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Jump to: navigation, search Jason Keel Sweeney was a construction worker from Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who at the age of 16 was murdered by four teenagers for his paycheck on May 30, 2003. The perpetrators included a girl he was dating and his best friend since childhood. Due to the manner in which Sweeney was murdered, the ages of the teens involved, and the seeming indifference of the perpetrators, the crime received national media coverage.[2]

Jason Sweeney

Fishtown, Philadelphia – Fishtown is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Some newer residents expand the area to Lehigh Avenue, while some older residents shrink the area to Norris Street and it is served by the Market–Frankford Line rapid transit subway/elevated line of the SEPTA system. Fishtown is known as a working class Irish Catholic neighbor

1. 1500 block of E. Berks Street, a typical residential street in Fishtown, in 2007 Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /pnslvenj/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most

Contents 1 Murder 2 Justina Morley 3 Trial 4 Verdict and sentencing 5 Resentencing 6 Memorial foundation 7 In popular culture 8 Further reading 9 References

Murder







Jason Sweeney c. 2003 Born

Jason Keel Sweeney July 29, 1986 [1] Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Died

May 30, 2003 (age 16)[1] Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Cause of death

Murder

Occupation

Construction worker

1. World's End State Park, Sullivan County 2. Flag 3. Autumn in North Branch Township, Wyoming County, Pennsylvania 4. Penn's Treaty with the Indians, by Edward Hicks Construction worker – A construction worker is a tradesperson, labourer, or professional employed in the physical construction of the built environment and its infrastructure. The term construction worker is a term and most construction workers are primarily described by the type of work they perform. Construction workers may also colloquially be referred to as hard hat

Jason Sweeney had left school and was Parent(s) Paul and Dawn Sweeney working for his father, a contractor, on a building project in Philadelphia. He had recently met a girl he liked, 15-year-old Justina Morley, with whom he had a date on the evening of Friday, May 30, 2003. Unbeknownst to Sweeney, Morley was regularly engaging in sexual relations with two other 16-year-olds, Nicholas Coia and Edward Batzig Jr.[3] Batzig was Sweeney's best friend since the fourth grade. Nicholas Coia and his 17-year-old brother, Domenic Coia, had also been friendly with Sweeney, but the brothers later ended the friendship.[4] With the promise of sex, Morley lured Sweeney to "The Trails," a wooded area of Fishtown near the Delaware River, where Batzig and the Coia brothers were lying in wait. Batzig took the first blow, striking Sweeney in the head 4 to 5 times.[5] Batzig and the Coia brothers then pummeled Sweeney, primarily on his head and face, with a hatchet, a hammer and a rock until he was dead. Batzig later told a detective how he hit Sweeney with the hatchet face four or five times. Batzig said, "Jason started begging for his life, but we just kept hitting him."[6] Batzig also said that Sweeney looked at him during the beating and said "Please stop, I'm bleeding," after which Batzig hit Sweeney again with the axe.[citation needed] They finished by dropping a boulder rock on the right side of his head.[7] Sweeney's head was crushed and the only bone left undamaged was his left cheekbone.[8] He was identified by a cut on his hand that he sustained at his construction job.[citation needed] Following Sweeney's murder, the four assailants stole the $500 cash he had earned from work.[7] Before leaving the crime scene, the Coias, Batzig and Morley shared a group hug and split the money, which they used to buy jewelry and illegal drugs—heroin, marijuana and Xanax—and then "partied beyond redemption," according to Domenic.[6][9] Domenic Coia confessed in a court hearing that they were all involved in the murder of Sweeney. The police said the murder was planned days before. Part of the preparation of the murder was listening to the Beatles song "Helter Skelter" over forty times, prompting later news coverage to draw a parallel to the Manson family murders.[2][6] Joshua Staab, 18, a friend of Domenic Coia, said that the group had bragged about their plan to kill Sweeney by using Justina Morley as "bait." Staab also said that Batzig knew that Sweeney would have his paycheck earnings on him on the day of the murder. The prosecutor asked Staab about the teens' demeanor after the killing. Staab said, "They seemed pretty fine. In a way, happy."[6] Although all four teens involved in the murder were drug addicts, they were not high before they murdered Sweeney. In response to a detective's question about whether they were high during the killing, Domenic Coia answered, "No, I was as sober as I am now. It is sick, isn't it?"[6] A detective involved in the case and a forensic psychologist later opined that the killers' motivation went beyond robbery and stemmed from envy and resentment of Sweeney's relative success in life.[10]

Justina Morley Justina Morley claimed that she started smoking marijuana at the age of 10, and shortly thereafter started taking prescription pills and snorting cocaine. April Frederick, Morley's mother, said her daughter started cutting her wrists at the age of 10. Morley had been hospitalized for threatening suicide and self-mutilation in 2002. She was once admitted to Friends Hospital for cutting her wrists, knees and thighs, taking pills and displaying a suicide poem, which she had penned, on her door. Morley told her mother that she would commit suicide if her mother did not take her out of the hospital; her mother then took her out against the hospital's advice. Morley had also been expelled from public school in the eighth grade, which she then repeated at the private Holy Name of Jesus Catholic school in Fishtown. A psychiatrist hired by the defense team, William Russell, said the reason Morley began sexual activity at an early age "was an attempt at validation of self-worth". Morley testified that she had sex with both Nicholas Coia and Batzig in exchange for heroin just a few days before they murdered Sweeney.[11]







1. A Carpenter, working on the construction of Douglas Dam in the United States, bores a hole with a hand drill. (June 1942) Murder – A murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, bro





1. Murder in the House, Jakub Schikaneder. 2. Aaron Alexis holding shotgun during his rampage. 3. A group of Thugs strangling a traveller on a highway in India in the early 19th century. Philadelphia – In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for AfricanAmericans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make P







1. From top left, the Philadelphia skyline, a statue of Benjamin Franklin, the Liberty Bell, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia City Hall, and Independence Hall 2. An 18th century map of Philadelphia. 3. Penn's Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West 4. Benjamin Franklin, 1777 Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – Fishtown is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Some newer residents expand the area to Lehigh Avenue, while some older residents shrink the area to Norris Street and it is served by the Market–Frankford Line rapid transit subway/elevated line of the SEPTA system. Fishtown is known as a working class Irish Catholic neighbor

1. 1500 block of E. Berks Street, a typical residential street in Fishtown, in 2007 Delaware River – The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Its watershed drains an area of 14,119 square miles in five U. S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, not including Delaware Bay, the rivers length including its two branches is 388 miles. The Delaware River is one of nineteen Great Waters recognized by

Trial Justina Morley's attorneys explained to the judge that the girl had suffered through depression, suicide attempts and substance abuse in order to get her a juvenile court trial. Psychiatrist William Russell explained to the court how Morley attempted suicide twice by overdosing on pills only the year before the killing. Morley's attorney argued she was the least culpable and if tried as a juvenile, she could get treatment and live a productive life. The Assistant District Attorney argued that Morley was an important part of the plot in Sweeney's murder and she had treatment before, to no avail. If tried in a juvenile court, Morley could have been free of court supervision by the age of 21. The judge agreed with the prosecution and ordered her to be tried as an adult for murder.[9] At that point, Morley pleaded guilty to third-degree murder in exchange for her testimony against other defendants, and was sentenced to 17 1/2 to 35 years in prison.[5] Domenic Coia, Nicholas Coia and Edward Batzig Jr. were charged with first-degree murder, conspiracy, robbery and possessing an instrument of crime. All were tried together as adults. In 2004, prosecutors decided not to seek the death penalty against Batzig and Nicholas Coia, but planned to seek it against Domenic Coia.[12] However, during the trial, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Roper v. Simmons[13] that defendants under the age of 18 could not be executed.[14] As a result, Domenic Coia, who was 14 days away from his 18th birthday at the time of the crime, could not receive the death penalty. Therefore, the Coia brothers and Batzig all faced mandatory life sentences without parole if convicted of first-degree murder.[15][16] Jailhouse letters of the defendants were read during the trial to understand their behavior and to determine who, if anyone, was the most culpable. Defense counsel for the Coias and Batzig argued that Morley was the instigator and led the boys to commit the murder of Sweeney. In one of her writings to Domenic Coia, she wrote: "So you say I'm manipulative, and yes, I believe I am in ways. I'm persuasively manipulative, and I think I'm pretty good at it, too. I enjoy dragging people along." She went on to say: ". . . Tell me you don't enjoy these gullible humans. It's funny how easy it is to persuade them into lies."[17] She also wrote to Domenic Coia, "I'm a cold-blooded [expletive] death-worshiping bitch who survives by feeding off the weak and lonely. I lure them, and then I crush them."[16] Expressing no remorse at all in one letter, she stated: "I am guilty. But I still don't feel guilty for anything. . . . I still enjoy my flashbacks. They give me comfort. I love them."[15] However, Morley testified that she did feel remorse for the slaying of Sweeney and that she only wrote such things so that she would be accepted by the Coias and Batzig.[17] The prosecution, while acknowledging that Morley's letters showed her to be "a cold-blooded killer", nevertheless used her letters to demonstrate the depravity of the group.[16] The defense attorneys for the Coias and Batzig also contended that their clients, being drug addicts, lacked the intent to kill needed to support a first-degree murder conviction, and at most had committed the lesser crime of third-degree murder. However, this strategy was undermined by the confessions of the three defendants. Assistant District Attorney Jude Conroy read part of Domenic Coia's confession in court: "We just kept hitting and hitting him. . . . We took Sweeney's wallet and split up the money, and we partied beyond redemption."[5] Domenic Coia had also told a detective: "It was like we were all happy [with] what we did."[16]







1. The river looking north above Walpack Bend, where it leaves the historic Minisink region, a buried valley eroded from Marcellus Shale bedrock. 2. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr 3. The East Branch of the Delaware River near Margaretville, New York 4. Canoeing on the river at Hawk's Nest, New York Heroin – Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opiate typically used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is used to relieve pain and as a form of opioid replacement therapy alongside counseling. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein, however, onset of effects is usually rapid and lasts for a few hou







1. Diamorphine ampoules for medicinal use 2. Diamorphine (INN) 3. Two types of heroin 4. Preparing heroin for injection Marijuana – Cannabis, also known as marijuana among several other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of 483 known compounds in the plant, Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporization, within food, or as an extract. Cannabis is of







1. A flowering cannabis plant 2. A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left 3. Dried flower buds 4. Kief The Beatles – The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960. With members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960, with Stuart Sutcliffe initially serving as bass player. The core of Lennon, McCartney and Harriso

Verdict and sentencing

The Coia brothers and Batzig were convicted on charges of first-degree murder, conspiracy, robbery and possession of an instrument of crime. In May 2005, each one was sentenced to mandatory life in prison without parole for murder, plus 22 1/2 to 45 years for conspiracy, robbery and possessing an instrument of crime. None of the teens showed any remorse or apologized for the murder. Paul Sweeney, the victim's father, addressed Domenic Coia, saying, "Look at me, Domenic, with your evil eyes". Domenic Coia responded, "I never thought I had evil eyes, but I guess I do. And I'm cool." The judge, in denying defense counsel's motion for a sentence that could allow for parole, said: "There is a level of inhumanity that exists in these facts. This was a totally depraved act."[18]

Resentencing In 2012, the Supreme Court in Miller v. Alabama[19] struck down mandatory life without parole sentences for juveniles under 18, holding that the court must consider the individual circumstances of each juvenile defendant in determining sentence — which might still be life without parole if, in the court's judgment, the circumstances warrant it.[20][21] The Supreme Court left open the question of whether Miller applied retroactively to trigger resentencing of all juveniles who had already been sentenced, leaving this to the decision of individual state courts and legislatures.[21] In Pennsylvania, where the Coias and Batzig were sentenced, the state supreme court ruled in 2013 not to apply Miller retroactively, thus upholding the mandatory life sentences of juveniles whose sentences were already final at the time of the Supreme Court ruling.[21][22][23] However, the state supreme court also ruled (in a different case) that juveniles sentenced to mandatory life without parole whose sentences were not yet final at the time of Miller were entitled to a resentencing hearing considering their individual circumstances, at which they could receive a sentence of life without parole, or life with the possibility of parole after a minimum term.[24] Batzig and Nicholas Coia, who both had appeals pending at the time of Miller, were granted such resentencing hearings.[25][26] At Nicholas Coia's resentencing hearing on February 19, 2015, Common Pleas Judge Sandy L. V. Byrd sentenced him to life in prison without the possibility of parole, upholding the original 2005 sentence. Byrd noted, "This is an uncommon case, there are no factors which remove the defendant from the punishment of life in prison without parole," Byrd said. "Not only did he plan the assault, but he participated in the assault which was so violent that Jason Sweeney had to be identified with dental records." [27]

Memorial foundation Paul and Dawn Sweeney, Jason Sweeney's parents, set up the Jason Keel Sweeney Foundation, in memory of their son, to fund a full scholarship for the Valley Forge Military School, the school of their son's dreams. Jason Sweeney had wanted to attend the military school to become a Navy SEAL. He had been accepted into the school, but could not afford the tuition. [28]





1. The "Fab Four" Beatles lineup in 1964 Top: Lennon, McCartney Bottom: Harrison, Starr 2. Abbey Road Studios main entrance 3. McCartney, Harrison, Swedish pop singer Lill-Babs and Lennon on the set of the Swedish television show Drop-In, 30 October 1963 4. The Beatles arrive at John F. Kennedy International Airport, 7 February 1964 Helter Skelter (song) – Helter Skelter is a song by the English rock band the Beatles that was released in 1968 on their self-titled double album, often known as the White Album. It was written by Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon–McCartney, the song was a product of McCartneys attempt to create a sound as loud and dirty as possible. The Beatles recording has been not

1. Promotional 1976 US single Charles Manson – Charles Milles Manson, 136–7 is an American criminal and former cult leader who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s. Mansons followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations over a period of five weeks in the middle of 1969. In 1971 he was guilty of conspiracy to commi







1. Manson in 2014 2. County Sheriff mugshot of Manson in 1971 3. The Folsom State Prison, one of the facilities where Manson has been held 4. Manson at age 74 in March 2009 Cocaine – Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled, or injected into the veins, mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, high doses can result in very high bloo

In popular culture A 2003 episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation entitled "Coming of Rage" (Season 4, Episode 10) is loosely based on the crime.[29]







The crime inspired comic artist Kevin Colden's 2008 graphic novel Fishtown, which was nominated for an Eisner Award.[30][31][32] A 2012 episode of the Lifetime Movie Network series Killer Kids entitled "Foul Ball and Framed" detailed the murder, including actual footage from the crime scene, in the second segment of the episode ("Framed").[33] In 2013, convicted murderer Domenic Coia wrote a memoir of his life and the murder, entitled Biological Juvenile. It was subsequently posted in PDF form on the website prisonsfoundation.org.[34] An episode of Murder Among Friends, titled '"Friend Fatale," on Investigation Discovery profiled the murder of Jason Sweeney on May 17, 2016, less than two weeks before the 13th anniversary of Sweeney's death.[citation needed]

Further reading Coia, Domenic (2013-10-05). Biological Juvenile (PDF). Unpublished book manuscript, posted on prisonsfoundation.org. Retrieved 2016-05-23. Katz, Ali (2007-06-20). "Smells Like Teen Carnage: A Philly Comics Writer Turns a Fishtown Murder Into Grim Art". Philadelphia Weekly. Retrieved 2016-01-17. Ramsland, Katherine. "The Unthinkable: Children Who Kill". trutv.com. truTV. Archived from the original on 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2016-01-17.

References

1. A spoon containing baking soda, cocaine, and a small amount of water. Used in a "poor-man's" crack-cocaine production 2. Cocaine (INN) 3. A man sniffing cocaine 4. Cocaine hydrochloride Friends Hospital – Friends Hospital is a mental hospital located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1813 by Quakers as The Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason and it was the first private mental hospital in the nation, and is the oldest such institution with a continuous history of operation. Its campus, which da

1. Friends Hospital Juvenile court – A juvenile court is a tribunal having special authority to pass judgments for crimes that are committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority. In most modern systems, children and teens who commit a crime are treated differently from legal adults that have committed the same offense. Industrialized countries differ in

1. ^ a b Dale, Maryclaire (2003-06-19). "Philadelphia Teen's Brutal Beating Death Called 'Something Out of the Dark Ages' ". Argus-Press. Owosso, Michigan. Associated Press. p. 10. Retrieved 2016-01-21. "[Jason] had been working there...with plans to join the Navy when he turned 17 next month." 2. ^ a b "Manson Echo in Philly Teen Murder Case". abcnews.go.com. ABC News. 2003-0625. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 3. ^ Ramsland, Katherine (2005-03-18). "Justina Morley's art of persuasion". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 4. ^ Schaffer, Michael Currie; Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2003-06-22). "In Fishtown, Lives Fatefully Linked: Fiercely Loyal to Each Other, Brothers Guarded Their Own 'Little World' ". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17.

Murder (United States law) – In the United States, the law regarding murder is complex, especially due to the principle of dual sovereignty that is part of federalism. However, because there are at least 57 relevant jurisdictions, each with its own criminal code, life imprisonment is common, but its meaning varies widely with some states contemplating a full lifes confinement

5. ^ a b c Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2005-03-01). "Jurors hear of teen's final moments". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 6. ^ a b c d e Zucchino, David (2003-06-26). "Slaying of a Teen Leaves City Stunned". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 7. ^ a b Conroy, Jude (Assistant District Attorney) (2012-11-26). "Foul Ball and Framed". Killer Kids. Season 1 (LMN). Episode 1. LMN. 8. ^ Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2003-06-18). "Tale of teen's betrayal". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 9. ^ a b Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2003-11-21). "Adult trial in Fishtown beating". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 10. ^ Skoler, Glen, Dr. (Forensic Psychologist); Reinhold, Richard (Detective, Philadelphia Police Dept. (2012-11-26). "Foul Ball and Framed". Killer Kids. Season 1 (LMN). Episode 1. LMN. 11. ^ Soteropoulos, Jacqueline; Burling, Stacey (2005-03-20). "Morley's Descent Began at Tender Age". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 12. ^ Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2004-01-10). "Teens' Execution Won't Be Sought: Prosecutors Decline to Say Why They Changed Their Strategy About the Trial of Two Defendants in Last Year's Fishtown Murder". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 13. ^ Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005). 14. ^ Lane, Charles (2005-03-02). "5-4 Supreme Court Abolishes Juvenile Executions". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 15. ^ a b Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2005-03-02). "Girl describes beating death of Fishtown's Jason Sweeney". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 16. ^ a b c d Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2005-03-10). "Teen Trio Convicted In Fishtown Murder". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 17. ^ a b Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2005-03-03). "Fishtown witness attacked on letters". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 18. ^ Soteropoulos, Jacqueline (2005-05-07). "3 Fishtown teens get life sentences". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 19. ^ Miller v. Alabama, 567 U.S. ____ (2012). 20. ^ Rovner, Joshua (October 2015). "Policy Brief: Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview" (PDF). Briefing Paper. The Sentencing Project: 1. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 21. ^ a b c Lee, Suevon (2012-08-02). "Despite Supreme Court Ruling, Many Minors May Stay In Prison For Life". ProPublica. New York City. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 22. ^ Rovner, p. 3 . 23. ^ Palattella, Ed (2014-12-21). "U.S. Supreme Court to Review Juvenile 'Lifer' Ruling". Erie Times-News. Erie, Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2015-09-18. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 24. ^ "Juvenile Law Center Responds to Pennsylvania Supreme Court's Ruling in Commonwealth v. Batts". JLC.org. Juvenile Law Center. 2013-03-26. Retrieved 2016-01-18. "The decision in Commonwealth v. Batts applies to juveniles whose homicide convictions were still on appeal at the time the United States Supreme Court decided Miller v. Alabama." 25. ^ Commonwealth v. Coia, No. 35 EAL 2010 (Pa. 2013) (per curiam). 26. ^ Commonwealth v. Batzig, No. 131 EAL 2010 (Pa. 2013) (per curiam). 27. ^ Witt, Lara (2015-02-20). "Man Resentenced to Life Without Parole in the Brutal 2003 Slaying of Fishtown Teen". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 28. ^ Roy, Sree (2003-08-02). "Slain teen's scholarship fund is building: The family of Jason Sweeney wants to help send a boy to the school he wanted to attend but couldn't afford". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 29. ^ Ramsland, Katherine. True Stories of C.S.I.: The Real Crimes Behind the Best Episodes of the Popular TV Show. New York City: Berkeley Boulevard Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0425-22234-8. 30. ^ Katz, Ali (2007-06-20). "Smells Like Teen Carnage: A Philly Comics Writer Turns a Fishtown Murder Into Grim Art". Philadelphia Weekly. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 31. ^ Umile, Domenic (2012-08-14). "A Dearth of Contrition in 'Fishtown' ". PopMatters. Sarah Zupko. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 32. ^ Zalben, Alex (2012-10-16). "Interview: Kevin Colden on the Re-Release of the Eisner Nominated 'Fishtown' ". MTV.com. MTV. Retrieved 2016-01-17. 33. ^ "Foul Ball and Framed". Killer Kids. Season 1 (LMN). Episode 1. 2012-11-26. LMN. 34. ^ Coia, Domenic (2013-10-05). Biological Juvenile (PDF). Unpublished book manuscript, posted on prisonsfoundation.org. Retrieved 2016-05-23.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Murder_of_Jason_Sweeney&oldid=824631891" Categories: 2003 murders in the United States Deaths by beating in the United States 2003 in Pennsylvania Murder committed by minors Deaths by person in the United States 2005 in Pennsylvania Hidden categories: Pages to import images to Wikidata Articles with hCards All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016 Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016 Articles created via the Article Wizard

1. "Homicide" or "murder". U.S. Supreme Court – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices







1. Chief Justice Marshall 2. Supreme Court of the United States 3. The Roberts Court, October 2010 Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg 4. Roberts, John John Roberts (Chief Justice) Roper v. Simmons – In 1993 in Missouri, Christopher Simmons at the age of 17, concocted a plan to murder Shirley Crook, and brought two younger friends, Charles Benjamin and John Tessmer, into the plot. The plan was to commit burglary and murder by breaking and entering, tying up a victim, the three met in the middle of the night, however, Tessmer dropped out of the

1. no capital punishment Life in prison without parole – Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison for the rest of their lives or until paroled. Life imprisonment can, in cases, also be imposed for traffic offenses causing death. Canada and some U. S. states allow judges to impose life imprisonment for such offenses and this senten

1. Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935 Miller v. Alabama – The ruling extended beyond the Graham v. Florida case, which had ruled juvenile life without parole sentences unconstitutional for crimes excluding murder. The decision of the court was based on two consolidated cases, Jackson v. Hobbs, No, 10-9647, and Miller v. Alabama, No. The Los Angeles Times wrote, In one case that came before the court, Kunt

1. Supreme Court of the United States United States Navy SEALs – The United States Navys Sea, Air, and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U. S. Navys primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command. Among the SEALs main functions are conducting small-unit maritime military operations that originate from, and return to, the SEALs are trained to operat







1. UDT members using the casting technique from a speeding boat 2. The U.S. Navy's Special Warfare insignia, also known as a "SEAL Trident". 3. Members of SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team Two in a Dry Deck Shelter of the submerged USS Philadelphia 4. SEALs on patrol in the Mekong Delta CSI: Crime Scene Investigation – CSI, Crime Scene Investigation is a procedural forensics crime drama television series that premiered on CBS October 6,2000. The series, starring William Petersen, Marg Helgenberger, Laurence Fishburne, Ted Danson, the series concluded on September 27,2015, after 15 seasons, with a feature-length finale titled Immortality. The team is led by Gil Gr

RELATED RESEARCH TOPICS 1. Fishtown, Philadelphia – Fishtown is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Some newer residents expand the area to Lehigh Avenue, while some older residents shrink the area to Norris Street and it is served by the Market–Frankford Line rapid transit subway/elevated line of the SEPTA system. Fishtown is known as a working class Irish Catholic neighborhood, recently, however, the neighborhood has seen a large influx of young urban professionals and gentrification. The name Fishtown is derived from the former role as the center of the shad fishing industry on the Delaware River. Also, in the early 18th century, an English colonist was fabled to have caught the largest shad in the world in the Delaware River, the area was originally inhabited by members of the Turtle Clan of the Lenni Lenape Indian tribe. The first European settlers were a group of six Swedish farming families, later replaced by British landed gentry, then British shipbuilders, Fishtown was originally a small section of the town of Kensington, close to the Delaware River and just a few blocks long. The original town of Kensington was only 191.5 acres of land, todays Penn Treaty Park sits where the Fairman Mansion once stood. Kensington was founded by Captain Anthony Palmer, an Englishman by way of Barbadoes, Palmer laid out his town and sold parcels to the local fishermen and shipbuilders. Anthony Palmer eventually became active in the council and became acting Governor of Pennsylvania in 1747-1748. Palmer died in 1749 and was buried in Christ Church Cemetery in Philadelphia, within a few generations there was another influx of German immigrants, then still later in the late 19th century Polish and Irish Catholic immigrants. The community has three Roman Catholic Churches, St. Laurentius, built by the Polish immigrants, and the Holy Name of Jesus and the Immaculate Conception, both built predominantly by Irish immigrants. Holy Name along with Saint Laurentius and the Immaculate Conception continue to serve the community-albeit the latter two as worship sites and no longer as independent parishes, most longtime residents trace their ancestry to Irish, German, and Polish Catholic immigrants. In recent years Fishtown has experienced moderate gentrification characterized by significant rises in housing prices and the opening of art, entertainment. An influx of artists and professionals has joined the ranks of officers, fire fighters, nurses, carpenters, electricians, stonemasons, plumbers, sheet-metal workers. The neighborhood was chosen by the state of Pennsylvania to be the site of the SugarHouse Casino gaming complex on Delaware Avenue near Frankford Avenue, the George Chandler School, Green Tree Tavern, and Penn Treaty Junior High School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Fishtown is the eastern most triangle of the larger surrounding Kensington District, the Kensington District, when created, had a northern border of Norris Street, an eastern border of the Delaware River, a southern border of the Cohocksink Creek, and a western border of 6th Street. The Kensington District is not to be confused with the Kensington neighborhood of today, there has never been an official designation of this area as Fishtown. Fishtown stuck as the nickname because of the shipping and fishing industries along the Delaware River, by the 2nd and 3rd quarter of the 20th century, the area was no longer being called Kensington or Lower Kensington 2. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /pnslvenj/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America 3. Construction worker – A construction worker is a tradesperson, labourer, or professional employed in the physical construction of the built environment and its infrastructure. The term construction worker is a term and most construction workers are primarily described by the type of work they perform. Construction workers may also colloquially be referred to as hard hat workers or hard hats, construction workers often work under a construction foreman. The division of labor of construction encompasses a range of skilled. Construction safety is important to ensure a safe environment for the workers. All construction workers need to be educated on safety at each site to minimize injury. In 2008, a Human Rights Watch report described unsafe and unfair working conditions, the International Labour Organization estimated that, at the end of 2006, 90% of the 40 million construction workers in China were migrant workers. Many of the migrant workers turned to work after their farming communities collapsed into poverty. In the United States, illegal immigrant labor is prevalent in the construction industry.20 a day 4. Murder – A murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, in most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence where permitted. In many common law jurisdictions, a convicted of murder will receive a mandatory life sentence. In jurisdictions where capital punishment exists, the penalty may be imposed for such an act, however. The modern English word murder descends from the Proto-Indo-European mrtró which meant to die, the Middle English mordre is a noun from Anglo-Saxon morðor and Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from Anglo-Saxon myrdrian and the Middle English noun, the elements of common law murder are, Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total, with advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life. Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission. of a human – This element presents the issue of life begins. At common law, a fetus was not a human being, life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath. By another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder, the requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate, Murder necessarily required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill. The courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice, all that was required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes malice. The four states of mind recognized as constituting malice are, Under state of mind, intent to kill, thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill. In other words, intent follows the bullet, examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, knives, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and even vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. In Australian jurisdictions, the risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death. Under state of mind, the doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, arson, rape. Importantly, the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, as with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is usually codified in some form of legislation 5. Philadelphia – In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts, culture, and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are also called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living also in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland 6. Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – Fishtown is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Some newer residents expand the area to Lehigh Avenue, while some older residents shrink the area to Norris Street and it is served by the Market–Frankford Line rapid transit subway/elevated line of the SEPTA system. Fishtown is known as a working class Irish Catholic neighborhood, recently, however, the neighborhood has seen a large influx of young urban professionals and gentrification. The name Fishtown is derived from the former role as the center of the shad fishing industry on the Delaware River. Also, in the early 18th century, an English colonist was fabled to have caught the largest shad in the world in the Delaware River, the area was originally inhabited by members of the Turtle Clan of the Lenni Lenape Indian tribe. The first European settlers were a group of six Swedish farming families, later replaced by British landed gentry, then British shipbuilders, Fishtown was originally a small section of the town of Kensington, close to the Delaware River and just a few blocks long. The original town of Kensington was only 191.5 acres of land, todays Penn Treaty Park sits where the Fairman Mansion once stood. Kensington was founded by Captain Anthony Palmer, an Englishman by way of Barbadoes, Palmer laid out his town and sold parcels to the local fishermen and shipbuilders. Anthony Palmer eventually became active in the council and became acting Governor of Pennsylvania in 1747-1748. Palmer died in 1749 and was buried in Christ Church Cemetery in Philadelphia, within a few generations there was another influx of German immigrants, then still later in the late 19th century Polish and Irish Catholic immigrants. The community has three Roman Catholic Churches, St. Laurentius, built by the Polish immigrants, and the Holy Name of Jesus and the Immaculate Conception, both built predominantly by Irish immigrants. Holy Name along with Saint Laurentius and the Immaculate Conception continue to serve the community-albeit the latter two as worship sites and no longer as independent parishes, most longtime residents trace their ancestry to Irish, German, and Polish Catholic immigrants. In recent years Fishtown has experienced moderate gentrification characterized by significant rises in housing prices and the opening of art, entertainment. An influx of artists and professionals has joined the ranks of officers, fire fighters, nurses, carpenters, electricians, stonemasons, plumbers, sheet-metal workers. The neighborhood was chosen by the state of Pennsylvania to be the site of the SugarHouse Casino gaming complex on Delaware Avenue near Frankford Avenue, the George Chandler School, Green Tree Tavern, and Penn Treaty Junior High School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Fishtown is the eastern most triangle of the larger surrounding Kensington District, the Kensington District, when created, had a northern border of Norris Street, an eastern border of the Delaware River, a southern border of the Cohocksink Creek, and a western border of 6th Street. The Kensington District is not to be confused with the Kensington neighborhood of today, there has never been an official designation of this area as Fishtown. Fishtown stuck as the nickname because of the shipping and fishing industries along the Delaware River, by the 2nd and 3rd quarter of the 20th century, the area was no longer being called Kensington or Lower Kensington 7. Delaware River – The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Its watershed drains an area of 14,119 square miles in five U. S. states —New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, not including Delaware Bay, the rivers length including its two branches is 388 miles. The Delaware River is one of nineteen Great Waters recognized by the Americas Great Waters Coalition, the Delaware River rises in two main branches that descend from the western flank of the Catskill Mountains in New York. The West Branch begins near Mount Jefferson in the Town of Jefferson in Schoharie County, the rivers East Branch begins at Grand Gorge near Roxbury Delaware County. These two branches flow west and merge near Hancock in Delaware County and the waters flow as the Delaware River south. The river meets tide-water at the junction of Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, the rivers navigable, tidal section served as a conduit for shipping and transportation that aided the development of the industrial cities of Trenton, Camden, and Philadelphia. The mean freshwater discharge of the Delaware River into the estuary of Delaware Bay is 11,550 cubic feet per second, in 1609, the river was first visited by a Dutch East India Company expedition led by Henry Hudson. Hudson, an English navigator, was hired to find a route to Cathay. Early Dutch and Swedish settlements were established along the section of river. Both colonial powers called the river the South River, compared to the Hudson River, lord de la Warr waged a punitive campaign to subdue the Powhatan after they had killed the colonys council president, John Ratcliffe, and attacked the colonys fledgling settlements. Lord de la Warr arrived with 150 soldiers in time to prevent colonys original settlers at Jamestown from giving up, the name of barony is pronounced as in the current spelling form Delaware and is thought to derive from French de la Guerre. It has often reported that the river and bay received the name Delaware after English forces under Richard Nicolls expelled the Dutch. However, the river and bay were known by the name Delaware as early as 1641, the state of Delaware was originally part of the William Penns Pennsylvania colony. In 1682, the Duke of York granted Penns request for access to the sea and leased him the territory along the western shore of Delaware Bay which became known as the Lower Counties on the Delaware. The Delaware Rivers watershed drains an area of 14,119 square miles and encompasses 42 counties and 838 municipalities in five U. S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. This total area constitutes approximately 0. 4% of the mass in the United States. In 2001, the watershed was 18% agricultural land, 14% developed land, there are 216 tributary streams and creeks—an estimated 14,057 miles of streams and creeks—in the watershed. The waters of the Delaware Rivers basin are used to fishing, transportation, power, cooling, recreation 8. Heroin – Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opiate typically used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is used to relieve pain and as a form of opioid replacement therapy alongside counseling. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein, however, onset of effects is usually rapid and lasts for a few hours. Common side effects include respiratory depression and about a quarter of those who use heroin become physically dependent, other side effects can include abscesses, infected heart valves, blood borne infections, constipation, and pneumonia. After a history of use, withdrawal symptoms can begin within hours of last use. When given by injection into a vein, heroin has two to three times the effect as a dose of morphine. It typically comes as a white or brown powder, treatment of heroin addiction often includes behavioral therapy and medications. Medications used may include methadone or naltrexone, a heroin overdose may be treated with naloxone. An estimated 17 million people as of 2015 use opiates such as heroin, the total number of opiate users has increased from 1998 to 2007 after which it has remained more or less stable. In the United States about 1.6 percent of people have used heroin at some point in time, when people die from overdosing on a drug, the drug is usually an opioid. Heroin was first made by C. R. Alder Wright in 1874 from morphine, internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It is generally illegal to make, possess, or sell heroin without a license, in 2015 Afghanistan produced about 66% of the worlds opium. Often heroin, which is sold, is mixed with other substances such as sugar or strychnine. The original trade name of heroin is typically used in non-medical settings and it is used as a recreational drug for the euphoria it induces. Anthropologist Michael Agar once described heroin as the perfect whatever drug, tolerance develops quickly, and increased doses are needed in order to achieve the same effects. Its popularity with recreational users, compared to morphine, reportedly stems from its perceived different effects. In particular, users report an intense rush, an acute transcendent state of euphoria, while other opioids of recreational use produce only morphine, heroin also leaves 6-MAM, also a psycho-active metabolite. Equipotent injected doses had comparable action courses, with no difference in subjects self-rated feelings of euphoria, ambition, nervousness, relaxation, drowsiness, shortterm addiction studies by the same researchers demonstrated that tolerance developed at a similar rate to both heroin and morphine 9. Marijuana – Cannabis, also known as marijuana among several other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of 483 known compounds in the plant, Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporization, within food, or as an extract. Cannabis is often used for its mental and physical effects, such as a high or stoned feeling, a change in perception, euphoria. Short term side effects may include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, red eyes, long term side effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started as teenagers, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy. Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and they last for between two and six hours. Cannabis is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal drug and it may also be used for religious or spiritual purposes. In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis, in 2015, 43% of Americans had used cannabis, which increased to 51% in 2016. About 12% have used it in the past year, and 7. 3% have used it in the past month and this makes it the most commonly used illegal drug both in the world and the United States. The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC, since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions. The possession, use, and sale of cannabis is illegal in most countries of the world, Medical cannabis refers to the physicianrecommended use of cannabis, which is taking place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and 23 U. S. states. Cannabis use started to become popular in the US in the 1970s, support for legalization has increased in the United States and several US states have legalized recreational or medical use. Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana can refer to the use of cannabis and its cannabinoids to treat disease or improve symptoms, however, the use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously scientifically tested, often due to production restrictions and other federal regulations. There is limited evidence suggesting cannabis can be used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS and its use for other medical applications is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy. Short-term use increases the risk of minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in people. Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed, at higher doses, effects can include altered body image, auditory and/or visual illusions, pseudohallucinations and ataxia from selective impairment of polysynaptic reflexes. In some cases, cannabis can lead to states such as depersonalization and derealization 10. The Beatles – The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960. With members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960, with Stuart Sutcliffe initially serving as bass player. The core of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them. They acquired the nickname the Fab Four as Beatlemania grew in Britain the next year, from 1965 onwards, the Beatles produced increasingly innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Revolver, Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, The Beatles and Abbey Road, after their break-up in 1970, they each enjoyed successful musical careers of varying lengths. McCartney and Starr, the members, remain musically active. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980, and Harrison died of cancer in November 2001. The Beatles are the band in history, with estimated sales of over 600 million records worldwide. They have had more number-one albums on the British charts and sold more singles in the UK than any other act, according to the RIAA, the Beatles are also the best-selling music artists in the United States, with 178 million certified units. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazines list of the all-time most successful Hot 100 artists, as of 2016 and they have

1. CSI: Crime Scene Investigation Kevin Colden – Kevin Colden is an Eisner Award-nominated, Xeric Grant winning American comic book writer and artist. Primarily known as a webcomics artist, his work has been published in print by Zuda Comics, IDW Publishing, Image Comics, Alternative Comics, Colden graduated in 2001 from the Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art. Coldens career began in 20

1. Colden at the Big Apple Convention, May 21, 2011. Lifetime Movie Network – LMN carries movies and exclusive shows aimed at women, especially made for television movies. Other made-for-TV movies shown on LMN originally aired on broadcast networks, as of February 2015, LMN is available to approximately 82,031,000 pay television households in the United States. The network launched in June 1998 as the Lifetime Movie Network,

1. LMN Investigation Discovery – As of February 2015, approximately 86,062,000 American households receive Investigation Discovery. The channel launched in 1996 under the name Discovery Civilization Network, The World History and it was one of four digital networks rolled out by Discovery Communications simultaneously in October 1996. Plans for the channel had surfaced in November

1. Investigation Discovery Philadelphia Weekly – Philadelphia Weekly is an alternative newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, published every Wednesday. The paper was founded in 1971 as The Welcomat, a publication to the South Philadelphia Press. In 1995, the paper became Philadelphia Weekly, the paper features stories on local and national politics, as well extensive coverage of the arts - mus

1. The logo of Philadelphia Weekly TruTV – TruTV is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. The network was launched in 1991 as Court TV, a network that focused on crime-themed programs such as documentary series, legal dramas. With its relaunch as truTV in 2008, the network revamped its lineup with a focus on reali

1. Previous truTV Logo used from January 1, 2008 to October 27, 2014. Owosso, Michigan – Owosso is a city in Shiawassee County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 15,194 at the 2010 census, the city is located on the eastern side of Owosso Township, but is politically independent. The city was named after Chief Wasso, an Ojibwa leader of the Shiawassee area, alfred L. and Benjamin O. Williams were early settlers to the t





1. The West Town Historic District 2. Curwood Castle, listed on the National Register of Historic Places 3. The George Perrigo House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places Associated Press – The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented







1. The AP headquarters in October 2008, located at 450 West 33rd Street, in New York City. 2. Associated Press 3. Logo on the former AP Building in New York City 4. The APTN Building in London ABC News – ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company, owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. Television broadcasting was suspended, however, during World War II, regular television news broadcasts on ABC began soon after the network signed on its initial owned-and-operated television station and produc

1. ABC News The Philadelphia Inquirer – The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by Philadelphia Media Network, The Inquirer h







1. The paper's May 2, 2011 front page 2. The Inquirer Building, formerly the Elverson Building, the home of the newspaper from 19242011 3. The sign above the entrance to The Inquirer Building 4. The former Strawbridge & Clothier Building at 801 Market Street, where the Inquirer and Daily News offices are now located. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make P







1. From top left, the Philadelphia skyline, a statue of Benjamin Franklin, the Liberty Bell, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia City Hall, and Independence Hall 2. An 18th century map of Philadelphia. 3. Penn's Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West 4. Benjamin Franklin, 1777 Los Angeles Times – The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under t







1. Front page from October 21, 2008 2. Chandler and Otis 1917 3. Rubble of the L.A. Times building after the 1910 bombing 4. Times Newspaper vending machine featuring news of the 1984 Summer Olympics LMN (TV channel) – LMN carries movies and exclusive shows aimed at women, especially made for television movies. Other made-for-TV movies shown on LMN originally aired on broadcast networks, as of February 2015, LMN is available to approximately 82,031,000 pay television households in the United States. The network launched in June 1998 as the Lifetime Movie Network,

1. LMN The Washington Post – The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper. It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D. C. and was founded on December 6,1877 and its current slogan is Democracy Dies in Darkness. Located in the city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for







1. Front page for May 21, 2015 2. The headquarters of The Washington Post in Washington, DC. 3. Washington Post building in 1948 4. The Monday, July 21, 1969, edition, with the headline "'The Eagle Has Landed' — Two Men Walk on the Moon" Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any







1. Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site 2. Map of the District of Columbia in 1835, prior to the retrocession 3. Ford's Theatre in the 19th century, site of the 1865 assassination of President Lincoln 4. Crowds surrounding the Reflecting Pool during the 1963 March on Washington ProPublica – ProPublica is a nonprofit corporation based in New York City. It describes itself as an independent nonprofit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. In 2010, it became the first online news source to win a Pulitzer Prize, for a written by one of its journalists. ProPublicas investigations are conducted by its staff

1. ProPublica New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for int







1. Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty 2. New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it "New York". 3. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776. 4. Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan. Erie Times-News – The Erie Times-News is a daily morning newspaper in Erie, Pennsylvania. It has a circulation of about 47,385 and a Sunday circulation of about 58,378. The newspaper was founded as the Erie Daily Times on April 12,1888 and they each invested $25 to establish the Times Publishing Company, which was initially located in a cellar at the corner of 9th S

1. Offices of the Erie Times-News on West 12th Street Erie, Pennsylvania – Erie /ri/ is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American tribe that resided along its shore, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania. With a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census, the estimated population in 2016 had decreased to 100,055. The Erie metropolitan a







1. The downtown Erie skyline, facing south from Presque Isle State Park across Presque Isle Bay 2. Flag 3. The Battle of Lake Erie played a role in the history of Erie. 4. State and 9th Streets in downtown Erie during the early 1920s International Standard Book Number

1. A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code PopMatters

1. PopMatters MTV







1. Michael Jackson, whose discography included music videos such as " Beat It ", " Billie Jean ", and " Thriller ". 2. MTV 3. 1515 Broadway in Times Square. 4. Ken Ober, host of the early MTV game show Remote Control.

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