IJESR-The Application PETTLEP image - TJPRC

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International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR) ISSN (P): 2249-6947; ISSN (E): 2249-8052 Vol. 6, Issue 3, Jun 2016, 131-138 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

THE APPLICATION OF PETTLEP IMAGERY EXERCISE TO COMPETITIVE ANXIETY AND CONCENTRATION IN SURABAYA ARCHERY ATHLETES NANIK INDAHWATI & KOLEKTUS OKY RISTANTO Faculty of, State University of Surabaya, Indonesia ABSTRACT The main idea of this research is to examine the affectation of application Imagery PETTLEP (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Emotion, Perspective) exercise which given to the Surabaya’s archery athletes in preparation for Pekan Olahraga Provinsi (Porprov) East Java 2016. The affectation of Imagery PETTLEP exercise, then would be attributed to the athlete’s competitive Anxiety and concentration when they facing the competition. This research was did in three week with nine treatments. This research was quasi experiment research by using quantitative approach, seen from point of view getting the data by using questionnaire; competitive anxiety (Sport Competitive Anxiety Test) and concentration test (Grid Concentration Test) with research design one group pre-test post-test. The subject of this research was 19 athletes who are joined in Porprov V East Java. The next step after gained data from the research was preceding the data by using paired sample t-test. Based on the result from competitive anxiety questionnaire, the lowest value on

The result from concentration test was 12 for the lowest value in pre-test and 22 for the highest value. Meanwhile, in the post test, the lowest value was 8 and the highest value was 22. The result of paired sample t-test was in significant level 0.05 with (df)=18. It could be known that t-calculation from competitive anxiety variable 8.060 and t-calculation for concentration variable 5.729 was bigger than t-table 2.101. In conclusion, it had significant difference between pre-test and post-test in competitive anxiety variable and concentration variable on Surabaya’s archery athletes. It could be found that it had decreasing competitive anxiety at 6.9% and the increasing of concentration at 20.60%. The result of the research

Original Article

pre-test was 12 and the highest value was 25. Meanwhile, in post test, the lowest value was 14 and the highest value was 24.

shown that Imagery PETLLEP exercise had affectation on competitive anxiety by decreasing the level of competitive anxiety at 6.9% and the increasing of concentration was 20.60% in three weeks of research and nine meetings with Surabaya’s archery athletes. KEYWORDS: Imagery, PETTLEP Exercise, Competitive Anxiety, Concentration

Received: May 26, 2016; Accepted: Jun 10, 2016; Published: Jun 16, 2016; Paper Id.: IJESRJUN201615

INTRODUCTION Background/ Objectives and Goals One of the developing sports in Indonesia is Archery. Several national and international archery championships grow competent archery athletes. It is proven by the opinion of the Noerbai (2001: 21) even though its development irregularities, but this branch sport shows good achievement definitely. This sport trains physical, mental, and shooting technique. In addition, archery has some psychological support for human. Human is a part of body and soul which one of them affect each other. But, every human condition always do not same especially the mood in training or game because of pressure that they get. Any emotional feeling whether it is joy, anger, or sorrow can affect the condition of the body. So, it can influence the balance of human’s physical and mental. Those pressures that occur called anxiety. Anxiety is a response to certain situations that threaten, and is normal occurred

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with the development, change, new experience or that has never been done as well as in finding self-identity and the meaning of life. The anxiety in a certain level can increase performance (Kaplan, et al, in Adisasmito, 2007: 90). While according to Pate, et al. (1993: 86) anxiety cause decreasing attention flexibility of athlete, so it interfere performance. This condition makes the success of individual is difficult to be predicted. Anxiety is an emotion that appears due to the interpretation and assessment of the situation faced (Ciptaningtyas, 2012:2). Anxiety is a common reaction or normal occurs, for example face a match. The athletes who cannot control the anxiety finally fail because their anxious and easily nervous feeling can make them quit (Gunarsa, 2004:75). Cognitive component of anxiety appears as a result of fear of negative evaluation of social environment, fear of failure and lack of confidence. While the somatic component of the anxiety is a physiological response from the perception such as increased heartbeat, respiratory and muscle contractions (Lavalle et al. In Ciptaningtyas, 2012:2). Besides anxiety in sport especially achievement sports, there is an important psychological factor which can support or interfere athletes’ achievements. The factor is concentration. The top athletes’ appearance can be achieved when his appearance in the top of the optimal energy. According to Nasution (1996) in sport, concentration has very important role. If concentration of someone disturbed when he does sport movement, it is caused by many problems whether it was in exercise or match. Those problems such as reducing the accuracy of the movement, cannot apply strategy because does not know what should do which cause lack of confidence even lose it. Finally he will difficult to achieve optimal performance base on his ability. It agrees with the Nideffer’s statement (2000), that concentration is important for athlete to reach the peak achievement. The concentration helps reaching the condition that ready to compete physically and mentally. From conditions above, athlete needs special exercise which can overcome prejudice conditions. The alternative to overcome the quality of the athlete is doing imagery exercises (Cox, 2007). Imagery is one of technique or mental exercises that must be understand by athletes (Komarudin, 2013). Imagery allows individuals utilize his all senses to create or display the existing movement pattern in his brain memories well. The processes are observing, noticing and remembering the pattern of the movement in the brain. The benefits from the imagery exercise are to learn or repeat the new movements; improve a wrong or imperfect movement and improve the ability of facing many problems. Vealey & Greenleaf (2001) define imagery is a form of the actual simulation of some real experiences through senses (see, feel and listen), but all experiences occur in the brain. In the imagery exercises will be occurred the process of visualization. The process of an athlete uses his skill to see himself in his own mind. He calls and visualizes his own reflection in imagery process. Not only visualize technique but also athlete will remember several parts of the match such as place and situation of the match. They will be combined as an experience in imagery process. The more senses which use in imagery, the visualization will be clearer. (Valley & Greenleaf, 2001). Imagery technique often use in sports because it makes good effect on the performance and exercise. Studies show that the use of imagery can reduce the anxiety on the sports performance (Mousavi & Meshkini, 2011). Imagery exercise gives positive impact on the athlete’s performance to his success. This is in line with Weinberg and Gould opinion (1995) about developing imagery ability makes physical condition and psychological someone will be better. It can improve concentration, increase self-confidence to develop how he will perform. It has been described above that competitive anxiety is the emotional or feeling caused by interpretation about situation or environment. Imagery technique can be used as one of the alternatives to solve competitive anxiety. By this Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

The Application of PETTLEP Imagery Exercise to Competitive Anxiety and Concentration in Surabaya Archery Athletes

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technique athletes will be faced to a situation that cause anxiety by creating a picture of anxiety situation in his mind and asked to show the techniques or condition that they do to overcome them. Imagery exercise can increase self-awareness, control the emotions, reduce pain, control the emotion that related with appearance and improve the preparation strategy. In this research, researchers involves archery athlete because archery is individual sport which athlete performance influenced by many factor. Based on the above description, it is seen that the anxiety of influence on the performance of athletes in the face of the game. Therefore, response towards anxiety in the face of the match needs to be done. One of the efforts to overcome the anxiety then to do a mental exercise, one of them using the imagery technique. The results of research conducted by Mousavi (2007) entitled 'the effect of mental imagery upon reduction of anxiety during athlete sport performance' suggests that the practice of imagery significantly reduce anxiety and improve the performance of athletes in appearance. It is reinforced with research results from Smith and Collins 2004; Smith et.al., 2001, 2007 mentions that imagery with PETTLEP exercise can increase performance and speed up getting solutions in cognitive tasks. Therefore, the authors of this research focusing by taking the title of 'the influence of PETTLEP exercise Program (Physical, Environment, tasks, Timing, Learning, Emotion, and Perspective) Imagery against Competitive Anxiety and concentration On Surabaya Archery Athletes'.

METHODS The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of mental practice implementation imagery uses PETTLEP (Physical, Environment, Tasks, Timing, Emotion, and Perspective) model against the competitive anxiety and concentration. Design research using one group before and after study or be referred to by one sample pretest/posttest design. In this study, this type of research is quasi experiment with quantitative approach, meaning that a study done strictly to learn causal relations between variables (Infallible, 2012:65). The samples on this research totaled 19 athletes archery Surabaya city. The research was carried out on 2 place namely field archery KONI East Java Kertajaya Indah JL. Surabaya and Banyuwangi, Tile Field and executed may 12 – June 13, 2015. Data captured includes competitive anxiety level data, the data is obtained by providing the instruments in the form of the now and the data results of the archery shots. The use of the now is expected to know or reveal the magnitude of the competitive level of anxiety on athletes in facing Porprov match with archery 50 meters. The now used in this research is the now SCAT (Sport Competition Anxiety Test) (Martens et al. 1990) contained on the website brianmac sport coach. It also used the test concentration i.e. module Grid Concentration Exercise adopted from d. v. Harris and b. l. Harris (1998). Data retrieval will be held twice taking i.e. pretest (before given a mental exercise imagery PETTLEP model) and posttest (after given mental exercise imagery PETLLEP model). The grant of preferential treatment in the form of PETTLEP Imagery is executed before the athletes do exercises; this is in accordance with the opinion of the Mylsidayu (2014:101) exercise imagery exercise before it can be given as a supplement to the interrupted wait time the actual exercise. The treatment is carried out using the help of mp3 audio that has been prepared and contains Guide to doing imagery. The implementation led by coaches, athletes is given the freedom to take the place as comfortable as possible according to the athlete's personal. After that, the coach gives instructions to follow the guidance of the audio.

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RESULTS The overall the data collected include test results of competitive anxiety and concentration on archery athletes Surabaya city. Pre-built data retrieval test (pre-test) which is done before the subject get treatment with the use of PETTLEP imagery on May 14, 2015 at Surabaya Open Archery Tournament 2015. The process of granting preferential treatment is carried out as many as 9 times, every Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. Post-data retrieval test (post-test) done on the Race Weekend Sports provinces (Porprov) of East Java on 9 and 10 of June 2015. The overall data obtained will then be analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical analysis of the process of with differential using program SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Science) for Windows Release 20.00. Before the test the hypothesis made in advance done test prerequisite analysis with test normality with significant degrees of 0.05. The hypothesis were examined using the paired sample t-tests (paired test) because the pairing data obtained between pre-test and post test. Based on the analysis of the calculation is done, the next description data from the research results can be further described as follows:

Figure 1: The Average Value of Pre-Test Anxiety The above description of the diagram can be known that 19 athletes from archery Surabaya to the average value of pre-test anxiety competitive i.e. 20.57 and average value of competitive anxiety test post-namely of 19.15. The average values for pre-test the concentration of 10.47 and average value of post-test concentration i.e. of 12.63. Concentration test result data description and competitive anxiety gives an overview of the results of the pre-test, post-test, the average of the variable concentration and competitive anxiety. Data the results of pre-and post test-test of competitive anxiety showed a decrease in the level of anxiety is a significant competitive after being given preferential treatment over 9 times the treatment. It can be seen from the average pre-test of 20.58 and post-test decreased to 19.16 with difference the difference of average 1.42, so based on the difference between the average showed a decrease in the level of competitive anxiety after being given the treatment. Additionally, on an increase in the concentration of the test results, which in pre-test has average 10.47 while on post-test average increased to 12.63? This shows the difference in average by 2.16 after being given the treatment. To know the difference PETTLEP Imagery exercise influence towards competitive anxiety and concentration then it should be able to compare the results of pre-and post test-test on each variable, then do the test-t in SPSS applications are known as paired t-test. The results of the data processing are presented in the form of table 1. Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

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Table 1: The Results of the Data Processing Using SPSS Tool

Variable N Nam o e 1 RTV BNP 2 3 MAB ASF 4 5 NDP 6 PKN LLD 7 8 NVA 9 AYM 10 DWH 11 SPV 12 AND 13 DPS 14 TSR 15 LTF 16 JBR 17 DAH 18 WBP 19 AWA Total Mean

Competitive anxiety PrePostDifferent test test 19,00 18,00 -1,00 20,00 18,00 -2,00 20,00 18,00 -2,00 25,00 24,00 -1,00 20,00 19,00 -1,00 21,00 19,00 -2,00 24,00 21,00 -3,00 18,00 17,00 -1,00 23,00 22,00 -1,00 19,00 18,00 -1,00 20,00 19,00 -1,00 20,00 18,00 -2,00 19,00 16,00 -3,00 23,00 22,00 -1,00 23,00 21,00 -2,00 23,00 23,00 0,00 15,00 14,00 -1,00 20,00 19,00 -1,00 19,00 18,00 -1,00 391,0 364,0 -27,00 0 0 20,58 19,16 -1,42

Concentration PrePostDifferent test test 8,00 11,00 3,00 22,00 22,00 0,00 7,00 10,00 3,00 9,00 12,00 3,00 15,00 15,00 0,00 14,00 16,00 2,00 7,00 11,00 4,00 15,00 16,00 1,00 8,00 9,00 1,00 14,00 13,00 -1,00 8,00 11,00 3,00 12,00 14,00 2,00 8,00 10,00 2,00 9,00 12,00 3,00 7,00 9,00 2,00 6,00 8,00 2,00 11,00 12,00 1,00 8,00 14,00 6,00 11,00 15,00 4,00 199,0 240,0 41,00 0 0 10,47 12,63 2,16

Based on the table above indicates the level of significance of each competitive anxiety and concentration of variables have the same value i.e. 0.000, in other words the p 0.05 means there is a difference between the pre-and post test-test on a variable of competitive anxiety and anxiety Decrease concentration. Competitive and increase in concentration is not on the same level, as seen from t-count on competitive anxiety of 8.060 variables whereas-5.729 at variable concentrations. Based on the value t-count and the value of t-table, then it can be said that Ho was rejected and accepted because the value of t-count Ha (5,729) > t-table (2,101). In other words that there is a significant difference in variable concentrations between pre and post test-test athletes archery Surabaya city. It can be concluded that the practice of PETTLEP Imagery positive effect toward decreasing anxiety and increased concentration on competitive athletes archery Surabaya, but PETTLEP Imagery exercise a positive effect against more competitive than the anxiety level of concentration. The Influence of Exercise PETTLEP Imagery Imagery form of exercise used to help athletes make the visualization more real with regards to match or competition (Mylsidayu, 2014:94). According to Hidayat (2008) that the practice of imagery shadow in the minds of individuals can include anything that is seen, heard, touched, smelled, and tasted). As also stated by Gunarsa, imagery

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refers to the process feel that is very intense, as if feeling the actual circumstances (Gunarsa, 2004:103). The results of this study showed that the test results of competitive anxiety decreased-1.42 with 6.9% and the percentage of the test results with the percentage concentration increased 2.16 20.60% of initial tests. Further views on paired samples test for each variable (paired test) stated differently between the start and end of test tests on competitive anxiety and anxiety. If seen from the percentage who obtained it appears that exercise PETTLEP Imagery more concentrations influence on athletes compared to competitive anxiety. According to Subroto this could be due to the anxiety level within a reasonable level can transform into alertness and motivation so that the condition to support athletes in concentrate (Subroto, 2002). Though the percentage decline in the competitive anxiety produced only 6.9% but it is progress that looks real from the process of administering the treatment. A small percentage could happen due to the intensity of the giving of the treatment is still too little IE 9 times. Valley Greenleaf, 2001 argues that in order to get optimal results, exercise imagery should be done every day. The intensity of the workout routines lets help the athlete to take advantage of all sensory-to create or display the return movement patterns that exist in the memory of his brain as well. The more senses involved increasingly clear picture is formed. So if this imagery given exercise regularly then the result of exercise PETTLEP imagery given will be more optimally. Linkages with Previous Research Athletes often make the bigger picture not good about himself or an opponent's hand. Consider the superior opponent, the ability of the techniques is still low and environmentally stressful race often appears in the minds of the athletes when preparing yourself in a race. Negative effects appearing athletes feel inferior and end up feeling anxious. If anxiety persists continuously then the appearance of athletes will be distracted. The anxiety that arises before the race will reduce the concentration and performance. The awarding of the imagery significantly contribute towards positive performance, so that the appearance of being optimal. Wright Smith (2007) also revealed in his research that the PETTLEP imagery very effective exercises conducted to enhance performance when combined with physical exercise. Barr Hall (in Hartono, 2010:31) described that the use of imagery increases the competition situation before it starts. On the research of Barr Hall revealed that athletes can feel each part of the body used in achieving maximum performance. The higher level or skill level athletes it will have an effect on the ability of doing imagery. Exercise imagery provided on this research is a step strategy that will be implemented in the race for treatment on drilled athletes apparently successfully applied properly at the time of the race. The treatment given is used to sharpen the ability of the athlete to imagine things that are already very known and envision a specific skills, as well as to imagine the overall appearance of the well through the seven elements (Physical, Environment, tasks, Timing, Learning, Emotion, Perspective) (Holmes and Collins, 2001, 2002). Deficiencies that occur when the grant of preferential treatment or at the time of exercise is the athlete had never given PETTLEP exercise imagery exclusively. Therefore in this research exercise PETTLEP imagery has a percentage of positive influence that are not too big against variables bound. Athletes need enough time to conform to the shape of the imagery exercise.

CONCULSIONS According to Gunarsa (2004:109) effective imagery practice on the athletes to do it many times and is supported by the role of coach to push athletes do exercises independently. It is also supported by the opinion of Mylsidayu (2014:97) Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

The Application of PETTLEP Imagery Exercise to Competitive Anxiety and Concentration in Surabaya Archery Athletes

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stating specifically that the practice of imagery should be done every day. The length of time the exercise imagery of nomore than 20 minutes, i.e. each 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after exercise techniques. Thus, exercise using PETTLEP imagery influenced by the frequency of exercise. REFERENCES 1.

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Hermansson, Gary. (2011). Going Mental in Sport. New Zealand: Inside Out Book

10. Holmes, Paul., Collins. (2001). The PETTLEP Approach to Motor Imagery: A Functional Equivalence Model of Sport Psychologist. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Vol. 13 No. 1 pp. 60-83 11. Hartono, Sutanto. (2010). Mental Imagery. Surabaya: Unesa University Press 12. Kavita, Vats dkk. (2015). A Comparative Study of Competitive State Anxiety Level Between Female Yoga Players and Archer Players. International Journal of Physical Education, Sport and Health. Vol. 1 Issue 4 pp. 64-66 13. Knackstedt, Paul. (2011). Optimal Timing of PETTLEP Mental Imagery on a Dart Throwing Task. pp. 69 14. Komarudin. (2013). Psikologi Olahraga: Latihan Mental dalam Olahraga Kompetitif. Bandung: Rosda Karya 15. Maksum, Ali. (2012). Metodologi Penelitian Dalam Olahraga. Surabaya: Unesa University Press 16. Mellalieu, Stephen D., Hanton, Sheldon. 2009. Advanced in Apllied Sport Psychology. Routledge 17. Mousavi., Meshkini, Abolfazi (2011). The Effect of Mental Imagery upon the Reduction of Attheles Anxiety during Sport Performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science Vol. 1, No.3 18. Mylsidayu, Apta. (2014). Psikologi Olahraga. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara 19. Pineda, Antonio dkk. (2011). Pre-Competitive Aniety dan Self-Confindence in Pan American Gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal. Vol. 5 Issue 1 pp. 39-48 20. Rattanakoses, R., Omar-Fauzee, M.S, Geok, S., Abdullah, M., Choosakul, C., Nazruddin, M., & Nordin, H. (2009). Evaluating the relationship of imagery and self-confidence in female and male atlhetes. European Journal of Social Science. 10(1), 192142.

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Nanik Indahwati & Kolektus Oky Ristanto 21. Siregar, A. E. (2006). Pengaruh Imagery dan Film Instruksional Terhadap Prestasi Lari 100 m pada Atlet Spesial Olympics Indonesia. Depok: Universitas Indonesia 22. Smith, D. & Collins, D. (2004). Mental practice, motor performance, and the late CNV. Journal of Sport and Excercise Psychology, 26, 412-426. 23. Suharsimi, Arikunto. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: PT Asdi Mahasatya 24. Tanpa Nama Pengarang. (2014). Pedoman Penulisan Tesis dan Disertasi Program Pascasarjana Unesa. Surabaya 25. Vealey, R.S., & Greenleaf, C.A. (2001). Seeing is Believing: Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport. Dalam J.M Williams, Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (hal. 274-283). California: Mayfield Publishing Company. 26. Wright, Caroline J., Smith, Dave K. (2007). The effect of a Short-term on Cognitive Task. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity. Vol. 2, Issue 1

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

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IJESR-The Application PETTLEP image - TJPRC

International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR) ISSN (P): 2249-6947; ISSN (E): 2249-8052 Vol. 6, Issue 3, Jun 2016, 131-138 © TJPRC ...

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