Notions of Definiteness, Specificity and Countability in the

Loading...
1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV )UDQFLVFR-RVp%DUUHUD5RGUtJXH] $EVWUDFW 7KLVSDSHUDQDO\VHVWKHDFTXLVLWLRQRIWKH6SDQLVKGH¿QLWH HOODORVODV DQGLQGH¿QLWH XQXQDXQRVXQDV  DUWLFOHV\VWHPLQDIRUPDOLQVWUXFWLRQFRQWH[WZLWK-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWV7KHSXUSRVHLVWRVWXG\FRPSUHKHQVLRQ XVLQJJUDPPDWLFDOLW\MXGJPHQWWDVNVRQSDUWLFLSDQWV LQFOXGLQJ6SDQLVKQDWLYHV DQGWKHUROHRIIHDWXUHVVXFK DVGH¿QLWHQHVVVSHFL¿FLW\DQGQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\'DWDZDVVWDWLVWLFDOO\DQDO\]HGDQGWKHGHVFULSWLYHSDUWVKRZHG QRGLUHFWUHODWLRQEHWZHHQLQVWUXFWLRQWLPHDQGDFFXUDF\7KHDSULRULVWXG\XVLQJ3HDUVRQ&RUUHODWLRQ$QDO\VLV DQG)DFWRULDO$QDO\VLVFRQFOXGHGWKDWDOWKRXJKWKHUHZHUHFRUUHODWLRQVWKDWVKDUHGWKHVDPHW\SHRIQRXQRU UHIHUHQFHWKH\ZHUHQRWWKHRQO\HOHPHQWVSUHVHQWLQWKHUHFRJQLWLRQRIJUDPPDWLFDOLW\7KHDSRVWHULRULSDUW FRQGXFWHGE\PHDQVRIIRXU$129$VUHYHDOHGWKHLQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHZDVHDVLHUWKDQWKHGH¿QLWHVRPHWKLQJ WKDWFRUURERUDWHGSUHYLRXVOLWHUDWXUH7KHFRQWH[W>“GH¿[email protected]>“VSHFL¿[email protected]VKRZHGDQLQWHUDFWLRQEHWZHHQJURXSV EXWQRWEHWZHHQFRQWH[WVDQGWKHXQVSHFL¿FFRQWH[WZDVWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWHYHQIRUQDWLYHV-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWV IRXQGWKHXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQVDQGSOXUDOHDVLHUWKDQVLQJXODUFRXQWDEOHQRXQV .H\WHUPV$UWLFOHDFTXLVLWLRQGH¿QLWHQHVVJUDPPDWLFDOLW\MXGJHPHQWVQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\6SDQLVKDUWLFOHV 6SDQLVKGHWHUPLQHUVVSHFL¿FLW\

,QWURGXFWLRQ 7KLVUHVHDUFKLVFRPSOHPHQWDU\WRDSUHYLRXVSDSHU%DUUHUD  LQZKLFKWKHQRQJHQHULFXVHVRI6SDQLVK GH¿QLWHDUWLFOHVZHUHVWXGLHG7KHTXDQWLW\RIWKHGDWDREWDLQHGIRUWKDWVWXG\ZDVDSUHFLRXVUHVRXUFHIRU DQDO\VLVIROORZLQJWKHVDPHPHWKRGRORJ\ZLWKWKUHHDVSHFWVRIWKH³DUWLFOH´FDWHJRU\ LQFOXGLQJ6SDQLVK GH¿QLWHHOODORVDQGODVDQGLQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHVXQXQDXQRVDQGXQDV WKDWJUDPPDUV ERWKWKHRUHWLFDODQG SUDFWLFDO FRQVLGHULPSRUWDQWIURPDVHWRIIHDWXUHVGHULYHGIURPWKH6WDQGDUG7KHRU\ &KRPVN\ IRU WKHDUWLFOHVOLNH>“*[email protected]>“'[email protected]>“6SHFL¿[email protected]>“[email protected]>“1HZ[email protected]>“,[email protected]>“ ,GHQWL¿[email protected]HWF VHH+DZNLQVS ,QWKLVSDSHULWZDVDQDO\]HGWKHUROHRIWKHW\SHRIUHIHUHQFHRIWKH 1RXQ3KUDVH IURPQRZRQ³13´ ZLWKGH¿QLWHLQGH¿QLWHVSHFL¿FXQVSHFL¿F13VDQGWKHFRXQWDELOLW\RIWKH QRXQ 7KHGH¿QLWLRQVRIWKHFRQFHSWVRI³GH¿QLWHQHVV´³VSHFL¿FLW\´DQG³QRXQFRXQWDELOLW\´YDU\DVZLOOEH VKRZQEHORZEXWWKH\DUHIXQGDPHQWDOLQWKHFXUUHQWVWXGLHVRIWKHDFTXLVLWLRQRIWKHDUWLFOHSDUDGLJP 'H¿QLWHQHVV 7KHQRWLRQRIGH¿QLWHQHVVLVYHU\FRPSOH[DVLWKDVEHHQVWXGLHGIURPGLIIHUHQWEDFNJURXQGVQRWRQO\LQVLGH /LQJXLVWLFVEXW3KLORVRSK\DQG/RJLF7KHZRUNVRI+DZNLQV  +HLP  DQG/\RQV  DUH IXQGDPHQWDOIRUXQGHUVWDQGLQJDIHDWXUHWKDWGLVWLQJXLVKHVWKHXVHRIWKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHIURPWKHLQGH¿QLWH DUWLFOH,QDSSOLHGOLQJXLVWLFVLWLVXVHGDQLQIRUPDOGH¿QLWLRQGHULYHGIURPWKHDXWKRUVDERYHWKDWHVWDEOLVKHVWKDW D13LVGH¿QLWHZKHQUHIHUVWRHQWLWLHVXQDPELJXRXVO\LGHQWL¿DEOHE\WKHSDUWLFLSDQWVRIWKHVSHHFKDFW,QWKLV 45

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU

VHQVH D UHTXLUHVWKHXVHRIWKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHDQGLQFRQWUDVW E WKHLQGH¿QLWH  D,¶OOEX\WKHERRNZHVDZ\HVWHUGD\ 0HFRPSUDUpHOOLEURTXHYLPRVD\HU E,DPUHDGLQJDERRN (VWR\OH\HQGRXQOLEUR 6SHFL¿FLW\ 8QOLNHWKHGH¿QLWHQHVVWKHVSHFL¿FLW\UHIHUVWRDNQRZOHGJHKHOGE\WKHVSHDNHU7KH13ZLWKGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHV FDQKDYHXQVSHFL¿FLQWHUSUHWDWLRQVZKHQWKHUHIHUHQWLVK\SRWKHWLFXQLGHQWL¿DEOHRULQH[LVWHQW,Q D DQG E  WKH13LVLGHQWL¿DEOHUHTXLULQJWKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHEXWLQ D WKHUHIHUHQWLVLQH[LVWHQWDVQRERG\NQRZVZKRLV WKHEHWWHUFDQGLGDWHEHIRUHGRLQJWKHVHOHFWLRQ LQWKLVH[DPSOHWKHXQVSHFL¿FUHDGLQJLQ6SDQLVKLVPDUNHGE\ WKHVXEMXQFWLYHPRRGRIWKHYHUE³HVWp´LQVWHDGRIWKHLQGLFDWLYH³HVWi´   D:HZLOOVHOHFWWKHFDQGLGDWHZKRLVPRVWTXDOL¿HG 6HOHFFLRQDUHPRVDOFDQGLGDWRTXHHVWpPHMRU SUHSDUDGR E:HZLOOVHOHFWWKHFDQGLGDWHZKRLVIURP.HQ\D 6HOHFFLRQDUHPRVDOFDQGLGDWRGH.HQLD 7KHLQGH¿QLWH13VFDQKDYHERWKLQWHUSUHWDWLRQVWRR$VFDQEHDSSUHFLDWHGLQ D LWLVQRWSUHVXSSRVHGWKH H[LVWHQFHRIDJLUOIURPWKDWFRXQWU\  D+HZDQWVWRJHWPDUULHGZLWKDJLUOIURP&XED>(YHU\RQHLV[email protected] eOTXLHUHFDVDUVHFRQXQDFKLFDTXHVHDGH&XED E+HZDQWVWRJHWPDUULHGZLWKDJLUOIURP&XED>6KHLVYHU\SUHWW\@ eOTXLHUHFDVDUVHFRQXQDFKLFDTXHHVGH&XED 7KHH[DPSOHVDERYHFRUUHVSRQGWRWKHFRQWH[WV>GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]>GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]>±GH¿QLWH± VSHFL¿[email protected]DQG>±GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]LQRUGHURIDSSHDUDQFH6HH/\RQV S IRU6SDQLVK/HRQHWWL  S IRURSDFLW\DQGVFRSHDPELJXLWLHV ĺUHIHUHQWLDOQRQUHIHUHQWLDOZLGHVFRSHQDUURZVFRSH  &RXQWDELOLW\ 7KHGLVWLQFWLRQEHWZHHQ³FRXQWDEOH´RU³FRXQWQRXQV´DQG³XQFRXQWDEOH´RU³PDVVQRXQV´LQ/LQJXLVWLFV LVYHU\ROGDVJUDPPDULDQVGLVWLQJXLVKHGQRXQVWKDWFDQEHPRGL¿HGE\DQXPHUDORUDTXDQWL¿FDWLRQDO GHWHUPLQHU+RZHYHUQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\LVDFRQFHSWWKDWGLIIHUVFURVVOLQJXLVWLFDOO\DQXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQLQ (QJOLVKOLNH³IXUQLWXUH´LVFRXQWDEOHLQ6SDQLVK³PXHEOH´DQGDFRXQWDEOHQRXQOLNH³FORWKHV´LQ6SDQLVKLV XQFRXQWDEOH³URSD´%HOOR † H[SODLQHGWKHXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQVOLNHWKRVHZKLFKUHIHUWRHQWLWLHVWKDW FDQEHGLYLGHGLQ¿QLWHO\PDLQWDLQLQJLWVQDWXUHDQGQDPHOLNH³ZDWHU´³ZLQH´RU³JROG´DQGWKHFRXQWDEOH QRXQVZRXOGORVHWKHLUHQWLW\LIWKH\DUHGLYLGHGWKHFDVHRI³FKDLU´DQG³WDEOH´,QRWKHUZRUGVIROORZLQJ %RVTXH S WKLVFDWHJRUL]DWLRQLVEDVHGRQWKHGLFKRWRP\EHWZHHQQXPEHU XQFRXQWDEOH DQGTXDQWLW\ FRXQWDEOH  :LWKUHJDUGWRWKHXVHRIDUWLFOHVVHPDQWLFDOO\WKHUHLVHTXLYDOHQFHEHWZHHQXQFRXQWDEOHVLQJXODUQRXQV DQGFRXQWDEOHSOXUDOQRXQV DDQGE 2QWKHRWKHUKDQGWKHFRXQWDEOHQRXQLQ F UHTXLUHVDQXPHUDORU GHWHUPLQHU PHDQVXQJUDPPDWLFDO 

46

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

 D7RGD\,ERXJKWZLQH +R\FRPSUpYLQR >[email protected] E7RGD\,ERXJKWVRPHERRNV +R\FRPSUpOLEURV >FRXQWDEOH[email protected] F 7RGD\,ERXJKWERRN +R\FRPSUpOLEUR >FRXQWDEOH[email protected] ĺDRUWKLVXQRUHVWHIRU 6SDQLVK +RZHYHUFDWHJRUL]LQJWKHQRXQVLQWRWKHVHWZRJURXSVOLNHLQD³FORVHER[´LVQRWSURSHUDVWKHUHDUH ³UHFDWHJRUL]DWLRQV´OLNHLQ E ZKHUHWKHXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQLQ D ³FRIIHH´KDVEHFRPHFRXQWDEOHDQGUHTXLUHV WKHXVHRIWKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH  D,QHHGFRIIHHLQWKHPRUQLQJWRIXQFWLRQ 1HFHVLWRFDIpSRUODVPDxDQDVSDUDIXQFLRQDU E,DGGHGDVSRRQRIVXJDUWRWKHFRIIHHEHIRUHWDVWLQJLW $xDGtXQDFXFKDUDGDGHD]~FDUDOFDIp DQWHVGHSUREDUOR 'H¿QLWHQHVVVSHFL¿FLW\DQGQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\LQWKHOLWHUDWXUHRIDUWLFOHDFTXLVLWLRQ 7KHHDUO\3V\FKROLQJXLVWLFVWXGLHVRQDUWLFOHDFTXLVLWLRQE\-DSDQHVH +DNXWD“[email protected]DQG+HDUHU¶V.QRZOHGJH>“[email protected] IURP+XHEQHU   LWVHOIEDVHGRQ%LFNHUWRQ 7KH³6HPDQWLF :KHHO0RGHO´ZLWKWKHIRXUFRQWH[WVWKDWGHWHUPLQDWHWKHXVHRIWKHDUWLFOHVZDVIROORZHGV\VWHPDWLFDOO\ LQRWKHUVWXGLHVOLNH7DURQH 3DUULVK  0DVWHU  ±ZKRODWHU0DVWHU  GHYHORSHGDELQDU\ V\VWHPZLWKWKHIHDWXUHVFRXQWDEOHXQFRXQWDEOHLQGH¿QLWHGH¿QLWHSUHPRGL¿HGSRVWPRGL¿HGVSHFL¿FJHQHULF FRPPRQSURSHULGLRPDWLFQRQLGLRPDWLF±7KRPDV  ±ZKRLQFOXGHGDOVRWKHLGLRPDWLFH[SUHVVLRQV DQGFRQYHQWLRQDOXVHV±DQG.XERWD  2WKHUVWXGLHVLQFOXGHGDOVRQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\OLNH“GH¿QLWH“VSHFL¿[email protected] LQFOXGLQJQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\W\SHVRIVSHFL¿FLW\ UHIHUHQWLDO QRQUHIHUHQWLDOZLGHQDUURZVFRSH DQGRIGH¿QLWHQHVV DQDSKRULFXVHHWF IROORZLQJ,RQLQ   0HWKRG 3DUWLFLSDQWV 7KHSDUWLFLSDQWVLQFOXGHGLQWKLVVWXG\ZHUHVWXGHQWVRIZKRPZHUH-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVRI6SDQLVKDQG 6SDQLVKQDWLYHVSHDNHUV7KHQDWLYHVZHUHXQLYHUVLW\VWXGHQWVRI0DGULGDQGWKH-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVZHUHIURP 7RN\R8QLYHUVLW\RI)RUHLJQ6WXGLHV7KH\ZHUHGLYLGHGLQWRWKUHHJURXSVDWWHQGLQJWRWKHLUDFDGHPLF\HDUDV IROORZVVWXGHQWVLQ³OHYHO´LQ³OHYHO´DQGLQ³OHYHO´$VWKH-DSDQHVHDFDGHPLFDQG¿VFDO\HDU VWDUWVLQ$SULODWWKHWLPHRIVWXG\WKH³OHYHO´JURXSKDGKDGRQH\HDURILQVWUXFWLRQLQ6SDQLVK³OHYHO´WZR \HDUVDQG³OHYHO´WKUHH ,QUHVSHFWRIJHQGHURIWKHVXEMHFWVZHUHIHPDOHVDQGWKHLUDJHVUDQJHGIURPWR\HDUVROG ZKHUHDQG\HDUROGVUHSUHVHQWHGPRUHWKDQKDOIRIWKHWRWDO ,QVWUXPHQW 7RFROOHFWWKHGDWDDTXHVWLRQQDLUHZDVGHVLJQHGLQFOXGLQJWZRGLIIHUHQWSDUWVWKH¿UVWRQHFRUUHVSRQGHGWRD OLQJXLVWLFELRJUDSK\ DJHDFDGHPLF\HDUODQJXDJHVHWF DQGWKHVHFRQGRQHVKRZHGWKHLWHPVWRMXGJH VHH DSSHQGL[ 7KHUHZHUHLWHPVZKLFKLQFOXGHGWKHFRQWH[WVWRDQDO\]HDVZHOODVWKHLUXQJUDPPDWLFDOYHUVLRQ ,QPRVWFDVHVWKHLWHPVIRUPHGSDUWRIDFRQYHUVDWLRQEHWZHHQWZRVXEMHFWV $DQG% ZKHUHWKH¿UVWVHQWHQFH 47

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU

$ ZRUNHGDVWKHFRQWH[WLQEUDFNHWVDQG % ZDVWKHVHQWHQFHWRMXGJH  >$+R\WXYHXQH[DPHQ[email protected] %¢GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected] &RQYHUVDWLRQEHWZHHQDSROLFHRI¿FHUDQGDUHSRUWHU 5HSRUWHU6HYHUDOGD\VDJR0U-DPHV3HWHUVRQDIDPRXVSROLWLFLDQZDVPXUGHUHG$UH\RX LQYHVWLJDWLQJKLVPXUGHU" 3ROLFHRI¿FHU6QDSH/HXQJ 7LQJ  H[DPSOH  @ 7KHUHIHUHQFHRI13>“GH¿QLWH“VSHFL¿[email protected]DQGWKHW\SHRIQRXQ>XQFRXQWDEOHVLQJXODUFRXQWDEOHVLQJXODU DQGFRXQWDEOH[email protected]ZHUHFRPSOHWHGZLWKWKHXVHVIRUWKHGH¿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¿YHV\PEROVSODFHGRQWKHULJKWRIWKHLWHP7KHYDOXHVUDQJHGIURP VRXQGVJRRG WR VRXQGVEDG  DQGZHUHLQDQDGGLWLYHVFDOHRIWKH/LNHUWW\SHWKDWPHDQVDQRUGLQDOVFDOHZKHUHLVQRWWKHGRXEOHRI±LW LVQRW³GRXEOHUHJXODU´±DOWKRXJKLWPHDQVLWVRXQGVZRUVHWKDQ 3URFHGXUH 7KHTXHVWLRQQDLUHIRU-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVZDVFDUULHGRXWLQ7RN\R8QLYHUVLW\RI)RUHLJQ6WXGLHVGXULQJWKH FODVVWLPHRIWKHVXEMHFW³$PHULFDQ/LWHUDWXUH,,´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

48

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

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¿FXOWLWHPVIRUQDWLYHVDQG-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVWRDQDO\]HLIWKHUHZHUHGLIIHUHQFHVLQXQGHUVWDQGLQJ JUDPPDWLFDOLW\ 7KHGHVFULSWLYHDQDO\VHVZHUHIROORZHGE\VWDWLVWLFDODQDO\VHVLQZKLFKDSULRULDQGDSRVWHULRULVWXGLHV FDQEHGLVWLQJXLVKHG7KHDSULRULSDUWRIWKHVWXG\LQFOXGHGWZRVWDWLVWLFDODQDO\VHVWKDWUHSUHVHQWWZRGLIIHUHQW ZD\VWRKDQGOHWKHGDWD7KH¿UVWRQHFRQVLVWHGLQDPD[LPL]DWLRQRIGDWDE\3HDUVRQ&RUUHODWLRQ$QDO\VLVLQ ZKLFKWKHVFRUH  RIHYHU\YDULDEOHZDVFRPSDUHGLWHPE\LWHPWR¿QGDOLQHDUDVVRFLDWLRQEHWZHHQWZR YDULDEOHV7KHFRHI¿FLHQWRIWKLVDQDO\VLVH[SUHVVHVWKHVWUHQJWKRIUHODWLRQVEHWZHHQWZRYDULDEOHVLQDQXPHULF ZD\7KHVWXG\RIDFRUUHODWLRQFDQEHYHU\XVHIXOWRNQRZZKLFKFULWHULRQLVIROORZHGWRDVVLJQWKHVDPH SXQFWXDWLRQDQGZKDWHOHPHQWVLQFRPPRQDUHFRQVLGHUHGWRMXGJHWKHJUDPPDWLFDOLW\7KHYDOXHVEHWZHHQ YDULDEOHV;DQGGH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]LQDOOFDVHVH[FHSW   ZKLFKZDV>GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]7KHQRXQVRI  DQG  DUHXQFRXQWDEOH ³ZLQH´DQG³ZDWHU´ EXWWKH UHPDLQGHUFRQWDLQHGFRXQWDEOHQRXQV WKHQXPEHULQVTXDUHEUDFNHWVGHQRWHVWKHRUGHURIGLI¿FXOW\ LVWKH PRVWGLI¿FXOW WKHQXPEHULQSDUHQWKHVLVGHQRWHVWKHLWHPQXPEHULQWKHTXHVWLRQQDLUH 

50

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

>@  0HJXVWDUtDYLVLWDUSLUiPLGHVGH(JLSWR ,ZRXOGOLNHWRYLVLWS\UDPLGVRI(J\SW 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH >@  >$¢4XpSRGHPRVKDFHUSDUDUHGXFLUODFRQWDPLQDFLyQ"@ %3XHVSRUHMHPSORXVDUDXWRE~V\QRFRFKH >$:KDWFDQZHGRWRUHGXFHSROOXWLRQ"@ %:HOOIRUH[DPSOHXVHEXVDQGQRWFDU 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHRULQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH >@  $XQTXHVR\GH3DUtVWRGDYtDQRKHVXELGRDWRUUH(LIIHO $OWKRXJK,DPIURP3DULV,KDYHQRWFOLPEHG(LIIHO7RZHU\HW 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH >@  >$+D\PXFKDVFODVHVGHYLQR1RVpFXiOFRPSUDU«@ %&RPSUDYLQRTXHVHOODPD³3RWDQ´(VWiEXHQtVLPR >$7KHUHDUHDORWRIW\SHVRIZLQH,GRQRWNQRZZKLFKWREX\«@ %%X\ZLQHFDOOHG³3RWDQ´,WLVGHOLFLRXV 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHRULQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH >@  >$¢4XpKDFHVHQODSLVFLQD"@ %(VWR\SUREDQGRDJXD >$:KDWDUH\RXGRLQJLQWKHSRRO"@ %,DPWHVWLQJZDWHU 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH 2QWKHRWKHUKDQGQDWLYHVWXGHQWVKDGSUREOHPVLQUHFRJQL]LQJWKHXQVSHFL¿FQDWXUHRILWHPV       DQG  WKH¿UVWRQHZLWKDQXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQ ³PRQH\´ %HVLGHVWKHLQGH¿QLWHUHIHUHQFHLVSUHVHQWLQ   DQG   >@  >$1RVDEtDTXHLEDVDVDOLUKR\@ %6tPHKDOODPDGR3DFR¢3XHGHVGDUPHHOGLQHUR" >$,GLGQ¶WNQRZ\RX¶UHJRLQJRXW@ %$:KDWFDQZHGRWRUHGXFHSROOXWLRQ"@ %:HOOIRUH[DPSOHXVHEXVDQGQRWFDU 1HFHVVDU\WKHGH¿QLWHRULQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOH >@  >$7HQJRTXHFRPSUDUGRVOLEURVGHHVSDxRO@ %$,KDYHWREX\WZR6SDQLVKERRNV@ %,ERXJKWWKH6SDQLVKERRNV\HVWHUGD\ >@  >$¢0HKDOODPDGRDOJXLHQ"@ %/ODPyHODPLJRWX\RKDFHXQDKRUDSHURQRVpFyPRVHOODPD >$'LGDQ\ERG\WHOHSKRQHPH"@ %@  >$¢+DVYLVWRODVQRWLFLDV"@ %6tWRGDYtDVHEXVFDHODVHVLQRGHOVHxRU(VFDODQWH1RVHVDEHTXLpQHV >$+DYH\RXZDWFKHGWKHQHZV"@ %$¢4XpWDOHOSDUWLGRGHWXHTXLSR"@ %0HGHVLOXVLRQDURQORVMXJDGRUHV >$+RZZDV\RXUWHDP¶VPDWFK"@ %7KHSOD\HUVGLVDSSRLQWHGPH  >$7HQJRTXHFRPSUDUGRVOLEURVGHHVSDxRO@ %$,KDYHWREX\WZR6SDQLVKERRNV@ %,ERXJKWWKH6SDQLVKERRNV\HVWHUGD\ ‡7KH)DFWRULDO$QDO\VLV WRWDO ,QWKH)DFWRULDO$QDO\VLV IURPQRZRQ³)$´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¿UPLQJWKH FRPPRQHOHPHQWRIWKLVIDFWRUZDVWKHVLQJXODU )DFWRULQFOXGHGIDFWRUVLQGLUHFWFRUUHODWLRQZLWKVLQJXODUQRXQVDQGVSHFL¿FLQWHUSUHWDWLRQV U   U  DQG U  7KHUHZHUHRQO\LQYHUVHFRUUHODWLRQV U  DQG U   WKDWZHUHXQVSHFL¿FDQGVSHFL¿FUHVSHFWLYHO\ ‡7KH)DFWRULDO$QDO\VLV RQO\-DSDQHVH 7KH)$IRU-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVVKRZHGWKDWZLWKIHZHUFRPSRQHQWVDVLPLODUUDWHRIWKHWRWDOYDULDQFH FDQEHDFFRXQWHGIRU/LNHLQWKH)$IRUWKHWRWDORIVXEMHFWV)DFWRUKDGLQFRPPRQWKHSOXUDO RIWKHLWHPVLQGLUHFWFRUUHODWLRQ U   U   U   U   U   U   U   U   U  DQG U  7KHLQYHUVHFRUUHODWLRQVDUHVLQJXODU ZLWKLWHPVZLWKXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQV U   U  DQG U   )DFWRULQFOXGHGLWHPVLQGLUHFWFRUUHODWLRQPRVWRIWKHPZLWKDGH¿QLWHVSHFL¿FUHIHUHQFH U   U   U   U  DQG U  ZLWKWKHH[FHSWLRQRI U  DQG U  7KHLQYHUVHFRUUHODWLRQV U   U  DQG U  ZHUHXQVSHFL¿F Ŷ7KHDSRVWHULRULDQDO\VLVUHTXLUHGWKHUHDOL]DWLRQRIIRXU$129$V ‡$129$'H¿QLWHQHVV 7KLV¿UVWDQDO\VLVRIYDULDQFH WDEOH KDGDGHVLJQRI[ZKHUHZHUHWKHGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHVEHWZHHQ JURXSV GH¿QLWH±GH¿QLWH DQGWKHSUR¿FLHQF\OHYHOVZLWKLQJURXSIDFWRUV 53

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU

>GH¿[email protected]

>±GH¿[email protected]

*URXS 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO

0HDQ          

7\SGHYLDWLRQ          

1          

7DEOH$129$'HVFULSWLYH>GH¿[email protected]>±GH¿[email protected] 7KHUHVXOWVVKRZHGWKHWRWDOPHDQVWDUJHWPRUHDFFXUDF\LQWKH±GH¿QLWHFRQWH[W  %\JURXSWKHULVLQJ SURJUHVVLRQLQDFFXUDF\RI-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVLQWKH>GH¿[email protected]FRQWH[WZDVLQWHUUXSWHGLQ/HYHO  2QWKH RWKHUKDQGWKLVOHYHOVKRZHGWKHKLJKHVWPHDQEHWZHHQ-DSDQHVHLQWKH>±GH¿[email protected]FRQWH[W  

0HDQ 



>[email protected]

>[email protected] 



(VSDxRO /

1LYHO

1LYHO

1LYHO

>[email protected]









>[email protected]









*URXS

)LJXUH$129$&RPSDULVRQRIPHDQVE\JURXSV ,QWKHJUDSKDERYH ¿JXUH LWLVREVHUYHGKRZWKHOLQHVDUHDOPRVWSDUDOOHODQGLWLVLQOHYHOZKHUHWKH\ GLYHUJHIURPHDFKRWKHU 7KH$129$ WDEOH FRQ¿UPHGWKHUHVXOWVLQWKHGHVFULSWLYHWDEOHDQGWKHJUDSK  6SKHULFLW\DVVXPHG 'H¿QLWH 'H¿QLWHJURXSV

GI  

)  

6LJ  

7DEOH$129$5HVXOWVXVLQJWKH³VSKHULFLW\DVVXPHG´LQGH[ 54

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

7KHUHZDVDQHIIHFW S) GI  EHWZHHQWKH>GH¿[email protected]DQG>±GH¿[email protected]ZKHUHWKHLQGH¿QLWH ZDVHDVLHU+RZHYHUWKHUHZDVQRLQWHUDFWLRQEHWZHHQJURXSV S  DVVKRZQLQWKHSDUDOOHOVRQWKH JUDSKLF ‡$129$'H¿QLWHQHVVDQGVSHFL¿FLW\ 7KLV$129$KDGD[GHVLJQDQGWKHOHYHOVRISUR¿FLHQF\ZHUHRUJDQL]HGE\WKHGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHV >GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]>GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]>±GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]DQG>±GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]

>GH¿QLWH VSHFL¿[email protected]

>GH¿QLWH ±VSHFL¿[email protected]

>±GH¿QLWH ±VSHFL¿[email protected]

>±GH¿QLWH VSHFL¿[email protected]

*URXS

0HDQ

6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO

                   

7\SLFDO GHYLDWLRQ                    

1                    

7DEOH$129$'HVFULSWLYH>“GH¿[email protected]>“VSHFL¿[email protected] $VVKRZQLQWDEOHWKHFRQWH[W>GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]ZDVWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWZLWKDWRWDOPHDQRI IROORZHGE\>±GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]ZLWK>GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]ZLWKDQG>±GH¿QLWHVSHFL¿[email protected]ZKLFK ZDVWKHHDVLHVWZLWK/HYHOVKRZHGWKHORZHVWPHDQIRUWKHPRVWSUREOHPDWLFFRQWH[WDQGIRU >±GH¿QLWH±VSHFL¿[email protected]LWZDV/HYHOZLWK 7KHJUDSKLF ¿JXUH VKRZVLQWHUDFWLRQEHWZHHQJURXSVZLWKWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQVRIOLQHV

55

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU 0HDQ

        

HVSDxRO/

1LYHO

1LYHO

1LYHO

>GHILQLWH[email protected]









>GHILQLWH[email protected]









>GHILQLWH[email protected]









>GHILQLWH[email protected]









*URXS

)LJXUH$129$&RPSDULVRQRIJURXSVE\PHDQV 7KHLQWHUVHFWLRQVZHUHFRUURERUDWHGE\WKHUHVXOWRIWKH$129$LQWDEOH 6SKHULFLW\DVVXPHG >“GH¿[email protected]>“VSHFL¿[email protected] >“GH¿[email protected]>“VSHFL¿[email protected]JURXSV

GI  

)  

6LJ  

7DEOH$129$5HVXOWVXVLQJWKH³VSKHULFLW\DVVXPHG´LQGH[ 7KHLQWUDJURXSUHVXOWVVKRZDVLJQL¿FDWLYLW\LQGH[ELJJHUWKDQS DQGWKHUHIRUHLWFDQQRWEH FRQVLGHUHGWKHUHWREHDQ\VLJQL¿FDQFH+RZHYHUWKH³S´LQGH[EHWZHHQJURXSVVKRZHGDWHQGHQF\WR¿QGDQ HIIHFW S  WKHUHZHUHFRQWH[WVHDVLHUIRURQHJURXSDQGPRUHGLI¿FXOWIRUWKHRWKHUV ‡$129$1RXQFRXQWDELOLW\ 7KH$129$IRUFRXQWDELOLW\KDGDGHVLJQ[ZLWK>[email protected]DQG>[email protected]DVWKHGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHV 7KHIROORZLQJWDEOH WDEOH VKRZVVLPLODUQXPEHUVIRUWKHWRWDOPHDQVIRUXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQVDQG IRUFRXQWDEOH

>[email protected]

>[email protected]

*URXS

0HDQ

6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO

         

7\SLFDO GHYLDWLRQ          

7DEOH$129$'HVFULSWLYH>[email protected]>[email protected] 56

1          

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

,WFDQEHREVHUYHGWKDWWKHUHZDVDELJJHUGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQXQFRXQWDEOHDQGFRXQWDEOHLQ/HYHO DQGUHVSHFWLYHO\2QWKHRWKHUKDQG/HYHOVKRZHGWKHVDPHQXPEHUIRUERWKFRQWH[WVDVUHSUHVHQWHGLQ WKHIROORZLQJJUDSK ¿JXUH 

0HDQ         

(VSDxRO/

1LYHO

1LYHO

1LYHO

>[email protected]









>[email protected]









*URXS )LJXUH$129$&RPSDULVRQRIJURXSVE\PHDQV $VFDQEHVHHQWKH-DSDQHVHXQOLNHWKHQDWLYHVVKRZHGPRUHDFFXUDF\ZLWKFRXQWDEOHQRXQV  WKDQ ZLWKXQFRXQWDEOHQRXQV  7KHFRQ¿UPDWLRQLVVKRZQLQWDEOH 6SKHULFLW\DVVXPHG &RXQWDELOLW\ &RXQWDELOLW\JURXSV

GI  

)  

6LJ  

7DEOH$129$5HVXOWVXVLQJWKH³VSKHULFLW\DVVXPHG´LQGH[ 7KHLQGH[S VKRZHGWKDWWKHUHZDVQRHIIHFWEHWZHHQXQFRXQWDEOHDQGFRXQWDEOHQRXQV+RZHYHULW ZDVREVHUYHGDWHQGHQF\WR¿QGDQHIIHFW S) GI  DVWKHHDVLHVWFRQWH[WVGLIIHUHGE\JURXSV ‡$129$1RXQQXPEHU >[email protected]DQG>[email protected]DUHUHODWHGWRQRXQFRXQWDELOLW\DQGZHUHWKHGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHVRIWKLVODVW$129$ ZLWKD[GHVLJQ

57

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU

>[email protected]

>[email protected]

*URXS

0HDQ

6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO 6SDQLVK/ /HYHO /HYHO /HYHO 7RWDO

         

7\SLFDO GHYLDWLRQ          

1          

7DEOH$129$'HVFULSWLYH>[email protected]>[email protected] 7KHGHVFULSWLYH WDEOH VKRZHGPRUHDFFXUDF\IRUWKHSOXUDO  WKDQWKHVLQJXODU  7KLV GLIIHUHQFHZDVHVSHFLDOO\QRWLFHDEOHLQ/HYHODQGOHVVLQ/HYHOZKHUHWKHQXPEHUVIRUVLQJXODUDQGSOXUDO ZHUHYHU\FORVHDQGUHVSHFWLYHO\7KHPHDQVFDQEHVHHQUHSUHVHQWHGJUDSKLFDOO\LQ¿JXUH

0HDQ        

(VSDxRO/

1LYHO

1LYHO

1LYHO

>[email protected]









>[email protected]









*URXS

)LJXUH$129$&RPSDULVRQRIJURXSVE\PHDQV /HYHODQG/HYHOVKRZHGVLPLODUQXPEHUVWKHODVWRQHZLWKPRUHDFFXUDF\EXWWKHSURJUHVVLRQZDV LQWHUUXSWHGLQ/HYHOZLWKWKHVDPHPHDQDV/HYHOIRUVLQJXODU  DQGDORZPHDQDOVRIRUSOXUDOLQWKLV OHYHODOWKRXJKWKHUHZDVQRLQWHUVHFWLRQ 6SKHULFLW\DVVXPHG 1XPEHU 1XPEHUJURXS

GI  

)  

7DEOH$129$5HVXOWVXVLQJWKH³VSKHULFLW\DVVXPHG´LQGH[

58

6LJ  

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV

7DEOHVKRZVDQHIIHFWZLWK³S´ORZHUWKDQ  WKDWPHDQVWKDWWKHSOXUDOZDVHDVLHUWKDQWKH VLQJXODU%HWZHHQJURXSVWKHLQGH[ZDVQRWVLJQL¿FDQWZLWKWKHSOXUDOHDVLHUIRUHYHU\JURXS 'LVFXVVLRQ ,QDSUHYLRXVVWXG\ %DUUHUD WKHQRQJHQHULFXVHVRIWKH6SDQLVKGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHZHUHDQDO\]HGIROORZLQJ WKHVDPHPHWKRGRORJ\DQGRQHRIWKHFRQFOXVLRQVZDVWKDWWKHUHDUHGLIIHUHQWIDFWRUVWKDWWDNHSDUWLQWKH JUDPPDWLFDOLW\MXGJPHQWVQRWRQO\WKHXVHVGHVFULEHGE\/HRQHWWL,QWKLVSDSHUWKHUROHVRIGH¿QLWHQHVV VSHFL¿FLW\DQGFRXQWDELOLW\LQWKLVNLQGRIWDVNZHUHDQDO\VHG )URPWKHH[SORUDWRU\VWXG\WKDWLQFOXGHGWKH3HDUVRQ&RUUHODWLRQ$QDO\VLVDQGWKH)DFWRULDO$QDO\VLVLWZDV IRXQGWKDWWKHEDVHRIWKHFRUUHODWLRQZDVWKHQRXQIRUH[DPSOHXQFRXQWDEOHIRUFRUUHODWLRQ     U   RU)DFWRUWKDWKDGLQFRPPRQWKHQXPEHURIWKHQRXQLQWKLVFDVHSOXUDO5HJDUGLQJWKHUHIHUHQFHRIWKH13 WKH)DFWRUKDGDQXQVSHFL¿FFKDUDFWHU +RZHYHUDSDUWIURPWKHVHFRQFHSWVWKDWWKHWKHRUHWLFDOJUDPPDUDQGWKHWKHRULHVRIDFTXLVLWLRQFRQVLGHU IXQGDPHQWDOWKHUHZHUHPRUHIDFWRUVWKDWLQÀXHQFHWKHUHFRJQLWLRQRIJUDPPDWLFDOLW\OLNHIRUPDOVLPLODULW\ >FRUUHODWLRQ     U  ZLWKDVLPLODU13LQVXEMHFW[email protected]VDPHOHQJWKRIWKHLWHPV\QWD[ >FRUUHODWLRQ     U  ZLWK[email protected]DQGVHPDQWLFV>FRUUHODWLRQ     U  ZLWKYHUEV PHDQLQJ³EX\´DQG³UHQW´@ 7KHDSRVWHULRULVWXG\IRXQGWKHLQGH¿QLWHDUWLFOHZDVHDVLHUWKDQWKHGH¿QLWHWRFRPSUHKHQGVRPHWKLQJWKDW FRUURERUDWHGWKHSUHYLRXVOLWHUDWXUH7KHFRQWH[W>“GH¿[email protected]>“VSHFL¿[email protected]VKRZHGDQLQWHUDFWLRQEHWZHHQJURXSV EXWQRWEHWZHHQFRQWH[WV7KHXQVSHFL¿FFRQWH[WZDVWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWHYHQIRUQDWLYHV /DVWO\LQWKLVVWXG\LWZDVVWXGLHGWKHFRPSUHKHQVLRQRIERWKQDWLYHVDQG-DSDQHVHVWXGHQWVEXWSURGXFWLRQ ZULWWHQDQGRUDO VKRXOGEHDOVRDQDO\]HGDVWKHGDWDGLIIHUVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHWDVN 3DUULVK/LFHUDV *XLMDUUR)XHQWHV &OLEEHQV 

5HIHUHQFHV %DUUHUD5)-  1RQJHQHULF8VHVRI6SDQLVK'H¿QLWH$UWLFOHE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV3RO\JORVVLD9RO  %HOOR$  *UDPiWLFDGHODOHQJXDFDVWHOODQDGHVWLQDGDDOXVRGHORVDPHULFDQRV$YDLODEOHLQKWWS ZZZFHUYDQWHVYLUWXDOFRPVHUYOHW6LUYH2EUDV>/DVWDFFHVV@ %LFNHUWRQ'  5RRWVRIODQJXDJH$QQ$UERU0,.DURPD %RVTXH, HG   (OVXVWDQWLYRVLQGHWHUPLQDFLyQ/DDXVHQFLDGHGHWHUPLQDQWHHQODOHQJXDHVSDxROD 0DGULG9LVRU/LEURV %RVTXH, 'HPRQWH9  *UDPiWLFDGHVFULSWLYDGHODOHQJXDHVSDxROD0DGULG(VSDVD %XWOHU$+R\WXYHXQH[DPHQ[email protected] %¢$¢4XpWHSDUHFHHOQXHYRSUHVLGHQWH"@ %0HJXVWDSROtWLFRFRQGHFLVLyQ

--.//



>$¢4XpHVORSHRUGHOYHUDQRHQ-DSyQ"@ %/DKXPHGDG

--.//



>$¢4XpHVWiKDFLHQGR/XLVHQVXFDVD"¢3RUTXpQRVDOH"@ %(VWiDKRUUDQGRHOGLQHUR(VWHPHVWLHQHSRFR

--.//



>$¢&XiOGHHVWRVGRVFRFKHVWHJXVWDPiV"@ %0HJXVWDHOFRFKHGHODGHUHFKD

--.//



>$1RVDEtDTXHLEDVDVDOLUKR\@ %6tPHKDOODPDGR3DFR¢3XHGHVGDUPHHOGLQHUR"

--.//



>$1HFHVLWRGLQHURSDUDFRPSUDUXQOLEUR&XHVWD\HQHV@ %$KRUDWHGR\HOGLQHUR

--.//



>$$TXtWHWUDLJRWRGRVORVLQJUHGLHQWHVTXH[email protected] %/OHJDVDWLHPSR¢PHSDVDVVDO"

--.//



¢7HDFXHUGDVGHODVWRUUHVJHPHODVGH1XHYD$7HQJRTXHFRPSUDUGRVOLEURVGHHVSDxRO@ %$+R\MXHJD)UDQFLDFRQWUD,WDOLD@ %6t\RDQLPDUpDXQRVLWDOLDQRV

--.//



>$¢4XpKDFHVHQODSLVFLQD"@ %(VWR\SUREDQGRDJXD

--.//



>$¢4XpSRGHPRVKDFHUSDUDUHGXFLUODFRQWDPLQDFLyQ"@ %3XHVSRUHMHPSORXVDUDXWRE~V\QRFRFKH

--.//



>$1RWHQJRQDGDTXHSRQHUPHSDUDVDOLUHVWDQRFKH«@ %7HKHSODQFKDGRFDPLVDQHJUD

--.//



'DUpHOGLQHURTXHJDQHHQHVWHFRQFXUVRDPLPDGUH

--.//



>$+D\PXFKDVFODVHVGHYLQR1RVpFXiOFRPSUDU«@ %&RPSUDYLQRTXHVHOODPD³3RWDQ´(VWiEXHQtVLPR

--.//



>$/OHYDPRVPHGLDKRUDHQHVWDWLHQGD¢1RVYDPRV\D"@ %(VSHUDTXLHURKDEODUFRQODGXHxDHVPLYHFLQD

--.//



$XQTXHVR\GH3DUtVWRGDYtDQRKHVXELGRDWRUUH(LIIHO

--.//



>$¢+DQGHFLGLGR\DHOQXHYRHQWUHQDGRU"@ %1RHVWDPRVEXVFDQGRSHUVRQDVHULD

--.//

61

3RO\JORVVLD9RO2FWREHU



>$$TXtKHSXHVWRWRGRVORVLQJUHGLHQWHVTXHPH[email protected] %0XFKDVJUDFLDV3RUFLHUWR¢3XHGHVSDVDUPHODSLPLHQWD"

--.//



>$ÒOWLPDPHQWHKD\PXFKRVFRFKHVIDEULFDGRVHQ[email protected] %$¢3RUTXpQRYLHQH-XDQ"¢4XpHVWiKDFLHQGR"@ %(VWiFRPSUDQGRFHUYH]D

--.//



>$&RQHVWHIUtRQRKD\QDGLHHQODVFDOOHV@ %6tDOYHQLUVRORYLPRVORVQLxRVMXJDQGRIXHUD¢4XLpQHVVHUiQ"

--.//



>$ÒOWLPDPHQWHQRYHRD/[email protected] %$OSDUHFHUVDOHFRQXQDFKLFDSHURWRGDYtDQRODKHYLVWR

--.//



>$¢&XiOGHORVTXLHUHV"@ %0HTXHGRFRQEROtJUDIRURMR

--.//



8WLOL]DUiQYLQRTXHVREUHSDUDKDFHUYLQDJUH

--.//



>$¢+DVYLVWRODVQRWLFLDV"@ %6tWRGDYtDVHEXVFDHODVHVLQRGHOVHxRU(VFDODQWH1RVHVDEHTXLpQHV

--.//



>$³&RPSUDPRVFRVDVXVDGDV´'[email protected] %0HJXVWDUtDVDEHUFXiQWRGLQHURPHGDQSRUODJXLWDUUD)HQGHU6WUDWRFDVWHU

--.//



>$0HKDQUHJDODGRHVWHRUGHQDGRUFRQFRQH[LyQD,[email protected] %¢0HGHMDVXVDUHORUGHQDGRUSDUDYHUPLFRUUHR"

--.//



>$¢4XpGHVHD"@ %8QRVSDQWDORQHVTXHQRWHQJDQEROVLOORV

--.//



>$6DFD\DODVSDWDWDV6HYDQD[email protected] %3iVDPHSODWRSRUIDYRU

--.//



>$¢9DLVDYLDMDUHVWH¿QGHVHPDQD"@ %6t\DWHQHPRVORVELOOHWHV

--.//



>$¢3RUTXpQRWHJXVWD,UODQGD"@ %1RVRSRUWROOXYLD

--.//



3DUDKDFHUHVWDWDUWDHVQHFHVDULRPRYHUODKDULQDFRQVWDQWHPHQWH

--.//



>$¢4XpYDVDLUDIRWRJUD¿DUODSUy[LPDYH]"@ %4XLHURIRWRJUD¿DUXQDPRVFDTXHVyORYLYHHQ0DGDJDVFDU

--.//



>$(VWHRUGHQDGRUYDPX\[email protected] %6tWHQJRTXHFDPELDUOHPHPRULD

--.//



>$¢$GyQGHWHJXVWDUtDYLDMDUHVWHYHUDQR"@ %$¢4XpKDFRPSUDGR$QDSDUDOD¿HVWD"@ %'LFHTXHKDFRPSUDGRYLQRSHUR\RQRORKHYLVWR

--.//



0HJXVWDUtDYLVLWDUSLUiPLGHVGH(JLSWR

--.//



>$¢4XpKLFLVWHHQ/RQGUHV"@ %(VWXYHHQVHxDQGRHVSDxRODORVLQJOHVHV

--.//

62

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV



>$¢0HKDOODPDGRDOJXLHQ"@ %/ODPyHODPLJRWX\RKDFHXQDKRUDSHURQRVpFyPRVHOODPD

--.//



>$¢3RUTXpHVWDQLPSRUWDQWHHVWHH[DPHQ"@ %3RUTXHDVtHOHJLUiQDORVPHMRUHVDOXPQRVGHOFROHJLR

--.//



>$6DOJRDFRPSUDU[email protected] %$VHJ~UDWHGHTXHKDULQDVHDSDUDIUHtU

--.//



>$¢4XpVHSXVR5REHUWRSDUDOD¿HVWD"@ %'LFHQTXHVHSXVRXQRV]DSDWRVDPDULOORVSHURQRORVKHYLVWR

--.//



>$2WUDYH]KDKDELGRXQDFFLGHQWHHQXQD[email protected] %1RKDFHQQDGDSDUDSURWHJHUDOWUDEDMDGRU

--.//



>$$0HKHGHMDGRPLVGRFXPHQWRVHQ[email protected] %1RWHSUHRFXSHV\RWHOOHYRGRFXPHQWRVHQVHJXLGD

--.//



>$(VWHFXDGURQRWLHQH¿UPD@ %0HJXVWDUtDFRQRFHUDXQDXWRUGHHVWHFXDGUR

--.//

63

Loading...

Notions of Definiteness, Specificity and Countability in the

1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWHQHVV6SHFL¿FLW\DQG&RXQWDELOLW\LQWKH *UDPPDWLFDOLW\-XGJPHQWVRQ6SDQLVK$UWLFOH6\VWHPE\-DSDQHVH6WXGHQWV 1RWLRQVRI'H¿QLWH...

199KB Sizes 3 Downloads 6 Views

Recommend Documents

No documents