Petrarch Student Worksheet Introduction: One of the most well-known authors of the Humanist period was Petrarch, whose writings earned him the title of Poet Laureate of Rome. He is best known for a series of poems addressed to ''hum," as well as many letters, inctudiig an autobiography entitled To Posterity. A11 Web links far this lesson can be found at:
Francis Petrarch: Letters "To Posterityn Go to hnD://histow.hanoverxdulea rlv/Det~rch/FtO1.htm. Read the selection, then answer the following questions. 1 . Petrarch claims that he is "in truth, a poor mortal like yourself" then, quoting Augustus Caesar, mentions that he belongs "to an ancient family." Based on this information, how does Petrarch demonstrate his admiration for ancient Roman culture?
2. How does Petrarch describe his parents and their situation? How does Petrarch describe his views on wealth?
3. What terms does Petrarch use to describe himself physically?
4. P e m h became a celebrity in his later years. How does he describe his own importance and influence in this reading?
5. Describe how Pe-h
views himself intellectually.
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6. Petrarch mentions his experience in being named "poet laureate" of Rome. Describe Petrarch's feelings and thoughts about being named to this position.
7. In your view, is Petrarch a humble man, or does he demonstrate a view that he is deserving of honors bestowed upon him? Use excerpts from the reading in your answer.
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Machiavelli's The Prince Student Worksheet Introduction:
One of the most famous political works of the Renaissance era was Niccolo Macl~iavelli'sThe Prince, in which he analyzed politics in Renaissance Italy. While more power-hungry rulers embraced Machiavelli's work as legitimizing their methods, many attacked the book because of the ideas Machiavelli advocated. In The Prince, Machiavelli advised rulers to Ix prepared to use force and deceit to accomplish their aims and maintain power. In Chapter 17 of The Prince, Machiavelli contemplated whether it would be more advantageous for a prince (a ruler) to be loved than feared.
All Web links for this lesson can k found at: ~t~://www.socialstudies.wdworldlink~tml
Directions: The Rince, Chapter 17 Go to
Read the excerpt from 7he Prince, then answer the following questions. 1. Why does Machiavelli suggest that every prince ought to desire to be "clement and not cruel"? What does he warn about regarding "too much mercy" by rulers?
2. Why does Machiavelli believe it is "safer to be f m d than loved"?
3. What does Machiavelli mean by the phrase,"fearpreservts you by adreadof punishment that never fails"?
4. What advice does Machiavelji give to a leader when "it is necessary for him to proceed against the life of someone"? How does Machiavelli explain this advice?
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5 . Machiavelli warns to "avoid hatred." W h y do you think he be1ieved princes that were hated would not be successful?
6. What evidence of the influence of the humanist movement can you find in Machiavelli's writings?
7. Using information from class discussion and the textbook, consider other generals and political leaders who attained success by the use of fear. Name at least two and explain why you would place them in this category.
8. Could a political leader rule effectively today by following Machiavelli's principles? Explain your answer. In your view, are there leaders who seek to be effective leaders by ruling in this manner? Which current world or national leaders might meet this criteria?
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