 [7] Push-Pull Four Channel Driver with Diodes, L293D Datasheet. [8] Shinde Krishnat Arvind, Tarate Akshay Arun, Taur Sandip Madhukar, and Prof. Jayashree Deka “Speed Control of DC Motor using PIC 16F877A Microcontroller” Multidisciplinary Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, Issue 2, July- 2014 [9] Taiqiang Cao, Jianping Xu, and Shungang Xu,“ Designing DSP Based Digital Control DC Motor System ” IEEE Proceedings 2008.

X. REFERENCES [1] Sabedin A. Meha, Besnik Haziri, Loreta N. Gashi, and Behar Fejzullahu “Controlling DC Motor Speed using PWM from c# windows Application ” 15th International Research/Expert Conference” Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology, TMT 2011, Prague, Czech Republic, 12-18 September 2011. [2] Bharat Joshi, Rakesh Shrestha, and Ramesh Chaudhar “Modeling, Simulation and Implementation of Brushed DC Motor Speed Control Using Optical Incremental Encoder Feedback” Proceedings of IOE Graduate Conference, 2014. [3] Yue-Li Hu, and Wei Wang “Design of PWM Controller in a MCS-51 Compatible MCU ” IEEE Proceedings of (HDP’07) 2007. [4] PIC Microcontroller Instruction Sets, PIC16F877A Datasheet. [5] A.S.M. Bakibillah, Nazibur Rahman, Md. Anis Uz Zaman, “Microcontroller based Closed Loop Speed Control of DC Motor using PWM Technique” International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 108 – No 14, December 2014.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

60

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Engineering and Technology

A Review on Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process of Steel Vikash, Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, Ritesh Sharma, Shailendra Bohidar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kirodimal Institute of Technology, Raigarh Chhattisgarh, India

ABSTRACT Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding method and is common for aluminium alloys Friction Stir Welding is a novel green solid state joining process particularly used to join high strength aerospace aluminium alloys. This review paper addresses the overview of Friction stir welding which includes the basic concept of the process, microstructure formation, influencing process parameters, typical defects in FSW process and some recent applications. These welded joints have higher tensile strength to weight ratio and finer micro structure. FSW of aluminium alloys have the potential to hold good mechanical and metallurgical properties. This paper gives the review of basic concepts of Friction Stir Welding on tool design, mode of metal transfer and process parameters. It is demonstrated that FSW of aluminium is becoming an increasingly mature technology with numerous commercial applications. Keywords: Tool, FSW, Friction Stir, Processing, Steel.

I. INTRODUCTION Friction-stir welding (FSW) was patented by Thomas.et.al in 1991. The Welding Institute (TWI) of UK did experiments initially on aluminium and its alloys [1]. The process uses the non-consumable specially designed rotating tool which is inserted in to the material by giving the axial force and then translated along the joint line to make the weld [2]. TMAZ zone is formed due to thermo mechanical cycles and HAZ is the zone which is affected by the frictional heat produced by the shoulder. WN is the region formed due to the stirring action of the pin. Frictional heat produced by the tool makes the plastic deformation of material and grain boundary sliding. Excessive heat formation leads to tool wear which results in loss of material in the tool. Loss of tool material will be formed as an inclusion in the weld region. Feed rate, material flow and heat transfer favours the tool wear to emerge along the weld direction. Tool wear can be reduced by preheating the work piece [3] Friction Stir Welding is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in a decade. In Friction Stir Welding no cover gas or flux is used, thereby making the process environmentally friendly, energy efficiency and versatility or it is a „green technology‟. The joining does not involve any use of

filler metal and therefore any aluminium alloy can be joined without concern for the compatibility of composition, which is an issue in fusion welding. In FSW no cover gas or flux is used, and does not involve any use of filler metal so that the properties of the joints are improve compare to the parent metal [4].

II. METHODS AND MATERIAL A. Benefits of Friction Stir Welding  Good mechanical properties in the as-welded condition.  Improved safety due to the absence of toxic fumes or the spatter of molten material.  Easily automated on simple milling machines lower setup costs and less training.  Can operate in all positions (horizontal, vertical, etc.), as there is no weld pool

IJSRST15159 | Received: 08 November 2015 | Accepted: 23 November 2015 | November-December 2015 [(1)5: 61-64]

61

Tool rotation and traverse speeds

Figure 1 : Schematic diagram of friction stir welding process [6] B. Friction Stir Welding Tool FSW tool is considered as a heart of the welding process which has two primary parts namely shoulder and pin, which heats the work piece material by friction. Shoulder part of the tool frictionally heats the portion of the work piece and induces the axial downward force for welding consolidation. The FSW is emerged from a concept of drilling and hence the tool was initially used with threaded pin. The compaction of plasticized material is given by the bottom of the tool shoulder and prevents the material from escaping. The shoulder have different profile such as flat, concave, smooth or grooved, with concentric or spiral grooves[5]. FSW is considered to be the potentially useful solid state welding technique in which welding is done below the melting point of the work piece material.

Figure 2 : Schematic diagram of the FSW tool. [7]

There are two tool speeds to be considered in frictionstir welding; how fast the tool rotates and how quickly it traverses the interface. These two parameters have considerable importance and must be chosen with care to ensure a successful and efficient welding cycle. The relationship between the welding speeds and the heat input during welding is complex but, in general, it can be said that increasing the rotation speed or decreasing the traverse speed will result in a hotter weld. In order to produce a successful weld it is necessary that the material surrounding the tool is hot enough to enable the extensive plastic flow required and minimize the forces acting on the tool. If the material is too cold then voids or other flaws may be present in the stir zone and in extreme cases the tool may break. Tool Design The design of the tool is a critical factor as a good tool can improve both the quality of the weld and the maximum possible welding speed. It is desirable that the tool material is sufficiently strong, tough, and hard wearing at the welding temperature. Further it should have a good oxidation resistance and a low thermal conductivity to minimize heat loss and thermal damage to the machinery further up the drive train. C. Friction Stir Welding Process Friction stir processing is a new and unique thermo mechanical processing technique that changes the mechanical properties and microstructure of the material [8]. Friction Stir processing has been applied to Aluminium, copper, and nickel based alloys. By Friction Stir Processing the strength of the cast nickel aluminium bronze was doubled, the ductility of the Al alloys A356 was increased by five times. FSP is also used to increase the fatigue life of the fusion weld surfaces [9]. The working principle of Friction Stir Welding process is shown in Fig. 1. A welding tool comprised of a shank, shoulder, and pin is fixed in a milling machine chuck and is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The work piece, with square mating edges, is fixed to a rigid backing plate, and a clamp or anvil prevents the work piece from spreading or lifting during welding. The halfplate where the direction of rotation is the same as that

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

62

of welding is called the advancing side, with the other side designated as being the retreating side. The rotating welding tool is slowly plunged into the work piece until the shoulder of the welding tool forcibly contacts the upper surface of the material.

low transverse feed. Defect in which the Series of small voids located in the advancing side interleaving the stir zone along the weld is known as Scalloping [b].

Figure 4: (a): Worm hole (b). Scalloping Figure 2: A Schematic Diagram Of Friction Stir Welding Process [7]

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Applications of FSW 



 

Shipping and marine industries: - Such as manufacturing of hulls, offshore accommodations, aluminium extrusions, etc. Aerospace industries: - for welding in Al alloy fuel tanks for space vehicles, manufacturing of wings, etc. Railway industries: - building of container bodies, railway tankers, etc. Land transport: - automotive engine chassis, body frames, wheel rims, truck bodies, etc.

B. Friction Stir Welding Defects Friction Stir welding is susceptible to the defects which are different from the fusion welding defects. Selection of improper welding process parameters leads to insufficient heat input, excessive heat input, abnormal stirring, and insufficient pressure underneath the shoulder which leads to the any one or more of the following defects in the friction stir welding. Worm hole [a] is the tunnel of inadequately consolidated and forged material running in the longitudinal direction which is formed due to excessive heat input due to high rotational speed,

IV. CONCLUSION The present review paper based on the basic concepts to understand formation of welding and its process parameter which functions to give such a permanent joint. Friction stir welding being a widespread interest for most of the upcoming researchers in the area of welding, it finds its importance in welding steels. Without the application of steel in industries is unimaginable. It identifies a number of areas that are worthwhile for further study. it has been suggested that higher tensile strength of these alloys, a manufacturer allow to use in the area of aerospace and automobile industries, where the high strength to weight ratio is important.

V. REFERENCES [1] Preetish Sinha, S. Muthukumaran, S.K. Mukherjee. Analysis of first mode of metal transfer in friction stir weld plates by image processing technique. journal of materials processing technology 197 (2008) 17–21. [2] K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, S. Babu ,"Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model", Materials and Design 30, 2009, pp.188– 193. [3] Mandal A, Roy P. Modeling the compressive strength of molasses–cement sand system using design of experiments and back propagation neural networks. J Mater Process Technol 2006;180:167– 73.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

63

[4] R.S. Mishraa, Z.Y. Mab “Friction stir welding and processing” Materials Science and Engineering R 50 (2005) 1–78. [5] Thomas WM, Johnson KI, Wiesner CS. Friction stir welding-receved developments in tool and process technologies. Adv Eng Mater 2003;5:485– 90. [6] Prashant Prakash1, Sanjay Kumar Jha “a study of process parameters of friction stir welded aa 6061 aluminium alloy” , B.I.T Mesra , Ranchi , India Vol. 2, Issue 6, June 2013. [7] Man deep Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Catha “Friction Stir Welding – Process and its Variables: A Review” , Yadavindra College of Engineering, Punjabi University Campus, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda, Punjab-151302, India. Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012 [8] Rajeswari R. Itharaju,"Friction Stir Processing of Aluminum alloys", University of Kentucky, Master’s theses, 2004. [9] M.St. Weglowski, S. Dymek,"Relation between friction stir processing parameters and torque, temperature and penetration depth of the tool", Archives of civil and mechanical engineering, Vol. 13, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 186 – 191.

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

64

© 2015 IJSRST | Volume 1 | Issue 5 | Print ISSN: 2395-6011 | Online ISSN: 2395-602X Themed Section: Scienceand Technology

Roadside Sand Deposits as Toxic Metals’ Receptacles along three Major Roads in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria Christian Mathew1*, K. J. Orie2 1

Department of Chemistry, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Roadside sand deposits are common sights along all roads in city centres like Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Studies have shown that, these sand deposits are receptacles for heavy metals emitted from varying sources. This study therefore, investigated the concentrations of four toxic metals Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) and Nickel (Ni) in roadside sand deposits. Three research questions were addressed using results of analyses of data obtained. Samples were collected along three major busy roads in Port Harcourt City using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, AAS. The results show that all four toxic metals except Cd were significantly available in the sand deposits with mean concentrations as follows: Cadmium 0.00 mg/kg, Chromium 2.81±2.21 mg/kg, Lead 1.09±0.70 mg/kg and Nickel 2.41±1.07 mg/kg. The detected concentrations were found to be high in relation to FEPA and WHO standards. The results also show that the mean concentrations are significantly different among the metals investigated but opposite is the case along the roads investigated. Therefore, the attention of environmental regulatory agencies is hereby drawn to this potential reservoir of environmental toxicants. The unsuspecting public, business operators, and others that depend on these roads for their livelihood are also enjoined to appreciate the dangers on these roads. Keywords: Sand Deposits, Metals Receptacles, Metal Concentrations, Busy Roadsides, Port Harcourt Metropolis and Nigeria

I. INTRODUCTION In cities of developing countries like Port Harcourt in Nigeria, roadside sand deposits are common phenomenon due to poor road construction works, dilapidated roads, poor road maintenance culture, improper disposal of silts from drainages, sand run-offs during rains,rickety automobiles, automobile wear and tear and above all poor government policies on road use and regulation of same.At the global stage, some research efforts have been carried out in most developed and developing countries on this subject of roadside metal receptacles, some of such endeavours are discussed as follows: Saeedi, Hosseinzadeh, Jamshidi and Pajooheshfar (2009)in their study,positthatheavy metals are typical road traffic source contaminants in the local ecological environments.Zehetner, Rosenfellner, Mentler and

Gerzabek (2009)were of the view that these metals are found in fuels, fuel tanks, engines and other vehicle components, catalytic converters, tires and brake pads, as well as in road surface materials.ForChristoforidis and Stamatis (2009),the concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soils are indicators of heavy metals’ accumulation through atmospheric deposition and road runoff. In views of Chen, Xia, Zhao and Zhang (2010),roadside soils are the major reservoirs of trafficrelated heavy metals and heavymetal contaminants can easily impact people residing within the vicinity of the roads via suspended dust or direct contact. According to Winther and Slento (2010),aspervehicle type, cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followedby vans, trucks, buses and 2wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventorycalculation methods established in the present

IJSRST15154 | Received: 04 November 2015 | Accepted: 24 November 2015 | November-December2015 [(1)5: 65-70]

65

project, estimates of heavy metal emissionscan be made for other years than 2007. Khan, Khan and Rehman (2011) implicated traffic densities as a major source of lead and cadmium contamination of roadside sand deposit along all classes of roads in Pakistan. Luo,Yu, Zhu, and Li (2011)contend that the unprecedented pace in the last three decades in urbanization of China has a role in the metals deposition sources. Wang et al (2012) specifically implicated urbanization ages and land use as sources of heavy metals in Beijing urban soils inside the 5th ring road by even grids sampling. The results of the study revealed that the urban soils in Beijing were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Soils in industrial areas have the highest average Cu and Zn contents, while Pb contents in park areas and Cd in agricultural areas are the highest. The accumulations of Pb and Zn in urban soils increase significantly with sampling plots approaching the city center. And Pb, Cd, and Zn contents in soils in traffic areas also tend to increase in the city center. However, residential areas have the lowest contents of all the four heavy metals. Zhang et al (2012)are of the generally opinion that most observational studies on the concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soils were focused on Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Clare, Zereini and Püttmann (2013)studied traffic-related trace element emissions and their uptake by plants grown in urban roadside environments in Toronto, Canadain 2010. Soil, plant tissue and plant rhizosphere samples analyzed for Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd, As, Sb and Pb show metals were more bioaccessible to O. vulgare grown in the new soil at the medium traffic volume site, compared to the aged soil at the heavy traffic location. Port Harcourt city has recently being characterized by escalated road transportation challenges due to very deplorable state of roads, poor road maintenance culture and with almost every household known to own a car on the average leading to very high traffic density in the city with no vehicular movement regulation policy of the government in operation. The city has also been characterized by consistent and persistent infrastructural decay due to over-use of same with suburbs still far from government attention. These and many more factors have resulted in the fast defacing of the city of its garden city status. Major roadsides now serve as natural receptacles for toxic metals’ loaded sands from failed portions of the same roads and from very bad roads from

other parts of the city. The city centre can hardly be differentiated from the suburbs. The overall result of these challenges is the elevated presence in the city centre of toxic metals held mainly in the roadside sand deposits and those suspended into the surrounding air by winds and spinning tyres of moving vehicles. With the teeming human commercial and domestic activities along these roads, exposure through inhalation of loaded air and direct body contact is inevitable. This study there attempted to determine the levels or concentrations of these toxic metals in some selected roads in some selected busy locations of the city given the fact these areas are known for hosting high commercial, transportation and domestic activities. Problem statement Port Harcourtis strategic to businesses of all sorts especially the Nigerian oil and gas mainstream and allied activities the city. The city’s deplorable state of infrastructure such as the road networks and the poor maintenance culture of same coupled with the escalating population challenges, it is expedient that the environment is monitored for the effects of potential pollution from such areas as the roadside sands which are established receptacles in major cities of the world for heavy and toxic metals to proportions yet established in the case of Port Harcourt. This study attempts to independently investigate possible variations in concentrations among the selected roads and metals and to establish the extent of significance of the concentrations of the metals. This is a dimension that has not been considered in available literature in similar studies in the city so as to proffer recommendations to relevant authorities and the unsuspecting teeming population of road users in the city. Research questions The following questions were addressed: 1. How significant arethe concentrations of the metals in the roadside sand deposits with respect to environmentally permissible limit, locally and globally? 2. How significant are the concentrations of metals different among the roads investigated. 3. How significant are concentrations of metal

International Journal of Scientific Research in Scienceand Technology (www.ijsrst.com)

66

II. LITERATURE REVIEW Empirical studies of Toxic Metals on Roadside Sand Deposits Relevant literatures were reviewed globally and locally as follows: Ayeni, Ndakidemi, Snyman, and Odendaal (2010) conducted a study of river bank and adjacent soil samples from four different sites, Milnerton Lagoon from the lowerDiep River, Cape Town, South Africa were evaluated for ten metals among which were cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr).The results showed that most sites were contaminated with metals evaluated.In adjacent soils, the concentration of Pb was0.97-71.7 mg/kg; Cd was 0.09.3 mg/kg;Crwas 0.3-2.1 mg/kg; and Ni was 0.02-2.6 mg/kg. Overall, Ni had the lowestconcentrations in the ecosystem. Chen,Xia,Zhao and Zhang (2010) ina detailed investigation conducted to study the heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils of Beijing,reportedthat concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the road while such trend was not identified in As, Cr and Ni. In addition, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were significantly positively correlated with black carbon (BC) and TOC (p
Loading...

IEEE Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size (V3) - ijsrst

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology Print ISSN: 2395-6011 Online ISSN : 2395-602X Volume 1, Issue 5, November-Dec...

7MB Sizes 9 Downloads 55 Views

Recommend Documents

IEEE Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size (V3)
In this research, digital voice features are gotten from the coefficient of linier predictive coding with autocorrelatio

IEEE Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size (V3) - IJSRSET
Mar 8, 2017 - Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known as the main cause of cervical cancer. Most sexually active women might

IEEE Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size (V3)
Gondok dengan Metode Arkenol untuk Variabel Perbandingan Berat. Enceng Gondok dan Volume Pemasakan”, Jurnal Ekuilibriu

IJSRST Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
May 8, 2017 - This paper studied a life cycle analysis was performed to identify differences in corporate governance cha

IJSRST Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
Many countries recognize that the issue of education is a complicated issue, but all feel that education is a very impor

IJSRST Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
Kesehatan. Yogyakarta. Penerbit Gava Media. [4] Hastono, S. P., (2011). Basic Data Analysis for. Health Research Trainin

IJSRST Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
It is based on maximum likelihood algorithm for decoding the data. However, the hardware implementation of Viterbi algor

IJSRST Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
Mar 25, 2017 - Jokowi government. Keywords : Indonesia's foreign policy, domestic and nationalist orientations, death pe

IJSRSET Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
Apr 22, 2016 - Fabrication of Solar Grass Cutter ... The project aims to fabricate a grass cutting machine system which

IJSRSET Paper Word Template in A4 Page Size
May 15, 2016 - conventional subtractors based on the QCA, in terms of covered area, count of the cells, and delay. The p