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'NATIONALISM'

AND THE COLONIAL SITUATION

IN ALGERIA UNDER FRENCH RULE 1830-1962

by JOHN HUMPHREY

THESIS SÜBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF D. PHIL.

Department

of Politics

University

of York April

1976

ABSTRACT 'NATIONALISM' AND THE COLONIALSITUATION IN ALGERIAUNDERFRENCHRULE1830-1962

The thesis seeks to situate the 1954-62 Algerian war within an intelligible framework. interpretations theoretical It outlines two different One, shared by orthodox liberal Western political of Third World Nationalism. scientists and even some Marxists, suggests that nationalism arose from the disintegration Europeanof 'traditional' society and the rise of ' modernity'; its midwives, and novel created towns were its cradle, 'Westernize'd'elites language and organization its birthmarks. However, social anthropolitical pological insights into segmentary dynamics, together with Marxist analysis of colonialism, of the dialectics suggest that 'nationalist' manifestations features of every, and special variables must instead be related to built-in 'Nationalism" in each colonial situation. then evaporates as an analytical category describing a single, consistent pattern of behaviour at all levels of a total 'nation'. The Key aspects of the Algerian colonial situation are pinpointed. indigenous political 'game' was an intricate, mobile pattern of segmentary groupings allied and opposed in competition for economic and 'saintly' dynastic hegemonies and the resources, complicated by the claims of 'central' wider moslem community. The colonial administration superimposed its own socio-economic norms and structures upon this, yet had neither the resources by its 'holding position', nor the will to do so thoroughly; characterized deliberate 'underadministration', both sought and tried to prevent revolutionary impact. helped moslem society to survive the experience, This contradiction

The as did a wide variety of defensive, evasive and adaptive strategies. resultant bifurcation at the heart of the colonial situation deepened as native groups "retood the initiative'. The FLN exploited this context rather than created a new one. Its strength came from the combined solidaraties segmentary of 'traditional' by long communities - entrenched in inaccessible armed resistance, marked regions social banditry and clandestine self-government - rather than from a small 'evolved' urban elite. It was not ä closely-co-ordinated, seasoned or ideologically-disciplined vanguard party; it merely helped to make this a

future possibility.

CONTENTS page CHAPTER ONE I. II. III. IV.

Nationalism Orthodox Interpretations of Third World Nationalism Basic Assumptions In Orthodox Theories of Nationalism Critique of Orthodox Methodology

CHAPTER TWO

I. II. III.

THE ORTHODOXINTERPRETATION OF NATIONALISM

The Colonial The Dynamics 'Nationalism'

AN ALTERNATIVE (NON-ORTHODOX) INTERPRETATION OF NATIONALISM Situation Of The Colonial In The Colonial

Situation Situation

1 1 5 18 44

73 73 86 161

ALGERIAN SOCIETY BEFORE FRENCH OCCUPATION 212 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

The Framework Of Interpretation Segmentation Lineage And Nomenclature Non-Agnatic Alliances Contingency And Diffusion Of Power Sacredness Marginality The Turkish Regime

CHAPTER FOUR

I. II. III. IV. V.

Conquest Military Government The Origins Of Civil The Commune De Plein The Commune Mixte

CHAPTER FIVE I. II. III. IV.

THE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTUREOF ALGERIA UNDER FRENCH RULE

Government Exercice

'UNDERADMINISTRATION' IN COLONIAL ALGERIA

Survival Of Withdrawn Structures Adaptation Of Structures Renewed Dynamism of Islam The F. L. N. And The 1954-62 Struggle

Cc*CLVSIoN 81BLtorR. AP) /

333

347 365 411 411 415 463 484

REACTIONS TO THE COLONIAL SITUATION AND

THE ROLE OF THE F. L. N. I. II. III. IV.

317

317

The Concept Of Underadministration The Assessment Of Algerian Colonial Administration The Military Assault On Underadministration, 1054-62 Underadministration And The Colonial Situation

CHAPTERSIX

212 218 227 231 237 246 260 267

506 506 526 538 581 678 68ý-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This during

time

which

locations

thesis

has taken

I have passed

and personal

finished

at

Department

is

all

has been tried remained

to

unmet,

throughout.

encouraging

debt

generosity

as a source

assistance.

I count

ideas,

of

myself

balance

it

has been in

too numerous

extremely

to

have

and

understanding

guidance

patience

to recall

has been equalled

practical

and

the

His

of gratitude.

he has remained inspiration

This

its

Dr T. V. Sathyamurthy,

as deadlines yet

jobs,

to my Supervisor

entirely

limits,

That

change.

at York University,

the

stubbornly

the process,

In

up an overwhelming

different

several

considerable

due almost

of Politics

whom I have built

through

vicissitudes.

have undergone

perspective

to complete,

what now seems an eternity

only

by his

and administrative

to have made his

fortunate

friendship. I also

to

wish

to the various

gratitude

The resources

of

I am grateful

for

the

Library,

The Centre

sur les

des Hautes

Fondation Recherches

Etudes

Nationale sur

In addition The Social original

course

help

and African

l'Afrique

et

Politique

I would

like

l'Asie

work possible.

disposal, at my

(London),

Studies

of Algiers),

(Paris), Moderne

(Paris),

The

(Paris),

and the

Centre

(Aix-en-Provence).

study

Council, at York,

for

and

The British

to thank:

Research

of post-graduate

more formal

(University

de Droit

Internationales

Relations

Mediterraneenne

Science

and guidance:

The Faculte

de Science

l'Afrique

were placed

of Oriental

sur

to record

have made this

that

libraries

courteous

The New York Public

Centre

opportunity

institutions

The School

d'Etudes

this

following

their

Museum (London),

take

financing

my

The de

The York University forbearance

in and,

for

its

initial

the

circumstances

finally,

Higher

Degrees

indicated

the Department

encouragement

and help.

Committee

for

their

above,

of Politics

at York University

CHAPTER ONE

THE ORTHODOXINTERPRETATION OF NATIONALISM

NATIONALISM

I. i.

ii. iii.

Concept

Third

is ii. iii. III. i. ii. iii.

v. vi.

ix. x.

IV.

i. ii. iii. iv.

Anthropology

3

ORTHODOXINTERPRETATIONS OF THIRD WORLDNATIONALISM

5

The Work of Coleman

5

Liberal

Western

Marxism

and Nationalism

Political

Science

9 13

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN ORTHODOXTHEORIES OF NATIONALISM

18

The Theory

18

of Change

The Disintegration of

of the

Traditional

19

the Modern

The Importance

21

of Towns

24

The Role of the

Elite

26

The Role of the

Proletariat

31

Culture

32

Inspiration

viii.

2

and Social.

The New Political

vii.

1

Nationalism

Science

The Rise

iv.

Nationalism

of

World

Political

II.

NfIs

The

1

The Passivity

of Nationalism of Traditional

from

Outside

and Rural

37 Areas

39

The Past

41

CRITIQUE OF ORTHODOXMETHODOLOGY

44

Mechanistic

44

Ethnocentric

46

Non-Specific

(Comparative)

Tautological

1-0ChapterOne

52 54

57

NATIONALISM

-I.

-i. . to

of Nationalism

The Concept is

Nationalism

describe

a notoriously a kind

either

without

Presumably,

the

such an ideology.

definition, firmly

the

since embedded in

Indeed,

into

nation

the

in

belief

As a description has also

label

may cover

the

more or less

to

otherý, spheres Clearly,

it one.

secondary

- cultural, is

of

not

Beyond

understanding.

concept

defined

nationalism

for

depth

a miscellany

with

of

Minogue's of

beliefs,

kinds

context. organization

or explicit

appropriate or it

only

it

but

images,

much a

very

becomes

conclusion

of

for

may be extended

or economic.

concept, analysis,

'nationalism'

term

Alternatively,

religious,

irreducible

One sympathizes is

only

sphere,

example,

a primary, a certain

the

to particular

a specific

'political'

a

already

one which

may be considered

Nationalism

judgement.

of nationality.

negation

any formal

lacking

activities

clearly

in

lies

may seek to bring

it

may refer

goals

specified

of ideals.

articulation

to

It

feature

concrete

'nation'

mode of behaviour,

of a coherent

pursuing

man's

towards

far

or foster

cherish

another

been used in many ways.

organization the

is

nation

to

1

a basic

nationalist's

may be 'projective'; than

rather

existence

is

of this

of the

realm

or any particular

nation'

get us very

shape or content

subjective

the nation

One man's

exists.

actual

does not

of

'a bargain". as cheap

'the

of

form

any particular

presents

supreme value

itself

can assert

or values,

organization

ideology

Yet this

to

loyalty

may be used

behaviour.

of

"Nationalism

out,

points

economic

in

belief

a form

or

It

concept.

catch-all

ideology,

demanding

No other

beliefs.

religious

of

same time

or society,

government

of

Halpern

As an ideology, at the

vague

an obstacle

that and

"the

assumptions

L

quite

to academic

unsuited it

define

he is

definitions

adopting

These problems of the

World

Third

top

from

the

political

the

values

The fact

elite

in,

as it

upon the

social

Naturally,

play if

the

and in

groups,

the

the

nationhood,

the light

the

or from

were,

political

real

becomes

given,

are

of what changes looking

inhibits

those

of obstacles: in

terms

marked way.

bottom

the

at

upwards

-

of indigenous in

phenomena figure

latter

these

role

this or from

outwards,

If

in

proceeds

in

things

the

which

externally-defined

must

sense,

is

and strengthened. that

the

er considýations,

educated

outside projected

a quite

starting-point,

then

inside

the

term

is

and intellectuals

politicians,

the

trails

of nationalism

in

of nationality

culture. they

at all,

from

immediately

and inevitably

concept

our viewpoint

materialize.

from

we use the

The analytical

eyes of local

be implanted

at

and discussion

be changed or abolished

these

looked

outside.

and political

analysis

we structure is

to make this

the

If

discussion

was used to

in Europe,

originated

itself.

is

Anachronism

phenomena and preoccupations,

The problems

process

through

'nationalism'

context,

'nation-to-be',

necessary

possible

into

imported

is

term

World.

Third

the

behind

process

down.

process

in

term

connotations

The political the

are

European

certain

certain the

the

since

describe

must

it.

to

stick

term

of several

which

precisely

compounded when the

process

political

invited,

indicate

then and -

the

Whoever does employ

World Nationalism

Third

-ii.

purposesN least

or at

closely,

2

within

widely

employed

in the

Third

in as far

as they

their

own societies,

by 'nationalist'

World

may represent with

itself,

parties,

does not

affect

a partly-European-

special

economic

and social

to

3

In-a

interests. an 'outside' a 'centralizing' top

but

perspective

is

certainly

data

structuring logical,

but

everyday

reality.

Third

This

to

often

represent the

from

questions

But by pre-

of the

true

4

of the

the

with

in

evidence

slants

of perspective.

touch

of

from

picture

consistent

a 'dialectic

proves

the

the

concepts

surfaces' and

more profound

of

science

political

understanding he claims,

to

distinctly

"the

technique

of

European Africa.

concept

of in

several

its

from

which

and African

form Political

and

in

5

political Such

from

the

African

Coleman pushes

former

set

of

institution

of

the tends

nationalism

more

is

terminology

content".

This

Scientists

who take

in

the

not

modern to

statement

the

the sphere

claims

conceptual is

culture,

accepted

developments

nationalism)"

Anthropologists

the

Anthropologists.

Social

to

Third

the

"generally

reference

specific

in

nationalism

Scientists

nationality,

that

suggesting the

of

concept

segmentarism).

present-day

creation Western

nation,

chief,

by

because the

with

used by Social

analyse of

the

AnthroEology

of Coleman who distinguishes

view

lineage, Science

of

Political

elaborated

language

used

use

(i. e. state,

world

Political

and Social

distinguishes

(e. g. tribe,

the

choice

no more than

too

Science

certainly

explanatory

towards

the

and out

all

some respects,

political

first

This

a fairly

construct

confirm

over-mechanistic,

context

Western

still

The chosen perspective

we may produce

Political

is

(defines)

than

rather

World.

-iii.

World

to

vantage-point.

such a way as seemingly

In

they

tradition sees

- one which

possible

such an 'external'

the

'inside'

that

within

an 'inside'

may represent

3

down.

It

partial

view,

they

sense,

of

tools, for

useful

the

anachronistic, nation-state,

be directed, well

a projected

is

illustrates 'nation-to-be'

4

as their

Coleman's

in

community' forces

of disintegration

future

(the

or the

'essential'

the

actual

in

'essential'

for

Political

into

the

The term

Social

prefer,

out the

linked

of

the

used,

superficiality

Thus, Third

out

to talk

It

World first

'nationalism'.

is

it

past;

it

in

has no part

of injecting a key role

plays

likely

any

with items

by not

for

layers

discussion the

on the

example, of the

interaction.

aimed

tempering

considerable agenda

differences

over

the

this

is

localized

the

contributions IS

useful..

the

precise

ness

if

such a clash Anthropologists They

colonial

situation'.

chiefly

to point

Political meaning,

Political Social

as

interpretation

word at all.

conventional

of

the

the

the

over

Social

to 6

of social at

Consistent

because

employing

an intensely

to be given

'nationalism'

of rivalry

'reactions

specific

by Balandier

for

time

have to manufacture

of discord,

simply about

form

'.

and anachronism

complex in

We

the points

instead,

with

the

in

utility

task

the

inside),

may survive

has no future

Scientists

the

take

rarely

disagreement

version.

(the

present

performs

such lips.

and Political

term nationalism.

word is

to

comes awkwardly

their

Where the

it

have little

Anthropologists

reality

to bring

manifest

The projected

may be residual

because thus

the

The past

past!

and of destroying

Anthropologists

of the

we wish

shattering

actual

there

Nationalism

present,

Social

same social

meaning

the

concrete

but

from

Scientists.

a concept.

of the

terminology,

terminal

modernity".

by implication

present.

By contrast,

between

the

over

and thus

Anthropological

future

characterizes in takes priacy over

present

present,

the

that

post-feudal (sic)

has emerged

words'idhich

thus

outside)

Social the

"a post-tribal,

starting-point;

analytical

Science and intimately

Science

of

Anthropology, of

such

concepts

the one as

5

ORTHODOXINTERPRETATIONS OF THIRD WORLDNATIONALISM

II.

Various of

social

into

in

process

Political

the

'dynamic'

and

are a number of

and many inconsistencies.

positions,

A preliminary

through systematic

manner, its

clarify

The school

implicit

with

is

so it logic

Though acknowledging of past

argues

that

According

and present

together

only

certain

three

under

the

last

groups

Traditionalist

the

within

and subsequent

personnel

or institutions. mahdistic,

in

is

and to

order

an intricate Coleman

and aspirations, its

various

strands. been

frequently

of nationalism:

and modernist

are nationalist

traditionalist He considers

movements.

indeed, -

movements proper

only

category.

movements

conquest,

"nativistic,

heading

an explicit

account

nationalism

and isolate

movements,

of these

World

phenomena have too

general

in

shot

usually

procedures.?

discontents

unravel distinct

syncretistic the

Third

social

we must try-to to him,

movements,

and definitional that

expounded

on his

to dwell

useful

is

he represents

than

rather

in

can be found

viewpoint

orthodox

of thought

assumptions

internal

jumble

of the

statement

work of Coleman.

that

There

of nationalism.

'orthodox'

the

be called

might

post-war Anthropologists.

Social

with

other

grouped

with

associated

analyses

The Work of Coleman

-i.

lumped

These can be usefully

and the they

in

word nationalism

one; ' mainly

Scientists,

interpretations

intermediate

the

- the

sake of labelling,

to the

World.

the Third

two main traditions

American For

have been given

senses

revolts

'primary

include against

They also or messianic

the

include

resistance' implantation 'nativism',

to of

colonial colonial

by which

mass movements - usually

he means

of a magico-

6

religious

character

tensions

by the

produced

inequality

of alien

Coleman's

Syncretism comprises

a positive

is

comes from

upon pre-colonial of

control.

it

contains

those

a Westernized

However,

it

is

"an element

aspects

of the

Only

certain

old

which

Coleman subdivides groups,

Nationalism

proper by the

activated and national

proper, is

Western

ideas

African

and external

member state

of democracy,

nation-states

and political

African

grouping....

equality or within

and local what

is

the

progress, aspires

interest

the or

autonomy manifestly

elite,

which

welfare

state

to

create

an internal

trappings b)

movements.

a)

either

possessing

and all

society....

economic

or trans-territorial

and which

of international

social

three;

by the Westernized

and led

sovereignty

and 'rational'.

'positive'

considered

and pan-African

"Organized

it

which

as 'nationalism

to be regarded

movements into

modernist

self-determination,

modern independent apparatus

proper

is

indeed

desirable".

some respects are

pedals

to recapture

the"new,

with

compatible

draws

as nativism;

"an urge

namely

of Modernism

elements

nationalism

are

and in

Only nationalism

proper'.

'negative'

as wholly

but

elite,

on traditional

and presses

of rationality",

as inevitable

recognizes

not

are

he argues,

of such tendencies,

or semi-Westernized

of loyalty,

sources

they

It from nationalism proper. foCMa{. On of and-ffi e kinship associations separatism,

The leadership

associations.

in

to him.

alternative

distinguished

also

'negative'

are

European;

the

refuse

for

outlets

or socio-economic

and Nativism

Resistance

such phenomena as religious

and tribal usually

frustration,

confusions,

rule".

construct

or emotional

are psychological

They do no more than

view.

to

unable

- which

of a recognized

to achieve within a plural

state

absolute

a broader society".

Eur-

is

7

Thus Coleman associates (the

by education the

a 'westernized' of Western

terms

the

of seeking those It

difficult elite,

and 'rational'

are

of Western

political

be cast

Western

paying

in It

with.

'comprehensible'

is

offer

journals,

are

forms, for

example.

Coleman regards

them as the

only

between

what is

'political'

and what is

excluded

forms

political colonial character.

consequences, administration

in -

truly

but -

colonial

they

are

and syncretism, they

themselves

"Each of the movements, " he argues,

and come the

constituted

"is

and

duesare

but

proper',

consequential'.

situation

The have

undoubtedly

pose problems

for

of a political in

this

He distinguishes

activities.

'politically

not

to

officials,

paid

and conferences,

political

traditionalism the

within

embraced as 'nationalism

such manifestations

Acceptance

can understand

leaders,

documents

culture

opposition

as formally

is

'Positive'

political

of predictability

policy

of behaviour,

eyes.

but

sovereigns

elected

power,

programme

culture.

a prerequisite

a measure

with

Western

political

Such organizations

parties,

colonial

Coleman's

of the

sense

nation'.

in

any other) not

the narrow

such a modernization

Western

the

which

political

that

acceptance

sovereignty

framework..

membership,

Not only

with

(or

should

political

a 'modern

and 'rational'

indigenous

forms

cultural

structured

equated

"democracy, The same

by the

sovereignty

conclude

'positive'

of the

and rejection

to

are

in

are nationalists

era,

seek to build

not

ideas

to or

ideas expressed

with

self-determination".

of political

who subsequently

is

to terms

colonial

bourgeoisie,

have adapted

nationalism

driving

and national

abandonment

what makes the

should

state,

the

its

which,

groups (the

role

workers),

He links

culture;

social

economic

urban

style.

political

who, during

elite,

and/or

wage-earning life

the welfare

progress,

are

or the

middle-class,

adopted in

'intelligentsia')

those

with

nationalism

one way or another

the

8'

to the

a response disintegrating

forces

"only

but...

The implicit

and radical

circumstantial, 'positive'

the

key word;

of Western

to play

in

any part

When Coleman speaks

the

he means not

alteration", indigenous

'traditional'

'political',

is

transcending

'power

donated

such a programme,

and only

such bodies

about

its

realization,

Paradoxically,

Third

the

outcome; of

forces

His

definition

excludes

indigenous

(or

itself

these;

for

culture, 'irrational'

other it

and assertion

truly

are World

the

manifestations

non-Western) feeds

to be without

merely

Administration.

colonial

designed

clearly

as are

become

, nAColeman's

within

society

which

draw their

which

Nationalism

decay.

of alternative

reactions.

as the

to

nationalist.

sources.

upon their

or defence

and 'negative'

by the

nationalism to

external

"radical

and without

organization

structures

framework.

authority

colonial

of social

or

To be 'positive',

process.

of the

and refusal

administration

colonial

the

needs

But

it.

messianism,

administrative

structure'

so much the

forms

vague and

situation

a colonial

which

the basic

bring

in

colonial

to seek to replace

- is

more radical

as armed uprising,

political

to traditional

returning

Otherwise,

to

committment

acceptance

connotes

structure"

power

rudimentary

of the

it

culture.

seem to be such reactions

power structure)';

power structure"

as suggested,

"the

irrevocably

be wrong to over-emphasize

would

political

to alter

attempts

would

Only

it

is

it

that

"irrevocable -

here of the

alteration

- of modernity"...

of the

alteration

'political'

and perhaps is

framework

primarily

of

in

political

and radical

definition

a positive

'total'

is

nationalism

insecurity

the

- and consequently

to a positive

committed

rule,

of alien

challenge

of the

intrusion

or of the

Rejection political

writings,

they

operate.

strength

from

substitutes of Western values,

political are

9

Having goes on to its

delimited the

outline the rise

growth:

middle-class,

"detribalized, Africans"

and the

(finally) and

and

education

of

the

centralized

frustration

of

intellectuals

from

of a

growth

authorities,

operation

middle-class exclusion

the

Western

a sense

explain

full

among and professional in

participation

this

new

system.

activity, in

is

undoubtedly

terms that

essence

of

The problem

of a clear this

is

then

two are

Minogue

merely

out,

as the political is

example,

argues

reality

levels

elite

explain

begins

of social - elite

argument

of a proper

to

of political.

when he the

encapsulates

wholly

other

circular

reality.

nationalism

and a proper

nation

large

of

-

World

within "the

that:

nationalism

the

of a very with

terminology

of a more general

to orthodox

American

"Nationalism

.

of nationalism

political drive

8 would

of modernization". science. for

thought

Sometimes

"'Nation-Building".

process

and the

school

'modernization'.

of

commonest explanation

wing

central

Science

one representative

Third

englobed

The idea

one of

Political

Western

equate

points

and 'tries

But confusion

factors.

at various

emergence

one segment

reality.

Coleman is to

merely

on the

Liberal

seeking

not

isolates

nationalism',

of apparent

change and development

of distorted

-ii.

'elite

of social

one segment

depending

proper

set

It

neat.

be called

what might

implies

it

boundaries

by continuing

The analysis

the

he considers

which

traditional

of

Coleman

nationalism,

mobility,

eclipse

Western-educated, caused

social

but

the

them,

within

factors

and social

of new 'national'

institutions

constitutes

of a money economy and wage labour,

evangelization,

setting

of what

sociological

urbanization

Christian

it

idea

his

Rustow,

modernity

are

As

have 9 for today

10

two facets and that

of the nationalist

"

one facet".

linked

of

-a miscellany demonstrations,

boycotts

'political'

in

All

these

factors

Europe this the

Nationalism

are

is

of various

"Where nationalism

manifests

arises

of modernity. itself

in

of the

old,

indistinguishable

World

is

'gesellschaft'.

to 18th

Century,

undergoing

and

exactly

of industrialization,

sister

mass literacy,

as traditional

identification

sees nationalism

recognizably

12

the

since

Third

the

are

which

'gemeinschaft'

shift

also

constitutions',

are virtually

the

thus

It

to this

facets

disintegration

draft

individualization,

One prong

modernization.

that

that

and so forth. two prongs

shift

is

placard-bearing

culture.

from

it

but

parties,

manifestoes,

political

made this

believes

secularization',

There

evidence

with

the

already

of thought

mobility,

emergence

European

countries.

to be characteristic

are held

activities

words,

socio-

and the

organizational

campaigns,

of nationalism

attributes

same process.

social

other

of the

terms

has apparently

urbanization,

In

etc.

associated

school

electoral

to

terms,

mass political

above all,

(especially

European

'modernization'

And in which

linked

in response advanced

for

but

itself

strata

social

of

process

is

tradition,

with

as newspapers,

petitions,

is

this

drive

forms

systems:

consciousness

proletariat)

state'.

such things

of

also

the

political

political

to

by contact

with nation

those

with

'modern'

from

set

of a 'modern

strikes,

but

in motion

the

of new 'modern'

emergence

ideologically

identified

of national

according

and bourgeoisie, changes

building

the

with

middle-class

is

rise

revolution",

"hastening

aim at

parties

Nationalism,

sociologically

economic

the

and political

cultural,

political

of which

modernization

It

same social,

10

increased

society

of nationalism

resulting

from

the

with actual

Coleman exemplifies considerable and social

strength, mobilization

collapses.

this: it

is around

11

the

of the

symbols

new order,

weaken or destroy colonial

attachments

socio-political

other

awakening do not

Gellner's

This

supportive.

in

in

which

argument

definitional

nationalist

they

circle:

or perhaps is

broadly,

school nowhere

narrow

and explicit

So precise of thought

the

not

where they

exists,

nor

often

calls

transitional

and nationalism

complete,

'non-modern'

of clearly

cannot

which

aspects be defined

by a well-trodden

be can explained -

part

mutually

'proper';

of nationalism

cry

they

are

o-nationalist,

even anti-nationalist. in

while, with

one sense,

a specific

with

meaning.

driven

even can exist,

is to

must take its

World

It

recognized,

conclude in

the

that

Third

is

specific in

trend,

evolutionary

social

meaning,

being

Third

'westernized'

It

goals.

is

nationalism social

a world-wide

or even

and demanding is

but

what it

with

never

and restrictive

'modern'

so-called

have definite forms.

conditions

is

nations

contradictory

proto-nationalist,

when confronted

has an extremely among the

that

associated

sense,

is

issue

are not

non-nationalist, The difficulty

not

movement - aspects

sub-nationalist,

another

are

The appearance

pre-nationalist,

in

invents

The

these

about

"Nationalism

it

deals

modernization

to the modernization

relation

to bring

an example:

of thought

school

a specific

used very

is

13

of nation-states".

as an attempt

remark

or manifestly

are unattractive

a modern world

of the

straightforward.

within

they

to pre-

have been crushed

they

because

either

to

sufficient

14

exist".

situations,

of the nationalist

to self-consciousness:

of nations

The two prongs

never

in

sees nationalism

of modernity.

and loyalties

or because

as 'nations'

prong

on a scale

units,

and are beyond memory, unsuitable

have occurred

World

only It

strata.

must

organizational

fact, such

it

context,

that 'pure'

anyway.

the

orthodox

nationalism The price

12

of

insistence

on this to the

irrelevant

symptom of lost There

is

a tendency

former

contenting

the

latter

with

to

itself

with

serious

There

minor

nationalism

"nationalism ensure

several

are

identifies

is

what ought

to be.

nationalism,

of pure

or pre-requisites to understand

attempt

Theory",

to pure

obstacles

the

least

in

a necessary,

the past

future

they

16 with

will

what actually

are bound to

stress

mobilization

- may be inconsistent

But such -disputes

that

disagreement with

among a wide

over

spread

consideration

of

from

'nationalism'

synonyms like

the

Third

colonial

rule

has tended

'mobilization',

example

- such as

institutionalization. such as over

confusion issues.

ultimately,

nationalism

for

And others,

terminology

in-bred

The identification World

So much is

of scholars.

independence

'modernization'.

in

nationalism

formal

virtual

substantive

that

rule,

colonial

others

with

nationalism

no guarantee

feels

of nationalism

aspects

smack more of petty

Ashford

from 18

is

that to

condition though

that

which

argues

example,

there

17

diverge.

conflict.

certain

for

Coleman asserts

thesis

orthodox

sufficient

modernization,

not

Huntington19

modernization

from

far

the phase of independence

after

and modernization

of real

Pye,

modernization. but

this

to

modifications

development".

political

in

with

only

has been linked

of

with

15

exists.

of

One

and "Requisite

"Gap Theory"

attr. 1butes

specifying

describe.

up to

was set

listing

word becomes

the

that

of what is

confusion

to resort

without'any

nationalism,

at

is

it

facts

empirical

relevance

the

that

straitened

very

is

definition

this

is

solidly

so that

to most of

to be abandoned 'integration',

of established the

since

these

than

granting

areas, for

a miscellany

'development'

and

13

Marxism

-iii.

and-Nationalism of Marxist

Some components basic

assumptions

change in For

Third

the

direct

a

and tracts

neither

systematically

West - than

capitalist is

pre-capitalist

of

his

formations

in

for

example

ideas

perspective

than -

entrenched

this

in

to

isolation.

French

- the

the

liberal of his

methodological

under Indeed,

the we

Brumaire' communities

on colonized

same blunt

theorists

society

'Eighteenth

in his

jottings

Marx shares

orthodox

fates 21

or

rural

of pre-capitalist

analysis

peasantry

incidental

frequently,

World

and Third

respective

purposes

of the

between

were identical.

from his

for

The result,

Europe, their

observation.

features

differentiate

was

analysis

rather

distinctive

interest.

Western

tone.

and distorted and

of nationalism, framework

have

rigidity. of Marx's

features

ensures class

the

greatly

in

from his

our perception

example,

related

not

elaborations

Many other

for

intrinsic

extent,

as the

unimaginative

sharpen

for

more simply

Europe

To this

proper.

relief

his

is

20

of occasional

by direct

this

communities,

other

and social in

a miscellany

nourished

industrialization

capitalist

can glean

nor

though

'Eurocentric'

only

to echo

appear

on nationalism

symptomatic;

to assume that

he tended

science,

own work

is

into

communities

as a whole; impact

This

World

Marx did

caricature.

political

views,

developed,

throw

'nationalism'

fundamentally

of his

Third

- to

contrast

is

exists.

Where he discusses of

World

expression

articles

Marx's

them.

contradict

components

Western

of liberal

of

analysis

'nationalist'

of that

analytical

political

structure

and forces

Most Marxists

escape

approach,

phenomena. institutions

morass

greatly

Dialectical

and ideas

of production, the

however,

rather

materialism,

are

constantly

than

discussed

of endlessly-subclassified

l4"

for -

concepts

abstract ideological science

sinks.

nationalism

must usually

constitutes

(modern) a

differs

nation

in

a word,

contribution

nation'

integration',

into product of

of

this

such

Engels

state

of

in

has

of products:

more the

one national The process

This

laws, into

'national class

"can

the

are is

or but

the

midwife

minority,

Marx

the

scattered

with

of

and

property;

'nation-building'

and has of this

consequence loosely

connected

and systems

governments,

one nation,

come

only

means of production,

class-interest, of

away

The necessary

Independent,

become lumped together

23

centralized

national

specific

group

production,

of

the

nations

One social

means

the

of

'modernity',

and

doing

interests,

basis

Potekhin,

and more

a few hands.

centralization.

tariff".

22

distinctive

the

out

points

'bourgeoisie'.

population,

separate

abstract

to

system...

the

of

in

class

" argues

capitalist

"keeps

property

with

the

on the

those

resemble

science,

Marxism

revolution:

one code of laws, customs

stress

development".

population,

was political

taxation,

the

under

has agglomerated

provinces,

it

that

strikingly

political

"A nation,

concepts.

suggest,

concentrated

its

is

referring

capitalist

the

liberal

'development',

national

and

it

than or

existence

of

Marxism

of

of

a

has a fully-developed

it

'nation'

of this

ingredients

Rather

content

in

exchange

and a regular

As a corollary,

typical:

22

'modern

vision.

of labour

is

formula

of

of what

view

of population

any grouping

market".

a single

Though the the

nation.

division

class-structure.

of

Potekhin's

political

interpretation

the Marxist

from

liberal

which

the Marxist

fact,

be deduced

just

from

"a geographical

In

or

psychological

cultural,

change - into

of social

concomitants so frequently

the

example,

with

of

one government,

one frontier, is

thus

and one at

the

same

15

0 time for

a unifying 'unity'

Though this its

work, out

in

indigenous

not

development

to

in

of imperialism

needs

of European

ideologies: 'nationalist' ideology

not

indeed, with

cry

society

be seen as part

imperialist

enlightened interests, relationships

with

those

the

blandly

other

total

method social

in

Thus, treats

whereas the

community, opens for strata

of

capital

behaviour Class

to retain

elite'

'nationalist'

a smokescreen

provides

struggle.

liberal

'nationalist

examination which

are

must thus

close school

movement' its

representing

those divisive,

and

within

interests

or develop the

do

and the

colonizer

accumulation

class

the the

so too

But

'Nationalist'

But

threatens

diverge,

elite.

25

capitalism;

also

of the

the

likewise,

'local' but

it

has an

minority.

alien

of

a

quasi-capitalist

development'; the

is

new markets

bourgeoisie

foreign

colonized

which

'nationalist

the Marxist

search

of a local

anti-imperialist;

wedge of the

for

its

terminology

can be effected.

development

in

facilitates

of the

behind

Imperialism

with

with

It

imperialism.

Where interests

institutions.

and 'non-national'.

'national

'nation'

of a strategy

cause the

political

of

capital.

merely

a rallying

indigenous

growth

conflict

terminology is

the

'nation-builder'

the

the

in allying

of an indigenous

interests

indeed

project

has an interest

elite

building

At first,

fostering

of its

as part

but

entreprenci"al

minority.

of an alien

capitalism

exploit.

interest

elite,

at least,

capitalism

the

society,

own

spelled

are more clearly

context

In a colonized

'metropolitan'

of

and resources

24

colonial

initially

consists,

represents

the

of Lenin.

the

of Marx's

framework

the

one,

class.

exploitative

power of a small

can be drawn from

in

consequences

bourgeoisie

local

inference

the work

obvious

the

consolidates

and disruptive

divisive

and a fundamentally

force,

may, links of as an

long-term aspects

of its

exploitative,

16

Marxist context,

thought

as only

political

Marxist

- as one of of the

analysis

nationalist

stage

There

is

basic

assumptions

thus

seemingly

Marxists through either

a basic

for

ideas,

the Third

socialist

imperialism. of

(indeed

hostility

of attitudes reinforces which

stress

towards)

which those the

often

truly

to envisage

alternative urban

a politically-conscious

lever

kind

of Marxism political

institutions,

of the

'orthodox'

'feudalism'

to oppose

effective

from

'modernity'

those

against leads

to neglect

manifestations, and the

inculcation

of colonialists.

interpretation

of

are mutually

only

little

of

from a complex

supporting

differ

inevitability

are preconditions

stems

indigenous

of European

aspects

led

of temporarily

of this

exposition

of the role

overestimation

than

movements as the

Dogmatic

of nation-building,

inability

tactic

and a pragmatic

bourgeois-democratic

to run

determination

other

revolution

these

crudely,

and some of which

Eurocentric

traditions',

it

variants

or by a manager-State;

of position

radical

are

has first

and proletarianization kind

however,

'Stalinist'

to socialism stage

of socialism.

juncture,

To put

the

that

of nationalism

Eurocentric

are rationalizations

These include

working-class,

road

bourgeoisie

This

many of which

of

World

or quasi-capitalist

revolution.

At this

of supersession.

urbanization,

contradictory.

agents

by the way in which

that

by some form

school

But

of grace. suggests

at play

approach.

liberal

orthodox

by an entrepreneurial

and 'backward

in

'integration',

state

be superseded

difference

a capitalist

social

forces

Liberal

process.

'modernity',

as a final

socio-economic

the process

Industrialization,

revolutionary

phase -

completion,

of the

discuss

argue

this

must eventually

reinforced

of Marxism

treats

often

in a temporal

nationalism

one phase of an unfolding

science

'development'

to locate

helps

also

It

of nationalism

and 'urbanization',

and

17

which This the

approach Third

than

The Marxist

method,

this

school

social

27

in

the

Eurocentric

the

economic

its

of Marxist

combatted

of traditional in

the

of

richer

temporary

inspired -

and South

America

earlier

and experiences

imperialism

and/or

avoided

social

groupings.

generation

The view

with

communities

to withering

World

28

capitalism of the

has thus

theories

and

critique.

by the mobilization

of non-orthodox

the

has been

reality

and domestic

Marxism

whereby

development'

has been confronted

of Third

both

bypassed have -

of a 'national

of non-Western

on the

by and inspiring

school.

have been subjected

that

Building

century

evils,

26

and more flexible

indicates.

the

between

relationship

International.

exploitation

interpretations

suggesting

part

Asia,

the

Third

has proved

and class if

and the peasantry.

decades

this

logic

implications

be effectively

crucial

Africa,

circumstances

accumulated,

resources

Marxists

distortion

ideological

A wealth

however,

and rigid

phase are unavoidable different

for

of interpretation

other

revolutions

'tradition'

of

Second and indeed

and the

narrow

role

(stultified)

marked

World

of Lenin,

work

the positive

minimize

can communal

played

of nationalism.

a



BASIC ASSUMPTION IN 'ORTHODOX' THEORIES OF NATIONALISM

III.

This

section

examines

'Nation-Building'

orthodox and Marxist

The colonial involvement

"the

calls

mobilization',

"two

distinct

the

of the

new pattern

how clearcut

analogy

military

with

mobilized which

then

The same dual There

are

colonialism

its

place.

old

(1)

"In

process

this

homes and families,

social, and people He

of

stage

and commitments,. some relatively and commitment".

organization this

and decisive

the

into

persons

mobilized

old

and behaviour".

habits

settings,

'social

or broken,

eroded

of the process:

mobilization:

from their they

are

the

of

clusters

major

membership,

of group

secondly,

in

built

one of

as

process

of socialization

away from

induction

the

commitments

stages

to ashes;

reduced

processes.

of

"the

that

double-sided.

ashes and is

those

Alan what of

terms

change is

and is

both

new patterns

To emphasize

in

in

in

West and

the

with

contact

viewed

Social

from

speaks

example,

for

is

crumbles, rises

or breaking

(2)

stable

impact".

and psychological

uprooting and

fatal

and argues

become available points

economy,

a key role

for

Change ------

of --

or more generally

inevitably

plays

Deutsch,

to

Liberal

its

both

in

of the

strands

various

of nationalism,

world

irresistibly

future

Nationalism

o

the

the past

economic,

Theory ------

situation,

with

Moorehead Firstly

greater

theory

the

detail

variants.

The 'Phoenix' -----------

-i.

the

in

is,

fashion,

and mobilized

he draws

an

soldiers

are

into

army

the

29

serve". process

is

("a

double

two stages on Indian

society:

referred mission")

to

in Marx's in

"one destructive

the

work on India.

impact and the

of British other

regenerative

-

19

the

annihilation

(was)..

vision.. with

fresh This

of interpretation

of the West is

"whether

for

good or bad,

relatively

tendency contact may put

up resistance,

against

striking;

examination,

such boldness

of terminological

bets,

Halpern's

one ungainly

is

disintegrate

only

systems process.

(This

function,

with radical

- of the though

change is

usually

or linkages

altered

relevance

completed.

Its

inevitable

the

of

ist

33

spirit".

systems in

pattern

pre-modern

hedging

of society

of pre-modern

fact

systems

and effectiveness".

these

which

life-

a particular by the

Yet,

self-fulfilling.

ultimately

pre-modern

obscured

defenceless"

by considerable

and so maintained

The Inevitable Disintegration -ii. --- ---------------The first stage of the dialectic, has been virtually

"All

society

as "absolutely

such declarations example:

of

have come into

declarations

is, accompanied

each other,

The patterns

postpone

of these of Islam

Levy32

have shown a universal

of a ratiorl.

and so does the

elements with

infusion

rendering

as systems,

interacted

all

speaks

and "the

on close

aver

boldness

"modernization"

Marion

solvent.

more than

Can do little

of a

a traditional

such penetration,

Lerner

as that

whose participants

context

The ringing

day of destruction. is

covered

ineluctable.

writes

once developed,

societies,

but

social

is

process

confronted",

a universal

Faced with

the

and irresistible

"We are

one.

any social

them".

inevitability

"Marx's

it,

puts

and promptly

clean

that

suggests

with

modernized

to penetrate with

wiped

as shattering

on an earthenware

pot

being

slate

As Kiernan

of the material

31

writing".

The impact metal

Indian



Asia".

laying

and the

society,

in

society

of the

type

Asiatic

old

of Western

foundations

the

of the

that

some -

continue

to

3

of the Traditional -- --- ----------many observers importance

are prepared

to nationalism

is

to

say,

stressed

by

20

Emerson, of

which

"Nationalism

is

the

toward

a new form

36

in

broken

37

taken". the

first

sufficient" he is

of the

"developing

yet

taken

1853 regarded fully

39

appearing".

entering

"dissolved"

small

of an Indian

tear.

40

liberal

for

two:

Yet

in

disarray

society forms

science in

quoting glass"

has broken

centred

of

phase one

down the

social

is

not

a Pakistani 41:

the verse

spinning had -

while

the-building

finality entitled

and

infrastructure.

one of Marx's pauses

entire yet

organism"

beyond a skimpy

occasionally

emphasizing

on cotton

technology;

progressed

disintegration

indeed,

shattered

"England

of English

effect

finished

as having

any symptoms of reconstitution

without

stereotype

political

moved to poetry,

Messiah

phase

village

of this

Halpern,

similarly

had hardly

nation

The tragedy Western

the

under

India

society

Traditional

"these -

and self-

on a national

social

he argues

hence,

place;

"reintegration

leg,

that

have been disrupted.

communities

second

West has

declares

definitive

of

everywhere the

which

venue,

"socially

has been won:

and

"The forces

visible:

a specific

a part

of kinship

ties

the path

along

naming

of which

custom has been almost

oake of

that:

and also

order,

and their already

to be moving

the

old

old

38

of Indian

framework

weaving

that

areas".

Marx in

change is

traditional

to replace

the

with

atomization

destroyed"35

of being

communities

the

to the

a response

of community

breach

without

clash

confident

has yet

without

too,

small-scale

not

scale",

loose, appears

world

Van Verys leg

of the

of social

stage

is

process

of traditional

This

and the

the

a product

West have been let

the

is

"Nationalism

are

disruption

custom".

ö.

a turn

society,

communities

is

that:

who argues

briefly of the "There

themes,

but

to shed a fatal is

impact, no

21 "Be it a pearl, cup, or a drinking a looking glass, Once broken it is broken forever. is better What is shattered given up as lost, For tears can mend it never... to these pieces, Fruitlessly you gather and cling And continue to pin your hopes in them; Remember, no messiah can patch them together". Nationalism it

finds

thus

no source

may eloquently,

but

future

there.

of

strength

traditional

society

which

do remain

survivals

whose turn

for

disintegration

of "the

parts

pre-modern

phenomenon which, customs,

presents

scientist

structure

proper

What exactly crucial

is,

question,

Thus,

argues

and is

not,

new form

however,

are

which

of which

is

phase of the

of this the

long

components,

but

"social

that

the

social 42

example".

structure

theory

is

proper"

of nationalism

of the Modern

phoenix

for

the

and Parsons.

economic,

Claims

the

situation,

development

by voluminous

is

process

of

that

this

toward

a

and post-colonial 'gesellschaft'

and cultural

footnotes

"turn

to the stage

the

to be

run

Western

to the

orthodox

The colonial

settings

submerged

Toennies

rare.

Rise

sociological,

psychological,

have in the

that

signs

answers.

of community".

situation,

are

according

part

and quaint

"there

and folkloristic

a universal

to the political

than

Fischer,

essential

colour'

handicrafts

tourist

will

be reformed

will

the

to

The Irresistible

The second

folk-dancing,

interest

to be lingering

'local

They provide

of

of

come, or to be not

will

civilizations

artistic

satisfactorily

-iii.

are

greater

of ancient

to their

reduced

Weber,

form

the

or sociologist.

preservation

never

in

Those manifestations

assumed either

are

system".

mourn the past;

momentarily

aspects,

in

its

analysis

work of Maine, has been completed

a

22

on development

The literature Pye,

dip.

for

ization,

social 43

pressures.

Parsons

to

points

market

economy,

Lipset

lays

and physical

psychic,

his

interdependence,

45 and democratic

rational-universalism,

his

Levy lays

functional 47

it

in

terms

mobility,

to modern life",

"exposure

of

political

dimensions

publications

of the

The more specifically are

in

Politics

of the

various

education are all

Science,

Social

The implications

of the

spread

Research of

in

increased

with

this

general spread

capacity,

heightened

participation,

Huntington

fixes

line.

of power,

as characteristics

on rationalization,

national

democratization,

mobilization/participation,

Parsons

the

stresses

consensus

weakening

existence over

States.

the United

formal

have written

culture in

differentiation,

of tradition, of political

and modernity.

rules,

50

integration, and institutionalization.

of an elective

procedural

on Comparative

the political

lists

48

'development'

bureaucracy,

communications,

Eisenstadt

income.

and high

Committee

Council

measures

to mass media,

of this

and changes in parties, and political 49 Numerous other individuals analyzed.

sympathy

franchise,

literacy,

industrialization,

urbanization,

discussed

exposure

specificity,

Deutsch

market.

exchange

and a capitalistic

centralization,

urbanization,

on specialization,

universalism,

rationalization,

association.

industrialism,

on capitalist

the

bureaucracy,

secularization,

stratification,

main emphasis 46 while and education,

wealth

participation; 44 mobility.

public

growth;

economic

social,

secular-rationalism;

and international

urbanization,

stresses

commercial-

secularization,

education,

restratification, Lerner

of modernization:

as characteristics

Western

unification,

national

lists

example,

lucky

a terminological

resembles

leadership, and voluntary

universal group

51

23

52

membership.

Coleman takes and heightened

secularization, Weiner

of the

speaks

integration',

objective

government growth

of

lists

similar

'national

overlapping,

(and thus

rejoinders,

Through of thought

to test

the mists,

these

Many disputes,

these

of viewpoint,

for

that

of a money economy,

of

'secular'

developments. 'rational'

than

education It

is

and 'secular'

than

situations.

however,

rather

rather

volumes

developgent (contract

out to

adjustments

of homogeneity

inspires

clear,

turn

tradition

or minor

of concrete is

vague and

such phenomena as growth

norms

of new kinds

of apparently

quibbles

this

of (and thus

extremely

empirically).

A combination

it

categories

involves

modernity

of bureaucratic

of

amid this

and detailed

are

within

semantic

interpretations

of industry,

and Binder

them aspects

call

specific others

of terminology,

rival

encourage

impossible

schemes.

and imprecision clearcut

quite

about);

more than

classificatory

54

activity.

contradictory,

and counter-rejoinders

to be little

ends and means,

of direction

sense

sometimes

to generalize

general

spread

one's

Some of them are

difficult

with

55

easy to lose

analysis.

'political

of subjective

cooperative to

53

main criteria.

of governed

over

but prefers

criteria,

is of

spread

purposive

integration'.

It myriad

for

consensus

and

as one of

identification

versa,

capacity

as his

capacity,

he means consolidation

control,

and vice

equality

of development

process

by which

loyalty,

differentation,

status),

this of

school towns,

and adoption together

with

and mass media which

accompanied political

by the forms

adoption and norms -

24 for

Nationalism

ministers. deliberately

having

from

In this

a 'natural'

unit

Internal

free

press)

impediments in

land

in

the

(this

"the

thus

be actually

-iv.

annexed

The Importance

"Nationalism", first

instance

viewpoint forming

not

sense

far

true

(with

the Western

education

('a

fresh

world".

Entry

telegraph

class')

"decisive Private

g. into

the

shipping

property

'world

he

contact,

once fabulous

system'

country

56 )

of Towns to Emerson,

phenomenon".

to

57

"is

and in

essentially

According

to the

of Africans

encouraged

fill

left

break

void

by the

the

Marxist

"urbanization the

is

Mass Media

d.

structures

that

are:

enumerated

(especially

classes)

when....

Politics

or "Hindoostan",

via

regular

be

could

to be viable)

out

caste

and i.

distance

to

of Barratt-Brown, of associations

sap the

development

according

an urban

elite

and generate

and cultural

day is

social

would

factors

communications skills

and

India

India,

to be staked modern

material

on Comparative

(He assumes that

culture

"the

colonial

Among the

Council.

through

Western

in

Committee

by the

needs only

Agricultural

economic

argued,

implanted

by conquest

to progress",

h.

which

of such changes

a sign

of what he called

account

A new educated

e.

is

and which

Research

Industrialization

f.

Vhich drabs its

blushing

which

c.

factors,

society"

integration

and railway)

emergence of these

Marx's

Science

imposed

force

place.

without

Social

Unity

b.

taken respect,

underwritten

as that

existence,

of Western

foundations

a.

their

already

of the

the

and responsible

parties

on the margin

hovers

promotes

strength

political

parliaments,

elections,

example,

with

the

will

(a

25

Both schools

of thought

the development

a radical

about

from

other

with

the

towns,

In the

system

forms

is

of political

The degree

alone

characterize matrix

society

develop

two phases

the

complex

the modern,

industrial

both

- literacy

and Cnudde6l

agree

of the

in making

that

"the

economy.

Within

which

distinguish

growth".

urbanization

EUNIVERSrry

Secular-

chief

index

'social

other secular a regular for

and resources

59

rate

The new

of

phrase,

comes first,

of skills

attributes

and media

as the

to involve

appears

they

The

towns.

precedes

suggests

Urbanization

phases.

have developed

in Deutsch's

Lerner

of modernity.

of a participant

sequence

often

There

there.

regarded

of towns logically

The growth

in

develop

men

contact

literacy

the

towns;

most firmly

root

or,

into

most newspapers.

and organization

development,

of three

in

with

rub shoulders

influences.

to European

them

associative

of modernity.

have most radios,

is

fresh

of

come most closely

developed

traditional

and offer

and custom,

or grouping

world,

of urbanization

mobilization'.

evolution

in

what are

men from their

possibility

they

norms take

of socio-political

manifestations

for

manifestations

most highly

action

bureaucratic

rational

style

of kinship

towns

outside

Urban areas

highest.

life

the

and cultural

economic

are most open to the

is

change in

one tribe

men of

tribes.

education

towns play

They wrench

with

a new modern environment, In the

which

ties

from ascriptive

environment,

role

communities.

rural

predominantly

crucial

the

stress

parties..

of nationalism.

Towns bring

ties.

of the nationalist

and these have been the basis

tribalism

58 ,

this

Both Lipset60 the key variable

cities which urban the

next

and McCrone upon which

26 and hence the

education,

growth

and hence ultimate

of communications,

'development'ýdepend. Urban man becomes nationalist his

social

either

There

situation. in

positive,

political

that

expression,

is

in that

assertion

urban

movements in

rural

major

but

to it

capture is

in

the

to infection

susceptible

which

seek

and alienated

structure. that

the

Their

we must understand for

energy

parties,

mass political

that

the

pressure

they

among the

parties

political

newspapers

the

nationalist

and organize

towns

are published5and

are their

centres.

'Elite' orthodox

"The groups

strata.

however, ties

uprooted

to

according

of reason,

he is

support

strength.

held, in urban

social

that

In developing

era.

reasons,

new associative

provide

The Role of the Modernized --- ----- --- ---------Nationalism, to the according

'modern'

"are

politicians

and have their

meetings

kinds

of such assumptions

towns

populations,

founded

-v.

the

in

a compensatory

the oo lonial

from

push out

two major

are

or negative,

light

the

various

he has developed

and sees in nationalism It

man for

by the

view,

and classes

nationalist

germ",

is

born

which

among new,

have been most flnerson,

writes

those

by the

divorced from their who have been most sharply old worlds 62 theiripoC¬is impact of the new". There are two tendencies thought: of

either

negative

most

cut

nationalism

in

that

from

off

their

develops

develops

traditional

roots,

among

those

in--a

social

situation

The urban

style

Western

education,

or

prevailing

in

West.

industrial

work

the

nationalism

discipline,

the

in

among those

contact

ethos

of of

positive

in

with

the

West

most

akin

to

or

the

life, liberal

the

sectors that or

with

that

cash

economy,

professions,

27

These new social

modern sectors. two

groups

least:

at

new group

of

This

orthodox

Iverson

formulation

in

of the

wherever

found,

as well 65

and

the

the

organizer

bearer

which

elements

of Western

arguing

first

its

has derived

seems that

as the

in

tradition

so

are 64

modernity".

of the Marxist

it

'elite

be called

could

liberal

ferment

has been the

class

elite,

educated

middle-class

the mainstream

middle

when he

tradition

and

commercial of nationalism

of the

ideas

underlying

phenomenon". This

their

identification in

explained

terms

education

in

lumped together 'the

of the

either

are

elite

of their

'the

or

evolved',

or moderns'0

elite'.

The bourgeoisie, associated

as a social

in Marxist

Nationalism

is

of

economic

self-interest.

in

the

colonial

entrepreneurial productive

a fine

thought

with

example

of ideology

Third

resources

in

the

or

'capital'.

is

the rise

World

have typically

situation, role

class,

economy.

traditionally of nationalism. in

generated 'modern not

They do not Those in

liberal

pursuit

the

elites',

played

or

'middle-class'

each other,

with

confused

generally

as a class,

Indeed

such a term as 'the

within

interest

economic

frequently

is

nationalism

with

as individuals,

new ideas

and 'intelligentsia'

or

the

from the

educated

this

and

the world

"historically,

that

asserts

into

63

throughout

a creation is

class

typifies

and drive

And Kilson

middle

of the

reactions

can be subdivided

strata

model of nationalism

"nationalism

evidently

the labourers.

wage

nationalism'. that

mould the

to modern mass media - these

exposure

at

least

a truly

control

massive

professions

28

or administrative it

However, embryonic

are not

posts

is

there

modern means of production colonial

A rather

less

jobs,

productive

frustration,

which

Coleman's

and led

sparked

terms

benefited

most to

of

not

'development'

theories,

Without would

industrialization",

painful

Africans;

in but

This

is

has been

by those

who have

by those

short, been

living

of

standards

have

an overriding changes.

a leading

plays

only

to these

modernization.

with

World

generates

Western-educated

and material

colonialism;

Western

rule

most advanced,

and professional

from

full

to obtain

nationalism.

is

rather

denied

on

entry

equality".

The elite

of

through

the

in

a class

Failure

for

competition

68

terms

according

the

is

detribalized,

status

is

there

colonial

where it

so-called

improved

of

come closest full

by the

under

of of bureaucratic

or prdection

words,

itself

expresses

intellectuals

middle-class who in

society'

"Nationalism,

view:

economic accounts

The elite 67 'new class'.

'modern

into

other

what few

growth.

elite's

status.

of Djilas's

sense

acceptance

have

In

power.

this

by the

controlled

'nation-builder' to,

sense.

that

to seize

order

further

of the

seeks access

and professional

special

their

account

liberal

The elite

nationalism. not

in

in

(those

are

encourage

radical

figures

motivation

if

and to

power),

as does Kilson,

possible

turns

the Marxist

in

class

to argue, 66 to nationalism

still

class

a middle

but

the

driving

be impossible. argues easily

National

in nationalism,

role

does so as a means to force

"Nationalism

strength

secular

ideology,

of nationalist

Davis, " because

acquired

one end:

is

a sine

it

provides

motive

for

or prestige

qua non

people

making

becomes the

29

supreme goal;

industrialization

inconveniences,

sacrifices, in

be justified

"to

that.

the

degree

on the

elite's

inevitably

which

to

the

indigenous

Europe,

from

is

of this

intensely they

simultaneously and their the

to

elevate in

economic

system

He paints environment,

haunted

by European

education

life,

stress

own society

nationalist and

those

exalt

to

dedicated its

with its

almost

sole

and encapsulating

the

cut

by a vision

is

culture,

to have,

for

in being

entailed

years its

from

of the

to university". traditional

implanted

of modernity

country's

concerned

the medium of a modern

early

off

and experience their

it

nationalists,

are

wish

also

the

always

traditional

of their

through

from

of an elite

they

But they

diffused runs

As contemporary

and because

progress

is

are almost

self-rule;

dignity

and character-

'modernity',

to

"...

with

the

'elite',

"The elites

work.

the world.

that

a picture

their

and battling

the

with

he argues,

a modern culture

educational

This

group,

mission,

dedication

concerned

standing

sake of

modern,

merely

a heroic

historic

by its

group

nationalistic",

are not

in

colonizers

from

of nationalism

theme of Shils'

overriding

the

are

Nation-Build.

to

Identification ization

Its

environment.

preoccupation,

isolated

of

elements

is

elite

'ought',

with

them".

to overcome

of

ambition". 'is'

of

transformation

values

can

to industrialization

down of

The

society.

culled

the

values

collective

confusion

obstacles

a playing

reject

traditional

ideals

to

The costs,

means.

69

transcending

must be intense

commiTment leads

ideology

the

chief

of traditional

an interesting

that

nationalism

strong,

of

in

the

and loss

of this

terms

He goes on to add,

is

joys

future

in

them

of middle-class in

the

present.

70

30

The elite, the White

Man's

whom they

Analysis

by liberal

ionately only

major

with

masses,

upon this

political

colonial

It

Politics,

their

concerns.

Thus Lucian

not but

The jacket

been explained.

Burma's

examines

transitional

the that by

the

the studying

political

activities,

of

Burma

by

investigating

of

various

of

nationalism

seeks

to

work

nationalism and

the

status

the

among is

the

73

concerned of

the

in

a particular

the

Coleman,

reflected too

nationalist-minded

assumes

can be understood who the

traditionalists, with

basic

society

anthropologist,

mainly

"Mr.

is

the

lives

World

Third field

the

groups

personal

society".

"Unlike

elite:

key

Their

in

that

and Pye himself of

has

reality

simply

that

entire

reality

of that

dynamics

their

the

whole

the

of

of adaptation

of political

book proclaims

-

with

and politicians.

explore

process.....

in Western-

of modern Burma72

to

-

of the

coterminous

decided

political

whole

the

the

not

political

problems

culture",

orientations

experience

is

one sector

of his

if

are versed

discussion

essence

political

system and

consciously of

"I

modest:

they

administrators

in

that

key,

Western-style

psychocultural

that

merely

disproport-

language

literally,

Pye's

by modern-educated

has been charted,

toward

it;

of the

centres

as the

about

almost

on the

entirely

The book implies

attitudes

treated

have learned

frail

common.

They speak the political

ideology.

equally

is

transformation"71:

intractability

the

scientists

political

style

experienced

the

on to their

in

and how to manipulate

concentrates

for

in

have so little

elite.

they

power;

lies

problem

group.

organization

Pye

burden

Burden has been transferred

Their

shoulders!

"the

bears

above all,

the

student

attitudes, Western-

31 educated

Only here

elite...

feeling,

of nationalist key elements

in

they is

imply

the

in Turkish

element quiescent

not

course

of the

to the

of

describe.

The Transitionals, the

modern style,

are

passage,

large,

East". group

writ

75

In

with

other

as an advanced wider

until

-vi.

of

The Role

Wage-labourers with which

the are of

growth least the

of

natinnalism

new superimposed

these

media a

the

Their

future...

less

which

in

the

as a special class),

will This

Middle

than

grow ever is

a classic

history.

'Proletariat'

the

characteristic

normal

ways towards

regarded

society.

in They do

the

society

population

African

contemporary

in

as an exploitative

the whole

embraces

of the are

less

or wedge of the it

eventually

for

energy

are the

significantly

the problems

of traditional

(even

hand,

institutions.

traditional

is

active

other

do they

nor

of social

This already

currently

participate

modernizing

from

at best

"The Moderns,

on the

the modern elite

interests

segment

Whig Interpretation

moving

active.

modern nationalism.

or do much about

the passing

words,

separate

or other

new source is

politically

are the

and do not

think

and the

docile;

East:

of the mass media,

want to

events

towards

The Traditionals, society

output

is

elite

mass communication,

new communications

attend

urban

of the Middle

society.

segment

the

either

for

depth

74

hostile,

study

the

and ideas,

masses are politically

at worst

audience

the

only

into

glimpse

of inspiration

sources

rural)

a theme of Lerner's

a partial

motivation".

that

(mainly

the

are apathetic,

within

istic

the

nationalist

These works Conversely

can one get

other of

'modern "the native

Western

sector'

workers

commonly

in

society, society".

those and

76

linked

employments most

The role

characterof

industrial

32 is

wage-earners colon

tradition-bound".

farming,

It

attitudes. towns in

also

a search

leads

discipline

for

to

higher

new, more 'rational' a link

with

associative

modern political bureaucratic

affiliations, Mobilization

into

be compared in together

mixes

discipline within

its

effects

teaches

learned,

-vii.

certain

and aspects

institutions.

culture,

tends

of

to

political

'modern' life

provide

programmes.

temporarily,

may It

mobilization. rival

style

imposes

groups,

and provides

skills,

'traditional'

of

The New Political

Nationalism political

aspects

Unions

international

their

industrial

and perhaps

the

are

albeit

an environment can be

of life

can be safely

unlearned.

Culture be associated language,

with and

a specific set

of

no

dissolved;

slowly

and articulate

army,

with

isolated

formerly

on new units, which

colonial

causes

hereditary

Trade

with

organization,

the

etc)

develop.

nationalism,

ä via, the

vis

class,

clans,

ties

how work

landscape

working

European

to the

stresses

traditional

guilds,

to large

- emigration

of common interest

embryonic

(castes,

of labour,

divisions

and new

patterns,

particularly

fragmented

Among the

living

or even emigration

tradition

the

subsistence-

the money economy

mobility

income,

consciousness

exploiters;

such awareness.

new family physical

The Marxist

'metropolis'.

colonial

fosters

"isolated,

in

Participation

patterns,

new spending

creats

also

77

stratum

relevant'

masses,

rural

apathetic'

on

wage-labourers

also

'politically

this

contrasts

'politically

the

with

particularly

Deutsch

farms.

but

stressed,

political

kind

of

33

Nationalism indeed

attitudes,

of this

version

for

strives

a new way of thinking theory

is

provided

world

is

absent

to make a better

because Modern confidence from its

nothing,

lives

wants

Psychological

postpone

gratification,

or

personality'

is

political

only

context

'civil

is

simply

non-Western until

meant the

as:

(he)

cares

78

world".

a modern political

trust,

to

ability

talks

towards

consensus...

(and)

disposition

Western

what rules, the to

laws".

is

have

otherwise

persons, sense

of

accept 85

and

'civil

Often,

is

actions

that

legitimacy

this

to

lacking

in

calls

necessary

and

view,

societies' transform "the is

the

shift

at their

affirmative necessary

a nation-wide of

it

culture',

In Shils'

begun

membership the

Shils

'the-civic

system'84

nationalists

system',

'democratic

liberal

Society',

be considered

cannot

n

1 and its

'a political

of

countries

culture;

attitude

By a 'political

itself.

standard

a truly

that

foundations

'Participant

it

calls

modernizing

political

perso

for

required

Almond and Verba dub it

society',

the

this

about

such matters

can hope to build

Lerner

society'.

and

of Kismet,

role

of resignation...

on such psycho-cultural

system

this

all

fatalistic

absent

competence'.

It

Crick

is

feasible

83

'subject

in

are

psyche,

and an idea of general welfare79; an 8o; 81; 'empathy' 'achievement orientation' 82; and and a sense of 'citizen competence'

personality'

'mobile

to the

the narcosis

include

is

such a world

changes

"The Modern impetus

Traditional

the

can do nothing

attitude

and these

from

An extreme

problems.

about

by Lerner:

obeisance

under

nothing,

culture,

'innovating

that

In

perspective.

the Traditional

a change of political

and requires

for

society,

government,

from

its

34

traditional

to modern political or pre-political

an a-political Riggs

describes

openly

'mobilization'

national

The rise political

This

the

is

contrasts

sharply

Western

of

World, pays

group

'evolved' for

87

its

political

are directed this

kind

language',

political

party

rooms,

the

whole

segment of

predilection

the

media,

of

political of

in

headquarters, mass

English

Despite

as political

as used

Third

take

implies

World

process. observers

other life),

education, in

the

of

balance

is

and

appearances, to

consider

The 'modern

law,

administration, committee

assemblies, words

in

regime,

forms

a reluctance

a very used

Morris-Jones for

modern

indigenous

at all.

courts

for by a

colonial in

the

issued

contrary

legislative (in

the

weigh

not

in

participation

at

which

interest

language

political

democratic

does

towards

Ehnerson

it.

for

calling

which

language.

a manifesto

1956,

Congolese.

at other

indigenous

untypical

Emerson

Europe

language to

directed

manifestations

of selective

and

and

clearly

Yet

own language.

other

the

individual,

language.

drawn

political

to

a change of

only

from

instinctively

attention

in

not

indigenous

attention

was

derived

and

86

a new political

'modern'

Indeed,

one.

'modernization'

of

to imply

also

inordinate

treated

'politicization'.

felt

are

Congolese

It

government.

process

traditional,

own

particular

the

to a political

language

the

their

and pay

example,

respect

but

scientists

manifestations

of

is

political with

political

culture

as one of

culture,

modern

is

whole

of nationalism

general

Third

the

as a change from

culture

studying

small to

attacks

and

interpret

the

the

"arguments

and

35

discussions

representations, decisions"

party

community in

groups

ministers

familiar

ýd",

fri

whole

Lerner

in

classes

the

authority

makes

policy

on a liberal

and

taxes

private basing of

democracy

of

from

religion

individual silence

characterized

"the

well-recognized whole

of

Indian

frightened

the

I

Take

our

state....

the"rejection

retreat

replies

country

before

asking

therefore

wipe

out

the

of what he calls

"I

the

illiteracy

evasion" 'unseemly'

matters

these and

sturdy

"dumb

question"

'Traditionals'

would

newly-

Separate

He contrasts or

government

and

make the

permanent.

the

a peaceful

Charter"

to

steps

"

the

like

he

political): Base

To follow

to

various

President,

were

would

try

would

After

justice....

U. N.

on the

understands.

(and

do....

cannot

it

they

social I

who sound

and who engage

press,

terms

do if

doctrine.

of

with

Western

too,

'spokesmen'

of

in

articulation

identification,

kind

to

standard. in

its

with

'modern'

according

living.

matters

opinions or

"a

to

were

in

as

my actions

cultural

established

the

would

enterprise

standard the

raise

and backbenchers,

assumptions.

responses

economic

the

such they

what

the

raise

the

colonial

adjust

policy,

Hence

elite',

would

foreign

associated

they

"between

conflicts

if

as

is

in

following

do things

coming to grips

ministers

if

language',,

particular

interviewees

to

to

as

interviewed

the

with

Turkish

"I

them

as an ideology

when

debate

They turn

servants"

civil

'modern-educated

intelligible in

than

and

story".

'modern

this

the

with

rather

between

treat

and

Nationalism of

and

deliberations

89

the

politics,

politics.

legislatures,

and between

terms

level,

restricted

88

living

with

this

at

and demonstrations,

90 .

which

36

The more the

language

Western

political

minded,

and authentic

vocabulary,

Nationalism this

narrow

These

Only in

sole

African

"The onset

party

academic

of Western

shell

like

attributes

and perhaps prove

the

apparent

'modern' given believes their

lack

political

their

role

this indigenous

in

of injecting

; after soil,

They appear

cards

the

similar

very

organizational tangible

and subscriptions,

These

living

in

and public

indigenous

may even be treated a future

extrapolating he magically

into

Indeed, of these

reality

as an advantage, Halpern

the present. parties

nationalist breathes

often

observer92

reality.

political in

meetings,

'concrete''assets

mind of the

the

buildings,

official

programmes,

of deep-rootedness parties

the

explain

mass political

congresses

implanted

than

scientist

to

organized,

They have recognizable,

offices.

of

and on fairly

norms,

born within

party

even publicity

statements

the growth

,

World.

elections,

to be more firmly

political

to

committees,

newspapers,

proper.

must be 'rationally'

help

in

organization.

politics

can we understand

paid

parties.

officials,

language

political

of

ascriptive

some are

constitutions,

cadres, elected pamphlets,

than

the Third

parent

of

nationalism,

Politics

attention

indeed

parties;

forms

Such assumptions

in

organizations

to Western

91

rather

procedures.

'modern'

are

with

only

of Mau Mau interrupted

Kenya".

in

based on voluntaristic

considerable

'modern' true

of

not

of such assumptions

politics

predictable

identified

with

also

vehicles

light

the

Rotberg's:

like

but

sense, the

are

is

the

of nationalism.

as voices

as action

they

the more he feels

from

derived

concepts

employs

of such replies

into

from

them the

power

37 to irrigate

that "as

he writes,

instruments

unknown in

organization being

"Political

soil.

move themselves

phase

to the

a challenge in

enshrined

to the

Emerson asserts the

ideas

that

the

of Asia,

weaken

Burke,

Mazzini,

the

their

"The

origin,

and

imitation

in

and

is

is Asia

of Western

of

every is

95

of

"The

reason

a powerful

American

Emerson, is

nationalism to

ideas

The

in

populations

them indeed,

that

Rousseau,

of

indep4: ience", to

formulate goes

of

certainly

assume

one.

lies

A common theme is

inspire

96

Thus,

education.

among subject

principles

figures

inspires

also

nationalism

of....

of Europe".

established

only

it

and unity;

subsequently

idea

outside

own dominance.

ideologies.

very

there

without

of indigenous

the West not

well-spring

great

colonized,

own nationalist

further:

of

and

"the

its

eventually

from

'products'

ideas

releases

by the

principles

and "Self-determination")

theory,

example

which

studied

example,

modernity

among the

and political West

that

"No taxation

raw manifestations

orthodox

of political

ideas

nationalist

a belief

from

stems

the name of political

of Nationalism

Inspiration

foundations

legal-constitutional

94

culture.

According the

than

93

order".

established

(for

tradition

'political'

more clearly

-viii.

power in

colonial

and so can

structure

movements'

"One man one vote",

representation",

political

social

of

They cease

society....

shown in the

interest

Western

the

old

beyond the

'nationalist

colonial

Islamic

to the

advantages",

They are a form

change.

traditional

and others

The considerable of

of social

related

organically

have peculiar

parties

the

strength

Western

mere of

element the

West,

38

it

which enabled studied to the

and a major

and copied,

This

from identifying

follows

Paradoxically,

language.

political

the

nationalism,

very

concept

fairly

typical

in his

was "born

of our

(French)

labour";

technical

and administrative

for

is

true

the

publications,

spread

universalist

ideas".

publications

could

community as the cord

is

linked

from which Western

is

it

ideas,

Kedourie stimulating phenomenon

beginning

become

behind with

largely

the cut

"Europe's

ideological

contagion "is

he argues, of

the latest

gift

the

role

in

Third

century". to

the

indispensable and and and these of the

section is

elite

seen

umbilical

or the masses, worlds

outside

'nation-to-be'.

a doctrine

nineteenth

the

elite's

the

with

He also

behaviour.

small

culture,

of the

stresses

is

education

This

but

off,

built

only

restricted

traditional

nationalism

rationalist

a very

the

for

Moroccan

our education

this

only

to come not

from abroad.

which

nationalism.

and the vision

nationalist of

that

behind

said

but

not

our egalitarian,

The fact

particularly

"Nationalism", the

not

France

enabled,, "through of

is

that

infrastructure

import,

force

coherent

'modern'

with

force

culture, remark

have touched

of little

driving

is

98

driving

nation',

political

but

nationhood,

'the

of

'national'

Plantey

according

of

existence

nationalism the

the

from within

was the

strength

97

nations".

view

to be

was a thing

of that

component

West itself,

of the

testimony

and integrated

so much of Asia,

to dominate

of

World

the

nationalism. in

invented 99

in

emphasizes

Since 100

world".

ideas

Europe

then,

"The

sweet

it

at has and

39

heady poison

of Western

in countries

whose entire

of the

colonial

Elites

style

is

totally

variant",

which

discover,

too,

religion,

can be manipulated

Belief Marxist

that

in

emotions

Europe more in However,

terms

by orthodox contagion

who calculate

of the

and social

economic

have themselves

scientists

political

to

Traditional Passivity of -ix. --------'Meanwhile, back in the bush', passivity

A somnolent

reigns.

active,

urban

"In

minority.

this

passive

place

where the

those

parts

of

the

the which

claim

'national'

paradox

central

which

of the past,

to national

culture

society

are

"the

rural

or at best 103

creed".

and

He erects "The one

found

is

characteristically

not

are most obviously

representative

although

as the

and tradition

of an

corollary

of nationalism:

these

distinctiveness... be taken

interpretation,

Elverson,

new currents,

the

of the

can probably

argues

to the nationalist

nationalists

heritage

logical

adherents

into

passivity

to the

102

is

general",

provoked.

ideological

according the

to

been considered

Society ------to this

outback

masses have been indifferent belatedly

Rural and --- -----

'debt'

the

often

World.

Third

the

among

evident

changes it

of the

as part

from Europe

carried

a new future.

less

is

of nationalism,

of Marxism

variants

ideas

must furnish

The elements most authentic

are

the

rural

a

including

past,

of building

purposes

is

But they

own society.

traditional

(European)

the power of

interpreters

the

about

enlightenment nationalism

of which

to their

for

by this

poisoned

of politics, alien

seductive

particularly

has been shaken by the impact

fabric

social

situation.

"an ideological

learn

is

enlightenment"101

much of

of society

heirs peasantry,

of the who

in

4o

the

old

and file

contributed

this

point

the

stress

of

becomes important Genuine not

Their

the

from

decay,

growth

territories

is

only

than

the

to the

through

plantations, All

possibility

excluded. depth, not

Such manifestations,

or regarded 'political'

in

the

areas

service,

and

population "are

explains, Western

of mines

and 106

abroad".

such areas explored

are rarely

nationalism.

nationalism

dormant

the

rural

particularly

of genuine

as

such backgrounds

of the

in

rather

politicize,

force

initiative

sense that

viewed

are

super-imposed

labour

which

such zones gives to

Everson

to the

change

stimulus

They are

of it.

to awaken,

however,

as expressions

do

of modernization.

of the in

misery

appeal",

as the

of political

nationalism

folk-dancing,

process

terms

"The elements

nearest

military

fact

'receiving'

to

do emerge from

nationalist

such channels

or through

in

rural

leaders paradox.

In

at

limited

by the

towns,

strive

who have been brought

society

thus

as sources

nationalists

prove

is

Indeed,

of nationalism.

involves

105

and economic

Some nationalist

they

proficient

discussed

usually

uprootedness,

most susceptible

are

the

Gellner

become artificial.

things

however

areas

and through

which

organize.

those

rural

to nationalism

obstacles

but

of the

contribution

social

when these

or tribesmen,

104

etc.

rank

active

of nationalism

culture

make good nationalists".

The role stimulated

popular

precisely

peasants

generally

folk-lore,

the

nor

nationalism".

"The self-image

and such of

These elements

on.

leadership

and African

succinctly: folk,

to hold

the

neither

of Asian

partisans

puts

mass of the population,

great

as have been able

aristocracy

however,

have,

the

constitute

everywhere

is

political.

is

not in

They

41

Coleman movements

are local

against

to

effort

them

classifies either

As such

ments".

that

the

maintain

107

manifestations

or

parochial

grievances

way

cannot

'precursors'

are

felt

generis,

of

nationalism.

Resistance

its

against

upheavals

such the

in

trends".

the

disturb

ill

the

the past

revolts

as 'primary

classified

of hostility

reaction

whose

which

the

tribal

played aims,

"the

early

structure

Coleman calls

colonial

order.

are

regarded

or

traditional

110

and

part" leadership

But

than

dichotomy

defensive and

all

as "rather society

A classic

instinctively

a considerable

turbulent

log

situation

old

may occur:

resistance'

new nationalism".

between

xenophobia

nationalisms

traditional

subsequent

and

instinctive

society,

colonial

of

of

established which

-

the

to

struggles

manifestations thus

'secondary

and which

dying

in

obtaining

are merely

first

traditional

within

reactions

new, sui

the the futile old of a part on effort ... 108 Later - for these are regarded as change".

stages

'syncretistic',

such

intruder

to reject

chronological

best

encroach-

negligible.

consequences, "the

"an

or

something

of the

implantation,

colonial

These are

alien

society

to

practical

resistance'. to the

is

is

conditions

contribution

of nationalism

rise

It

At

peasant

protest

alien

against

'positive'.

unique

The positive

modern world. to the

from the

resulting

life

be

Break Past the with -x., ---------Nationalism breaks with history.

"a

be intolerable"

to of

that

states merely

xenophobic:

are

customary

they

bnerson

'nativism'.

as

"the

reflect

is

reactions, later the

new

42

By this "feudal

112

outburst".

authentically

the

distinguishes

it

114

elites"

old

from the

to subdue Morocco, the north-west not

on this

Like

past.

Suddenly,

the modern elite,

age-old

uncharted

South

. about

East

the

memories

tentative

old

Marx,

past

other

way,

from history".

undifferentiated

to

follows it

states

no gain

of

its

ancient

all 118

Such image

doing

logically

quite

reflects traditional

(the

or

nation-to-be). in

an of newness

a quality

live

to

a common store

of

and guidance.

strength

so they

can see only

a

117 from the

'fatal

"This

loss

separates

traditions,

the

for

explicitly:

a new one...

what

past

severed,

seeking

Lacking

future".

an attitude of

the

of a third

adrift

is

of peoples

and in

and an insecure

too,

with

look

depends

from its

future

"There

hopes.

only

cannot

interpretation

world,

Britain,

the

present

This

A generation

and with

people

They must look

theme.

Asia...

is

cord

on

115

nationalism

become new nations,

Pye suggests,

forces

strong

natives".

off

decades

of nationalism

on to the

116

which

took

development

umbilical

grafted

communities

a history,

without

its

feat,

Thus,

sea.

upon the

cuts

"represents

Rif

"The French

The growth

but

upsurge

semi-modernized

had to maintain

guillotine

by a surgical

rather,

by their

composed of Westernized

definitional

in the

great

and everything

typical:

British

resistance,

complex

This

is

of India.

frontier

led

an antiforeign

"a last

is

tribes,

of the

formula

merely

uprising

countries...

and the

tribal

new social

Abdelkrim's

Morocco

rogue's

.

is

The Boxer Rebellion

113

China".

of, the older

Mutiny

Indian

the

criterion,

and

impact' of

Hindostan, from

a very past

the

(its)

whole

rigid actually

by

ruled of

its

and consists

of.

43

At one point,

indeed,

"Indian

that

history

whole

the

of Neither

of her past

successive

nationalists,

nor

has an independent

the present.

Thus,

ways actually

easier

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old".

familiar

with

Reluctance

their

their

entire

of modernization.

the study

of modernization

universal

encyclopaedists".

past

history

we nor before

Western

in

we or they

We can become expert of new nations

some important

can thus

the new nations

in

than be

must become

can cope with

and professional

without

in

firmly

in new nations depth

it.

common with

are in

having

it

mentors,

own, situated

"Problems

and analyze

to study

"Neither

of its

the

119

or much in

past,

is

be anything,

it

self-appointed

logic

to perceive

no known history",

at least

if

declaring

conclusion

she has undergone".

Halpern,

suggests

justified:

scornfully

issues

120

history,

from this

Modernization

logical

at all,

conquests

have much to learn

appears,

to the

has no history

society

"the

and that

Marx leaps

the in

to become

44

CRITIQUE OF THE 'ORTHODOX' METHODOLOGY

IV.

The methodology in

criticized

of the

several

122

respects.

Mechanistic It is -i. -- -- ----------The theory of change which is

nationalism building'

is

and social will

highly

engineers,

have "partial It

builders. 'modernity'

too,

and what

change is

Four

of this

aspects

that

as total

clash

specific

architects

the new building its

as will

environment"123

of what constitutes The two are made to

'tradition'.

are largely

place

implies

view

'nation-

The phrase blueprints,

a schematic

and the

takes

it

of

explanation

models,

from its

constitutes they

one-way,

interaction

connotes

independence

incompatible;

appear

it

and above all

reflects

the

underpins

and mechanistic.

abstract

symptomatic;

can be

of interpretation

school

orthodox

The resultant

systems.

under

conditions

the

which

ignored.

mechanistic

are particularly

approach

striking: a) constant

Binary

as internally

It

the

homogeneous and coherent

and alternative

potentialities

and modernity

technique

of binary

internal

means that

also

tradition

appears

makes them appear

contradistinction

and incompatible.

tions

The use of tradition

Opposition.

settled, conflict;

two 'units'

modernity

contradicBoth

Furthermore,

without

seems a fixed

treated

are

change are ignored.

goal.

the

static;

tradition

any history

of

makes them appear

and uniform,

exclusive

internal

emerge as caricatures.

opposition

timeless

mutually

systems; for

in

and modernity

45

Binary

opposition the

and overestimates the

misinterprets largely

because 125

above.

It

dichotomy, such

not speed

nature

it is

not

a false to

'transitional',

the

this

process,

it

distorts

process.

This

from

perspective,

by adding

since

124;

the

of

refine

done,

a complex

interaction

direction

enough has

oversimplifies

the

of

and

adopts

as Lerner

as

merely

and is

outside

and

traditional-modern an intermediate

same distorting

category

perspective

survives.

b)

Macro-sociological

of

Shils,

to

according

their

studies

126

whole".

thus

"is

a macrosociological

and when it

societies,

certain

studies to

contribution The

society

'as

a whole'

is

between

and 'traditional'

and variety which

makes it

at a 'national'

it

of

operates, is

perspective at work, of social

but

adopted.

terms

with

to view

it

society

as a and

of Change

the

interaction

two coherent the

however,

complexity in

at which, and forms

be appreciated

multi-directional

study

if

a non-centralized

there ones,

are not

two forces

at different

levels

organization.

more than

explores

the

Theory

In reality,

words,

the

societies,

as one between

In other

is

nation-to-be,

not

Because of the macrosociological little

the

and the many levels

can only

several

difficult

level.

change,

of

of the Phoenix

It

cultures

these

of

functioning

are inevitable. 'modern'

parts

of new. states", it

study:

the

features

abstract

"The study

Perspective.

corollaries detailed

an exercise in

in

logic;

an inductive

empirical

facts.

analysis

perspective, it

refines

manner, This

categories

without

height

coming

becomes and to

of generalization

46

cannot

illuminate

really

historians

and social

have been produced

Linear

c)

doomed traditional

(or

syncretism?

'the

traditional

outcome

could

events

on the

for

ignored.

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is

certain

is

little

from

the

room for for

its

flank

of

synthesis

strengthening

of

or domination

colonial

kinds

is --

by control

situation,

theory

extremely

scheme developed

Third

admitted. of

in of

with

its

determines

and reconstruction, of nationalism

makes

difficult.

Ethnocentric ------------

the

explicitly

within

and institutions

and tensions,

classic

as

ends - are largely

of resistance

of such parameters

situation

characterized

and political

specific

of the

colonial groups

treated

The political

contact'.

specific

ambivalences

nature

Change is

'culture

of

economic

the

The conceptual in

into

made - organized

of particular

discussion

modernity

wedge driving

Situation.

of the

contradictions,

the mechanistic

institution

play

of conquest

It --

("detached

or indeed

Colonial

of the

resources

-ii.

opposites,

sector'.

'contact'

success

binary

sector'

There

coexistence,

characteristics

the

internal

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of a neutral

a situation

is

theorising

of actual

between

clash

sector.

), for

Neglect

and social

the

experience

an ever-widening

the

d)

In the

one-way. is

environment")

the

direct

without

by

provided

Much of the

anthropologists.

Change.

change appears

which

information

concrete

127

ground.

the

the

World

is

to discuss

ethnocentric.

Coleman argues

the modern nation-state,

that

nationalism Sometimes,

this

"concept

and

the

towards

and

the

creation

of

47

which

African

Western

in

its

"the

justify

the

so Gabriel

exclusive

have to master be derived

"the

modernization

in

the model

from

of the modern Western

There ignore

the people

'validity';

the

to project

The latter

adaptation

So it

School

universalism.

is

smq&cs of

130

this

you,

refuse

will

areas turn

and formal

is

can only analysis

the

to

one is

up as an apparent is

only

an

to new circumstances Though the

ethnocentrism. it

to

Both are

fact

egocentrism

'universalism',

them,

them on your

or agree

itself in

or their

to absorb

try

discussion,

but

to

simply

importance

to accept

sets

kind.

of a specific

down by yourself.

simple with

is

upon them,

laid

in

which

to deny their

egocentrism,

of an original

challenge.

in

egocentrism

former

non-Western

politics,

who wishes

scientist

empirical

(more complex)

on terms

of the

the

of egoism:

own concerns

nnly

egocentric.

Builder

around

You can either

discussion

of

kinds

other

your

own terms.

negation

implicit

two possible

are

political

to

order

ý9

politics".

The ethnocentrism

as Coleman stresses

drawn from Western

of the modern,

the most careful

self-

characterize

phenomenon in

nation-state

that

that

Just

use of concepts

Almond argues

the

attention,

merits

of disintegration it.

distinctly

that

He denies

culture

destroying

of the

origins

to Etudy political

i Z.

forces

are steadily

Western

128

political

shattering

modernity" the

indigeneous

is

to be directed,

form and content".

image of the since

tends

nationalism

is

unilateral

Nation-

48

It

is

does,

respects Different

come to terms

cultures in

and coherent

their

was a genuine variety)

the

late

development

deigned

in

that

and 'primitive',

sible'

to understand performance

Western

as

institutions,

of outward

the

voting

we should

scrutinize

political

functions

lineage-groups

breathed 'function'; practice

Burundi being

or holy

approach new life

five

system

should

It

for

Nonin

for

by

elections

Instead,

evidence

of

'institutions'

by such local

terms

look

not

in Afghanistan.

societies

must

everywhere

we should presidential

sought the

for

be judged

not

and

as 'incomprehen-

as 'institutions'.

years

or Afghan

performed

as

men.

entailed into

or rather by social

every

nor

was a healthy

(institutions)

institutions;

Burundi,

It

Scientists.

political

ran,

simple

activities

or dismissed

as 'systems',

argument

in

committees

single-transferable

every

to Western

resemblance

cabinet

This

which

It

scheme.

Political

the

socio-political

as 'political',

to treat

alternative'means

functions

(of

embrace the

an overall

the U. S. A. y

the West.

in

could

by self-styled

these of

which

school in

ethnocentrism

been ignored,

They were accepted

perform.

for

it

understandable

especially

studies

within

had hitherto

phenomena which

down the

terminology World

systems.

important,

and 1960's,

political

phenomena of the Third

certain

The systemic-functionalist

1950's

characterized

and in political

as interesting,

to break

to develop

attempted

to,

purports

heterogeneous

own right.

attempt

which

it

with

treated

are

emerged in

which

because

universalistic

the it

broadening

a refreshing words

anthropology.

131

such advances It

and

and 'institution'

'political'

acknowledged

of horizons,

laid

the

already

foundations,

and made in it

49

seemed,

for

a new school

and Third

East

World

"Political

in

terms

yardstick

or self-consciousness,

naivety,

Several

culture. making,

of the

analytical

concepts

the

stimuli

for

the reconstruction

in in

which

the world this

undermined

sense,

the Middle

The assumption are

the

crucial

'Developing of this the

effort

nation

of

states

such areas

is

issue

Nations'

view.

West is

the

today,

East

Third

facing imply.

"The dominant the out

leaders of their

are defined

in

World

Pye is

their

"came

Lerner,

East; efficiently West is,

133 of modernization as such labels

most blatant

East

societies". to the

has

What the

model.

new countries

transitional relation

South

World

operate

nationalists,

one of the

theme in

in

will

the problems

away that

there

Middle

inthe

to become".

seeks

far

never

a useful

still

to be little

Third

"From the Wests argued

that

rule-

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the

society

political

example,

Above all,

that

of a modern society

of explicitness,

proved

language.

traditional

The

of Western

of traditional

assumption

of what the West has more.

less

of

(for

functions

more obscure

seemed to be a built-in

usually

performance

the workshop

within

translations

into

with

degress

and rule-adjudication)

poorly-disguised

be compared

one-sided.

varying

with

new-heralded

rule-application,

more than

of

style

remained

always

was forged

of assessment

and

one.

structures".

new 'universalism'

Yet this

"may

1960,132

frequency

requires

comparison

now offered

school in

by political

functions

political

this

the

of

All

compass.

Almond

wrote

systems",

one another

its

within

of analysis;

standard

a shared

politics,

comparative

of

West,

embracing

problem

Asia", to

he writes,

create 134

of

proponents

In

"is

modern other

'nation-building'

words,

as

50

in

than

rather

terms

of political

development

means anything,

favour

of hoped-for

a noteworthy the

social

upon the

to

in

established

denied

the

West...

political shared

change, moral

more heavily

up the

dependent

In such hands, school

could

is

live

institutions

are not

inside

own system;

their

how systems the

of

theoretical

radicalism,

it

in

analysed

they

these

reassurance are

all

are now forming further

is

in

inherent must be 137

systemic-function-

promise.

Third

World

functions

they

perform

describe,

indeed changed

preach, to

enable

functions. never

as to what was politically it

that

and institutions

approach

the

of legitimacy

of the

theorists

not

directing

see how the

terms

existing

and

is

maturity,

need for

theoretical

externally-defined

decision

conditions

and efficiency".

to

up to its

The systemic-functional convincing

values

states

they

difficult

must be transformed

performance

the

upon effectiveness

it

change the

The establishment

expectations...

to

of

and legitimacy

the power of legitimacy

exploit

in

point

legitimacy

responsiveness

command of dignified

authority

this

the

of commonality,

Above all,

realities

same manner as has been

the

The strength

and the

ways,

in

order

of current

reversed

these

If

vigorously:

countries,

to use power to Under

and spnntaneous

He elaborates

is, directly

of a moral

in building

136

developing

citizens.

this

rejection

depend on its

necessarily

to such societies.

cannot,

alist

the

commitment

speak

fashionable of

"In

of the

personalities possible

means the

The situation

values.

depends

it

specific,

Pye asserts

eventualities".

passage: does not

state

135

life.

expressions

in

own individual,

of their

had a distinct

came to a comfortable relevant.

tendency

to look

Despite for

or its

51

discrete

of the

groups

Apter, not

type

for

'anti-democratic', 138

'pre-demncratic'.

and emphases.

Aristotelian

distinction

and 'civil

except

in

felt

for

139 (us).

Turk's then

we are

than

that

of

'political

systems':

dominium

Cities,

Political

indeed

confirm

the

been its

to

we call

society' to

see how, from

differed

call

we are

saying

These are properly

differentiated

in

exist

patriots

the

no more on

as Fortescue's meant by

European

inhabitants

meant by 'republican'... advanced

societies..

have been unable

interpretation devotees.

'political'

power rests

Whig translators

relatively

functionalists

most prominent

all

meant by 'polity',

what the

American

Grand

the

that

'orthodox'

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such a system

distinction;

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only

old

made a distinctly

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if

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systems

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et regale,

politicum

government',

of Free

than

consent...

the

difficult

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though

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all

some kind

'mixed

losing...

should

view:

a 'politician';

barber

systems

in

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and style,

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verbal.

were nevertheless

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example,

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'pre-systemic-functionalist' "It

they

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in

was essentially

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back door

Shils,

society'

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focus

World

yet

Through

distinctions

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had deemed 'political'

of

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argued

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evidence,

empirical

The shift

context.

example,

be called

Crick's

sought

the Old Tradition

which

European

a purely

it

whenever

groups

of nationalism, 141

to

011.140 do more

and have

52

It

-iii.

Non-specific,

is

theory

The 'nation-builder' Both

and ethnocentric. It

comparison. but

is

"We are not

features

to

on "the

and every

epoch...

incomparable that... of

the

events

epochs". area

143

Pye,

explaining Several

approach.

occur too,

and

that the

in

attacks

diverse

"the

concepts exotic

Though,

some comparative

behaviour

are

logically, framework,

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unique

culture,

features

from

aspect

any significant societies,

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are

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smug knowledgeability

assertions

formulated

in

unique

of every

society,

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to attack

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Our task

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and "the

problems

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within

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are

to ascertain

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universal",

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He goes on fiercely

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and

categories

they

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and

explains:

we think

and politics...

uniqueness

discussion

and because

obviously

the

find 142

may bei3escribed". who insist

is

facts,

them as among the

we regard

understanding

of societies

is

regard

better

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events...

particular

this

the

with

concern

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to

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We aim at

historicists.

intellectual

highest

with

concerned

propositions

analytical

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reflect

of cross-cultural

classification

is

of nationalism

a framework

developing

with

flaws

not

comparative

mainly

the

of the

that

aggressive

there

West were inapplicable

of non-Westerners".

144 comparative

no analysis

can take

place

the

scaffolding

erecting

with

is

cultural

a purely

associated

and

without

may become

53 an end in

itself.

The bricks

they

neglected;

and mcrtar-

become secondary.

nation-builder

school

a book on a specific

Much of the work of

like

reads

facts

empirical

the

new

introduction

an everlasting

'nationalist'

- are

movement which

is

to finally

never

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is

may distort

the

to

seeks

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to

is

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to material

framework

comparative It

is

the

ideological

grounds

some frame

is

methodologically

Even supposing by the

classic

doubts

about

being

in

the

yet

discipline,

national

a frame

values

to

culture...

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from

tends

is

to

ethnocentrism.

is

value-free and that

necessary,

on pure

raises

from

specific

ethnocentrism, A framework

remain. to

146 may be

each of the of its

values

units

own: those

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intellectual

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frameworks used

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resists

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ogists

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14.5

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a further

problem:

"All

anthropol-

limitations

can succeed

only

at

of their the

cost

of

54

becoming class

'technocentric',

expertise'

interests

'international

to

It

-iv.

The movement

tends

political

nationalist

to

awaken

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to

elite

ties the

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reduce 149

and is

in

organize

to

those

not

the

the

early

the

slumbering

and and

total

outback

or

society. from

is

sector

there

is

rural

masses.

more

direct the

and

It

'modern'

little

mass political

these

societies;

propaganda,

the

within

one

the

with

of literacy

the

stages,

into

Western

in

the

by a small

traditional

modernization,

seeks

in

and contact growth

is

proper'

origins

led

groups

itself in

has its

typically

and other

to

'nationalism

of modern communications.

movement from

adopt

modern This

action.

construction

To effect

its

political

various

facets

of

this,

it

torpor,

and

itself.

The interlocking theory

values

and

'manageability'.

to

It

and towns,

pressure,

movement

new associative

help

the

analogous of

uniqueness

instinctively

therefore

'professional

of

The

by colonization

about

Particularly

in

participation

the

148

World.

development

educated

economy.

methods

Third

the

based on towns,

middle-class

parties,

in

the

mobility,

of the

and

of industry

spread

predominantly

to

has grown up whereby

brought

revolution

West - the

has

formula

development

a novel

them

perhaps

uniformity,

The values

'material'

their

an international

of

values

Tautological

is

A classic

social

of

administration'

heterogeneity

social

may blind

among researchers

self-defined

the 147

investigators".

professional

of

in

centred

nature disguise

Unfortunately,

of these the

tautology

much of the

on which literature

the takes

of the theory

orthodox itself

corollaries

55

of the

definition

original on which

premiss

He arrives

the

at

certain

modernity

asserts

that

As against

senses

be true

Nationalism

through sector the

would,

of

to

word

the

assumptions political

urban

born

in

indeed

course,

major

evidence

152

Yet he

core:

the

the

great testable

apparently

in

the

it

towns,

although

towns

the

a restricted

of European

origin. in

political sense,

If

political

Western

terms

is

and modern then in

it

is

the

political

post-independence

'political'

label

expressed

component

political

be the most important

when articulated

so defined,

certain

were.

as the

so far

middle-class

is

may in

it

and activities

and their

the

in

emphasizing

worth

parties'

political

nationalism

in

is

drift,

sentiments

parties If

logical

the most important

nor

the

circular.

uncomfortably

political

membership.

situation;

of

'nationalist'

nationalism.

This

movements".

of

born

was only

nor

danger

the

"underlies

proper

'nationalist

the

that

these

only

kind

was not

to those

confined

any kind

'non-tautological'

nationalism

remains

this

nationalism

'just

153

however,

assertion,

nationalism

yet

exist)

of genuine

has a hard

'national'

cf modern

World

from

He recognizes

his

tautology.

Ito movement can be called

emergence

that

statement

majority

151

into

strays of Third

(modernity)

the

theory

his

15°

one,

though

example,

'nationalism'

argument!

is

for

interpretation

pre-conditions

of this

empirical

a subtle

and sentiment'.

in his

circularity

that

is

to distinguish

loyalty

group

Gellner,

based.

orthodox

by way of seeking

until

of nationalism

of nationalism

account

of

is

it

of the

as confirmation

colonial

process.

component

involving ideology and through

neither

if

we gave

cultural is

It

only

Western-style

56

if

media,

political

action a Western

comprehensible

in

as accord

this

with

In

significant.

is it

in

other

bound to is

contexts,

seem the most important

co-terminous

and distortion nationalism that

are

at all

the

with

linked

urban its

political

when arguments

arise

'modern

process

should

nationalism

with

nationalism' levels.

those

takes

forms

which

faced

with

most

defined

The problem

process based

to

in

154

itself.

that

is it

play,

since

Confusion

on the restricted

sense of

larger

meaning,

so

whole

political

based on the

appears

so broadly component

political

use of

narrow

a very

be recognized. is

are

such manifestations

naturally

out to be politically

we are

and this

which

then

turn

words,

other

only

that

context,

definition

the word nationalism, that,

is

explain

the

57

NOTES TO CHASTER ONE 1.

"THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL CHANGEIN THE hIDDLE EAST M. Halpern: AND NORTH AFRICA" (Princeton 1963) p. 207.

2.

"Nationalism: K. R. I'Sinogue: the poverty of a concept" ARCHIVES EUROPEMNES DE SOCIOLOGIE (8) 2 1967 p. 340.

in

that: His "NATIONALISM" (London 1967) argues at length "The concept of the nation is almost entirely empty of content local is - arbitrarily from until a content supplied (p. 154) circumstances". 3.

"Cultural the Motivations to Progress: cf Soedjatmoko: ): (ed. Bellah 'Exterior' 'Interior' R. N. in the views" and He RELIGION AND PROGRESSIN MODERNASIA (New York 1965). in debates on the problem pleads for a change in perspective in the Third World, but his remarks apply of modernization he "There to discussions exists" equally of nationalism. "a great gap between the way in which the developmentargues, the problems of his nation, and modernizer oriented perceives leadership the real preoccupations political of the nation's in response to the ways in which the transition process and by its accompanying problems are experienced and perceived the of

majority this view

of the nation .... from the inside".

we should (p. 4)

know

a great

deal

more

foreignthat of with compared viewpoint, but inside the looks from trained outwards experts certainly the it down with looks from the top compared when clearly In indigenous other the the bulk population. viewpoint of of he argues for and words, of the viewpoint consideration local He indigenous the still regards elite. of preoccupations (modernization), to goal communities as obstacles a projected that these the that so well are embedded and simply makes point They frontal less should modernizers assault. need to try a "to 'interior learn the the language view' so as and adopt of to the increase their regard with manipulative capacity (p. 4) their traditional societies". of sectors This

'interior'

DU NIONDE(Paris DEPOSSESSION

4.

The phrase is Jacques Berque's: 1964) p. 172.

5.

in AMERICAN J. S. Coleman: "Nationalism in Tropical. Africa" POLITICAL SCIENCEREVIEr (48) June 1954, p. 404-426.

6.

G. Balandier: Afrique Noire" various other discussed in

ä 1'etude "Contribution des nationalismes Apr 1954, P" 379-89, in ZAIRE (Brussels) His views and books by him. will articles the next chapter.

en and be

58

7.

is based entirely The following J. S. Coleman op. cit. account the His same assumptions this contain works other on article. See TO BACKGROUND "NIGERIA : his form. in more scattered esp. Movements Political (California 'Current 1958); NATIONALISM" 'The Emergence in ANNALS (March 1965); of African in Africa' (ed. ); AFRICA TODAY in C. G. Haines Parties' Political ): (eds. G. (Baltimore C. Rosberg Coleman S. T. 1955); and TROPICAL AFRICA in Integration National Parties Political and in Africa' Sub-Saharan (California Politics 'The 1964); of and Areas ALMOND AND COLEMAN (eds. ); The Politics of the Developing (Princeton 1960).

8.

POLITICS Z PERSONALITY AND NATION-BUILDING (New Haven L. W. Pye: 1962) (New 1963) York ): (eds. NATION-BUILDING J, Foltz Deutsch W. K. W. and R. Bendix: NATION-BUILDING AND CITIZENSHIP (New York 1965). locciý" (1967)Ap. 338. "Nationalism: the poverty K. R. Ninogue: of a concept"

9. 10.

11.

12.

"Nation" D. A. Rustow: SOCIAL SCIENCES (1968)

in INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAOF THE 9 p. 12. vol.

): (eds. Coleman J. "The Near East" in G. Almond and D. A. Rustow: 400. (Princeton 1960) THE DEVELOPING POLITICS OF AREAS THE p. and C. G. Rosberg: cf D. E. Apter Change in Africa' in Politicäl ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY AFRICA

'Nationalism of and Models D. P. Ray (ed. ): THE POLITICAL (Washington 1959)"

Africa'

422.

13.

J. S. Coleman:

'Nationalism

14.

E. A. Gellners

THOUGI AND CHANGE (London

15.

in A. Analysis' 'Requisite 'Gap Analysis' criticized are and Development" "The'Underdeveloped Wilner: theory of Political (16) Apr. 1964,, p. 468-82. WORLD POLITICS

in

Tropical

loc.

1964)

p.

cit. 168.

p.

in

16.

L. W. Pye: "The Concept March 19651 p" 7-

Development"

in

THE ANNALS (358)

17-

Aspects" "Modernization: Political J. S. Coleman: ENCYCLOPAEDIAOF SOCIAL SCIENCES (9) p" 398,

in

INTERNATIONAL

18.

D. E. Ashford: in the Moslem

19.

S. P. Huntington: WORLD POLITICS

20.

KARL MARX ON COLONIALISM AND MODERNIZATION 1-31. Introduction 1968) p. esp. in R. Miljiband "Marx and India" and J. Saville V. G. Kiernan: 1968) p. 159-89. THE SOCIALIST REGISTER 1967 (London S. Avineri (New York

L. I. esp.

of Political

"Contradictions World" in MIDDLE

Nation-Building Natinnalism and of EAST JOURNAL (1964).

Development - "Political (17) July 1965.

and Political

Decay"

in

(ed. ):

and S. H. Rudolph: p. 17-24.

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION (Chicago

(eds.

1967),

):

59 21.

"There is a close between the way Marx had been thinking parallel in the West, and the way he was now thinking of of the proletariat The juggernaut the colonial of industrial masses in the East. and habits, the Antiquated had them both. over capitalism rolled linger, but only that them, might still outlook went with on life (V. G. delay". further by inertia, little with and would vanish REGISTER 1967, p. 169. ) 'Marx and India' Kiernan: in THE SOCIALIST

22.

I. Potekhin: "The formation 10 1958, p. 308-314.

23.

(English Edition K. Marx and F. Engels: "The Communist Manifesto" 1886) in K. Marx and F. Engels: SELECTED WORKS(Moscow 1962) vol. p. 38.

of nations

in Africa"

in MARXISMTODAY(2)

I,

(Hoscow 1947) CAPITALISM OF IMPERIALISM - TIC HIGHEST FORM LENIN ON THE NATIONAL AND COLONIAL QUESTIONS (Peking

24.

V. I. Lenin: V. I. Lenin: 1967).

25.

in 1920, Lenin "In the backward wrote and colonial countries", its ".... the imperialist is doing bourgeoisie within power everything too. the to implant the reformist nations oppressed movement among bourgeoisie the There has been a certain between of rapprochement that the exploiting the that so countries, colonial of countries and bourgeoisie the in of while very often most cases, perhaps - even is it the oppressed the national does support movement, countries that bourgeoisie, imperialist the at the same time in accord with is, together it fights the latter revolutionary all against with ('Report Commission " the of movements and revolutionary classes.... THE NATIONAL AND ON LENIN National Colonial in the Questions' on and interests COLONIAL QUESTIONS (1967) Lenin located 32). common p. both before by the colonizer elite, shared nationalist and so-called He warned 'liberation' from imperial of the and after control. "the deception danger denouncing sy.. stematically of neo-colonialism, the guise by the imperial in creating, of practised under powers dependent independent are wholly politically states which states, ('Preliminary them financially, upon economically, and militarily". Draft Questions' ibid of Theses on the National p. 28. and Colonial

26.

(eds. ): LA DEUXIEME INTERNATIONALE cf G. Haupt and M. Reberioux ET L'ORIENT (Paris 1967) cf J. V. Stalin: MARXISM AND THE NATIONAL QUESTION in WORKS(Moscow 1953) Vol. 2, p. 300-81.

27.

Ho Chi Minh testified THESES on to the great impact of Lenin's Nationalism "The Theses of Lenin on his own thinking: stirred in me great They faith. emotion, great enthusiasm and great helped My joy was so great me to see problems with clarity. that it made me weep. Alone in my room, I shouted out as if I were facing "Dear oppressed a great crowd of people: and fellow-countrymen! This is what we need, is the this wretched From that trust in road to liberation". moment I put my whole ("The Road Which led Lenin, International". and in the Third July in L'ECHO DU VIETNAM - Paris 1960 - cited me to Leninism" in W. Warbey: HO CHI MINH AND THE STRUGGLE FOR AN INDEPENDENT

60

(London

27.

six theses of Lenin's "the to give special support countries stressed large to the peasant the landlords, against movement against landownership, of or survivals manifestations and against all the to lend feudalism, to the most movement strive peasant and the closest possible character revolutionary and establish the West-European between and proletariat alliance communist in the colonies, the revolutionary peasant movement in the East, it is particularly and in the backward countries generally; to direct the basic to apply necessary every effort principles in countries of the Soviet system where precapitalist relations ('Preliminary " Draft predominate.... of Theses on the National (1920) Colonial Questions' loc cit and p. 27).

28.

The influence of Mao The Tungus Marxism has of course been but Third World Marxism has developed in several seminal, (Frantz directions in Africa Fanon) and Latin America (Castro, Regis Debray). Some modern African variants are illustrated (eds. ): C. in W.H. Friedland G. Rosberg AFRICAN SOCIALISM and (Stanford 1964) and Middle Eastern variants in S. A. Hanna and G. H. Gardner (eds. ): ARAB SOCIALISM (Leiden 1969).

29.

K. W. Deutsch:

VIETNAM

1972) need in

"Social

p. 22). backward

Mobilization

The Fourth

and

Political

in AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEM (55)

Sept.

"The Future Marx: Results Rule of British K. Marx and F. Engels: SELECTED WORKS vol.

Development"

1961 (emph.

added).

(1853) in India" Is p. 353"

30.

K. in

31.

V. G. Kiernan:

32.

(structures) M. J. Levy jnr: "Patterns and of Modernization Political Development" in THE ANNALS (March 1965) p. 29-40 (emph. Levy has written to explain added) specifically an article "The Vulnerability nonof the structures of relatively industrialized industrialized to relatively societies ones" in (ed. ): B. F. Hoselitz THE PROGRESSOF UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS (Chicago 1952) p. 113-125.

33.

D. Lerner: p. 45.

34.

M. Halpern: new nations" added).

35.

EASTERN FAR in R. Emerson: "Paradoxes Asian Nationalism" of QUARTERLY 1954 (repr! 1I. SOCIAL CHANCE - THE Wallerstein: ) (New (emph. COLONIAL SITUATION York 1966) p. 531 added).

36.

R. Emerson:

37.

Ibid.

p.

"Marx

and India"

in SOCIALIST REGISTER 1967,

p.

THE PASZING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (Glencoe 1958)

15.

"Towards a further in WORLDPOLITICS

of the study of modernization (17) Oct. 1964 p. 175 (emph.

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (Harvard

1960)

p.

188.

168.

61

38.

"Toward a concept K. van Vo s: THE ANNALS (358) March 1965, p.

39.

K. Marx: "The British Rule in India" SELECTED WORKS(Moscow 1962) vol. I,

40.

1964) 7 of his DEPOSSESSION DU MCNDE(Paris 'New Supplement Jacques to Bougainville's voyage' entitled Berque the ethnocentrism behind this kitsch stresses pity or 4 of Claude '. 'false Chapter Levi-Strauss: humý A WORLD ON THE WANZ.Amns the emotion instinct' to a sort of 'cannibal for the exotic. with a liking

41.

THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL CHANGEIN THE MIDDLE EAST M. Halpern: AND NORTH AFRICA (1963) p. 31-

42.

W. Fischer: "Social Tensions at Early Stages of Industrialization" in COMPARATIVESTUDIES IN SOCIETY AND HISTORY (9) Oct. 1966, p.

In

of political 15.

development"

in

in K. Marx and F. Engels: (emph. 346f added). p.

Chapter

43.

J. L. W. Pye: 'The Politics G. Almond South East in Asia' and of Coleman (eds. ): THE POLITICS OF THE DEVELOPING AREAS (Princeton 1960) esp. p. 99-109.

44.

D. Lerner: 'Modernization: Social Aspects' in INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAOF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES (New York 1968) Vol. 9, p. 386-395-

45.

T. Parsons: 'Evolutionary SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW (29)

46.

S. M. Lipset:

47-

M. J.

48.

K. W. Deutsch:

in Society' Universals 1964, p. 339-357-

POLITICAL MAN (London

1960)

Chaps.

in

82.

AMERICAN

2 and 3-

(Structures) Levy Jnr.: 'Patterns and of modernization AMERICAN ACADEMY OF THE THE ANNALS in development' political OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (358) March 1965, p. 29-40. 'Social

Mobilization

and Political

Development'

in AMERICANPOLITICAL SCIENCEREVIEW (55) Sept. 1961, p. 493-514. 49.

L. W. Pye (ed. ): 1963); COMMUNICATIONSAND DEVELOPMENT(Princeton (ed. ): J. LaPalombara EDUCATIONANDPOLITICAL DEVELO1NENT (Princeton 1965); L. W. Pye and S. Verba (eds. ): POLITICAL 1966); CULTURE AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT(Princeton (eds. ): POLITICAL Weiner J. LaPalombara M. and POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT (Princeton 1966).

50.

S. N. Eisenstadt: 'Modernization (16) POLITICS WORLD in growth'

51.

S. P. Huntington: in WORLDPOLITICS

'Political (17) July

PARTIES

AND

of sustained and conditions July 1964, p. 576-594.

Development 1965.

and Political

Decay'

62

52.

T. Parsons: 'Evolutionary SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW (29)

53"

J. S. Coleman: 'Modernization Aspects' in Political INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAOF SOCIAL SCIENCES (1967 P. 395-402.

in society' universals 1964, esp. p. 353-356.

in

AMERICAN

9j

vol.

54.

M. Weiner: 'Political Integration Development' and Political in ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMCYOF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (358) March 1965, p. 52-64.

55"

L. Binder: 'National Integration and Political AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW (58) 1964,

p.

Development' 622-31-

(1853)

56.

K. Marx: 'The Future Results of British in SELECTED WORKSVol. 1, p. 352-358.

57.

R.

58.

M. Barratt-Brown:

59.

D. Lerner:

60.

S. M. Lipset:

61.

D. J. NcCrone & C. F. Cnudde: 'Toward development' of democratic political SCIENCE REVIEW (61) March 1967-

62.

R. Emerson: 'Paradoxes QUARTERLY 1954 (reprinted THE COLONIAL SITUATION

63.

Thus E. A. Gellner's to be a proletariat (1964) p. 168.

64.

R. Emerson:

65.

Classes M. L. Kilson: British West 'Nationalism in Social and Africa' Wallerstein in JOURNAL OF POLITICS (1958) (reprinted (ed. ): SOCIAL CHANGE TILE COLONIAL SITUATION (1966) p. 540. -

66.

Ibid. See also POLITICS (April

Emerson:

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION

(1960)

Rule in

P.

AFTER IMPERIALISM (London

India'

57-8.

1970)

p.

THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958) POLITICAL MAN (1960)

in

202. p.

60.

p. 59-60. theory a communications in AMERICAN POLITICAL

EASTERN FAR Asian Nationalism' in of (ed. ): SOCIAL CHANGE Wallerstein (New York 1966) p. 525.

tend "The two prongs of nationalism remark: CHANGE AND THOUGHT intelligentsia" and an

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (1960)

his 'Analysis of African 1958) p. 484-497-

p.

194.

Nationalism'

WORLD

See also 'African his Rlitical Change and the Modernization Process JOURNAL OF MODERN AFRICAN STUDIES (1) 1963; and , "POLITICAL CHANGE IN A WEST AFRICAN STATE" (Harvard 1966). iris

67.

M. Djilas: THE NEW CLASS - All ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNISTSYSTEM (London 1957).

63

68.

in AMERICAN Africa' J. S. Coleman: 'Nationalism in Tropical POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW (1954) (emph. 414 added). p.

cf. also T. Hodgkin: 1956.

'The African

in CORONA(7)

Middle Class'

the ambitions frustrating of this on the need to avoid of the elite was one of the main themes of the 1955 Conference 'InterWtional Civilizations': Institute of Differing

Stress

DEVELOP1ENT DUNE CLASSE MOYENNEDANS LES PAYS TROPICAUX (Brussels 1956). 69.

K. Davis: 'Social and Demographic Aspects of Economic Development (eds. ): in India' W.E. Moore, and J. J. Spengler in S. Kuznets, ECONCMIC G UWTH- BRAZIL, INDIA, JAPAN (Duke 1955) p. 9.

70.

E. Shils: C. Geertz p. 2.

71.

Shils: POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NE'J STATES (The Hague 1962) 89. 'The Intellectuals in the Political p. cf also E. Shils: (12) April 1960; Development POLITICS New States' WORLD the in of in 'Intellectuals, Development' Economic Public Opinion, and and (10) 1958. WORLD POLITICS thought, A sympathetic of Shils' account 'National L. Binder: be found in with some shrewd criticisms, can SCIENCE Integration AMERICAN POLITICAL Development' and Political REVIM-1 (58) 1964, p. 622-31-

72.

L. W. Pye: Search for

73.

Ibid.

74.

J. S. Coleman: 'Nationalism SCIENCE REVIEW (1954) p.

75.

D. Lerner: p. 75.

76.

Wallerstein I. in R. Emerson: Nationalism' 'Paradoxes Asian of 'SOCIAL CHANGE- THE COLOURSITUATION' p. 525, (1966).

77.

Development' Political K. W. Deutsch: 'Social Mobilization and AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW (55) Sept. 1961, p. 498.

78.

D.

'On the Comparative Study of the New States' (ed. ): OLD SOCIETIES AND NEW STATES (Glencoe

in 1963)

E.

p.

P.

Lerner: 151-

POLITICS, PERSONALITY AND NATION-BUILDING, (1962). Identity

xii-xiv

(emph.

Burma's

added).

in Tropical 425.

Africa'

in AMERICAN POLITICAL

THE PASSINGOF TRADITIONALSOCIETY (1958) p. 165 and

THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL

SOCIETY

(1958)

p.

146

(ed. )

in

and

THE MORAL BASIS OF BACKWARDSOCIETY (1958).

79-

E. C. and L. F. Banfield:

80.

D. C. McClelland:

81.

E. E. Hagen: ON THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEGINS (Illinois 1962).

THE ACHIEVING SOCIETY (Princeton

1961).

CHANGE - HOW ECONOMIC GROWTH

64

(loc.

82.

D. Lerner: Social Aspects' 'Modernization PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958)-

83.

G. Almond and S. Verba:

84.

B. Crick: IN DEFENCE OF POLITICS (Harmondsworth Rule'. esp. Ch. 2: 'The Nature of Political

85.

E.

Shils:

'On

the

(ed. ):

C. Geertz 22.

cit)

THE CIVIC CULTURE (Princeton

Comparative

Study

of

the

and THE

1963)-

1962),

in

New States'

OLD SOCIETIES AND NEW STATES (New York

1963)

86.

J. in F. W. Riggs: 'Bureaucrats Political Development' and (ed. ): BUREAUCRACYAND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT LaPalombara (Princeton 1963) P" 139-

87-

R. Emerson:

88.

(London W. H. Morris-Jones: OF INDIA THE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS The kind 1964) p. 52-61. particularly observers of debates outside "the identify for be size of the public with, might about example, the degree control, sector of the economy, and forms of government and the direction and pace of land reform".

89.

Ibid. p. language'.

90.

D. Lerner:

91.

R. I.

Rotberg: 'The Africa' and Central (ed. ): Wallerstein R. p. 517. cf. also MAU-MAU NATIONALISM

92.

TANZANIA-PARTY This Bienen's: H. from point emerges strongly He 1967). TRANSFORMATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (Princeton "too that U. N. T. A. from his often organization concludes study of intentions if the politics been described have as of new states the characterizations the word had become flesh; were facts, as if to the images Africa based in conveyed on of political systems are the Neither by the nor leaders.... world characterizations party in the which central they are derived ways maps from which specify the to institutions They information nature as no work. provide how the they do the show party of relationships within party, nor to the modern, to society urban, relates as a whole - not merely (p. (p. 12) speaks dienen town 5). of the need "to or sections" in charts and get beyond the TANU which organization appears on (but This the descriptions leaders! by central misleading given institutional to a political scientists, reassuring) culturally World is especially to political in the Third approach parties MAROCAINS POLITIQUES PARTIS Rezette's: LES in Robert striking

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (1960)

54-55.

Morris-Jones

goes

on to

p.

12.

discuss

'the

THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958)

traditional

p. 153-4.

Case of East The Nationalism Rise of African (15) Oct. in 1962, in WORLD POLITICS repr. (1966) COLONIAL SITUATION THE SOCIAL CHANGE MYTH OF THE Nottingham: J. I. Rotberg and IN KENYA (1966) (passim)

65

(Paris 1955). West Africa, in particular, studied was closely for its political in the early 1960's: party organization 1963); R. Sklar: NIGERIAN POLITICAL PARTIES (Princeton R. Schachter-Morgenthau: POLITICAL PARTIES IN FRENCH-SPEAKING WEST AFRICA (London 1965); ONE-PARTY GOVERNMENT A. R. Zolberg: IN THE IVORY COAST (Princeton 'Un Parti 1964); B. Charles: Politique Guinee' REVUE Africain Le de Parti Democratique FRANSE DE SCIENCE POLITIQUE (1962).

92.

193"

M. Halpern: THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL AND NORTH AFRICA (1963) p. 283.

94.

-

CHANGE IN

THE MIDDLE EAST

Ann Wi3lner: 'The Underdeveloped Development' Study of Political in WORLDPOLITICS (16) April how this 1964, p. 473n, illustrates interest selective can be used to advantage by Third World A group of nationalists nationalists. chalked up quotations from Washington and Lincoln An American on prominent walls: delegation was visiting whose support was needed.

95.

R. Emerson: p. 527.

96.

Ibid.

p. 526.

97"

Ibid.

p. 526.

98.

A. Plantey:

99.

E. Kedourie:

NATIONALISM (London

100.

E. Kedourie:

NATIONALISM IN ASIA AND AFRICA (London

101.

Ibid.

102.

e. g.

103.

R. Emerson:

104.

Ibid.

105"

E. A. Gellner:

106.

R. Emerson:

107.

Ibid.

p. 195.

108.

Ibid.

p.

109.

'Primary resistance' resistance' and 'secondary Movements by E. Stokes: Resistance 'Traditional Nationalism: The Context of the 1857 Mutiny in This AND PRESENT (48) August 1970, p. 100-118. discussion of methods of interpreting excellent

'Paradoxes

of Asian Nationalism'

repr.

Wallerstein

LA REFORMEDE LA JUSTICE MAROCAINE (Paris 1961)

p.

1952).

9. 1971)

p. 147.

p. 38. by Kedourie,

p.

Ibid.

p. 141-146.

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (1960)

p. 195.

195. 'Nationalism'

in

THOUGHTAND CHANGE, p. 162-

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (1960)

(op, cit.

p. 58-59.

17. are terms used and Afro-Asian in PAST India' an provides Third World

J

)

66

109.

between See also T. O. Ranger: 'Connections nationalism. "primary resistance" movements and modern mass nationalism in East and Central Africa' in JOURNAL OF MODERNAFRICAN STUDIES (9) 1968.

110.

R. Emerson:

111.

Ibid.

p.

204 (emph.

112.

Ibid.

p.

204.

113.

Ibid.

p. 205.

114.

R. Montagne:

115.

K. R. Minogue:

116.

L. W. Pye: in G. Almond and J. Coleman (eds. ): 'South East Asia' (Emph. added). THE POLITICS OF THE DEVELOPING AREAS (1960) p. 65.

117.

Contrast this statement anthropologist, with that of the social Edmund Leach, referring to the same counthy as Pye 'researched' "My prediction in his POLITICS, PERSONALITY AND NATION-BUILDING: for the future more than this - that of Burma adds up to little ('The Political Burma's future Burma's be like past" will very Future of Burma' in FUTURIBLES (Geneva) 1963 p. 153. ) His analysis in he is based on the detailed provides account and sophisticated THE POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF HIGHLAND BURMA (London 1964).

118.

K. Marx: 'The British vol. 1, p. 346-7.

119.

K. Marx: 'The Future Results of British in SELECTED WORKS, vol. 1, p. 352.

FROM EMPIRE TO NATION, p.

23-

added).

REVOLUTION AU MAROC (Paris NATIONALISM (London

1953)

1957)

Rule in India'

p.

p.

152.

84.

(1853) in SELECTEDWORKS, Rule

in

India'

(1853)

the to Marx V. G. Kiernan points tended that regard out Indian than 'living and multiplying rather past as 'dead rubble' 167). 1967, REGISTER SOCIALIST India' p. cellsl('Marx and Modernization 'Towards Further of the Study of in WORLDPOLITICS (17) Oct. 1964, p. 159 and 161.

120.

M. Halpern: New Nations'

121.

Ibid.

122.

Excellent of the Nation-Builder critiques of the methodology the 'new scholasticism' school - what Willner calls - are in the following contained publications: S. K. Arora: 'Pre-Empted Future? Notes on Theories of Political (2) COI01UNITY DEVELOPMENT AND Development' in BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES 2 Sept. 1968, -p. 85-120. A. in

Willner: 'The WORLD POLITICS

Underdeveloped 1964. April

Study

of

Political

Development'

67

122.

J. S. Gusfield: 'Tradition Misplaced Polarities in and Modernity: the Study of Social Change' in AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY (72) January 1967R. Pennock: 'Political Development, Systems, Political Political Goods' in WORLDPOLITICS (18) April 1966. C. S. Whitaker jnr.: 'A Di. $rhythmic Process of Political Change' in WORLDPOLITICS (19) January 1967T Gunder Frank: SOCIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENTAND UNDER..DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY (London 1971).

L. I. and S. H. Rudolph: p. 3-23. 123.

TEE MODERNITYOF TRADITION (Chicago 1967)

in K. W. Deutsch: 'Nation-Building Development' and National (eds. ): - NATION-BUILDING (New York K. W. Deutsch and W.J. Foltz 1963) p. 3. ('The In the same volume, Strayer Historical argues Experience in Europe') that the more rapid of Nation-Building this from the natural and the more divorced environment 'nation-building' is, the less likely it is to have lasting Western political commitment significance. prior science's to 'modernity' wards off this kind of and 'the nation-to-be' the drive Instead, if the obstacles conclusion. are great, to modernity must be pressed ahead the more strongly.

124.

V. G. Kiernan: 'Marx and India' loc. cit. p. 164, attributes Marx's mechanistic and 'the impatience approach to 'haste' He tended to 'pull of genius'. out the thread of history it'. faster than the three sisters were spinning

125.

Here Kiernan's is more telling: critique his world from above oftener than from

126.

E. Shils: 'On the comparative study of new states' Geertz (ed. ) OLD SOCIETIES AND NEW STATES (1963) p.

127.

J. Pitt-Rivers: "Contextual Analysis and the Locus of the (7) 1 1967, in SOCIOLOGIE EtROPEENNES ARCHIVES DE model" "A macro-sociology p. 34: which takes no account of the cultural data is condemned to behind its quantified variations which lie derive its analytical from its own backyard and find categories them applicable nowhere in particular".

128.

J. S. Coleman: 405. p.

129.

G. Almond: in G. Almond and J. 'Introduction' THE POLITICS OF THE DEVEZAPING AREAS (1960) p.

130.

The phrase p. 127.

is

'Nationalism

Jacques

in Tropical

Berque's:

"Marx contemplated ibid. p. 169. within"

Africa'

loc.

in G. 20.

cit.

Coleman (eds. ): 61.

DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE(1964)

68

131.

These advances had been staked out beyond the narrow confines by M. Fortes and E. E. Evansof monographs - in particular Pritchard: AFRICAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS (London 1940).

132.

G. Almond: 'Introduction' in G. Almond and J. Coleman (eds. ): The tone THE POLITICS OFTHE DEVELOPING AREAS (1960) p. 61. his Introduction throughout of excitement optimism and pioneering to this first major publication of the SSRC's Committee on Comparative is most striking. Politics,

133. D-Lerner:

THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958)

p.

47.

134.

L. W. Pye: in G. Almond and J. Coleman (eds. ): 'South East Asia' THE POLITICS OF THE DEVELOPING AREAS"(1960) p. 65.

135.

by concern for the Many studies seem to have been motivated imperialism impact of decolonization Western as much on as The very title themselves. of on Third World communities Emerson's book - "FROM EIPIRE TO NATION", rather than, say 'from tribe this. to nation', -indicates

136.

L. W. Pye:

'The Concept

of Political

Development'

in ANNALS

OF THE AMERICANACADEMYOF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (March 1965) p. 4. 137.

(ed. ): Pool in L. W. Pye: New Ithiel 'The Formation States' of . Such CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL SCIENCE (New York 1967) p. 196. ('The Underdeveloped Willner this, Ann analyses as argues 1964, in WORLDPOLITICS April theory of Political development' in 472), "mainly the tell p. absence or weakness us about these countries rates, as high literacy of such characteristics interest etc. groups, a strong middle class, organized (They do not) tell have or are". us much of what these countries

138.

D. Apter:

139.

E. Shils: 'On the comparative study of new states' Geertz (ed. ): OLD SOCIETIES AND NEW STATES (1963)

140.

B. Crick:

141.

AND in GOVERNMENT A. L. Madian: 'The Anatomy of a Failure' OPPOSITION (Spring 1969) p. 283-9, provides an interesting commentary on the difficulties of the systemic-functionalist on the approach to Third World politics, and in particular Politics. role of the Committee on Comparative

142.

E. Shils: 'On the Comparative Study of New States' Geertz (ed. ): OLD SOCIETIES AND NEW STATES (1963)

143.

Ibid.

p.

THE POLITICS OF MODERNIZATION (Chicago

IN DEFENCE OF POLITICS

15-16.

(1962)

pp.

1965)

p.

in C. p. 21-22.

178,162-3,181.

in C. i_-15-

2.

69

144.

145.

L. W. Pye: 'The Formation in Ithiel of New States' CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL SCIENCE (1967) p. 176,185.

(ed. ):

Pool

Butterfield: THE WHIG INTEPRETATION OF HISTORY cf Herbert (London 1931). The Whig tradition in British history resulted bias, not only from political but also from oversimplification through abridgment. It too was a schematic school of thought, which viewed the past in terms of competing 'traditionals' and 'moderns', the past in terms of and sought to interpret the present. As a result, the modernity of the 'moderns' was exaggerated, and the 'traditionals' appeared to have contributed In fact, Butterfield nothing positive. out, the two points 'groups' had more in common with each other than either had with the modern world. The Whig Interpretation isolated groups from their temporal their thus distorting and spatial context, significance, the battles and made them fight which the in the present found interesting. The logical observer conclusion of this was the study of the present without ily, to the past - which became known, significarl reference Similarly, the logical as 'the Dark Ages'. conclusion of the 'Whig' view of nationalism would be to study the West, or the modern, without to the Third World, or the referelce traditional becai Society'. 'Primitive known which as But the difficulty is inherent in the analytical method; it is not just a question bias. A historian of eliminating facts, needs to abridge, and therefore select and, perhaps even more, a political scientist needs to compare, and therefore facts. What criteria select should be used?

146.

Many of this school of-thought claim to be comparing political to systems in terms of 'evolutionary universals', applicable irrespective all systems at one stage or another, of culture. The West has simply undergone the process first; the categories T. Parsons: 'Evolutionary Western. Thus: are not intrinsically Universals in Society' in AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW (29) 1964, SOCIETIES - EVOLUTIONARY AND COMPARATIVE and T. Parsons: PERSPECTIVES (New Jersey 1967). Similar claims are made by D. Lerner: THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958) p. 46, THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL CHANGE (1963) p. 36. and M. Halpern:

147.

J.

Pitt-Rivers:

'Contextual

Analysis

and the Locus

of

the

Model' in ARCHIVESEUROPEENNES DE SOCIOLOGIE(7) 1 1967, 33-37. P148.

An example might be Soedjatmoko's answer to the question 'How do we know that the people really want development? ': "There are situations level where unless a higher of economic life is reached, there is bound to be political disintegration. We are t1tefore not only facing a question as to the existence for development or non-existence of the desire among the irrespective this, there be population at large of may an ('Cultural for economic development". objective necessity (ed. ): Motivations in R. N. Bellah to Progress' RELIGION AND PROGRESSIN MODERNASIA (1965) p. 158. )

70 149.

A WORLDON THE WANE (Eng. Trans. New York cf C. Levi-Strauss: 1961) esp. Ch. 4, 'The Quest for Power'. Berque, in DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964), is slightly more optimistic. He argues that the urge towards uniformity and incorporation can be resisted and that decolonization represents a partial triumph for the 'singularity vitality' of the and wild Third World societies. various 'Nationalism' gives expression to what is unique, in certain permanent, and uncategorizable These views are discussed in the next chapter. social groups.

150.

E. A. Gellner: 'Nationalism'.

151.

Ibid.

P. 172-3.

152.

Ibid.

p.

153.

The circularity in at least three words in can be located Gellner's formula: 'Underlies': Does this indicate that such in terms a strand of political action predominates, actually in self-styled of ideology nationalist and social composition, If so, how can this be measured? If not, how can movements? in a a minority strand be the 'most significant element' movement?

"THOUGHT AND CHANGE" (London

1964)

Ch.

7,

173.

Modern: (which would indeed Does this mean 'contemporary' testable)? make the statement partly or does it mean 'with (in modernizing goals' or 'with organization' a modern-style is clear)? which case the tautology National: what constitutes movement? If movements a national then the not regarded as 'nationalism proper', are excluded, has again been thrown back into the truistic overall proposition melting-pot. 154.

Minogue: "If nationalism is broadly enough defined it can seem to have fathered in the last catastrophes most international ('Nationalism: Centum. " in ARCHIVES Poverty of a Concept' EUROPEENNESDE SOCIOLOGIE (1967) p. 339")

71

CHAPTER TWO I.

II.

AN ALTERNATIVE (NON-ORTHODOX) INTERPRETATION OF NATIONALISM 73

THE COLONIAL SITUATION -A.

DEVELOPMENTOF THE CONCEPT

73

-B.

BASIC FEATURES

77

-C.

VARIABLES

80

THE DYNAMICS OF THE COLONIAL

86

SITUATION

STRATEGIES OF THE COLONIZER GROUP

-A.

-i.

-ii.

-iii.

87

Attack

87

Attack

a)

Socio-Economic

b)

Politico-Administrative

c)

Ideo-Cultural

d)

Total

Attack

92

Assault

93

Restraint

Socio-Economic

b)

Politico-Administrative

c)

Ideo-Cultural

Restraint

Situation

Colonial

the

-i.

-ii.

b)

Post-Pacification

c)

Endemic Tension

d)

Feud and Social

e)

Decolonization

f)

Violence

Physical

Revolt

115 116

Banditry

118 121

and Social

Change

Retreat

a)

Retreat

b)

Submission

before

113

114

Resistance

a)

111

113

Opposition

Primary

99 108

Restraint

in

The Colonizer

94

Restraint

a)

Violent

88 90

Attack

STRATEGIES OF THE COLONIZED GROUP

-B.

86

124 125

Military

Force

126

127

72

-v.

NO. -res

d)

Nomadism and Migration

Implantation

129 130 132

Duplication institutions

133

a)

Boycott

b)

Self-administration

136

c)

Bifurcation

137

d)

Collaboration

140

of

colonial

142

Withdrawal

Sociological

-iv.

III.

c)

Institutional

-iii.

-C.

before

Administrative

Retreat

143

a) b)

Enhancement

c)

Clandestinity

146

d)

Duplicity

148

Social

of Exogenous

Contact

Avoidance

of Indigenous

Values

145

149

Persistence

149

Continuity

a)

Intact

b)

Inertia

151

c)

Change

153

d)

'Social

158

Pathology'

159

CONTRADICTIONS IN THE COLONIAL SITUATION

161

-A.

THE UNUSUABILITY OF THE CONCEPT

161

-B.

ATTEMPTS TO REDEFINE

165

-C.

CHARACTERISTICS OF 'NATIONALIST'

'NATIONALISM'

Iwo Vo ChapF. er

REACTIONS

170

177

73

I.

THE COLONIAL SITUATION

A non-orthodox together

pieced have

interpretation from

developed

'dynamic'

fieldwork

findings

behaviour

of

to

few political

Decolonization

in

perspective,

which

of Western

this

is

view,

a colonial

their

and

! situations'

A.

to

social

Development

contained clearly with

of

units, undergoing,

highly-complex

of 'the

has gained

anthropologists

a

anthropology, the war.

since

particularly

of

a revolution

from

free

theorists

World

peculiar

or

We must how they

also

in

reactions,

to

colonized

which

within

setting

Nationalism, of

series

study

how such and how

established,

are

a new

construct

'nationalism'.

interact. but

to

possible

2

persist.

data

made by

thought.

colonizers

The usefulness organizing

that

political

of social

committed

as a reaction,

dismantled,

are

manage

-

using

been

have

caused

has made it

understood

situation

societies

they

best

on the

terminology

has also

Third

understanding

the

anthropologists

process,

data

up various

amalgam of influences for

social

has developed

World

has thrown

some preconceptions

framework

in

social

of

be

can

nationalism

Contributions

which

Third

the

of

comparative

versed

interests

of

up

societies.

scientists

a convergence

This

interpretations build

colonized

A group

sources.

several

World

Third

of

the

Concept

colonial slow

or as networks or actively Western

Until

acceptance. Third

technologies,

second

provoked

where

world

communities

units.

changes but

the

World

of self-contained resisting

for

as a concept

situation'

commonly analyzed

Situation

of a Colonial

war,

as self-

Many were by contact

such change was

l

74

studied

it

at all,

Processes

'acculturation',

of

institutions,

social functions

Malinowski as

fieldwork

and

In

surroundings. constituted

were

different

in

were be

they

not

had

considered

fundamental Though

indicatel

of

the

acceptance

the

overall

field fieldwork

study, had

to

they

cultures,

meaningfully

not

could

In

'system'

share conflict,

challenged

between

society.

a single

of

his

view, where

equilibrium;

be no

had

settlers

as such.

interests

and

these

merely

analysis.

by 'dynamic'

as inevitable,

Moreover,

of

was

of

conflicts

systems.

relationship

as a valid

smaller-scale

of

was increasingly

social

and

setting

pattern

island

who regarded all

could

colonial

a coherent

separate

approach

anthropologists aspects

in

even

a third,

there

foreign

framework.

system

of

same territory,

the

antagonistic

whole"

The

an archipelago

components

and

social

any

rather

and

same analytical

existed,

'cultures' and

This

which

of

own terms.

communities

distinct

their

from

on its

within

as

of

purposes

community

coexisted

be treated

the

within

experiences,

or

a "well-integrated

of

conflict

two

native

extremely

characteristic

prime

and

that

common to

parts

they

Though

the

indigenous

be studied

island,

social

another

argued

little

system,

for

the

He treated

view.

be isolated

to

setting, to

traditional

3

this

of which,

had

a colonial

groups.

Malinowski

experience

of

society.

exponent

analysis,

a separate

colonizers

Because

of

outside.

and adoption

to the

relation

of indigenous

was an active

systems

transformation

in

were studied

'islands'

societies

too

decay,

and equilibrium

from

as a contagion

was essentially

perspectives

colonizer at

least

be situated.

and

indeed

social vital

broadened, colonized

as a. framework

gained within

Max Gluckman,

the

75

drawing

his

particularly

in

active

that,

argued

from study

material

could

nevertheless

constituted

two diametrically framework,

dominated

to

susceptible

by the

before

understood

a "well-integrated

the

an identifiable field"

social This

analysis.

of any participant

evolution

of

a common institutional

a "single

anthropological

it

whole",

established

groups,

colonizer

The juxtaposition

within

colonizer,

among the

social

between

of interactions

groups

He

of reassessment*

process

a common situation.

conflicting

of behaviour

pattern

double

be termed

never

was 4

the network

although

and colonized

this

Africa,

Southern.

colonized

of

had to be

group

could

imbalances,

and

be

charted. Gluckman argued institutional which

'pathologies' is

equilibrium

little

more himself 'social

these

outcomes.

His

social

as Fallers studies

of the

primarily

for

in Africa

wholes,

local

so that

the

which social

"that

social for study

depends institutions results

This

is

of research

of institutions

future

of the

upon their they of their

was not

not

are

within

to within

less

a

of labour

anthropological

ability study

is

will

anthropologists

methods

specific

anthropologist,

"It

of

determine

might

division

science.

typical

dynamics

structural

of the necessary

He did

interest.

intrinsic

by

devices

and the

situations.

colonial

But the

politics

the

at

and political

microscopic

settings.

of the

of

field,

hfere of

as a practical

new states,

cultural

place

hint

a statement

explains1

this

and at variables

concern,

anthropology

conflicts,

within

than

typology

than

the

maintained,

fields',

a comparative criticism

both

that

to be expected, attempt

work may articulate

holistic

designed particular study

conceptualize larger

between

political fruitfully

of the

"

76

the macroscopic

with

work makes great

work

research

Comparative

studies

in

England,

for

attempts

to list

initial

in

the

latter

characteristics

cultures

Both spoke of

sophisticated

comparative

typology

the

social

from

societies

comprise

a plural

different

Yet

several

separate

unit

having

kind

of

its

feature

preoccupied political of

the

is

with

subordinate

homogeneous

explain

years,

Smith

situations.

9

of

therefore For

systems

has attempted, variables

or

this

if

not

worth minority

is

distinct

reason,

important

One

inescapably economic

and

the

"conventional

are needed.

models

of

orders"

In more recent

such models,

structurally

and

acculturation

stratification

to develop

which

study".

discourages

integrative

of these

than

setting,

a colonial special

new models

terms,

rather

society

The most

actively

in

but

economic

and

maintenance

structural

such situations;

some major

field

heterogeneous

a "territorially

is

dominant

majority.

equilibrium

do not

enumerate

and

by

'institutional'

in

a single

suggests,

"the

problems

is

constitutes

and"a

that

control",

A more

and minorities

institutions".

Smith

peculiar",

groups

, religious

society it

All

expressed

kinship

because

society",

"structurally

a colonial

societies".

societies'.

are

own governmental

"plural

peculiar

divisions

a plural

ones,

in

coexist

"plural

occupation

educational,

organizations.

is

different these

society

through

'heterogeneous

merely

where two or

situati6ns

of such societies was developed 8 M. G. Smith. He differentiates plural

anthropologist

societies

in Franc e7 - made

and communities

framework.

Furnivall's -

policy

of

institutional

Gluckman's

respect.

of European colonial 6 example, and Walcker's

distinct

more quite

scientists".

of political

contributions

5

peculiar

at

least

to

77, -

The interestingly

been 10

Balandier.

His

between

Fallers.

social

anthropology

Balandier is

situations which with

develops, numerous change

pathological,

variables, - much

understood

it

of

not

the

existence the

global

society).

racial

basis

'groups',

this

relationships coexist devotes Until

academic

the

a great

deal his

circles,

B. A colonial producing It

has

features:

social

countless

their

energy

work

has

been

Basic

Features

situation

is

dynamics variableq

but

is

neglected

to

now appears

and

only

can

any

the antagonistic to

"

11

He

features. American 12

Situation

predictable

conjuncture,

characteristics.

by perhaps

four

basic

be he

fact",

be growing.

socio-political

defined

social

on them

specific

British

by

of

framework'.

in

of a Colonial

-

the

imposed

analyzing

fairly

determined

features:

these

a particular

with

is

characteristic

political

influence

its

interaction

interesting

specific

necessity

a single to

of

dissimilarity,

extreme

of

of

though

of

and the

limits

(a

groups

Indigenous

"The

its

by

'nationalism'

term

pluralism

indication

entails,

'within

recently,

of

which

identify.

context.

analytical

but of

the

with

confused this

within "is

argues,

which

to

by

conditions

special

A pattern of

the

colonial

transmitted

outcome

he attempts

in

under

place

and

mentioned

conflict

and

needs. the

Georges

spanning

science

cultures,

rival

and

power

albeit

takes

contrasting

radically

differential

contact

It

random.

never

involve

that

argues

impressively

and political

and

fieldwork

microscopic

typology,

macroscopic

insistently

most

anthropologist

political

careful

combines

work

has

situation"

by the

employed

bold

with

analysis gap

of

concept

"colonial

the

78

Contactoftworadicallydifferentcultures.

-i.

Two complex

'civilizations'

situation.

They are radically

is

- more rationalistic,

European

is

non-European

with

So radically

different

of intense

these

are

interaction

kinship-dominated

is

groups

commonly other principal

are vehicles

groups

involved

These are ethnically pursue

Yet

framework,

despite

each other standards

distorted,

and inevitably

socially: of living, 14

by the

types

of

The outcome specific

they

coexist

they separated

work, of

features

the of

culture these

the of

two majority.

cooperation. off

from

and language,

barriers contact groups.

roots,

same overall

to become closed

and social is

13

are

cultural

within

by custom

marriage

exchange'.

and a native

some areas

tend

'free

the

present,

different

develop

interests,

"sharply

one of

minority,

have totally yet

some

a single

Though there

sub-groups

a foreign

distinct,

some shared

exclusiveness".

are

interests;

conflicting

colonial

and invariably

groups

that

inevitable.

the interaction.

of

foundation.

'civilizations'

Juxtaposition distinct of groups within -ii. -----------------------------------------------framework. administrative -----------------------The contact is not between the two cultures Discrete

one

and

technological

complex

two juxtaposed

or clash

the

The other

technology.

complex

less

a colonial

bureaucratic,

ascriptive,

a considerably

in

Typically,

to each other.

individualistic,

- more affective,

communalistic,

kind

foreign

and backed up by a hiay

capitalistic,

interact

'technologies'

or

shaped,

or

and

79

Conquest and-disproportionate ----------------------------------

-iii.

The relationship it

is

deformed is

groups

by grossly

imposed is

where conquest pressures,

16

of

group

the

formal

Force

it

includes

central

dominant

minority;

interests

be;

imbalance.

the

This

is

disparity of

the

structures colonizer's that

occur

better

that

are

conception

of physical

and so forth".

inferiority,

is

superiority,

the

minority

laid

native

ensures determine

fact

or that the

Reciprocal

down by the minority;

established

transmit

of what these

are profoundly

in

colonized,

initially.

at least

groups

organization,

of power generally colonizer

the

and technical

a dominated,

emerge do so on lines

changes 19

numerical

speaking,

administrative

social

its

the

the implantation

telephones,

numerical

interrelationship,

which

and foremost

despite

but

arms,

a fact

that

the naked assertion

unity,

overall

despite

majority.

of the

actual

only

group,

needs and attitudes

nature

the

"not

sociologically

subject

legislature,

more than

greater

foreign

the

involves

is

between

contact

Even

peaceful

awareness

underpins

regulate

administration,

control,

Thus the

group,

the Maxim gun"17

15

"colonialism

too;

the

of

this.

of

and apparently

nevertheless

which

balanced;

evenly

or by threat

by force,

maintained

institutions

services. will;

example,

has "got

judiciary,

police,

by indirect

not

The juxtaposition

uneven power.

effected for

is

groups

of arms,

is

It

the

by force

economic

of power". colonizer

between

power.

links

marked by this

first should

18 a

-

80

Ideological cement of domination. -------------------------------Not merely the language of material force

-iv.

of with

the

colonizer

a whole

complex

weave together

cultural,

This

interventionist

set

on the part

a process

known as 'civilization'.

behaviour

patterns

the

light

of

situation

so,

of

deeply who

colonizer,

the

colonized

stereotyped

population, group

of

depends on a whole -

do reactions

that

to

20

in

need to be discussed The degree which

constellation

of

is what -

situation

The

situations.

way in

words the

other

colonial

all

situation

factors.

variable

Situation

a Colonial

any particular

in -

persists

too,

the

of

Stiffly

features

basic

several

'consolidated'

and

stimulates

them into

in

Variables

These are four precise

political

moral,

result.

C.

dynamics

which

pseudo-justifications,

religious,

to inculcate

tries

by and combined

reinforced

of rationalizations

activities

simultaneously

invariably

of universalistic

racist,

themes.

economic

is

It

group.

domination

the

expresses

to which

the

conquest

is

such variables;

sometimes

called

variables

have

'nationalism'. Although

has yet

situations,

Yet

necessary

are

on colonial

for

the

study

suggested dynamics.

of

would

typology an

colonial

Some fragments

to illustrate

Both

provide

individual

study.

comparative here,

these

no systematic

such a typology

for

point

and a matrix

constraints 1

particularly

reference

of

Balandier's,

been developed.

invaluable

what is

useful

several

been published,

discussions

the relative

the

of

contextual

strength

of

81

and colonized,

and the specific

need close

examination.

In any particular

importance

of

colonizer

each individual

This size;

also

from

Relative strength of Colonizer and Colonized. -------------------------------------------includes set of factors such matters as relative

population

(including

rates

potential

of

demographic

to logistic

the length

factor,

military

relative

growth;

and in relation

reserves,

as a derivative

perhaps,

but

from one

only

to another.

sub-zone

relative

and,

to another,

not

each,

the precise

setting,

varies

of

one time

geographical

-i.

factor

cha±acteristics

possibilities); itself.

implantation

of

Characteristics Group. of the Colonizer -------------------------------------These factors can be grouped under five broad

strength

-ii.

the

Relationship with the Mother -----------------------------------colony to the mother country,

are

aspects

a)

military, group

economic, in

their

change takes

country,

and metropolitan the mother

taken b)

into

are

place,

the occupiers

of

so is

is

are

further

and the

degree

of

they

dependence

important

on the

colonial

population

occupier how

inter-

The behaviour of

upon the

of

the colony,

The susceptibility

policy.

of various

pressures

for

metropolis

themselves,

characteristics conferred

of

communications,

of the

conquest

elements.

status

concerning

of

The status

and how regularly

-

proximity

effectiveness

made the

by the political

to world

The physical

support.

constitutional

pressures country

whether

expatriated,

affected the

the

and financial

homeland,

they

permanently

mother

this;

of

Country.

headings

kinds

must also

account.

Social Composition. Particular -----------------'weight' the colonizer within group

study of

must be made of

soldiers

and traders,

the relative artisans

be

82

and missionaries,

farmers

technical

and

plays

cadres,

interest

inevitably

differences number land,

those

to

Chinese,

Goals

to the

according rhythm

colonizer's

the

the

outlets;

raw materials.

23

words his

of occupation

of military

strategy,

the

nature

of

of the

the

depends for

emigrants

booty

form

the

22

or the

of plantations

capacity, be purely tactics, enterprise.

another economic,

varies

the

imposition

or the

or the

control

extraction

these

goals,

of or in

determinant.

crucial however;

and international

of

of slaves;

capture

to achieve is

takes

The character,

on whether

or the

usually

motives

this

infrastructure

ability

may not

colonizer's

into

Economic

at work.

an industrial

establishment

military

Further

such as Lebanese,

groups,

but

factors

development

The coloniser's

The goals

of

sections

incorporation

of Occu ation. occupation,

settling

technological

of special

produce

the metropolis.

than

by partial

are desire

in

community

and 'half-castes'.

economic

of capital

include

non-European

behind

economic

impermanent

colonies

may also other

about

interests

taxation;

of trade

other

of

chief

investment

drive precise

and scale

regular

countries

Character

and Economic

the major

group

Arabs,

Indians,

'Settler'

needs.

'intermediate'

camp of

provide

the

European

may be brought

complication

c)

their

great

on appropriated

a small

with

of

a large

rather

of

together

are

include

usually

'presence'

by a

there

all,

which

immigrants,

The colonizer

from

population

Above

each

and divisions

times

groups

metropolis

service

21

distortions.

Jews,

the

of

expatriates

colonizer

'settled'

since

categories,

different

colonizer

characterized

representatives

social at

and

administrators

themselves.

those

permanently

and

role

reveal

between

of

such

other

different

a slightly

industrialists,

and

considerations

prestige

affect

83

d)

Administrative

types

Resources

territorial

of

sovereignty

and deployment

character, density

of the

to perform variables

communications,

the

towards

policy

adopted

legal

institutions.,

institutions

is

injected

colonizer

group

variables

are racial

tolerance

of other

educational

to

to

commitment and

Pre-conceptions or

for

provided of

which

the derived

counteract

important

the

structuring

of

'civil

in

this

liberty'

these.

and cultural

Intertwined

these

for

together

imported

other

church

of

colonial

degree

the

colonizer

situations

are and

and

organization,

the

on independent

and

to dominate,

methods,

and colonized)

indicate Myths

take

with

organization,

colonizer

faith

25

the

of

attitudes desire

in

set

aloofness,

sense of superiority,

colonized from

of superiority,

example)

interventionism.

moral

about

(sense

(as reflected

proselytize)

for

in

important

by the kinds

Particularly

ways of life).

(types

policies

of representative

24

of identity,

education

The

including

both

levels,

are also

affected

attitudes

policies

of

religious

reinforce

also

to intermarriage, sense

The types

and central

of

must be considered.

authorities,

vital.

colonized,

is

this

(including

himself

at local

and Attitudes.

disposition

desire

particularly

and open-ness

also

traditional

gnd institutionalized.

Ideoloffy

content

population

existing

and the

interaction;

permitted e)

indigenous

expected

Ease of

situation.

of a colonial

management methods practised,

to

recruitment

the

the dynamics

is

and

of important

set

another

nature

it

tasks

and the

availability,

the

officials;

framework, yield

of different

the

areas;

of administrative

considerations

affecting

different

over

administrative

these -

The assumption

and Policy.

force

of about as

variables.

may effectively

84

Characteristics of the Colonized ------------------------------------Similarly, these may be slotted into

GrouE.

-iii.

a) of

five

Relationship with Occupied Territory. -----------------------------------the colonized area, the ease of internal

density the

and mode of its

character both

groups

inside

important.

slavery),

b)

economic (alliance,

links

political

links,

religious

cultural

Social Characteristics. ---------------------may be exploited

Elements

social

structures

respond

prove

adaptable,

change.

Social

situation

itself

interaction. affects and the

different

and others divisions

The nature

the

success

formation

of

the

educational

of new elites,

equally social

and exogenous by the

generated elements

in

units

vitally

or socio-economic new classes,

some

setting;

endogenous

social

colonized

colonizers.

colonial

become independent of pre-existing

of

and oligarchical

and combinations

may later

ethnic

links.

loyalty

unifying

to

clientage,

suzerainty),

by the

pyramidal,

resistant,

trade,

divisions

social

ways to

invasion

recent

and linguistic

and higher

Segmentary, in

nominal

or counteracted

solidarity,

behaviour.

feud,

-

communities

determine

(including

The internal

population

are particularly

area

links

links,

other

with

(including

links

influence

groups5greatly

Links

colonized

physical

of migration),

of

the

and the

communication

interaction.

and outside

These comprise

and patterns

links,

the colonial

of

and topography

The dimensions

by indigenous

occupation

of variable:

categories

colonial

the

developments,

or new occupational

groups. Economic Organization Goals. Different modes of production, and ------------------------------distribution, can be found among different exchange and consumption c)

sub-groups. the

conditions

Some prove imposed

more adaptable by the occupier.

or resistant Prior

than

urbanization,

others

to

85

sedentarization manpower

of

Political

outcome of which

beliefs

the

of these

provoke

or are

colonized

conquest,

pattern

of

for

-

and

determine

the

political

interrelationto it,

response

political

can

or unity;

towards

The methods

including

the

many

The sense

it.

after

and attitudes

and

organization

division

develop

of response.

assemblage

of

outsiders

and character

of

of literacy,

extent

groups

consistent constitutes

adopt

These strands

same time.

or logical the

situation.

of each colonial

at different

and responses

we can construct

variables

cross-cutting

interaction'

such parameters,

the

factors

consideration.

of social

stratagems,

of

groups.

others

identity,

in

forged

possibilities

or value-transmission,

'field

monarc17-

Religious

Attitudes.

kinds

particular

deserve

these

of

countless before

From this

of

or

chieftainship,

The cross-cutting

conquest,

and cultural

education

fairly

the

A variety

lineage

to theocratic

and Cultural

exist

of racial

segmentation,

resp6nses

contain

ones at

exploited

determine

- all

technology;

of

existence,

Structures.

dynamics.

predate

Ideology

Within

resources

acephalous

colonial

determine

the

natural

bureaucracy,

centralized

also

the

outlets;

or Administrative

from

ranging

e)

sophistication

interaction.

economic

ships

trade

resources;

undiscovered,

d)

industrialization;

and

pattern;

dynamics

a number of possible times

- or even contradictory fall

of behaviour together,

of the

policies,

colonial

the

into

a

interweaving

situation.

86

II.

THE DYNAMICS OF THE COLONIAL SITUATION

Nationalism

is

These dynamics

situation. between,

for

tactics,

they

may be discussed of the

colonized,

inferred

from

separately, but

control".

with

"above

all

achieve to

it

finds

itself.

oligarchical

position.

the

the

of

is

be

not

the

Balandier

the

to

their

and

It these

away

up, of

yet dilemma

its

strangely

the

colonized

examined

is

27

leads in

in

implicit

the this

initial

and of

paradox population

ideological restraint of

the appears

and half-hearted. in

which

of

conclusion

that

to

This

environment

material

peripheral be

point: it

mechanisms

Thus

on the

to

this

goals

systematic

need

has a position

precisely

at

and political

function

logical

cultural

attabk.

attack

it

strange

question

eats

inescapably

domination".

of

into

"is

echoes

whose

aspect pursuit

Group

an oligarchy;

spiritual

call

his

totalitarian,

prongs

strategies

should

and economic

and

mechanisms

strategy:

The

two

to

To shore

and

and

and reactions

colonizer

M. G. Smith,

a society

administrative

begins

extreme

with

every

Yet

social,

colonizer's

group

economic with

with

these

Colonizer

maintenance,

dealing

we are

interference

coexist

of the

the

of

and defend.

establish

foundations.

and

strategies

clarity,

of

clash

'modern'

or

relationship

writes

structural

interfere

economic,

Strategies

minority",

political,

it

of a simple

contradictory

as actions

The colonizer

of power to

with

an active-passive

The

"The dominant

26

form

colonial

such terminology.

A.

preoccupied

the

For reasons

levels.

several

at

of the

dynamics

and 'exploiter',

fraught

are

the

take

do not

'exploited'

example,

'traditional';

from

inextricable

turn.

87

The Attack of the Colonizer. ---------------------------

-i.

The colonizer in

majority

and ideo-cultural

the indigenous

over

Though the socio-economic

spheres.

all

this

of

aspects

be understood

to seek domination

appears

politico-administrative,

interconnect,

all

logic.

the

The Socio-Economic Attack. The economic confrontation ------------------------two groups is diametrical, for expressing not competition

own economic

the

28

"the

the

colonizer

between

man who is

'underdeveloped'), to

activities practice In

the 'overall

the

colonizer

the many, and its capitalist

system

This

assault

to be ousted associating of labour a total

also

dominant "the

into

metropolitan

does not

the

simply of

- confiscation

expropriation few,

centre

minority

or the metropolis.

of

surplus

economic

indigenous

populations it

of land,

transfer

mainly This

the

form

also

of

of population,

entails

as providers

association direct

from

the

satellites".

as consumers. in

of

and peripheral

enterprise,

both

in

latter

the means of production;

society

work",

economic

the polarization

the

require

colonizer's

to an extent

to colonized

settler



(labelled

colony

the

country";

by the

appropriation

them with

threat

engineering

seeks

from ownership

but

the

the

his

or

and "fragmented"

"backward"

its

needs of

the needs of

are

short,

by relating

the

in

producing

the world's

industrial

to "develop"

He seeks

mobilization.

forcible

for

troops

shock

in

has no place

up to

Since

neither

self-contained,

any import,

provides

trade.

of his

colonized

and open it 29

the

within

terms

the

economy"

metropolitan,

absolutely

In

to "valorize"

"market

spoils

cultures.

economic

seeks

colonizer

or at least

nor receiving

agricultural

of

clash

some form of

world,

black

export

the

to create of

for

a total

culture,

currents

view

but

system,

resources,

each can

separately.

a)

a shared

- of

poses social

forcible

31

88

sedentarization, legislation

- and through

traditional

of

and growth

crafts

to indigenous

social

mobility,

wholesale

are

the

aspects

"social

to

amounts

life

individual

through

The implantation

itself

population's

has immediate -

groups reasons

of security

Pacification violent colonizer's social

monopoly

cohesion,

by external units

of

traditional

small-scale The

'presence'. method

of

village

colonizer

A cheaper, extending

Under

and

less

tend

of

consolidating

the

manipulation.

settlement

communities

weakens

held

together

larger-scale fragmentation

of

survives

organization

mainly

36

level. the

of

the

This

force.

to decline;

and

for

and establishing

social

move beyond painful,

social

such circumstances,

and effective

to

framework.

sedentarization

by hampering

expressions

is

revolution

of indigenous

direct

among segmentary

35

assault

colonized

disarming

Forcible

or clan-fraction

seeks

the

society,

organization

place,

Socio-economic

involves

colonized

especially

traditional

and attitudinal

- the

intrusion

of physical

antagonisms.

takes

authority at

within

and the

interests,

challenges

consequences.

indirect

of

a politico-administrative

and surveillance

entails

conflicts

Attack.

"Pacification"

world.

this

of

33

The Politico-Administrative ---------------------------------backed up by and channelled in

communications;

away from his

of a structural

surgery".

of this

decline

The generation

endless.

of new 'class'

b)

in

The ramifications

are

social

and wage-labour;

improvements

patterns.

development

to prise

32

group,

which

the

attempt

towns,

and usage

of indirect

shock-waves

and agriculture;

social

and new ownership

following

of industry,

of new consumption

threat

social

the

development -

revolution

of labour,

mobilization

phase

of

constant

ideologically

authority,

is

more to

obtain

military comfortable the

34

89

cooperation

of existing

Surviving if

institutions

incorporated

'indirect

usually

authority

and incorporation

create

Such an environment

formation,

the

taxation,

and the

of technology,

organization

through

indigenous

a more appropriate

system

new, artificial

deliberately

designed

The overall

scale

network

'neutrality', of hospitality of the

social

status

cut

('unfair

of regular full

with

loyalties

respect

affairs.

values

old

are This

divisions.

generally

('nepotism'),

enlarged. and judicial conventions

and considerations

frowned

upon and eschewed in

threatens

weaken ethnic

established,

ethnic

as bureaucratic

('corruption'),

seems necessary.

often

are

is

organization

effectiveness

to meet different

arose

divisions

of

Capital

development.

cannot

and transcend

across

and cohesion,

as a fulcrum

regarded

and domination

influence'),

of native

at home.

of

as kinship

and reciprocal

he can feel

which

territorial

with seeks

structures control

civil

instinctively,

establishment

education

such European

as far

of authority

usually

which

than

traditional

organization,

The colonizer, within

attempting

goes deeper

independent

traditional

the

of administrative

administration

sources

to

transmits in

of

yet

37

typically

and a key to socio-economic

Consequently

This

any case,

leaders,

upon Such

of a European-style

environment in

spread

be channelled needs;

is,

domination,

effective

this them.

aim of supplanting

framework.

change.

formerly

elements

alongside

an administrative

of

society.

can be built

local

domination of

Slowly,

develop,

administration

to

for

colonized

control

supervisory

agents

drive

structures.

eventual

colonizer's

them into

colonizer's

supervision

social

means acknowledging

to transform

But the

the

the

the

within

of indigenous

within

rule'

gradually

the

authority-figures

to

loyalties

sap indigenous by

9o

juxtaposing

hitherto

and generate

separate

a crisis

The essential The colonizer no direct

a small

administrative

instead

these

of

roads,

41

to undergo

early,

lack

canvass opinion,

bodies

c) by

less

usually

than

and the

among native

the

fostering

submergence

spread European

Attack.

European mass

manifestations

schools,

media, of

this

agents' are gradually 42 Another corollary

concomitant

issues The

the

the

Christian

European attempt.

ideas

Hovering

and

political

of facades,

erection

to and

'values'.

European

above

ones.

embed himself

European

missions,

languages,

effective

tries

but

rights,

administrative

under

of

or even

representative civil

into

colonizer

realm

consensus,

Some 'mixed'

of acquiescence,

and monopolizing

of

'contact

transformation

of political

The Ideo_Cultural seizing

with

their

themselves

initiatives

to mobilize

groups.

may be established,

aim is

administrative

of

The political

effort

the

and surrounding

administrators

local

may be

projects,

and bureaucratization.

of any positive

institutions

colonial

energetic

by supervision

administration;

the

Controversy

as a matter

'depoliticization'.

of the

stultified

the

purely

to

agricultural

and hospitals.

As a corollary,

efficiency.

the

treated

population

improvements

40

is

native

technical

of

permitted.

even to the

access

access

including

schools

is

projects

expected

behalf'

of

regular

programme

on their

building

for

is

domination

the

38

the political;

for

allowed

normally

values.

"depoliticization".

is

of his

The majority

'backward'

a paternalistic

instituted

is

39

political

responsibility

basis

is

elite

sphere.

as too

regarded

tend

of the

traditional

colonizer

to himself

reserves

only

of the

project

a common framework,

within

in

of confidence

contestation

Indeed,

groupings

these

The communications,

products, are

'myths'

are and

91

justificatory

ideologies

domination: mental of

racial

and

these

myths

military of

the

literature

and

whether

agriculture

defined.

They

'archaic',

is

cut

off

colonizer

and

art.

food.

tales from

the

process

values

of

decked

of

its

out

forms

cultural -

are

negatively

'irrational', history,

colonizer the

conquest;

embroidered

becomes and now-

mountains

conquered

population

colonized

Geography

own past. with

hairstyle,

clothing,

medicine

of

deserts.

The colonizer oligarchy, 44 ideology". Literally, it between

values.

colonized

45

This

the European

emulation

is

As a result and economic closed

be overtly or taboos

in

only

against

remains

racial, of

and remote

institutionalized, and laws

escape

a "Nanichaean

from

bind

eternally

the society.

physical

to

attempted

Caliban.

exploitation,

from colonized

the

doom is

operates;

cultural,

miscegenation.

into

collective

religious,

through

conflict

and white inculcated

Yet a double

rationalizations off

develops

systematically

Caliban

of these

fact,

assumes a black

model.

for

vain,

is

its

population;

emulate

stands

becomes

the

of

of

sophistication a vehicle

seems

'superstitious',

History

organization, higher

object

or

medicine

science,

the

and

indigenous

y,

physical,

political

details

government

art,

his

concrete

smallest

'primitive',

geography,

blooming

the

Converse].,

'pagan'.

of

his

Ramifications

colonizer

management;

Every

to

or are

or

heroic

with

economic

hymn the

colonizer.

of

efficiency

and

43

the,

superiority

explains

colonizer which

of

greater

down

assumptions,

furniture

particularly,

the

preach

the

which

superiority

prowess,

his

such

myths

spiritual

technology;

and

with

political dominant

minority

Separation

segregation,

Yet an attack

may

colour is

implicit

bar,

92

in

Its

such avoidance.

the

twin

renames towns

colonizer

is

and streets,

churches

or museums, transforms

and digs

up antiquities.

to

the

it

native;

seeks

his it

morality; this

the

which

which lies

mother

country

moving, eloquent:

in

53 but

If

and symptoms present

his

Berque's

the

traditional 47 group.

and "materially

even loses

touch

themselves

in

social

contains dying

account

it

at

sea,

of the

fate

alienated

of

see

politically

native

haunts

itself".

the

ascent

to

and humiliation.

the

in

perhaps

colonial

difficult

within

causality

of this

is

shattered,

structures

world,

of the

destruction

utter

of whose predestined description

dynamics

threats,

of these

can avoid

beyond this

Fanon's

alienated",

The individual

and spiritually

aid

from 48

we describe

terms

"no longer

in

his

it

51

land,

invalid,

future

'sherpa'.

50

society

of his

as

of

soul him;

and individual

father,

49

innermost

the

and undermines

"globally

is

Assault.

purely

a dependent society

off

disorder.

how indigenous

the

involved

and 'de-humanize'

des/crates

son from

own "self-hood",

The Total

Deprived

it

dispossessed".

psychiatric

in

diverse

as deeply

are

threatens

'de-nature'

to

the native

and spiritually

situation

and priests

brings

colonizer

is

that

of all

assault

culture;

cuts

sense,

his

artists

ideo-cultural

'de-values'

d)

"elan

folklore,

touristic

inspectors.

and tax

This

with

the

and destruction

academics,

soldiers

In

In

into

festivals

whereby

mosques into

converts

46 world".

the

for

search

interventionalism

obsessive

colonizer's

he acts colonized

world

52

is

as is also

a His

93

"It

had itself it

and around his

had been reified.

warm contact

'exploitation'

At that ...

landscape

around

the

law escaped him,

since

from

knowledge

history,

soul since

the

However,

straightforward,

of of

the

has only In the

can take

colonizer

the

threatened

another

explanation

restraint

of the

lies

colonizer. ly than kmight at

His

as 'fatal'

rarely is

at his

not

dark".

straf seem,

in

g

is

55

Part

a day.

disposal,

56

whatever

indigenous part

ward off

to these goals

and

and unevenness

on the

effectively

addition

systematic

Berque himself

provided,

the ambivalent

first

is

strategies

later,

But in in

very

54

be destroyed

thus

Deliberate

impact.

it;

and its

efficiency

delay

resources

interstices

refuge.

whose

of his

total.

inevitable

Rome cannot limited

at

or invented

"exaggeratedly

is

picture in

it

language,

The assault

dispossession

to be discussed

colonized,

contradictory

his

implantation;

ambitions.

of the

of the

the

lies

explanatinn

colonial

society the

that

admits

The colonizer his

is

nor

or,

Colonizer.

as has been implied.

practice

quickly

impact

by

cause and effect,

its

imported

of the

transformed

handled

of his

lost

from

off

as a labourer

investigations".

ethnological

the

of

another

period

The Restraint

-ii.

in

colonial

into

prejudices

of his

being

only

sequence

internal the

him,

it

within

the native

moment,

He was cut

he contributed

from

Everything

others.

and things.

to which

as a consumer;

for

beings

with

from the

everything:

best,

become a thing

of much

factors,

and deliberate

more complicated

and

94

These

headings,

separate ideo-cultural,

but

they

They

develop

power.

economic

'universalistic' Economic

tasks

the

that

exploitation,

to

socially

stable

from his inevitably

the

land,

are

by a major

policy

tradition".

dilemma,

"dynamic

which

equally

indeed setting

colonial

social

the

colonizer

'valorization'

economic

traditional

within

- crises

of population

uprooting demographic

from

explosion, Such

mechanisms. is

The colonizer

thus

confronted

has neatly

summarized

and "conservation

of

Worsley

exploitation"

is

and

distract

thus

as a

57

To push ahead with long-term

capitalistic

colonizer

attempts

measures

It

excessive

support

to ignore.

difficult

between

choice

towns,

or decay of kinship

unemployment, problems

that

example,

to major

emigration

the

instability

for

and crafts,

agriculture

is

such

ideology

of

oligarchy,

demands which

social

generates

the

can by

presence

thrust

require

The problem

tasks.

they

turn

interventionism. of

to

position

'modernization'.

and

and predictable;

urgent

creates

in

their

residual

security

economic

disturbance

the

an entrepren-

political

which

justify

socio-economic

effective

remain

from

they

and

active

however,

true,

dominant

'development'

as

self-interest,

necessitate

their

Yet

form

colonizers

enterprises,

capitalistic

derive

The

use

and

intertwined.

intimately

are

three

under

examined

politico-administrative,

Restraint.

oligarchy.

eurial

policy

socio-economic,

Socio-Economic

a)

of

ambivalences

be

will

designed

'dynamic

exploitation' to proceed

revolution to transcend to integrate

short-term the

colonized

means allowing unchecked; social

crisis

population

the with fully

the

95

projects

as urban

implied.

In the

economic

from

However, and-human the

is

hastily

concoct

little,

too

has the to

purpose

settler

into

oligarchical

which situation

is

actions would

made the itself".

the

59

intervention

of

the

problem

designed of this

For the

is

needed, it,

in

to

challenging possible:

it the

any its

for

"it

and Sayad explain,

which

- would

a series

comes up against

to

whole

situation,

a colonial

interventionism

it

political

to benefit?

to provide

Thus,

of

summon the

cannot

consequences

be tantamount

original

it

it

colonial

upon

too

and even if

required,

effort

exploitation'

for

colonizers

and flexibility

foresight

mobilizes

stake.

the

proposing

dimensions

means

regime.

reminder

As Bourdieu

impossible

that

at

economic

for

which

58

them".

slender

a price

to such a problem.

quickly

'dynamic

of

its

If

the

'plans'

real

resources,

is whom -

situ

restraints.

base

enormous

such resources

in

the

has the

economic

status

inherently

because

of the

high

too

invariably

-

by a colonial

question.

group

built-in

that

indicate

colonization

policy

crisis

of

the Metropolis

commit

at

new

Massive

beyond

inevitably

is

contradictions

beyond

going

contemplate.

development

colonial

times

-

necessary

be called

and

in

conceive

of

implied,

and no doubt

be understood

mind to

matter

are

few

late

Even if

the

no small

The

by

intervention

support

up the the

integrate

would

to

"setting

to

amounts

which

original

itself,

colony

cannot

run,

and welfare

provision

of such

programme

a crash

words,

job

this

system

resources

Metropolis.

will

long

the

this

other

construction,

social

and

resulting

of

In

the money economy.

within

is

foresee

provokes very

namely,

of

itself,

principle the

colonial

96

An alternative means

exploitation

isolate

up declining

question

milieu

which,

oligarchy

to be,

aware of the

ignorance

this

sections

is

the

very

the the

of do not

they

upon which

society

and contempt

of

and

a less

such

addition,

not,

are

in

wish

and

act,

of

condition

61

their

action". Furthermore,

very

"they

of the

logic

a few

only

demonstrate:

colonizer

indeed.....

typically,

however.

though

and knowledge

shore

new

too,

here

arises, In

for

to -

develop

to

abound

exploitation'.

colonizer's

action or

example,

resources

a concern

assumes

the

from

pressures

'dynamic

with

action

indigenous

for

scarce

a serious

reparative

entails

farming,

allocating

than

protective

also

socio-economic

entails

environment

Contradictory of

form

acute

It

subsistence

industries.

craft The

60

It

colonizer.

indigenous

the

"contagion".

harmful

by

the

of

This

tradition'.

of

impact

the

muffling

and

ofdcolonized to

attempt

strategy

in,

reining

'conservation

is

of the

point

French

a policy

strategy

our

coming,

its

moral

at

Confucius". criticism

if

"must to

the

native

indirect

to

eventually is of

the

also

into

by means

might of

and

rural

economic

the

economic masses",

cycle......

be regarded

an essentially

ruin

was

to

subject

"The

justly

for

them

offer

of

a modern

such a

society

benefits

exploitation.

peasantry...

man by man,

Vietnamese

'conservation'

be integrated

traditional of

of

just

no excuse

was virtually

disturb

we were

all

deprives

and masks

Mus writes,

exploitation

it

to

expense,

A policy

that

development,

A return

huge

structure, 62

"There

Vietnam:

the

question

As Mus says of

enterprise.

colonial

in

conservation

of

into

calls

urban,

as an

97

administrative, Confucian

and capitalist.

countryside,

without

is

that

limitation

no 'cordon or halt

evolution, colonial

socio-economic the

"Unaware regime

either

in

its

of

tries

"On the establish

economic

be limited

and sow the

seeds of

or its

lack

in practice

or interests

- revealing

colonizers66

or between

67

- but the

it

are

is

colonial

of his were and

changes

sub-groups

were and on

This

contradictory attitude 65 These action,,.

between

with

particular

Metropolis the

local

sections

of

difficult

to trace

a consistent could

colonizer

groups

and local

different

same individual

the

"attempts

these

unchanged

identified

tensions

64

political

hand,

of social

often

disturbance.

the horns

administrative, other

themselves

apprentict's.

Eisenstadt,

and loyalties.

in most spheres

sorcerer's

to ride

explains

on the

future

of impact",

to the

similar

while,

impulses

time;

situation

modern,

contradictory

over

evolving

broad,

attitudes

be found

oligarchy

a rapidly

in

and based on relatively

traditional

of the

contamination

up traditional

one hand",

settings,

endogenous

and prop

impact

The colonizer

interventionism

prevent

by the

train

to preserve

process,

problems

made to

could

change set

on to a

and manpower

of protective

can effectively

confronts

dilemmas,,

to

social

policy

again

products

sanitaire'

arrangements

itself

grafting furnish

would 63

of the

Attempts

presence.

distort

which

any benefit".

receiving

A final

cycle

colonizer pattern

be extremely

ambivalent. Unresolved

conflicts a "dual

modernization"68

or

dominated

colonizer

by the

often

in

result 69

A 'modern

economy". and

limited

a situation

in

its

extent,

of

"aborted

sector', produces

for

98

the

world

the

self-sufficient

For

as long

limited

while

this

as

life

facade

of roads,

social

life

to

the

social

them,

acquire

to

as best

colonizer's

revolution

of

sense.

straightforward behind

marginal;

often

xhools

he may.

the

suits

and hospitals,

train

itself,

sector

but

when members

the

colonizer

In

position.

made whether

thus

its

there

The development

necessary,

oligarchical

in

speak,

a

iýdý9¬(OIS

essential

on*70

exploitation'.

professions

his

economy

the advanced

is

is

buildings,

public

carries

'dynamic

threaten

European

so to

socio-economic

least

at

it

last,

threatened

materializing,

Even within on

the

furrow

eternal can

hedge

the

over

his

coexistence

prevents

the

of

same time,

ploughs

uneasy

It from

impact

the

at

peasant

goals.

native The

market,

for

natives

consequences;

if

or

to

where

and 'elite'

to

has

be

accept

and

the

obtain

defend

to

access

positions,

responsible

not,

skills

a decision

term,

restraints

indigenous

the

may restrict

longer

the

'modern'

of of

inherent

are

necessary

manpower.

Colonial holding

economic as

long

increasingly

Soviet

to Union,

knowledge

of

the

the

uncontrollable they

try

They

rarely

in

train.

to

their

71

commitment

to

disruption

begins

rein

it

in;

stay

to

wrestle

the

failing with

task. to

But,

demographic

this,

they

the

forces

explosion

interestingly

likens in

the

inter-war

legitimacy

and

equally

important,

When the

threaten

'freeze'

to

revolution

popular

environment.

tries

the

Kilson

industrial

of

lacking

social

as

control.

vanguards

of a short-term

colonizer

factors

such

this

though

long-term

lack

Yet

undermine

the

which

operation,

as possible.

colonizers

have many characteristics

situations

revolution

their are

they and

privileged

forced

which

their

they

to

its

position, 'jump

help

to

off'. set

99

b)

Politico-Administrative

domination

is

permanent

Restraint.

based on force,

standing

"As long

as the

material

element; ', wrote

irredentism,

consensual

72

on the part

of the

order

under The

which

colonizer

preserve

his

between

these

must

conflict:

resignation of

transformation of the

legitimacy

politico-administrative

a suitable

Yet he is

consensus.

positive

there

Clearly,

status. Two broad

two needs.

no

on its

of the

ruled

war,

73

devise

oligarchical

this

cope with

live".

they

to generate

structure

by the

is

enough foundation

a solid

of power depends

acceptance

is

"Mere negative

not)...

consolidation

the

authority,

(is

"there

there

domination;

the

corroborate

settler,

colonial

goes further:

ruled...

The optimum

into

a prominent

Worsley

come to

does not

element

a

consolidation.

means of conquest

and weak and precarious

sovereignty".

rule.

for

colonizer's

to maintain

he has no desire

he looks

army;

Though the

latent

strategies

to

conflict

themselves

suggest

and political

assimilation

political

is

determined

segregation. 'Assimilation' senses:

conversely, colonizer the

negates

oligarchical barely

minority. central base,

conceivable

interpreted

in

of indigenous The first

their

strategy.

different

of these

intervention,

ist -f.

The second

senses.

74

the

within

society

of most colonial

point

two diametrically

opposed

politico-

society,

of colonized

norms and structures assimilation

in

society

of colonizer

assimilation

administrative

the

can be understood

within

or,

those

of

two possibilities undertakings ambition),

strategy

(their and is

can itself

a be

to

100

The ultimate

they

populations; arrangements

impartiality

fair

and assembly,

in

The

that

no separate

lives

of the

indigenous

exactly

the

and

the

elections

European

of

freedoms

of

of

powers,

association

indigenous

to

The threat

implied.

pre-colonial

separation

-

administration,

is -

of

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101

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normal

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75

other

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about

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maintenance

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102

of

political

potential lever

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deliberately implies

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78

favours

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ethnic

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solidarity".

rule

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77

power.

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103

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79

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104

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105

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106

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86

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107

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92

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Serious fears

colonizers,

resources to

Because

of by

suspicion

with

one-way

that -

efforts

regarded

oligarchy.

ineffective

are

beyond

they

of

any

which

own culture their

case

- are

colonizer

majority

education,

In

example

their

of

superiority

example

-

-

I threaten

to

for

this

and

Rather

less

groups

value

communal from

are

the

to

is

new,

many

colonizers

humanity

of

European the

off

towards

areas

of

of the

For

'cultural there

are

native

life,

sometimes

is

a few

highly

morality, to

seek

these

scattered far

defend

these

try

shore

reasons, the

segregation';

Though

colonizer

among native

They all

European

expectations,

traditional

individualism.

latter.

at

effort

working

they

control;

communities,

unsatisfiable

create

social

and

echoed.

assault

and

of

impulses

particular

to

strength

ward

A widespread

curtailed.

threaten

traditional

of

cohesion

social

self-interestedly,

former

strong

cultural

are

'corruption'

phenomenon in

reason

cooperation,

the

up the

undermine

may also

education

the

'dual

there economy'

initiatives

reaching,

ambivalent

to

the

and inhibited.

104

111

The colonizer erects his

distinctiveness,

is

strictly

by

the

unavoidable;

stereotyped for

potential

status,

The

explore

every

intellect;

constantly

of

domination

for it

the

the

cannot

divert

native

of

conquest

is

the

at

stake

On the

'rational'

his

"colonial

make it

a superficial

other

society

innovation

hand,

difficult

to

wishes

of any cultural

appearance 108

happening

colonizer

and

speak

incomprehension

is

what

with

his consolidation

mutual

out

the

colonized

and

reality

native

attitudes

more than

find

one hand,

controls".

and aloof

to acquire

colonizer

line

out

colonizer

really

On the

cranny

on guard

barriers

cultural

cannot

society.

the population

within

a visible

marks

and metaphorically),

colonizer

ideological

the

in is

this

a gap which

since

erected

situation

reminding

and

taboos

But

By constantly widens

to

result

relationships

(literally

nook

acceptance

inhibitions

A colour-bar

segregation

indigenous

within

real

lo6

behaviour.

and

than

more

natives

cross-cutting

languages,

endemic.

these

taboos

with

by protective

itself,

Furthermore,

eliminate.

different

is

107

deny

Reinforced

Social

aloof.

mixing

taboos

colonizer.

schism;

dominated

is

images

the

conflict.

must

105

stands

and

To emphasize

acculturation.

from

community

group

dangerous

colonizer

other

natives.

moves beyond indifference,

discourage

colonizers

indigenous

latent

to

the

individual

Europeanized

of

barriers

cultural

restrain

typically

minority

opaque

for

the

is

riven

grasp.

The-Colonizer Situation. in the Colonial -------------------------------------As these strategies the colonizer's suggest,

-iii.

ambivalence; aim is

to

he faces 'normalize'

several

directions

(_ 'depoliticize')

uneasily. the

world log

colonial

by

Though his situation,

he

112

actually

it

politicizes

survival, appears Social

relations

contradictions

rather

Though they

more than

ill

in his

tions

the

force

prolongs

group

itself

is

possible

it

this,

Contradictions in

the

differing in

groups

his

total

politicians,

technicians,

Though

the

together,

the

process

community,

the

crisis and

adopt

of

indeed

Colon

The colonizer it

crisis;

the

blocks

and

and

different

situation this

and

teachers,

emphases them

forces 'bloc'

The same section

same individual,

different

metropolitan

administrators

press

the

conscript

traders,

for

of

concerns

out

spelled

are

position

farmers,

a common policy,

the

though

own contradietious.

colonial

of decolonization.

What

112

local

the

group

but

crisis,

do so indefinitely.

needs,

and

frozen

latent

contradic-

them.

confronting

is

missionaries,

outlooks

of the

and internal

isolation,

colonizer's

society.

soldiers,

different

unaware

by the

conceptions,

professional

have

is

often

no

often

equilibrium

to its

in

misleading

open with

temporary

cannot

solutions

the

mechanismsa

situation

paralyzed

alienated.

are

social

colonial

This

situation,

save him from

artificially

characterizes

only

his

built-in

reveal

is

colonial

The colonizer

position;

solidarity,

the

By various

latent.

established.

in

conflicts

communities

misunderstandings'.

into

burst

social

of

domination.

political

colonized,

occasionally

the

suddenness,

is

of the

as much as that

world,

'temporary

than

sign

colonized

difficulties

a minefield;

are

his

to threaten

colonizer

Every within

change or renewal

resistance, to the

each turn.

at

110

unfreezes

of

may be riven

the

all

in to

policy. stand during

4 colonizer

internally.

113

Local

administrators

could

inspire

Strategies

The ambivalence

of the

impact the

the

colonial

colonized

consistent

cope

more

local

often

determination;

the

institutional

the of

nature

114

of

unified,

situation;

different

different

spheres

but

these

a few

Violent

colonial

show

reactions and

can

and

situation

to

conscious They out

are from

retreat,

and

social illuminates

strategies sheds

life,

of

be picked

withdrawal these

groups

according

physical

opposition,

of

or

instinctive.

strands

of

strategems

times,

different

sociological Each

Various

others. at

strategies

no single,

unconscious

examples.

the

than

the

examine

dynamics

on the

light

concept

'nationalism'.

-i.

Vi2_222

The physical is

are

web.

are

it

Some of

duplicity,

persistence

in

contradictory,

classify

interconnected

colonial

with

others to

is

society,

successfully

circumstances.

difficult

the

indigenous

of

adopted,

are

to

reaction

levels

and

There

population.

the

But to understand

we must also

limits

greatly

strategies

colonizer's

situation,

same

Group

Colonized

the

of

society.

on colonized

and the

same time,

the

at

aims

113

times",

The

B.

of

officials

at different

official

his

particularly

different

"Contradictory

come to mind:

frequently

crucial thread

n. resistance

underestimated.

and constructive running

of indigenous

through

feature

Violence of

and connecting

society should

colonized

to the

colonizer

be reinstated society.

115

a number of social

as a It

is

a

phenomena

114

which

are

primary

initial

and wars

is

implication

of blind

to

inflicts

considerable

Conquest

often

In

committment. beats

money,

down such

the

violence

colonized

populations

resources

and 118

colonizer.

a total the

war from

violence

group

suicide.

"honour"

the

organization, in

in

Such "naked

in

lack

is

and varies the

apparatus

of

colonized

face

of superior

intensity

social

of a centralized,

their

of

than the

weaponry of

those

of

the

may be

Sometimes

armament verges involves

120 from which

Where indigenous

mobilizing

the

own

colonizer

structure

accordingly.

of

resistance

refusal"

interests.

European

expenditure

population.

and disinterested

shaped by the in

terms

eyes

the

lesser

The

resistants.

military of

rather

the

of the the

on the

also

imbalance

very

It

violent.

or

reactions.

as much as narrowly-calculated

emanates,

groups

the

social skirmish

or suppressed.

technology greater

But

native

viewpoint

Armed opposition it

life.

the

of resistance 119

with

be measured

A border

once early

and a large-scale

should of

develop

but

superior

resistance

of

forms

the

run

and human

effort,

invader,

iiith

colonial

exceedingly

decades,

or

long

often

on the

years

the

only

view,

is

conquest

Where violence

express

have been exhausted

losses

takes

116

'irrational'3117 and

authentically

by this

hostility

Yet resistance

obscures

does not

underestimates

often

implantation.

'xenophobic'

The latter,

expressions

usually

it

tension,

endemic

historiography

to European

labelled

that

relationships.

of

Colonial

armed opposition it

revolts,

particularly

decolonization.

of

Resistance.

described,

the

post-pacification

banditry,

Primary

a)

by theorists,

separated

artificially

resistance,

social

is

often

state,

and

on

115

have little though The

fierce

divide

A common stand

instinctual

attempt

a foreign

extrude

alternation

of violent

disarmed

Cyrenaica,

of

failure

collaboration colonizer

b)

colonized

postpones

resistant The

leaders

internal

force

seems

a damaging

in shifts

the

in

to

defence,

adequate

The

groups.

by the

destruction

or their

fight,

resources,

of physical

revolution;

the mobilization

bring

structural

major

Once related

tactical

often

which

such

and

of opposition.

points

colonized

within

may also

changes

are

still

European

areas favour

military

the

colonized

help

and

tentative; if -

social It

the

it.

The

to

fully

never

presence

'conquest'

renders of

it

active;

abandons

material

secret

native

fundamental.

than

rather

gives

the

to than

rather

confrontation,

population

of

sabotage,

an

as Evans-Pritchard

to provide

social

Revolts.

groups

with

warfare,

12.4

submission

looseness

framework of

of traditional

society.

'submitted'

Instead,

clandestine

and expenditure

institutions

"the

structure

rare.

were no fixed

upheavals

Post-Pacification

context,

traditional

comparatively

to -

seemed to be no enemy forces

There

by new leaders

of resistance

segmentary

resistance

armed

small-scale

social

may provoke

of

attempting

and

groups

121

area.

play

the manner of guerrilla

"there

certain

in major

may result

-

marshalling

of

the

such circumstances,

was incessant.

attack

The wholesale

in

In

into

total

of

is

attacks,

evasiveness.

suggested

and the

in

resist

a large

an unmodified

of

body"122

forces

segmentary

himself

resistance

over

collaborator

potential

conquer.

structures,

coordination insert

to

may manage

and

forcible,

yet

lacks

by locating

lineage

segmentary

generally

colonizer

conflict

to

than

other

disarms.

administrative if

the

colonizer

balance is

'

123

116

involved-in is

a European

liable

'extrude to

If

out. the

foreign insurrection.

beneath

the

surface;

circumstances

arise.

their

importance

liable

to refer 126

disapproval". involve

revolts the

strongpoints

compartmentalized,

fusion c)

Endemic Tension.

mainly

sullen

the

and proud

revolt (holy war)

'jihad'&colonizer

conduct

resistance,

depth,

change;

met

post-pacification 127

they

reveal

Though often

societies.

they

sources

provide

to

as with

below the

chiliastic

fluctuates

129

disdain,

the

near

smoulders

130

on a day of reckoning.

overthrow imminent

Violence or "just

situation, in

aspirations

popular

of colonized

uneven

nor

underestimate

social

of

as fission.

as well

colonial

to

and of

"There

movements were a

even when their

and weakpoints

far

Vietnam:

to them,

of social

lie

more favourable

extent;

vectors

to

tempted

are

does not

colonial

neither

primary

control

an attempt

groups

or their

As with

and are

for

Insurrectional

We should

of this.

or mutinies

until

for

a truce.

only

uprisings

of violence

buried

simply

of

indigenous

other

As Mus suggests

reminder

always

with

is

framework

seems ripe

The threat it

was no renunciation,

were

125

body',,

the

exaggerate

insurrections,

the power-situation

join

constant

the -

example

Revolts,

to weaken.

may break

for

war,

often

despair between

the 128

skin". or in

finds

violence

Islamic

of a quietistic confidence

It

expression

dreams of the

Simmering dormant

of the

surface

that

European's

ranges

from

pre-disposition

nature. the

spirit

Consequently, of revenge

has been quenched, and hysterical 'frissons' about "those who lie in 131 Sometimes, settlers wait". to cynically exploit endemic tension justify

the maintenance

of special

repressive

powers;

at

other

times,

117

theirs dividing is

assessment

seems a realistic line

blurred,

by the

feature

preoccupation

"makes him remind

the

native

keeps

alive

of

But...

inwardly

outlet...

133 petrification". not

tamed;

his

inferiority. to

guard This

he is

tension

according

to

in

the

spirit beliefs, of

of

a level Enquiry'

political

the

and of

"The

of

(to

culture.

He warned

which

punctuate

is

134

among for

example, simmers

still

What

everything.... of

chiaroscuro "the

hidden These

inexplicable colonial

subsequent

his

off

tensed".

Vietnam,

135

feelings".

colonizer)

which

of

of

convinced

not

underlies this

but

overpowered,

reactions

primitive

violent

a pseudo-

achieve

always

In

behind

".

he deprives

a reputation

with

the

frustration

total

of

master.

settler

are

'fatalism'.

shelters

full

until

violence....

glaze!

the

colonizer

which

he is

but

muscles

violence

guerilla

"is

native

cultures

and

outrage

cannot

can only

waits

those

even

and

an anger

132

tension.

is

he alone

that

as an inferior

The native's

society

The atmosphere population's

As a result,

Confucian

sporadic

destruction

settler

Mystical and

this

underlie

tap

Mus;

war

a peasant

the

'gentleness'

villages.... of

native

him.

marks for

the

treated

at

loud

out

He patiently

fly

Europeans

in

'freeze'

says Fanon of the

security",

The settler

to

reality

situations,

of colonial

use of force

colonizer's with

and the native

own fantasies

their

a characteristic

exacerbated "His

between

The

threat.

impending

of the

tension feelings of

outbursts they

situations;

'Commissions

colonial

reach.

of suppressed rejection

violence

and incomprehension

The indigenous

community

the

signals

of the

remains

colonized colonizer's

"untutored

in

118

the

rational

136

and pditics". for,

as Kilson

can hardly

there

into

is

the

turning

of

the

and

'predictable'

not

the

is law

in

for

Banditry.

The

that

yet

violent, is

which

more

However,

colonial

view.

It

as is

world

is

a

not of

affirmation

untidy

the

colonizer

the

indigenous and

maintaining kind,

place

an

vendettas,

paradoxically,

superior

the

for

example,

many

maintains

and a "recognized judicial

indigenous

and

in

reactions

violent

within

society

stability

of self-help" of

Many manifestly take

situation

this

default

of

points the

an ironic

culture. to

";

force...

as an absolute".

blood-feuds

of

a "form

but

"by

language

own political

of

of

that

inherently

challenge

universal,

between

Raids,

Conflict

for

Social

colonial

mechanisms

anxiously

listens

propounded

and

than

rather

is

native's

is

that

139

idea

Feud

culture

of

saying

138

force".

political

his

of violence.

who now affirms

native

137

change".

stopped

therefore,

but

nothing

terms

never

must

position,

atmosphere

understands

the

confrontation

on the

original

is

it

"the

explains,

treatise

to

in

a rational

d)

of

native

"have

It

system.

oligarchical

the

order

in political

factor

sharpens

native)

colonial

expression...

colonial

colonizer's

out,

government

of political

decolonization,

tables,

simultaneously

Fanon

(the

he

understands that

argues

of force,

process

colonialist

the

Fanon points

language

during

pattern

a modernizing

for

a paradox,

The colonizers, only

in

the

threatens

a more predictable

by threat

sustained

the

"this

be tolerated

be transmuted Yet

Such recalcitrance

suggests,

colonial

of central

norms and procedures

society

colonizer. are

segmentary

important 140

societies.

communal

peace;

it

means of maintaining 141

authority'ý.

"What

is

sought",

119

as

Beattie

suggests

individual,

guilty The

but

bloodshed

indeed

it

ritualized.

The colonizer,

anxious

This

frequently

limited intestine

for 'outside',

One colonial

as

law

to

"rebellion";

the

pay

to

justify

this

gatherer

was killed

not

'fraction';

its

taxes

the

direct

it

drives

life.

colonizer

not

because

world

it

ignores

he seeks "IDacoiety",

has similar the

robbery,

him.

which colonizer. of

refusal

In

'rebellious'

a brawl the

fact

but

a

official

during

collaborator,

tax-

as a member

of

demanded to pay

fraction

143 to stamp out

serious

it

the

the

treated

official

or disarm

such maniFrequently

disturbance.

social

This. violent

social

an

providing

and solidarities

interpretation. qua

is

a European-appointed

them underground,

regulate

because

this

campaign

may provoke

simply

of

to the French.

The colonizer's festations

to

murder

appeared

a rival

taxes

such

on his

which

with

142

honour;

of

treat

or attacks

relations

a

balance".

to

apt

context,

example,

punish

rules

significance,

rivalries by,

for

court,

'fraction'

tribal

disputes,

and unaffected

is

'peace'

indigenous

the

to

not

intricate

security,

their

misrepresents to

by

of his

as breaches

'system'.

outlet

for

is

a disrupted

restore

regulated

often

manifestations

are

is

"....

feud,

to

rather

involved

is

blood

the

of

where they

continue

behaviour

threatens

is

aimed directly

It

indicates

his

at him, lack

but

to the precisely

of impact

on a

to dominate. or what Hobsbawm calls

implications. kidnapping,

It

is

ransom,

difficult,

"social

banditry't,

indeed,

to

and revenge-assassination

144

differentiate activities

120

of

bandits

social

but

as criminals,

fighters

for

from

the

who remain

within

justice,

razzias They

societies. and

tension

the

colonial

of

traditional

blood-feuds

and

in

to

appear

situation

and

avengers,

of liberation, supported"

and in of

segmentary

all

but

to

represent

extent

these

beyond

extend the

continuity the

of

part

entwined

a closely

are

distortion,

social

crisis,

relationships, this

and 145

endemic

They

dynamics.

as champions,

be symptoms

traditional

regard

and are

helped,

be admired,

and state

society,

peasant

even leaders

perhaps

lord

whom the

as heroes,

people

as men to

case

any

outlaws

by their

considered

in

"peasant -

146 economic

and

operate

political

is

directly

to the

example,

the

European

and the

colonizer's

'pseudo-petrification'

hostile

feelings

is

a therapeutic

thus

"behaviour "It to

is

ignore

to

colonialism".

to

the

colonial

later

into

phases

situation.

for

of interaction

between

the

forces

which By this

in

off

individual

latter

till

interpretation,

banditry to

analogous psychology:

later

allowed the

developed

crisis

them

choice of resistance

question

indigenous

by the particular

to direct

Social

blood-bath

opens up the

of decolonization,

provoked

the

channels.

a fraternal

and to put

inevitable, 148

to Fanon,

communal level,

of avoidance"

plunging

distortion

at

more

According

community

outlet,

147

banditry

social

self-destructive

the'obstacle,

nevertheless

social

into

patterns

as if

to relate presence.

colonized

and

regions,

code of honour.

strict

however,

possible,

certain

of

to a fairly

according

It

structure

in

'banditry' of the

relation is

a

121

Decolonization.

e)

is

struggles Third the

The importance

generally

World

may be the is

of

headings

always

from

levels

implicit

violent

the

immediate,

accord

temporal

is

this

of the

of the

this

the

violence to

deepens thus

ease out

tactics,

concept

colonial

and widens provides

the

of

elite

the

violence

is

often

to seek an

150

a narrow

The particular years,

especially

frequently

adduced

interpretation of the

Repression

to obtain

are

But the

be within

political

masses':

by the

A threat

the to

of nationalism

'mass action'

encourages

violence.

of disorder,

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regime.

a lever

colonizer.

are

The orthodox

the modernizing the

preceding

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who are more likely

independence.

immediately

disorder.

with

to pressurize

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to

it

life,

wars of independence,

interests.

tends

as if

context,

colonizer's

political

a few scruples

simply

analyzed

takes,

colonizer

collaborators

violence

of the years

the

his

of

it

independence'

leads

post-independence

circumstances

links

'predictable'

with

forms

peoples.

negotiated

remaining

development

explain

campaigns

of violence

and sociological

obstinacy

and sporadic

of colonized

outset

social

Full-scale

his

safeguard Where

threat

the

indigenous

'freely

decolonization

the

at

to another.

strategies

even in apparently

Fanon

violence,

penetrates

movements,

underestimated;

to

it

whatever

introduced,

proclaims that

renaissance,

commonwealth:

people,

in

analyzed,

national

new formulas

of

situation

guerilla

unmistakably

the

or

intensity

at which

one colonial

nascent

the

phenomenon",

The

work.

and the

liberation,

used

a violent 149

major

"National to

decolonization

frequently

and

nationhood

in

violence

acknowledged,

literature.

restoration

of

swallowing in

order

colonizer

of mobilized concessions

and

122

More

extensive theoretical

restricted for

theoretical

such

Mao Tse

Tung,

prominent

Western

It

Guevara,

151

military

These

guerrilla to

response

true

implies.

revolutionary

betrayals, urban

to act;

he reconciles

to stimulate

violent

with

the

great

organigrammes,

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to risk

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and analysis

battalion-sized

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They suggest

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he

violence;

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the

are

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in

These manuals

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title

stage

moves out

confrontations.

command units,

War.

particularly

among the peasantry.

ýo of when

stages,

is

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the

to physical

lleros.

152 a

becomes more sophisticated.

mind,

targets.

in

a strategic

rejecting

radical

himself

gue

more

of activity,

as an advanced

thinking

in his

the

Second World

the

politics,

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resistance

postwar

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since

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pressure.

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writings

form

a novel

warfare

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on counter-insurgency.

refinement.

and hopelessly

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moves out,

particularly

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guerilla

countryside

resolves

market;

accompanied,

developed

politicians

dead-ends,

political

popular

"REVOLUTION IN THE REVOLUTION" as its

Such books treat

which

deal

some of

rather

a

a vogue

Mondlane-are

theoretical

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seen

A great

of writings

is

warfare

as a form

requiring

of Debray's

been

have

and

academic

Castro,

colonialism

has been regarded

innovation

the

within

have

years

strategy.

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circles,

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guerilla

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Giap,

names.

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has

of

interpreted

often

also

framework.

accounts

literature

are

conflicts

total

watertight, of horizontal

community

in

123

guerrilla

and how to insert

effort,

'parallel

administration'

authority

of

of

the

the masses', But

the

of the

perspective

inseparable

from

suddenly of

to

'unlocking'

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has

long

cannot

the

characterized

post-pacification

the

pre-history

of

convulsions

the

the

same areas

which

groups

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intestine society

and

unleashed is

scores.

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share

-

proper,

and regarded

several

of

the

casting

myths. 'primary

greatest

doubt

as

characteristics.

of social

decolonization

to

features

the

guerrilla

offered

circle,

resistance relegated

commonly

to a common stock which

violence Decolonization

this.

especially

struggle;

colonial

on the

sense in

ever'disarmed'. tension

links by

with

colonized

and

society

More

among the

targets colonizers.

attacked These

obscured.

during

involving are

is

banditry

social

decolonization

'self-destructive',

often

than

move full

endemic

underestimated,

-

most to the

contribute then

phase

order

153

strugglesi

relationships

violence

old

of decolonization pent-up

example,

do not

of small

colonized.

relationships

of and contribute

infrequently, resistance'

colonial

of

of decolonization Both partake

for

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apart

revolt,

brains

comparison

of

world

They are

they

outset;

that

in

be placed

as a whole.

fertile

suggests

be understood

properly

and

last

Fanon's

of tension

mobilization

should

the

from the

'nationalists'.

groups

from

situation

full-bodied

spring

'elite

situation

colonial

that

the

undermine

eventually

decolonization

of

of that

elements

new seems to be proposed.

very

aspects

first

As with

power.

something

violent

will

which

occupying

the

the the

frequently The

decolonization

settling

within manifestations

of

indigenous constitute

154 Not

124

a debate Areas

as much within

most those

with

All to

areas these

part

the

manifestations

of

of

They

colonized

differencesl56

these life,

political

in

prominent

a common situation.

on the

banditry

by social

marked

which

set

strategies

of

important of

indigenous

colonial

situation

to

the

colonial

or

destructive.

forms the

beyond

reactions

have

they

on age-old

back

coincide

alternative

a consistent Although

far

extend

often struggle.

are

violence

draw

colonizer.

155

decolonization

society.

phenomena

tension

and

reveal

the

as with

society

colonized

itself. Violence

f)

setting In

are

the

Social

and rarely

regarded

colonizer's

doubt

their

When,

in

of positive

a famous

potential

in the West,

as,

revenge, tion

of the

colonial

Many social

not

in

simply

pressures change.

the

Fanon

of violence,

a disturbed

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new elements

'liberating'

and

regarded

generally

incitement

to

bloodthirsty

up by the

thrown

metaphor

observers construction.

social

is

this

liberal

more

the

a proto-fascist

aliena-

nightmare.

colonial static

force

in

treatment.

needs similar

imply. society,

resistance'

often

and unity;

It

does

as such epithets

It. may give and reveal results

violence

communal relationships.

norms and structures,

colonized

of cohesion

have come to view

however,

setting

and 'primitive' within

Even long-term

157

'irrationality'

the

of

praises

and regenerative

express

'xenophobic'

to

anthropologists,

as an integrative Violence

contribution

at worst,

negative

evidence norms.

at best,

and,

other

are

reactions

than

indigenous

passage,

'cleansing'

Violent

as

they

eyes

'primitivism'

and

Change.

outlets

to dynamic for

potentialities

from

and gives

armed opposition

as

rise

to Italian

to

125

implantation

in

Cyrenaica

implantation

in

Ethopia

how violence

of

pacification Africa,

may be vectors

Violence

brings

development

itself,

in

war

long

too,

is is

physical physical

in

the

the

colonial or

several

the

This

is

of

within

society

the

during

described not

a uniquely

and

conflicts

situation.

colonial

administrative will

but

situation:

the

of

this

invading controls,

be examined

of

this it

is

merely

reveals

also

or

away,

a short-term

reaction

a longer-term

strategy

determination

including

not

retreat

'submission',

and persistence

separately.

melting

confrontation.

strategy,

whole situation.

colonial

161

full-scale

army,

the

elusiveness,

a visceral into

forced

to

reaction

Often

involving

resistance

violent

tactic

guerilla

aspects

before

of

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processes

social

embedded

withdrawal.

to

of

such

as that

reveals

tactic

guea+illa

communities

groups

been

The process

debate

160

regenerative

Physical Retreat. ----------------

The

are

it

both -

resolution.

by Fanon.

liberation

of

of

possibilities

active

form

an acute

phase;

have

-ii.

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East

in

reconstruction.

and

alternative

their

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uprising

structures

aids

continues

revolutionary which

and

-

often

Algerian

open

traditional

within

decolonization

the

crisis

illustrations

Similarly,

Maji-Maji

as the

Italian

to

and are

adaptation.

social

of

into

degenerative

and

social such

revolts',

11,159

by Menelik

led

furthers

Sanusiyal58

by the

led

withdrawal of

migration

to

be

There of

indigenous in

and

the

face

nomadism.

126

Retreat

a)

resources is

a hopeless

resistance, and

effective

many

segmentary for

towns

army villages,

and

circulated Berbers

troops

and farms

at

mountainous

military

with

'ghost

of

Bedouin by

threatened to

occupy or

regions, the

Similarly, to

the

arrival

(hamlets)

'ksours'

the most inaccessible

into

livestock,

163

which

was

as French

Again,

of Tunisia by the

deserted

hamlets'

The

profit

reacted

fringe

Saharan

immediate reaction

accessible

them their

of wealth".

the

less

Atlas

and plunging

taking

little

by "abandoning

1920's

full-scale

for

when

garrisons". High

eschew

communities.

162

Central

thorough-

instinctive

the

strategy

to

more

foothold

was of

retired

main source

takes

areas

which

forests,

success

and penetrative chased

from

place the

in

1882,

retreating

groups

this

and the

retreat

into

of

the

to retreat,

to

difficult caves

the depends

colonizer. finally

offers

'human

at

little 165

landscape'.

on the'

to

penetrate; shelter,

provide

landscape

natural

largely

strategy

resources

even

can melt

easy access

of relatively

finds

colonizer

Where

small of

from areas

mountains,

temporarily.

protection,

are

this "it

Italian

invaded

is

to

resistance

164

Retreat

The

the

through

marched

deserts,

they

our approach,

columns

remoter

for

regions,

inhabitants.

least

in

their

generally

1920's:

Moroccan

the

of

the

military

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give

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pursued

between

gaily

of French

they

in

offer

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This

and

example,

to

the

of

entrenched

is

control.

pastoral

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physical

Italian

renders reaction

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Cyrenaica,

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effective

to

In

full-scale

colonizer,

tactic.

A more

going.

of

the

of

Force.

Military

before

persistence

Some indigenous to be tracked

groups down and

127

166

encircled. military

the

'useful'

subjugate of

colonizer

and no immediate

is

pushing

groups This

zone,

limited

are

communications, content

lowlancs.

coastal

'useful'

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where there

circumstances,

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resources,

incentive, from

In

with

He does not they

unless tactic

economic

back populations

the

threaten

actively

for

viable

may prove

to

thoroughly

attempt

security

a considerable

time. Physical tactic;

its

favourable the

conditions 167

from

hiding-places

through

their

lands.

lands

may have been appropriated Other

collaborators.

a 'refugee'

and create b)

Submission.

pursued,

groups

'submission'

tactic

within

than

a seal

to

the

permanent

active

in

a particular

assurances

of

loyalty.

are

temporarily During

Italian

of physical

during

inevitable, attempts

colonizer,

or by groups

withdrawal

are permament,

their

'submission',

colonizer

should of

territory, This

is

a ploy to

token which

conquer

often

ceremonially.

be regarded

acquiescence

Cyrenaica

time

as a

rather troops

colonizer's

a wise

to

most

merely

resistance,

is

buys

threatened,

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passive

it

of

by superior

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acceptance.

of

territories.

the process

overpowered

strategy

the

for

late,

too

in neighbouring

and finally proffer

return

back

filter

to reoccupy

necessity is

and eject

short-lived;

many groups

by the

problem

an overall of

this

At some point

cornered

indigenous Yet

forms

frequently

is

economic

In many instances,

to return

practical

implanted,

clearly

to await

sauter",

pour mieux

make it

a defeatist

than

rather

communal retreat

is

colonizer

their

which

Yet

a defensive

"reculer

is

rationale

intruder.

once the

is

withdrawal

tactic in 'wait

nomadssfor

to

what and

issue

is see'.

example,

128

"When they the

submission

that

the

their

Bedouin

liable

of the

It

turn

is

tactical Just

the

to

colonizer,

force

his

draw him into

kind

this

the play

permanent

represents

a kind

hiding and of

or

power of

'withdrawal'.

weakens,

'submitted' The

and attack. back

"wait

dissidence".

to and

withdrawal, see", 172

shift

for

the If

invest

groups from

involves

as Mus argues

for

a change Vietnam,

ready

still

himself

colonizer

withdrawal, only

It

colonizer.

to

come out

to

violent

of

emphasis.

is

of a

provides 171

are

and

future

their

'submission'

rarely

the

the

170

rivalries.

undertakings,

base

an attempt

presence

segmentary

it

in

new ones at

colonizer's

and individuals

the

with

groups,

in

Some

collaborate

or establish the

"submit

impact".

its

169

it",

using

tactic:

of recalcitrant

instrumental;

essentially

dependably

retreats,

groups

to avoid

actively

of traditional

to submit.

opportunity

to ward off

privileges,

own immediate

and their

in order

population

such collaborationist is

the

hip,

leader

or their

of power,

They exploit

Though some colonized in

are

into

group

a complementary

order

conquest

of neighbours.

heavily

in

traditional

safeguard

expense

adopt

colonized

and aid

168

guer±llas".

populations

indigenous

seek out

communities

of the

sections

the

of

'submitted'

may "show force

greater

while

submission

support

population,

balance

actually

colonizer

many colonized

the

every

of the

overall

advantage,

advance

to beat

Many sections

as the

to go to

has passed,

necessary

assessed

meant no more than

often

to dissidence.

again

not

submission. having

danger

it

had made formal

district

continued

immediate

to

Shaikhs,

tribal

sons and food

Once the

to

its

of

and to have received

a district,

to have pacified

claimed

a form

of

resistance,

of

A policy "larval

129

Retreat before Administrative c) -----------------------------------------token has to transform colonizer

is

strategy

was to prove territory

to

usually 173

population,

that

Military

try

permanent

posts, reviving

indigenous

groups

controls

"As soon as a post in

from

175

it".

the

appear,

Gabon in

1911,

"a void

soldiers

these

zones,

and perhaps

evasiveness, (Balandier

which the

in

the

were sometimes

permanent

Bast,

emigration

face very

177

these

of large

this

physical

retreat.

176

immediately

vanish

often

registered

periodically

or the in

less

of conscription accessible

Such reactions

"the

of

or escape most elementary

and administrative

communities.

take

ways thus

Occasionally,

an

created

are never

avoidance,

demands provoke

aim.

reported

region",

retreat

represent

of economic heavy".

frustrate

various

boundaries.

them 'derobades'),

calls

Middle

temporary

colonial

However,

of property,

disengagement,

elusiveness,

flight

of

registration

cross

to base.

the mobilization

of taxation,

take

to prevent

When agents

control.

groups

in

with

networks,

marked on maps,

Whole groups

the

is

on the ground,

the payment

labour,

in

villages',

maps.

compulsory

meet with

a populated

or existing

seeking

to

up in

from administrative

refuge

form

often

174

en marche",

have returned

set

on administrative

of

is

'Hidden

ground;

"organisation

strategies

of the

occupation

administrative

have further

"Experience

to submit".

eventually

establish

once troops

Administrative

administrator

to

it

the

back'

and effective

a complete

and ancillary

dissidence

suggests

by

about

Morocco,

for

the

The colonizer's

'roll

than

rather

can force

brought

control.

effective

encircle

only

columns

'submission',

as Guillaume

for,

of a tribe

around

into

shows of force,

ephemeral

As a result,

Implantation.

demands,

particularly

the wholesale

and

130

d)

Nomadismand

colonial

is

administration

conceived

on the

strategy traditional

reflects of

Physical

migration.

indigenous

not

the

colonized.

social

life.

of

patterns

society

of

ill-fitted

are

for

persistence

frustrates

the

colonizer.

inescapable

feature

the

'game'

the or

face

of

"divide

the

in

their

not

order

and his smallest resistance,

colonizer.

A population

of

the

lack

mobile,

colonial

the

through

to

have made it

it

had the

one

very

point

a town,

where depose

of many Third population

lay

could or

a hold

subject

and nomadism, communities.

are endemic

was not

became possible a similar seems

village

the

nation.

but

this

Not that national at any

concentrated on it,

India

village

as it

might

seize

181

a dynasty,

World

isolation;

It

everywhere.

an enemy

Transhumance

sanctuary in

for

Mus advances

for

is

by their

reduced

Vietnamese

of the

to resist

strength

180

by the

The impact

'survival

to Karve,

of

hampers

and which

is

Thus,

178

fragment

this

difficult.

control.

rusticity

an inviolable

was found

pattern

of

to

implantation

aggregation,

looseness".

structural

"the

Although

on such communities

levers

in

invasion

tend

control

Raj according

very

proposition:

which

situation

British

its

lacks

makes permanent

of institutional

under

also

an

communities,

such groups

their

and is

it

the

firm

the

characteristics

Faced with

hinders

of

simply

be yerieed not ruled",

of organization. it

it

control,

example,

that

administration,

units

coordinated

extremely

to break".

Often

segmentary

179

face

deliberately-

Certain

For of

the

or

colonial

"divide

to

force,

superior

colonizer

into

of

a novel

necessarily

part

in

elusiveness

in

other

too, 182 areas:

a court't.

are

inherent

Larger-scale Apter

characteristics migrations

argues

that

"as

of a whole,

131

the

history

strife

Gold Coast peoples

of the

much longer

for

many centuries,

acquiring

new territories,

infiltration

of

norms,

frustrates

crucial

sectors

is

not

his

in

"Recriminations evasions,

'hidden

explains,

"illustrate

the

basis

political

domination, 'well

groupings

of native

populations,

rendering

them

social

Kenya

is

population scheme

is

sought

programme typical to

designed

of combat to

great

as a means of

'predictable'.

revolution

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of

to the

slips

away,

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control"*

'migratory

mania',

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and

As well

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military

security,

1950's

early

projects;

it

'ownership'

in

combined

Mau Mau infiltration, inject

to

their

it

186

in hand"'.

colonizer

which

inaccessible

in

and,

Belgian

even indirect

desire

colonizer's

and control

that

population',

in

social

how difficult

of lineages,

villages'

became

land

notes

on a society

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life.

and the

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to cordon

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against

to locate

social

to the

so alien

this

of African

form

as old

been

extends

conquering

new land

such a way as to permit

attempts

for

of

more peaceful

Congo constantly

and complete

organized

form

seeking

attempts

Colson

have been a feature

in the

mobility,

183

migration,

have not

occupants

man".

and in the groups

in the

"a real

get

white

migrations

of indigenous

administrators to

This

first

both

small

184

exhausted".

the

'Large-scale

more widely: life

than

of recent

a mosaic

Most of the present

and settlements.

there

is

with of

compact

the

Kikuyu

concentration a land

valorization, The areas

of of

consolidation

landholdings

into

185

132

traditional

the widely-scattered "replace

an attempt

to

Throughout

Africa,

hömes, and thus

permanent that

was discouraged rules

under

which

These constants

hamlets,

are

colonized

simply

dissidence',

-iii.

Institutional

colonized

impact for

of

the

his

gathered

and These

-

the

resources organizational meets

with

ward

off has

has

public are

the

of

Formal

enforce

maintained.

But

by

phenomenon

of

the

its

writ.

of

or

indigenous

society

within

effort 'withdrawal'

the

to Taxes are

'under-administra-

sufficient

whatever

institutional

difficult

evasions

other

relevant

colonizer or

full

respect

is

devote

to

But

to

the

off

warding

power

colonial

power

failure

of

the

invader,

the

of

institutions.

facilitated

integration

of

methods

several

order

framework. reactions

the

challenge

presence

physical

sufficient

colonizer's

to

the

apparatus

usually

their

elusiveness,

he has invaded.

the world

politico-administrative

governmental

possible. tion'

to

physical

the

of

strategy

mobility

persistent

and strategic

zones,

constant

in

Duplication.

population

as it

avoid, are

fully

of

culminate

which

demilitarized

determined

to dominate

ability

Unable

Their

migration

freezing by a and

policy,

of the

and their

colonizer's

the

189

distribution

188

colonizer's

corollaries

187

as their

Permanent

over.

regulations,

booby-trapped

population.

'larval

powers

was held".

of the

borders,

electrified

land

took

was

era was

colonial of land

areas

it

settlement".

the population

to perpetuate

by administrative

"the

suggests,

to given

people

when the European

existed

the

to tie

by nucleated

settlement

as Colson

indeed,

marked by an attempt

pattern

dispersed

Overall

of usufruct.

his does

'duplication'.

make

133

Boycott of colonial --------------------------------

a) to

local

the

law

various

ways,

ranging

sense

of

'biting

of not

Even those

tend

it.

In

it

deprives

the

the

Civil

interests

of the

'does

are not

not

ostensibly

understand'.

betrayed for

organized a derisorily

attract

There colonial

are

i90

reported;

are not

pasturage

several

regulations,

develops

which

them.

patrol

the

the

best of births,

Non-registration

officials.

conscientious on the

often

that

pretence

can amount to passive

sabotage;

daylight

seen;

of the

are not

Elections,

sheltered.

actively

are

benefit

for

reasons

which

labour

in

learns

indigenous

suspicion

'refusal

community,

distrust

practice

often

for

to engage' sense

a shrewd

disciplinary

controls,

a healthy Such

this

One is

apparatus.

a community laws,

and indeed

colonial

than

in broad

incidents

the

low turn-out.

administrative

protection;

This

through

native

information,

are denied

is

office

for

exasperates

puzzlesand

a vacuum,

used as a channel

seem to warrant.

also

passive

inexplicable;

is

under

and inheritance

status,

in

the

boycott

available

frequently

personal

population

police

native

'bandits'

and

land,

and deaths

The colonial

crimes

are less

to

to walk

reluctant

benefits

-

communities. to

door

informal

this

of specific

courts

'the

that

administrees

eyes,

native

over

marriages,

their

administrator's

litigation

the

find

to

of their

in

administrators

of working

life'

ensure

bodies'

colonial

of

surface',

everyday

who conscientiously

open'

regime.

the

- administrators,

indifference

and

reports

the

skimming into

deeply

from

power

'representative

acceptance

reacts

population

colonial

and

passive

emerging

'only

the

of

services,

from

One theme

their

always

social

police,

resistance.

is

apparatus

governmental

courts,

The indigenous

institutions.

the

the

appears

organs blind

of

meaning

codes,

and

selfof

and

and

the

with

land

taxation agents

instinctive;

134

the

Zulus

the

Government

to

take

South

of

for

them

however,

their

land

on a canny

implications

of

administrative

smokescreens

of

the

by the

colonizer's

retain

a fundamental

other

191

the

is

the

ideological to

Baganda of Uganda for

the

towards

scepticism

long-term

and

who appear

peoples

designed

usually

short-

despite

measures, Even

It

cattle". of

which

as being

interests

understanding

presence,

institutions

profit

example,

institutions

colonial

administrators

sympatheticythey to

enter

intinkäted

and

by ignorance by the

bureaucratic

of rituals

- the

administration

- deters

Social

family

obligations

-

precisely

The decisions unjust,

the

major

involves

colonized

which

them,

also

costs

community

of

which

the

'rationality'

these

'incomprehensible' for

and do not

delays

which

impose.

194

the

the

indigenous

generate to the

colonial informal

administration

193

legitimation.

institutions

participation,

participation.

European in

lack

institutions

colonial

on impersonal

and religious

contact to

literally

colonial

native

encourages

and

or sacral

of unbiased

"irrational"

elements

literally, deters

than

emphasis

and

administration

he is

from kinship

guarantee

them.

with

handicapped

often

The very

face-to-face are

and practices

and often, Expense

rather ties,

of

Without

context.

supposed

all

is

native,

disinterested

the European

with

independent

considerations

honest,

and norms;

language.

alien

rationality,

status,

to have dealings

where the native

world,

the

benefit

clearly

may prove To deal

are alien.

another

tongue-tied

would

make him reluctant

considerations

Though individual

often

their

their

and

colonizer.

Where colonial

are

in

measures

even

192

policy.

is

"regarded

example,

intend

to

appeared

from

based,

Africa,

are

native.

administration mechanisms

of

the

-

135

Passive

boycott by social

reinforced

for

who seek

society

regime

its

walls

socially,

tolerated.

'settle

its is

community, despite

not

restrictive

The grow of

situations: disturbed

who do stand

colonial

naturally

colonial

Apathy

office.

those

often

extremely

from Vietnam "Local

by this

below. can

Mus's

be widened

society, superimposed

by the

imposed

observation to

as a whole, and

agents'. true Attempts

Those

either. colonizer's by refusing

of the polling

to booth

unrepresentative.

is

administration

of the

have little

councils

elective

boycotts

and active

colonial

structures.

themselves

disqualify

will

administrators,

and involvement,

support

who man

as 'contact

colonial

from participation

regulations

for

render

active

colonial

of power

society of the

effectiveness

with

the

have to be

the respect

of conscientious

administration

therefore

the balance

protection

imposed

native

those -

colonized

forfeit

their

While

- usually

isAwhen

however,

through

disqualified

already

stand

energy

flows

in mobilizing

success

level

decolonization;

reducing

the

local

supplement

active

open collaborators thus

195

collaborators

But even when the

effective,

which

They are

attack.

intimidated.

local

the

them,

during

communal sap rarely to

for

accounts'.

Thus,

colonial

power, at

The danger particularly

native

physical

institutions

shifts,

regime

against

colonial

with

solidarity

often

Individuals

it.

through

ownership

-a

or even physically

monopolizes

European

the

land

to establish

to

who do turn

of those

is

framework

administrative

communal solidarity

cements

shunned

colonial

ostracism

example,

threaten

courts

of the

include

from

on the most

was not

fragmentary

it

above;

does

administration colonial

fundamentally organization".

196

not

136

b)

Self-Administration.

institutions

holy

of

their

men,

control life

suggests,

"tended

the

colonial

de facto

of

colonizer

local

of

imposed

which

has

from in

roots

"The

period",

in

superior

power

Beneath

systems".

much

colonial the

or

and

traditional the

alongside and

above

gives

of

a continued

with

the

through

disputes

retain

-

population.

was unavoidable,

197

198

the

with

often

operation

remains

To an extent

sector'. limited other

physical

affairs

control;

institutions times,

colonizer's

a 'shadow

outside,

indigenous

to

outlet

duality

this

and

implantation.

sector

the

and stimulates

colonial bursts

of the

true

such though

actively

it

is

as an obstacle security-minded

200

their

welcomed;

framework

nor

and surviving

with to

great

concern.

see

energy.

to

is

and

qualified

at

"Enlightened" and

it

smother breaks

expected.

expense,

Yet,

'modernization'

desire

is

indigenous

functions..

occasionally

of administrative

saves

wishes

colonizers

A latent

it

given

demise

eventual

complementary viewed

of this1shadow

as inevitable

'survivals'

the

facade,

importance

neither

administration

'dualism'

to European with

own administrative

colonizer

to perform

regard

'civilization'1199

is the

colonial

appear

of his

he accepts

which

the

administrators

unaware

resources,

respects,

regulates

other

this

the

chiefs,

Fallers

acquiescence

when

and -

example

of

the

political

institutions for

life

colonial

realities.

Content

to

combine

traditional

judges,

during

from

withheld

social

everyday

areas

hierarchy,

political

In

to

political

thrives,

sector'

his

such

settlement

administrative

native aid

the

government

contingent

through

assemblies, over

political

flow

Authentic

channels.

elders,

legitimation

to

continues

judicial

The

as a threat

the to the

shadow surface,

137

When assimilative

"real

affairs; The

society

"duplicate"

of

the real

the

of

French

decoys,

genuine

when the in

colonizer

the

Bifurcation. is

power12o8 where

"the

thus

- of

riven

administration,

to perform

in Vietnam,

Mus relates

allowed

chiefs.... by them,

open they

could

put

to be

of notables

councils

the measures

as

chiefs'

- continued

customary

so that

conduct

forward

an

by the

central

same person". sense

209

Local

constitute

- results

government in

the

official village

communal institutions 'sub-units'

colonial by 'split

power and a real

of an official

the most weight

206

'dualism'o

hierarchies

village-level

the

of

structure

by fundamental

two parallel

lowest

any meaningful

the

"The coexistence

whose word carries and the

to all

'straw

controlled

The institutional

207

authority'.

"the

process

the European

of

village

illusory

205

admkiistration".

situation

coming into

The

widespread

appointed

men to be elected,

opposition

this

- real chiefs 2o4 Similarly,

manner,

unseen",

the presence

"a purely

describes

required

European

themselves

undercover

c)

leaders

though

authorities". colonizer

201

of,

despite

life,

requirements

functions.

unrepresentative without

formal

different

political

elected

"Effective

where villages

the

survival

in

-

own

control".

202

the

Delavignette

the

disguises

or

their

of

mastery

administrative

of social

gives

West Africa,

quite

how,

latter

to fulfil

while

escape

institutions.

regulators

203

satisfaction". in

up,

retain

"administratively-recognized

various

operation

to

sets

or "parallel"

are

to

action

strives

power

colonized

these

deliberate

take

communities

indigenous

threat,

poses a serious

pressure

situations and the man

are rarely do not

of a centralized

one in colonial

the

138

No single,

administration. is

truer

to talk

colonial feature the

is

is

loci

The colonial relations, It to

Easton

and to Nettl,

a mere aggregate,

The chronic istics

inability

without

hallmark.

power

which

and treat system',

it 214

The

consensus

and force.

merely

the

colonized,

imposed

on its

in

consensus

their

chief

the

colonial

of a European

bounds 11,213

To go further,

'homogeneous

of

African

decolonization 215

equilibrium

regime it -

is

not

arbitrariness

not

by the

"structurally

always

which,

in

and force".

216

an all

of

unclassifiable peculiar"

way.

revocable its

that

a network

a unique,

in a special

and force

limitations

is

provides

He argues

involve

proportions,

tempered

and by the inherent

such character-

sovereignty

form

A colonial

occupation

random

of cohesion.

calling

of such an approach.

organization

combines of

within

in differing

systems,

its

on North

illustration

of political

under

than

factors

is

rather

a whole

misleading.

of Bernard

work

According

question,

the

one particular

extremely

political

"a regime

order

as just is

interesting

but

unit

assured

into

terminology

strains

"a political

system.:

to develop

regimes

themselves

calling

unfolds.

rather

as external

of

dialectic

of interactions

as well

a field

is

forms

system

a political

of colonial

Wallerstein

situation

as a political

consists

and has internal

contact,

type

212

It

a social

which

be regarded

usefully

congenital

symbols of legitimacy, 211 of authority".

a situation.

within

The

"the

between

is

situation

or a context

cannot

than

dissociation"

and the instruments

of power,

its

it

exists;

210

of two systems".

"bifurcated";

fundamentally

"rude

the

political

"coexistence

of the

poliky

integrated

system

It

-

is

consent

of

own interests, Although

it this

139

"is

regime

does not

to resist

designed....

217

them".

presuppose

Thus,

one political

system,

and colonized

bargain compete and -

development terms the

of

by the

whole

victory

local

a continual

But in by

'consensus'

not

equivalent

not

effectively

ive

the

to

Though

effective

force

broaden

is

its

the

not

duality

impossible

of the

the

for

the

understand

of

and 218 .

characterized

acquiescence

is

structures

are

the

regime's its significant.

as structurally of

banner

undermining

without

heart

the

important

example,

them

by

politico-administrat-

identifies

base

regard at

to

'unchallenged'

consent

leaders

state'

authority

on the

leaders,

colonial

Passive

characterized

by means of

coming about

of the nationalist

-

consensual

- he does

grasping it

'system',

the

under

gathered

Bernard

"brings

characterized

state

an 'initial

an

in

" he argues,

to a final

Indigenous into

The

treated

solidly

empirically.

consensus.

within to

the

situation,

colonial

reaction

political

of

colonized.

Bifurcation, the

exists

framework.

is

based

authority

situation,

- colonizers

state

population

the

is

from an initial

authority

integrated

inability

the

colonial never

contradictions

however,

in

there

view,

colonized

change of regime

the

decline

colonial

Without

in

growth

of a parallel.

governed,

it

power and authority.

of a regime

indigenous this -

nationalism

system

authority

of the

for

consensus,

forces

two rival

"Decolonization,

colonial

body of the

of

Bernard's

in

among the

consensus'.

unchallenged

of the the

of

of the

passing

which

'nationalism'

'loss

of

within

losses

massive

native's

situation

resulting

strategy from

its

from both

of withdrawal, outset.

the is

colonizer's

built

Some apparently

in 'novel'

restraint

to the

and

colonial

forms

of

counter-

I

140

colonial be set

in

this

example,

wider

enjoins

authority The

action,

political

creation

this

At a later

'parallel for

and schools,

'self-government'. the

But this and the

power

do not

activists undergrowth

Their

concrete

political

colonial of

move into

is

task

exploit

is

framework

the

degrees

of

further

their

a vacuum;

to recognize,

the

by intensive

colonizer's

political in

confidence

overestimates

Indigenous

political

the

behind

thrives

dense

the

move through

they

agencies,

welfare

replace

approach

which

The existence

communities

a complicated

taxes,

'resistants'.

of

can erect

colonial

this shape and

utilize,

reality.

Collaboration.

colonized

task

communal structures

of

facade.

d)

theoretical

to lose

begins

the people's

to develop

can then

resistants

eventually

accompanied

are

collaborators,

colonizer life,

an

of

services

- courts,

- which

phase is

and training

propaganda

as the

self-confidence.

generation

of administrative

institutions'

This

institutions.

of

of indigenous

example

the

assassination

point,

key sectors

with

and insert

both

by

Boycotts

end.

be arranged. contact

with

insecurity

of

means to

chaos

and

the

undermine

its

sap

and

impunity,

to

goal,

administration,

for

theory,

guerrilla

as an initial

colonial

of

atmosphere

context.

resistants,

the

of

Classic

to

need

warfare,

guerrilla

particularly

set

colonial 'resistance', interests.

tactical

of parallel

impossible,

frequently of reactions. situation

Total

alternatives.

in

'adaptation'

or

boycott

and remains

Particular various

offers

authorities

ways,

groups with

'collaboration',

of

only

the one

or individuals different to

141

An initial draw his

reaction into

resources

in

support over

other

this

kind

groups

detachment

stood

as an extension

' segmentary',

the

labour,

colonial

reactions

it

this

in

On occasion,

administration. by colonizers back lost colonial

colonizer

native

Use of European

courts

territory, elections his

straightforward.

land,

for

may achieve may, in own weapons.

certain

is

mistaken.

of

their

suspicion to use the of the

to prevent

situation, of the colonial

colonial encroachment

or attempts

to buy

Participation

success. circumstances,

Such reactions

extremely

Splay a 'double colonial

goals

wage are

from the

example,

limited

of

'collaboration'

a bundle

attempts the

on native

with

retaining

religious

Metropolis,

and individuals

frustrate

openly

to

the

opportunities

provision

such

within

strand

manner,

- whether

education,

however,

maximum advantage

an instrumental

administration

never

that

220 extracting

other

the

to

sectors,

Many groups

be under-

needs to

values

army,

emigration

a single

imply

does not

It

European

colonial

'evolved'

reactions.

it

seize of

To suppose

type.

represents

colonizer.

in

Use

wholesale

permanently

ambivalent

but

even

of

Rather

framework. the

However,

219

later

in

suzerainty

political

individuals

enlistment and

creates

or

or economic

loyalties.

'dynastic'.

or

colonizer's

enlist

mere opportunism;

of indigenous

'feudal',

conversion,

not

from traditional

Some groups within

is

of reaction

and

of alliances

'collaboratiön'.

of such

to

often

the

to

political

gain

as a result

naked

interplay

may be calculated

Some groups

this.

is

presence

colonizer's

traditional

the

'Submission'

rivalries.

game',

to the

restrain

are highly

the ambivalent,

142

The colonial

and deceptive

equivocation, range

of potentialities

certain

in

This

than

worlds.

It

of the

'disengaged' European

to ward off

imposition,

and glaring the

which

colonizer

rarely

The physical divert

however,

that

colonized

to the bland-

Their

invader

double

game to

resistance

the most immediate

is

'game'

mode of this

is -

comprehends

needs

further

social

order

elaborate

of the

into

y

withdrawal.

clandestine

or indirect

thus

remarks,

development,

but

a whole

societies". values,

224

the

"the

sociology Avoidance

communities

of

conflict established

to be created....

We need

withdrawn

antagonistic, contact,

and duplicity, the

colonized

of

of refusal

exogenous

in

of

society

223 of

strategy

'sociology

has yet

of the

indigenous

channels.

sociology

culture'

clandestinity,

of withdrawn

of the

part

As Balandier

and 'official

obliges

colonizer

secret is

withdrawal

communities.

indigenous

power

resistance

Sociological

features

be assumed,

visceral

dominant

to

Sociological Withdrawal. ---------------

-iv.

these

He tries

susceptible

colonial

And the

embodiment.

221

strategists,

implies

colonial

against

'nationalist'. it

the

not

should

and equally

impact;

of which

chief.

native's

He may, in

chief

military

and the

the

it.

restricts

against

222

of hypocrisy,

full extends

traditional

off

play

of both

are

a device

alien

to

facades.

the manner of some colonizer

ishments

to

world,

and administrator

the best

populations

is

a divided

rather

circumstances,

administrator, get

is

polity

colonial

are

part

enhancement characteristic

situation.

of of

143

a)

Avoidance

contact

of the

with

domination",

continues

to dictate on the

considerable

he opposes the

of social

Christian,

the

with

treated

as potential

mark certain instincts

phases

which

are

The colonizer 'xenophobia'

contact

inextricable

society.

outsider"; too,

from the

combines

"neither

is

political

to

defensive

into

consolidate

vain,

nor

committment

as

reaction

and bitterness

helps

aversive

a single caused

by

resistance.

anachronistic", of

colonized

230

These mechanisms by taboos separation

this

has a positive,

grievances, it

tap

which

situation.

characterizes

229

and habits

boycotts' thus

colonial

Yet it

fear,

suspicion,

'Organized

"neatly example,

for

fanaticism,

the

Man, or

of

areas

products

activity'

in

inherent

apprehension,

the

with

Religious but

the

all

'nationalist

'fanaticism'.

or

228

snares.

frequently

Xenophobia,

reflex

of

eschewed;

occupation,

of colonial

All

with

to

aversion

of the White

section.

his

not

This

the mere neglect

227

a

of military

Distrust

are riddled

colonizer

and of

exerts world,

colonial

scandal

the previous

His company is

and guilt.

value.

in

the

than

goes deeper

behaviour

conqueror".

226

of contact".

mentioned

involvement

"to

taboo;

the

to and

rise

gives

225

of the

to any action

to conquest.

The colonized

colonized.

to keep away from

a scandal

institutions

are

of the

effort

has the power

of

a whole

"...

of resentful

complex

of social

shunning reaction

to Fanon,

according

part

expose himself

an instinctive

is

colonizer

"Colonial

refusal

Deliberate

exogenous_contact.

operating of native

of social

from the

avoidance

colonizer's

town and European

are partially

The physical

side. town,

reinforced

the

existence

of a

144

formal reduce the

between

contact

colonizer

society,

his

the

to which

such pressure,

"determined

maintenance

techniques tricks

of social

and through

a system

kept

their

Self-preservation the

and events

the

aim is

colonial

hide

kind

involves

various

by means of manifold

the

of

reminiscent people

country

from

colonial

entails

staking

out

an area

hide

"to

appropriate

appear

field.

me, even though

'stupid'

the progress "I

'native'

But there

of

always

237

belongs

Resistance and confuses

" writes

some part

he has become my servant,

egoism with

'civilization',

that

native

makes himself

'irrational'.

seek literally, and all

is

to

by

Threatened

'consume', and

deliberately or

to -

'self-hood' 234

They reply

The native

colonizer. this

235

one's

feasible".

conquer,

of

eyes as many activities

outside

where

secrets.

236

the

from

to know,

frustrates

agent,

his

His

survival.

and balances

and to preserve

their

behaviour

its

food,

231

him".

free

situation

'unintelligibility'.

this

"to

drive

colonizer's

communities

of

by the

individuality

initially

as possible....

the

and his

all

233

impositions".

privacy;

for

fight

of hand,

sleight

of

out

has relegated

eternity,

all

indigenous

the of ashamed

personality'1232

of checks

most successful

have more or less

escape

"from

or mechanisms;

a conjurer's

to

respects,

backed

effort

submission

he has actively

other

driven

"hounded,.,

and simultaneously

of

reservation,

'engage'

and

by a hostile

a pretence

in

But

contact

himself

finds

of modern times,

weight

Under

to

job

of

practice

communities.

seeks

native

the

and

two

the

hiding-places

successive

retreat

bar',

positively

and

mighty

'colour

informal

or

Berque,

to him;

of him that

my batman,

his escapes

my workman,

145

my fatma.

He resists

regions

himself

of

life,

his

to

which

Bourdieu,

"as if

upon itself;

society

it

as if

invisible,

239

life;

they

Where colonized

language, whose

they

broader

dress

grows

of

physical

of

the native or unable

reluctant

social

home,

the

for

as

in a brief

time

refuge

sketch structure,

a restricted

a long

the

family,

of an imposed that

the

the

but

Even

woman. and badge

this coherent

fundamental

-

the

from

back,

falls

native

cafes

markets,

241

of the

as

places

Driven

resistance.

self-expression,

of

baths,

public

and

may change

Meeting

shared

religion,

around

significance

dances

and

survival.

worship, of

The

refuge

past,

shared

centre

fades.

than

simultaneously

kernel

these

take

they

the

values,

Often

determined

nodes

on the

rejection

constituted

of new methods

which

as groups,

ceremonies,

public

arena

may act

fertile

either

shared

rather

symbolize

As Fanon suggests, this

is

resist

common:

feast-days,

of

public all,

sanctuaries,

into

institutions.

shared

places

may form

closed

to key areas

attaches

colonizer

writes

up a thousand

intrusion

the

against

societies in

have

come to

shrines,

above

they

sacredness

observance

tightly

to set

is,

240

to penetrate.

what

to remain

importance

the

which

withdrawn"

had chosen

pains

sexual

238

"Sociologically

great

in

his

resources.

become moral

and into

retreats,

faith,

It

barriers

Heightened

his

innermost

had taken

impregnable

and ideas". social

this

personality

hope'.

his

values.

back on their

fall

no access;

aggressiveness,

ever-watchful

communities

in

I have

Enh n ement of indigenous

b)

maintaining

alienation,

his

traditional 242

of

refusal.

"this

process, falling

back upon the represents,

existence strength

withdrawal,

of

the

occupied",

243

146

ClandestinitZ.

c)

imbued

with

out

the

of

The

tend

masks the

colonial

administrators, Thus slavery, and other secret. is

taken

indigenous

colonizer, most is

effective

expressed Several

and indeed barrier.

blood-feuds, survive

may simply

in

traffic" has

where no fusion

from

essential social on the

factors make it

relations

in

the

inevitable.

The two communities

are

credence,

often

outside

that

the

reassures

carried the

it

Camouflage

'; pressures.

life

found

'civilization'

his

gains

a facade

"behind

of social

part

surface"'.

illusion

interventionist

As a result,

that

colonizer

this

that

extent

society

tranquility. the

the

may persuade

To the

advancing.

brings

them.

248

place".

frees

are under

surrounds

cults,

society

any occupied

of

grasp

missionaries,

"subterranean of

kind

this

out,

phenomenon in

Such reticence is

life,

of indigenous

points

and practices

ecstatic

"constitutes

of the

of silence'

witchcraft,

the

from

or refusal

rites

'conspiracy

-a

customs

suggests,

European from -

'primitive'

manifestations

"a classic

Balancer from

protection

circumcision,

As Charnay

",

'tradition

or jurists

of indigenous

and reconstitution

Where traditional or

by what Balandier

protected

The 'mystery' survival

for

247

as 'barbaric'

attack

246

behind

tactics

society".

is

of the native

of social

"Hiding the best

internal

and

pressure

underground"*

customs

autism".

realities

colonizer. one of

send

life'

"collective

244

'undercover',

place

external

deeply

245

to

The 'secret

"Strong

sight.

colonizer's

takes

action

is

communities

colonized

of

Social

clandestinity.

resistance

terms

behaviour

on.

formalism

The which

249 colonial

situation

Words erect literally

facilitate a particularly

speak a different

subterfuge, opaque language,

147

and

is

what

Colonized

mysterious 25°

In

dominated The

rapid a more

culture

colonizer

Without

religion,

domestic

he

understand

cannot

"the

colonized that

gap ation

seems

of

-

"the

foreign

establish

what intimate

life,.

often

them

departure

guerrilla

warfare

boycotts;

they

'shields',

of

consistent

speak and

these

of

the

doing

or

native's organization,

As Balandier

indicates,

the

skill,

to

on the

stopped

clutching

at

253

the

Often

cultural

this

exploit-

Indeed,

World

societies

The

"closed-in

in

born

'sui

'inviolable'

colonial

life

that

long

is

nature

before of

during aspects

the

advent

communal

of

life",

a

success

practice

an endemic

brief

the

have

peasants

was in

events

and

Their

"the

which

clandestinity

are

and

sanctuaries.

generis'

situation.

Theorists

torture,

institutions

, They

of

under

is

communications

underground

struggle.

to

struggles

communities.

silence

refuge

degree

a way

indigenous

traditional

is

pre-independence

depends

colonizer.

of

of decolonization for

using

tactics

largely

many Third

the

of

society". really

colonizer"*

oaths,

taking

of

reaction

colonial".

the

and social

great

the need for

stress

anonymous leaders,

period

from

unconscious.

a novel

of

with

of

the -

far

is

252

the

rarely

none

he observes.

used,

for

native

attitudes,

what

codes

nature

colonized

experience

political

even

peoples

the

not

are

another.

251

helping

as a screen

characteristic

But

telephone'

travels

networks,

as

jungle

news

The subterfuge thus

separate

way that

sense,

into

translate

on their

'the

direct,

separated

rely about

general

cannot

to

jokes

acts

thinking.

difficult

deliberately

European and

is

one tongue

populations

communication;

truth.

in

said

never

anti-

feature of

of

the

European

and

its

148

"ability is

to

typical

keep of

earlier

life.

Dissimulation

wells

Duplicity.

Systematic

to

occupier

the

and deceit Uganda.is the of

Every

own: "the

his

257

Baganda.

structure,

beliefs

tantamount

to wisdom.

Politeness

becomes a form

and faithful the

British

disguise

as well

and the both

more anguished

the

straightforward;

life

complicated

colonial

for

for

the

as social becomes

of shrewdness. of warm

and which

other,

served

one another, of an antagonism

to

made

258

populations

by the

in

the behaviour

The expressions

of deceit".

of colonized

truthful

and cleavages

becomes a form

and strengths

in

notes

Shrewdness

had for

the

tongue", ever

as well

of deviousness...

and the

disingenuousness,

postures

outlook

to dissemble,

occupied

hardly

consequences

Baganda expressed

is

is

as organization.

by the knowledge

it

"forked

What Apter

each group

sources

The 'withdrawn'

Man's

distrust,

Hostility,

Deviousness

that

regard

the

White

They have affected

the

the presence

learns

between

colonized....

have had far-reaching

"In

endemic.

"The political

typical:

social

reactions.

occupied

contact

most behaviour.

underlie fairly

is "the

To the

in

colonized-colonizer

prevarication

colonizer".

society the

distorts

secret

of

may signify

age-old

of

in

factor

a unifying

situation

colonial

255

attested

well

veneration

often

importance

a falsehood".

opposes

before

the

trickery....

is

is

Fanon explains,

occupier",

resort

native

in

Clandestinity

relations.

to

oath-sworn

mountains

or

is

cults

villages,

societies,

secret

of

existence

magico-religious

and: heightened

persistence

the

and

Similarly,

caves,

of

256

periods. trees,

d)

The

many areas.

brotherhoods,

occult

noted

a secret",

Vietnam

in

Chaliand

by

254

pressures

is

thus

of the

rarely colonial

149

"Colonial

situation. the

colonized

maintains

Social

-v.

of the

establish This

.

feature

large

dealt

by the

'fatal of

Frenchmen

of the

perspectives to

ourselves

villages

centred

Frenchman

he stood

indeed,

to their

Removed from our

compatriots

the

universe around at

a world

quasi-Chinese European came quite

the

in

place

in

quite

which

peripherally

natural its

the

preoccupashadow of Its

The pre-war

of this

to which

"wants says Mus

different.

appeared

they

but

picture, hazy,

in

and

barely

humanized.

related

themselves,

ways of thinking,

context

the

relate

themselves.

backdrop

is

analysis

ourselves",

ricefield,

centre

endures.

Fanon remarks

We instinctively

looks

body blows

the

stubbornly

"We give

Seen from the

himself

against

260

"an exaggerated

everything

imagined

possible.

on the

under

society

native

itself".

Vietnamese

the

centuries,

from collapsing

"Colonialism",

country.

......

is

continuity,

shed light

theme of much Western

impact'

Vietnam,

intact

including

colonized,

'nationalism'.

ethnocentrism.

in

the

of survival

social

which

presence,

come from

The limited

strategies

which

organization

community

situation.

evasive

facets,

So far

European

to

everything

tions

World

Continuity.

symptomatic

fact

and the

has numerous

The obsessive

of

colonial

interstice$within

phenomenon of Third a)

that

relations

259

of indigenous

change and reconstruction,

Intact

the very

own culture'.

of the

colonizer,

persistence

inertia,

his

with

persistence

a fundamental

impact

distorts

Persistence.

The obstinate is

domination

on to the

village

horizon".

261

150

A shift of

the

is

prominent

indigenous

itself

and purely

in

should

content

terms

it

colonized

itself

"... can it

otherhand beings,

did

not

be held

things,

apparently

although

its

of

partial

interpret

cannot far

wider

admits,

His

of life

"was able it

these,

mutation, analyze

colonial

the

are

ingredients

to its

or its

despite

that

consequences

all-embracing,

of itself....

Thus one an existence

vicissitudes

by the

colonizer

rarely

"immense are

the penetrated includes

inviolate". and forces

the

reached

which

regions"

"the

extensive

"had remained

experience

or internal

permanence,

of persistence:

265

depths".

The native's

To understand

as

and logically"

"statistically zones.

least

Berque

"Imperialism",

affected.

But it the

are at

or change the more or less

he believes,

of what is

Many human

of colonialism

and its

on the

nor

unconnected,

system,

or understanding

to modify

dialectic

relationship",

264

which

than

colonial

by the

affected,

remained

colonial

relation

the

of

everything....

characteristic

untouched

touched.

more important the

in

significance".

own work stresses

intact";

of

mastery

as those

zone which

is

it

colonizer,

Analysis

,

"The colonial

for

are grandiose,

solely

The areas important

It

methods

has only

with

262

who

concerned

of the

action

experienced

everything

the

Berque,

has only

layer

is

and events

unconnected, to ubiquity.

263

responsible

situations,

tendency

it

influence

the

external

how it

themselves.

best

determination"

the

with

investigate

should

to

relative

continuity

complains "at

shift,

of mechanical

populations

he argues,

this

and this

change,

dialectic;

for

calling

the

needed to appreciate

"Investigation",

universe.

in

with

not

is

of perspective

this,

we have to

"such

it

had

-

151

been before b)

colonization,

Inertia.

Lloyd,

"The communities

"are

the

considerable or

indigenous

to be ones in which

267

cohesion".

'drag'

indigenous

of

Study

They

and values.

stubbornness,

resistance, to

helps

associations

are

have maintained

associations of the

".

suggests

structures

social

new interests

seeking

avidly

people

the modern world",

enter

traditional

the

independence

after

remain

would

which

ones in which

not

collapsing, tend

and such it

persistence.

social

explain

268 Balandier whose

likens lays

action "the

reveals

the

resistance

they

are

'inert'

inert,

of

indigenous

it

and life,

community

make a strategic

of

points

structures

of

areas

"the

are

process

solvent,

societies;

fundamental

the

apparently

an experimental

the

survives

societies,

Even

because

precisely

strongpoints

What

colonized

269

behaviour".

the

bare

bedrock". of

situation

colonial

to

contribution

to

seeming

imperv-

persistence.

The colonizer

is

iousness

of native

explains

this

in

backwardness', as

to learn' is

resistance

colonizer's

it

and provides

the

the

is

wherewithal

to

the

the

"there

271

The 'drag'

mechanism' of the

duality for

is

later

a sort

of delay

opposed than

colonial

"oppositional 274

of resistance".

of

rather

out,

colonial

crisis

272

to

the

a

situation, The apparent

emancipation.

as Fanon points

native

But this

change'.

suggests,

We can speak of

"traditionalism

270

to weather

a 'coping

preserves

of tradition, revival.

'unable

functional".

projects

'pathology';

or of

call

the

he characterizes

precisely

As Balandier

we might

energetic

or

designed

implantation.

'sclerosis!

of

'laziness',

'obstinacy',

'inertia',

He

and institutions.

to new ideas

groups terms

exasperated

and 'inadaptability';

'unwilling

which

frequently

by the

often

masks

traditionalism11273

266

152

Some aspects colonizer

-

of

for

own demographic at

the

heart

point

to In

the

aspect to

growth

of

barriers

the

more

is

Ability

points urges he

is

all

of

put

up

its

that

"we

opposing

the

in

"timeless

society

is

"static,

of the

to

world.

an objective 'shoulder

imposes externally, the

of

reality

nationalism,

of

a reflex

is

'persist'

But

resistance".

not

argue

a dynamic inviolate

view

that

continuity".

prescriptive, 'phoenix'

The

there

above

socio-cultural all,

these When Berque were

zones

of

is

traditional

that

change.

277

inert",

life

'traditional' idea

as

as well

and nonrational1"279

closed theory

life;

process.

that

278

or

of different

components

of

uniform

on internal

depends

nodes

not

of indigenous

areas

all

conventional

schematic

it

276

are

should

is

makes

not

reply

agents".

in

"unequal

reflex

275

Different

resistance

if

Thus,

nationalism

colonizing

nationals; it

creates,

Survival

drag.

"fixed"

part

it

levels

factors.

of

on the

this

be a numerical

Internally,

solidarity

contradictions

depersonalization.

density

demographic

his

illustrates

technological,

reality.

control

defensive

mental

might

external,

to

biological

of

collective

rate...

resultant

one

differential

systems

birth

noticeable.

at

external

the

and determination

consistent is

to

pressures

least

at

level

the

social

of

a kind

national

shoulder'

because

it

the

of

the

of

the

case,

conceive

at

alarm

sharpen

Duclos

situation.

attempts

of

to

actively

the

and

'inability'

native's

colonial

against

pressures

any

-

species

at

reacts the

growth

serve

the

of

corresponding

Thus

example,

madden

most

which

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153

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282

'cultural

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incompatibilities, Even to such theorists, Leach argues within

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action;

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283

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Malinowski,

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organization

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281 this

and 'structural

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implicit

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conflict".

and

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280

inertia.

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154

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287 By

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continuity

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286

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288

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284

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areas,

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of perspective

rural

289

enterprises.

colonized

cites

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in

the

to

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duration,

290

themselves".

decay or rigidity

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sphere

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156

development

of new structures.

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institutions

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mutation'.

homogeneous,

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296

"dominant"

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297

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is

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294

game.

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293

out,

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within

points

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or

evolution'

society

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merely

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traditional

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situation

'endogenous

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stress

291

society".

An illusion

to

more likely

colonial

include

they 292

the

one sees the

and competition

conditions

indigenous

to

reactions

provoked;

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conflict

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as changing

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goals

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of disintegration

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157

WitMn'traditional' inconsistent

As Leach

of

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sources

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". change

304

for

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to

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motifs;

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not

examine

303

forms".

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to

example,

crises,

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become

for

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endogenous

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situation

colonial

society

for. change from

traditions

specific

dominant

as a means

302

structures'".

and

of traditional

change.

comes

change

alternatives

phenomena - from

sectors

social

generates

the

and

"alternative

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structural

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To understand

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299

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301

advancement".

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process

overall

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"the

argues

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298

300

through

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societies,

ideas",

potentialities",

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new life

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158

for

activism

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force

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struggle....

escape", they

313

social

speak

of

despir".

all,

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308

energies

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into

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stress

"defeatism" expressed

seem pathological.

the

of

general, natives 309

economy".

of

resistance....

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of

part

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xenophobic;

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energies

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311

at

valid

manifestations

superstitious,

anthropologists

of

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"quietism",

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evidence

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and

apparent

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argues,

Bourdieu

practice".

open

or

'dysfunctional'.

that

confused

irrational,

307

a traditional

developments

suggest

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circumstances',

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The

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The traditional

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society

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3o6

potential.

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potential

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had always

environment

305

of India;

suggest

this

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as

arena

of

6310

self-destruction

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myths"

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312 t In

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159

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kind

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society.

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to 318

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off

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escapism

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is

'activist'

social

intense

317

there

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and

possible

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are

of political

is

overt

initiative",

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only

show how this

the

movements

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indigenous

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colonizer's

of

regeneration'

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the

forces

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dynamic

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314 315

to

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reconstruction".

unity

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316

just

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authority;

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disruption impact.

of colonized

Potential

crises

The society, dog

160

indigenous

society

feature

of

he is to

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"dispossessed

of

defensive

and

adopt

and the

defensive

little

which 323

contact;

of social

avoidance.

societies

confirmed

in

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its

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dualism

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they

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is

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ism.... 325

of the

to any discussion

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'civilize';

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-

moslem society backward-

between

them't.

a fatal

it

flaw

of two blocs,

contradiction situation,

324

situation,

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stability,

'nationalism'.

society

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of any colonial

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32'

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322

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161

III.

'NATIONALISM'

The World

orthodox

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IN THE COLONIAL SITUATION

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162

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proposition effort

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at

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in

singular; preferring

generally 329

situation'.

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Berque's

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danger;

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330

however,

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as 'degradation',

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perception.

328

'nationalism',

to

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obstructs

renewal'1327

and 'fusion's

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326

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163

idea

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evaporate"'. social

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164

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338

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339

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1 165

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341

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166

organization and aspirations

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167

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348

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344

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concept 349

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168

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355

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351

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169

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358

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361

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360

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;,

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170

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362

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364

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363

bourgeoisie".

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171

colonizer's the

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365 they

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is 367

roots

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366

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172

Small-scale ideas social

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368

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372

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370

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371

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369

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173

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377

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378

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374

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, 380

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381

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382

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379

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174

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386

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384

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383

orientation".

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38

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385

175

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390

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persistence

the

dialectic

that

with

out,

"it

is

not

represents

constructing already

of indigenous of decolonization;

a unique

essentially

community is

391

life crucial

is

were

But a totally of the rural

themselves they

practice

into

had never antioccurring

It

continuity.

has a past".

it

is

explosion,

a new nation

the

which

that

was in

genesis

forces

threw in

the

"In

'escape'

this

the

own devices,

389

phenomenon".

"The peasants

it

in

to its

Nationalism

Fanon's:

independence;

points

an urban

indigenous

implies role

those

of precisely

new elites.

'Nationalism'

simply

their

was left

can be drawn from

all

the

of

persistence

Thus Emerson remarks:

at a way of life

clutching

concerned

'integral' to

of nationalism

population

instance

namely

colonial". just

rural

conclusion

stopped

of

sense we give

effected

traditional;

unimportant.

most significant the

theory

things

of all

which

the

represents

The orthodox

is

of nationalism

the

is

the

strength

real

the

relative

this

within

to what is

recourse

however

'Nationalism'

different

its

in

resource

inviolate

"the

suggests,

threat

outside

388

innovation".

and in

The major

a continuation,

terms,

degree

in

the

as against

what has remained

lies

uprising

and what is

it

is

As Berque

community.

the national

society,

absorption.

and reformation

colonized

these

that

within

is

not

from nothing; Seen in not to its

this

as light,

incidental unfolding.

to

176

The fulcrum

of

is

'nationalism'

disintegrate.

It

reconstitution

of a traditional

ional

nor

potentialities

intact

signifies

consistent; and is

it

refusal survival

'game'

contains

played

the

society

to

and spontaneous is

which

a variety

at several

of the

neither

of alternative

social

levels.

uddirect-

177

NOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1.

This trend is (Paris 1967).

2.

Max Gluckman: CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (p. 139) sets , "Why does not South Africa explode? " answer the question,

3.

B. Malinowski: DYNAMICS OF CULTURE CHANGE (Yale many of his ideas.

4.

in M. Gluckman: A reassessment is contained of functionalism "Malinowski's 'functional' change" in AFRICA of social analysis (17) 1947 p. 106-121. His ideas of change in a colonial situation, in Situation Modern Social "Analysis his implicit in of a already Zululand" in BANTU STUDIES (June 1940) and in his essay on "The kingdom of the Zulu of South Africa" in M. Fortes & E. Evans(eds. ): AFRICAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS (London 1940), were Pritchard further developed in CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (Oxford 1956), 6 ("The Chapter Bonds in the Colour Bar"). particularly

5.

"Political L. A. Fallers: study of sociology and the antropological (4) EUROPEENNES DE SOCIOLOGIE 1963, p. 328. African in ARCHIVES polities"

6.

J. S. Furnivall:

7.

E. A. Walcker:

8.

"Social Pluralism" M. G. Smith: and Cultural YORK ACADEMYOF SCIENCE (83) 1959-60ßy63-777

9.

(unpublished) on the sociological cf. his introductory paper Annual the 1971 to conditions read of conquest consolidation, in London. Conference of the Past and Present Society,

10.

analyzed

by G. Balandier:

ANTHROPOLOGIEPOLITIQUE

1945)

COLONIAL POLICY AND PRACTICE (Cambridge LES COLONIES - PASSE ET AVENIR (Paris in

out

to

systematizes

1948).

1947)-

ANNALS OF THE NEW

His major work - SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (Paris 1963) - has been accompanied by several theoretical articles "La situation situations: germane to his analysis of colonial INTERNATIONAUX DE in CAHIERS Approche theorique'" coloniale SOCIOLOGIE (11) 1951, pp. 44-79 ä une sociologie in la de "Contribution dependence" CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DE SOCIOLOGIE (7) 1952, pp. 47-69ä 1'etude "Contribution Afrique des en noire" nationalismes in ZAIRE (Brussels) April 1954, pp. 379-389 in changes and social problems in Negro Africa" - "Social (ed. ): AFRICA AND THE MODERNWORLD (Chicago 1955), C. W. Stillman pp. 60-69 "Le la Afrique de politique contexte vie en sociologique in REVUE FRANCAISE DE SCIENCE POLITIQUE (9) Sept. 1959, Noire" pp. 598-709 . "Les de decolonisation de et mythes politiques colonisation in CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DE SOCIOLOGIE (1962) en Afrique"

178

10.

"Reflexions le le fait des cas sur politique: societes (1964) SOCIOLOGIE in CAHIERS DE INTERNATIONAUX africaines" into his book Many of these ideas have been distilled ANTHROPOLOGIEPOLITIQUE (Paris 1967) esp. Chapter 7.

11.

(1951) "La situation translated Approche theorique" coloniale (ed. ): SOCIAL CHANGE- THE COLONIAL SITUATION in I. Wallerstein (1966) p. 45. Balandier where Smith uses the word 'pluralism' situation' where was to speak of 'heterogeneity', and 'colonial Smith was to speak of 'plural society'.

12.

This is suggested by the translation of his two major books THE SOCIOLOGY OF BLACK AFRICA (London 1970) and POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY(London 1970) - and by the gathering of articles COLONIAL "SOCIAL CHANGE THE by various the title under authors SITUATION" (ed. I. Wallerstein, London 1966).

13.

"Contact is made by means of in the form cultures existing G. Balandier: "La situation (1951) in I. Wallerstein (ed.

14.

M. Gluckman:

15.

to Fanon: "THE WRETCHED It is based on "pure force", according 1967) p. 29. But for its effect OF THE EARTH" (Harmondsworth Thus to be decisive, the force need not be fully unleashed. Rhodes "the Pondo did not fight the British at the annexation. mowed down a mealie field with machine guns before the eyes of the paramount of Eastern Pondoland and his councillors, and if they did not be fate that their similar would explained 412. (Oxford 1936) TO CONQUEST REACTIONS M. Wilson: p. submit"

16.

R. Maunier: THE SOCIOLOGY OF COLONIES - INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF RACE CONTACT (London 1949).

17.

M. Gluckman: CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956) p" 139" He adds that "force of and the threat white rule, established (p. 140) Monica Wilson points it" force maintained out, similarly, have the Europeans that that "Bantu leaders military are well aware (1936) " REACTIONS TO CONQUEST p. 562. power;

18.

M. Gluckman:

19.

"Their enabled the expatriate status authoritarian political they wanted upon groups more or less to impose whatever pattern POLITICS IN A WEST AFRICAN African M. L. Kilson: change". social STATE (Cambridge, Mass. 1966) p. 47.

and not among groups, social realities". of independent theorique" Approche coloniale ): SOCIAL CHANGE-P- 52.

CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956)

CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956)

p. 151.

p. 139.

r"

179

20.

In addition to the sources already to cited, contributions include: comparative of colonial analysis situations P. Bonnafe: LE NATIONALISME AFRICAIN (Paris FNSP/CERI Serie C, No. 9 Dec. 1964) J. Berque: DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (Paris 1964), esp. p. 89-106 T. Hodgkin: NATIONALISM IN TROPICAL AFRICA (London 1956), esp. P. 55-59 P. Worsley: THE THIRD WORLD (London 1964), esp. Ch. 1 "Indigenous J. A. Barnes: Administration" Politics and Colonial in COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN SOCIETY IN HISTORY (2) 1960 The Conference Papers of the 1971 Past and Present Annual Conference, on CONQUESTAND CULTURE, all mimeographed, raise various points of comparison. The work of Frantz Fanon does not attempt to establish an in colonial but sheds light academic typology, on numerous variables Particularly settings. valuable are L'AN V DE LA REVOLUTION (Harmondsworth ALGERIENNE (Paris DYING COLONIALISM 1959), trans. A as 1970); LES DAMES DE LA TERRE (Paris 1961) trans. as THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (Harmondsworth 1967), and PEAU NOIR, MASQUESBLANCS (Paris (London 1968) 1952) trans. WHITE MASKS BLACK SKINS9 as L. H. Gann & P. Duignan: WHITE SETTLERS IN TROPICAL AFRICA (Harmondsworth the 1962) is useful on some variables affecting colonizer's strategy.

21.

Barnes argues that "Colonial the operating administrations without have on the whole been paternalistic, complication and of settlers towards the tribal often benevolently people they paternalistic, have conquered; have on the whole been forced to take a settlers They have had to term view of their much shorter own interests. concentrate of the land they wished to exploit, on securing control their the attacks of the and on defending and stock against property indigenous inhabitants. In varying measure, depending on the type of enterprise particular on which they were engaged, they have by establishing friendly tried to secure their labour supply, either capturing, or by kidnapping, relations with the local people, their to suit needs. or enslaving recruiting, enough labourers These actions between the frontier settlers may lead to conflict "Indigenous Politics J. A. Barnes: and the administration". and (ed. ): (1960), in Wallerstein Colonial I. Administration" repr. SOCIAL CHANGE- THE COLONIAL SITUATION T-1966) pp. 217-218,

cf. L. H. Gann & P. Duignan: WHITE SETTLERSIN TROPICALAFRICA (1962).

22.

(1964), Ch. 5 'Imperialisme J. Berque: DEPOSSESSION MONDE DU cf. (1964), 44-49 WORLD THIRD Worsley: THE P. et Technologie', and pp. 'The Raison d'Etre'.

23.

Supposed economic goals may not be real economic goals, economic colonizer goals may change over time, and different sub-groups "The First may pursue different economic goals. of. E. Stokes: Colonial in PAST AND PRESENT (58) Century of British Rule in India" Feb. 1973, esp. p. 142-4.

18o

24.

G. H. T. Kimble:

25.

M. L. Kilson speaks of "the doctrinaire pathological and nearly obsession of British colonial with the theory of authorities indirect POLITICAL CHANGEIN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966) rule" P. D. C rs n: E IMAGE OF AFRICA BRITISH IDEAS AND p. 202. 1q ACTION 1780-185uAemphas4114es the power of idees fixes, in determining intervention during an earlier Other interesting period. examples from India by C. Dewey: "Images of the village are provided in MODERNASIAN ideology" community: a study in Anglo-Indian STUDIES (6) 1972, and G. D. Bearce: BRITISH AT0ITUDES TOWARDS INDIA 1794-1858 (Oxford 1961).

26.

(1960) repr. M. G. Smith: "Social in Pluralism" and Cultural P. L. Van den Berghe (ed. ) AFRICA - SOCIAL PROBLEMSOF CHANGE AND CONFLICT (San Francisco 1965) p. 71-

27.

G. Balandier: (1951) repr.

I'La situation coloniale (op. cit. ) p. Wallerstein

Approche 47.

28.

P. Worsley:

THE THIRD WORLD (1964)

47.

29.

M. L. Kilson:

30.

Capt. p. 3.

31.

IN LATIN AMERICA A. Gunder Frank: CAPITALISM AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT (Harmondsworth 1971) p. 27.

32.

"We were seeking the individual by making the group 1961) p. 179P. Mus: GUERRESANS VISAGE (Paris

33-

G. Balandier: He also calls

34.

G. Balandier: p. 57-9.

35.

"In

the days of anarchy, the tribesman needs his kinsmen for from above and the principal But give him security security. of fission, in every segmentary which coexists with that of fusion "Tribalism becomes more powerful". E. A. Gellner: society, and Social Change in North Africa" in W.H. Lewis (ed. ): FRENCH SPEAKING AFRICA (New York 1965) p. 118.

36.

"Under an effective it is the administration, loyalties, that disappear, most abstract even tribal village-scale organization survives". "Tribalism Change in North Africa" and Social p. 115.

TROPICAL AFRICA (New York

POLITICAL

C. H. Stigand:

p.

1962)

Vol.

2, p.

253-

thIorique""

CHANGEIN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966)

ADMINISTRATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA (London

13.

p.

1914),

an abstraction"

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) it "a crude sociological experiment".

p.

6.

SOCIOLOGIEACTUELLEDE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

largest the groups, if the more specific E. A. Gellner: (1965) loc. cit.

181

37.

to Mair, European rulers, saw their role as to "guide according in the way of enlightenment,... the chiefs remove abuses from the the infliction that they found, control organizations of cruel (and) limit the demands that chiefs punishments, could make on Then, having cleaned and polished their their instrusubjects. L. P. Mair: use". ments, they would turn them to constructive "African Chiefs Today" in AFRICA (28) July 1958, repr. in P. J. M. Teds. ): THE STUDY OF AFRICA (London 1967) McEwan & R. B. Sutcliffe p. 110.

38.

Balandier speaks of "degradation ANTHROPOLOGY(1970) p. 160.

39.

The difference decisions define is that "Policy a programme of The execution implicitly of this programme action, or otherwise. Smith: G. "On Segmentary M. is an administrative process". Lineage Systems" in JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (86) 2 July-Dec. 1956, p. 48.

40.

"Colonization transformed problem every political problem to be dealt with by the administration". POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY(1970) p. 160.

41.

"Good administration is their only desire and concern", wrote Lord FROM Lloyd: EGYPT SINCE CROMER(1933) - cited by R. Emerson: By 'they', ENNPIRETO NATION-(1960) Lloyd meant the p. 38. colonized which should not have unwanted politics population, According to this view, the task foisted up6n them from above. was not to respond to political of colonial administrators but to apply in detail from the indigenous community, pressures level. the overall decisions made at a higher political

42.

Undercurrents unavoidable at this seemingly of discontent "What in frequently administrators'reports. surface petrification is not its principles, but the threatens policy really our native their being tried bureaucratic which prevents out centralization FREEDOMAND AUTHORITY IN R. Delavignette: experimentally". (esp. FRENCH WEST AFRICA (Oxford 1950) p. 66. Delavignette, 42-48 broaches a theme familiar 'The art of going on tour') pp. the passing of that in countless officials: reports of colonial 'golden in could be deeply involved age' when administrators life, everyday minutiae and were respected as leaders, of native and its slow strangulation under the pressures of 'efficiency' Leakey echoes this, for the good and filing sighing cabinets. themselves old days in Kenya when "the administrative officers through their districts, spent very long periods on foot safaris camping at or near the villages and making most of 'chiefs', not only with the 'chiefs'. but with valuable personal contacts . them friendship, members of the population, giving giving the confidence valuable advice, and winning of the masses. "

by depoliticization".

POLITICAL

into a technical G. Balandier:

182

42.

"But alas, " he continues, "as time went on things changed; became more and more the duties officers of eministrative involved in paperwork in the office, and there was less and less time for the administrator to spend days on end on " L: S. B. Leakey: MAU MAU in his district... foot safaris AND THE KIKUYU (London 1952) p. 62-3-

43.

NAISSANCE DU PROLETARIAT MAROCAIN (Paris Robert Montagne: Moroccan 1951) p. 105 cites that poem suggesting a Southern this by the colonized threat was vividly even in perceived such matters as beverages:

"The Christian knows that you are hostile; He loads his cannons with tea And prepares an ambush on his scales. The enemy hits you in the stomach Knowing that death is easy there; In the stomach, near heart and liver, The Christian aim. with careful strikes He offers you a sugarloaf; If it were for your good, he would send nothing". 44.

F. Fanon:

THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967)

45-

F. Fanon:

BLACK SKINS, WHITE MASKS (1968)

46.

J.

47.0.

Berque:

DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964)

p.

p. 31p.

192.

89.

PSYCHOLOGIEDE LA COLONISATION (Paris

Mannoni:

1950)

passim.

48.

ä une sociologic G. Balandier: "Contribution de la dependtnce" in CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DE LA SOCIOLOGIE (7) 1952, p. 53.

49.

Ibid.

50.

He is "dehumanized" F. Fanon: THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967) Tom Mboya recalls p. 32. once working alone in a Nairobi laboratory, "Is when a white woman entered and asked him: (London " FREEDOM AFTER 1963) p. 29. here? AND anybody

51.

Cf. also F. Fanon: BLACK SKINS, WHITE MASKS (1968) passim. F. Fanon: "The North African Syndrome" in his TOWARDTHE AFRICAN REVOLUTION (Harmondsworth 1970) pp. 13-26, and Chapter 5"Colonial Wars and Mental Disorders" THE WRETCHED OF THE of EARTH (1967).

52.

Jeanne Favret argues that in Algeria "primordial groups have but merely a reactive no substantial existence.... existence". 'Le traditionalisme in ARCHIVES par exces de modernit6" EUROPEENNESDE SOCIOLOGIE (7) 1967, p. 73-

53-

J.

P. 52.

Berque:

DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964)

p.

104.

183 54.

J. p.

55"

Ibid.

56.

A point Colonial

57.

P. Worsley:

THE THIRD WORLD (1967)

58.

P. Bourdieu

& A. Sayad:

59.

Ibid.

60.

Berque likens this to the establishment of a 'national park'. FRENCH NORTH AFRICA THE TWO MACHRIB BETWEEN WORLD WARS (London 1967) p. 123-

61.

P. Bourdieu

62.

P.

63.

Ibid. This p. 333. Marxist politicians ization by settlers.

64.

P. Bourdieu

65.

S. Eisenstadt: "Sociological Aspects of Political Development in Underdeveloped Countries" in ECONOMICDEVELOPMENTAND CULTURAL CHANGE (4) 1957, (repr. (ed. ): in I. Wallerstein SOCIAL CHANGE- THE COLONIAL SITUATION (1966) p. 575)

66.

According in Indo-China to Mus, French policy had "alternately two sources of inspiration, which were sometimes contradictory for modernization due to metropolitan a desire and assimilation, degree of distrust, in situ, towards pressure, and a certain VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952) rapid development". p. 24.

67.

Berque: 252.

THE ARABS - THEIR HISTORY AND FUTURE (London

1964)

P. 252. by E. Stokes: "The First Century of British India" in PAST AND PRESENT (58) Feb. 1973-

stressed Rule in

p.

43.

LE DERACINEMENT (Paris

1964)

p. 38.

P. 38.

Mus:

& A. Sayad:

VIETNAM

-

LE DERACINEMENT (1964)

SOCIOLOGIE

DUNE

GUERRE (Paris

is often criticism in the Metropolis

& A. Sayad:

p.

38. 1952)

p"

337.

by liberal voiced or and used as a rational-

LE DERACINEMENT (1964)

p.

25-

-

"There are two sides to the action of the French administration in relation Mus, "- an accelerator, to local society", writes often ill-considered, pushing for projects and enterprises which (this were undoubtedly modern but above all Western, was by our general but also at provided services, administrative least by those of our administrators as much in practice who its application supervised or coordinated at governmental and levels); in the contrary provincial and a brake, acting (operated direction in their mainly by the same administrators identifying other capacity, with the traditional organization of territorial command, and thus in some respects the pleading

184

67.

the recklessness of our against cause of Vietnamese society (1952) DUNE GUERRE SOCIOLOGIE VIETNAM exploitation)". p. 337.

68.

Rule Colonial "The First E. Stokes: Century of British India" in PAST AND PRESENT (58) Feb. 1973, p" 153-

69.

E. J. Berg: Economies"

70.

P. Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952)

71.

M. L. Kilson: 47p.

72.

"L'organisation L. Milliot: in L'AFRIQUE FRANC9AISENov.

73.

P. Worsley:

74.

Colonial in French Theory M. D. "The Lewis: Assimilation cf. Policy" in COMPARATIVESTUDIES IN SOCIETY AND HISTORY (4) Jan. 1962, pp. 129-153.

75.

S. Bernard: LE CONFLIT: FRANCO-MAROCAIN1943-56 80. Vol. II, p.

76.

Ibid.

77.

P.

78.

Development Aspects of Political "Sociological S. Eisenstadt: in ECONOMICDEVELOPMENTAND Countries" in Underdeveloped (ed. ): SOCIAL CHANGE Wallerstein CULTURAL CHANGE (1957) repr. THE COLONIAL SITUATION (1966) p. 576.

79.

Mus argues that "the assimilation culture of Sino-Vietnamese We, on for a legitimate succession. was the prime requisite the contrary, and superimposed another system upon it, increasingly lived in isolation, with our modern towns and human space for whose prime values our families, amidst a local VIETNAM and expectations we took no responsibility". SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952) p. 134.

80.

81.

p.

Bourdieu

cf. 1967) British

in Dual "Backward-sloping Labour Supply Functions in QUARTERLYJOURNAL OF ECONOMICS (75) August 1961.

POLITICAL

105.

p.

CHANGEIN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966)

francaise 1933, p.

THE THIRD WORLD (1967)

de l'Afrique 615.

du nord"

p. 36.

(Brussels

1963)

80. & A.

Sayad:

& S. H. Rudolph: pp. 254-68 on the norms in India.

L. I.

in

LE DERACINENT

(1964)

25.

p.

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION between indigenous contrast

P. Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952) same jurists, presumably, accepted such violations 'emergency' laws. colonial

(Chicago norms

and

The p. 331. when part of

185 LE DERACINEMENT (1964)

82.

P. Bourdieu

83-

L. P. Mair: "African Chiefs THE STUDY OF AFRICA (1967)

84.

J.

85.

"Investiture out of one who is not cannot make a chief Indeed it has the naturally more than head of the family. SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE G. Balandier: opposite effect". NOIRE (1963) p. 204-5, citing A. Belgian in the administrator Congo.

.

Beattie:

& A. Sayad:

p.

25(eds. ):

Today" in McEwan & Sutcliffe p. 110-1-11-

OTHER CULTURES (London

1964) p.

251-

L. S. B. Leakey: MAU MAU AND THE KIKUYU (1952) p. 28-38, and Jomo Kenyatta: FACING MOUNTKENYA (1938) p. 186-230 and 310, how British describe of-the nature of chieftainship conceptions and among the Kikuyu of Kenya ignored the segmentary reality A similar phenomenon in West Africa provoked social crisis. THE DYNAMICS OF CLANSIIP AMONGTHE is described by M. Fortes: TALLENSI (Oxford 1945).

86.

WEST IN FRENCH AUTHORITY Delavignette: AND R. FREEDOM cf. AFRICA (1950), function of the true chief, p. 74: "In the social the is a spiritual a quality-which at core bf his authority, The very life of stranger cannot apprehend and may not touch. If the Administration the country is dependent on the chief. if he is itself; fails to understand him, that life withdraws humiliated, it is it is wounded; if he is overthrown, To let the chief be seen is rashly extinguished. and immodestly to expose that holy part where the body social can be mortally wounded".

87.

Lugard attempted the Alafin to fit of Oyo in Western Nigeria by his experiences in into an, administrative scheme inspired Northern Nigeria. This ignored his sacred character; - by tradition he remained enclosed in a sanctuary-residence, veiled by beads, communicat' through others. his will cf. M. Crowder: THE STORY OF NIGERIA k1q9'2)p1Z0

88.

L. P. Mair: Beattie's 'African Chiefs Today', loc. cit. p. 111. in account of the 'reciprocity' and 'checks and balances' (J. is traditional particularly acute. power relationships He argues that: Beattie: OTHER CULTURES (1964) pp. 151-164). "The old type of political bond was essentially based personal, (who between face-to-face on a sustained chiefs relationship held their basis) usually positions and their on a hereditary This bond was expressed through the provision subjects. of by the people, service and tribute and the giving of feasts to the needy, occasional gifts Busia it more succinctly: puts drink". the people milk,

and of 251). of

by the ruler". "When the chief

(Ibid.

has

p. lots

186 89.

The rise to power in southern Morocco of the Gontafa, MTougga Glawa tribes is a striking and (especially) example. cf. R. Montagne: LES BERBERESET LE MAKHZENDAMS LE SUD DU MAROC (Paris 1930, esp. p. 267-391, and R. Montagne: "Le pouvoir des chefs en (C. H.E. AM doct. no 18 Oct. 1941). Berberie"

90.

In

the following to sources addition already cited, provide information useful situations on the impact of colonial upon traditional leadership: (1963), 6&7 D. E. Apter: Chs. GHANA IN TRANSITION esp. THE POSITION OF THE CHIEF IN THE MODERN - K. A. Busia: POLITICAL 1961) SYSTEM OF ASHANTI (Oxford

E. M. "From Tribute Chilver & P. M. Kaberry: (30) Tikar Chiefdom" 1 1960 AFRICA in a -

L. Fallers: Chief" in

to Tax in

"The Predicament of the Modern African AMERICAN ANTRHOPOLOGIST (57) 2 1955

(Cambridge 1956) L. Fallers: BANTU BUREAUCRACY C. Mitchell Barnes: "The village M. Gluckman, & J. A. J. Africa" in AFRICA (19) 1949 headman in British Central J. Lombard: "La dans une ancienne vie politique iete & type feodale_: i C-Les Bariba du Dahomey" in CAHIERS D'ETUDES AFRICAINES (3) Oct. 1960, p. 5-45

L. IN CENTRAL NYASALAND P. Mair: NATIVE ADMINISTRATION (HMSO/Colonial Office 1952) "The political survival of traditional - N. N. Miller: leadership" in JOURNAL OF MODERN AFRICAN STUDIES (6) 1968, pp. 183-201 (ed. ): EAST AFRICAN CHIEFS (London 1960) A. Richards 91.

B. Malinowski: 1926) CRIME AND CUST014 IN SAVAGE SOCIETY (London in the social develoF6" life the concept of the 'reciprocity' Islanders. of Trobriand

92.

The Oba of the Yoruba was treated initially as if his authority Hausa, Emir including the to that the was analagous of of This was to ignore regular and tear a collection of taxes. delicate M. Crowder: web of restraints cf. on his functions. THE STORY OF NIGERIA (1962) p. 219

93"

84), Thus in the case of the Makonde (cited note above, "something 'chiefs' were formally gazetted, over seventy to enforce provided with court warrants, and authorized The so-called The result government was chaotic. regulations. 'chiefs' had no idea what they were expected to do, for the foreign to them; notion of chiefly authority was completely to take orders in and the ordinary people were not prepared from men who they had known all their all sorts of matters lives but simply not as territorial as the authorities, heads of small family After this groups. a few years, (p. in indirect 251) experiment rule was abandoned".

187

94.

"Indirect the chief and rule, particularly as it strengthened thereby allowed him to go beyond traditional boundaries, broke the effectiveness sub-structures which had been of the political integrated aspects of chieftaincy". with restrained and restraining D. E. Apter: GHANA IN TRANSITION (1963) p. 127.

95.

"Customary

of their prestige councils were being stripped and means of action required at the very moment when they were being to impose on those people their a set of rules within authority life.... which cut across and above so many traditions of country the prime all given at the very time when they were being VIETNAM SOCIOLOGIE Mus: P. taxes". obligation of collecting DUNE GUERRE (1952) p. 331-

96.

M. Gluckman: CUSTOM AND CONFLICTIN AFRICA (1956) p. 155"

97.

M. Gluckman: "The village headman in in AFRICA (19) 1949, P" 93-

98.

"The

Central

Africa"

the administration does not only concern chiefdom but the overall of men and goods, safety of individuals and The their the collectivity, of common welfare. and promotion Administration for whom tended to make the chief an intermediary questions of personal were of little an relations or no concern; draws up accounts, agent who registers, aid prescribes". traditional

(G. Balandier: P. 390). 99.

British

L. Fallers:

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

-

BANTU BUREAUCRACY(1956).

100.

R. Delavignette: (1950) p. 80.

101.

M. Kilson: p. 27-

POLITICAL CHANGEIN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966)

102.

M. Kilson:

Ibid.

103.

Mus: GUERRE SANS VISAGE (1961) A hint of the problem p. 50-1.. 1926) ALGERIA FROM WITHIN (London can be found in R. V. C. Bodley: Africa British where a long-term provides of North a resident (Ch. Gulliverian "the 9): Arab character" analysis of "From an intellectual stupid, of view the Arab is densely point They have not heard inartistic... very ill-read, and utterly of Voltaire, the most world-famed Goethe, Shakespeaxee, authors. are not even names to them except when they happen to have been applied to streets Music they have frequented... which their outside than own is an unknown quantity; pictures other All they know do not exist. that photographs of people which for us in the literary, counts is musical and artistic world to them as Babylonian as complete to an able a blank cuneiform It is staggering seaman. to realize their ignorance". sometimes P.

AND AUTHORITYIN FRENCHWESTAFRICA FREEDOM

p. 27-

188

104.

to insist the means nor the desire "The British had neither on TY Q' T ITION L. I. & S. H. RudQl h: THE MO ideology": their ýqßa1, the di i 1tnees art aý ah'®n biv. Atrb account of (1967) ä A01FkenIfEM 255. Y. tuein N A{q is ?S GUCNREiS % p. er. provMtd Fd *110, nq > OAtGERýE W44

c"wiftr.

Gcoý5;

MFDidwES, R& 4lerJ

II%o-($10

(PAri31971)

105.

A PASSAGE TO INDIA and George Orwells: E. M. Forster's: taboos. BURMESE. DAYS are encyclopaedias of these

106.

'all person the saying are the same' the colonized natives THE WRETCHED Fanon: " F. 'all the same'. settlers are replies DU PORTRAIT Memmi: A. OF THE EARTH (1967) 72. cf. also p. 1957). COLONISE PRECEDE DU PORTRAIT DU COLONISATEUR (Paris

107.

M. Gluckman:

(1956) IN AFRICA CONFLICT CUSTOMAND

108.

a une sociologie G. Balandier: "Contribution (7) SOCIOLOGIE DE INTZRNATIONAUX in CAHIERS

109.

TWO J. Berque: FRENCHNORTHAFRICA: THE MAGHRIBBETWEEN WORLDWARS(1967) p. 389.

110.

the in to built This is "the pathological colonial aim LE DERACINE24ENT Sayad: & Bourdieu to situation", according (1964) p. 27.

111.

Conflicts are AFRICA (1967)

'discreetly p. 389.

112.

G. Balandier: p. 27.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE

113.

P.

114.

'Contribution G. Balandier: in CAHIERS INTERNATIOAUX

115.

Frantz poetic guide Fanon is a particularly almost eloquent, THE The of chapter to the violence this opening world. of is Violence" WRETCHED OF THE EARTH - "Concerning particularly 'Manichaean he Fanon has a himself calls what striking. propagandist. committed vision', of an inspired, and the style individual This leads him to make statements assertions, as which, him flashing but gives also appear exaggerated and schematic, Some insight into the nature the experience. of his colonial of powerful statements; equally own assertions other, counterbalance the the for his effect of alienating on eloquence example, firm assertions about against colonial situation must be weighed

"To

Bourdieu

& A.

Sayad:

repressed'.

p. 164.

de la dependonce'r 1952, p. 54.

Berque:

LE DERACINEMENT (1964)

FRENCH NORTH

p.

23-

ä une sociologic de la dependance' DE SOCIOLOGIE (7) 1952, p. 61-66 'active in terms acceptance', of analyzes such reactions 'active 'passive 'passive and resistance', acceptance', He insights. stresses useful some resistance', and provides that, the distrustful relationships, miasma of colonial amidst be as one of is classified could and every ambiguous, reaction the alternative strategies.

189 115.

We need to seize not always lack of impact. the colonizer's direction his literal and energy of meaning but the overall At this level, he is an inspiring his observation. guide.

116.

Cf. W. Cartey & M. Kilson AFRICA (New York 1970) p.

M. C. Sahli:

(eds.

):

THE AFRICA

READER: COLONIAL

3-69.

DECOLONISERL'HISTOIRE

(Paris

1965)

117.

Cf.

118.

LA by Gen. A. Hure: Capt. Vral: LE MAROC HEROIQUE, cited (Paris PACIFICATION 1952) DU MAROC: Derniere tape 1931-1934 Berber 112, the describes mountain clan: of one resistance p. the utmost "The dissidents defended themselves energy, with in their behind the rocks, caves where only well camouflaged They fired the rock. the eye and the rifle peep through down tirelessly without were men cut our and and accurately... The women excited them with their even seeing adversaries. the distributed replaced strident ammunition, ululations, the to down dead, and rolled on assailants, stones enormous The ferocity death down as far as the riverbed". of sowing in terms of the this be not measured resistance should to but in figures, French relation relatively small casualty total killed 2000 the losses the of a out group: of resistant At the total 25000. lost of 7000,22500 a of out of cattle in Hurg's the area, words, end of this violent resistance, (p. 118-119). "a charnel house" resembled

119.

General

Hurt

(op.

cit.

p.

79-92)

recounts

the

esp.

p. 27-57.

fierce

into battle, 1932 in tribe Moroccan marched which resistance of a from aviation chanting and 105m guns, under heavy bombardment The 'auxiliaries' "We want to die! ". prayers and shouting by this their fellow-moslems sent to fight were unnerved display religious'fanaticism'. of what Hure calls 120.

Between Two J. Berque: FRENCH NORTH AFRICA - The Maghrib cf. World Wars (London On the other hand, 1967) P. 113-116. bring disinterested defence reward greater might of honour (op. 117-118) Hure than does rapid Gen. cit. p. capitulation. Saghro that the "splendid of Jebel explains resistance" tribesmen in 1933 brought them very generous and "well-deserved" Mar nal French terms from the sporting army! of surrender Lyautey for kind took a cynical of 'battle view of this (honour), "caida" honour': "After to this submissions concession is sensibly It are not slow in coming if-the conducted. affair is not rare to see the ferocious who were shooting warriors at to demand 'aman' us in the morning come the very same evening (pardon), (ritual 'targuiba' the sacrifice and offer signifying RAPPORT GENERAL SUR LA SITUATION DU PROTECTORAT submission)". DU NAROC AU 31 JUILLET 1914 (Rabat/Residence-Generale de la Republique Fran? aise 1916) p. 43. Inverting the usual phrase, may we not see in this a tactic pour mieux reculer"? of "sauter

190 121.

"Wherever the presence of the colonizing power was felt, some kind taking forms from armed of resistance was shown, various insurrection to wholesale But at any given it exodus... moment, in relation was only a limited to the whole community, small society, the colonizer, the opposition which rose against while itself because directed was limited against only one aspect of domination, the concrete that aspect which affected particular E. Mondlane: THE STRUGGLE FOR time". community at that MOZAMBIQUE (Harmondsworth This 1969) p. 102. echoes General Guillaume's "We rarely the conquest comment about of Morocco: had to fight Neighbourmore than one tribe at the same time. ing groupings from interfering so long as their abstained own territory LES BERBENES Gen. A. Guillaume: was not attacked". MAROCAINES LT LA PACIFICATION DE L'ATLAS CENTRAL 1912-1933 (Paris 1946) p. 84. Yet elsewhere Guillaume that; remarks "In the Central Atlas, came to us spontaneously. no tribe None submitted without a fight, and for some, without to the very last". exhausting all means of resistance Ibid p. 73.

122.

E. Stokes: 'Traditional Movements Resistance cf. Asian Nationalism: The Context of the 1857 Mutiny in India' in PAST AND PRESENT (48) 1970, p. 104.

123.

E. E. Evans-Pritchard: p. 71.

124.

cf.

125.

The Maji-Maji Tanganyika is an revolt of 1905 in Southern TANGANYIKA UNDER GERMAN J. Iliffe: excellent example. cf. RULE 1905-1912 (Cambridge The 1857 Rebellion 1969). in India, Rebellion in Algeria and the 1871 Kabyle are other examples of 'post-pacification revolts'.

126.

(1952) P. Mus: VIETNAM DUNE GUERRE SOCIOLOGIE -

127.

"The Organization cf. J. Iliffe: of the Maji-Maji in JOURNAL OF AFRICAN HISTORY (8) 1967-

128.

F. Fanon:

129.

M. Gluckman: CUSTOM & CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956) speaks the unquenched resentment of the Zulu in South Africa, Roy Campbell ferocity quotes of beaten on "The curbed (p. 158). tribes"

130.

Monica Hunter: REACTIONS TO CONQUEST (1936) P" 554 notes that the populations to "the belief that cling of Pondoland the Europeans be swept into the sea, and the Bantu have will South Africa to themselves again".

E. E. Evans-Pritchard:

and AfroRebellion

THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA (Oxford

1949)

THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA (Passim. )

THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967)

P" 328. Rebellion"

P" 55of and

191

131.

"Ceux qui frequently

those lie in term guettent" wait was who a by French to the indigenous applied populations in North Africa. Jean Pommerol's sensationalist cf. in the Sahara, brotherhoods of the religious entitled AFRICAIN; CHEZ CEUX QUI GUETTENT" (Paris 1905).

settlers account "L'ISLAM 132.

'The

development of be proportionate will threatened colonial EARTH (1967) p. 69.

violence to the regime".

peoples among the colonized by the exercised violence THE WRETCHED OF THE F. Fanon:

133.

Ibid.

p.

42.

134.

Ibid.

p.

41.

135.

P. Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952)

136.

M. Kilson:

137.

(p. Europeanized Ibid. p. 119. the that 117-23) Kilson argues 'nationalist' to power on the back of violence. elite rides The colonizer is offered the prospect crderly of the elite's to the anarchic behaviour violence political as an alternative it to take This the leads of the masses. colonizer alone (esp. 46-9). THE OF EARTH Fanon, THE WRETCH in p. seriously. # makes an identical point.

138.

F. Fanon:

139.

Ibid"p.

140.

1940), M. Fortes: E. E. Evans-Pritchard: THE NUER (Oxford 1945), THE DYNAMICS OF CLANSHIP AMONG THE TALLENSI (London P. J. Bohannan: JUSTICE AND JUDGEMENT AMONG THE TIV (London TRIBAL AFRICA IN REBELLION AND ORDER 1957), M. Gluckman: and (London detail. in considerable 1963), examine these mechanisms

141.

1958) Middleton & D. Tait: TRIBES WITHOUT RULERS (London in his Jomo Kenyatta argument p. 21. a similar pursued FACING MOUNT KENYA (London the 1938) P. 205-14, and stressed degradation that the suppression social of such manifestations entails.

142.

J.

143.

J. P. Charnay: LA VIE MUSUIMANE EN ALGERIE D'APRES JURISPRUDENCE DE LA PREMIERE MOITIE DU XXe SIECLE 1965) p. 212.

144.

E. J.

p.

115,116,117-

POLITICAL CHANGEIN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966)

THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967)

p. 119.

66. p.

31-

J.

Beattie:

OTHER CULTURES (London

Hobsbawm:

PRIMITIVE

1964)

p.

REBELS: -STUDIES

OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS(Manchester 1972).

1959),

175LA.', (Paris

IN ARCHAIC FORMS

and BANDITS (Har flondsworth

192

Hobsbawm: BANDITS (1972)

145.

E. J.

146.

Ibid.

Chapter

6:

'The Economics

147.

Ibid. Chapter Avenger'.

3:

'The Noble

148.

F. Fanon:

149.

Ibid

150.

This argument is MAROCAIN 1943-56 note 137).

151.

The seminal

p.

17and Politics

Robber'

of Banditry'. 4:

and Chapter

THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967)

'The

42. p.

p. 27.

Carl

LE CONFLIT FRANCOBernard: S. by pursued (see (Brussels 1963), and by M. L. Kilson

works von

include:

Clausewitz:

ON WAR (Harmondsworth

1969)

Regis Debray: REVOLUTION IN THE REVOLUTION? (Harmondswörth 1968) Vo Nguyen Giap: PEOPLE'S WAR, PEOPLE'S ARMY (New York 1962) 1969) Che Guevara: GUERRILLA WARFARE(Harrmondsworth Mao Tse-Tung: ON GUERRILLA WARFARE(New York 1961) Eduardo Mondlane: THE STRUGGLEFOR NOZAMBIQUE (Harmondsworth 1969) 152.

The mass

of

literature

includes

the

following:

M. Dion: "Qu'est-ce qu'une guerre rvolutionnaireP"in REVUE DES D'UX N3NDES Apr. 1959, pp. 577-94, 0. Heilbrum: PARTISAN WARFARE(New York 1962), J. Hogard: "Guerre et pacification" revolutionnaire (280) Jan. 1957, REVUE MILITAIRE D'INFORMATION

in

WAR (London J. J. McCuen: THE ART OF COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY 1964), F. M. Osanka (ed. ): MODERN GUERRILLA WARFARE - FIGHTING (New York 1961), COMMUNIST GUERRILLA MOVEMENTS 1941-1961 Revolutionnaire: de Guerre L. Poirier: "Un instrument

le FLN" in REVUE MILITAIRE Jan. 1958,

D'INFORMATION Dec. 1957 and

Souyris: de la parade "Les conditions et de la a REVUE MILITAIRE in la riposte revolutionnaire" guerre 1957, D'INFORPMATION (281) Feb. -Mar. A.

U. S. Army: SPECIAL WARFARE(Washington

1962),

READINGS IN COUNTERCenter: U. S. Army Special Warfare Carolina 1961), North Bragg, GUF,RRILLA OPERATIONS (Fort Ximenes: "La guerre et ses donnees revolutionnaire (281) D'INFORMATION fondamentales" in REVUE NILITAIRE Feb. -Mar. 1957, J. K. Zawodny (ed. ): "Unconventional in ANNALS warfare" AND SOCIAL SCIENCE OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL (341) May 1962. 153.

T. O. Ranger:

"Connections

'primary resistance' in East and Central movements and modern mass nationalism in JOURNAL OF MODERT AFRICAN STUDIES (9) 1968. between

Africa"

193

154.

(Oxford Evans-Pritchard: THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA 1949), cf. esp. pp. 104-33, of Beduin PP. 157-90, on the nature resistance to Italian Cf also M. Lacheraf: "Constant3s conquest. politiques (1830-1960)" de 1'Algerie daps les guerres et militaires coloniales in TEMPS MODERNES (Dec. 1960-Jan. 1961).

155.

E. J.

156.

J. Iliffe: "The organization JOURNAL OF AFRICAN HISTORY differences between primary

E. E.

Hobsbawm:

BANDITS

(1972),

Chapter

7:

"Bandits

and Revolution".

Maji in rebellion" (8) important sociological notes and post-pacification resistance of

the 1967

Maji

revolt.

THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967) pp. 67-74. "finds his freedom in and through man", he declares, (p. 68).

157.

F. Fanon: "Colonized violence".

158.

E. E. Evans-Pritchard:

159.

R. Pankhurst:

160.

F.

Fanon:

excitement changes.

THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA (1949).

"Lmperor

A DYING COLONIALISM of

wartime

II

Menelik

(1970).

exaggerated

161.

"Encirclement is what the Berbers LA PACIFICATION DU MAROC: Derniere

162.

E. E.

163.

Gen. A. Guillaume:

Evans-Pritchard:

of

the

Ethiopia"

in

No doubt pace

and

TARIKH

(1)

1965.

Fanon, in the depth of these

fear above all". etape 1931-1934

THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA (1949)

Gen. A. Hure: (1952) p. 6. p.

171.

LES BERBERSMAROCAINESET LA PACIFICATION

84. (1946) "In DE L'ATLAS CENTRAL 1912-1933 the face of p. Berber forces", "the he adds, way, and in withdrawing gives 81. tries to do as much harm to his enemy as possible". p.

superior merely

164.

Capt. Chavanne: HISTORIQUE DU SERVICE DES AFFAIRES INDIGENES DE TUNISIE 1881-1930 (Bourg 1931).

165.

"there Mus of Vietnam, are few writes rice plains", in forests, moors which natural or marshlands, resources to hide. If men wish to take cover and disappear, they can inhabitants Obviously, only do so behind only local can men. do this. The demographic shelter masses make an effective tongue, against or, above all, any enemy speaking another VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE with a different skin". (1952) p. 21.

166.

Hure's cf. stages account of the last the Moroccan Middle Atlas: "All along lay hundreds there on horseback, upon those in which great cedarwood chests

"In

these

in of French conquest the track which I followed hundreds of Berber chests, the highlanders lock away

194

166.

their saint), left,

(local 'marabout' the At the of appeal objects. precious them on their they had loaded and had mules or camels, to keep their in houses their order poor abandoning

independence". 1931-4 (1952) 167.

LA PACIFICATION DU MAROC- DERNIERE ETAPE p. 92.

the the towards sources of the process of penetration "powerful Morocco, French Berque in 1922", of writes Ishkern the Ihand Ait Bani Mguild, the the and such as th&ir This battle. custom. joining not was without retreated to them had an ancient The reason that their recited marabout was holy the to Imhiwash family, the which according of prophecy to heaps kerkurs, of stones, had set up cairns, ancestor

"During Muluya tribes

territories would the the such all stranger; of measure advance last from keptup redoubt, one be abandoned, and resistance only bargain". the into them to, the but this would restore rest all J. Berque: FRENCH NORTH AFRICA - THE MAGHRIB BETWEENTWO WORLD WARS (1967) p. 116. 168.

E. E. Evans-Pritchard:

THE SANUSI OF CYRMAICA (1949)

p.

172.

s169. LES BERBERES Guillaume: A. Gen. Marhal Lyautey, in quoted (1946) CENTRAL L'ATLAS DE MAROCAINES ET LA PACIFICATION p. 103. 170.

threat immediate Though the French no posed army of occupation in Southern tribe to their land, the leaders of the Ida ou Blal in 1922 to offer Morocco submission. journeyed to Marrakesh by the territory their rapacious This forestalled on an attack French invader, the Glawa tribe in with alliance close who, "dissident" the of their expense were extending power at ric: DES A. I. LE BUREAU SUR ETUDE M Capt. neighbours. cf.

DE TATTA (C. H. E. A. M. doct.

541 1935)"

171.

French the that army was In June 1911, advancing estimating Morocco humbly Central too strong, the Beni MTir tribe of But when the military column returned offered submission. by the resistance Encouraged to the coast, dissidence resumed. of imposition the tribes, resentful and of other neighbouring of uprising the Beni MTir joined a coordinated of land tax, In March 1913, a French military Central High Atlas tribes. Guillaume: A. Gin. Cf. had to submission. reimpose expedition DE L'ATLAS CENTRAL LES BERBERES MAROCAINES ET LA PACIFICATION (1946) pp. 128-34.

172.

P.

173.

Gen. A. p. 18.

174.

Gen. A. Guillaume: LES BERBERESMAROCAINESET LA PACIFICATION DE L'ATLAS CENTRAL (1946) p. 105.

Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952) 4: Chapter 'Le Maquis his et l'Attentisme'. esp. Hure:

LA PACIFICATION

p.

63.

See

DU MAROC - DERNIERE ETAPE (1952)

195 175.

G Balandier: SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) A similar p. 90. later: phenomenon several was noted years "The Minkebe are hanging people on to their region, access to which, they realize, is too difficult to permit frequent from administrators. Many natives visits who used to live by the motor route from I1invoul to Oyem have abandoned it and gone elsewhere". p. 172.

176.

Ibid.

177.

The Koranic infidel to

duty of 'hijra' from the land of the - flight the land of the faith is the associated with in some Islamic Cf. C. -R. refugeephenomenon countries. Ageron: "L'emigration des musulmans alge"riens et l'exode de TlemSen" in ANNALES Sept. -Oct. 1967.

178.

E. A. Gellner:

179.

J. Berque: STRUCTURESSOCIALES DU HAUT ATLAS 1955) cited by P. Mus: GUERRESANS VISAGE (1961)

180.

I.

172.

p.

HINDU SOCIETY (1961)

Karve:

Rudolph: IN INDIA

SAINTS OF THE ATLAS (London 1969)

p.

127,

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION (Chicago 1967) p. 20-1 n.

cited

p. 41. (Paris p. 80, p. 88.

by L. I.

POLITICAL -

& S. H.

DEVELOPMENT

181.

P. Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952)

182.

Berque calls "the hidden Africa", this secret of North whereby "each tribe, to keep its each group tries way of life FRENCH NORTH AFRICA - THE MAGHRIB BETWEEN TWO uncommitted". WORLD WARS (1967) p. 120.

183.

D. E. Apter:

184.

E. Colson: "Migration Trends Possibilities" in Africa and in F. Lorimer & M. Karp (eds. ): POPULATION IN AFRICA (Boston 1960) p. 60-1. He adds that "the movements which have taken in the Twentieth Century q, great place as they have been, are One the past as is sometimes no such breaks with suggested. to stabilize might argue that what is new is the attempt lack this the general population; perhaps of success explains of such attempts".

185.

G. Balandier: p. 186.

186.

Ibid.

187.

G. Kimble:

TROPICAL AFRICA

188.

E. Colson: (1960) loc.

"Migration

p.

GHANA IN TRANSITION (New York

p. 20.

1963) P. 30-

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

186.

cit.

p.

in 61.

(1962)

Africa

Vol Trends -

2,

p.

34.

and Possibilities"

196

189.

P. Bourdieu

190.

A typical between

& A. Sayad:

LE DERACITUINT

(1964).

Tunisia, fight Southern a example: fraction Ouled Ouhiba two individuals for him While taking medical in wounding. serious resulted family the victim's town, complained in the nearest treatment (Caid). However, the European-appointed to the official the before brought the clan family matter aggressor's the (miyad), obliged decided and compensation which assembly investigate, to The Caid to family attempted accept. offended his that The but could claimed find victim no witnesses. TRIBUS Chastel: fall. by heavy injuries a were caused In

in 1936, in the

(C. H. E. A. M. GAFSA C. DE C. LE = LE PROBL:}[E DU PAYSANNATDANS doct No. 282 1938).

191.

H. Gluckman: CUSTOMAND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956) P. 153. in in Zulu which the "The initial situation any of reaction he beneficial adds, Government officials schemes", proposed "was to reject them". p. 154. (Princeton UGANDA IN THE POLITICAL KINGDOM

1961)

192.

D. E. Apter: p. 117.

193.

'rational' norms of The Rudolphs the that apparently argue they West because in the Western only work administration THE there. by traditional legitimated consensus a are 1ODERNITY CF TRADITION (1967) p. 255-

194.

"Justice a justice li*igants

195.

for to the the city "Disapproval to who goes man attaches the authority Such a man is thought to be flouting justice. the solidarity therefore the against acting of elders, and to disputes take Rampura in The few the who of men village. "The Srinivas: M. N. the urban court are not respected". (1955) loc. System of a Mysore Village" Social p. 18. cit. (clan the "The individual decisions the miyad of who fights tribe the "would Chastel, set whole see assembly)", writes If in a land dispute him. a member of the tribe against if he appeals the does not submit to the decision miyad, of it the to an official visits when commission arbitration the plaintiff. against place, all witnesses are unanimous his His daughters in be nor will marriage, will sought not LES find belonging to the rank". social same sons girls

being besides the in be village, and cheap swift can The litigants. by the as such which is understood relative for themselves clever ask a or speak either lawyers There hired behalf. no their are to speak on or"friend in the atmosphere tongue, awe-inspiring in as arguing a strange System Social "The Srinivas: N. M. of the urban state courts". (ed. ): VILLAGE INDIA Marriott McKim Village" Mysore in of a (London 1955) p. 18.

197

195.

TRIBUS EP LE PRCBL-= DU PAYSANNATDANDS LE C. C. DE GAFSA (C. H. E. A. M. doct 282 1938) p. 27.

196.

P.

197.

L. A.

198.

J-L. Quermonne: "La sous-administration et les poiitiques DE SCIENCE FRAN9AISE REVUE in d'equipement administratif" POLITI, UE (9) Sept. 1959, P-737.

199.

G. Balandier:

200.

fran9aise L. Milliot: "L'organisation SE, Nov. 1933in L'ArRIQUE FRANcAZ.

Mus:

VIETNnti

-

SOCICLOGIE

D'UNE GUERRE (1952)

p.

105.

"Political Fallers: and the anthropological sociology DE EUROPESNNES ARCHIVES in African polities" study of Balandier SOCIOLOGIE (4) 1963 p. 327. an administrative cites the 1920, Bas-Congo in continuing from the concerning report NOIRE DE L'AFRIQUE (judges). ACTUELLE SOCIOLOGIE role of dzonzi fellow-countrymen their that 64. "the They sole natives p. are in They some obscure fear remain respect. with and surround European's the attention sign attracts village and no external the traditions and them that But it is through to them. are perpetuated". customs of the country

(1970) POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

p. 160. du Nord"

de l'Afrique

201.

G. Balandier: p. 63.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIEACTUELLE

? 02.

G. Balandier:

POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY(1970)

203.

G. Balandier: p. 63-

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIEACTUELLE

204.

R. Delavignette: (1950) Pp. 71-84.

205.

(1952) DUNE GUERRE SOCIOLOGIE P. Mus: VIETNAM -

206.

G. Balandier: p. 209.

207.

C. H. Moore: "Politics JOURNAL Autumn 1963,

p. 160.

M AND AUTHORITY IN FRENCH WEST AFRICA

p. 25.

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRt '(1963)

in p.

a Tunisian 532.

village"

in

MIDDLE EAST

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUII-IE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

208.

G. Balandier: p. 209.

209.

C. A. O. van Nieuwenhuijze: "The Near-Eastern in MIDDLE FAST JOURNAL Summer 1962.

village:

210.

P. Bonnafe: LE NATIONALISME AFRICAIN (Paris No. 9 Dec. 1964) p. 52.

FNSP/CERI Serie

a profile"

C,

198

211.

ISLAM U3SIRVED - RELIGIOUS D: VELOPM T IN MOROCCO C. Geertz: AND INDON:SIA (Yale 1968) p. 64.

212.

(New York 1955), ANALYSIS POLITICAL IOR D. Saston: A F-YY WORK TH POLITICAL SYSTI2 (New York 1953), and "An Approach to the (9) 1957POLITICS `WORLD in systems" of political analysis in science" "The concept of system in political P. Nettl: MOBILIZATION POLITICAL Oct. 1966, STUDIES POLITICAL and (London 1967).

213.

in I. Wallerstein "Introduction" I. Wallerstein: T1966) SITUATION p. 3. CH4NGE - T'iC COLOIJIAL

214.

THE OF ANNALS in Pluralism" Cultural M. G. Smith: "Social and Smith states 113WYORK ACAi Y OF SCIENCE (83) 1959-60, p. 71. that it forms no such system. specifically

215.

Ytý(

(ed. ):

SOCIAL

(Brussels 1963), 1943-56 FRANCO-MUROCAIN 12 CQNILIT S. Bernard":? Morocco which is decolonization the of work on an. ambitious and methodological, into three volumes - narrative, divided out sketched are His assumptions methodological schematic. "ILa i' an article to the Algerian context and applied in sociologique" de 1'Algerie: decolonisation son mecanisme (Brussels) 53, Sept. 1962, pp. 535-558. CIAUS}

216.

S. Bernard:

217.

Ibid.

218.

S. Bernard: p. 544.

(1963) p. 224. LE CONFLIT FRANCO-NAROCAM

p. 224.

I'a

(1962) loc.

de L'A1gerie"

decolonisation

(1952)

SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUTE

cit.

p. 25-35-

219.

P. Mus: VIETNAM -

220.

(1970) He 162. ANTHROPOLOGY p. POLITICAL G. Balandier: "The in 'double of utopia individual game' an analyzes Benoit Ogoula Iquaqua" - cf. "Contribution a une sociologic (7) SOCIOLOGIE DE INTERNATIONAUX de la dependance" in CAHIZRS 1952, p. 62n.

221. 222. 223.

M. Gluckman: P.

Bourdieu

G. Balandier:

in

CUSTOM AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA & A.

Sayad:

"Contribution

LE DERACINEMINT ä

(1956)

(1964)

une sociologic

CAHIE; S INTE. NATIONAUX DE SOCIOLOGIE (7)

pp. de la

1952,

p.

157ff.

161-77dependence"

p.

53

its "arrives Fanon, values, with dominant group", writes life the the that of very imposes them violence such with and in defensively, itself a more or only colonized can manifest (1970) 111. COLONIALISM DYING A less p. clandestine way". "The

224.

G. Balandier: 62. p.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE

199 A DYING COLONIALISM (1970)

111.

225.

F. Fancn:

226.

Ibid.

227.

Duclos suggests that the reactions males and of colonized Moroccan women avoid the company of European females differ. men (to ward off 'conquest'), whereas Moroccan men seek the company of European women (to gain 'revenge or liberation'). to be "confused He takes both forms of sexual behaviour "Reflexions Duclos: L-J. vitality". affirmations of national & Duvignaud, J. Duclos, L-J. in le sur nationalismemarocain" REBINS (Paris FNSP/CERI 1966) J. Leca: L ES NATICNALIS1"S MAGIL, p. 43-4.

228.

See Note 43 above. Appeals for abstinence often coincide the eating taboos, of pork, with religious e. g. concerning the the smoking of of alcohol; consumption or any meat; In Islamic tobacco; the wearing of particular clothes. boycott countries, of European produce often has undertones of the asceticism of Ramadan.

229.

Ducios: "Reflexfons loc. cit. p. 44.

230.

Ibid.

231.

J. Berque: FRENCH NORTH AFRICA - THE MAGHRIB BETWEENTWO WORLDWARS (1967) p. 73.

232.

C. Geertz:

233.

F. Fanon:

234.

J. P. Charnay: LA VIE } USUI24ANEEN ALGERIE D'APRES LA (1965) SIEGLE XXe DU MOITIE IERE JURISPRUDENCEDE LA PR7; p. 243.

235.

J.

236.

Ibid.

237.

THE AFRICAN TOWARD in Syndrome" "The F. Fanon: North African of. "La Decouverte Sayad: de & A. REVOLUTICN (1970) Bourdieu P. and Andre Gide VT (1964) la Maladie" in LE DERACINla3}ic"i, pp. 215-20. the the "The less intelligent that white man, more remarked the black stupid man seems to him".

238.

J. Berque: AFRICA - THE MAGHRIB BLTtdEEN TWO WORLD FRENCH NOM "is this he WARS (1967) "And element 72. of continues, what", p. that, despite the triumphs of my administration, obscurity in baffles every sphere my planning science, my agriculture, my I that I that which covet and nor possess, which penetrate cannot

p.

p. 50.

p.

marocain"

(1966)

46.

Berque: p.

sur

le nationalisme

ISLAM OBSERVED(1968)

64. p.

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970)

p.

13-1-

DEPOSSESSICINDU A:CNDE(1964) p.

120,126.

120.

200

238.

long vainly last refuge

239.

P. Bourdieu:

240.

Berque

241.

Is it a last for? of human liberty"?

remnant

THE ALGERIANS (Boston

likens

'Barbarism',

of

1962)

p.

to a cave or family, ethic, the developments

these

sanctuaries may be called religion, grotto the 'inner with sanctum', all from the psychological and mythological DEPOSSESSION DU MCI-ME (1964) p. 156.

point

or a

157. "This refuge: sexuality, this suggests of view".

"In reality", "the effervescence Fanon asserts, and the by the woman in have been kept alive revolutionary spirit the home. For revolutionary war is not a war of men".

describes (1970) Berque 51. A DYING COLCIIIALISM similarly p. "unlike "the the the female she, nation"; as reserve army of indirectly. had usually the male, conquest undergone only had even Whereas man, dissociated, destroyed, and remade, the negation insult final been subjected to that of becoming the in Other, the which emotions of of woman, guardian has primacy of cradler over the acquired, primordial always the immemorial, the child, of conserver symbol of refuge, the years had remained throughout of all affirmative (1964), MONDE DU DEPOSSESSICN history". p. 14-15. colonial 242.

Fanon stresses 'vestimentary

the

role withdrawal'

COLONIALISM (1970),

of

the veil and the of Arab society.

in burnous A DYING

Unveiled"

p. 21-49.

Ch. 1 "Algeria

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970)

243.

F. Fanon:

244.

P. Mus: VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE GUERRE (1952)

245.

M. Hunter:

246.

the

p. 51.

BEACTICINSTO CONQUEST(1936)

p. 25-35.

P" 550-

a

G. Balandier: de la "Contribution une sociologic dependice" T14TERNATIONAUX DE SOCIOLOGIE in CAHIES 1952, p. 62. -

(7)

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

247.

G. Balandier: p. 270.

248.

J. P. Charnay: LA VIE rMUSULMANEEN ALGERIE (1965) p. 368. According to him, "serves it as a mark of as a refuge, identity, the master, of as a source and, by duping to survive". It helped personal satisfaction. self-respect Ibid. p. 368.

249.

G. Balandier: SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) "public life Mus remarks, that p. 62. carries similarly, on behind VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE DUNE a screen of bamboos". GUERRE, p. 30.

201

250.

As Fanon points

out:

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970) ä

251.

"Contribution G. Balandier: une sociologie (7) SOCIOLOGIE DE 3 INTZRNATIOIJAUX CAHIER. in

252.

G. Balandier:

253.

F. Fanon:

254.

G. Chaliand: 1968) p. 20.

p.

de la dependance" 1952, p. 54.

POLITICAL ANThROPOLOGY(1970)

A DYING COLCNIALISM (1970)

62.

p.

160.

p. 111-

(Paris GUERRE LA ET L: S PAYSANS NORD-VIETNAMIENS (Paris CHINE IId SECRETES LES SOCIETES

Chesneaux:

1966).

255.

J.

256.0.

LES CONFRERIESRELIGIEUSES Depont & X. Coppolani: 1897). MUSUUIAKz'3 (Algiers

257.

to the Fanon analyzes how 'A visit Ibid. p. 50, p. 108n. becomes complaint for the diagnosis doctor' of a physical between colonized and colonizer. a game of hide-and-seek

258.

D. Apter: p. 117-

(Princeton UGANDA IN THE POLITICAL KINGDOM

259.

F. Fanon:

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970)

260.

Ibid. p. 46. "Colonialism", its things happen without

261.

P. Mus: VIETNAM -

262.

J.

263.

Berque:

he adds, control".

p.

111.

"must

accept

(1952) GUERRE DUNE SOCIOLOGIE

DEPOSSESSICNDU MONDE (1964)

1961)

p.

the

that

fact

p. 117,122.

98.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE factor' of the the need to study the 'internal

G. Balandier: 6 stresses p. situation.

FRENCHNORTH AFRICA (1967)

P" 99-

264.

J.

265.

J. Berque: DEPOSSESSION DU NCNDE (1964) he adds. for the limits of the rape",

266.

Ibid"p.

267.

P. C. Lloyd:

268.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE G. Balandier: SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE 6. 'universal The analogy Levy's solvent' social p. with interest is in (p. 19 above) Levy's is interesting. chief it. Balandier's in what resists the solvent,

269.

Ibid" p. 6.

Berque:

colonial

p.

96.

"We must

look

97,98. AFRICA

IN SOCIAL CHANGE (Harmondsworth

1969)

p.

107.

202

270.

This is how Lerner characterizes the 'traditional' in his THE PASSING OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (1958).

271.

G. Balandier: p. 480.

272.

F. Fanon:

273.

C. Geertz:

274.

He also G. Balandier: POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY(1970) p. 173. DE ACTUELLE SOCIOLOGIE "tactical formalism", speaks of L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) p. 278.

275.

L-J. L-J.

mentality

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970) ISLAM OBSERVED(1968)

p. 51-

65p.

Duclos: "Reflexions marocain" sur le nationalisme BINS (1966) Duclos et al: LES NATIONALISMES MAGHRr.

(1963) NOIRE L'AFRIQUE DE SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE

276.

G. Balandier: 479p.

277.

J.

278.

G. Balandier: p. 33-4.

279.

C. S. Whitaker "A disrhythmic jr.: process (19) 1967, Jan. WORLD POLITICS in change"

280.

Ibid.

DZPOSSESSICNDU MONDE(1964)

Berque:

p.

in p. 43.

p.

98.

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

of political p. 205.

190. OF TRADITION

(1967)

p.

19.

281.

L. Z.

282.

ORDER AND M. Gluckman: CUSTCM AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (1956), LAW AND REBELLION IN TRIBAL AFRICA (1963), and POLITICS, POLITICAL E. Leach: 1965); RITUAL IN TRIBAL SOCIETY (London RETHINKING 1954), SYST2 S OF HIGdLAND BURMA (London ANTHROPOLOGY (London 1961).

283.

E. Leach: attributes

284.

Ibid.

285.

G. Balandier:

286.

"the admits, practical situations", the material treat of observation anthropologist must always otherwise equilibrium, as if it were part of an overall I am asking All is description impossible. becomes almost be that the fictional should equilibrium nature of this HIGHLAND OF BURMA SYSTE11S frankly POLITICAL recognized". (1954) p. 285. "In

& S. H. Rudolph:

THE I'ADERNITY

POLITICAL SYSTIZiS OF HIGHLAND BURMA (1954) p. to the influence this rigidity of Durkheim.

7

6, p. p. xiii. (1970) POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY fieldwork

Leach

p. 75.

203 SAINTS OF TEiE ATLAS (1969)

P. 53.

287.

E. A. Gellner:

288.

P. ].',us:

289.

G. Balandier: p- 33.

290.

Ibid.

291.

P. C. Lloyd:

292.

J.

293.

Misplaced J. R. Qusfield: "Tradition polarities modernity and OF JOURNAL AMERICAN in in the study of social change" SOCIOLOGY (72) Jan. 1967, p" 352-3"

294.

Ibid.

295.

(1954) BURMA HIGHLAND OF E. Leach: THE POLITICAL SYSTEMS p. 4-5.

296.

(ed. ): RELIGION C. Geertz: "The Discussion" in R. N. Bellah AND PROGRESSIN t: ODERNASIA (New York 1965) p. 151-

297.

Gusfield,

GUERRESANS VISAGE (1961)

p.

181.

SCCICLOGIEACTUELLEDE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

p. viii.

Berque:

AFRICA IN SOCIAL CHANGE(1969) DEPOSSESSICNDU 110NDE(1964)

p.

p.

93.

98.

p. 353.

who makes an initial

distinction

between

"the

(the 'official culture') Tradition" the urban centres of (the Tradition" Little communities of the village and "the this "the importance 'popular that of culture'), explains for a legitimizing diversity is that it provides principles "Tradition behaviour". and of sets wide set of alternative in the study Modernity Misplaced of social polarities The Rudolphs (1967) 353-4. make a loc. p. change", cit. 'popular' Brahmanic the distinction between and similar (TEE MODERNITY OF TRADITION 1967). traditions in India tradition Geertz distinguishes the 'orthodox' or 'classical' Von Grunebaum (ISLAM OBSERVED 1968). 'actual' from beliefs Islam 'folk' between differences the and also stresses (G. E. von Grunebaum (ed. ): UNITY AND 'Caliphian' Islam Chicago 1955)VARIETY IN MOSLEM CIVILIZATION Great

298.

E. Leach:

299.

C. S.

POLITICAL SYSTEMSOF HIGHLAND BURMA (1954)

Whitaker (1967) change"

p.

4.

"A disrhythmic of political process (p. "change 217) that He concludes cit. for those adversely subjected may offer novel opportunities to that or augment, reaffirm, recoup, change to defend, facilitate notwithstanding or value, antecedent activity latently that is or such activity manifestly value or inconsistent the character of the and direction with initial change". jr.: loc.

204 & S. H. Rudolph:

300.

L. I.

301.

E. Leach:

POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF HIGHLAND BURMA (1954)

302.

L. I.

303.

J. R. Gusfield: in

& S. H. Rudolph:

the

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION (1967)

of

and Modernity change"

social

& S. H. Rudolph:

p.

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION (1967)

"Tradition

study

p.

(1967)

Misplaced -

loc.

cit.

p.

8.

8. p.

10.

Polarities 355.

THE MODERNITY OF TRADITION (1967)

L. I.

305.

Ibid.

306.

(Paris) He 1950. DE L'ISLAM VOCATION Malek Bennabi: cf. "Post-Almohad" degenerate "colonisability" the of speaks of "inner the Africa, North in resources" and examines man of spirit. which could bring a "renaissance"

307.

"It to 111. A DYING COLONIALISM (1970) Fanon: seems p. the colonial interpret of to out that arising a phenomenon us the before terms in existing of conduct situation of patterns to is if this analogous foreign phenomenon conquest, even in is certain traditional nevertheless patterns, certain the distorts domination false.... very respects colonial his that the own with maintains colonized relations

p.

p.

10.

304.

11.

F.

Ibid.

culture".

p.

111.

& A. Sayad.

LE DERACINEMENT (1964)

19.

308.

P. Bourdieu

309.

Economique Developpement "Messianisme R. Bastide: et et (31) 1961, SOCIOLOGIE DE Social" in CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX (ed. ): SOCIAL CHANGE- THE COLONIAL I. Wallerstein trans. SITUATION (1966) p. 468.

310.

Ibid.

p.

468. p. THE TRUMPET SHALL SOUND (London

311.

P. Worsley:

312.

B. G. M. Sundkler:

313.

R. Bastide: "Messianisme (1961) loc. Social" cit.

314.

Ibid.

315.

G. Balandier:

316.

"Messianisme R. Bastide: (1961) loc. Social" cit.

317.

G. Balandier: (1963) p. vii.

p.

...,

1957).

BANTU PROPHETSIN SOUTH AFRICA (London et Developpement

Economique

et

468. POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY(1970) et Developpement 468. p.

p.

185-

Economique

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE

et

1961).

205

318.

This process is strikingly by Balandier among the charted SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE Ba-Kongo, with the Kimbanwist movement. DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) p. 417-487-

319.

R. Bastide: "Messianisme (1961) loc. Social" cit.

320.

E. E.

Evans-Pritchard:

excellent

321. 322.

analysis

of

Economique

et Developpement 476. p.

THE SANUSI OF CYRENAICA (1949) this process.

et is

an

F. Fanon: TIE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH (1967) p. 29. (IM) 5ERvE P1640 ISLAM C. Geertz:

323.

"but not in the "The two zones are opposed", Fanon suggests, Obedient to the rules of pure service of a higher unity. the principle Aristotelian logic, they both follow of (1967) EARTH OF THE WREETCHED THE reciprocal exclusivity". p. 30.

324.

J. P. Charnay:

325.

(no. PHAROS ARCHIVES INTERNATIONALES: "Les

LA VIE MUSULMANEEN ALGERIE (1965)

politiques

partis

en Algerie"

p.

97) Feb.

p.

371-

1947 Doct.

463:

1

LE. NATIONALISME AFRICAIN (1964)

25-

326.

P. Bonnafe:

327.

Ibid.

328.

L. I. & S. H. Rudolph: THE MODERNITYOF TRADITION (1967) 88-103. pp.

329.

G. Balandier: des nationalismes "Contribution en a l'etude (Brussels) April 1954, Afrique ZAIRE in p. 382-3noire" "are less he writes, "The movements which we call national", the expression shape, with well-defined of nationalities than reactions to the colonial situation".

330.

G. Balandier: passim.

331.

J. Berque: DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964) p. 142; G. Balandier: SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963) p. vii.

332.

J.

333.

G. Balandier: Afrique noire"

334.

E. Stokes: Nationalism"

p.

Berque:

p.

25-

SOCIOLOGIE ACTUELLE DE L'AFRIQUE NOIRE (1963)

DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964) "Contribution (1954) loc.

p.

172.

ä l'etude des nationalismes p. 383-5cit.

an

"Traditional Resistance Movements and Afro-Asian in PAST AND PRESENT (48) Aug. 1970, p. 109.

206

"Contribution (1954) loc.

N l'etude des nationalismes p. 379cit.

335.

G. Balandier: Afrique noire"

336.

Balandier that implies Hodgkin Ibid. 379. mistakenly P. 'orthodox' it by 'nationalism' to the sense given restricts T. Hodgkin: NATIONALISM IN TROPICAL AFRICA theorists. (1956) not but

p. 23-4. it because it because

en

'nationalism' the term Balandier In fact rejects fit the to facts, has too precise sense a pmre and that it is has so broad sense a and adulterated

unusable.

LE NATIONALISMS AFRICAIN (1964)

22.

337.

P. Bonnafe:

338.

G. Balandier: Afrique noire"

339.

that are Kilson, movements for example, nationalist asserts by leadership, "not in terms dominated, middle-class of only for protecting instruments Africans, but also.... and advancing, Africans". these interests the things, of class among other in West Africa" Classes ("Nationalism British in Social and ): (ed. Wallerstein (20) I. in JOURNAL OF POLITICS 1958 repr. ) (1966) 544. SITUATION SOCIAL CHANGE - THE COLONIAL p. (1970) Barratt-Brown: AFTER IMPERIALISM p. 182 echoes the Africa in liberation "the for that national point movements by men from middle-class or even and Asia are led mainly has Distrust often nationalism of origins". aristocratic

"Contribution (1954) loc.

p.

ä 1'"tude des nationalismes p. 379cit.

en

Luxemburg Rosa been a feature Marxist thought. notably of to its tendency its and nature, attacked anti-socialist from class struggle divert and colonized populations (J. P. Nettl: ROSA LUXEMBURG, London 1966, internationalism. to have accordingly Vol. II App. 2). Many Marxists preferred bequeathing forces, 'socialist' 'revolutionary' analyze or the term 'nationalism' to the bourgeoisie. 340.

M. Halpern: THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL CHANGEIN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA (1963) p. 197-

341.

T. Hodgkin:

342.

Ibid.

343.

M. L. Kilson: POLITICAL CHANGE IN A WEST AFRICAN STATE (1966), (10) POLITICS WORLD "The analysis in African of nationalism" Classes in Apr. "Nationalism 1958, pp. 484-97, and Social (20) 1958, British West Africa" in JOURNAL OF POLITICS

p.

NATIONALISM IN TROPICAL AFRICA (1956).

23-5-

PP. 368-87. 344.

For the identification with of nationalism (1967) K. Minogue: NATIONALISM p. 336-7.

patriotism,

of.

207

345.

the interpretative Duclos, for example, deplores Government versions in Morocco by Central of the "tribal history" or - which squeezes out popular ) (1966) loc. cit. marocain" sur le nationalisme

346.

I. cf. Africa"

"Ethnicity Wallerstein: in CAHIERS D'ETUDES

and National (3) AFRICAINES

grip established past - "Makhzen history"('"Reflexions

Integration Oct. 1960,

in pp.

West 129-139"

Movements and Afro-Asian Resistance "Traditional in PAST AND PRESENT (48) Aug. 1970, p. 108.

347.

E. Stokes: Nationalism"

348.

Some cold water is poured on the more exaggerated views of this & E. G. Ionescu in "Africa" S. Saul: J. 'populist' by school Interesting, (eds. ): POPULISM (London 1969) p. 122-50. Gellner World Third the historical of origins of revision sober, in been has numerous recent made nationalism nevertheless articles and monogrammes: 'primary resistance' Central East in and movements and modern nationalism (9) HISTORY 3-4 AFRICAN MODERN Africa" in JOURNAL OF imposition the to "African of colonial 1968, reaction and Gann & P. L. H. in Africa" East Central in rule and ): COLONIALISM IN AFRICA 1870-1960 Duignan'(eds. (Cambridge 1Vol. 1970) T. O. Ranger:

"Connections

between

in the Great Rebellion E. Stokes: "Rural revolt of 1857 "Traditional in India" in HISTORICAL JOURNAL (12) 4,1969, in Nationalism" Afro-Asian movements and resistance PAST AND PRESENT (48) Aug. 1970, and "The first century PRESENT PAST AND in India" Colonial Rule in British of (58) Feb. 1973. J. Iliffe: "The organization rebellion" of the Maji-Maji in JOURNAL OF AFRICAN HISTORY (8) 1967, and TANGANYIKA UNDER GERMANRULE 1905-12 (Cambridge 1969). in "Some origins J. M. Lonsdale: nationalism of African (9) 1968. HISTORY AFRICAN MODERN OF JOURNAL East Africa" in M. Crowder: WEST AFRICAN RESISTANCE (London 1971). is a North African The work of Mohamed Lacheraf precursor ALGERIE Cf. his this essays: collected of approach. NATION ET SOCIETE (Paris 1965). 349.

ä des nationalismes 1'etude L-J. Duclos: "Introduction theorique in marocain" maghrebins" sur le nationalisme and "Reflexions L-J. Duclos, J. Duvignaud, & J. Leca: LES NATIONALISMES MAGHREBINS (Paris FNSP/CERI 1966), and "The Berbers and the (eda): C. & Gellner Micaud Moroccan E. in rise of nationalism" ARABS AND BERBERS - From Tribe to Nation in North Africa (London 1973) pp. 217-229.

350.

L-J.

Duclos:

maghrebins"

351.

Ibid.

P. 7-8.

"Introduction (1966) loc.

theorique 8. p. cit.

a l'etude

des

nationalismes

208

352.

"The Berbers L-J. Duclos: (1973) loc. cit. p. 217-

and the

rise

theorique p. 8. cit.

of Moroccan ä l'etude

nationalism"

des nationalismes

353-

L-J. D9aclos: "Introduction (1966) loc. maghrebins"

354.

VIETNAM - SOCIOLOGIE He uses the two interchangably, cf. "Le XVI: Chapter DUNE GUERRE (1952), patriotisme esp. p. 218-229. vietnamien",

355.

(1952) GUERRE DUNE SOCIOLOGIE VIETNAM P. Mus: -

356.

Ibid.

p.

p.

199"

228. (1965) SOCIETE ET ALGERIE - NATION

pp.

69-72.

357"

M. Lacheraf:

358.

(London ALGERIA FRENCH OF THE PASSING Gordon: cf. D. C.. the Wtl3 i Lacheraf's 131-2,186-7,192-5 place on pp. Revolution. Algeriern the theorists of

1966)

359.

(1965) 9. SOCIETE ET ALGERIA NATION Lacheraf: M. p. 'national between distinguish sentiment' does, however, 'the p. 29. nationalist phenomenon',

He and

360.

Ibid.

361.

F. Fanon: TOWARDTHE AFRICAN REVOLUTION (1970) War and Man's Liberation". "The Algerian

362.

This view F. Fanon: THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967) p. 47. "Frantz Nghe: Nguyen by 'unscientific' has been attacked as in LA PENSEE Fanon et les problemes de l'independance" March-April 1963.

363.

Cf. esp. F. Fanon: THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH (1967) Ch. 3, 119-165. Consciousness" "The Pitfalls National pp. of

364.

Ibid.

365.

The J. Berque: DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964) p. 170. be he behaviour the should adds, population, of colonized "on the "in to", but simply also relation examined not only Ibid. the colonial p. 170. situation. occasion of",

366.

J. P. Charnay:

367.

W.H. Morris-Jones: (London 1964) p.

368.

J. Beattie: "Awareness of Group and Self in small-scale tc societiesLFe ce of ýtýio uro J`alIr ýn La Aslsoo 1969) e estoo eý ie at pn, Association for the tu yo sycho ogyý perimenta ttei mimeo. p. 4) behaviour, he adds, is expressed not in "rational-legal" is "diffuse" terms, but in "traditional" terms; authority (P. 5). than "specific". rather

p.

10. pp.

154-159:

p. 163.

LA VIE MUSULMANEEN ALGERIE (1965)

P" 369.

AND POLITICS OF INDIA THE GOVERNMENT 58.

209

"The Berbers p. 217. cit.

and the

of Moroccan

369.

L-J. Duclos: (1973) loc.

370.

"Some people Lacheraf that Ibid. experienced suggests p. 217. the Revolution through theory, sincerely and often at the albeit born lives. Others, themaijority, their with energy of cost of through it facts, despair, hope concrete experienced mingled and They distant the inherited from drama past. as a necessary destiny this of a history across glimpsed as one whole,

rise

bitter and misfortune, nameless obscure struggle, (M. Lacheraf: ALGERIE - NATION ET SOCIETE (1965) 371.

372.

L-J.

Duclos:

loc.

cit.

"Reiflexions

sur

le

nationalism"

frustration". p. 26).

marocain"

nationalisme

(1966)

p. 37.

Fanon's 40. The Ibid. image is of remark p. reminiscent "the old granite block upon which the nation rests". concerning 86). Duclos (THE WRETCHEDOF THE EARTH Elsewhere, 1967 p. testing-ground for "a 'Berber to as refers nationalism' ideas the degree determining of new adaptability of by the doctinarians". 'The Berbers and the rise of ) (1973) 228. loc. p. nationalism' cit.

launched Moroccan

of Moroccan

373.

L-J. Duclos: nationalism"

"The Berbers and the rise (1973) loc. p. 221. cit.

374.

M.L. Kilson: p. 186.

POLITICAL CHANGEIN A 1TESTAFRICAN STATE (1966)

375.

M. Lacheraf:

ALGERIE - NATION ET SOCIETE (1965). p.

376.

J. S. Saul: "Africa" POPULISM (1969) p.

377.

J. Beattie: "Awareness of Group and Self in small-scale (1969) Cf. also R. Levine: loc. societies" cit. P. 3. "The internalization Values in Stateless of Political Societies" in HUMAN ORGANIZATION (19) p. 51-8.

378.

J. S. Saul:

379.

Ibid. "The three apparent resistance", p. 127. causes of tribal Duclos argues, "are of a religious, and economic nature. political All three are inscribed But local context. within a narrowly even when thus reduced to their points of most concrete

"Africa"

in G. Ionescu127.

(1969)

loc.

cit.

& E. Gellner

p.

16.

(eds. ):

127-

the same argument reference, and the same demands are clearly recognizable was to take up as the nationalism of the future (1966) 'Reflexions le again". marocain' sur nationalisme loc. cit. p. 22.

380.

L-J. loc.

Duclos: "R4flexions sur le nationalisme 49. "The clan spirit cit. p. and its

(1966) marocain" ramifications.....

210

380.

may initially seem to weaken national cohesion, the values on which provide a means of exalting fulfilling its eventual purposes".

381.

L-J. Duclos: "The Berbers (1973) loc. cit. p. 228.

382.

Ibid.

383.

L-J. loc.

384.

M. Lacheraf:

ALGERIE - NATION ET SOCIETE (1965)

385.

L-J. Duclos: (1973) loc.

"The

and the

"R'flexions 21.

cit.

consciousness bases, if the

sur

Berbers p. 220. identity

le

natio, 1alisme

387.

"North

nationalism"

Charnay: African

LA VIE

marocain"

p.

70.

of self-awareness areas with as a whole).... 218. (1965)

MtJSULMANE EN ALGE IE

nationalism",

(1966)

Moroccan nationalism" "that he asks, territorial on narrow

of and the rise "Does it matter", first developed

of of such conjunction (the provided.... society colonized of simultaneous self-expression"p. J. P.

of Moroccan

rise

and

p. 219. Duclos: cit. p.

386.

but in reality it is based,

Lacheraf

complains,

p. "has

a means

224. often

been spoken of as if it were not a local movement, stemming from an indisputably from profound realities and resulting There has always been a historical national evolution. to blame the Arab tendency to treat it as an intrusion, League or "Radio Cairo" forýM %.Shreb national movements". 69. ALGERIE - NATION ET SOCIETE, Berque:

388.

J.

389.

R. Pherson:

390.

F. Fanon:

391.

J.

DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964) FROM EMPIRE TO NATION (1960)

p. p.

17257-8.

A DYING COLONIALISM (1970) p. 111. Berque: DEPOSSESSIONDU MONDE (1964) p. 172.

211

CHAPTER THREE

ALGERIAN SOCIETY BEFORE FRENCH OCCUPATION

I.

THE FRAMEWORKOF INTERPRETATION

212

II.

SEGMENTATION

218

III.

LINEAGE AND NOMENCLATURE

227

IV.

NON-AGNATIC ALLIANCES

231

V.

CONTINGENCYAND DIFFUSION OF POWER

237

VI.

SACREDNESS

246

VII.

MARGINALITY

260

VIII.

THE TURKISH REGIME

267

NOTE5

To C-IAPTTR TltREE,

'ßa12 .

212

I.

OF INTERPRETATION THE FRAMEWORK

To understand French

under of the

the

political

by telescoping

French occupation.

detectable

The result,

variety

of

its

learning

and handicraft5like

artisans

of more recently

Oran; the

sedentary

Tellian

Greater

Kabylia

Oranais

Plateaux,

and the Hodna;

Saharan French towns of

confines

of

suzerainty

forest

this

from apparent

and cultural

including

'Morocco'

structure

of Algeria,

to the

caste,

interior,

living

whole

which

Islamic

frame

Regency or the

and undermined

these

sendentary

and the

on the

pre-

eve:. of

based on coastal from

a foundation

extended

In discussing

we must expand our

of the Turkish

lay

diversity

the Ouarsenis

the

proceeds

tribes.

surrounding

of the

and

desert

military

patterns,

and 'Tunisia'.

transcended

the

Trara,

Aures Massif;

jigsaw,

population

the

and of

on the

Kabylia,

and the

and

plains

pastoralists

of Lesser

Turkish over

and levies

'Algeria'

both

on this

was a small

economic,

'game'

the Dahra,

in

and nomads of the

beneath

confines

and Mitidja

of

and

at Algiers

ports

the'Cheliff

the mountains

centres

tradesmen

oases;

piracy,

narrow

coastal

transhumant

to

was the

old

Constantine;

Saharan

claiming

of

townspeople

Superimposed

However, social,

demography:

semi-nomads

occupation,

trade,

society

Steppes

Atlas.

but

of Algerian

of

tries

chapter

compressed and schematic.

of the

of the

cultivators

is

tree-cultivators

and in

components

features

established

mountains;

This

Algeria

ýstablýshed - behaviourAbefore the of

patterns

Tlemcenand

village

the major

'game'.

or

in

situation

necessarily,

cereal-growers

Atlas;

colonial

to identify

process

One of the most striking bewildering

of the

we need firstly

rule,

indigenous

do this

dynamics

far

of shared beyond

Far West (Maghreb) the

territorial

-

socio-political

of reference French

the

outside

colony.

the

The indigenous

definitions.

213

One possible . extremely

starting

between

'primitive

differentiate

state'

authority,

- and in which

short

a government

status

correspond

'Group

B' societies,

and in

there

which

terms,

of networks In

Turkish

limited

for

The disjunction that

so great

Yet there of

aspects;

independence drew their 'Group

the -

legitimation B' communities.

status

government

1

and wealth".

be described

as a coexistence A systems.

of quasi-Group

to mere juxtaposition.

Alawite

in Morocco,

dynasty

of the

territory

and population,

despite

greater

life

of the

the

time,

of political as separate degree

frequently

respected

of the

tribes

by the presence

two forms treatment

by most tribes, in

In a sense,

and practical In important

power

interior

overt

'authorities'.

of these organization

was often

systems. The

by these"'cehtral at

least

practice,

in

the

'Group

from

the

segmentary

therefore,

its

they

too,

respects,

an

continued

of interpenetration.

asserted

was so even when,

or recalcitrance.

lack

over

suzerainty

this

nuclei amounted

was a significant

was tacitly

administrative

control

require

also

overall

authorities' spiritual

they

rank,

and

had effective -

most of the between

and

and Algiers

The political

undisturbed,

which

could

with

authority'

portion

of

situation

coexistence

in Tunis

regencies

pretensions.

the

this

short

divisions

B systems

'centralized

of

in -

African

of quasi-Group

Those nuclei

fiction

North

the

privilege

authority,

centralized

are no sharp

in -

of power and authority",

institutions

some respects,

extremely

lack

They

have centralized

of wealth,

cleavages

an

societies.

institutions

and judicial

distribution

"which

and judicial

In these

the

to the

"which

societies,

machinery,

administrative

machinery

A'

is

world

and Evans-Pritchard

and 'stateless'

societies

'Group

between

this

of

drawn by Fortes

distinction

rudimentary

discussion

for

point

manifested

At authorities dynamics these

of

two forms

214

of political single

Historiography adopted

the

the

down'.

and political

perspective

reinforced

by Eurocentric

been to distort

the

the

cultural

fragmented shaped their Algeria,

in

the

harassed

only

be extended can -

growth"2

tradition

urban

remark

about

than

was shallower

in

-

now

but

they

also to

emphasis

even greater

with

Morocco

may seem, in

as this

and exploited

has

"stateless"

of the

now federated,

aggressive,

mobile,

The result

paradoxical

not,

has

has been

this

authority", Geertz's

lay

tradition

written

'nation-buildingt.

"central

of the

often 'from

has looked

dynasties;

central in

interest

who not

where the

the

of gravity

but

tribes,

indigenous

the

that

it

authority';

interrelationship.

centre

cities,

'central

with

nature

and of their

great

is

One reason

been associated

"its

of a

of the Maghreb has too

analysis

of the

invariably

tribes,

or extremes,

as parts,

interaction.

political

top

must be viewed

organization

the

of the

rest

Maghreb. Most of the of gravity French not

tied

It

colonizers.

indigenous

sources of the

accounts

on powerful lacked

overall

emerged were vague: 'clannishness', Atlas'

practical

order

families,

or on religious

theoretical anarchj family',

brotherhoods'.

coherence. ,

goals

the

conquest

'villages'

brotherhoods. The generalizations

'feudal

nobility',

and

case studies

'tribes',

republics',

of the

was to locate

number of

'Berber

centre

and administrators,

concern

to facilitate

on individual

quality,

'Berber

by soldiers

A considerable

population.

'patriarchal

and 'xenophobic

Their in

of authority,

local

conducted

3

tribal

and administrative

military

was largely

were ammassed, of variable 'regions',

to the

anthropologistb.

of Algeria's

investigation

European

was closely

by trained

control

initial

'tribal 'Lords

or

These raw which empires', of the

215

Some of these specifically

According"to African

as Berque

"instinctively

deeper

'pagan'

customs

tended

to be cut

ended up,

"Berque

above all

by his

from his

culture:

re for

him,

and the

was serious

in

communal life,

everyday

- and a wrong

to look

for

5

that -

one - in

which the

"We thus

East.

of a man determined it

that

him off

cut

but

unknown or antagonistic, 6 home". for a national

refuge

of the Maghreb's

and neglect

the

The general

of the moslem religion

of the role

underestimation

age-old

Maghrebology

to us,

exotic

consequence

view

forces,

the Middle

from

a right

the

of Islam.

practice

Studies,

"with

suggests, environment

age-old

d'e

Islamic

from

facts,

tended

Research

'token'

the

underlying off

4

Islam".

than

the

sought

the

Many observers,

roots.

shallow

veneer.

on the Maghreb;

imposition

its

beneath

determining Islamic

was the myth of the

was an alien

lay

reality

suggests,

were a stage

raison

Islam

this,

these

or more

as 'myths',

and functioned

One of

priorities.

a Eurocentric,

contained

bias,

colonialist

research

North

generalizations

in

place

the

total

moslem world. Another 'Algerian

interpretative This

vulgate'.?

and Berber-speaking

organization

and spirit,

hard-working, destructive with

the

thrifty, Arabs.

8

implication

divisible

from

'Islamic

veneer

and perhaps

of the

Maghreb,

led

observers

to look

which

typically

It

grounds.

sedentary

that

the

the

two

This Berbers

more open to conversion

largely

vain,

and

the

were hostile

were regarded to

notion

Berber

often

Christianity.

in

the

around

the

'communities'

Arab-speaking

on pseudo-racial

and indolent,

myth'

the

differences

for

outsider,.

'Kabyle

the

as

between

revolved

Berbers,

The Arab was the

each other. myth';

to distinguish

sought

populations

and cultural

has been described

drift

9

of

native,

to or

coincided

as less

communal

deeply

with

the

islamicized,

216

A further central

Duclos

processes. less

more typical

was only

contribution

He extended

a detailed

a wide-ranging

and many of the and misleading.

inferences

other

those

many of his

developments

important

particularly

hand,

in

to the

relating

and brought 12

community

politics change

of political Islamic

factor,

were overconfident

material

themes foreshadowed

social

A

13

by Montagne.

the

neglected

he drew from his

which

On the

and extremely

research,

He greatly

of French

anthropology.

process

11

structures.

from myths,

of South Moroccan

a

was

society

and 1940's

1930's

the

was merely

findings

of social

of the historical

the Maghreb.

14

the

observation account

in

and continuity

later

was made in

the

liberated

insights

it

that

justify Indeed,

political

that

and occasionally

'structural'

to

tribal

wide-scale

establishing

or Tunisian

regime.

central

traditional

was rather

Moroccan

asserted

were systematized,

the

in

political

It

retrospectively

this

Algeria

and that

gradually

with

contact

into

of

investigators

striking

for

about

expression",

incapable

chronically

into

seeking

were not

10

complex". than

historiography

generalization

"a geographical

colonial

"makhzen

the

of a 'Protectorate'

establishment

It

Algerian

the French

for

research,

calls

in

prevalent

this

the

whereby

of indigenous

focus

a natural

constituted

government

that

been mentioned:

has already

tendency

much

anthropological

dynamics

of

conflict

and

games theory. The work of Berque importance. defies

15

is

the Eurocentrism

He exhaustively in

His

Maghrebology,

revises

in

the

1950's

an extremely

and 1960's

subtle

stands

structuralist

of most social

anthropological

and reassesses

the

and in particular

brings

out

cruder

in

approach,

categorizations.

generalizations

back Islam

which

into

social

current analysis.

217

His masterly

him to manipulate

enables

'moments'

or

1960's,

the

Islamic

This

but of the

speaking

social

a French

domain.

Until

this

took

"badly

hampered".

recent

years

17

The major

have resulted

interpretative

thread,

of Maghreb data Early

with

his

study

the pattern

of

of this

work were digested

small

outline

of

segmentary

theory

being

Much of segmentary and Berque,

the

theory his

direct

from

indirect,

"The Sanusi

other

for

research

16 was in

studies

as a central

the

association

of the

World.

Third

in

operating However,

This

1949.

Northiof the

the

implications

of Sub-Saharan

The publication,

in

was the

and directly

first

applied

1958, sign

within

18

Maghrebology. credit

of segmentary

continent.

theory

de 1'Algeria"

studied

actively

exclusively

to Evans-Pritchard,

of Cyrenaica"

Maghrebologists. "Sociologie

and English-

African

areas

belongs

change.

Sahara.

ethnology

from

sense,

segmentation dynamic

to North-West detailed

of the

North

only

remained

African in

not

of the

dynamics

much more by anthropologists

Bourdieu's

of French

the

rest

North

a more general

albeit

by French-speaking

framework

long

the use of segmentary

undergoing

of

the

the

advances

of patrilineal

in a society

than

place,

analysis

this,

Sahara,

Africa

in

political

for

credit

who published

in

recent

from

and,

to

relating

made by anthropologists

off

were almost

Maghrebologists

advances

cross-fertilization

to be out

French-speaking

between

Maghreb studies

for

As a consequence,

being

described

divergence

'alternations'

done south

from work being

analysis

'structure'.

overall

the Maghreb tended

also

by theoretical

uninfluenced

as 'signs',

and anecdotes

of

anthropology,

and far-sighted

observation

a many-facetted study

research,

was one effect

societies

facts

to illuminate

Until from

of intimate

combination

introducing

Africa

lies

has centred

the with

perspectives

Gellner.

on the

of

Like

Moroccan

Montagne

High

Atlas,

218

but

like

interest

combined

19

fruitful.

from

dynamic

20

variants.

from

findings

Several

French

on a growing

school

Africa,, this

countries,

other

too,

North

into

theory,

scholars,

enormously

its

especially this

now share

21

Segmentary

has been unable,

theory

traditional

of

abstract

to

has been segmentary

interest

central

perspective.

account

research

His

philosophical

influence

social-anthropological

and contributing

the

has proved

anthropology,

His work has had considerable

of Anglo-American

school's

and in

politics,

social

Maghreb as a whole.

to the

conclusions

in Moroccan

of dynamic

ramifications

Drawing

his

them he extends

and explanatory

concepts

generated

II.

to provide

in

Maghreb.

processes

political

need to be tempered

aspects

however, the

some of

with

the

an exhaustive Its

factual

material

French-speaking

by earlier

more

ethnologists.

SEGMENTATION

A sample European North

of working

observers

African

classifications

to describe

communities

the

provides

Twentieth-Century

used-by

organization

socio-political both

diversity

striking

of

and overall

uniformity: '

Bourdieu: a.

Conjugal

d.

Tribe

family e.

Bousquet: a.

Nuclear

d.

Tribe

Algerian

in general22

Extended

family

c.

Fraction

(or

'clan')

c.

Fraction

Confederation. Berbers

family c.

b.

Arabs

(or

throughout 'hearth')

Confederation.

the Maghreb 'b.

Extended

23 family

219 4

a.

Extended

c.

Tribe.

Nuclear

lineage f.

Tribe

a. c.

Complex clan Montague:

e.

b.

Latron:

family

a.

Group

f.

a.

Extended

Both

the in

g.

'section')

these

to which reality.

(or

clan')

of

Confederation.

d.

c.

and the

Tribe

primary

in

4d.

Tribe

secondary

section,

Tribe.

It

lies

29

Cyrenaica30

density

classifications.

28

Fraction

co

(clan,

Tribe

d.

Low Steppe

'douar')

) etc.

Clearly

-

27

h.

Fraction

Sections

variation

'simple

Meknes the plains of

family

b.

mountains26

Fraction

c.

Tunisian

c.

Berbers

section...

in

substantive

(or

(or

Maghreb

the

of the

the nomenclature

extent

Minor

c.

Tribe.

Nomadic Arabs

family

considerably

Kabylia

Sub-division

family

Extended

tertiary

section,

the

Subfraction

Semi-nomads

Evans-Pritchard: Extended

e.

Division

Lineage

b. e.

b.

Moroccan

b.

'house')

Village

d.

from

Nomads throughout

Despois:

Tent

(or

family

Sub-group

Berbers,

Algerian

Extended

a.

village)

family

Confederation.

g.

Bourdieu:

a.

(or

-

Extended

b.

mountains

Complex fraction

b.

general25

'hearth')

Sub-section

Patriarchal

in

Aures

southern

fraction)

Arabs

(or

family

the

from

simple

Moroccan

d.

Tent

(or

family

Hoffman: a.

Berbers,

Algerian

Tillion:

the

rungs

of structural is

difficult

mind of the

a common pattern

vary

to gauge observer,

or

the

underlies

differences. Theories explain

this

24

of segmentary kind

of baffling

have been developed

opposition unity

in

diversity.

to

What they

offer

220

initially

is

social

two figurative The first

process.

their

explain

model

these

by means of which

tree

genealogical

transcribes

logic

the

ways of representing

the

and modifies

themselves

communities

origins31: SAT

Confederation

Tribal

DF

Extended

HIJKLMN0

Family

PRSTUVWXYZ

Household

The modification map (implying indication

social when

the

of

issues

occurring

at

and would

jointly

Households

PQR

TUV

level,

or

Q would

household

level,

at

would

level

- rights

contend

with

and S would

where they E),

the

form a rival

be ranged

tribe

A's

against

territory,

common enemy.

group

say on a question

both

these

groups

operation.

in

be distinct

from

each

act

as one over for

issues instance

-

R and S.

of households

D against

terms

distribution

the

to water,

however,

at

households

of grazing

land.

the

whole

of transhumance,

segment

as an

Thus,

have a common interest,

such as regulation

might

claims

which

at

over

But they

but

example),

points,

come into P and

family

extended

As for

of lineage

as a kind

model not

segmentation

potentially

example.

(group W and

questions,

levels,

arise

for

this

an ancestor

households

action,

.0.

to view

from

might

of seed corn

clan

is

descent

sub-groups

other

A2

B

Segment

Clan

of

A2) T

Al

Tribe

and

of the

C, and iii

the

case of

segments

would

unite

On wider

invasion in

B

segment

face

of of

the

221

The social each

second is

system of

which

loyalty,

method

by means

represents

radiating

of

from

out

of

the

of

this

loyalty,

potential

smallest

to

group

kind

concentric

of

series

or

a nest,

a rung

logic

the

demonstrating

of

or

of circles,

division

of

largest32:

the

etc .............

The of

feature

significant

segmentary

is

structure

themselves,

organize

in

understood

but

characterized

Viewed

through

the

Maghreb

socio-political

features

of All

pattern. groups,

and

by

Maghreb

There

differentiation.

Conflict

institutionalized

as

each

when acted

in

other:

a 'tribe'

conflict

as a coherent

with

only another

'village'

2.

Extended

1.

Household

level

can

The

segments

to

defined

'village' of

this

of

many

an intelligible of

larger

tents'

social

fragmentation

through

opposition body

political or when

or often

and

endemic,

an effective

'group

operation

mutually-exclusive

potential

a

be

only

schemata, into

was

communities

which

fusion.

and

groups

representations at

were

'tribe';

Family

levels

fall

were

Segment

idealized

disposition

became

or

Clan

life

several

Units

3.

idealized

these

between

feud.

Tribal

system.

groups

was a constant

4.

fission

of

contained

Tribe

each

overall

filter

5.

these

that

chronic

social

themselves

sub-groups.

to

the

Confederation

specific

fact

is

system

the

not

the

to

relation

both

of

6.

'group it

of

clashed

tents'

222

with

'villages'

other

itself

mobilized

to protect

were threatened group

there

"This

schism.

Built-in fusion.

a level

Disputes

in

of Gellner

and sub-division",

of the

activation

meant that

inherent;

it

indicates,

are

to be found

but

it

in

the

by a threat is

the

from

outside

split

or confederation

with

groups

at

once the

internal

assertions

than

rather

as Gellner at home, but

of size

for

which

'outside"1.35

of dispute of

up 11.34

does crop

level

source

available the

ensures

must be a corresponding

evaporated,

line,

the

coercion

every

segments

These segments

"Cohesidn", of

as cleavage. rival

was contingent

by agencies

and hence

up through

latent,

menace.

external

there

along

when a conflict

of groups

not

outside; home',

even if

other Each

as well

of power. all

also

grouping.

rival

of equivalent

potentially

solidarity

maintained

an 'at

Once this

relevant

promoted

point

'balance'

rivalry,

also

segmentation

solidarity

expressed

exist'

stemmed from "is

unity

eventual

and their

sizes',

all

higher

by the mobilization

they

ready,

the

to an equivalent

thus

an overall,

were "ever

groups

each

number of points

fission,

generated

opposition

were settled

ensure

there

Within

families'.

which

groupings

of possible

moment of segmentation

or

of division

For each subsection,

subsections,

This

an endless

the

all

competition

represented

'in

existed

when these

33

society".

to

'extended

family'

interest

shared

by rival

principle

"generates

suggests,

an 'extended

of tents';

and promote

or blocked

and sub-group,

likely

'groups

or

sub-group

was removed, 'solidarity'

'independence'. Perhaps

Maghrebology

the major

contribution

has been its

patterned

of this

segmentary

explanation

of the

theory

to

otherwise

223

bewildering by earlier the

of levels

variety

to locate

ethnologists

level

'tribe'

of

which

them.

terminology

There

them,

by the

or from a 'fraction

was casually

bestowed

alliances

occasionally

mushroomed in response

which

threat,

or to

Bourdieu,

for

ill-defined

together

A weaker

tribe

may then

together

to

happens

that

a vast

without

ever

"are

really

squaring

is

level

- one which

it

war,

a North

mobilized

as a corporate

tribes

weaker

often "most

only long

up to

equal

strangers

It

the pointed

'tribe'?

early

colonizers

entity,

their

"

question

They abstracted believed conquest

the key to

of loose

seemed little

notion

social

they

more than tribes",

great

37

of the asked

'tribe',

by Berque:

one social had witnessed

{reotc1. - and action.

sometimes

a particular

around

a state

of the

ab

power may join

confederations".

to the

clung

African

to resist

disguised

in

and

when a coalition

of powerful of

clan;

by a common danger.

be formed

will

themselves

ethnologists

"what

action,

or groups

of fractions:

coalitions

French

the

But tribes

Marcais,

wrote

protection

confederation holds

which 36

temporary

own submission,

threatened

or

or strong

oppose a-common enemy or make new conquests.

family

vassalage".

seek the

The term

as "vague

stem from

usually

two or more tribes

of its

price

great

that

a

to an external

leader

'confederations'

describes

example,

from

hegemonies

on temporary

of an influential

organizations

may bring

the

the ambitions

of

undermined

of a tribe'.

'confederation'

at

comprehensible.

a 'tribe'

on how to distinguish

of tribes',

which

even less

made reality

of control appearance

'clans'

or

Attempts

organization.

up institutions

baffled

transcended

was no agreement

'confederation

of social

or set

were constantly

'confederations' Imprecise

and forms

"

in rj

"The framework

224

of knowledge, been the

their

welter

objective

38

tribe".

to plot

in

the

Attempts

of contradiction

Morocco

'tribe',

in

other

confusing

the

places 40

an 'agglomeration'.

on a pinhead.

speech;

it

sterile

phenomenon,

and partly

incomprehensible

if

from

the

....

transience.

This

themselves, which

are they

which

but

that

"it

the

in

system.... some extent

their

they

overall

an arbitrary

were as

was a figure it was

of social

structure to pin

of

down the

components

aware he becomes of their lies the

not

not

facts

the

facts

themselves

level,

their

in

the

function

context". 'clans',

43

always

lay

in

not

or groups,

form part

or.

were equally Gellner

to be tempted

ethnography

units

of tents',

Maghreb,

of the

The mistake

political

they

'groups

existence

corporate

French

for

one may define

The designation

is

environment

group".

for

It

as

the number of angels

originality.

to treat

segmentary

isolation,

places

42

had a fixed

crucial

total

disposition,

attempts

was a mistake

"however

treated

the

....

several

as a

characteristics; 41 It artificial".

tries

their

system

but in

In the

because

the

similar, as if

for

search

in

perform

fruitless. argues,

is

some places

a tribe

"the-more

he declared,

important,

Other, 'villages'

the

"The more the analyst system",

surveys

or fixed

was "a secondary

of

French

activities

suggested,

structure

isolated

in

as computing

As Berque

was done amid a

cites

and in

These timeconsuming

had no concrete

interaction.

group

same social

as a 'fraction',

and essentially

dancing

Berque

and anachronism;

listed

which

This

always

tribes,

and enumerate

39

maps'.

"has

complained,

were made to list

on 'tribal

boundaries

Berque

of action",

by the

understanding they

of a larger

cannot

be

social

of autonomous political groups is always to 44 At any one time in Algeria, matter". the

225

scale

political

of effective

one geographical Algeria,

the

social

systems

segmentary This

was its

the

reinforced

linguistic, long

view

from of

fluctuated

Both were of the

which

the

same

of interaction.

differences

Berber-Arab the

understanding between

continuity

a common framework

within that

to the

were purely had

of Maghrebologists

consensus

been tending. The segmentary

of

of the

and 'Arabs'.

towards

a view

any one area

theory

segmentary

confirmation

and fitted

type,

in

organization

political

of

'Berbers'

of

considerably

to another.

one era

contribution

Africa

differed

conversely,

of effective

from

One minor of North

to another;

area

scale

considerably

organization

"ordered

fairly

model also

anarcl jt,

stable

political chronic

fractionalization

to reconcile

offers over

time,

result tribes

and tribal

between

approximate

their

fusion,

However, deceptive. characterized mirror

apparent forces

is

interaction,

individual

suggests

"the

that

and internal

by a tendency

balanced

theory

segmentary

that,

and differentiation'

'assimilation

fission

despite

political

by positing

contradictions

it

towards

far-reaching Classic

ease.

a

and conversely,

organisms,

of

equilibrium;

sections

parts

of the

groups

these

within

unstable,

surprising

paradox

by Montagne45:

social

of social

counter-vailing

in

among others

were chronically

form with

could

offers

of long-term

pattern

formations

hegemonies

noted

of the

an explanation

in

the

tendency

of

opposition direction

of

46 combination the

formal

One reason

by monadism, the

of

simplicity is

of groups"*

or amalgamation

that that

characteristics

real

the

groups

situation of all

segmentary in

the

whereby higher

model is,

Maghreb were not nesting

and lower

segmentary level

47 groups.

226

At the

base of

but

fact

in

even the for

existence, tent

the model,

in

clan

they

domestic

rather 1

detail".

family

than

On the

by certain

or sporadic whole)

is

beyond

it,

focus

its

of behaviour;

levels

Between these intermediate exist

however,

existence

two structural varied

an infinite

to be confronted

Maghreb modes of life. possibilities

for

political

term,

the

in

in

a cultural

extremes,

number of potential factual

the

are problems The tribe only

"the

(as a

Certainly

52

segmentation

were finite,

they

51

and density

The logical

situations

and

action; sense".

a weak

tribe 50

chain".

range

In any one environmental, organization

49

provided

of political

as

extended

as super-confederations

considerably.

with

hamlet

unit.

often

example,

domestic

there

to Sahlins,

terms

"only

too,

should

them further

unit".

segmentary

of loyalty

of behaviour

groupings

in

for

purely

political

according

link

in nature;

the

treated

nest,

(say)

of

and perhaps

discuss

largest

effective

of that

such vague layers

represented

there

widest

size

and the

"political

lowest

segmentary

definitions

had a spurious

regions

"the

as both

head - the

the

and do not

or

generations.

political

groups,

and Tait

Middleton

three

up to the

the household,

group

building

Evans-Pritchard,

groups,

the weakest

often

from higher

family,

group',

least

than

rather

indivisible,

physical

of at

groupings

at all.

political

as to what constituted itself,

the

edge of the

outer

that

is

had no separate

and the

the kin

functions

By contrast,

and - through

unit"

'hearth',

'family',

analysis

'nuclear

as the

or

individual

unit

as domestic

"we regard

that

family,

arguable

in political

explained

in

is

different

performed

the

incorporated

be regarded

should

figure

not

it

course,

African

dwelt,

it

More importantly, the

nuclear

North

the

which

of

of

premiss points

and realities

needs, of

at any one time, and the

that

formal

the

227

fluidity

of the

ideal

segmentary

topographical

and socio-economic

tree-cultivating

communities

example,

made the

clan

together

extended

families

effective points

there

stable

groups.

complex

So it

clan

Mountains

or adroum)". is

of Northern

is

and segmentation

defining the

Similarly,

more or

simple

Hart

"terminal

the

in practice

grouping

"among these

unit

most vital

for

mobilized

thresholds

true

53

but

village,

suggests,

mark out the

that

tribe'

highlands,

the most regularly

which

densely-populated,

argues

that

in

the

unit"

54

Morocco.

LINEAGE AND NOMENCLATURE

Social terms

segments

Arabic

"Ouled"...

they

tried

of time

- through

variety

of nomenclature

idea

was a coherent

names.

there

The inaccuracies

appeared

only

confused

about

to show that their

actual

the

illiterate

origins.

were thankless,

throughout detail

at work behind

and inconsistencies

which

legend,

and written

and contradictory

process

migrations,

conflicts,

conquests,

and repetition mass of overlapping

back through

genealogies

inference.

The accumulated that

these

"

sons of...

) a common ancestor.

"Ait"...

both on oral relying 55 Such undertakings

and on etymological the

chart

"the

themselves

Berber

in

to

and intermarriages

alliances

called

in

themselves

defined

Maghreb typically

the

or "Beni"...,

ethnologists

vicissitudes

given

in

descent;

of patrilineal

Some early the

of the

As Bourdieu

is

Kabyliä

Greater

of the

Special

reality. among the

conditions

--

(takharroubt

III.

(in

-a

some...

'self-contained

the Rif

are

distorts

subfraction

unit.

political

type

the

gave little

the myriad

such studies

tribesmen Members of the

Maghreb.

of revealed

were ignorant same community

or

228

used different

often

"do not the

describe

the

or alternatively

deal

a great

themselves

from

pressure

the

"The Berbers", various

they

differentiate.....

describing Elsewhere "lack

of the

the

social

"for

latter's

protocol

what his

relations these

Some abstract passed

spontaneously

only

the native, is

dearth 59

the

born

above all

are with

'fifth'

In

colonizer

and brought a living

distinct

names to

from higher from below.

segments Their

the the

what we call

made of any name 5$

or tribe".

to

terminology

needs this up within

their

as he implied,

however,

abstract his

tribe,

the

he knows exactly

before

were employed, downwards rather flexibility

the

us to

knowing

what

relations". self-descriptions

57

name what we call

reality:

each individual 60

under

anthropologists.

being

fact,

56

Tillion

- except

'Isouktan'

of generic

which

contradictions".

names among

of confederation

abstract".

stressed,

grammar;

they

this

of

by this

the

that

precise

generic

use ever

without

organism

of a sense of the

and as Tillion

(and)

Haha....

extremely

needs oblige

describe

is

agnatic

apply

in

number of elements,

or visiting

"hardly

belong

labels.

or

our administrative

he attributes

determines

'tribe',

administration

Souktana....

the

of

used abstract

The 'Ihahan'

'confederation' 'tribe'

used only

they

draws up a picture

and full

modification

observed,

which

the

comparing

they

The result

ways.

one finally

'fraction',

Montagne

organisms

and after

seldom

or lesser

that

noted

to which

of tribes

different

informers,

central

Montague

a greater

communities

'clan',

-

it

them in

constant

these that

out

in

of work,

to

Uusually, pointed

ensemble

of numerous

liable

still

complex

arrange

observations is

classifications;

They include

same way.

after

agnatic

though than

rose

and imprecision

usually

229

hindered

rather

than

Variants

of the

Arabic

itself

a derivative

and translated logic of

The formations

employed. 'clan', like

'fraction',

invariably

between

Bourdieu

they

explained,

and tribe;

"designate

units

social

labels thoughlevels

to all in

were

between

range

Berber),

were affixed

the

where they

Similarly,

(Djurdjura

family

extended

static

hierarchy

a precise

to might

referred

as 'fraction',

employed,

to apply

context

levels.

and takharroubt

translated

segmentation

they

-

were used to designate

'confederation'

or

(Arabic)

ferga

in

position

and tagbilt

which

word tagbilt

was a mistake

the moment and in the

at

group

observers.

- were occasionally

it

a fixed

'arch

formations.

tribal

widest

bile aq

However,

'tribe'

this

Berber

or the

Arabic

as 'tribe'.

of European

understanding

'arch

word

of the

and assign

social

the

helped

Kabylia,

as

of a size

that

of

varies

both

of the

villages.

gradual

to the most extensive and continuous manner from the narrowest 61 Other semi-abstract terms - translatable as 'fifths',

units". 'fourths',

the

utility

charting

the

the

of

the

agnatic

descent. would

of tents'

bore -

and abstract

in

place

no precise

of existing

terminology

groups, he suggested,

immediate

group

kinship

definition

be projective,

takes

of groupings the

important

were extremely

The nomenclature,

The wider

and history

structure

a

meaning

context.

of Berque

origins

social

transition

the

because

'groups

or

the

and with

of patrilineal

behaviour. Only

is

particular

The writings the

region

This

'bones' their

outside

with

group,

and the

the claimed

their

was largely or four

more the patrilineal mythical.

for

long-term

epiphenomenal.

generations

to represent

ancestors

questioning

as a guide

or predicting

three likely

in

- was

biological classifications Names, he

230

did

argued, tools

not

which

in kinship

relationships the

as part

of an extremely

ideology its

'savage

chaos of the

terms.

Far

mind',

they

sophisticated

justification

segmentary

'assimilation

of

Middleton

and Tait,

for

ourselves

in

of people

composing

cultural

analysis,

system, 64

theory".

Under the determined

local

a system

umbrella

the

pattern

groups". of ideas

- in

of agnatic of

62 to

parallel that

relations was, fact

Berque's. lineage

the

and by

in Fellers'

economic

in

aggregates "a

phrase,

of political

interests

Evans-Pritchard

segmentation.

by

Sub-Saharan

between

a kind

ideology,

manipulated

dynamics

social

used by the actors,

certain 63 It

express

of

Patrilineal

regulating

insights

a concept to

or signs

were symbols

came to suggest

example,

model was "an abstraction,

evidence

and differentiation'.

developed

anthropology

constituting

structure.

system

was a classificatory

from

were

segmentary

existing

rationalized

retrospectively

they

or coalitions;

conflicts

origins,

explain

of the

suggested

kinship

terms,

Nuer that

"relationships

these

but living together have great emotional counts content, 65 kinship". to which Fortes' comment should be added:

expressed

and

terms

more than "local

ties

do not There

themselves. ritual look

are generally

for

for

"the

underlying

land markets

rise

and conflicts

context",

and trade,

game",

of social

were generated

and raw materials, routes

and of

or economic or kinship or 66 Thus, we have to emerge".

of the

structure

bonds in

to structural

bonds to

structural

and sociological

Maghreb alliances of resources:

to give

must be common political

interests

demographic

irrigation,

appear

crops

"the

ecological, 67 In the action.

by rivalry

and livestock,

and passes,

for

control

wells

and

women and honour,

231

sacredness

and prestige.

topographical,

and technological Berque provides

resources. sketching

the nature

alternating

years

high

in

of land-use

of famine

of this

conditions

of high

and abundance,

in

of 1830,

Algeria

the

for

rivalry

'structure'

of this

a glimpse

climactic,

its

with

mortality

and

fertility: "In

three-quarters

and pastoral

society

and reaped;

the rest

pasturing the

the

We have to understand

that

rapine

for

search

of

strategy

two areas

of land,

harmony

that

agnatic

continual

kind

of rhythm brought

equilibriums,

Hence a specific

of patriarchal however,

and

This

room.

sowed

group

Cultivation

Hence those

considerable.

or by violence.

insists

Between the

a difficult

groups

The rural

pastured.

disjointed.

and of accord, Berque

it

an agricultural

reigned

movements.

time,

perpetual

upon the

by pacts

about

of the

theft

country

cyclical

was sometimes

displacements, imposed

with

were usually

distance

the

of

atmosphere

and harsh

ideology-was

of 68

competition". simply

not

a

it interacted behaviour; with and shaped that material 69 'sacral' behaviour. Similarly, attachments or spiritual primordial

mask for

were an indisoluble "the

is

economic

of the

part

IV.

dominated

of

structure

over

and covered

in

interactions;

a sense 7°

by the magico-religious".

NON-AGNATIC ALLIANCES

In pure

segmentary

no cross-cutting a number of operate. Algeria

criteria

systems,

groups

and criteria".

of

segmentation

One of these they

lineage

took

were generally

the

71 other

form

called

Gellner

In Maghreb society, than

agnatic

of factions

soff-s,

"there

suggests,

and in

or

however,

descent

'parties':

Morocco

are

leff-s.

did in

232

The study

of these

in

moieties

that

they

North

throughout of their

and heavy

the

obscure

his

extended

That

study

patchwork

which

could

of group

be transcribed

'transitive'

in

were allies,

then

the

sense

A and E were allies,

These loyalty-patterns is

equal in

75

strength".

the

enemies

are".

alliances "these

permanent

give

limiting

on,

or justified

the

pattern

arising

out

in

A and B

if

74

occurred,

the

knows,

fraction and who its

two-networks

or extending

through

of

of

it:

existence

of

unless

on the

contrary

they

was that

they

were not

based

They cut

across

77

them indefinitely".

The significance

these

conflicts,

were

C and E and

"each

of conflict,

a

Maghreb,

the

two alliances

brothers

of guarantee,

to him,

when a dispute

as a means of settling

a sort

alliances,

that,

on.

he

A and D were rivals.

who its

quarrel,

but

over

conversely

were not haphazard:

In any situation

were mobilized leagues

extend

But they

not

These factions

and immediately,

spot,

case of an intestine 76

in

were latent, on the

created,

then

of

According

map.

while

account

he focussed

A and C were allies,

if

that

light should

was spread

as a political

and C and D were rivals,

were rivals,

"there

alliances

His

of Morocco,

to most of the Maghreb.

quilt

the

which

reality

the South

in

originated

findings

great

in

was justified

social

72

life

to detailed

been subjected

this

most of

of tribal

East.

Middle

the

importance,

secret'

particularly

of the

significance

Montagne's

73

criticism,

theory.

segmentary

indeed and -

has subsequently

operation

revision

'efficient

the

constituted

Africa

their

He exaggerated

marked by the work of Montague. implying

Maghreb has been greatly

the

of these terms

of patrilineal of alternated

of,

moieties agnatic

descent. physical

relationships. They were

contiguity.

'secular'

alliances

233

It Maghreb,

that

nor

the physiognomy tried

alliances,

the

may divide

and which

league

and a 'lower'

than

'a social into

that

unit

action

on every

breaks

trifling

the

individual

incident

that

than

the

combats

from a proper

The main criticism data all

on leff-s in

conflict

rigid

was not

suggested,

moment in Montagne's

time,

the

sense of come

whenever

however

soffst it

whether

Different

a

is

on an lead

features

one

assumed an institutional

leagues

logic

of the

ritual

game

$ war".? is

areas.

He implied

79

they

in

interpreting

showed that

one corner

of the

the Moroccan

High

he had unearthed permanent

patterns,

limited

were permanent,

and Dresch

Even in

his

scheme for

that

Berque

necessarily

on binary

he erected

that

ambitious

he had 'discovered'

the pattern

insistence

rather

of kinship')

level,

from the

institutions.

was not

(in

factor

every

between

of Montague

of other

are primarily

and no matter

resulted

the Maghreb.

pattern

typical

and at

an excessively

and universal

checkerboard

Berque

into

an 'upper'

leagues,

and have a potential

scale....

conflicts

or even the

clan,

members of different

may be,

these

and that

rather

occasion

and

and agonistic

the

based on the

out between

"diffused

'associations'

These not

Kabylia:

two general

nature,

or on a collective

think

form

is

detected,

of political

into

the

example,

organizations-that

in

existence.

quarrel

to

league;

in

village,

organized

are

(name-related)

an actual

the

for

soff-s

systems

organizations,

family,

of

in

exist

a key to understanding

provided

Bourdieu,

operation

did

alliances

they

of conflicts.

which

onomastic

these

on occasion

to describe

and abstract

that

disputed

was not

at

one particular

and unchanging.

rather

than

tripartite

the

Maghreb Atlas,

234

for

segmentation Perhaps

the most telling

described

the

social

for

all

on certain by Montague As Hart could

maintained 'square' group

after

chessboard

represents

a 'canton',

What is

unit

on the

this

no specialized

board,

Montagne's

model of leff

to be a crude

respects

there

any more than

and confused

a dispute

forerunner

of

was

or a

breaks

of it?

out There

within

any between

are

80

each

a valley,

and balance

conflict

as a unit.

institutions

political

described

"that

subgroups

or within

group,

that

how order

asks,

if

to keep order

however,

act

he explain

Nor could

crucial

why or how conflict

explain

Gellner

within all,

not

could

he

of alliance

valley,

a whole

leffs,

rival

that

as the

out,

pointed

"Suppose",

of villages.

are,

it

a leff:

within

will)

81

a lefft.

within

on his

(as it

matters,

"could

one level

- treating

on certain

is

account

of only

Dresch

Montague

suggests,

terms

example

into

as simplistic.

of Montagne's

action.

political

as fragmented

occur

in

for

clan,

occasions,

been criticized

weakness

process

the -

segmentation focus

has also

example,

them%

in many

appears the

each 82

theory

of

his work frequently segmentation; confuses leffs with 83 lineage segments, and he never made a thorough analysis of the 84 basis of leff His major fault segmentation. seems to have been patrilineal

isolating, complicated

system

of group

victim

of his

"there

was a difference

substantive An example will

individual

and reifying,

illustrate

encapsulating

of the

between about

the

complications

how limited 86 reality.

his

to generalize, his

formal

dynamics

of a total

To an extent,

relationships.

own overeagerness

material

components

for,

position

of political

of alliance-networks grandiose

'patchwork'

and very he was a

as Seddon notes, and his action"* on the theory

85

ground was in

235

The major fringe

of

Ziban their

against

neighbours

tents

two constituent

'tribes'

of this

were themselves

rivals.

The former

(influenced West),

by the

and the

Bou Okkaz clan they

example,

belonged

of the

Ziban);

were ranged

tribes

Mahdi

too

various

fractions

divided

at the slightest 87 1734". Fractions

into

these

rivalries; that

one fraction

soff

against

tribesmen

of

the

Ben Gana Soff-

were soffs

at into

French

called

different a neatly

What Montague earlier

Sahnoun)

Oued Msila

- they

Ouled Derradj

were seemingly

the

in

soff,

the

levels, transitive

had done with

ethnologists

origin

usually but,

split

more contingent,

and permament leff

had done with

is

went back by soff however,, in

of the

help. basis

and on a contingent

was

by Sahari

rivals for

to have

Oued Chellal

the

supported

soff

of the

of which

when threatened

Oued Msila

for

them not

of which

who were ancient

the

for

were also

by the

The Ouled

cohesion

the hostility

and the

Soff

each of these

soffs.

enough,

Derradj)

to the North

uprising,

and the

strong

two parts,

of the

(Ouled

Okkaz soff

organized

not

soff

rival

turbulent,

incident,

alliances

into

the

(influenced

Moreover,

sides.

split

Kabylia

1871 Kabylia

the

on opposing

and too

aroused to

during

Ouled

Oued Chellal

in

these

However,

Mahdi,

to the

Oued Msila

to the

was certainly

been themselves

belonged

from the Medjana

was internally

agitated

(Ouled

as one soff

Ouled Nail;

tents.

the

near

South-East,

the

acted

the

and red

Hodna soff

clan

latter

constituent "were

Mokrani

(to

West,

to the

and rivals

pre-Saharan

West,

the

Hodna tribes

these

by black

(to

Ouled Derradj

and the

Together,

oases).

on the

area,

Ouled Mahdi

were the

were distinguished

soffs

Hodna mountain

the

the Ouled Nail)

of

the

in

Algeria,

central

mountains near

'tribes'

Thus, rather

Bou there than

pattern.

analogous

the tribe;

to what many he had transformed

236

it

in his

trying

mind into

to which

it

was "no more than

it

lacking

normally grandiose suggests,

indeed,

Montagne's

that

institutions

political and the

However, ambitious

Montagne's

undoubtedly among highly

at

was that picture

prove

Kabylia

some areas,

for

by Smith,

that

and were manipulated

inter-tribal winning of

diplomacy, over

enemies,

What his

tactical there

did

organization

unearthing

of

theory,

were not

the

these for,

contest

and strategic

was "no single

of

for

particularly 'secular' Also,

did

basis

in to

indicated

an exhaustive

synonymous. purity

made

a point

of

91

the

lineage

power and resources.

game of accumulating allies,

tend

certainly

a more dynamic

facilitated

in the

the

He was

time.

He illustrated

across

cut

in

provide

not

of

network work

more

insights.

pattern

alliance

and segmentation

nest,

weaknesses,

its

of

areas,

a period

dynamics.

tribal

principles

of

the

the

segmentation

lineage

specific

over

stable

example,

Other

Montagne's

in

one or two key levels.

competitive

of

gigantic

stripped

some useful

populations,

quite

patrilineal of

behind that,

noting

sedentarized

might

alliances

operate

in

correct

of leffs,

analysis had left

pretensions,

study

90

has collapsed".

construction

Favret

segmentary

"the

that

is

The

of its

sophisticated

Nicolas,

with

the

In view

years".

of an alternative,

to conclude,

was possible

89

It

alley;

"congealed

a leff

suggested,

up a blind

work

thirty

for

development

of tension

Maghrebology

took

theory

relation

system. 88 operate".

a classificatory

kinds

where other

leff

As Berque

phenomenon.

without in

of segmentation

system

overall

was a secondary

was a word;

it

the

to understand

reality,

a crucial

organism,

a concrete

to

clients,

and undermining

of recruitment

approach

the

unity

or membership".

92

237

In

certain

regarding

phenomenon:

indicates:

of the

conceive

it

of a dynamic the

reinforce

lineage

respecting interests...

in

alliances

ideology:

cry,

of the

or principle

alliances

V.

within

the

model ... could

terms

95

of lineage

be used as a

among others,

in

the

or breaking

affirming model "'.

'leff

cohesion".

in

justified

forming,

between

was to provide

alliances

of recruitment,

game of

it

own political

of lineage

failure

lineage

segmentary

its

different

case of the

and difficult

political

96

CONTINGENCYAND DIFFUSION OF POWER

Divergence was an inherent segmentary is

the

An alliance

or even replace

or upholding

were retrospectively

"the

rallying complex

solidarity

be to view

would

two models.

it,

contradict

to

segmentary

a segment had to make a choice

The function

alternatives Often

lineage,

94

and unrewarding

exclusively

the

defined

incompatible.

interpretation of

appear

situation"*

were not

in

system

interplay

Many times,

altogether.

and loosely

arbitrary

A more realistic

terms.

could

both

socio-political

or alliance terms

is

neutrality and leffs

soffs

in a conflict

segmentation "it

"value

of

light,

this

of persons

and patrilineal

As Vinogradov

In

even talk

of a more general

aspect

any association

Moieties

in

93

group membership". as "a specific

simply

we might

circumstances,

not

occurs!

that 97

and convergence feature

society", this

of Maghreb

Gellner

does occur,

According

to

this

community

points but

between

of interests

that

model,

out, this

interactions

segments

"What defines

life.

the

explaining is

social

very

nearly

are

ideal-type!, all

that

"situational"98

a

238

99

or "contingent". autonomous

unit;

is

than

rather

of segmentation

in

comes into

problem

Levels threats;

of outside

being

only 100

dispute".

- the

groups,

existence.

face

the

as an

to other

relation overt

a permanent

machinery

of the policy

in

isolation

in

be treated

defined

become actual

only

decision-making

appearance

could

each group

and has a latent

"the

No group

the

with

When disputes disputes,

have been settled,

or transcended,

or undermined

by other

the

of mobilization

wither

Pure segmentary

systems to

levels

related

contain

complicate This

analysis

permanent force,

of

from

or professional

to

according judicial segment

the model,

or military

101

between

breakdown

of balancing them into

and effective.

groups. but

words,

was dispersed

Conflict

signalled

was at the

same time

than

permanent be called

"specialized for

maintaining

hegemony over 'anarchic'

if

and permanent order

the

real

others.

order

at

the

the

game rather

only

system

other

of inter-

sum total

of a ritual

could

the

in

the

simply

same way,

a superordinate

not

or expenditure

communities

of

power,

In the

Opposition,

to establish

fact,

but

opposition

complementary

is

was not

law-courts,

as police,

factor

as

organized

Order

groups.

structure.

stabilizing

of

operation.

one segment

in

"the

foci

or special

by the

social

mechanisms,

was part

the presence

the

contingent

aggression,

with

in

in as far

situation,

institutions but

bodies,

mechanism.

component

organization,

realtions".

calling

major

armies,

segments

interstices

of

its

'specialized'

by such

interlocking

Algerian

the

'corporate

or

withering-away

of law enforcement

were absent

prisons,

this

clarifies

structures

maintained

'associations'

no alternative or obstruct

away.

a method of attempt

of

Such

were equated

political

was extremely

institutions"; complex,

subtle

239

Leadership incorporated from

'the

'.

rule,

these

could

them;

"political

limited

their

'egalitarian'. over

Leadership

time.

Atlas,

In

there

by rival

situation

described

accords

with

turns

chieftaincy is

chief stability

not

lay

all

that

having

them thrust hands...

".

upon him,

103

these

The usefulness, from

internal

were not

power,

by the

High

or the

- annual

It

with is

were likely

lasted

example,

nature

the

long-term

conduct

they

fall

modest,

of

of the

and prestige,

was less

they

acceptance

for

the

them lest

'leaders'

The,

etc.

The conduct

responsibility

chieftaincy

challenge,

unstable

Atlas,

concern

were important;

and therefore

status,

"The transient

power.

or accepting

performed

segmentary

High

lame ducks.

of his

Even where

demands of reciprocity and if

guided

office;

rank,

chieftainships

model:

into

chiefs

enjoying

of

be called

Kabylia

Central

the

segmentary

increase

and possibly temporarily

in

of it

were not

insignias in

to

a similar

on pre-eminences

rotating

clans,

of a ruler

citizen

worse

a pure

in

'sheikh-s'

could

in

but

gave rise

emerged was inherently

restraints

by Gellner

quite

or

of the Maghreb,

were institutional

election

'elders'

society

lineage

or segment

differences

the

which

some parts

election,

a tribe

by special

groups

extent

remarked

which

institutionalized

To this

or force.

African

lineage

were no extreme

wealth

North

which

communities

in

from

circumstance,

Evans-Pritchard

to situations 102

from

the

distinct

quite arose

and political

from

leadership",

corporately".

marked off

of personality,

was not

'chiefs',

of

class

ad hoc pre-eminences

be divorced

not

"is

setting,

there

Inevitably,

strength

Authority

Maghreb was contingent.

the

in a self-perpetuating

position,

acts

in

of a or

into the

had obligations, to

lose

of leadership, as long

authority. its

as the

freedom external

240

threat

it,

strengthen

leadership

power and charisma Lacking

They tried their

tribes.

here

Eastern wrongly

or the

regarded

them as constituting

areas

some French terms.

contingent

of clan

them with

compared Gellner

suggests,

(though

rightly

accounts.... corporate social Referring

the

specifically

in

thought

They wrote

of Berber

'officials'

European

noting

existence. group,

assemblies

the

that

there

impression But they

segments

'republics'

Their

municipalities. the is that

of the

role

a hierarchy these

to assemblies

they in

are the

the

-

themselves

elevate

leadership

was

But even in such than

rather drawing -

attention

'machinery'

- and

writings,

as the

ema'a, of such).

assemblies

have no existence

of which

("feudalities").

institutional

and electoral

"may overstress

given

( ema'a-s).

- they

of Kabylia104

and community

ethnologists

communal 'budgets',

to

in

Atals

structures

'elders'

for

of

apparently

Medjana

Saharan

communities

village

lineages,

with

of the

of the

permanent

opportunities

of segmentary

by series

embodied cases,

play

the

example,

were even fewer

above the

to

for -

Sheikh

Sidi

Ouled

as 'rulers'

contact

Mokrani the -

"overlordships"

local

underlying

mentality.

who acted

came into

French

Algeria,

other

there

and 'notables'

the

dynamics

segmentary

had a 'corporate'

ethnologists

! chiefs'

to locate

established

In

French

early

of his

dispersal

sub-clans.

or rival

of the

understanding

a few generations;

to the

led

might

Effective

dissension.

more than

sons,

among rival

a full

leadership,

for

to

which

pressure,

external

invariably

leader

of a strong

from

from internal

hereditary

was rarely

death

arose

but

The threat

to meet or solve.

came less

pre-eminence

actually

the

which

or problem

an elder's

it

These

have a kind

independently assemblies".

High Atlas,

assembly,

of

of the 105

he argues

that

241

"they

have no continuity no kind

course

do when larger

are delegates,

periodically French

to

character

However,

the

of leadership

theorists

segmentary centralized

types.

of real with

states

backward

in

Ideal 110

tools. the

kind

often models

types

is

impossible

in

this

is

with

type

fact,

approach.

it

not

and it

assembly,

to

Sole".

the

segmentary

terms

one

He criticized

a fallacious

between dichotomy

of a continuum,

study

as inevitable,

have not

Early

segmentary

demonstrating

comfortably

and useful theory

of segmentary

and synchronic, not

that

been

l09

up a typology

They did

107

theorists

drawing

merely

than

distinction

into

for

in

solely

more practicable

out

"a society

for

levels

come

of mechanisms

has pointed

conceive,

at all

lineages

criticism

offers.

does not

and flux

an ideal-typical

instead,

must be regarded

of ideal

were static

organized

erecting

But a more telling

content

equilibrium.

for

types;

taking

its

Smith

of Corporations

terms

He argued,

intermediate

were When the

segmentarity

the Maghreb.

and segmentary

1o8

to

arose

of segmentation

around

in

corporations in

similarly

one level

the variety

with

society

group

who

institutions.

of contingent

by a government

coordinate

organized

type

and authority

characterized of

ideal

segmentary

of people

and potentialities.

satisfactory-terms

entirely

can,

they

were solved;

contacts

administrative

consist

they

Such assemblies

standing

chose

administration

its

a 'pure'

than

rather

activated

to concretize

misread

when these

and disbanded

colonial

tried

sub-groups".

who represent

problems,

lo6

hand,

other

involved,

are

groups

have of

they

group;

On the

or records.

).secretariat

of

and generally

solve

other

of that

that

than

fit

a real

of

theorists societies.

neatly world

heuristic concerns were Their

contrapuntal with

"actual

242

competition society

limited

with

fission,

or lineages

among segments

breeds fails

segmentary

model

"Given

the

of lineage

of

this

lineage

fixity

formal

organization

retain

its

segmentation, further

The major

terms real

the

towards

the

However,

fusion,

certain for

a would-be

areas

studied

he (the usurping the

vain

fact

chief)

cannot

and real of

was never

aspire

any tendency leadership,

be counteracted and fission.

the

"within

unlikely

of

possibilities

the rules

to becoming

and their

In

solved.

in

circumscribed;

the

moreover,

and make any such aspiration, or at any rate

that

powerful

neatly

of time,

example,

power;

forces

its

characterized

time')

were drastically

for

to

such hegemonies were as much their The absence. problem of as

duration

chief

coming

that

and leadership

by Gellner,

strength

of

to

in

assumption

egalitarianism,

life

a certain

permanent

rules

the

emergent

transient

relative

formal rules,

for

areas,

order

as an explanation

which

('over

eventually

of Maghreb

imbalance,

conflict,

bland

particularism,

obscured

features

chronic

difficulty

of segment hegemonies, would

of clan

this

was this

was a rather

establishment

forces

theory

and tensions

conflicts,

There

the

by fission

segmentary

process

dynamic

and wide-scale by the

of static

political

operation.

in

rise

giving

question:

same order? "112

the

of

weakness

African

with

itself

the

so,

how can the minimal

process,

and position

character

when continually

segments

of North

of

to

interdependence

and the

morphology, on segmentary

fixity

being

a fundamental

to answer

Any

by disposition

This

such competition.

static

status".

and characterized

resources,

inevitably

of unequal

ill

lay

out,

of the

a tyrant,

general

to

the

any hope of breaking fulfilment".

game,

situation,

reinforce

113

the

But in

the other

243

areas,

at

other

clans,

if

not

political

times,

and fusion

to

compete

for

enable

the

vailinct

fnrcas_

m1oht

even the

kharadj

ind4ging

in

forms

of a standing

authority

were further

ascendant

spiral,

vicious

circle

ambitions

this words,

of

conquests

Montagne's static,

hegemonies,

typological

and the

liable

not

paradox

simply

scarcity

torches".

provide

wherehj jealously

infidels115

and setting

of

the

game.

'central' The into

a

of descendantSor of resources in

spiritual

made

Berque's or dynastic

116

an explanation egalitarian

of the clans

up

of authority.

to degenerate

chiefdoms,

away like

taxes

conquered

by this

WOUJJ

clients

executing

of agents

The competition

personal

up or died

work did

from

"The Maghreb powers",

probability.

flared -

offered

was always

segments,

its

and

replacement

or attempted

fragmentation.

counter-

consumption',

army and networ1

course,

of rival

tribal

'conspicuous

weaker

against

imposing

only

then

might

and property,

and gaols,

possibilities

of

a long-term "-

to,

opposition

clan

land

to be levied of

tribe

fractions

other

short-circuiting

nrivinal

fortresses

might and from

of

adherence

an alliance

process,

by seizing

or clans

of a 'tribe',

the

in

disposition

circumstances

a neighbouring

the

supposedly

various

rudiments with,

ha fhaf

building

Local.

it

this

emphasizing

individuals

ambitious

gain

join

this

of

ascendancy

leaders,

'to

to

in

fraction

over

rivals

end result

tk&xx

entrench:

'core'

victory

potential The

the

mode of the

He showed how the

hegemony.

diplomacy,

Armed

tribe.

tribes.

encourage

ever-widening

by astute

encourage

Links

could

to doninate'a

a clan base,

114

of Maghreb politics.

aspect

fission

the

dominant a was -

important

work was extremely

to

rival

leaders

among

process.

dynamic

in

hegemony - certainly

for

contest

among-individual

Montagne's

this

the

were

244

juxtaposed

with

transformative to

model.

comprehend

'pure'

segmentary

states':

those

independent

toward

Though lacking

the

interpretative

framework

political

Berque Though his in

study

Moroccan

the

High Atlas

was 'typical'

of other

the

of those

stability

Instead,

he treated

an overall complex of

rise

Maghreb

social

points being,

of North

and neat envisioned

to

which

and in another

and weak points, Africa".

encapsulate in

over

place

"strong in 121

the

in is

he stressed

that

in

Berque

the

'interaction types

different

is

discordant

found

to a

response

of

"the as space and

one place

institutional

in -

moment'

120

and transitory".

history, segmentary

transformative

stable,

coherent,

moments and weak moments,

the many-sided

the Maghreb.

time

this

was most unusual.

he called the

communities that

'privileged

groupings

(what

existing

he declared,

-

He treated

and space').

time

over

model.

imply

not

Indeed,

communities.

competitive

of an operation

were,

Seskawa - he did

pressures

formation

and energetic, There

of

of the

account

of Berber

organization

formations

social

and fall

time

inequalities

Maghreb

Montagne's

transformative

sweeping

them as one 'moment'

of environmental

structure,

the -

*118

119

less

on the

away

apparatus, dynamic

Leach's

Burma.

a subtler,

focussed

intrigue"

anthropological

foreshadows

of tribal

now sliding

and fraternal

rivalry

semi-

of

centres

guidance

point,

some apical

sophisticated

provided

the

almost

'segmentary

to

among scattered up under

in Highland

process

was possible between

and approximations

balances

local

jealousy,

it

and interaction

now building

ritual

a dynamic,

out

framework,

this

oscillation

communities,

power,

clan

Within

"delicate

myth and civic into

117

total

the

He sketched

'empires'.

tribal

in

strong

the

very

language

too

structure

static

which

he

245

Gellner dichotomy

tried

between

he injected

'well

dynamic

He pointed

time'

he described

integrated

the

concept

Truly

effective

would

have brought

'systems

become institutionalized,

system

also

of the

system

for

this

with

internal

stable

the

where

itself

is

offer that

was not

cannot

in

in paradox, have

or order

emerged,

The effective

"the

functioning it

that

had actually

blissfully M aghreb

would

collapse; to

periodically but

balanced,

seething

was "a comparatively

composed of discordant

stability

own ruins.

he explained,

to fear

which

or traditions,

parts

sense be called

any natural

an

23 model not

inexistence the purely stable

of a society

with

of political ideal

It

organization....

or logical

this

runs

fluidity

with

or cross-cutting

a sense

it

facts.

observable

"obsession

approach

destroying

constantly

The danger

static.

Gellner's

But in

features

system

Overall,

nevertheless

contact

other

communal life

uneasy

equilibrium". This

the

pattern

power would

participants

contradictions.

society

on its

-

Instead,

either

122

well".

to be credible,

Thus,

collapse.

its

required

fear

illusion".

"So as to work at all", work too

must not

balance

revelling

and corporate

have evaporated.

model.

he argued,

to a halt:

system

segmentary

fission-fusion

itself

maintenance',

the

change,

as a complex

process

and reconstituted

the

of the

veins

amount to an "optical

- could

collapsed

and social

of perpetual

the Maghreb political

constantly

would

the

Rejecting

approach.

societies'

into

theory

that

out

'over

even

a somewhat different

nature

of being

useful

too

dynamic

has been argued,

(leads

for

even the

and with

124

because

example,

exaggerate and to ignore

of Maghreb political precisely

to

apparent

him to)...

of segmentarity",

features is

is

and reinventing

actuality. it

does ignore

246

'real'

facts

concedes

that

certain fully

suggests ing

the

kinks

His major holy

ideal

work in

fact

The most promising in

inspired

by theoretical 127

anthropology, Montagne's

it

structural

of individual and groups rather

logic

"ecological,

than

terms This

survival.

demographic

insights

in

of the

could

Though Asian

in

by

lies

of

struggle

strategies classes the

relate'.

eventually

its

in

of the

terms

to

theory

conflict

of Maghreb life.

context"

and sociological

-

dynamics

offered

interest

and dynamic

of segmentarism

VI.

SACREDNESS

An important North of

in

kinks

126

and Bailey

particular power less

for

competition

economic

abstract

Its

analysis.

'politicians' for

some of'the

125

of social

'games theory'.

of

highlight-

environment.

investigation

made by Barth

reclaims

in

one of these

segmentary

terms

advances also

to examine

efforts

in

but

societies".

segmentary

of recent

vein

Maghreb has been cast

the

the

to the

relates

cheer-

neat,

primarily

useful

on precisely

concentrates

men - and how it

is

'real'

of

himself

and excessively

abstract type

and unevennesses

Gellner

life.

African

model is

the "'pure'

his

that

of North

Africa

centred was deeply

society

among petty and the

local

painted

or complex

around

saints,

the

powerful

'blessed' religious

authority leaders,

moslem brotherhoods. on the

of Islam

in North

which

of

in

ties

The structure

or baraka.

distribution

tribes,

concentration role

a picture

special

social

of cross-cutting

'sacredness',

marked by the

widely-scattered

Excessive obscures

'kink'

was almost

mechanics Africa. wholly

of tribal Montagne,

secular.

segmentation for

example,

He focussed

on

-

247

among the

relations

administration,

without

of unity"12$ suggested authority)

"of

the

latter

One of his

Robert -

sociology

Berber makhzen and -

BERBERESET LE MAKHZEN, one sometimes

his

one is

in

a moslem country

at all".

Maghreb

model to the

segmentary

129

principle has

critics

Montagne

retains Reading

sociology.

in Morocco,

whether,

wonders

Transplantation

the pure

of

same distorting

to have the

threatens

central

(central makhzen

- moslem sociology,

Berber and

two sections

"moral

the

interactions.

tryptich

sociology,

the

only

these

them and the

or indicating

examining

underlying that

and between

tribes,

various

effect. Much of in

colonial

the Maghreb.

not

It

fundamentally

lay

doctrine.

In

and North

Africa

alized

between

conflict

autochthonous of the

and Customary Heterodoxy

in

regarding

Islam

involved

different

and nomads,

Law ('Urf), 131

130

or between Apparently

deeply

impregnated

with

margin

They were "part enthusiastically

of a wider European

specifically

society,

observers local

between

and firmly

with

to look in

of

religious

Islam

(Sunna)

and

were not

merely

of values

and and they

civilization,

Islam.

They were on the 133

and concentrate behaviour.

but

structure,

and non-tribal". for,

"the

of

Law (Shar'ia)

system Islamic

Islam"

Koranic

and a common lineage

universalistic

ingredients

"folk

tribes

of a wider

tended

the

Orthodoxy

"a universalistic

the Middle

and occasionally

expectations

autonomous

interdependence

identified

and the

were

institution-

throughout

interaction

roots

of the

lip-service

as a single,

between

traditions:

had shallow of behaviour

the

civilization

constant

by economic

norms".

patterns

despite

linked

132

age-old

by Islam,

and scholanlegists",

(Bida).

that

Islamic

fact,

peasants

caliphs

that

disturbed

The mistake

tribes.

East

was held

Islam

implied

ethnography

on,

the

They contrasted t

248

them with East

'alien'

and enshrined

lawyers),

of discovery, between

Islamic

of their

belief,

incarnate

here

the

local

the

friendly,

the

larger

whereby

into

orthodoxy, single

observance

which that

rite,

Sunni

four

of

fasting,

in

most parts to

the

was,

vast

of the

tribes.

The Islam

its

this

world.

found

Piety

a periodic

of North

Africa,

from

their

the

one alternation

only

between

oscillates

the

with

striking

of

aspects

Within

rigour.

observed,

of communities

and abstinence

Islamic

fundamentalism

One of

Maghreb practice

sex segregation,

of

what might

identification

prevailed;

of

or autochthonous

represented

fact,

majority

of Malik,

schools.

in

words

against

base constantly

136

other

the Maghreb tribes

and enthusiastic

of faithfuls".

in

particularistic

tribal

favour

135

and practice

"the

itself,

community Islamic

faith

the

most

in

"prejudice

analysable,

to disassociate for

content

concrete

A particularism

'models',

incomprehensible".

their

dynamic

the

joy contrast

undeniable

and the

suggests,

universalist

the

with

of

wisdom opposed holy

concrete

reconcilable,

the

practice.

Berque

was,

heritage, in

withdrawal

of the

ideology;

was a distortion

the

their

was an element

"spotted,

believers

(civil

Community),

of the

There

Middle

the

cadi-s

leaders

reality:

so-harsh of these

its

evasive,

ingredients

appeals

There against

universalistic

the

this

witness

opposed

fact

seem hostile,

local

in

ulema

Europeans

contrast:

from

(jurists),

'authorities'.

urban

this

the

and Spiritual

and above all

134

exaltation".

of

in a crack

the

It

the

and other

thinking

wishful

Koran,

(Temporal

Ca_ liph-s

universities,

precepts

and universalistic in

brought

the 137

Sunni a

was the most austere entailed

stricter

from

forbidden

was deeply

of

observance foods,

respected,

and rapid

echo in

even its

expansive,

the

than and faith

249

universalistic it

was lived

as an inescapable

inseparable

from

Islam was largely targets social

this

"needs....

to be recognized

is

validity imputed

descent but

sherif),

genealogically,

in practice

(genealogically

qualified)

manner befitting

The manifestations miraculous

powers

disasters,

have

and

the

-

with

In

sanctity

return,

food,

valuables,

sign

of

the

if

its

or were

shorfa is

sherif

-

defined

to those

only

in

of and live

a

provide and

bring

lifestyle

expected

livestock.

accumulation

of

good

weather,

good

luck

a saint

of

with

otherworldliness reverence,

included

of sanctity

sick,

visions,

or

that

faithful

were thus

rights

in

and

with

to

individuals

combined

practical it

prevent

diplomacy.

donations

Expectations

of

some wealth

could

of

asceticism itself

be a

baraka.

Baraka kinsmen

heal

brought land,

139

141

generosity,

the

notwithstanding,

to

The

asceticism

the

divine

claimed,

to be applied

tends

the

and attributed.

the

"although

and requirements

predictive

community.

prophet

who claim

a sherif".

(they

in

with

beholder",

Many saints

suggests, it

claimed

of

community

14o

the

as Gellner

same time

merely

part

were those

eye of the

the

by the

from

an active

played

the

to become established".

to have,

was

environment,

These were not

or wali-s)

"in

lay

tribal

the

138

but

(murabit-s

sanctity

in

'saints'.

was at

It

reality.

and behaviour.

veneration,

Baraka

above or outside;

everyday

particularly

local

Saints

(baraka).

Ultimately

sing.

in

posthumous

process.

blessing

it

Africa,

embodied

for

of

part

communal solidarity

in North

from

transmitted

was not

aspects,

was hereditary;

or disciples.

Often,

it

passed indeed,

from

one holy

'holy

tribes'

man to his existed,

inheriting

250

and transmitting the

after,

tomb of a supposedly

be saintly

villages

scattered

Holy men and holy the

segmentary

lineage

so to be.

feud),

they

be settled

not

disputes

a crucial

Holy

men usually

tribal or more . saintly

ancestor,

segmentary

a more abstract example,

or holy settlement

Holy life. for local

acted

near

the

became arbitrators which

neutrals, between

the

tribes,

trials

two

of

veneration

individuals

for

or tomb provided for

rivalries

boundaries

for

as a shrine

a location

not

145

territorial

a sanctuary

(did

The surrounding

as "mediators

and another,.

provided

or elections

tribe

they

segmentary

through

machinery

or

area,

pacific

they

men were "professional

as well

sense;

the

with).

Holy

The residence

conflict.

feuded

of ritual

resided

this

were largely

within

the pure

from

apart

counterbalance;

section

sections;

stood

to

to

part

144

one tribal

'outsiders'

to them when segmentary

by natural

mediators";

and between

(not

turned

were channeled.

arbitrators,

they

respected

of functions

immigrants they

Because

community

or peacemakers,

for

Consequently,

were largely

or neighbouring

in

143

or litigation.

rivalries

could

were invariably

they

indeed,

might,

142

a variety

They were

and looked

near,

There

a wide area.

performed

system.

lived

saint.

ancestral over

tribes

political

structure;

imputed

They usually

baraka.

diffused

of a

fleeing

neutral

ground

by collective

oath,

of inter-segment

chiefs.

Often,

a saint

disputed

property

as part

of the

was entrusted

with

of rivalries. men and tribes

Their example, trade,

arbitration

were also helped

or the parcelling also.

Markets

often

closely

to regulate out

often

of land stood

in

involved

transhumance or crops. the

in

economic

and irrigation,

They facilitated

shadow of

their

shrines,

251

and the

latter

luggage

146

offices.

to outsider involved loaded

They offered

in

valuable

Because of their the

Book,

saints

documents

interpret

general

sense,

and local

were often

They were also

largely

fellow-tribesmen, Some were pious

these

twin

wide

a local

for

calling

and prayer saint

saint

Other

holy

dear

was particularly 'Sacredness'

was then

to their closely

minds.

and holy

men performed

Some of these

requirements

required

display

both

in

settling

of abstinence

disputes

centres

great the

the

through

organized

"and kept 148

centuries".

over

a

worship

dead founder

149 every

aspect

of

of roles.

sense of balance:

and neutrality,

and conspicuous

tribesmen

routine

a multiplicity a fine

of

or pious,

mystical

bound up with

communal life,

involvement

the

to

The memory of the

festivals.

illiterate

as teachers.

and proselytizing

men, more mundane,

and periodic

world.

They acted

remarkably

faith,

a more

custom,

has been suggested,

dimly,

proved

of the

purification

area.

it

communal

in

their

"They taught

world.

of

- and would

outside

for,

live

example.

even if

burning,

of written

example

the

with

or made it

and religion",

lights

Occasionally,

Islamic

language

the

They were,

who had travelled

the

learning

to,

for

areas

147

communal history,

links

through

scholars,

throughout

to respect

cases

the Koran

in

literacy

of dispute.

of unwritten

custodians

They transmitted

learning

in

in desolate

of robbers".

rights,

protection

some were actively

and guardians

scribes

or pasture

these

wisdom.

fear

or supposed

real

- genealogies

have to

Indeed

without

goods,

and spiritual

and "travelled

exchange,

commercial

with

hospitality

and travellers.

tradesmen

or left-

warehouses

as collective

served

sometimes

for

consumption

example,

active the or

were potentially

252

To fulfil

contradictory. a race

them all but

of philosopher-kings, a few of

performed

were viewed

with

them,

with this

criteria,

mixture

living

in poverty,

their

and peter

inherited;

it

or tribe

who was not

'saint'

was not thus

and divine

created

"The marabouts

being are

in

foreigners

was not

one

simply

to

claim doing

from

A

so.

and an ineffective by the

acceptance

contiguous

of ruthless

pragmatism

the

guarantee

those

'asymmetrical' 155

In

the

West,

they

(thereby,

frontiers),

tribal

did, not

pattern

certain

instances

concurs,

they

to which,

from

were very

"were

"They

154 the

indeed,

153

helping

to neither".

was distinct

model.

suggests,

belong".

incidentally,

belonging

kinship

segmentary

system,

',. Gellner

tribes!

tribes

the pure

Evans-Pritchard

lifetime",

outside

from

between

in

anomalies

members of the

frontiers

system.

in

arise

a 'genealogical'

on a combination

their

as standing

not

was the

family

prevented

His

respected.

Gellner

Some members of a holy

was ineffective,

respected

depended

could

of

grace.

Sanctity

regarded

be totally

152

poised

Baraka

a successor.

activate

would

'saint'

community

in

out

effectively

others

it

and how quickly

151

in

reversal

blessing.

how finely

had to be activated.

might

holiness;

of divine

men

of a 'joking'

by a strange

yet,

Holy

mundane tasks

to ijCLVQ something

and entertainingly

individual

150

only

and condescension".

performing

community;

phenomenon of saintliness

murabit-s

effectiveness. of respect

become a sign

could

incisively

portrays

varying

manner - appeared

relationship

individual

fact

"a curious

Some - illiterate, inconspicuous

with

in

have required

would

effectively

"They

live

on the

to Their

surrounding

wealthy,

living

in

an

253

prestigious

from

Gellner

indicates,

sometimes

the

very

holy

they

tasks in

contributed

political

segmentary than

ascendancy...

legitimation

words,

in the

rest

evaporated.

"vox

dei

were not

corporate

is

In

over

a long

'clients'; dispersed

their

had to

other

among several

time

it

minor

over

Gellner's

they

on the

in

on corporate Baraka

reverence

other

had to be

and clientship there

of effective

entrenched

in

one family

population

rooted,

a

pretensions

Accordingly,

a large

once

celebrated

were not

and distance,

was weakly saints.

and political

Saints,

tribes.

was strongly

and extended areas,

159

for

They

structure.

intimately

competition".

over it

some areas

in

limitation

compete

of

They evaporated

own right;

number of available

period, in

extent,

vox populi".

was a marked ebb and flow, sanctity.

To this

"saintly

calls

and saints

among a limited

'served'.

persons,

158

depended

they

A fundamental

was what Gellner activated,

really

a power in

group.

bond".

and wealth

community

tribal

"moral

their

as a cementing

their

and to be contained.

place

of division,

In

and absence

of the

to take

it.

from in

prestige

egalitarianism

lineage

segmentary

detached

were not

to the

prestige

of the

confidence

tribes

conflict

served

Sacredness,

phrase,

fact

as a source

uneven and

and prestige

the pure

outside

and concentrating

specialization

enabled Rather

standing

men and holy their

performing

of wealth

as

157

latter)"".

though

with

organization,

concentrations

a lifestyle

- with

They were thus,

population.

"an inegalitarian

the

However,

of the

rest

sharp

(particularly

system,

'castles' even -

accommodation

different

156

vacillating,

of and

254

Although

they

moslem community,

saints

segmentary

environment.

and fusion.

Saintly

fierce

for

struggle tribes

baraka

16o

ancestor. itself

in

they

warfare;

'secular'

the

Saints

occasionally

inspired of

raids

the

faith,

binding

and intensive

together

resistance

to

for

'holy

call which kind large

Christian war'

led

with

history

were founded

However,

like

were subject Intimately

to

great

was a phenomenon found

with

throughout

motive.

for

or

a purification means of

in mobilizing their

active;

cohesion

Often,

of domination feudality"

hegemonies

this

over or

in Maghreb

men and 'holy'

'sainthood',

became a

enemies,

161

rivalries.

forces

of

supra-segmentary

and manifestations

countervailing

connected

a higher

of "religious

by and upon holy

ascendancies

all

role

establishment

Many of the

state".

rivalries

were effective Their

intestine

some appearance

the

was particularly

aroused

to the

segmentary

thus

calls

proselytization,

colonization

of involvement

in

of attributed

Their

segments.

('i7 had)

to manifest

to external

resistance

confederations.

traditional

"maraboutic

it,

large

transcended

area,

these

rival

required

groups

than

behaviour

coordinated

against

saintly

'pacifism'

of

a physical

of a revered

and manipulated,

The criterion

into

where two maraboutic

oases,

men was often

in,

of objective

describe

whole their

them directly

led

client

the

of fission

to processes

remains

of their

became involved

less

Ziban

to reflected

closely

example,

the

of holy

armed success

tribes.

description

for

the Algerian

in

The baraka

the

tribes

frequently

and DeVos,

loyalties

wider

They were subject

body-snatched

alternately

for

and saintly

competition

Miner

feuds.

a focus

provided

tribes.

162

of leadership,

of fission. and an extension

most of

the Maghreb,

of the

a

255

fraternity.

religious Orders

163

was characteristic

the Middle

East,

They were,

as Berque

then

but

the

adopted

took

the

ascetic

mortifications.

centres

in many countries;

the

Qadriyya

Dahra mountains, Each Order burial

place (or

spiritual

was directed

biological)

(sheikh),

or possibly

zawiya

was often

a centre

the

sphere

(sheikh,

director Order.

Zawiyas

sanctuaries, they

such establishments particularly

a network

by the

centres

charitable

foundations

to

with

helped

trade;

to spread

such outposts

The parent of the

in

Islam

as West Africa.

was headed by a leader(s)

of

Often, this,

with

an organized Thus,

the

schools,

and shrines.

conjunction in

sect.

throughout

of learning,

as monasteries,

associated

claimed

by an overall

spread

or mogaddem) appointed

usually

leaders

of leaders.

lodges,

Ouarsenis-

(zawiya),

lodge

zawiya-s

acted

the

by adherents

local

in

165

was directed

pilgrimage of

in

Centre.

Each of these

hostelries,

were closely

It

limited

The Rahmaniyya

from whom its

by a group for

influence.

of

the

Saint

descent.

leader

was affiliated

in

with

the main sects

the Taibiyya

from a parent

Founder

of'the

spiritual

and occasionally

fringes,

Saharan

Derkawiyya

and the

sought

to a very

Century,

the West,

in

164

were widely-scattered,

were confined

on the

propagations,

a) of practising

rituals

Nineteenth

early

(tari

(ikhwan)

Many fraternities

By the

Moslem West.

the

spiritual

'way'

adherents

other

throughout

spread

in

'sufi'

or

the Maghreb territory".

of

Its

they

from vast

a particular

were the Tijaniyya

Kabylia,

"born

medium of strictly-patterned

neighbourhood.

To it

deep root

faith.

by the

the

particularly

suggests,

ecstasy

Algeria

Islam;

propagated

and understanding

'dervish'

of

of mediaeval

cornpartmentations

Each brotherhood

in

The establishment

fashion,

zawiya-s

256

on a larger

performed The income

of

during

collected

from

client

features

segmentary

tribal

appearance

was deceptive,

closely

treated

which,

intimate

from not

Sanusiya! ',

other

fact,

the

of this

into

devotion

to

and the from

the

of orders

Saint

identific-

Grand Sanusi

that

were simply

and Brotherhoods

of the

Ordernot

"Beduin

and his

derived

"springs family,

his

he was a marabout revered

saints

the

attachment

of Cyrenaica,

Grand Sanusi fact

whole"'168

Marabouts

of adherence.

the

Maghrebi

by "duality

institutions.

explained

(Oriental)

distorted

a wider

(umma).

it

as alien

custom and passionate

or rival

focus

Evans-Pritchard

founders

were

pre-Islamic

dichotomy

the Founder

was the

power,

they

was characterized

incompatible

way round, his

must

indicated,

brotherhoods

to local

saintliness;

personal

and thereby In

As Berque

moslem community

as such,

their the

in

corporate

between

of indigenous,

phrase,

attachment

roots

the

doctrines

distinction

and integration

were not

organization to the

context.

Both prongs

the whole

fraternities

trust

or transcended

In particular,

drew a sharp

Valensi's

between

had their

local

and religious

167

self-sufficiency

ation

in

of land

much of their

and fraternities.

between

with

(ziara)

universalistic

men as manifestations

in

tours

gifts

across

However,

ethnography

imports.

often

the phenomenon of saintliness.

with

anthropolatry",

Islamic

cut

clearly

and their

the

(saints)

holy

"berber

Islam

to

associated

'marabouts'

saints.

of devotees,

and missionary or from

sect,

structure.

related

Colonial.

the donations

fund-raising

of the

by local

performed

communities.

Many of these

be firmly

role

came from

periodic

leaders

by one of the (habus)

Order

the

the

stage

166

sanctity, ,.

169

who

and

257

widespread

attracted proselytization, This

like

build

this

the

We should

local

the

and the evasion".

Moreover,

adherence

with

segmentary Orders

different

the

to extract

'soffs'

for

the

go-betweens Derkawa, whereas

for the

for

the

coordinators

localization

ikhwan

was

as a whole 173

linked

tribes

also,

between

in

a determined the

with

a sense,

the Taibiyya in

fraternity

acted

the

as

The

tribes.

anti-Turkish Turks;

potential

to particular thus

rivals;

and dissident

of AbdelKader's

by enlisting

out

used adherence over

South

the

in

divisions

and exploiting

insurrection

between

and Tijaniyya

- were played

whereas

The

The rivalries

Qadriyya

example174

French,

Bou Maza's

were major

the

cooperated

force

alternation

was inextricably

influence

pursued

with

behind

particular

authorities

collaborated

though

saintliness.

fraternities.

Brotherhoods

Rahmaniyya

baraka,

concrete

segments

maximum advantage

central

example,

Tribal

competing

were developed.

in

by the

and :. alliances.

- between

Conversely,

enemies. Orders

with

of key tribes,

support

172

conflicts

and West of Algeria,

He attempted

his

of

as "a specific

to brotherhoods

of brotherhood

and fall

an expansive

170

origins

between

As

171

to be associated

rise

its

general,

by ascription.

predominantly

founded

foundation

on the

men and Orders

holy

and sentimental

tended

or

zawiya-s.

competition.

saintly

Rahmaniyya".

the

transcended

never

regard

game of

and

several

one or

who succeeded

Sanusiyya

peregrination

zealous

establish

the

marabout

up an organization

organization

between

to

in

"any

suggests,

fraternity to

decided

and

was one potentiality

Berque

through

adherence

policy, Tijaniyya.

threw

their

the Dahra,

and the

resistance

to conquest.

Qadriyya

258

A measure 'core'

of an Order's

tribe

to

kind

and "was possible the

uniting into

The corporate in proper

During

perspective. or leader,

Satellite

zawiya-s

central

depended

attributable

to 176

colonists.

expanded

The authority descendants

rested

on

in

would

break

and went

up into

by an indecisive

Order,

see-saw

cogs in

partly

and Italian "any

time,

separate tours major

fraternity

was split

struggle

for

177 waned;

spheres to

there zawiya-s

for

supremacy

each elected

of

finance did

a well-articulated

example,

Suf and Ain Asahdi oases;

long-lasting.

particularisms".

archaic

of the

funds

and deeprooted.

Turkish

a short

of

of worship;

a circumstance

evolved

The heads

for

and coordination

same forms

ziara

an energetic

controlled.

Head or Heads rapidly

Saint

closely-supervised

The Tijaniyya

tightly

respect,

within

on independent

178

under

of growth,

to the

Fraternity

of the Founder

remain

this

to be placed

requires

be far-flung

might

But normally,

also

phase was rarely

common hostility

of the

activities.

the

This

expansion

were unusual

in

and enmities,

unity,

initiative

the

followed

all

The Sanusiya

long

existed

and a common lineage

was often on the

a common pool.

some Orders,

their

feuds

political

periods

organization

zawiya;

into

influence

of their

Orders

of the

nature

founder

which

already

real

175

structure".

With

lacking

system

a common way of life,

common sentiments,

flowed

though

which,

spite

even the than

was more apparent

a tribal in

tribes,

However,

links.

unity

because

only

different

a society

the

of wider

to push beyond a

ability

trans-tribal

establish

of this

novelty

was its

success

not

for

machine.

several

generations

between

the

rival

zawiyas

supreme Heads

259

for

and vied zawiya

of the

c6ntrol

mogaddem-s could

in

the surrounding for

reputation shrine zawiya

'Aissaoua

in

follows

intestine

slowly affairs true are

typical

this

directives

interests which

gradually

to control

his

are

lost

or would-be apart,

not the

powerful

disappearing

is

independent

Zawiya-s.

for

lack

or to lets

As a result,

but

a multitude

Thus the

It

the

a brotherhood

This

fragmenting.

'Aissaoua...

religious

seeks

of the brotherhood

no longer

leader,

to the

by himself, Everyone

of.

unchallenged

dismembering,

confined

Zawiya

sight it

of

Sheikh

of the

and

each influential

those

over

priority

authority

the process

chiefs.

spiritual

totally

a single

falling

of all

sect;

of his

in

sect

to a single

of its

descendant

the

has any cohesion;

around

is

in

by

as described

responding

is

chronic of the

"The'Aissaoua

today

organism

role

take

Century,

dissimination

Every

seeks

The fragmentation

organism,

the

to the

were subject

pattern:

a robust

rivalries,

independent

become a of hereditary

a succession

Twentieth

early

Following

no longer

grouped

the

perhaps,

as a whole,

for

out a

had a

then

tomb might

and fusion.

energy.

the

his

Lesser

was effective

chief

when he himself

themselves

fission

a preponderant

personal

sect

Orders

a fairly

Moqaddem similarly ignore

A zawiya

and a focus

disintegration.....

complete to play

of

sect

of

to carve

conflicts

primarily

qualities;

death,

words,

was formerly,

180

zawiyas.

181

both

tendencies

source

saintly

directors.

In other

Brunel,

community

his

after

these

utilize

themselves.

measure of autonomy

satellite

various

179

is

congregations of discipline...

sect

is

state

of

pretty of Islam, ".

of

182

well which

260

In

the

'moment'

overall

offered

of a 'new'

emergence to provide

The classic important is

Maghrebi

Islam

unit

beyond its

look

theory

the

of the

in

after

the

revealed

authority

was not

purely

spiritual

as well

as military

to obey their

guide

exist

in

secular;

it

sense.

and protector,

sought It

whose powers

of

Caliphs

and duty

was

of the Moslems

187

to defend

was the

in terms

to this,

enemies,

were observed".

185

Africa".

North

function welfare

itself

or obligation

According

and external

(Shari'a)

exercise

them.

no right

and temporal

them from internal

to

- perceiving

Their

Prophet.

spiritual

laws

186

and the

claiming

the Maghreb were cast

Caliphate.

of the

successors

itself

do not

tribes

and obligations

by defending that

a world

also

we mean a self-sufficient

and recognizing

= then

limits

rights

were the

of mankind

powers over

unto

but

communities

segmentary

by tribe

between

('umma),

moslem community

"if

suggests,

constituting

as the whole

general

interrelationship

leadership

184

'marginalism'.

: its

of hegemonic

another

englobe

society

between

and temporal

As Hermassi

Sunni

larger

and activities

spiritual

Wider

only

and the

does not

segmentarism

the

interaction

pretensions

social

of

of Algerian

meant not

concrete

local

model

feature

By this

"to

expansive

a nascent,

MARGINALITY AND CENTRAL AUTHORITY

VII.

the

for

of

moqaddem -

even a zawiya

man - perhaps

of and drive

the nucleus

kind

183

Order.

the

holy

this

among them was the

but

possibilities,

various

Islam,

of Maghrebi

structure

and by seeing Central the

political

faith

in

obligation

of all

were given

by God.

a moslems

261

The fragmentation had resulted

in

separate

Caliphate

of the

In

faithful. for

competed

the Maghreb, the

as Caliphs,

influence

Almohad hegemony in authority

divided

times,

for

between

rival

and Tunis. Islamic

Often

tribes

Atlas,

in

the

during

the

little

in

13th

more

However they stepped

out

from

began to develop of the

local

Often

desire

they

Western

Sahara

the

in for

the

example

Western

Maghreb

framework

some sense of their

as with

some attributes designated

the

They centred

Idrisids

at Fez,

architecture of

special

central

'ministers'

188

hegemonies logic

administration

and secretaries;

and

as leaders

obligations

and scholarship

High

in

segmentary

founding

or

Marinids

early

originating

their

from

more

were

these

of pure

Tlemcen,

the

of

opportunism.

once established

narrow

was

Century,

11th

the

and military

pillage

Spain.

Almoravids

the

-

the

Fez,

communities

for

as with

imbued with

pre-eminences

other -

the

in

of

Southern

puritanical

sedentarized

But

originated,

- and patronized

developed

the

moslem community.

- often,

capital

the

inspiration

Century

than

example,

radius

central

at Marrakesh,

for

and fell

authority

were strongly

overlordships

from

Century,

control:

of

Century.

12th

'secular'

clearly

of

Almohads

rigorous

towns

these

fundamentalism;

among nomadic the

centres

this

and indeed

the rthid-15th

example,

of the

authority:

Their

Centuries,

provinces authority

rose

On occasions,

the Maghreb,

throughout

which

or as Sultan-s.

and 13th

the

and temporal

considerably.

12th

separate

community

hegemonies

spiritual

as Emir-s,

the

extended

At other

of this

varied

of the

sector

tribal

the

exercise

as Imam-s,

effective

local

into

to exercise

claiming

governors

their

over

Caliphate

Abbasid

of the

authority their

on own

there.

They

(makhzen). they

established

262

a Treasury

and a tax-collecting

(caid-s)

agents appointed

to represent

Other absolute,

features

of these

personalized

'households',

a 'palace

with

by violence:

executions,

physical

power to repress central

the

these itself

; he could

interpretation

of the

the

ruled

example,

could argues

depose a leader defend accused

the

held

that

the

apply

this,

only

that

this

veneration

with

deeply

an extremely

his

of leader

the

not

the

respect

interests. the

Kharidjite

textual

glosses,

On the heresy it

is

whether

for

right

to

or effectively hand,

of the certain

so,

Lahbabi,

had the

Shari'a, other

form

made the

and if

mandate. always

the

came from God, the

this

contractual,

xk

community

(in

his

chosen by the

whether

on a leader's

and in

opinion

powers

was actually

and ruled

was bound by

leader

public

The

'theocratic'.

truly

change it,

not

to consult Although

ruler

who did

community

the

expeditions,. of

spiritual

community's

has been some dispute

foreclose

of reviving

But whatever

force

auxiliary punitive

suggest

were never

jurists).

between

relationship

and the

dynasties

position

There

community.

was underpinned

The combination

was regarded,

he was expected

of ulema - learned occupant

of this

and ruthless

resistance,

quasi-

They developed

a swiftly-mobilizable

regular

of

authority.

theory

Shari'a

in

authority

In practice, Caliphian

All

and expropriations.

central

entrenched

core.

mentality'.

involved

prisons,

the

tribal

bodyguard,

a standing

of makhzen troops

which

inner

into

evolved 189

They

tribes.

development

the

suggest

of

law.

civil

of

They invariably

power..

based on a small

dynasties,

among the

in matters

hegemonies

a series

nominated

authority

central

as judges

to act

cadi-s

they

network;

7th that,

he has been 8th and in

Centuries.

practice,

263

Maghreb hegemonies Caliphian

The practical administrative

territorial

the

191

in his

maintain

light

the

tribe,

which

occasionally

from West Africa

functionaries into

the

it

alliances

of the

'recognizing' others, their

not

surrounding

indirect;

or forming

to are

compacts the

Ju d).

direct

its

with

was or mercenaries

193

control

of. the of the

- physically

threat

was a process

represented

(the

Control

tribes

oppositions.

The makhzen

and the hierarchy

towns,

extend

on a core

centred

of captives

by manipulation

segmentary

trying

where there

segmentary

this

Europe

countryside.

was effected

This

of

usually

and counteracting support.

which

or Mediterranean

did

be

can best

a situation

contingents

with

on a handful

usually

centred

force

supplemented

they

a shepherd

metaphor:

transcended

and military

were

of which

out

was invariably

the makhzen,

had successfully

The bodyguard

of

192

and wolves.

The shepherd,

a succession

relations

of makhzen-tribal

by manipulating

of the makhzen;

own perspectives from

environment

of Gellner's

authority

sheepdogs,

their

"its

and its

the goals

affected

"a

faced

affected

which

of centralization,

for

segmentary

centralizing

government

the Maghreb were not

in

The logic

had coalesced. understood

also

nation-builders, by the

determined

degree

It

authorities

ever-frustrated

sheep,

its

sovereignty,

central

tribal",

essentially

means of stability".

Central

were immense.

limitation,

of

an efficient,

of establishing

problems

hierarchy

interpretation

the strictest

190

and duties.

rights

structural

from

deviated

the

of constant

very

far was

countryside and

rivalries intimidating

powerful

of potential

of

some,

leaders rivals

diplomacy

of

by splitting and violence.

264

Though hegemonies or more,

they

chiefs",

for

the

were often

But since

by those

provided implied

the

tribes

domination

The physical makhzen tribes, freedom

from

functions

the

ruling

tribes

over

with

associated

favoured

"The army outside

predominantly

army consisted

a century

states.

administrative

of the

power - the

taxes,

tribes,

collect

liable

to revolt

or the

taxes

'Submitted' supervision

of the

of contingents

dynasty, those

the

that

sense

their 'invested'

example,

were taxed

the

sheikhs distribution

recalcitrant

were occasionally when his

particularly

(caid),

core

affairs.

Caids

the

in

tribes

from

order

by the

were free

to

administrators:

to gather decided

was usually

by the makhzen

taxes,

for

by the

tribe

itself. With

taxes

many,

other

tribes,

the makhzen had less

the makhzen had to discuss

or tribute.

It

might

get

token

assured

or fight recognition

one

They were sheep in

were not

segments

indirect

occasionally

and kept

however,

of which

but

segments.

regularly

tribal

the

appointed

tribe

this,

from

for

military

to punish

who came under

most prominent

own internal

-

from others.

of authority

from

tribes

In return

provided

The sheepdogs

master,

dynasty's

Apart

they

expeditions

booty.

were those

group's they

makhzen tribes.

With

rule...

who were

on privileged metaphor.

of land,

their

challenge

tribes

Gellner's

mounted

and seize

among the

submitted

govern

they

of an agent

from

usually

in

granting

and savage

was under

authority

of the makhzen centred

sheepdogs

In particular,

support.

they

the

for

195

not".

the

"exercised

example,

capital.

bureaucratic

centralized,

were not

lasting

stable,

extremely

every

relations. year

of the

to get authority

265

but

of a caid, tribes

in

and was difficult

question,

Some communities it

or helped being

left

Algerian

the

Other

alone.

groups, fierce

and the

were sufficiently

direct

neat

hegemony could dissident

It

in

central they

weakness, in it

what

the

that

they

dynasty

on 'submitted' total

of If

represented.

of lions

s metaphor might

be overthrown,

pretenders

coming

down vigorously

desert, claims the with

to replace

the

to become the

purification them their

former

of Islam own core

threat;

times

But:

annoyance

of makhzen were not

-they

into

inroads tribes

Here,

from

dynasty. often

the

allies

for

or out

The wolves

thus

a burning sheep.

and victims.

eventually

indeed,

hills,

slumbering

area

the

by new

circulated

with

and

the

might

seems appropriate,

and power

among the tribes,

at

authority.



new shepherb,

communities

a standing

in making

and foxes

equilibrium

of makhzen control

'Dissident'

of dissident

claim

and

to the makhzen system

successful

laid

periods.

A powerful

frontiers

tribes.

escape

A strong

not merely

outsiders

groupings

a hegemony which

Pareto!

an active

to

strength

area.

coast.

constituted

but

preyed sense

on the

Saharan

territorially

was not

communities.

push back the

effectively major

long

the relative

a large

sway over

townships

of makhzen authority, found

to

the

of access

makhzen control

according

its

movement could

were wolves

wolves

varied

enforce

to a few scattered

the

direct

of

authority,

on the

communities

the

control.

for

in

example

or difficult

powerful

of the makhzen and dissident

solidarity

for

and demands of the makhzen for

attentions

or static.

in return

groups,

nomadic

one of

of the makhzen's

recognition

those

from

the makhzen to

for

dissident

rival

against

The 'boundary'

to

token

offered

massifs

fringe,

he would have to be appointed

usually

of the staked dedication

They brought

to

266

Fierce leader

of the

faithful,

'dissident'

was a conscious

political

from

the Holy

themselves various

central

in

the mountains

that

territory

Prophet

during

envoy;

alms) of it;

worthy he can.

and the he is

ready

Nobody has the

The Islamic beyond

for

his

for

right

out,

the

unity

the

war,

other

the

and the

on this

Djebala

nothing

more

than

to to

obligation

defence

in

community

"asks

of the Djibli

the

of God, and recognizes he fasts

prayers;

Zakat

the

to whomsoever

is

and goes to Mecca if

to ask any more of him". and loyalty

to

recognized

by giving tithe)

to

from

capitalize

the

(koranic

dynasties

least

defenders.

the ritual

holy

and they

at

obligations,

property

identification

individual

opters

no other

religious

he performs

Achour

or officials

moslem community,

him in

with

he professes

Ramadan; he purifies

(koranic

spill

part

of the

out

orders

example,

and- admits

Except

no other: as hjs

for of the

infidel

of taking

of Islam.

understands

Morocco,

the administrator the

its

The dissident

terms.

dissidence

opted

moslem community,

wider

any makhzen to

for

sense that

still

communities

were acceptedýas

temporal

him against

him than

the

dynasties

of Northern

Sultan,

defend

to the

was difficult

recognition

the

.

But

raids.

custom known to differ

Dissident

as belonging

But it

of

196

of

out morally,

opted

the

of

steadfast

groups

to accept

they

a tribal

of observing

Law of Islam"

if

with

role

of the makhzen's

were dissidents,

they

The same was true

extent

the

tribal

and refused

authority,

in

"if

the

authority

a projection

suggests,

system,

central

knew it.

simply

not

the

'marginal'

were

As Gellner

viewpoint. wider

act,

be combined

or to accept

tribes

for

and respect

thus

could

to pay taxes

re4. L uL even

to Islam,

committment

of the leaders

197

tribes in

could

the moslem

267

world;

one community

centres Holy the

Moreover,

of authority.

dynasty

central

to

Both-these

Maghreb,

fragmented

factors

day Tunisia

urbanization

the

on

eyes of the of a

authority

Historically,

the marked by

In the

of influence. the

by contrast,

Eastern of

embryos by denser

were characterized

dynasties.

longer-lasting

and more stable

the

was particularly

pulls

and Morocco

VIII.

corrode

dissidence.

Maghreb,

of the

parts

an obligation in

could

of the

as upholders

functions

Algeria,

present-day

command and rival

and Western present

those

of two rival

claims

imposed

faith

and justify

dynasty,

particular Central

fulfil

the

between recognition

of the

law and as defenders

community.

THE TURKISH REGIME

Algiers,

province

since

arrived

from

outside,

internal

power the

entered

of North

Africa

the

which

their

tribal survived

had original

had been to

However,

the

into' threat

and methods

from

by sea,

the

the

segmentary

they

which

in Morocco. 197

preceded

But in

other

them in

respects,

it

In a environment

emplacements

adopted

in

similar

to

the

of

by

desert.

of Christian

which

rule

as a result

arriving

were in many respects

authority

features.

arriving

'called

counteract

dynasties

than

rather

a sense,

dynasties

The goals

coast.

extending

in

of a

Turkish

Century.

Sixteenth

early

capital

filled been had vacuum as power

same local

Turks

the

sense,

the

crystallization.

indigenous

successive

on the

the

had been the

and Tripoli,

Tunis

like

Turkish

of

be torn

could

Maghreb, Turkish

those and rule

268

By the had only

a weak moral

influence

exercised

no practical

control

and purposes, Algiers, the

suserainty

Sultans,

on the

from

Ottoman

in

goodwill

in

times

199

of war.

But diplomatic

The local

Turkish

regime,

service

married

provinces.

They had no real home.

Porte

in

into

essentially

recipients

needed to retain the

Levant,

contingent

military

of Anatolia,

roots

illustrious

Turks

as Julien

their

leader,

the

the

chief

offices

in

caste,

dey, the

providing

the

it,

a household

commanding provincial

odjak

hierarchy,

201

of

different

janissary

"were

signors".

slaves,

Empire.

Ottoman

who unloaded

puts

and magnificent

an urban-based

for

Algeria;

in

caste

a tradition

with

and moved between

"The tatterdemalion harbour"

the

throughout

among themselves,

the

freed

These were originally

and turbulence

They mostly

Algiers

were all

was based on a small

odjak)

from among the peasantry

recruited

of the

But

were essentially

niceties

(the

Janissaries.

of a few thousand

was their

acknowledged

200

"a fiction".

military

a token

of

office.

from

Janissaries

the Sultan

sent

they

in Algiers

The rulers

to recruit

order

they

and occasionally

198

Porte".

the

"...

them in

contrary

intents

Dayis

elected

who confirmed

He

to all

Gibb and Bowen explain,

none of them was tributary; of gifts

Algiers.

which,

a regime

Constantinople

at

Regency in

"The locally

and Tripoli", of the

the

over over

was autonomous.

Tunis,

Sultan

the Turkish

Century,

Nineteenth

corps

the

vessels

transmuted They were bodyguard

garrisons,

holding

and involved

in

racial

were the

overseas

trade. The other Koloughlis,

the

of this

constituents offspring

of

small

Janissaries

caste

and native

at

Arab women.

269

They formed for

return

tax -

Ambitious

their

At its

this

height,

calculates

its

indigenous

when the

Turkish-appointed Janissaries,

Pasha in

in

dey was virtually

30 deys held

after

by violence this

threat,

the

perilous

of wealth:

from

presents

from domainal

consuls,

and a share

"a man of wealth,

but

without

a husband

children,

liberty,

king

the

far

of slaves

divan

- which

the

Army,

and the Navy,

booty of his

from master without

and slave

The dey was assisted the

in

a wife, of his

by the higher

included

ministers

appointed

in by the

204 predecessor. moved into

from

To

the Despite

Janissaries.

fees

land,

'

of whom 14 were imposed

1816,

away from

the

perpetually

deys commanded considerable

situation, revenues

Indeed,

corps,

of their

dey in

beys

or assassination:

1671 and 1818,

Khoja,

Ali

by the

succession.

deposition

assassination

Kasbah of Algiers,

fortified this

office

the

the Hesseinite

unlike

janissary

of the

between

2- million.

had replaced who ,

succeeded,

revolution,

at a time

2-

Deys were elected

1711.

posts.

of 15 - 20,000.202

numbered approximately

a prisoner

by palace

threatened

odjak

6,000,203

1800 as only

a hereditary

establishing

Turks;

consisted

caste

odjak

was the

odjak

imýprtant

extremely

in

population

and had never

of Tunis,

reduce

total

strength

The head of the

U

with

lands.

as full

aim was acceptance

were entrusted

were accorded

from domainal

or revenue

and in

odjak,

they

duties

military

exemption

and proud,

they

Julien

their

of the

troops

infantry

permanent

performing

privileges

often

the

resources officials,

and trade.

He was

treasures;

a father

a despot

subjects". council charge

without 205

of the of the

odjak

-

Treasury,

dey. ' The administrative

270

included

apparatus (shawsh-s). of

to prosper,

and piracy

pease for

the

Turkish

inflow

of Koranic

tribes.

Thetdey's

moslem justice, The major which

levies,

role

was also

territory

land,

directly

In

structure

was weaker

Algeria.

Military

than

rather three

area

Constantine in

of the

the

Mascara

until

cads-s.

household,

public

Turks,

which

in

by the

districts

tribal

conventional

than

by

were worked

the

rest

of

Agha of the (watan-s)

each

Caid. Regency -a with

each under

and the 1792,

into

of domain

consisted

the

dar-es-sultan

immediate

and its

This

dar-es-sultan.

the

dey was a smallish

by the

town of Algiers-

was divided

to the East,

centre,

of

of

Considerable

dey's

the

navy,

and more fragmented

a territory

provinces,

by a network

command was exercised

headed by a Turkish The rest

submitted

administration

and trained.

administered

the

labour.

and the

the

ensure

owned by prominent

and estates

Arabs,

by the

of the

- called

indigenous

from the

an adequate

administration.

consisting

hinterland

and to ensure

coast,

was the upkeep of the militia,

well-equipped

absorbed

permitting

a modicum of internal

he was assisted

of government

and general The area

to

thus

and sea,

and tribute

taxes,

was relatively

works,

on the

and bailiffs

were to keep open lines

odjak

to maintain

caste

in which

expense

sums were also

of the

and commerce by land

communication

trade

secretaries

a variety-of

The main tasks

(kho a-s)

fluctuating

precise the

beylik

frontiers

authority

the beylik

Oran).

the

of influence

divided was -

of a bey:

of Titters

of Oran in

and thenceforth

sphere

the

(centred'

into

beylik

of

on Medea)

West (centred?

on

The beys were Turks

271

or Koloughlis 'joyeuse

of

appointed

candidate.

retained

control

help

exercised

to the odjak

had to visit

in person

Algiers

elaborate

of

to correspond Fmerit

abjection.

Constantine

in

the

any initiative

slave

So be it,

reason

for

They had

this to

and keep

most

the

odjak

affairs

an acceptable beys

were

powerful at of

reasonably autonomous, assembled

abreast

did

beyliks,

and acted imperial

long

this

as the

machine.

World". not

as tax

sense, real Links

the

Between

by the

dey.

On the

other

control

cogs the

in-fighting,

odjak

in.

were

between

appointed.

flowing

beys

your

was some

vagaries

in

fear

your

of

once

flowed

executive

of

am only

of

a close

of

apparent

There

secure

periods.

exercise

so long In

assured.

not

206

and 16 executed

for

bey

"I

tribute

of

deposed

the

prolongation

turbulent

quantity

survived

Algiers

the

of

us the

he

office.

manifest

which

were

the

for

servility:

the

of

beys

servility;

keep

and 1825,8 the

0 Lord

years

by horsemen

accompanied

from

letters

utter

May God grant

three

the dey in the language

Century

and protest

relations,

the bey was required

and every

and account

cites

the

with

over tribal

denouch),

with

19th

early

and servant.

existence.

(the

On

the provinces. troops,

Treasury,

to pay tribute,

chiefs,

Bey-s tended

-s)

who

and koloughlis

Twice a year,

to send tax proceeds

and native

in

supervision

general

the payment of taxes.

and ensured

to the dey,

the bey commanded these

of the odjak, of an agha,

(bord

fortresses

a gift

went to the most

of Janissaries

of the contingents

for

return

the post

The bey was responsible

in various

stationed

in

usually

indeed,

often,

avýnement';

generous

behalf

by the dey,

over

and order

207

1790

Only

hand, the was

practically in

three

the

loosely-

provinces

were

272

and each bey was free

tenuous,

extremely game vis

a

this

them to grow ambitious,

led

themselves the 19th

the tribes

vis

as independent Century,

for

for

the Busseinite

to establish

the bey of Constantine

mortality

particularly game,

of the

among incumbents

rate

By

was a dangerous

But this

up as the head of a dynasty,

No bey managed to set himself

post.

On occasion,

of key tribes.

the help

own right.

the high

or to try

to revolt,

example,

own political

area of command.

powers with

had become a power in his and accounted

his

within

his

to pursue

beys had done after

as

the dey of Tunis

overthrowing

in

1705. Though fairly

links

the

this

slender,

an administrative which

were

of

to the

offered taxes

help

levied.

khalifa

the

independent,

them.

Turkish

rule

with

and money,

by the

Eastern

and had

part

the

of

developed

beyliks

the

of

into

divided

khalifa-s -

agents

These

19th

Century,

Oran

beylik

relations

to

tended

in

a proportion

off

and raked

agents

early

Areas were

controlled

securely

and tax-farming.

policing

these

beys

were
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