The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

ICLLCS 2013 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies August 22-24, 2013

Organized by: Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University, THAILAND

ISBN : 978-974-384-496-6 Get Good Creation, Co.,LTD [email protected] by Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

The scientific committee The scientific committee is in charge of the reviewing process for the papers that have been accepted to be published on the conference proceedings. It is composed of scholars having an expertise in the diverse and complementary areas pertaining to the conference theme. 1. Assoc. Prof. Supannee Pinmanee, Faculty of Humanities, Chiangmai University 2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Budsaba Kanoksilapatham, Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University 3. Asst. Prof. Dr. Saiwaroon Chumpavan, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University 4. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tipa Thep-Ackrapong, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University 5. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kitima Indrambarya, Faculty of Applied Linguistics, Kasetsart University 6. Dr. Nataporn Srichamnong, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce 7. Dr. Laura Bailey, School of European Culture and Languages, University of Kent 8. Dr Alex Ho-Cheong Leung, Department of Humanities, Northumbria University 9. Dr. Jean Odnor Starobinsky Jomskey, Department of Philosophy, Université Paris 8 10. Dr. Nasser Al-Horais, Arabic Department, Qassim university 11. Asst. Prof. Dr. Somboon Chetchumlong, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 12. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ubon Dhanesschaiyakupta, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 13. Assoc. Professor Thanu Tewrattanakul, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 14. Asst. Prof. Dr. Preedee Pitpoomwittee, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 15. Asst. Prof. Dr. Pakpoom Jaimeearee, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 16. Dr. On-Usa Phimsawat, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 17. Dr. Somphob Yaisomanang, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 18. Dr.Wanwisa Kunpattaranirun, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 19. Assist.professor Dr.Nanchaya Mahakhan, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 20. Assist.professor Dr. Wilai Limthawaranun, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 21. Dr. Phoommarin Phiromlertamorn, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Burapha University 22. Assoc. Prof. Dr.Sujaritlak Deepadung, Mahidol University

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

CONTENTS Alexander Klemm Writing the City into Being: Cold War Bangkok in The Ninth Directive (1966)

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Anusorn Saechan &Sugunya Ruangjaroon WH-Arguments versus WH-Adjuncts Asymmetry in the Acquisition of English WH-Questions by Thai Learners

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Pudsadee Kaewchawee The Effectiveness of Multimedia-Based Instruction in Developing the Sixth Grade Students’ English Ability

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Akkarapon Nuemaihom An Analysis of Thai-English Translation Strategies in the Short Story Level 8 Abbot

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Budsaba Kanoksilapatham University Students’ Attitudes towards English Pronunciation Models

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Chitra Phunkitchar & Supaporn Yimwilai Environmental Awareness in Children Picture Book: The Secret Garden

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Aram Iamlaor 63 An Analysis of Translating Figurative Language by English-Major Students in Thailand Farhad Mazlum & Fatemeh Poorebrahim 69 English Language Teaching in Iran: A Meta-analytic and Triangulated View of Persistent Challenges Hataya Anansuchatkul Effortlessly Yours: A Discursive Construction of Spa Service in Chiang Mai

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Jaime Moreno Between Christianity and Modernity: Spain in the History of Boredom-as-Laziness

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Jose G. Tan, Jr. English Instructional Materials: Imperative Learning Aid for the High School Bound Summer Program of the MSU-Science High School

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Khaing Khaing Oo & Kantatip Sinhaneti 122 An Investigation of Myanmar Migrant Workers’ Job-related English Language Problems and Needs at D.E.A.R Burma School Meechai Wongdaeng & Rangsiya Chaengchenkit 135 Interlanguage of English Question Use among Thai EFL Learners: An Investigation into Acquisition Patterns and a Testing of Implicational Universals Khanita Limhan English-Thai Time Expressions Used by Thai EFL Learners

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Nani Indrajani Tjitrakusuma 158 The Metaphors of Verbal and Pictorial Verbal Advertisement Texts in Online Magazines

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Nanik Mariani Effendie 168 The Student Wheels Strategy in Teaching Speaking Skills to Cultivate Politeness at Junior High School Paul Ashford Improving English language skills through extensive reading: A literature review

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Reza Abdi & Salim Zalgholizadeh An Analysis of the Use of Collocation by Iranian EFL College Students

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Rungaroon Injai 211 rd An Analysis of Paraphrasing Strategies Use in Expository Writing by 3 Year Students at Burapha University Hossein Siahpoosh 221 Pronunciation Performance in EFL Learners at Different Age Groups: Extraversion vs. Introversion Thitinan B. Common 228 Music and the Echo of Cultural Identity: The Case Study of Lanna Contemporary Music Wayne George Deakin Thailand, Occidentalism and Cultural Commodity Fetishism

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Wimonwan Aungsuwan The Similarities and Differences between Imagination and Reality in Harry Potter

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Pipittaporn Inpanich & Atipat Boonmoh 259 The Effects of Peer and Teacher Feedback through an Electronic Medium (Facebook) on Students’ Writing at Different Points of Their Writing Apichai Rungruang 270 The Relationship between the Perception and Production of English Onset Clusters by EFL Thai Learners Chadchavan Sritong 280 Comparative Analysis of Usages of the Preposition "de" in Spanish and Thai Language Elisa Cristina Díaz Spanish and Thais surnames: Similarities and differences.

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Intira Charuchinda 299 “Beautiful” or “Pretty” as Conceptualized in Katherine Mansfield’s A Cup of Tea: Feminist Ironies Irana Astutiningsih 310 Women’s Breaking Taboos in Cyberculture: Tearing up Patriarchal Net through Slash Fiction? Kay Liu (劉采婕) & Jason Mattausch (馬傑生) Tone Perception Errors in Mandarin Chinese

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

Krongtham Nuanngam Politeness in English of Thailand’s Ordinary National Educational Test (O-NET)

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María de las Mercedes Fuentes Hurtado How can Thai students learn Spanish literature? A practical approach.

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Marilou L. Villas An Investigation of Students’ Types and Frequency of Errors in Paragraph Writing

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Moh’d Tawfiq Bataineh Language Ideology and the Development of Arabic

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Parin Tanawong & Somsak Kaewnuch The Relationship between Cohesion and Coherence in Writing: The Case of Thai EFL Students

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Raksi Kiattibutra 390 The effectiveness of teaching foreign language to a non-background group: A case study of teaching Elementary French for social sciences students at the University of Phayao Sorapong Nongsaeng & Supaporn Yimwilai The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins

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Wannaprapha Suksawas Exploratory Talk in EFL Classroom from a Systemic Functional Linguistics’ View

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Yaowarut Mengkow Derek Walcott and the Pastoral

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Yoga Prihatin 429 Conversational Implicature Analysis in a Classroom Interaction at English Department of Tegal Pancasakti University Yulia Makhonko Listening to learn in an L2: Noticing and Restructuring Listening Activities versus Traditional Way of Teaching

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Fuangket Tongwanchai Grammatical Use of Politeness Strategies in Requests by Thai Learners of Spanish

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Hendar & Chairiawaty 458 Improving the students’ Business English Communication and Intercultural Competence through Role Playing and Simulation Ida Zuraida Supri A Dialogue Journal: A Tool to Improve Classroom Interaction

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

Writing the City into Being: Cold War Bangkok in The Ninth Directive (1966) Alexander Klemm Assumption University of Thailand Graduate School of English [email protected]

Abstract This paper presents an analysis of the novel The Ninth Directive (1966) by British author Elleston Trevor (a.k.a. Adam Hall) by focusing on its historical and literary contexts and on the construction of Bangkok as an urban stage of Cold War clashes between British, U.S. American and Chinese interests. The paper seeks to determine exactly how Bangkok is portrayed in the novel and to what ends. The theoretical framework is based on various recent publications that deal with the representation of Bangkok and Thailand in western fiction and non-fiction texts. The results show that The Ninth Directive fits some characteristics of the city novel genre, yet it does not fully develop Bangkok into a character of its own right because the primary purpose is to present Bangkok as a strategic center from where the western and Thai forces succeed at stopping the spread of Chinese Communism. This representation is solely based on the observations of the British agent Quiller, the protagonist. At first, the city is portrayed as an idyllic paradise before it is turned into a city under siege. Moreover, the author’s imagined Cold War confrontation reveals his underlying Orientalist, colonial and imperial attitudes, which are most apparent in the portrayal of the antagonist. Named ‘Kuo the Mongolian’, the Chinese-Communist assassin Kuo embodies western fears of a rising China and the spread of Communism. Keywords: Bangkok, Cold War, city, fiction, representation, Orientalism

Introduction During my research about the numerous ways in which post-World War II English-language novels have appropriated and represented Bangkok, I could not find any critical texts of note that have engaged with this topic. This may be due to an apparent lack of ‘serious’ western novels set in Bangkok, or an ostensibly more fruitful focus on colonial and post-colonial literature set in other Southeast Asian cities. Nevertheless, a great number of noteworthy novels have given unique portrayals of Bangkok by way of interpreting the city and the lives of Bangkokians. One such novel is The Ninth Directive (1966), written by the British author Elleston Trevor and published under the pseudonym Adam Hall. The novel is set in Bangkok in the mid-1960s. The Bureau, a top-secret British spy agency, directs agent Quiller to Bangkok where his mission is to protect a member of the British Royal family who is referred to as ‘the Person’ (possibly based on Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh) throughout the novel. The Person is going to visit Bangkok on a diplomatic mission to maintain the strong ties between Great Britain and Thailand. The Bureau fears an attempt on the Person’s life during the visit, possibly by an assassin hired by China, and that the Thai and British security services would be unable to prevent such an attack. The threat becomes real when the ChineseCommunist assassin ‘Kuo the Mongolian’, henceforth Quiller’s cunning enemy, and a group of helpers cross from Laos into Thailand. Quiller finds Kuo in Bangkok and soon believes that his plan is to hide on an oriel of a Buddhist stupa named ‘Phra Chula Chedi’ from where he would shoot and most certainly kill the Person when he is passing in an open car. However, this plot has been a cover to mislead the British agent. Kuo’s actual intention is to abduct the Person. This abduction succeeds through an attack on the car and at the cost of the lives of several innocent

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Thais. Quiller, however, has no chance to stop Kuo and his men. Apparently, they were hired by the Chinese Government with the goal to force the British Government to swop the Person for a spy named Huang Hsiung Lee, who is in British custody. Lee has memorized plans for revolutionary laser technology needed by the Chinese to build a super-weapon. After the kidnapping Bangkok is in a state of shock and finds itself under siege by Thai, U.S. and British special forces. Quiller’s revised directive is to find Kuo and to get the Person back alive. After several setbacks he succeeds. By sparing Kuo’s life, he prevents Lee from running over to the Chinese and secures the Person’s safe return. This was a Cold War period when western concerns about the spread of Communism, the nuclear standoff among the world’s superpowers, and an escalation of the ongoing Vietnam conflict were very intense. The novel takes these tensions and lets them spill into Bangkok, turning it into a city under domestic and foreign occupation. On the surface, Bangkok appears to serve as a stage of a clash between British and Chinese interests, but there is much more to Hall’s portrayal of Bangkok. This paper engages critically with The Ninth Directive with regard to its role within the western literary genre of city novels, and the actual Cold War context. The paper also analyzes the novel’s complex portrayal of Bangkok as a city that is tested by an unwanted conflict. The analyzes below are significant for readers to arrive at an understanding of how a city like Bangkok is written into being, and how westerns portrayals of Bangkok are less indicative of the Thai nation but more so of the ideological objectives and socio-cultural conditions of western nations themselves.

Historical context: The Cold War The Cold War began in 1947 with the Truman Doctrine, i.e. the president’s pledge that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey economically and militarily so as to prevent the USSR from gaining a foothold there, and with the simultaneous beginning of the U.S.’s containment policy to oppose the USSR’s expansionistic ambitions in other parts of the world. After decades of intense international conflicts, global repositioning of the superpowers, proxy wars, and fears about a nuclear catastrophe, the Cold War officially ended in 1991 with the collapse of the USSR. There were several major Cold War events prior to the publication of The Ninth Directive that led to its conflict-charged mood. For example, in 1953 the CIA overthrew the Iranian Government, 1955 marked the year of the Warsaw Pact, and 1956 saw protests in Poland and an uprising in Hungary. In 1961 the crisis culminated in Berlin with a faceoff between U.S. and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie and with the construction of the Berlin Wall. Yet another critical high point was reached in 1962 with the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cold War also affected Southeast Asian nations. The First Indochina War (1946-1954) between French and Vietnamese forces ended with the exit of the French troops from Vietnam. The French withdrawal marked the beginning of CIA activity in the region that lasted until 1975 and was most intense during the Vietnam War (a.k.a. Second Indochina War, 1955-1975). The U.S. was concerned about a possible ‘domino effect’ in Indochina, i.e. the unstoppable spread of Communism from China to Vietnam, Laos, and further into Southeast Asia. The U.S.’s containment strategy included the prevention of a communist takeover of South Vietnam and thus the stop of the spread of Communism. Thailand could not evade the ongoing international conflicts as it was pressured to side with one of the superpowers. It decided to cooperate with NATO, and closely with the U.S. The Ninth Directive takes place in the mid-1960s, which was a period when the infrastructure in Bangkok and in other areas in Thailand developed rapidly not least due to U.S. financial and logistic support. Thus, the strategic alliance between the U.S. and Thailand was mutually beneficial. During the Vietnam War, particularly since 1964, Thailand permitted the U.S. Army Air Force to use the country’s military bases. As a result, more U.S. military personnel arrived every

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies year to support the war effort. Chris Burslem (2012) considers the period from 1945 to 1964 as significant for Bangkok because it underwent transitions affecting all spheres of urban life. He writes: The end of World War II ushered in a political dark age of dictatorial rule, not unrelated to the rise of the US as Thailand’s new patron. When American GIs arrived in the 1960s they found a city with a well-established and lively nightlife. Their presence, however ensured it gained a worldwide notoriety. While the bars, Western restaurants, rock ‘n’ roll and youth culture were the most obvious trappings of an increased exposure to America, US influence ran much deeper. Through its investments in Thailand’s infrastructure, institutions and markets, as well as its policy input and economic “guidance”, it put Thailand on the road to becoming an Asian tiger. The great drive to development since the 1960s marked the end of Old Bangkok (p. 9). While the global developments of the 1960s led to the end of an era in Bangkok’s history, it also meant that a new era of the city had begun, which western novelists would exploit accordingly. The tense Cold War mood gave a push to the literary genre of the spy novel. There are at least four English-language spy thrillers appropriating Bangkok as a Cold War city: Secret Mission to Bangkok (Mason, 1960), The Spy in Bangkok (Ballinger, 1965), The Ninth Directive (Hall, 1966) and Assignment Bangkok (Aarons 1972). By using the global tensions of the 1960s and letting them culminate in Bangkok, the four Cold War novels stand out for writing Bangkok into being like none before them because of their anti-Communist dogma and historical context. However, they are not sold in Thailand, although with the exception of The Spy in Bangkok they have been reprinted several times. This unavailability may be due to some comments in the novels and their distortions of historical facts that can be construed as insensitive to the Thai nation.

Literary context: Bangkok as a novel setting In Reading Bangkok, Ross King (2011) observes: “There are difficulties in understanding reading - Bangkok. It is, at least to the Western eye, a city of chaos, a landscape of incoherent collisions and blurring overlays” (p. 1). Based on the premise that Bangkok resembles a chaos, King develops three connected concepts of politics, culture and history to understand Bangkok. First, the pillars of ‘Nation, Religion, King’ are omnipresent in Bangkok’s spaces, expressed through landmarks, monuments, governmental institutions, buildings, streets, names, temples, and shrines. They intersect in many ways and are thus inter-dependent (p. xxvii). Second, the apparent chaos is, on the visual level, “mostly a consequence of juxtapositions of the dissimilar and even the incompatible” (p. 12). There are also “superimpositions”, where new activities and images partially cover old ones, which creates visual disharmony. Moreover, Bangkokians maneuver through the urban chaos with flexibility, endurance and skill. Hence, confusion is a necessary aspect of the city’s vibrant energy (p. 12). Third, understanding Bangkok in relation to colonization is crucial. King claims that Thailand was colonized over the last centuries in various ways: “The three circles of the Western appropriation of Siam - economic infiltration, territorial intrusion and discursive Orientalism - were always in action, though there were significant waves: the mid-19th-century treaty era, the early 20th-century territorial expansion of Malaya, the Japanese disruption (certainly more Western than Asian), America and the Vietnam War, the cultural neo-colonisation of the present” (p. 45). These forms of quasi-colonization have affected the economic center of Thailand permanently. Moreover, King’s main concepts to read and make sense of Bangkok are relevant to the literary strategies by which The Ninth Directive envisions Bangkok. Many novels use a city merely as a broad background, whereby the city itself plays only a minor role and is treated superficially by a story that could easily take place elsewhere. It then serves to give a certain atmosphere to the story, to name and describe the places occupied by the

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies characters, or to justify events that are typically set in an urban rather than a environment. Alternatively, an author may deeply engage with the urban setting by describing it in detail, relating it to the characters, and making a city and urban life the main foci. In such a ‘city novel’, city and citizens enter into a fluid relationship, and the city is explored by a flâneur, i.e. someone who wanders through city-spaces simply to experience them and who gives order to the story. The literary city may then be read as a text in itself, or its labyrinthine quality may mirror the narrative complexity or the psychological condition of the principle character. In the city, politics, laws, order, justice, identities, cultures, and co-existence are constantly renegotiated. Cities and societies define each other, and true city novels manage to show this. Around the turn of the 20th century, city novels reflected the state of mind of urban societies that had to come to grips with industrialization and modernization processes and the transformation of cities into metropolises. New York, London, Paris, Berlin, and many other cities brought forth countless novels that engaged with the challenges of changing urban life. Contemporary city novels, on the other hand, often see the city as the place where the effects of globalization are most intense and where the identity of the global citizen is shaped. Whether a city serves as a superficial backdrop or is developed into a full-fledged character in a novel, it affects the characters just as any actual city influences its residents and reflects the spirit of the time. This is especially true in the case of Bangkok as seen in western novels. It is a city of fascinating contradictions. In recent decades, Bangkok has endured a number of serious crises with many coups d’état, deadly street clashes between demonstrators and the military, an occupied airport, and devastating floods. Yet it is also the host of many international events in economics, culture and science. Inspired by an urban cosmos made up of a rich history, natural beauty and human conflict, western novelists chose to set stories in Bangkok, either using it as an atmospheric background or endeavoring to grapple with the Asian city experience. Hall uses conventions of the city novel genre without making The Ninth Directive a city novel per se. While Quiller describes specific locations and comments on them, the reader has never the impression that the city portrayal is imperative to the plot advancement, but that the conflicts taking place in the urban environment are the driving forces. On occasion, Quiller walks and drives around Bangkok almost like a flâneur, mapping and describing the city. He passes through numerous real and invented places. A reader unfamiliar with Bangkok - then and today is left to accept the false place names simply as foreign and exotic-sounding. This combining of authenticity and fiction is typical for the author’s appropriation of Bangkok as a city of the western imagination. Only a reader familiar with Bangkok understands that the city, even in the mid-1960s, was already quite large. In essence, Hall’s fictional geography of Bangkok is deceivingly authentic. Thus, one gets the false impression that these locations are in close proximity to one another, which makes the city seem small and orderly. This simplified version of Bangkok as a comprehensive space goes against the common notion of it as chaotic. It is striking just how many contemporary fiction novels include the word ‘Bangkok’ in the title. This marketing practice indicates the belief that ‘Bangkok’ evokes certain reader expectations to which the author writes. Nevertheless, most of these self-proclaimed ‘Bangkok novels’ are not city novels per se because they use Bangkok merely as a gloomy background. Osborne (2009) translates Bangkok’s full name as “The city of angels, the great city, the eternal jewel city, the impregnable city of God Indra, the grand capital of the world endowed with nine precious gems, the happy city, abounding in an enormous Royal Palace that resembles the heavenly abode where reigns the reincarnated god, a city given by Indra and built by Vishnu” (p. 34). In short, Bangkok is the ‘City of Angels’, a city of divine origin – which makes it an Asian counterpoint to the U.S. city of Los Angeles. In the 19th century admired for its picturesque canals, it was also named ‘Venice of the East’, reminiscent of Italy’s romantic city. Such quasi-branding shows how Bangkok has been a city appropriated by East and West alike. Throughout the evolving tradition of western novels set in Bangkok, the city has been conceived and portrayed so as to serve western ideals and ideologies, to explore East-West

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies cultural issues, and to describe the western experience in a distant and ‘exotic’ land. As a result, fiction and non-fiction novels set in Bangkok have decisively influenced western perceptions of Bangkok. In pre-World War II travel literature situated in Thailand, Bangkok is often described as a prime location of encounters between East and West. Caron Eastgate Dann (2008), in her article on western travel novels’ representations of Thailand, makes the case that many of these literary fantasies reflect very real Orientalist, Eurocentric, colonial and/or imperialist ideologies. She stresses that Thailand is often depicted “as a dangerous place in Western imaginations” (p. 1), that the goal of many novels is “a penetration by the tourist, whether prostitutes, land or culture” (p. 2), that there is a dichotomy between the portrayal of an “apparently vice-ridden Bangkok” in contrast to the edenic/parasidical Thailand that invites escape (p. 3), and that although Thailand has never been conquered and directly colonized by a western power, novelists colonize it with fantastical stories (p. 13). Even to this day, western novels set in Thailand - in Bangkok in particular - show remnants of Orientalism, requiring dissections of the misrepresentation of the nation, the city, and Thai culture. Every author struggles to cast off his or her cultural heritage, the tourist gaze, and to adopt an unbiased position from which to observe and describe foreign places and cultures. With their tendency to exoticize Thailand, 19th-century to pre-World War II novels have left a lasting impression of how the country and its capital are imagined in the West. Post-World War II to contemporary novels have continued this misrepresentation, increasingly exploiting and at the same time solidifying Bangkok’s reputation as ‘Sin City of Asia’.

Bangkok under siege The first meeting between agent Quiller and his superior Loman at the beginning of the novel serves not only to outline the agent’s mission, but also to highlight Thailand and Bangkok’s increasing significance in the schemes of the global superpowers. Loman explains: Politically - one can even say militarily in view of local wars - Thailand is becoming drawn into the vortex of affairs involving China, India, Malaysia, and of course also Laos and Cambodia. Global interest is now centered on this capital, which has been a focal point in Southeast Asia for half a century in any case. Thailand is a stable kingdom with close ties with the U.S. and to a lesser extent with Britain. We have NATO here in this city and we have the SEATO headquarters here as well. Bangkok is a key city in the Southeast Asian complex, and geographically it finds itself in the middle of the China-India situation. (Hall, 1966, p. 10) This expository statement puts Thailand in relation to a number of other Asian nations, emphasizing its important geographical location and stable position compared to the instability around it. By being the home to NATO forces and SEATO (Southeast Asian Treaty Organization, 1954-1977), Bangkok is portrayed as a strategic and geo-political hub in alliance with the West to contain Chinese influence in Southeast Asia. The statement also serves to justify the seamless cooperation between Thai, U.S. and British forces seen throughout the novel. The novel names many countries, e.g. Egypt, Cuba, China, Hong Kong, Laos, etc., and cities, e.g. Berlin, Tokyo, London, Paris, Naples, Peking, Buenos Aires, Athens, Munich, New York, Damascus, Oxford, etc. Fictitious Cold War military operations are also invoked, such as “the Karachi show” of “63”. (p. 111) Such references serve to broaden the scope of the conflict unfolding in Bangkok and to make it one of many international Cold War hotspots. When Quiller is worried he and Loman may fail to prevent the assassination of the Person, he asks: “What are the consequences if we miss? Another Sarajevo?” (p. 71) This question about Sarajevo is key to the understanding of the novel as it refers to the city that became the starting point of World War I. Chris Trueman (2000) explains that on 28 June 1914 Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian Empire, was on a royal tour through Bosnia’s capital Sarajevo, then controlled by Austria. He chose to ignore prior warnings that his visit could stir up trouble because he

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies wanted to demonstrate strength in public and not jeopardize Austria’s control of the city. Gavrilo Princip, a member of a revolutionary independence faction, shot the emperor and his wife while they were touring the city in an open topped car. Historians consider this assassination as the direct cause of World War I (Assassination at Sarajevo). Quiller’s reference to Sarajevo suggests that Hall took this historic event as the inspiration for The Ninth Directive, and it shows his awareness of the widespread fear in the 1960s that a single event, such as the killing of a highranked state representative, could provoke the outbreak of a new global war. The Cold War context is given further shape by Quiller’s ample use of war jargon that implies other Cold War fears. He repeatedly refers to the West as “the free world” (pp. 114, 148) and uses phrases such as “the Laos frontier” (pp. 89, 154, 157, 160) and “the Chinese frontier” (pp. 114, 132, 141). The word ‘frontier’ suggests a border between civilization (West) and barbarism or wilderness (Communist China), and is reminiscent of U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s neo-colonial concept of the ‘New Frontier’, i.e. a modern social welfare spending program. Thus, by way of implementing the language of war, The Ninth Directive invokes concerns the spread of Communism, while also voicing concerns about China’s potential “to build a weapon capable of challenging the whole world East and West (p. 128)” and about the West jeopardizing its own security. Before 1966, the year The Ninth Directive was published, Bangkok was not unaccustomed to being the stage of coups and demonstrations, sometimes witnessing the occupation of its city streets by its own military and police. Hence, it was already in the process of becoming a ‘dangerous Bangkok’ when Hall conceived his Cold War version of it. In the novel, following the abduction of the Person, Bangkok becomes a city under siege. Quiller’s extensive description of the lookdown reads almost like a prophecy of the self-inflicted occupations the real Bangkok would suffer in future decades: The city was under siege. Roadblocks had been set up at all major points of exit and were manned by units of the Royal Thai Army. Traffic attempting to leave the city had to pass through a bottleneck of tank traps, machine-gun posts and barbed wire in depth. Outward passage was permitted only after credentials had been examined by teams from the Bangkok Special Branch and all vehicles rigorously searched. […] Units of the U.S. Special Forces permanently stationed in the country had been drafted into the area following the immediate acceptance of an offer by the U.S. Government to place certain troops and facilities at the services of the Thai Army. Infantry search parties were linked across the rice-field areas working in radio liaison with military helicopters flying a nonstop schedule. Sea-going traffic moving southward down the Chao Phraya River was caught in the dragnet set up by naval gunboats on the north side of Kratumban. […] In the besieged city the flags had been taken down. Five thousand police drawn from the North and South Bangkok Metropolitan and auxiliary forces had begun a systematic search of every room in every building in every street. Mobile patrols cruised on a twenty-four-hour schedule covering a search pattern especially devised by the city traffic-control planners. All crews were armed. […] The city was numbed by the shock of the realization that its streets were not safe, by fear for its missing guest and by grief for its dead. […] News of world reaction reached the city hourly by radio and cable. Little news went out. (Hall, 1966, pp. 100-101) This passage epitomizes the menacing atmosphere that pervades the entire novel, i.e. Bangkok as a city first threatened, then in fear, and finally occupied by domestic and foreign military. The lockdown of the city is justified by Thailand’s ostensible understanding of its failure to protect the Person on its soil and the obligation to do everything possible to solve the problem. Furthermore, the passage is congruent with Eastgate Dann’s findings that colonial and imperialistic attitudes pervade most Western novels set in Thailand and Bangkok, and that the Thai nation is penetrated in one way or another (2008). In the given context Bangkok is penetrated by a Cold War fantasy that envisions the city as a militarized and colonized dangerzone.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Connected to this ideological and physical infiltration of the Thai nation is the novel’s practice to mention a flurry of mostly invented British and Thai security agencies and government institutions, e.g. the Thai Home Office, Special Branch, and Metro Police, or the British organizations Control, Bureau, MI5, MI6, Special Services, and the British Embassy. Loman is frustrated with “the stupidity of inter-Services rivalry” (p. 126) because he perceives this competition as the cause of their individual failures. His annoyance also implies a critique on western nations’ lack of cooperation and coordination in the fight to stop Communism. On the other hand, the novel gives the impression that the mutual assistance between the Thai, U.S. and British security forces is quite ideal, with the Thais usually facilitating their allies’ maneuvering in the city. Again, this matches with the subversive colonial-imperialistic attitude of the novel.

Orientalist discourse Agent Quiller describes Bangkok in detail in several passages. He comments on golden temples, colorful preparations for the motorcade, floral arrangements and flags on the streets, and to a lesser degree he describes the Thai citizens without demonstrating much insight into their culture. The following city description stands out: Bangkok is a city whose temples have towers of gold and whose hotels rise in alabaster from emerald palms. Here fountains play in marble courts and women walk in silk with jeweled hair; the air is heavy with the perfumes of all Araby. It is a paradise expressly fashioned for the beguilement of princes; by day the sun spills rose light along private paths and the blue of night is webbed about with music. (Hall, 1966, p. 53) The passage includes the words ‘Araby’ and ‘paradise’. Araby is the title of one of James Joyce’s short stories in Dubliners (1914). In the story, a boy is in a rush to get to Dublin’s Araby bazaar where he intends to buy a present for a girl he is infatuated with, but when he arrives at the market almost all the stalls have already closed for the night, leaving him disappointed. As Umme Salma (2012) shows, Araby is pervaded by an Irish version of Orientalist discourse - not synonymous with English or French Orientalism - through metaphors and the main character’s fascination with the Orient that leads to a wasted journey. Salma concludes: “Joyce, using the Orient as a tool to orient the boy to the reality of his existence in drab Dublin, teaches the young boy that escapist fascination to the Orient is a vain vision for an Irish” (p. 67). Hall’s use of the word “Araby” cannot be accidental. While The Ninth Directive and Joyce’s Araby are certainly different in focus, both stories are solidly founded in urban surroundings and exploit Orientalist imaginations. The description of Bangkok as a ‘paradise’ is also noteworthy. While it is part of an Orientalist discourse, its usage here is quite unusual. Thailand is traditionally viewed as a rural and coastal paradise, while the capital city is likened to an abyss. This is to build a necessary contrast between the beauty (countryside and coast) and the beast (Bangkok) to make the construction of the Thai paradise work. The Ninth Directive uses such a stark contrast in its own way by describing Bangkok as a paradise that loses its innocence through the siege. The key landmark in the novel is the fictitious ‘Phra Chula Chedi’, which oversees the equally made-up ‘Link Road’, a major artery that intersects with Rama IV Road at a corner of Lumpini Park. Thus, Link Road could be based on Ratchadamri Road. The attack and abduction of the Person is staged on Link Road, next to the Phra Chula Chedi. Quiller reports: “The Phra Chula Chedi, with its white-frescoed walls and golden tower and beautiful gardens, was a perfect vantage point for Kuo. It was a gun sight commanding the whole length of the Link Road.” (Hall, 1966, p. 49) It is striking that the Phra Chula Chedi and Link Road are invented, because the names of Bangkok’s landmarks and streets are often given by a Thai King and therefore carry great symbolic meaning and cultural importance. By staging the main attack in an imaginary location, Hall may have sought to avoid a cultural offence. This is even more significant because the Chinese Communist Kuo desecrates the holy Phra Chula Chedi with his murderous plot.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Already before the attack on the Person, Quiller thinks that “the shot would be fired from there, from the middle oriel of the Phra Chula Chedi, a shrine to a god who held life sacred. And it would make no difference that I could afterwards present, as evidence, a portrait of Diabolus.” (p. 56) Kuo is called ‘Diabolus’ - the devil - not only because he uses a sacred space as part of his plan, but also because he embodies everything the West fears about its nemesis China. Quiller describes Kuo as an ambivalent and dangerous man, a devil in disguise: Kuo the Mongolian was a difficult image, partly because he was Mongolian and partly because his features were not typically Mongoloid. He could have passed for a Manchurian, a Sikhote Alinese, a Kunlunese or even a Cantonese. (p. 30) Kuo the Mongolian was a man short in the body and with a deliberate gait, his face disguised by smoked glasses; but he would be more accurately described as a man who would do this thing in this way. Here was his whole character expressed in one gesture. He was Diabolus. (p. 49) The climactic fight between Quiller and Kuo in a rice field in Nonthaburi serves to humiliate, dehumanize and defeat the Chinese enemy, as Quiller sees him as a coward who loses all dignity when he begs for mercy “like a bloody dog” (p. 151). Of course, the defeat of the Chinese is a necessary aspect of the novel’s anti-communist message. The dehumanization of Kuo goes hand in hand with some sweeping generalizations in which Quiller refers to Asians as ‘Orientals’, ignoring the vast cultural differences among the many Asian nations. In an equally simplifying manner, westerners are lumped together as ‘Occidentals’. Obviously, the novel is not a study of cultural differences between British, Thai, Chinese and other nationalities. It makes inaccurate statements in order to justify the unfolding of a Cold War conflict in Bangkok. The novel does not praise the western side, except at the end of the story when Quiller’s comments about the Person’s conduct are overly positive, not only elevating him to the royal role-model he is supposed to present, but also implying that British citizens should follow his great example.

Conclusion This paper has analyzed The Ninth Directive regarding its appropriation of Bangkok as a Cold War city. The majority of novels set in a city do not make an effort to explore it in detail, treating it rather superficially instead. On the other hand, a city may be at the center of a novel’s interest and be developed into a full-fledged character. In such a ‘city novel’, urban life and the relationship between city and citizens are explored, e.g. through a flâneur who wanders through urban spaces and comments on landmarks, urban life and culture. The Ninth Directive falls in between these two categories as it does not treat Bangkok as a plain background, nor does it develop it into a character of its own right. This is due to agent Quiller’s dual role as protagonist and narrator. In the search for his enemy, he roams the city for days, describing it in some detail, but stays more interested in his actual mission. Fascinated by Bangkok’s many social, cultural and historic contradictions, western novelists choose to set their stories there. Such novels usually seek to come to grips with the western experience in an Asian metropolis. In 19th-century to pre-World War II travel literature, Bangkok is commonly portrayed as a place of East-West encounters and cultural learning. The so created literary fantasies reflect the author’s ideological mindset based in Orientalism and even Eurocentrism, colonialism and/or imperialism. In this sense the words ‘Araby’ and ‘paradise’ are particularly reminiscent of an orientalist attitude. The first word indicates Adam Hall’s appreciation of James Joyce’s short story Araby, in which a Dublin boy is guided by his imagination of the Orient, while the second word hints at the common western practice of imagining a contrast between Bangkok as hell and coastal Thailand as paradise. The novel somewhat breaks with this traditional view as it describes Bangkok first as a paradise before turning it into a dystopia.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies With their habit to exoticize Thailand, 19th-century to pre-World War II novels have had a lasting ideological influence on post-World War II novels, including The Ninth Directive, in their rather western approach in dealing with an Asian city. The post-colonial imagination of Bangkok as ‘Sin City of Asia’ and the solidifying of this reputation began during the Vietnam War (19551975) when American GI’s stayed in Bangkok during their R’n’R. In those years U.S. military presence and CIA activity in Southeast Asia was intense, as the strategy was to contain the spread of Communism in the region. The mid-1960s, then, saw much development of infrastructure in Thailand due to the U.S.’s support and a mutually beneficial alliance between both nations. This historic background is fundamental to the understanding of The Ninth Directive. The novel portrays Bangkok as a strategic center from where the West tries to stop the spread of Communism further into Southeast Asia. Quiller’s references to other countries, cities and crises serve to broaden the scope of the conflict, suggesting that Bangkok is just one of many Cold War hotspots. Moreover, his reference to Sarajevo indicates the actual Cold War fear that an unpredictable event could trigger a new war of global scale. The novel first presents Bangkok as a city in jubilant expectation of the arrival of the foreign dignitary, and at the same time in Quiller’s view as a city under threat. After the abduction of the British royal, Bangkok is occupied by domestic and foreign forces and becomes a city of fear. Thus, The Ninth Directive lets the global tensions of the 1960s culminate in Bangkok instead of in a western city. Another Cold War fear exploited here is that of the Chinese-Communist enemy, who is embodied by the ruthless mastermind ‘Kuo the Mongolian’, described by Quiller as the devil. Kuo personifies the West’s fears about the rise of China, Chinese men as ‘the others’, and Communism in general. Quiller’s defeat of Kuo carries the crucial message of the novel that the western world must oppose its communist nemesis. Regarding further research into the topic at hand, it would be interesting to analyze other Cold War novels as well as movies set in Bangkok concerning their modes of representation of the city. It would also be useful comparing these Cold War stories to the large number of contemporary detective stories set in Bangkok in order to learn which literary and cultural elements of city-portrayal have carried over to modern notions of Bangkok.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Aarons, Edward S. (1972). Assignment Bangkok. New York: Fawcett Gold Medal. Ballinger, Bill S. (1965). The Spy in Bangkok. New York: Signet Classics. Burslem, Chris. (2012). Tales of Old Bangkok: Rich Stories From the Land of the White Elephant. Hong Kong: Earnshaw Books. Eastgate Dann, Caron. (2008). Thailand for Travelers: From Exotic Fantasy to Complex Destination. 17th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Melbourne, 1-3 July. Proceedings. Retrieved from http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/mai/files/2012/07/carondann.pdf Hall, Adam. (1966). The Ninth Directive. Colchester, England: Ostara Publishing, 2010. Joyce, James. (1914). Dubliners. London: Penguin Books, 1996. King, Ross. (2011). Reading Bangkok. Singapore: NUS Press. Mason, van Wyck. (1960). Secret Mission to Bangkok. Maryland: Wildside Press. 2008. Osborne Lawrence. (2009). Bangkok Days. Farrar Straus Giroux: North Point Press. Salma, Umme. (2012). Orientalism in James Joyce’s “Araby”. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2. pp. 67-79. Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/view/1489/1421 Trueman, Chris. (2000). Assassination at Sarajevo. Retrieved from www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sarajevo_assassination_1914.htm

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

WH-Arguments versus WH-Adjuncts Asymmetry in the Acquisition of English WH-Questions by Thai learners Anusorn Saechan Sugunya Ruangjaroon [email protected] [email protected] Abstract In this paper, we adopted Best's Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and proposed a rank order of English WH-question (WHQ) acquisition to account for how Thai learners acquire English WHarguments and WH-adjuncts. The rank order predicts that subject WH-arguments, labeled category A, which occur in the same position in both languages, will be easiest to acquire for Thai learners. WH-adjuncts are, on the other hand, split classes between 'when' and 'why', labeled category B; and 'where' and 'how', which are grouped together with object WH-arguments, labeled category C. Category B, whose WH-phrases occur both in-situ and in clause-initial positions in Thai, may reduce the burden on Thai learners when recognizing and producing their English equivalents, and therefore is easier to acquire than category C. Category C, whose WH-phrases between the two languages occur as a mirror image, is most difficult to acquire. There were two groups of participants: 20 students from an English Program (EP) and 10 students from a regular Program (RP), both in grade 8 selected through purposeful sampling. The test of error recognition was administered one week prior to the test of production. Note that φ features and tenses were taken into account when being scored. The data were analyzed by percentage, and the correlation between error recognition and production was tested using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results regarding error recognition partially corresponded to the rank order of acquisition and revealed consistency in the EP and RP groups who obtained the same rank orders of B>>C>>A. The results in terms of production were largely positive as the EP group’s rank order was A>>B>>C, as predicted, and the RP group’s rank order was A>>C >>B. The study also indicated that there was a significantly strong correlation between the two tests on category B and an insignificantly moderate correlation on category C but a negligible correlation on category A. Keywords: L2 acquisition, Recognition, Production, WH-questions, Rank order of English WHquestions

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 1. Introduction Recent literature on Thai learners’ acquisition of English has not yielded many studies which measure the grammatical judgment abilities of L2 learners of English, whereas studies similar to this kind were frequently found in perception tasks in phonetics. Research on L2 acquisition in Thai context generally aims at analyzing the frequency and the types of grammatical errors and/or elaborating on their consequences by the adoption of Error Analysis (EA) or Contrastive Analysis (CA) (Bennui, 2008; Intratat, 2001; Noojan, 1999; Tawilapakul, 2002; Thep-Akrapong, 2005). Similar to those mentioned, we usually found mistakes made by Thai learners when forming English WHQs, as evidenced in (1) through (3). This results in ineffective communication. (1) (2) (3)

*Which dress match with she? *What country are you like? *Who is scold Paul?

The study in the field of phonetics by Best, McRoberts, & Goodell (2001) investigated adult native speakers of American English’s perception of Zulu and Ethiopian Tigrinya consonant contrasts, addressing Best’s Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM). Best proposed the assimilation of L2 sound/phone into the native system of phonemes as follows: A non-native phone may be perceptually assimilated to the native system of phonemes in one of three ways: (1) as a categorized exemplar of some native phoneme, for which its goodness of fit may range from excellent to poor (2) as an uncategorized consonant or vowel that falls somewhere in between native phonemes (i.e., is roughly similar to two or more phonemes) (3) as a nonassimilable nonspeech sound that bears no detectable similarity to any native phonemes (p. 777). Assuming PAM, we classify English WHQs into three categories by discriminating their structures according to how well they assimilate into Thai WHQs. We predict that Category A will be easiest to acquire for Thai learners of English because both English and Thai WH-phrases in subject positions in this category, that is to say who and what, occur in clause-initial positions in a surface structure (S-structure). The questions of this type do not undergo Do-insertion in English as they do not in Thai either. So they are identical in syntactic structures between the two languages. Let’s consider the following figure. Who called Martin? Well assimilated [kʰā j tʰō ːhā ː mā ːtīn] who call Martin Figure 1 L2 syntactic structure highly assimilated into that in L1 Category B is predicted to be more difficult to acquire than category A. The WH-phrases when and why in this category serve as an adjunct and occur in a clause-initial position in English but both

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies in-situ and in clause-initial positions in Thai in an S-structure. The questions of this type undergo Do-insertion in English but they do not in Thai, as illustrated in Figure 2. Consequently, they are less similar in syntactic structures between the two languages than those in category A. Why does Alex learn Japanese? Better assimilated

Poorer assimilated

[tā mmā j ʔəlé k rīan pʰā ːsă ːjîːpù n] why Alex learn Japanese

[ʔəlé k rīan pʰā ːsă ːjîːpù n tā mmā j] Alex learn Japanese why

Figure 2 L2 syntactic structure roughly assimilated into 2 or more structures in L1 Category C is predicted to be most difficult to acquire for Thai learners of English. The WHphrases where and how as WH-adjuncts, together with who and what as WH-arguments in object positions are subsumed in this category. They occur in a clause-initial position in English but conversely they occur in an in-situ position in Thai in an S-structure, as manifested in Figure 3. The questions of this type undergo Do-insertion in English but not in Thai. So they are least similar in syntactic structure between the two languages. ‘What does Nick want?’

Non-assimilable

[ník tɔ̑ ːŋkā ːn ʔā rā j] Nick want what Figure 3 L2 syntactic structure non-assimilated into that in L1

2. Statement of Hypotheses We hypothesize that (1) Thai participants will score highest on category A questions, followed by B and C respectively on both the error recognition test and production test and (2) the error recognition and the production are correlated. The rank order is as follows: WH-arguments[Subject] >>WH-adjuncts[why & when] >> WH-adjuncts[where & how] WH-arguments[Object].

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 3. Methodology 3.1 Participants The subject group consisted of 30 students in total. Twenty of the subjects, at the time of study, were the entire class from an English Program1 (EP), whereas the other 10 students were from a regular program (RP), both in grade 8 at Samchukratanapokaram school. The students in the EP gained more exposure to the English language than those in the RP, so it was predicted that they would score higher on both tests. The participants from the RP who attained an ‘A’ grade in English in the previous semester were, however, exclusively selected for 2 reasons: (1) to control the subjects’ English proficiency levels as the subjects with different levels of English proficiency would statistically result in a scatter in test scores and (2) advanced students are likely to make more predictable and constant errors than slower students whose interim grammars are at low developmental stage. 3.2 Instruments The research instrument in this study subsumed (1) a table discriminating English and Thai WHQ syntactic structure, (2) a test of error recognition and (3) a test of production. 3.2.1 A Table discriminating English and Thai WHQ syntactic structure The following table exhibits how syntactic structures of English WHQs were discriminated according to the degree to which they assimilate into those of Thai (how similar they were to those of Thai), and then were classified into 3 categories.

1

Its official name is actually known as a ‘Smart Class’ program. The program aims to provide its students with an extra number of hours taught in English. Three subjects, namely mathematics, science and English are taught in English by native-speakers.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Table 1 Di scrimination of English and Thai WHQ syntactic structure Category A Questions -Who called Martin?

WH[Q],[Sub]

V

NP[Obj]







Questions

WH[Q],[Sub]

V

NP[Obj]







[kʰā j tʰō ː hā ː mā ːtīn] who called Martin ‘Who called Martin?’ Category B

Questions

WH[Q], [ADJ]

Aux

NP[Sub]

V

WH[Q],

-Why does Alex learn Japanese? -When is your birthday?

18









-

WH[Q],

Questions

[ADJ]

[ADJ]

[tā mmā j ʔəlé k rīan pʰā ːsă ːjîːpù n] why Alex learn Japanese [ʔəlé k rīan pʰā ːsă ːjîːpù n tā mmā j] Alex learn Japanese why ‘Why does Alex learn Japanese?’ [mɯ̆a rá i wā n kɤ̀ ːt kʰū n] when birthday your [wā n kɤ̀ ːt kʰū n mɯ̆a rá i] birthday your when ‘When is your birthday?’

()

WH[Q],

Aux

NP[Sub]

V

-





Aux

NP[Sub]

V

-





[ADJ]



Category C Questions

WH[Q], [Obj/ADJ]

Aux

NP[Sub]

V

WH[Q],

-What does Nick want? - Where did Tom find a pen?  - How did you travel to Hong Kong?







-

WH[Q],

Questions

[Obj/ADJ]

[ník tɔ̑ ːŋkā ːn ʔā rā j] Nick want what ‘What does Nick want?’ [tɔ̄ ːm tɕɤ̄ ː pà ːk kā ː tîːnă j] Tom found pen where ‘Where did Tom find a pen?’ [kʰū n d ɤ̄ ːnthā ːŋpā j h ɔ̂ ːŋkō ŋ jâ ːŋrā j you travel to Hong Kong how ‘How did you travel to Hong Kong?’

18

[Obj/ADJ]

]

WH[Q], [Obj/ADJ]



The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 3.2.2 The test of error recognition and the test of production The test of error recognition and the test of production each comprised 10 questions. The test of error recognition utilized a multiple choice format in which the participants were to select the grammatical WHQ of the four given, whereas the test of production utilized a translation task in which the participants were to translate Thai WHQs into English. Table 2 Questions utilized in the tests Questions in the test of error recognition 1. a. What often hurt Mary? b. What hurt Mary yesterday?  c. What is hurt Mary the most? d. What hurted Mary yesterday? 2. a. Who Martin dislike? b. Who do Martin dislike? c. Who does Martin dislike?  d. Who is Martin dislike? 3. a. When did you go to Korea?  b. When you go to Korea? c. When did you went to Korea? d. When are you go to Korea? 4. a. He traveled to where? b. Where did he travel to Singapore? c. Where did he travel to?  d. Where was he travel to? 5. a. Why do they teach Chinese to their sons?  b. Why they teach Chinese to their sons? c. They teach Chinese to their sons why? d. Why are they teach Chinese to their sons? 6. a. How did you went to school this morning? b. How did you go to school this morning?  c. How you went to school this morning? d. How are you go to school this morning? 7. a. Who studys French? b. Who is study French? c. Who studies French?  d. Who study French? 8. a. What did Mark buy for his mom?  b. What Mark bought for his mom? c. What did Mark bought for his mom? d. What was Mark buy for his mom?

Questions in the test of production 1. [kʰā j tīː lù ːksă ːw kʰɔ̆ ŋtɕʰă n mɯ̂awā ːn níː] who hit daughter my yesterday ‘Who hit my daughter yesterday?’ 2. [ník tɔ̑ ːŋkā ːn ʔā rā j] Nick want what ‘What does Nick want?’ 3. [mɯ̂arā j lŭ j tɕā pā j kɛ̄ ːnnədā ː] when Louise will go Canada ‘When will Louise go to Canada?’ 4. [tɔ̄ ːm tɕɤ̄ ː pà ːk kā ː kʰɔ̆ ŋtɕʰă n tîːnă j] Tom found pen my where ‘Where did Tom find my pen?’ 5. [tā mmā j dè p rīan pʰā ːsă ːkā wlĭː] why Dave study Korean ‘Why does Dave study Korean?’

6. [kʰū n tɕā dɤ̄ ːntā ːŋ pā j hɔ̂ ːŋkō ŋ jâ ːŋrā j] you will travel Hong Kong how ‘How will you travel to Hon g Kong?’

7. [kʰā j tʰō ː hā ː mā ːtīn] who called Martin ‘Who called Martin?’ 8. [tā mmā j ʔəlé k rīan pʰā ːsă ːjîːpù n] why Alex learn Japanese ‘Why does Alex learn Japanese?’

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 9. a. When your birthday is? 9. [kʰū n rīan pʰā ːsă ːʔā ŋkrìt tʰîːnă j ] b. Your birthday is when? you study English where c. When is your birthday?  ‘Where do you study English?’ d. When are your birthday? 10. a. Where did she found her teddy 10. [mɯ̂arā j kʰū n tɕā tɛ̀ ːŋŋā ːn] bear? when you will marry b. Where she found her teddy bear? ‘When will you marry?’ c. Where did she find her teddy bear?  d. Where was she found her teddy bear? 3.3 Marking Criteria Each test was worth 10 points. The tests of error recognition and production were examined with the same marking criteria with φ features and tenses taken into account. Any questions ungrammatical were not totally deducted if they were still comprehensible. How much they were deducted, depending on the degree to which they were ungrammatical. Let’s consider the following data:

(4)

WH-arguments[Subject] a. Who called Martin yesterday? b. *Who call Martin yesterday? c. *Who calls Martin yesterday? d. *Who is call Martin yesterday? e. *Who do call Martin yesterday? f. *Martin call who yesterday.

In both error recognition and production tests, the question, such as in (4a), is completely grammatical; therefore, one mark is assigned. However, in (4b) and (4c), the questions are ungrammatical in terms of φ features and/or tenses, and consequently 0.75 is assigned. In (4d) and (4e), the questions are incorrect as they unnecessarily undergo the Do and Be-insertion, and accordingly 0.5 is assigned. As for (4f), the meaning of the question is, to some extent, distorted so no mark is assigned.

(5)

WH-arguments[Object] a. What does Nick want? c. *What do Nick want? e. *What did Nick want? g. *What is Nick want?/ i. *What Nick want(s)/wanted? k. *Nick want(s)/wanted what? m. *What do(s) Nick want a toy?

WH-adjuncts b. Where did he travel last month? d. Where do(s) he traveled? f. Where did he traveled? h. Where was he travel? j. Where he travel(s)/traveled? l. He travel(s)/traveled to where? n. Where did he travel to Thailand?

The questions, such as in (5a) and (5b), are totally grammatical; consequently, one mark is assigned. The questions in (5c) through (5h) are ungrammatical in terms of φ features and/or tenses; therefore, 0.75 is assigned. In (5i) and (5j), the questions are ungrammatical as they do not undergo Do-insertion, resulting in subject – verb disagreement and/or improper tense. 20

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Therefore, 0.5 is assigned. The questions, in (5k) and (5l),2 do not undergo WH-movement, and therefore result in ungrammaticality, so no mark is assigned. In (5m) and (5n), their meanings are, to some extent, distorted, so no mark is assigned as well. 3.4 Procedure The test of error recognition was administered to the EP class in the morning and to the RP class in the afternoon on the same day; however, the test of production was administered one week later to the EP class in the morning and to the RP class in the afternoon. This prevents the participants from translating Thai questions into English by means of memorizing the structures from the recognition test. The time allotted for the participants’ taking each test was 30 minutes.

4. Results and Discussion The analysis predicts that Thai learners will acquire the rank order of A >> B >> C. The prediction on production part was totally borne out. However, the scores from the error recognition part, to some degree, violate the rank order. As regards the error recognition test, the EP class scored higher than the RP class on category B and C; nonetheless, the RP class turned out to score higher on category A. In respect of the production, the EP class scored higher on category A and B; however, the RP class scored unexpectedly higher on category C. This suggests that, in large part, the extra exposure that the EP class had to English resulted in their better performance. The average percentage is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Comparison of EP’s and RP’s scores in error recognition and in production tests, classified by WHQ categories. 4.1 Hypothesis 1 2

Although the questions are still comprehensible but no mark is assigned as they do not undergo WHmovement which is our primary focus of the study.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Our first hypothesis posited that the participants would score highest on category A, followed by B and C respectively in both tests. The results revealed that error recognition part partially corresponded to the rank order of English WHQ acquisition, whereas the ranking of production scores were largely positive toward the rank order proposed here. The average scores on the error recognition test by the EP class were ranked in the order of B (66.67%) >> C (61.5%) >> A (55%), and correspondingly the average scores by the RP class were ranked in the order of B (64.17%) >> C (58%) >> A (57.5%). On the production test, the average scores among the EP class were ranked in the order of A (71.25%) >> B (55.94%) >> C (45.63%), as predicted, and among the RP class were ranked in the order of A (60%) >> C (51.88%) >> B (31.13%). This clearly indicates that the production by the EP class is totally borne out by the rank order of English WHQ acquisition. Although the results from the error recognition test by both classes were not borne out by the rank order proposed in this study, that is they obtained the recognition scores ranked in the order of B >> C >> A, these results are consistent with some previous research claiming that object WH-arguments were acquired earlier than subject WH-arguments. As a matter of fact, object WHQs are more syntactically complex than subject WHQs, which do not involve subjectauxiliary inversion and are identical to declarative sentences with the subjects replaced by WHexpressions. Subject WHQs, therefore, should be acquired first (Philip, Coopmans, Atteveldt, & Meer, 2002; Stromswold, 1995; Van Valin, 1998). Hence, our findings support the claim that object WH-arguments were easier to acquire than subject WH-arguments in terms of perception. With respect to WH-arguments versus WH-adjuncts, Lee (2008) and Stromswold (1990) claimed that there was WH-argument versus WH-adjunct asymmetry in which subject-auxiliary inversion in argument WHQs were more successfully acquired than in adjunct WHQs. In our study, we cannot state exactly that there was asymmetry of WH-arguments versus WH-adjuncts in that we did not simply classify English WHQs into WH-argument and WH-adjunct categories as traditional classification did. However, we argue that WH-arguments in subject positions were easier to acquire than those in object positions, and thus there was WH-subject versus WH-object asymmetry. The analysis predicts correctly on the production part but it partly predicts on the recognition one. So the rank order we proposed in this paper seems more consistent with the production than the recognition. 4.2 Hypothesis 2 The second hypothesis posited that the error recognition and the production of English WHQs by Thai learners were correlated. The ‘r’ correlation was tested utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient. We took account of EP and RP classes as a single sample group. As predicted, the findings were largely positive toward the hypothesis. Starting with the category B in which the error recognition and the production by both classes bore a significantly and strongly positive correlation (r = 0.417, p = 0.022). In category C, there also existed a moderate positive correlation but it was insignificant (r = 0.338, p = 0.068). However, the error recognition and production in category A bore a negligible correlation (r = 0.165, p = 0.384).

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Although there appeared to be no pertinent prediction on the relationship between syntactic error recognition and production, in phonetics, Flege, Takagi & Mann (1995) suggested that perception and production of speech sounds in a language bore a relationship to each other. A study, by Kludge, Reuder, Reis & Hoffmann Bion (2007), which investigated the relationship between the perception and the production of English nasal codas by Brazilians, proved the above prediction was true.

5. Limitations & Recommendations The results from this study may not be truly generalized to the entire target population because a sample group was rather small and their attributes may not be representative of the population. Also, the test procedure can affect reliability. Responses from the participants who conducted the test in the afternoon were lower than expected. This can be affected by fatigue. In addition, inter-raters are required for more reliability. We suggest these factors should be taken into account, otherwise, these pose problems to the rank order of English WHQ acquisition proposed here.

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References Bennui, P. (2008). A study of L1 interference in the writing of Thai EFL students. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 4, 72-102. Best, C. T., McRobert, G. W., & Goodell, E. (2001). Discrimination of Non-native Consonant Contrasts Varying in Perceptual Assimilation to the Listener’s Native Phonological System. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 109(2), 775-794. Flege, J. E., Takagi, N., & Mann, V. (1995). Japaneses adults can learn to produce English /ɹ/ and /l/ acculately. Language and Speech, 38(1), 25-55. Intratat, C. (2001). Thai errors in using English adjectives. KMUTT Research and Development Journal, 24(2), 117-130. Kluge, D. C., Reuder, A. S., Reis, M. A. and Hoffmann Bion, R. A. (2007). The relationship between the perception and production of English nasal codas by Brazilian learners of English. In Interspeech 2007, 2297-2300. Lee, S. U. (2008). Argument-adjunct asymmetry in the acquisition of inversion in wh-questions by Korean learners of English. Language Learning Research Club, 58(3), 526-663. Noojan, K. (1999). An Analysis of Errors in English Abstracts of Srinakharinwirot University Graduate Students. Unpublished master’s thesis. Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok. Philip, W. C. H., Coopmans, P. H. A., Atteveldt, N. M. van & Meer, Matthijs van der. (2001). Subject-Object Assymmetry in Child Comprehension of WH-Questions. In A. L-J. Do, A. Johansen & L. Dominguez (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25th Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 587-598). Massachusetts: Cascadilla Press. Stromswold, K. (1990). Learnability and the acquisition of auxiliaries. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. MIT, MA. Stromswold, K. (1995). The acquisition of subject and object WH-questions. Language Acquisition. 4, 5-48. Tawilapakul, U. (2002). The use of tense by Thai university students. Paper presented at CULI's National Seminar 2003, Chulalongkorn University. Retrieved from http://www.culi.chula.ac.th/e-Journal/article_04.htm Thep-Ackrapong, T. (2008). Teaching English in Thailand: An uphill Battle. Journal of Humanities, 27(1), 50-62. Van Valin, D. R. (1998). The Acquisition of WH-Questions and the Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. In M. Tomasello, (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure (pp. 221-49).

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The Effectiveness of Multimedia-Based Instruction in Developing the Sixth Grade Students’ English Ability Pudsadee Kaewchawee

Abstract This study was an experimental study examining the use of multimedia based instruction (MBI) to enhance the English ability skills of Thai sixth grade students. The aim of study also investigated the attitudes of the students towards their English lessons during learning through MBI. The participants of the experiment were 50 students, selected by the convenience sampling procedure at Tessaban 1 “Buriratdarunwittaya School” in Buriram province. The English ability skill tests were used to collect data from the participants and were administered to the group before and after learning through MBI, as a pretest and posttest. Meanwhile, the questionnaires were distributed to students after the posttest. The students were taught with MBI lesson plans for eight weeks, a total of 26 sessions. The data collected from pretest, posttest and questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicated that the English ability skills of the students were significantly higher than before learning through MBI at the level of .01. Additionally, the attitudes of the students toward MBI after the experiment indicated a high level of satisfaction. Keywords: multimedia- based instruction, the use of MBI, communicative skills

Background of the Study English has played a very important role in many developing countries where it has been used both as a second language (ESL) and a foreign language (EFL). In Thailand, like in many other countries, English has been taught as a foreign language for many decades. Thai students are required to learn English as a compulsory subject from primary school to university levels. However, Thai people use only one official language, Thai, so most Thai students cannot communicate in English fluently and successfully (Wiriyachitra, 2002) like students in ESL contexts. Thai students lack opportunities to communicate in English in their real life situations and in daily activities outside the classroom (Techa-Intrawong, 2003). It is apparent that Thai students cannot fulfill the communicative goals of learning English. Therefore it is teachers’ responsibility to think critically about how to improve their teaching techniques and skills to help Thai students become successful in English language learning and be able to communicate in English effectively. Wiriyachitra (2002) points out that Thailand will be left behind in the competitive world of business, education, science and technology if English language teaching is not improved to develop Thai students’ English ability. With the advancement of technology and the digital revolution such as the Internet and computer software, the demand for language learning and teaching English through computer and new media has increased (Wiriyachitra, 2002). Multimedia is increasingly accepted as a means of English language teaching (Fang, 2006). Fang states that more English teachers who have attempted multimedia instruction agree that teaching English with multimedia makes English classes more active than the teacher-centered model. In addition, “compared to the traditional methods in which students are usually passively spoon fed with large amounts of grammar rules and vocabulary, multimedia has shown its superiority” (Fang, 2006, p. 1). In traditional English classroom, teachers have to spend time writing important language points 25

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and information on the board. Conversely, in multimedia classrooms, teachers can press a key on a computer to show significant content in a few seconds as long as he or she can operate the multimedia (Gilakjani, 2012). Learning through multimedia has also proven that students can be easily exposed to sounds, videos, visual images and animations of authentic target language. Students are able to get involved with authentic language, so their use of authentic language can be improved through integration of text, sound, graphics, animations and images presented in the multimedia (Fang, 2006). Moore (2012) states that multimedia has become an important classroom teaching tool because it can integrate all the sensory learning methods and it can address an individual student’s needs by requiring total interaction and response. Furthermore, Moore points out that multimedia language programs interest student with visual effects, audio effects and interesting real life situations. Consequently, students become enthusiastic and wish to participate more in the language learning process. Many researchers have come to the consensus that learning English through multimedia can be one attempt to solve the problem of unsuccessful English classes and help develop a new teaching approach to encourage students’ interest in English language learning. Multimedia refers to computer-mediated information that is presented concurrently in more than one medium; it consists of text, graphic images, motion graphics, animations, hypermedia, photographs and sounds (i.e., songs, music). Multimedia has the potential to create high quality learning environments, with the capacity of creating a more realistic learning context (Nusir, Alsmadi, Al-Kabi, and Sharadgag, 2012, p.18). Nusiret. al. further explain that multimedia allows a learner to take control of their own learning process. Interactive multimedia can provide an effective learning environment for different kinds of learners (Margie and Liu, 1996, cited in Nusir et. al., 1996). It also helps teacher take better control of a classroom especially in large class. According to Mayer (2001) “the principle of education is to help people learn. Whether it is for education or training, the goal of a teacher is to plan for “effective, efficient and appealing instruction” (Moore, 2009, p.12). Hence, one of the most influential learning theories in effective instruction is the use of multimedia as a teaching tool that helps make instruction effective and efficient (Plass, Moreno and Bruken, 2010). Many studies have discussed the benefits of multimedia for learning a foreign language. Among these are studies by Mayer (2001, 2003); Fang (2006); Fang and Yang (2008). These studies have demonstrated the positive results of the use of multimedia in English learning and welldesigned multimedia helps learners build more accurate and effective mental models than reading text alone. Mayer (2001, 2003) also points out the potential benefits of multimedia. Given that humans possess visual and auditory information -processing capabilities, multimedia, he explains, takes advantage of both capabilities at once. These two channels process information quite differently, so the combination of multiple media is useful in drawing on the capabilities of both systems. Meaningful connections between text and graphics potentially allow for deeper understanding and better mental models than from either source alone.Fang (2006) also describes the advantages of multimedia and network-based language teaching in four aspects: providing authentic language environment, promoting students autonomous learning, providing flexibility, and realizing individual teaching. In consideration of research studies described above, the researcher also proposed two subproblems for the main research objective to examine the effect of MBI on learning four basic skills of English: listening, speaking, vocabulary and grammar and to determine whether there is a significant difference in overall mean scores as well as four different skills in the effect of MBI between high and low proficient students. The study also examined the students’ attitudes toward English language learning through Multimedia. The research results can be utilized for 26

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teachers looking for techniques to improve their teaching methods and increase their students’ English ability.

Objectives of the study The study explores the communicative skills of sixth grade students and their attitudes towards multimedia-based instruction. The main objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To examine the effectiveness of Multimedia-based instruction on the sixth grade students’ English ability. 2. To examine students’ attitudes towards learning English through Multimedia –based Instruction.

Research questions This study addressed two main research questions as in the following. 1. Is Multimedia-based instruction effective in enhancing the sixth grade students’ English ability? 2. What are the sixth grade students’ attitudes toward learning English through Multimediabased instruction?

Research methodology Population and sample groups

The population of the study was 200 students of the sixth grade students at Tessaban 1 Buriratdarunwittaya School, Buriram province. The participants were 50 of the sixth grade students in the second semester of academic year 2012, selected by the convenience sampling procedure.

Instrumentation

The research instrument used to collect data were the pre-test and post-test of English communicative skills, and the questionnaire on the learners’ attitudes towards their English lessons after learning English through multimedia-based instruction.

English Ability Skills Pretest and Posttest

The tests were designed and constructed to test English ability skills. The same test was used for the pre and posttest. There were three parts of the pretest including listening, speaking, vocabulary and grammar. In the listening part, students were listening to the audio which included the three short stories then choose the correct answer. Meanwhile there were two parts of information gap for the speaking part. Students worked in pair as A and B, they were asked for information with their partner. Then the latest part, vocabulary and grammar test was a 30-item multiple choice test with three alternatives a, b and c. It was constructed to determine students’ cognitive achievement in English. The test content of the items covered the topics which were taught during the eight- week lessons. The administration of the achievement test took 50 minutes.

Rubric of Speaking Ability

The rubric of the speaking ability was adapted from Phisutthangkoon (2012), Phuphanpet (2004). The components of the speaking rubric focus on fluency, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and communication strategy.

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The Questionnaires Regarding Learning English through Multimedia-Based Instruction Attitudes The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on the sixth grade students’ attitudes towards the multimedia-based instruction activities used in classroom. The questionnaire consisted to two main parts. The first part contained ten Likert-type items which consisted of five levels. The students rated each statement based on their satisfaction and feelings towards Multimedia-Based Instructional learning in classroom by using the five point scale ranging from “highest” to “lowest”. The questionnaire was constructed in order to explore the attitudes of the students regarding learning English through MBI. The questionnaire was created in Thai with two parts. The first part consisted of ten questions used to measure the attitudes of the students towards the film clips and their impact on their communicative skills. The mean scores of the questionnaires were rated as 4.51 to 5.00 = highest, 3.51 to 4.50 = high, 2.51 to 3.50= neutral, 1.51 to 2.50 = low and1.00 to 1.50 and lowest. The students rated each statement in accordance with their opinions. The second part of the questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions. This provided students opportunities to comment on their experience of learning English through MBI including their ideas, concerns and feelings.

Multimedia-Based Instructional Lesson Plans

The participants were taught English through MBI lesson plans by the researcher. The researcher constructed eight lesson plans. Each lesson plan consisted of two or three periods, each period was 50 minutes long. The research took 26 periods excluding the pre- and-posttest. The lesson plans based on Presentation, Practice and Production approach (PPP) The teacher presented the target language and then gave students the opportunity to practice it through various multimedia activities. The final stage of the lesson gave the students the opportunity to practice the target language. Students acquired listening, speaking, vocabulary and grammar learning through Multimedia in the form of Multimedia Instruction Software (MIS), short stories, PowerPoint Presentation ,clips, Images, audio. Therefore, they attended the class with visual aid and were in the computer room when they learned through websites.

Findings The first objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of multimedia based instruction to enhance the English ability skills of the sixth grade students.The pre-test and post-test scores of the English ability skills tests group were calculated using descriptive statistics and standard deviations. Then the mean scores were of both pretest and posttest were compared to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the participants before and after learning English through MBI by using dependent t-test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference at the .01 level, in terms of the overall means of the pretest and posttest results of the students.Table 1 shows the results of the overall means of the students. Table 1 Differences in the Overall Mean Scores of the English Pretest and Posttest of Students Students

N

Pretest Scores M S .D.

Experimental group 50 12.06 1.99 * Significant at the .01 level (p .01).The findings also indicated that Thai participants did much better in the perception task than the production one, which covered almost 80 percent of all onset tokens. In terms of the onsets that fit the Thai phonotactics the average mean scores were 52% and 87% in production and perception tasks, respectively. /kw/ achieved nearly 100% in both tasks. Finally, marked onsets, especially the three-member onsets, did not show any sign of difficulties for the Thai participants to produce and perceive due to the influence of some extralinguistic factors. Keywords: English onsets, speech production and perception, markedness principle

Introduction Perception and production in L2 interlangauge phonology have gained attention from many researchers (De Wilde. 2009; Peperkamp and Bouchon. 2011). However, there is some controversy between the two. That is, some researchers state that both show interrelationship. Learners with good perception also have good production skill, poor perception skill corresponds with poor production skill. That means both skills develop interdependently (Bradlow et al., 1997; de Jonge, 1995). The next question is which skill occurs first. In first language acquisition infants learn to perceive the sounds before being able to produce them. But there is no clear-cut agreement in L2 whether one precedes the other. Flege (1995) and Best (1995; Best et al., 2001) claim that perception precedes production. Nonetheless, Sheldon and Strange (1982) strengthen the hypothesis that production may also precede perception in relation to L2 acquisition. On the other side of the scale, some researchers claim that both perception and production have nothing to do with one another. In this study, the relationship between production and perception was investigated through English onset clusters by Thai learners. The focus of this study also was placed on the English onset clusters which were/were not found in Thai to see how those had an impact on Thai learners’ production and perception.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Objective The major objective of this study was to describe the relationship between the students’ production and perception in English onset clustersin the following three major areas: First, 41 English onsets to see the overall picture ofEnglish onsets; Second, 6 two-member onsets that shared the same phonotactics between the two languages; Finally, 7 three-member onsets, which were regarded as the most marked structure for Thai participants.

Hypothesis The researcher hypothesized that students’ perception was related to students’ production in English onsets. In other words, if Thai learners were able to identify English onsets, they would be able to produce them, and vice versa.

Research methodology Participants The study was carried out in July to August 2012. 38 second year English major students participated in this study. All of them took two required English courses (Fundamental English and Developmental English) and a basic writing course when they were in first year of BA study. They had learned English for at least 10 years and usually used English only in class. Their mother tongue, Thai, was used outside the classroom and in everyday conversation. None of them had studied abroad, nor spent extended periods of time in English speaking countries. Research instruments There were two major tools: an intelligibility test and a word-list reading test. The intelligibility test was to examine how well the participants were able to identify onset clusters. The researcher made 45 items from selected 45 onset clusters and also made four choices (a, b, c, and d) for each item. Items 1-4 were distractors. That means only items 5 to 45 were analyzed. Before the test was carried out, the sounds from a native speaker of English was recorded. The researcher asked an American native speaker to pronounce each word twice. The pause between each word was approximately 4-5 seconds. The native speaker reading was recorded in a sound-proof room through a phonetic computer software named ‘Praat’. In this test, the participants were asked to indicate which English word they had just heard. The second tool was a word-list reading test. Since this study also examined participant’s production, all 45onset clusters from the intelligibility test were listed on a sheet. Unlike the first tool, the second tool did not have all four choices. Each participant was taperecorded in a face-to-face manner with the researcher. What the participants had to do was to read out words twice from items 1 to 45. Again, items 1-4 were distracters and were not analyzed. All their speech sounds were recorded by a phonetic computer software ‘Praat’. Data Collection Procedure The researcher ran the intelligibility test first by scheduling all 38 participants to sit in a sound-proof room. They were not informed of the real purpose of the study but were instead told to listen to the record of 45 words as a part of research. Each word was read twice. A slight

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies pause between words marked the end of the preceding word. They listened carefully to each word, and circled the best choice (a, b, c, and d). It took them 5 minutes to complete this task. To ensure that the participants did not have a clue what the researcher would do to them in the next task, four weeks later the researcher recorded individual participants’speech sounds. They had to pronounce 45 target words, including the first four distractors. Individual participants used a microphone to pronounce each word. During the tape recording the researcher raised a finger as a signal to have the participant pronounce the next word. It took approximately 5-6 minutes to record all 45 words each. Below are all the tokens used in this study. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

drpplpjttwkwklkkj-

11. 12. 13. 14.

blbbjgw-

drive prey play pupil tree twelve queen clue crew cute string blue brew beauty Gwen

15. gl16. g17. fl18. f19. fj20. vj21. 22. w- thwart 23. zj24.-

glue gray fly fry few view throw

29. st30. sk31. sf32. sw33. mj34. nj35. spl- splay 36. spj- spew Zeus 37. spshrimp 38. st-

25. hjhuge 39. sk26.snsnow 40. skw27. sm- smoke 41. skj- skewer 28. spspin

stamp scan sphere swing mute new spring scrape squeeze

Research validity and reliability To establish content validity in the intelligibility test, all tokens were collected from different textbooks and previous studies, and then had them checked by three phoneticscourse instructors. Two of the experts received a doctoral degree and one held a master’s degree. All tokens reflected possible types of English complex onsets. Another measure used to set up content validity was through two English native speaker raters, both of whom hold Bachelor degrees from accredited universities in the United States and Australia. Before doing the rating, the two raters were trained to understand what the study aimed to investigate and how to investigate them. Both raters independently rated the participants’ speech sounds. The other measure to establish validity is the researcher assessed the appropriateness of the test by running a pilot test with 10 students. Based on the pilot test outcomes, a few changes were made to the test. In its final form, the test was printed on two (double-sided) A 4 pages; the average time to complete the test was 5 minutes. In terms of reliability, to ensure that two raters agreed on their judgment or to confirm that the coding was reliable, interrater correlations were calculated through Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r).A computer software was operated to find the inter-rater reliability score (r). It turned out that the r value was 0.823, which referred to a very strong relationship between the two raters (Salkind 2010).

Theoretical framework The first concept of markedness is related to syllable structure. It is claimed that all languages have CV syllable structure (C refers to a consonant; V refers to a vowel).In other words, CV is an unmarked form. So, any syllable structure that is more complex than the CV one 272

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies is regarded as a marked structure. To be more precise, if the number of consonants (or the length of onset/coda) increases, the level of markedness increases. The longer consonant margin, the more marked. For instance, CCV is more marked than CV; CCCV is more marked than CV and CCV. By the same token, VC is less marked than VCC, VCCC, etc. Therefore, the first concept of markedness focuses on the length of consonantal margin. The second concept of markedness is related to sonority hierarchy scale. Besides margin length, sonority between two phonemes of a complex onset goes hand in hand with markedness and plays a crucial role in acquiring CC sequences in English (Clements 1990; Sperbeck and Strange 2010). Below is the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP): low sonority Oral stops voiceless voiced      

Fricatives voiceless Voiced      

Nasals   

Liquids 

high sonority Glides Vowels 

   (Giegerich, 1992, 133)

It can be concluded as the following hierarchy scale. Low sonority High sonority stops>fricatives>nasals>liquids>glides>vowels Based on the scale, the least sonorous sounds are low-ranked on the left, and the most sonorous sounds are high-ranked on the right. According to Carr (1999:72) sonority is an acoustic effect: the more sonorous a sound, the more it resonates. Vowels are more sonorous than consonants. Phonologically, the sonority rises from the left and reaches a peak (a vowel), and then falls. Not surprisingly, languages tend to have /pl-/ rather /lp-/ because in /pl-/ the sonority rises from its lowest value for /p/, increasing for /l/, and reaching a peak or a vowel. SSP is a universal principle of languages, but its application is language specific. For example, English allows a voiceless fricative followed by a voiceless stop such as spill, stop, skill, etc. even though it should be vice versa to fit in SSP. However, among world languages, onsets that violate SSP are less frequent. So, the English case is very rare. The last concept to account for markedness, particularly in second language phonology, is the Markedness Differential Hypothesis (MDH) by Eckman (1977). He states that areas of difficulty for L2 learners are predictable as follows. a. Those areas of the target language which differ from the native language and are more marked than the native language will be difficult; b. The relative degree of difficulty of the areas of difference of the target language which are more marked than the native language will correspond to the relative degree of markedness; c. Those areas of the target language which are different from the native language, but are not more marked than the native language will not be difficult. Eckman (1977, 321) In conclusion, markedness is an abstract property of the no convention or unusualness, and difficulty of a sound. The unmarked elements are more basic, neutral, more universal, and first acquired; the marked elements are more specific, less frequent, and later acquired. The 273

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies length of margin, the distance between consonants on the hierarchical scale, and marked/unmarked sounds in mother tongue and target languageplay a significant role in the concept of markedness.

Findings and Discussion 1. The relationship between the students’ production and perception in 41 English onset clusters. A Pearson's correlation was run to determine the relationship between students’ production and perception. Table 1 shows that the relationship between participants’ production and perception was not statistically significant (r = 0.14). That is, no relationship between the two was found.In other words, if the participants could produce the clusters, it did not mean that they were able to identify them and vice versa. In 41 onset clusters, the students did much better in perception than production. Their mean scores in perception and production were 35.39 and 31, respectively. Participants could identify onset clusters better than they produced them. By the same token, standard deviation (SD) score in production was higher than that of perception. So, there was greater variability for the production task (SD =4.52) than in the perception task (SD =2.95). The data points in production were more spread out over the mean than those in perception. Table 1: Perception and production correlation(overall) X Perception Production

SD

31.05 35.39

4.52 2.95

No of students

No of tokens

r

38

41

0.14

Notice Table 1draws the overall picture of participants’ production and perception. Let’s consider which consonantal sequences participants did well in both tasks. It turned out that 21 clusters had over 80% in both production and perception. Interestingly, they performed very impressively in some consonants that were not in their mother tongue’s consonant inventory, particularly those that were contradictory to the sonority hierarchy principle, namely /-/, /-/, /-/, and /-/. See Table 2 below. Table 2: S+consonant Types of onsets (1) (2) (3)-

spin // stamp // scan //

Number of correct answers (%) Production Perception 38 (100%) 37 (97%) 37 (97%) 38 (100%) 38 (100%) 38 (100%)

(4) -

swing //

37 (97%)

38 (100%)

37.5 (98%)

37.75 (99%)

Average means

Tokens

Surprisingly, Thai speakers had nearly perfect scores on both production and perception task. /sk-/ achieved 100% in both production and perception. Why did Thai 274

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies participants demonstrate an impressive performance in these four tokens? It turned out that /-/ ‘spin’, /-/ ‘stamp’, /-/ ‘scan’, and /-/ ‘swing’ were found in their everyday conversation. To be more precise, they were English loanwords in Thai. Thai people have used the term ‘spin’ in tennis or table tennis such the term as ‘top spin’. They used the term ‘stamp’ rather than their Thai word or ตราไปรษณียากรsince the latter is too formal, and it has more syllables than the English one. ‘scan’ is widely used in student’ life, particularly the term ‘scanner’ when they want to scan the documents or pictures. The term ‘swing’ is widely found in a newspaper headline such as ‘swinging’ in the context of swapping partners in sexual activities. It can be said that the amount of contact with English in the form of loanwords in daily life enhances participants’ ability to produce and perceive these words. As a result, they were not very new for Thai participants. So, Thai ESL learners of English had no difficulty producing and perceiving these types of onsets. 2. The relationship between the students’ production and perception in 6 two-member onsets that shared the same phonotactics between the two languages. Another area in which Thai speakers should perform well is the English onsets that are found in Thai phonotactics.Those onsets are  and -. In terms of markedness perspective, the six complex onsets are unmarked. Thai learners are supposed to identify and produce those complex onsets very well. In other words, it is expected that their scores on production and perception tests should be high and show correlation between the two.That is, if Thai speakers could identify these six complex onsets, they were should be able to produce them, and vice versa. A Pearson's correlation was run to determine the relationship between students’ production and perception. Once again, the statistical result showed that no relationship between production and perception was found(r = 0.17, N=38, p > .01). Table 3 shows that participants were more accurate on perception than on production clusters (4.84 vs. 3.21). The mean score in production was only a half of the total score (6). It looked like unmarked structures did not help them much to produce correct pronunciation. In contrast, there was not high variability for the production task (SD =0.77). Their scores did not greatly disperse away from an average score. Even though participants did better in the perception task, its SD revealed more variability (SD =1.05). Table 3: Perception and production correlation (six two-member onsets) X Perception Production

4.84 3.21

SD 1.05 0.77

No of students

No of tokens

r

38

6

0.17

Let’s consider the six complex onsets in details. In Table 4, tokens (1), (2), (4), and (5) are like minimal pairs. When comparing (1)-(2) and (4)-(5), each pair has only one different segment, namely the second segment in the onset clusters. Basically, // and // are very problematic for Thai L2 learners of English. In Thai, //-// contrast is likely to be found in formal contexts, but it islost in informal contexts such as in everyday conversation or casual speech. // is always replaced by //, not vice versa. In this case, // is more marked than the counterpart. In complex onsets// and // as the second segment are retained in high registers or formal speech but are deleted in low registers (Chunsuvimol 1997; Phootirat2012). So, // is not very salient for Thai speakers, particularly in low register or causal speech.As can be seen above, in (1) and (2), students did rather well in the perception task; the degree of accuracy was 275

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies rather high (95% vs 90%). However, they produced 26% and 17% of both onset clusters correctly. The results were incompatible with the previous studies in that // seemed to be more marked. In (4) and (5), students showed a poorer performance than (1) and (2) in the perception task with 47% and 84% respectively. In (4), the number of students who identified and produced /-/ correctly was lower than 50%. In /-/, students did quite well in the perception task, and did better in the production task (63%). Unlike (1) and (2), (3) and (4) showed no clear-cut claim that// wastruly problematic. So, there was inconsistency for the //-// contrast. When /-/ was taken into account, participants showed that they did better in the production task than in the perception task (86% and 68%, respectively). It was expected that this token was not very new for Thai participants because they probably had learned this word since they were in a primary school. Therefore, they could pronounce the word easily. In the perception task, they were expected to achieve a high percentage. In general, English allows /-/’tree’, but /tl-/ does not exist in English phonotactics even though it is possible to have a liquid preceded by a stop. Thai speakers should have done well in the perception task, but the statistical results did not correspond to the assumption. Perhaps, the participants were not familiar with the // from the English speaker. As a result, they made more errors in the perception than the production task. Finally, the only onset cluster that supports the idea that markedness concepts can predict difficulty of learners is /-/. Participants showed an impressive performance in both tasks. All participants could produce and identify /-/100%. Notice that (6) was the only one on the list that did not deal with //-// contrast. This might be one of the reasons students had high accuracy in both tasks. Participants chose the right choice easily while doing the perception task. In sum, when employing minimal pairs with //// contrast, it became an uphill task for Thai learners to do the tasks. However, // did not show a sign of markedness as it did in the previous literature. Table 4: Perception and production in six two-member complex onsets Types of onsets (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Average means

Tokens pray play tree crew clue queen

Number of correct answers (%) Production Perception 10 (26%) 36(95%) 07 (17%) 34 (90%) 33 (86%) 26(68%) 18 (47%) 18(47%) 24 (63%) 32(84%) 37 (97%) 38 (100%) 20 (52%) 33 (87%)

// // // // // //

3. The relationship between the students’ production and perception in 7 three-member onsets, which were regarded as the most marked structure for Thai participants. Another area that shows a markedness perspective to the Thai speakers is threemember onset clusters. In general, there is only single structure in this type of onset clusters. That is, an// is followed by a voiceless stop, then either a liquid or a glide. Below is its structure. //

+

voiceless stop

+

liquid/glide

Seven tokens were employed to examine the Thai participants. Those tokens were: splay /-/, spew /-/, spring /-/, string /-/, scrape /-/, squeeze /-/, and 276

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies skewer /-/. Comparatively, the maximum number of onsets in Thai is two. Three-member onsets in English are very marked for Thai participants. According to the markedness concept, the longer the length of consonants, the more marked they are. Therefore, Thai participants were expected to have a great deal of difficulty producing and identifying three-member onsets. A Pearson's correlation was run to determine the relationship between students’ production and perception. The statistical results showed that there was no correlation between production and perception (r = .19, N=38, p > .01). Table 5: Perception and production correlation in 7 three-member onsets X Production Perception

5.80 6.68

No of students

No of tokens

r

SD 1.08 0.57

38 38

7

0.19

As shown in Table 5, perception’s score was very high; it was near a perfect mean score (7). The statistic results also revealed that all 38 participants had scores very close to the mean score since the SD or the spread of the scores across the students was very low (0.57). Again, their production was slightly poorer than the perception. The mean score (5.80) was rather far from the perfect score (7). In addition, the SD (1.08) was nearly two times the perception’s SD. To be more precise, in the production task Thai participants had much more variation on scores, and those scores were fairly far from the mean. Table 6 provides more details. Table 6: Perception and productionin7 three-member onsets Types of onsets

Tokens

(1) (2) -

splay spew

(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Average means

spring // string // scrape // squeeze // skewer //

// //

Number of correct answers (%) Production Perception 25 (74%) 33 (87%) 32 (84%) 37 (97%) 24 (62%) 36 (95%) 37 (97%) 36 (95%) 28 (74%) 31 (82%)

37 (97%) 38 (100%) 34 (89%) 38 (100%) 37 (97%) 36 (95%)

As mentioned earlier, it was expected that Thai participants should have had a great deal of difficulty producing and identifying three-member onsets. For one important thing, Thais do not have three-member onsets in their mother tongue; they are non-allowable consonant sequences. In addition, the markedness principle claims that the longer length of margin, the less frequent and later acquired they are. The major reason is they are a marked form. Things turned up-side-down when research results were presented. As can be seen in Table 6, each token was over 50 % in the production task. The lowest score was ‘spring’, which accounted for 62%; the highest score was ‘scrape’ which accounted for 97%. In the perception task, participants showed a very high performance since the lowest score was ‘splay’, which accounted for 87%. The other six tokens were nearly 100%. A question is raised: Why did Thai participant have an excellent performance in three-member onsets compared to the twomember ones? Apparently, nearly half of the tokens were found in Thai contexts as English 277

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies loanwords. They were: ‘spring’, ‘string’, and ‘squeeze’. To illustrate, the term ‘spring’ is used to refer to a piece of curved or bentmetal that could be pressed into a smallerspace but then return to itsusualshape. It could be related to a springboard at a swimming pool. So, ‘spring’ in the Thai context refers to something that could be pressed and returned to its usual shape. The term ‘string’ was related to a G-string or a narrow piece of women’s cloth. It can be used when Thais, particularly teenagers, talk about musical bands The term ‘squeeze’is found in a fruit juice brand name, ‘Tipco’ in Thailand. This product is on the shelves of all supermarkets or convenience stores, like 711. The other four onsets –splay, spew, scrape, skewer—are slightly new for them, but they could guess from the orthography. The term ‘splay’ has a very common term ‘play’ inside. The terms ‘spew’, ‘scrape’, and ‘skewer’ are not too difficult to get the right consonants, but many of them provided wrong vowels. However, the vowels were not the major focus of this study. Notice that ‘scrape’ is the only one for which the production score was higher than the perception score. In conclusion, the findings reveal that there is no correlation between production and perception in English onsets by Thai L2 learners of English. Most Thai participants did better in the perception task than the production one. Surprisingly, they did well in some marked onsets. What might account for this discrepancy was some extra-linguistic factors play a role here. That is, their previous classroom experience heightens their possibility to pronounce and perceive some marked tokens. Another important factor is the amount of contact to English in the form of loanwords in daily life, which enhances participants’ ability to produce and perceive certain types of onset clusters. As a result, they had no difficulty producing and perceiving them. Their overall performance did not support the sonority-based markedness concept about relative difficulty. The predicted difficulty was only true for some.

Suggestions for Further Studies 1. Apparently, there are some influences from both their previous classroom experience and English loanwords in the Thai context. Thai participants did rather well in marked onsets. To avoid these factors in similar future research studies, pseudo words can be employed as tokens to elicit the production and perception skills. 2. To gain more in-depth information, face-to-face interview is required. It helps to clarify ambiguous answers. For example, the researcher can ask why the participant did well in some marked forms such as ‘sphere’ and ‘scrape’ or they can pronounce some words, but cannot identify them. 3. To see language development in the future, the same sample group when they are fourth year students participate in the study for three reasons. First, to see whether the frequency of correct production and perception increase over time. Second, to analyze possible causes for changes in correct production and perception by examining crucial courses they took, first-hand experience with native speakers, etc. Finally, to determine whether the influence of marked/unmarked forms remains as strong/weak as when they were second year students.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Best, C. T. 1995. A direct realist perspective on cross-language speech perception. In W. Strange (ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Theoretical and methodological issues in cross-language speech research, (pp. 167-200). Timonium, MD: York press. Best, C. T, Gerald W. McRoberts, Elizabeth Goodell. 2001. Discrimination of non-native consonant contrasts varying in perceptual assimilation to the listener’s native phonological system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(2), 775-794. Bradlow, R A., Pisoni, B. D., Akahane-Yamada, R. & Tohkura, Y. 1997. Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/-/l/: IV. Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. Journal of Acoustic Society of America, 101, 2299-2310. Carr, P. 1999. English phonetics &Phonology: An Introduction. Hong Kong: Blackwell publishers. Chunsuvimol, B. 1997. Variation of cluster (l) in Thai speakers. Thammasat Review. 2 (1), 8495. Clements, G. N. 1990. The role of the sonority cycle in core syllabification. In J. Kingston and M. E. Beckman (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the grammar and the physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 283-333. De Jonge, E. C. 1995. Interlanguage phonology: Perception and production. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. De Wilde, E. 2009. Perception and production in second language phonology. The effect of audiovisual training on the acquisition of the English dental fricatives. MA thesis, Universiteit Gent. Netherlands. Eckman,F.R.1977.Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis.Language Learning, 27, 315 – 30. Flege, J. E. 1995. Second language speech learning: Theory, findings and problems. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech production and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233- 277). Timonium, Md: York Press. Peperkamp, S and Bouchon, C. 2011. The relation between perception and production in L2 phonological processing. INTERSPEECH 2011, 12th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, Florence, Italy, August 27-31, 2011. ISCA 2011. 161-165. Phootirat, P. 2012. Register variation in Thai-English interphonology: The contrast of /r/ and /l/. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. Salkind, N. J. 2010. Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics. USA: SAGE Publications. Sheldon, A and Streange, W. 1982. The acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese learners of English: evidence that speech production can precede speech perception.Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 243-261.

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Comparative Analysis of Usages of the Preposition "de" in Spanish and Thai Language Chadchavan Sritong [email protected] Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Abstract This article is part of a larger study called “Errors in Spanish Writing Influenced by the Interference of Thai Language Produced by Thai Undergraduate Students”. The purpose of the article is to analyze and compare usages of the preposition de in Spanish and Thai language, in order to discover similarities and differences between both languages. It is obviously agreed that there are several usages of the Spanish preposition de. This particle can be used widely in different contexts and also can be translated variously depending on how it is used.This study focused on six common usages of the preposition de , which were 1) possession, 2) materials of objects or topic of the noun, 3) characteristics of persons, places and things, 4) Prepositional verbs, 5) amount or part of something, and 6) identification of the place where or the time when an action begins. The data of this study was collected from languages used in four well-known newspaper in Spain and in Thailand; two Spanish newspaper 1) “-El País-”19th August 2010, a newspaper in Spanish, distributed worldwide, 2) “-As-” 19th August 2010, a sports daily newspaper in Spanish, and two Thai newspaper 1) “-Thairath-” 22nd May 2012, a daily newspaper in Thai, 2) “-Siam Kila-” 22nd May 2012, a sports daily newspaper in Thai.The results indicated that there were five of six usages of de in Spanish that coincided with de in Thai, except the usage as prepositional verbs, which did not appear clearly the equivalence between both languages. The study also found some irregular and special characteristics inside some kinds of usages and we also discovered that the Spanish de was more multifunctional that the de in Thai. It was required using other Thai prepositions or other particular words to make a meaning complete and to be equivalent to some usages of the de in Spanish.This result indicates that the Spanish preposition de holds an important role in the Spanish-Thai transfer; positive and negative. It is considered one of the main difficulties for Thai students when it comes to writing, to speaking and to translating Spanish language correctly, although there were some similar usages between both. In addition, in some different usages of de in Spanish, Thai students unavoidably need to change Spanish semantic structures to Thai structures in order to transmit truly the real meaning of the language. Key words: Comparative Analysis, the preposition de, Spanish prepositions, Interference

Introduction For the common sense, we know a preposition as a connection that links noun, pronoun and phrases to other words in sentence or it can be a type of word that is used to form a phrase; the phrase in turn functions as an adjective or adverb. From its very common aspect of prepositions, many learners or teachers may be consider them as an easy element in sentence but, in fact, the prepositions can be one of the most challenging aspects of using language because of their multifunctional rules. Within a language the very same preposition may carry several meanings.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies In Spanish there are many kinds of prepositions that could be used to express different meanings; de is one of them that hold an essential role in the language structure and hold several semantic roles. The preposition de is used generally in a daily conversation to express a lot of differences of meanings. Trujillo (1971:261) stated, Prepositions are not “empty” words and each carries a content (or more) regardless of which may appear fixed in a linguistic rule. From this statement we could assume that although prepositions are a very small element in sentence, their role is something contrasts. Furthermore, studies on language acquisition have shown that the standard use of prepositions in language as English and Spanish is difficult to achieve. As Romaine (1995) said, prepositions are a difficult grammatical category to acquire and understand for native speakers of a given language, and yet more difficult for second language speakers. Although, there are few previous researches on comparative study in prepositions among Spanish and Thai language, we can observe from several studies of prepositions in English. Generally, these studies aimed to find causes and solutions for a weak understanding of using English prepositions. The use of preposition is a concern. Among the twenty most frequently use words, eight are prepositions: of, to, in, for, with, on, at and by (Kucera and Francis, 1967). Leech and Svartvik (1975) defined prepositions as words which connect nouns or noun phrases with other structures in a sentence. Most English prepositions are simple, short, invariable forms, (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad and Finegan, 1999) the same as Spanish, such as, at, for, in, into, on, off to and with. However, according to a short or an invariable form of those prepositions are not simple as its appearance. Learners, particularly, the L2 learners have problems in using correct prepositions. Scarcella (2002) reported that approximately 60% of the university students failed and had to attend a remedial freshman writing course despite their previous schooling experiences. The prepositions use is one of main grammatical errors committed by them. The prepositions are often either absent of used incorrectly. Meanwhile, in another study conducted by Connors and Lunsford (1998) on college students’ writing, prepositions surfaced as the list of frequency of errors made by students. The finding clearly indicated that prepositions are one of the language areas that should be addressed in classroom teaching. Silayong (1984) affirmed that Thai students encountered problems in the use of prepositions in English due to interference from their mother tongue language. In similar vein, Mariano (1984) highlighted that the fourth grade students of Juan Sumulong Elementary School in Philippines made mistakes when using simple prepositions like in, on, over, beside, under and behind because of a hazy concept of the meaning. From the result of previous studies above, we can get an agreement that, to use effectively and correctly the prepositions is not an easy task. It requires an understanding collected by experience of using languages. Logically, because of the multiple use, the Spanish preposition de is difficult for Thai learners to understand especially in the time that need a correct translation into Thai that need a good knowledge between two languages and get more complicated to use it correctly as the native’s use. Fortunately, we still find an advantage for Thai learners who have been studying as a second language and can significantly count on positive transference. According to Davie (2003) in this study stated that the preposition de is used as a highly frequently comparing to the English preposition of. The complexity of preposition usage has been argued by various scholars. In addition, we cannot reject the importance of language transfer that has been playing a essential role in second language acquisition. The grammatical category like prepositions may experience transfer from languages, in this case from Spanish to Thai or form Thai to Spanish 281

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies (sometime sometime English prepositions interfere significantly between both languages. Thomason and Kaufman (1988) argued that transference of linguistic feature at any level (i.e.phonological, morpho-syntactic, etc.) is possible between languages in contact. SilvaCorvalán (1994), on the other hand, claimed that while languages seem to be more permeable at a discourse-pragmatic level, they are strikingly impermeable to foreign influence at the syntactic level. Meanwhile, in Thai, the usages of the prepositions de are also a very important part to express certain meanings, the same as the Spanish’s. Some Thai usages of the de can be found as Phrasal Preposition to use in certain meanings, but they cannot interpret exactly the same meaning of the preposition de, so we did not consider as a common usage for this study. Basically, in this study we tried to analyze among common usages of the de in Spanish and in Thai appeared in newspaper and tried to explain possible similarities and significant differences.

Objective This study aimed to analyze and compare six usages of the Spanish preposition de (of and from) in the Thai de; its direct translation is Khong (of) and Chak (from), in order to establish similarities and differences between both languages.

Limitation of the study This study focused on only six usages of the preposition in Spanish and Thai which appeared frequently in daily Spanish and Thai newspaper. In the data obtained, we could see the real languages used for journalism, which is a real use in a daily life. In the result we concentrated on the possible similarities and differences from sample sentences without mentioning to other kinds of usages. Moreover, we did not focus on any grammatical rules to correct the samples obtained from newspaper.

Data

The data of this study was collected from languages used in four well-known newspaper in Spain and in Thailand; two Spanish newspaper 1) “-El País-”19th August 2010, a newspaper in Spanish, distributed worldwide, 2) “-As-” 19th August 2010, a sports daily newspaper in Spanish, and two Thai newspaper 1) “-Thairath-” 22nd May 2012, a daily newspaper in Thai, 2) “-Siam Kila-” 22nd May 2012, a sports daily newspaper in Thai.

Analysis of data

All of data was categorized in six parts divided by order from the most frequently used usage to the less used as in the list below. 1. Function as of when indicating ownership or possession 2. Precede a noun to describe characteristics of persons, places and things 3. Function as of when indicating parts of a whole 4. Function as made of (Thi Tham Chak in Thai) when dealing with materials of which things are made 5. Function as prepositional verbs 6. Function as from: identification of the place where or the time when an action begins This study tried to analyze only the common meaning of the de in both languages. Do not cover other meanings that the preposition could be used for. In each part, and outstanding sentence or word was selected as an example in order to explain and indicate how each function works. Also, the analysis provided English translation 282

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies for each original example. All of examples were discussed and compared between the usages of both languages applying a comparative discussion technique. Then, we conducted a critical comparative discussion at the end of each part. Finally, we tried to achieve the final conclusion of the result and tried to demonstrate how each functions show significantly similarities and interferences between Spanish and Thai.

Result The most common meaning of the preposition de in Thai is Khong (of) and Chak (from) depending on how it is used in different contexts. So, in this part we basically tried to analyze for that meaning to compare usages between both languages in order to find coincidences and differences. 1. Function as of when indicating ownership or possession “El País” La necesidad del país de valorar el coste de las infraestructuras The country's need to assess the cost of infrastructure “As” Sabemos que la gente de este país ama el baloncesto. We know that the people of this country love basketball.

“Thairath” Kan Thutcharit Thang Kanmueang Khong Prathet Thai (การทุจริ ตทางการเมืองของประเทศไทย) Thailand’s political corruption “Siam Kila” Raikan Ni Thue Pen Kan Unkhrueang Khong Thim Wonlebon Sao Thim Chatthai (รายการนี ้ถือเป็ นการอุ่นเครื่ องของทีมวอลเลย์บอลสาวทีมชาติไทย) This tournament is a training of Thailand woman´s national volleyball team.

From the examples above, we can assume that the use for ownership between both languages could be equivalent and each sentence needed necessarily the presence of the preposition to express correctly the ownership. Above, we can easily notice that the position after preposition always followed by a noun to complete the meaning of possession and it is grammatical correct. However, we also found a curious case to express ownership in Thai usage. See examples below. (1). Samakhom Tong Tham Tam Rabiap Mai (Khong) FIFA. = The association has to respect the new rules of FIFA. (2). Khwamkhlueanwai (Khong)Thim Chatthai Lasut = Thailand’s national team update The two examples above showed us an irregular aspect for express ownership in Thai because of the absence of the Thai de. However, this kind of omission of preposition is generally acceptable and it is widely used in both formal and informal language including for the journalism use. The meaning also remains the same. 2. Precede a noun to describe characteristics of persons, places and things “El País” Los fallecidos son el conductor del coche, de 32 años; su mujer 27; la madre de primero, 59 y un sobrino, de 14. 283

“Thairath” Ongkon Khong Rat Tongkan Bukhlakon Thi Mi Khunnaphap (องค์กรของรัฐต้ องการบุคลากรที่มีคณ ุ ภาพ)

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies “El País” “Thairath” The dead are the 32 year-old car driver, Government needs quality personnel. his 27 year-old wife, 59 year-old mother of the first and a 14 year-old nephew. “As” Incluso sin Paul, España es un rival de alto nivel. Even without Paul, Spain is a high-level opponent.

“Siam Kila” Sathanthi Haeng Khwam Suk Khong Prachachon (สถานที่แห่งความสุขของประชาชน) The happy place for people.

In this kind of use we found that it was very typical in Spanish to use de for the description of persons, places and things. It was considered a type of modification that functions as a normal adjective, which in Spanish basically there are two positions; before and after a noun. The de in this usage acted, as we had commented, likes an adjective to describe a noun coming before. We believed that this aspect made us understand better the syntactic relation between noun and adjective, which could be used in several types, and especially for this case; a noun always follow the preposition. Meanwhile, in Thai, there is a variety of translation of de. From the data obtained there were many possible translations such as Thi (that), Thi Mi (that own), Haeng (of), An Song (that) depending on the level or the beauty of required meaning, and the meaning of those different translation is still the same, not change at all. All of them express the same meaning and were a connection between the first noun to the second and the second changed its function as an adjective. Here there were some possible examples that have the same meaning in Spanish or in English “an important place” - Sathanthi Haeng Khunkha - Sathanthi Thi Mi Khunkha - Sathanthi An Song Khunkha From those examples, it is not easy for Thai native speaker to distinguish how different they are between all of cases because all of them are generally acceptable and could be used frequently depending on how each user use them. 3. Function as of when indicating parts of a whole “El País” El gobierno se enfrenta a una de sus grandes medidas económicas. The government is facing one of its greatest economic measures. “As” Es uno de los restaurantes más futboleros de la ciudad.

It is one of the most football of the city. 284

“Thairath” Pen Nueng Nai Hetkan Fai Dap Khrang Yai Khong Prathet (เป็ นหนึง่ ในเหตุการณ์ไฟดับครัง้ ใหญ่ของประเทศ) It is one of the biggest electricity cut of the country. “Siam Kila” Kanlueaktang Dairap Siang Khangmak Chak Song Nai Sam Khong Samoson Samachik Thangmot (การเลือกตังได้ ้ รับเสียงข้ างมากจากสองในสามของสโมสรสมาชิก ทังหมด) ้ The election received a majority of two thirds of all the members of the club.

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies From the data we obtained, it was totally obvious that both languages own the same usage to express parts of a whole. This kind of usage always required the presence of the preposition de in sentences. It was impossible to omit it. In Spanish, when requiring this kind of usage, the noun that came after preposition always was a plural noun to show a whole amount of the main word, as we can see in the example in the table above; de sus grandes medidas económicas, de los restaurants futboleros… At the same time in Thai, there was also an important notification that after the preposition always followed by another preposition, which is Nai (in) in order to make a context complete as parts of a whole. Those prepositions serve each other systematically. 4. Function as made of (Thi Tham Chak in Thai) when dealing with materials of which things are made “El País” Mundo de reciclaje: recicla un vaso de plástico

“Thairath” Mi Kan Chat Nithatsakan Sadaeng Chut Pha Mai Chak Chumchon (มีการจัดนิทรรศการแสดงชุดผ้ าไหมจากชุมชน) A silk dress exhibition from community

World Recycling: recycle a plastic cup “As” Özil se dio un baño de plata a su llegada a Madrid Özil took a bath of silver in his arrival for Madrid

“Siam Kila” Nakkila Daorung Thi Chanaloet Rianthong Nai Sikem (นักกีฬาดาวรุ่ งที่ชนะเลิศเหรี ยญทองในซีเกมส์) Young athletes winning gold medals in the SEA Games.

In Spanish, it is clearly that de is always needed to express materials of which things are made. It is incorrect when omitting it. Meanwhile, in Thai, the omission of the de can be generally acceptable; without Khong or Ti tam Chak, but the meaning remains the same. So, in Thai examples above also can be expressed with the presence of Ti tam Chak but it could be sound a bit unnatural or sometime it is considered redundant. Here are examples above with a small modification but still carrying the same meaning. - Mi Kan Chat Nithatsakan Sadaeng Chut ( Thi Tham Chak Pha Mai ) Pha Mai Chak Chumchon มีการจัดนิทรรศการแสดงชุด (ที่ทาจากผ้ าไหม) ผ้ าไหมจากชุมชน - Nakkila Daorung Thi Chanaloet Rian ( Thi Tham Chak Loha Si ) Thong Nai Sikemนักกีฬาดาว รุ่ งที่ชนะเลิศเหรี ยญ (ที่ทาจากโลหะสี)ทองในซีเกมส์ 5. Function as prepositional verbs “El País” El muchacho iba a disfrutar de unas vacaciones en casa de sus abuelos. The boy was going to enjoy a holiday at home with their grandparents. “As” Nos sentimos muy satisfechos de culminar ese objetivo.

“Thairath” Song Mae Luk Long Chak Rot Pracham Thang สองแม่ลกู ลงจากรถประจาทาง Mother and daughter get out of the bus. “Siam Kila” Nai Korani Khong Nakkila Khon Ni Tong Thuk Phak Kan Khaengkhan (ในกรณีของนักกีฬาคนนี ้ ต้ องถูกพักการแข่งขัน)

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies “As” We are very pleased to complete this objective.

“Siam Kila” In case of this athlete, he must be punished for the competition.

In this case, only a few examples were found in Thai newspapers such as Long Chak Rod (get out of the bus) is the equivalence with Spanish prepositional verb bajar de. The unclear discovery, made us curious whether the function as prepositional verbs or a phrasal verb is a special characteristic of many western languages that need a verb accompanied by a certain preposition to express a certain meaning or not. In this study we found a lot of Spanish prepositional verbs with de in both newspapers such as disfrutar de (have fun with) , acabar de (have just finished), hablar de (talk about), tartar de (try to), bajar de (get off), haber de (have to) , dejar de (give up) or sentirse de (feel about). Regarding to Thai language, it is hardly found this kind of case because Thai native speaker never realize the existence of prepositional verbs in their mother tongue. Notice that those Spanish prepositional verbs can be followed by noun or an infinitive verb depending on how the speaker wants to say. Conversely, in Thai exists only an only one possibility to be followed by a noun. In addition, in Thai, we cannot clearly find this kind of use with preposition de and in grammatical use we never study seriously the prepositional verbs because of the variety of Thai prepositions that can be applied severally with just the same verb to express the same meaning or we do not need the presence of any preposition for that certain meaning. In fact, there is a grammatical category similar to this function which is phrasal preposition, but we did not find any exact sentence with the presence of the de and with the exact meaning of de to be an example in this part. 6. Function as from: identification of the place where or the time when an action begins “El País” Trabajamos de lunes a viernes.

We work from Monday until Friday. “As” De 30 a 15 euros precio para los aficionados libres en la vuelta.

Ticket price from 30 to 15 Euros for fans in the return match.

“Thairath” Phupokkhrong Tong Ok Pai Thamngan Chak Chao Thueng Kham (ผู้ปกครองต้ องออกไปทางานจากเช้ าถึงค่า) Parents have to work from dawn until dusk. “Siam Kila” Nakkila Tong Doenthang Chak Thiphak Pai Yang Sanam Som Praman Samsip Nathi (นักกีฬาต้ องเดินทางจากที่พกั ไปยังสนามซ้ อมประมาณสามสิบ นาที) Athletes have to travel from the accommodation to practice for about 30 minutes.

Both languages hold the same aspect for using prepositions to express this meaning and it requires necessarily the presence of prepositions. We also observed that it not only needs the presence of de and Khong but also the presence of another preposition in order to complete the meaning. In the examples, we can see a couple of prepositions in each language: In Spanish, de (from)….a (till) in both sentences. In Thai, also needs Chak (from)...Thung (till). For this case 286

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies there is also another Spanish preposition that can function similarly as de which is desde (from), but depends on movement of subject.

Conclusion

From the result, we can draw conclusions below; - Ownership or possession Basically a possessive expression between both languages is equivalent by using the same preposition; we found an exception from Thai usage. The observation was that sometimes the presence of the preposition is not necessary in sentences and the meaning still can be understood equally - Precede a noun to describe characteristics of persons, places and things In this case we found some equivalent sentences in Thai that demonstrated the same use as Spanish’s. We considered that the Spanish use is very clearly and is very acceptable to use for all sense of contexts, but Thai use is not exactly the same. In Thai, there is another common style without using any preposition in order to describe a noun more literal and more natural. - Function as of when indicating parts of a whole The analysis demonstrated obviously the same usage between both languages. It was impossible to leave out the presence of the preposition. We also could probably assume that this kind of usage was very similar to the usage of ownership, only appeared a small different point in the main meaning of the context between both usages of both languages. - Function as made of It is generally similar but not equal in all the cases because in Thai language there is an acceptable use that makes language sound smoothly and naturally by omitting some particles that come with a main noun, so the presence of preposition is not necessary. - Function as Prepositional verbs This kind of use is a very common in Spanish, but in Thai, although we found some equal sentences in data, it is hardly found the rule of prepositional verbs because of multifunctional use of Thai prepositions. So, Thai-speaking learners of Spanish always have problems when learning Spanish prepositional verbs. - Function as from: identification of the place where or the time when an action begins From the data we obtained, it was obviously acceptable that two languages are equivalent in term of using the same preposition to indicate parts of a whole. The observation was that it required another preposition to make a meaning completed. The general idea of this study has demonstrated that although there were a lot of similarities between both languages, learners should be careful about some exceptions that may cause a confusion when attempt to equate the prepositions across languages especially for the possessive use. From the result, we considered the Spanish de seems more multifunctional than the Thai de because it not only works by itself individually as a preposition but also a verb complement in order to function like a prepositional verb. In contrast to Spanish, the Thai de could not work the same because of its unfixed structure. In Spanish, it can be used more frequently and naturally than in Thai both in formal and informal language to express the same meaning, especially to act like an adjective. In Thai it is more general that an adjective modifies noun without the presence of preposition. It sounds more naturally according to the nature of language, meanwhile in Spanish de is necessarily needed to appear in the sentence and cannot omit it. Finally we reached the final conclusion that the preposition de in Spanish and in Thai holds significantly two effects in the time Thai-speaking learners learning Spanish. A positive and a negative transfer were found clearly in this study. Although the results proved that there were more similarities than interferences, each of them still could be a good supporter and bad supporter for the learners. It is a fact that learners have a dificulty to master all usages of the

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies preposition de, so it would be very productive to keep analyzing it in depth and keep trying to study its other several functions to be able to use it correctly and appropriately.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. and Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education: China Campos, J.L. (2004). Gramática de las preposiciones. ASELE, actas XV. Web site: cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/asele/pdf/15/15_0524.pdf‎ Davies, M. (2003). Corpus del español.vol 2003. (vol.2003) Kucera, H. and Francis, W.N. (1967). Computational Analysis of Present-Day English. Providence: Brown University Press. Romain, S. (1995). Bilinguaslism.Oxford:Blackwell Scarcella, R. (2002). Effective Writing Instruction for English Language Learners. California English, 7(4), 6-13. Retrieved March 18 2010 from Education Research Complete Database. Silayong, D. (1984). A Comparative Study of English and Thai prepositions with some suggestions for pedagogical application at secondary levels. SEAMEO Regional Language Center: Singapore Silva, C., Carmen.(1994). Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford:Clarendon Press Suriati, A. A Study on the Use of prepositions mediated by an ICT Tool. http://www.lsl.nie.edu.sg/icce2012/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/C6-s-82.pdf. Thomason, S.G. and Kaufman, T.(1998). Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press Trujillo, R.(1971). Notas para un estudio de las preposiciones españolas, in Thesaurus, XXVI, p.234-279 The Royal Institute of Thailand. Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), PDF file. Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Institute_of_Thailand

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Spanish and Thais surnames: Similarities and differences. Elisa Cristina Díaz Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Spanish Department. Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract The goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the etymology of Thais and Spanish surnames. This presentation is about something simple but very important in every culture. Two countries with their own language, culture, values,traditions and history, where everybody carry a surname with a story behind. Working as a Spanish Lecturer I have noticed that some of my Thai students have long surnames and most of Thais surnames have a beautiful meaning. I discovered that 99% of my students know the meaning of their surnames and also I never met two Thai students with the same surname. This presentation focuses in surnames origins and classification: Patronymic surnames, toponimic surnames, gentile surnames, theonimic surnames, surnames related to professions, related to geography and surnames related to animals and plants. Wars and history influenced in both Spanish and Thais surnames. This dissertation analyzes similarities and differences between Thais and Spanish surnames through the history. Due to the colonization Spanish surnames are mixed with Italian, Jewish and Arabic surnames. Besides in Spain four languages are spoken apart of the Spanish and this has a strong influence in the surnames formation. Same in Thailand we found Thai surnames, Chinese surnames and Pali-Sanskrit surnames. Khon Kaen University students, Thai people from Northeast of Thailand, friends and people from South America made possible this presentation through the interviews. Key words: origins, surnames. etymology.

Introduction According to the Oxford dictionary , Surname or family name is the part of your name that shows which family you belong to. Many dictionaries define "surname" as a synonym of "family name". In the western hemisphere, it is commonly synonymous with "last name" and is usually placed at the end of a person's given name. In Spain and most Hispanophone and Lusophone countries, two or more surnames are used. In Hungary, along with Madagascar, China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam and in many other East Asian countries, the family name is placed before a person's given name.

History History can tell us a lot about the different invasions or periods in different parts of the territory that we know today as Spain and Thailand. Invasions, wars, periods of peace, etc, make us to think about law, cultures and traditions. Spain: The Greeks named Iberos the people from the Iberian Peninsula. Archeologists and genetic evidences say that the Iberos arrived there during the Neolithic period (5000-3000 years B.C.).Some experts think that the Iberos came from East Europe and others came from occidental Europe like France, Great Breton and Ireland. 290

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Thailand: Thai peoples who originally lived in southwestern China migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The oldest known mention of their existence in the region by the exonym Siamese is in a 12th-century A.D. inscription at the Khmer temple complex of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, which refers to syam, or "dark brown" people. The Tai–Kadai languages, also known as Daic, Kadai, Kradai, or Kra–Dai, are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China and Southeast Asia. Inscriptions in Thai writing began to appear around 1292 A.D.

Objective The objective of this investigation is to find out any kind of links, similarities and differences between Thai and Spanish surnames. Even though are different culture it is possible that in some cases similarities may occurred Methodology This research is a documentary research with following steps: Data collection Questionnaire to over 70 Thai students from Khon Kaen University and Khon people Tell me your surname. Do you know the meaning of it? Where does your family come from originally? (China, Thailand, Isan, etc) Tell me at least three surnames from the North of Thailand. Tell me at least three surnames from the South of Thailand. Tell me at least three surnames from Isaan. Tell me at least three surnames from Central Thailand. Tell me one or two tribal surnames. (Karen, Hmong). Tell me three Chinese surnames. Tell me three Arab surnames (South of Thailand). Thai people can change their surnames? If your answer is yes, tell me why do they change their surnames? Do you know surnames related to the nature like: moon, river, mountain, trees, etc? What does it mean “Na” Ayuthaya, Na…..? Do you know any noble surname? In Spain and Thailand history we can see different period’s .Spain has the influence of different cultures from Europe and North of Africa. Thailand is completely different. We can say that Thailand since 1000 years ago has its own distinctive even though there were many wars with the neighboring countries. Data analysis After receiving all the information that the students and Khon Kaen people submitted was possible to find and to classified similarities and differences between Spanish and Thais surnames. Results After and exhaustive investigation results came out and we can see important points like: When Spanish and Thais started using surnames? How many surnames a person can have? Frequency of the surnames Onomastic or onomatology: General classification of: 291

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 1- Patronymics surnames. 2-Toponimic surnames. 3- Theonymic surnames. 4- Surnames relating to good luck. 5- Surnames corresponding to the names of professions or jobs. 6- Surnames relating to physical or moral characteristics of the person. 7- Surnames relating to animals or plants. History Spain and Thailand both countries have a long history but very different.Spain was influenced for Europe and Afica and Thailand for Asia and India. Spain history: 2000-500: BC: Neolithic period. The Tartessos, Fenician, Celtian, Greeks and Cartagins. 218 B.C-264: Hispania period where it was invaded for the Roman Empire. 410-630: Visigoth period. 711-1462: Al Andalus period (Beginning of the Middle ages) 1474-1512: Catholic Kings period. 1519-1648: The Hasburg period. 1700-1808: The Borbon period. 1808-1812: Bonaparte period. 1814-1866: The Borbon period again. 1868: Revolution, where the Queen Elizabeth II was forced to leave the country. 1870-1873: Saboya period. 1873: Proclamation of the first Republic. 1874-1927 The Borbon period. 1931-196: The Second Republic. 1936-1939: Civil War. 1939-1975: Dictature period. 1975: Restoration of the Democracy. Thailand: Sukhothai Period (1238-1438). Ayutthaya Period (1351-1767). Thonburi Period (1767-1782). Rattanakosin Period (1782-Present). General Chakri became the first king of the Chakri dynasty, Rama I, ruling from 1782 to 1809. Rama II (1809-1824) King Nang Klao, Rama III (1824-1851) reopened relations with western nations. King Mongkut, Rama IV, (1851-1868. King Chulalongkorn, Rama V (1869-1910) abolishing slavery and improving the public welfare and administrative system. King Vajiravudh, Rama VI (วชิราวุธฯ)(1910-1925) Compulsory education and other educational reforms were introduced by Him. During the reign of King Prajadhipok, (1925-1935), Thailand changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The king abdicated in 1933 and was succeeded by his nephew, King Ananda Mahidol (19351946). The country's name was changed from Siam to Thailand with the advent of democratic government in 1939. When Spanish and Thais started using surnames? SPAIN: Since the ten century during the Middle Ages. (711 AD-1492)

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies In 1870 Spain established the law about having two surnames, The father surnames first and the mother surname second. THAILAND: Royal Decree since March 1913 (King Rama IV) The decree became a law on 1st of July 1913. Married woman will take her husband surname. The surname has to be suitable in keeping with the family position, and with no coarse connotations. The name must not require more than ten letters. How many surnames a person can have? In Spain and Latin America Spanish speaking countries most of the people have two surnames: Father surname first and mother surname in second place. For example: Juan Rodríguez Iglesias. Rodriguez: is the father surname and Iglesias is the mother surname. The Ministry Javier de Burgos in 1835 established a law about having two surnames. No one does know the reasons behind it. Thai people can have only one .That surname will be the "father surname" Divorce women have to change to their old surname. Frequency of the surnames Spanish surnames are no unique. Many people around the world can have the same surname. Common Spanish surnames: García, Fernández, González, Rodríguez, López, Martínez, Sánchez, Pérez, Martín, Gómez. In Spain there are 1 349 883 persons with the surname García. In U.S.A. there are 858.289 people with the surname García. In Argentina in 2005 González was the most popular surnames .There were 598.240 persons with this surname. In second and third place were: Rodríguez 483.212 people and Gómez 426.253 people. Thai surnames are exclusive of a family and have a powerful meaning. Thai people feel quite proud of it because each family surname is exclusive. As mentioned before Onomastic or onomatology is the study of proper names of all kinds and the origins of names. It is possible to have the following surnames classification: 1- Patronymics surnames. 2- Toponimic surnames. 3- Theonymic surnames. 4- Surnames relating to good luck. 5- Surnames corresponding to the names of professions or jobs. 6- Surnames relating to physical or moral characteristics of the person. 7- Surnames relating to animals or plants. 1-Spanish Patronymic surnames Surnames created from common names. Are the most frequent cases, and that are unique to the genealogies of Spain and Portugal, are the surnames ending in "ez" ("es", in Portuguese).This system of surnames derived from the Visigoths, the Germanic people who, with the decline of the Roman Empire, was established in the Iberian Peninsula and founded a kingdom.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies "EZ" means "son of" and is equivalent to the endings "are" of names Nordic origin (Anderson),"vitch" or"-ievna "of Russian patronymics (Nikolaevich), etc. Most of the common Spanish surnames have their origins in the Middle Ages and came from the proper name of the father. Examples: Alvarez: Son of Alvaro. - Díaz, Díez: Son of Diego. - Gutiérrez: Son of Gutier (Wutier o WWotier). - Fernández: Son of Fernando. - Henríquez: Son of Enrique or Henrique. - Hern|ndez: Son of Hernando or ‘‘Fernando’’. - López: Son of Lope. - Márquez: Son of Marco. - Martínez: Son of Martín. - Rodríguez: Son of Rodrigo (Roderick in German). - Sánchez: Son of Sancho. - Suárez: Son of Suero. Thai Patronymic surnames There are not Thai patronymic surnames. 2- Spanish Toponymic surnames. Toponymic surnames. Are relates to a location. Derived from a name of a place or location. Sub division Toponymic Majors: Egea, Huesca, Soriano, Valencia. Toponymic Minors: are those that do not have a specific name, but are referred to landforms. : Lagos = Lake. Valle = Valley. Colina = Hill. Río = River. Thai Toponymic surnames Toponymic surnames. Are relates to a location. Derived from a name of a place or location. Examples: Phukao.(ภูเขา) Mountain Phukhaotong:(ภูเขาทอง )Golden mountain

3-Spanish Theonymic surnames. Are Christian surnames or surnames related to God or any divinity: De Dios = Of God. Buena Fe = Good Faith. Santamaría = Holy Mary. De Jesús = Of Jesús. Thai Theonymic surnames. Jutapaed(จุฑาเทพ) Crown of God Thewaphrom( เทวพรหม)Hindu god

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Thephasadin (เทพหัสดิน) Elephant of God. Thewaphrom ( พรหมมา) Hindu god 4- Surnames relating to good luck. Among the Spanish surnames we can find very interesting ones. Buenaventura = Fortune, Good Luck Próspero = Prosperous Fortuna = Fortune Among the Thai surnames relating to good luck there are many of them because money and good luck are important topics among the Thais. Munkhunchokdee มุงคุณโชคดี Good luck. Khot โคตร:Lot of fortune o good luck. Meesuk มีสขุ Happines. Bunmee บุญมี I have merit. Phasuk ผาสุข To have happines. 5-Surnames corresponding to the names of professions or jobs. We can find in both :Spanish and Thai surnames Zapatero = Shoemaker. Carpintero = Carpenter. Herrero = Blackmith. Labrador = Farmer. Monkhonkaset มงคลเกษตร Farmer. Chanayota ชนะโยธา Army winner. Kruwaanphat ครุ วรรณพัฒน์ Teacher. Phanichtrakul พานิชตระกูล Seller. Vendor.

6-Spanish Surnames relating to physical or moral characteristics of the person. Valiente = Courageous Bravo = Brave Guerrero = Warrior. Delgado = Thin. Rubio = Blond. Moreno = Brown / Dark. Precioso = Precious. Salado = Salty. Thai Surnames relating to physical or moral characteristics of the person. Phiwon (ผิวอ่อน) Beautiful skin. Kaokham (ขาวขา) White and charming. Phiwkhom (ผิวขม) Dark skin. Kaengraeng (แข็งแรง) Strong. Damkham (ดาขา) Black and charming. 7-Some of the Spanish and Thai surnames are related to animals, plants or nature. They are very interesting point because we can see these animals and plants in the daily life of the people. 295

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Olivo = Olive tree. Viñas = Vineyard. León = Lion. Pimienta = Pepper. Gallo = Rost. Phukhaotong ( ภูเขาสีทอง) = Golden mountain Buntarit (บุณฑริก) =White Lotus. Sureenat (สุรสีหนาถ) = The voice of Lion. Maliwan( มะวันลิ) = Jasmine. 8- Strongest settler influence in Spain. Sephardic Jews is a term referring to the descendants of Jewish settlers, originally from the Near East, who lived in the Iberian Peninsula until the Spanish Inquisition. The term essentially means "Spanish" or Spain in modern Hebrew. Jewish surnames: Colors: Rojo, Verde, Verde, Blanco, Negro, Amarillo. Geography and nature: Montaña, Valle. Metals: Oro, Plata, Diamante, Perla, Hierro, etc. Plants and trees: Flores, Rosa, Madera, etc. Physical characterístics: Lindo, Alto, Pequeño. Professions: Panadero, Sastre, Escribiente, Cantor. Strongest settler influence in Thailand. Chinese. Chinese people escape communism and ended all over Thailand. Originally the Chinese surnames have the word “Sea”, for example: ¨Sea Tea¨ ,¨Sea Sung¨ ,¨Sea lee¨. The Chinese in Thailand changed their surnames but kept the meaning. Chinese surnames are very long and their meaning have to do with money and economy. Examples: Tangviriyaphaibul: Progression. Dhanpanich: Good luck in trade and get better in everything. 9-Spanish surnames belonging to different geographical areas Basque surnames: Aguerreche: house is a lonely place. Echabide: the way to may house. Barrenechea: Inside of the house. Inchaurreta: Walnut place. Surnames from Galicia: Fariña, Quiroga, Mosquera, Mariño, Moreira, Rocha, Castro, etc. Surnames from Andalucia: Martín De La Parra, Enrile, Jácome, Zurera, Casas, Arcos. Thailand surnames belonging to different geographical areas North: อินต๊ ะสาร Intassan, อินต๊ ะนาม Intanaam , อินต๊ ะยศ Intayot. South: Damsamud, Sanubud, Arhamuth-chula. Northeast: Buriram: Yeeram,เสริ มรัมย์ Korat province: Tangthaisong ตังไธสง, ้ Phiamkhunthod เพียมขุนทดม, Sinpru สินปรุ Chetsungnaen เชิดสูง เนินม, Tangsanthia ตังสั ้ นเทียะ Tribal surnames: Mhopogu, Arkoe 296

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Famous people with Spanish surnames. All of them hold two surnames: father and mother.  José Antonio Domínguez Banderas - Antonio Banderas  Penélope Cruz Sánchez - Penélope Cruz  José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero -José Luis Zapatero  Jennifer Lynn López Rodríguez- Jennifer López  Rafael Nadal Parera – Rafael Nadal

Conclusions Spanish Surnames: usually the people can not change or they choose not to change their surnames. Are not exclusive of a person or family. Spanish surnames have meaning according to the classification. Indigenous or aborigines and slaves got their surnames from their Lords or master so indigenous surnames disappeared. Central and most of the South America countries had been colonized by Spaniards, so the influence of Spanish surnames is significant .Even The Philippines has been colonized by Spain and there are a lot of Philippines people with Spanish surnames. Thailand surnames: You can change surnames as many times as you want. You need to keep a record of your previous surnames. If someone want to change her or his surname sometimes will consult a Buddhist monk and him will choose a new surname that bring good luck to the person. Thailand has only introduced surnames during the last 100 years. Thai surnames meaning: power and growing. Thai surnames of Chinese origin meaning: wealthy. Thai surnames are exclusive of a family. Acknowledgements. Asst. Prof. Dusadee Ayuwat,Ph. D. in Philosofy Program.Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences .Khon University. Thailand. Students from the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon Kaen University. Spanish Department of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon Kaen University. Thailand.

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AragónGen. Asociación Cultural e Historia de Aragón (2012) Tipos de apellidos. www.aragongen.org García, Wikipedia.(2013) Apellido. http://www.es.wikipedia.org/wiki/apellido Oxford dictionary. Besta cyber dictionary. Thailand Tales.Kriengsak Niratpattanasai.(1997) Why many Thais have a long surname? www.apmforum.com

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies “Beautiful” or “Pretty” as Conceptualized in Katherine Mansfield’s A Cup of

Tea: Feminist Ironies Intira Charuchinda

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences PhranakhonRajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract The paper aims to identify the meaning of ‘beautiful’ and ‘pretty’ as conceptualized in Katherine Mansfield’s A Cup of Tea.The main theoretical framework of this textual analysisis feminism. It proves that Rosemary,the main character in this story is not beautiful in the feminist sense. Throughout interpretation of the meaning of both words, one encounters a number of feminist ironical terms such as ‘sisterhood,’‘lesbianism,’‘talking back,’‘psychological freedom,’ and ‘women’s values.’ Rosemaryis not presented as a beautiful woman. Although talk over a teacupoffers a good chance for women to meet each other in a friendly and informal atmosphere to establish a sisterhood bond and to raise consciousness of the invisible effects of the patriarchy,this chance is ruined when Rosemaryfails to recognizeand acknowledge the effects of male-domination. Moreover, how Rosemary treats the girl she has causally picked up can be viewed in terms of lesbianism but not defined as feminism. Also, her act of talkingback, in which she takes the subject position, simply lapses into blind obedience to male authority. Furthermore, her writing room is not a place where she can achieve psychological freedom as it is in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own(1928), but rather one in which she blindly responds to the demands of male authority. In addition, Rosemary inadvertently compares herself with the price of a little ornamental box she has just seen. Her frame of mind is conveyed to the reader by the allegorical picture on the lid of the box she intends to buy. For these reasons, she does not possess inner beauty in the sense of feminism, which moves towards rehumanization of women. However, although Rosemary may be considered ‘pretty,’ at best she is a superficially attractive woman, and at worst, an annoying and disgusting one. Keywords: Feminist, Ironies,Beauty

Introduction Beauty is what women desire. For centuries, women in all cultureshave been pursuing beauty. Chinese women used to bind their feet, trying to compress them to the ideal three inches. To achieve this ideal beauty, they suffered a great deal. Nowadays, women still pursue beauty. In the same way, a girlat the present time has to suffer when she wears her first pair of high heels.Many girls beg to have their ears pierced although it will hurt them. Older women wince bravely as they pluck their eyebrows. With the advance of technology, some women have botox injections, plastic surgery, liposuction, and other forms of treatment in order to look more attractive or younger. Furthermore, many women’s magazines, especially ones commonly found in beauty salons such asElle, Cosmopolitan, Vogue, Allure, Glamour, Madame Figaro, andIn 299

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Style, to name just a few,advise women who want husbands to turn their body into a “man-trap.” Even after marriage, a good woman is supposed to continue to look sexy. Moreover, beauty is a man’s main reason for lusting, loving, and marrying a woman. People often find it strange when a man marries a girl who is not pretty. However, they find it not strange at all when they hear of a man marrying a brainless beauty. This concept of beauty is not one that is consonant withfeminism. The meaning of beauty in the feminist sense is reflected in Katherine Mansfield’s A Cup of Tea.Putting the work intotextual analysis, this study proves that the main character in this short story is not beautiful in the feminist sense. The author writes in the first lines of the story, “Rosemary Fell was not exactly beautiful. No, you couldn’t have called her beautiful. Pretty? Well, if you took her to pieces” (Mansfield, 1922: 1102). However, in the last line of the story, the author writes that Rosemary asks her husband “Am I pretty?” when she presses his head against her bosom. The beginning and ending of this story invite a close reading to find the meaning of beauty. As the writer reveals Rosemary’s actions and her states of mind, we will see that Rosemary does not possess the quality of inner beauty in the feministsense, which encourages a womanto establish herself on an equal footing with men,and take up the subjectposition.In other words, the writer does not mean physical beauty but qualities thatlet a woman’sinner beauty shine through. A Cup of Teatells us why a woman cannot define herself in accordance with feminism. The main character of this story is Rosemary Fell, who is very rich. Although she is not especially pretty, she makes up for it by living in extreme style and fashion. One day in the winter afternoon, after leaving a shop of fancy antiques, she comes across a poor girl by the name of Smith, who asks the price of a cup of tea from Rosemary. Rosemary takes the girl home. She leads the poor girl into her bedroom.She helps her take off her outer clothes.After a meal, the girl looks much better. When she is about to start a conversation with the girl, her husband, Phillip, comes in. Rosemary introduces the poor girl –‘Miss Smith’– to him as a friend. Phillip is amazed. He asks Rosemary to come to the library. When they are alone, he asks her about the girl. Rosemary tells him how they have met and how she intends to keep the girl in their house and be generous to her. Phillip protestsbut Rosemary will not listen to him.At the end of the story, however, Philip has Rosemary get rid of the girl, as he wishes. Feminist Ironies This story reflects some ideas grounded in feminist theory. Thus,the main theoretical framework of this analysis is feminism. It is worth mentioning that it is a mistake to try to find a single common point from which to start constructing a framework of feminist politics and criticism, and whichever point we should, there will always variations(Keith Green and Jill LeBihan, 2002:255). In the same respect, all feminist theory has been concerned in many different ways and through many different means with establishing the ‘subject-position’ of women (Jennifer Rich,2007). However, broadly speaking, feminism is a set of beliefs and ideas that belong to the social and political moment to achieve equality for women. Women seek equality in all realms of life and use divergent strategies to achieve that goal. This paper will consider some feminist issues which are relevant to the textual analysis. 300

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies On reading the short story A Cup of Tea, the reader sees that the irony is not concentrated only in the end of the story, in which the poor girl is turned out of Rosemary’s house. In fact, ironies on feminist issues are found throughout the story. These ironies suggest that Rosemary is not a beautiful woman in the feminist sense of the word. The discussion of feminist ironies covers some feminist issues such as sisterhood, lesbianism, talking back, psychological freedom, and women’s values, along with the allegory of the ‘little box.’ Sisterhood The feminist idea of sisterhood is ironically presented in this story. Robin Morgan (1970:xx) says thatsisterhood is powerful” and she claims that women who have been struggling on a one-to-one basis with their men, begin to see that some sort of solidarity is necessary; otherwise insanity would result.Likewise, Denise Thompson (2001:13) writes that creation of a human status for women requires that women seek recognition from each other. Beyond that, they should live in connection with women and recognize each other in ways which are outside male control and definition. This is to say, sisterhood helps women acquire their subject-positions. In this story,Rosemary asks the poor girl to come to her home, as the author writes: “She (Rosemary) was going to prove to this girl that […] women were sisters” (Mansfield, 1922:1100). The reader would expect to see how Rosemary manages to help the girl establish the subject-position of women. Apparently, at the end of the story, Rosemary gets rid of the girl. This satirizes the idea of feminist sisterhood, which holds that women’s relationships are powerful. Along with the concept of sisterhood, the feminist idea of consciousness-raising is also satirized. Hester Eisenstein (1984) claims that consciousness-raising is founded on the idea that women have to talk about the details of their daily lives and about their personal experiences and histories that have significance and validity. Moreover, women are the experts, the authorities, and the source of knowledge about themselves. Likewise,Mary Field Belenky et al. (1986: 134) emphasize that quest for self and voice plays an important role in transformations in women’s ways of knowing. They say that to learn to speak in a unique and authentic voice, women must just jump outside the frames and systems authorities provide and create their own frameand raise a new way of thinking. In the same respect, Carol Gilligan in her work In a Different Voice (1982), found that women’s voices, when heard in their own right and with their own integrity, change voice of psychology. The sense of self, the experience of relationship, morality, and development itself all appear in a different light when setting from a premise of connectedness rather than separateness, and when imagining their relationships as webs. In this story, Rosemary, who is described as ‘well read in the newest of the new books’ (Mansfield, 1922:1097) tells the poor girl when they first meet “I only want to make you warm and to hear – anything you care to tell me.”(Mansfield, 1922:1099).Also, Rosemary tells the girl when they are in the private space in Rosemary’s bedroom “Don’t you see what a good thing it was that you met me? We’ll have a cup of tea and you’ll tell me everything” (Mansfield, 1922:1101). It seems that Rosemary will encourage the poor girl to find her voice during her talk with Rosemary. At this point, the reader expects to see how Rosemary manages to establish solidarity with the girl and how they will share their experience and what good things

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Rosemary will do for the girl out of the knowledge she has gained from reading ‘the newest of the new books.’ However, the relationship between Rosemary and the girl cannot be established sinceRosemary is more concerned about her value as defined or measured by a man than sisterhood bond establishment. She throws the girl out of her house.This can be explained in accordance with feminist theories. According to Mary Wollstonecraft (1972: 8), in a patriarchal society, women’s values are measured by their connections with men. She writes, “Connected with men as daughters, wives, and mothers, their moral character may be estimated by their manner of fulfilling those simple duties.” Pauline B. Bart (1972: 172) writes that the most important roles for women are the roles of wife and mother; the loss of either of these roles might result in a loss of self-esteem—in the feeling of worthlessness and uselessness. In the same respect, Simone de Beauvoir in her work The Second Sex (1952) contends that women do not have a sense of their history and unity. For women, there is no “we.” Women have always been subjected to men, but they also have always been in a relationship of dependence on and filiation to men. Men constitute their families. They are their fathers, their husbands, and their sons. Therefore, women cannot imagine an identity independent of men (cited in Jennifer Rich, 2010). As such, Rosemary, at the end of this story, no longer cares about establishing a sisterhood bond with the poor girl. Rather she is depicted as the patriarchal stereotype of a woman whose simple dutyis to please her husband. Under the influence of patriarchal ideology, Rosemary changes her attitude towards the poor girl. After her husband praises herto Rosemary, she considers the girl her rival, due to her envy of the girl’s prettinessas estimated by a man. Where envy is concerned, UnaStannard, a feminist critic, writes that women look at other women with a more intense and discriminating eye than any man does. Rivalry between women is inevitable, and friendship among women is impossible. As a result, women may have an overreaction to over-attractive women (1971: 201). In this story, Rosemary makes the girl leave her home. This can be viewed as showing that Rosemary wants to be the only woman in this male dominant sphere. From this point on, Rosemary no longer stands up for the girl, or for the sisterhood idea. This implies that the sisterhood bond is not easy to establish as long as women are over-concerned about their value as defined by men. Lesbianism Apart from sisterhood, the author also tackles the issue of lesbianism. Obviously, lesbianism is defined as women identifying with women, women loving women, women seeing each other as human individuals lacking nothing (Abbott and Love, 1972, Myron and Bunch, 1975). In addition to the concept of lesbianism, Denise Thompson (2006: 13-14) writes that lesbianism within the feminist context is meant as a challenge to the exclusiveness and naturalness of heterosexual desires. Lesbianism is the only form of intimacy which women are allowed. It is a refusal to serve or service men, a withdrawal of recognition from men as the only ‘human’ individuals, and a commitment by women to a woman’s full humanity. It is sexuality with a potential for equality rather than domination. In the same way,Martha Shelly (1970: 306) writes that lesbianism is one road to freedom—freedom from oppression by men. The lesbian, through her ability to obtain love and sexual satisfaction from other women, does not depend on 302

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies men for love and sex. In this story, how Rosemary treats the girl can be viewed in terms of lesbianism but not defined as feminism, however. Not seeing the girl as a full human being, Rosemary abuses the poor girl in her bedroom, instead of providing her with care. The author writes: [S]he wanted to spare this poor little thing from being stared at by the servants; she decided as they mounted the stairs she would not even ring for Jeanne, but take off her things by herself. The great thing was to be natural! And “There!” cried Rosemary again, as they reached her beautiful big bedroom with the curtains drawn, the fire leaping on her wonderful lacquer furniture, her gold cushions and the primrose and blue rugs. […] “Oh, please,”—Rosemary ran forward— “you mustn’t be frightened, you mustn’t, really. Sit down, and when I’ve taken off my things we shall go into the next room and have tea and be cozy. Why are you afraid?”And gently she half pushed the thin figure into its deep cradle. (Mansfield, 1922, 1100) As for the setting, “the big bedroom with the curtains drawn, the fire-light leaping on her wonderful lacquer furniture, her gold cushions and the primrose and blue rugs” may suggest Rosemary’s passion for the poor girl, even though the girl does not cooperate with her. It is worth mentioning that for Austin Warren(1961: 203), domestic interiors may be viewed as a metaphoric expression of character. A man’s house reflects its owner; and its atmosphere affects the people who must live in it.By the same token, the fire in Rosemary’s room may imply that Rosemary is possessed by the fire of passion. The soft mass of gold cushions and the primrose and blue rugs can be seen as indicating that Rosemary is fond of touching soft things. And the curtains drawn on this room can be interpreted as suggesting that the owner of the room hides something from the public. Also, this suggests that when Rosemary is alone with the girl, she is driven by a desire for her, which is rejected by society. At this point, the author is touching on the issue of lesbianism. For Rosemary, the girl she has picked up is referred to as ‘the poor little thing.’She is like a small child to be pushed into ‘its deep cradle.’ Needless to say, cradle is a small low bed for an infant. In this way, what Rosemary does to the poor girl in her bedroom is not considered lesbianism within the feminist context because it does not promote equality between two women, or mutual recognition between women. Rather, it is just a fetishization of romance in which Rosemary treats the girl as an object, or a person in an inferior position. However,Rosemary simply abandons lesbianism and becomesa straight woman for her husband when she finds that her husband shows interest in the poor girl. Talking Back Among significant ironic details is Rosemary’s radical change in response to her husband’s reaction to the girl.This concerns the issue of talking back, in which women are 303

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies encouraged to disagree with male authority and speak up for themselves. Bell hooks, an American social activist and feminist,states in her book Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (1989) that talking back means speaking as an equal to authority figures. It means daring to disagree and sometimes it just means having an opinion. It moves silence into speech for the oppressed, the exploited, and suchlike. It is a gesture of defiance that heals, that makes new life and new growth possible. The act of ‘talking back’ is no mere gesture using empty words, but the expression of our movement from object to subject—the liberated voice. In this story, Rosemary dares to talk back to her husband about her decision in respect of the girl.However, she turns out to be a silent woman after her husband expresses interest in the girl. The author (1922: 1102) writes, “I knew you’d say that,” retorted Rosemary. “Why not? I want to. Isn’t that a reason? And besides, one’s always reading about these things. I decided—” Although the act of ‘talking back’ is an act of defiant speech, hers soon turns out to be a mere gesture involving empty words. The author writes: Half an hour later Philip was still in the library, when Rosemary came in. “I only wanted to tell you,” said she, and she leaned against the door again and looked at him with her dazzled exotic gaze, “Miss Smith won’t dine with us tonight.” Philip put down the paper. “Oh, what’s happened? Previous engagement?” Rosemary came over and sat down on his knee. “She insisted on going,” said she, “so I gave the poor little thing a present of money. I couldn’t keep her against her will, could I?” she added softly. (Mansfield, 1922:1102) Instead of moving from object to subject in accordance with hook’s view, Rosemary in turn simply moves from the subject position to the object position, and from speech to silence. In this light, Rosemary is still a patriarchal woman whose self-confidence and assertiveness are undermined by the patriarchal power. Although her husband does not straightforwardly tell her to throw the girl out of their house, Rosemary simply reacts in the way that her husband wants just so as to keep out of trouble,so that she isstill the only woman for her husband in this patriarchal realm. Mary Field Belenky et al. (1986: 28) points out that women who see blind obedience to authority as being of the utmost importance for keeping out of trouble and insuring their own survival are silent women. Psychological Freedom Another irony can be found in the situation in which Rosemary is alone in her writing room. Drawing on an analogy of A Room of One’s Own (1928), we will see that the author of this essay—Virginia Woolf, one of the twentieth-century’s most important modern novelists— encourages women to write. She advises women to write exactly what they think in a room where women can preserve the privacy of their own psyches. In this way, women will acquire a 304

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies ‘habit of freedom,’— a frame of mind freed from the demands of gender roles, and this will open the possibility of a transcendent humanness for women. In addition, Woolf writes that a woman must have a room of her own and an adequate amount of money (cited in Jennifer Rich, 2010). In addition, Woolf argued that woman’s writing should explore female experience in its own right, not form a comparative assessment of women’s experience in relation to men’s. She believed that women had always encountered social economic obstacles to their literary ambitions (cited in Raman Selden el al, 1997:125).As opposed to the idea presented in A Room of One’s Own, Rosemary in this story has a room, money, and privacy, but she does not use her writing room as a place to free her mind from the demands of gender roles and to write to achieve transcendent humanness. The author describes the envy she feels for the girl when she is on her own in her writing room: Her heart beat like a heavy bell. Pretty! Lovely! She drew her cheque book towards her. But no, cheques would be no use, of course. She opened a drawer and took out five pound notes, looked at them, put two back, and holding the three squeezed in her hand, she went back to her bedroom. (Mansfield, 1922:1102) For Rosemary, her writing room is not ‘a room of her own’ where she canwrite about female experience in her own right. Actually, it is just a place of confinement of the patriarchal discourse in which she locks herself. Women’sValues The reader can find irony in the way that Rosemary values herself. Instead of seeing herself as a human being, Rosemary identifies herself as an object worth the price of the little box. Her body is just an object for a man to look at and a source of pleasure for a man to exploit. After she has made the girl leave her home, she returns to her husband, as the author describesin the final part of the story: Rosemary had just done her hair, darkened her eyes a little, and put on her pearls. She put up her hands and touched Phillip’s cheeks. “Do you like me?” said she, and her tone, sweet, husky, troubled him. “I like you awfully,” he said, and he held her tighter. “Kiss me.” There was a pause. Then Rosemary said dreamily. “I saw a fascinating little box today. It cost twenty-eight guineas. May I have it?” Philip jumped her on his knee. “You may, little wasteful one,” said he. But that was not really what Rosemary wanted to say. 305

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies “Philip,” she whispered, and she pressed his head against her bosom, “am I pretty?” (Mansfield, 1922:1102) Rosemary’s preoccupation with her appearance can be explained within the terms of the pornographic imagination and under male supremacist conditions, in which sex is a male prerogative. It exists for men who need another human being to stimulatethem to orgasm but the other human being must then be fetishized into something less than human (Denise Thompson, 2001: 41). In addition, where the female body is concerned, UnaStannard (1972:202-203) says that women are narcissists and also exhibitionists whose exhibitionism, like their narcissism, is approved by the culture. The female who thrusts her bosom, bottom, and legs at a male is admired. The culture wants to keep her identity focused on her physical person, not on her accomplishments. A man wants a woman to remain a pretty, dependent child, so that through a woman he can reunite himself with his lost childhood, because he isthen allowed to be soft, tender, helpless, narcissistic, and exhibitionistic, rather than a developed character and mind, relieved of the onerous duty of being a hard-working, responsible,assertive man. In this way, Rosemary is compared to “a more minute creature”on the lid of the little box [who] “still had her arms around his neck.” She is a more minute creature in that she fetishizes herself into something less than a human being, who uses her bosom as an object of arousing her husband’s sexual interest or a tool to win her husband’s favor. In the same way, her husband is compared to the other minute creature on the little box in that he reunites himself with his lost childhood through a woman. Ironically, Rosemary compares herself with the price of the box. Rosemary sexually pleases her man to enhance his valuation of her as a little material object. In other words, Rosemary values the box so greatly that she equates herself with it, while its price is nothing for her husband. In this respect, she is not different from a prostitute, a person who provides sexual services in return for payment. Sarcastically speaking, whereas Rosemary is described as a girl “[who] amazingly well read[s] in the newest of the new books (Mansfield, 1922:1097),” she lowers herself into the world’s oldest women’s occupation and into a subservient status. This is contradictory to feminism,which intends to disentangle a woman from the dangerous nexus of objectification, prejudice and cultural norms and, most importantly, to establish her on an equal footing with men, or to encourage her to take up the subject-position (Jennifer Rich, 2007). Allegorical Meaning of the Little Box As the story comes to its end, we find that the “pretty” piece of Rosemary’s body isher bosom. In the last line, the author writes that Rosemary asks her husband, “Philip” she whispered, and she pressed his head against her bosom, “am I pretty?” At this point, she offers her bosom for her husband to enjoy. In the first lines of the story, the author writes, “Rosemary Fell was not exactly beautiful. No, you couldn’t call her beautiful. Pretty? Well, if you took her to pieces . . .” (Mansfield, 1922:1102). This may suggest that her bosomcould be considered “pretty.” Tracing what Rosemary wishes to clutch to her bosom, we find her attachment to the

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies little box. Foreshadowing the last line, the author writes “She pressed her muff against her breast; she wished she had the little box, too, to cling to” (Mansfield, 1922:1099). In order to know the meaning of ‘pretty,’ the meaning of the little box needs interpreting. As the story unfolds, the meaning of the little box becomes clearer to the reader. We find that the story on its lid can be an allegory of Rosemary and her husband. The author describes it: An exquisite little enamel box with a glaze so fine it looked as though it had been baked in cream. On the lid a minute creature stood under a flowery tree, and a more minute creature still had her arms around his neck. Her hat, really no bigger than a geranium petal, hung from a branch; it had green ribbons. And there was a pink cloud like a watchful cherub floating above their heads. […] She liked it very much. She loved it […]. She must have it. (Mansfield, 1922:1098) The story suggests that Rosemary’s mind is as little as the box. Her thinking is framed and limited. She cannot liberate herself from the female gender roles. The male creature on the lid may represent her husband and the female Rosemary in that they are little beings. To make it clear, Philip, Rosemary’s husband, reunites himself with his lost childhood through a woman’s body. And Rosemary herself is the ‘more minute creature’ in that her husband can make her do what he wants. To explain more clearly, he can have her get rid of the girl, as he wishes.Having her arms around the neck of the male creature, the female creature is interpreted as giving physical pleasure to the male creature. The hat of the female creature, which is smaller than a geranium petal, would signify that Rosemary has little brain. It may indicate that she has neither grounded understanding of the newest ideologies such as sisterhood and lesbianism within the feminist context, nor keen awareness of male domination. The green ribbons on the hat of the female creature may associate ‘green with envy,’ which means “wishing very much that you had what someone else has” (Free dictionary by Farlex, n.d.).Thus, we may associate her state of mind, relative to the girl she has picked up, as Rosemary’s green with envy. She envies the girl, when her husband expresses interest in her. In addition, a watchful cherub, or the representation of a small angel, portrayed as a child with a chubby rosy face, that floats above their heads suggestsRosemary and Philip’schildishness. To make it clear, they both are emotionally immature, and they refuse to hold themselves accountable for their own actions. This makes the girl their victim. The pink cloud above their heads could suggest dusk or dawn when the sun is setting or rising. Needless to say, dusk is time of the day when the light has almost gone. In contrast, dawn is time of the day when the light first appears and it is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight. This would suggest uncertainty in Rosemary’s mind about whether to move forward to the modern idea of feminism or to move backward to the traditional idea of sexism. Undoubtedly, inside the small box is emptiness. This means that under the stylishness of her surface appearance, Rosemary’s mind is nothing but vanity. This allegory on the little box is not a story to be admired in the view of the feminist. It does not relate with the meaning of beauty in the sense of feminism. However it may be associated with the meaning of “pretty,” which has a broad meaning including both positive and negative elements. In the New Oxford American Dictionary (2005), ‘beautiful’when used as 307

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies adjective has two positive meanings. One is ‘pleasing the senses or mind aesthetically,’ and the other, ‘of a very high standard; excellent.’ In contrast, in the same dictionary, the meaning of ‘pretty’ as an adjective does not suggest a really positive tone. The word has two meanings. One of them is ‘attractive in a delicate way without being truly beautiful or handsome.’ The other is used ironically in expressions of annoyance and disgust.That is to say, in this story,Rosemary does not possess inner beauty in the feministsense, which is intent on moving towards rehumanization of woman. In fact, she may besomewhatpretty. She is considered asuperficially attractive woman who lacks substance. Her frame of mind, actions, and speech are annoying and disgusting when viewed from a feminist perspective.

Conclusion Throughout the course of the story, the author depicts Rosemary as ‘not exactly beautiful.’ For this writer, the concept of beauty does not concern physical beauty. Rather, it is about inner beauty revealed through how a woman contributes to the social and political moment to achieve equality for women. Along with the depiction, the story embraces feminist ironies and touches on some aspects of feminism i.e. sisterhood,lesbianism, talking back, psychological freedom, and women’s values.Moreover, the little box, to which Rosemary is so attracted, offers an allegorical meaning. The interpretation of the little box reveals everything about her, which is antithetical to the feminist movement. Although Rosemary possesses socially admired qualities, and is in a position to empower women and emancipate herself,shemerelydefines herselfas anobject, not a full human being. She cannot disentangle herself from the dangerous nexus of objectification and patriarchal practice. Her reading of “the newest of the new books” cannot help her in establishing herself on an equal footing with men and taking up the subject position. Thus, the concept of true beauty proposed by Katherine Mansfield, the author of this story, is similar to that of feminism. That is to say,Rosemary is not beautiful. However, she may be considered pretty. At best, she is a superficially attractive woman, and at worst, an annoying and disgusting person.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Abbott, S., & Love, B. (1972). Sappho was a right-on woman: A liberated view of lesbianism. New York: Stein & Day. Bart, P. B. (1972). Depression in middle-aged women. In V. Gornick& B. K. Moran, (Eds.), Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness (pp. 183-186). New York: Basic. Beautiful. (2005). In New Oxford American dictionary (Kindle ed.). Oxford University Press. Beauviour, S. (1952).The second sex. New York: Knopf. Eisenstein, H. (1986). Contemporary feminist thought. London: Unwin. Envy.(n.d.).In Free dictionary by Farlex.Retrieved from http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Green, K., &LeBihan, J. (2002).Critical Theory & Practice: A coursebook. London: Routledge. Hooks, B. (1989). Talking back: Thinking feminist, talking black. Cambridge: South End Press. Mansfield, K. (1922). A Cup of Tea. In Glencoe literature: The reader’s choice. 2002. (California ed.). (pp.1097-1102). New York: McGraw-Hill. Morgan, R. (Ed.). (1970). Sisterhood is powerful: An anthology of writing from the women’s liberation moment. New York: Vintage. Myron, N., &Bunch, C. (Eds.) (1975).Lesbianism and the women’s movement. Baltimore: Dianna Press. Pretty.(2005). InNew Oxford American dictionary (Kindle ed.). Oxford University Press. Rich, J. (2007). An introduction to modern feminist theory. (Kindle ed.). Humanities-Ebooks. Selden, R. et al. (1997). A reader guide to contemporary literary theory. London: Prentice Hall. Shelly, M. (1970).Notes of a Radical Lesbian. In R. Morgan, (Ed.),Sisterhood is powerful: An anthology of writing from the women’s liberation moment(pp. 306-310). New York: Vintage. Stannard, U. (1972). The Mask of Beauty. In V. Gornick& B. K. Moran, (Eds.), Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness (pp.187-206). New York: Basic. Thomson, D. (2001).Radical feminism today.London: SAGE. Warren, A. (1961). The nature and modes of narrative and fiction. In R. Scholes (Ed.), Approaches to the Novel (pp. 191-207). San Francisco: Chandler. Wollstonecraft, M. (1972). A vindication of the rights of woman. In M. Schnier (Ed.), Feminist: Essential Historical Writings(pp. 5-16). New York: Vintage Book.

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Women’s Breaking Taboos in Cyberculture: Tearing up Patriarchal Net through Slash Fiction? Irana Astutiningsih

Faculty of Letters, Jember University Indonesia [email protected]

Abstract Apart from women objectification in media as a topic commonly discussed either in scholarly or non scholarly context; this article provides an overview about women’s potential to become the subject rather than the object on the Internet. Cyberculture providing more freedom and less control than offline world gives the same opportunities for everyone to actively participate in producing cultural symbols by constructing his/her expectation on the Internet including breaking taboos prevailed in offline world. In terms of online slash fiction, a fiction about homosexual relationship written and uploaded on the Internet by fans (mostly women) of particular source text, cyberculture enables women to become subject and construct their expectation as a response to the dominant ideology. In other words, being positioned as the subordinated gender in patriarchal culture, women are potential in generating a counter discourse towards the dominant ideology. More particularly, the women’s fantasy as seen in their online works shows that becoming the subject, the women enable what the so-called “female gaze” to exist. Some slash fictions written by Indonesian women and uploaded on www.fanfiction.net show how such female gaze exists and furthermore, how women, in spite of being the second-class gender in patriarchal culture, attempt to break the cultural taboos by constructing their sexual expectation through the portrayal of their major male characters’ sexual activities. However, further analysis on the selected Indonesian women’s slash fictions, authors’ note and online interviews show that in spite of their potential of being the subject due to more freedom and less control in cyberculture, the women are not totally capable to liberate themselves from the dominant ideology concerning its discourse of women objectification as well as the sexual taboos in patriarchal culture. Key Words: cyberculture, female gaze, sexual taboos, dominant ideology, slash fiction.

Gender Representation: Women as Objects? Gender discourse in patriarchal culture frequently concerns with media representation of men and women regarding their bodies and social role. In one article, Wood (1994) says that there are three themes concerning media representation about gender: “First, women are underrepresented which implies that men are the cultural standard and women are unimportant or invisible. Second, men and women are portrayed in stereotyping ways that reflect and sustain socially endorsed views of gender. Third, depictions of relationships between men and women emphasize traditional roles and normalize violence against women”. Meanwhile, in Feminist Media Studies, Zoonen (1994) believes that the main element of patriarchy is the women display for the sake of public (men) gaze. This correlates with what Mulvey says about her concept known as “male gaze”. Mulvey believes that visual pleasure in mainstream cinema reproduces a structure of male looking and female “to-be-looked-at-ness” (1975). The previously-mentioned assumptions underline that women representation by media is under the domination of patriarchal culture; positioning women as subordinated and underrepresented object. Through gender representation, media has power to strengthen the patriarchal value persisting and being considered as ‘true’ in society. Furthermore, media has 310

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies power to produce an image on stereotyped gender identity with reference to the patriarchal culture dominance. This is due to the media power in producing such ‘reality’, like Grossberg has said that media “make meanings and organize them into various codes and systems, which implies that these code interpret reality; they make world meaningful and comprehensible” (2006: 194). What have been assumed about women subordination and objectification refers more to media having power in producing cultural symbols which pose audience as passive text consumers. Throughout its history, however, new media such as the Internet provide broad opportunities to audience to actively participate, instead of passively consume text. The Internet as a new media has its unique characteristics; it is more democratic as it enables anyone to be actively involved by producing cultural text through creative process since it has less control and frequently operates out of control. The Internet as a product of culture is in fact, the producer of culture commonly known as “cyberculture or cyberspace” (Bell, 2001). Cyberculture providing more freedom and less control than offline world gives the same opportunities for everyone to actively participate in producing cultural symbols. In cyberculture, everyone can construct his/her expectation including breaking taboos in offline world, in which women are not the exception. In cyberculture, women are able to become the subject and speak about what they really expect, instead of being merely objectified. This paper is based on a research conducted in 2012 about slash fictions, a genre of fan fiction uploaded on the Internet which tells about homosexual relationship and is written by fans (mostly women) of certain source text. The women writing slash fictions (Indonesian women in my research) are assumed to have potential to become subject in cyberculture, rather than being objectified in patriarchal (offline) world. In conducting the research, I start with a question about to what extent cyberculture provides women (slash authors) freedom in constructing their expectations through their slash fictions. More particularly, my question is about how liberated the women (slash authors) speak as subjects on the Internet about sexualities, the issues commonly considered taboos in patriarchal values as the dominant ideology persisting in (Indonesian) offline world.

Cyberculture and Slash Fiction: Being Subjects through Subcultural Activities In cultural studies context, study of the Internet is not solely focused on the technological aspect, but more on its socio cultural one. It doesn’t mean, however, that cultural studies exclude the technological aspect of the Internet at all, as cultural studies believe that technology is always cultural. One of cultural studies theorists paying close attention to the study of the Internet is Bell, who has put his conceptual definition about cyberculture as follows: “… cyberculture is a way of thinking about how people and digital technologies interact, how we live together – so the suffix ‘culture’ is used in that elastic way that one of the founding fathers of British cultural studies, Raymond Williams (1976), uses it, to talk of ways of life (2007: 5) In defining the term, Bell also refers to what Frow and Morris says about culture and puts it as “ways of life in cyberspace, or ways of life shaped by cyberspace, where cyberspace is a matrix of embedded matrix and representation” (2007:5). While the origin of the term ‘cyberculture’, as Bell has said, is obscure and uncertain, the word ‘cyberspace’ is conventionally believed to be originally created by Gibson in his cyberpunk novel Neuromancer. Gibson states cyberspace is “ … a consensual hallucination experienced daily by millions of legitimate operators. … A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system ... “(1984: 67). As cyberculture refers to ways of life in cyberspace, the phenomenon of slash fiction, I believe, relates to women’s (slash writers) ways of life in cyberspace. More particularly, what 311

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies the slash writers do in cyberspace corresponds to what Bell explains as ‘cybersubculture’. In An Introduction to Cyberculture, David Bell explains what he calls as ‘subcultural or countercultural use of cyberspace’, which is divided into two groups: “…those that use cyberspace to advance their project, in the same way they might use other forms of communication; and those that signal an expressive relationship to the technology through subcultural activities ... " (2001: 163). Since in this paper the Internet is not only considered as a medium but more as an arena for women actively involved in the process of giving meaning to the source text they consume, the second thought of Bell about cybersubculture is considered more appropriate. Even though the term subculture is debatable regarding the prefix ‘sub’ which means ‘beneath’ and makes subculture regarded as the culture that lies ‘under’, subculture cannot, matter-of-factly, be considered as unimportant or non-standard culture. In Bell, it is said that subculture should be assumed as something subordinate, subaltern or subterranean, as explained by Bell that subculture is “… a term used to describe ‘groups of people who have something in common with each other … which distinguishes them in a significant way from other social groups’ …” (2001: 164). Furthermore, Thornton in Bell emphasizes that not every group that shares similar interest and stands opposition to other group can be considered subculture; “they must be doing some kind of cultural work with those interests and that opposition” (2001: 164). On account of such ‘cultural work’, Hebdige says in Subculture: the Meaning of Style that ‘cultural work’ “…is often codified through dress, ‘attitude’ and lifestyle, and circulated through the subculture’s own ‘micromedia’ output: music, fanzines, flyers and so on” (1979). Regarding cultural work mentioned by Hebdige, fanzine (fans magazine) is the pioneer of fan fiction recently booming in cyberspace. Slash fiction is one genre of fan fiction focusing on homosexual relationship between main male characters. For this reason, I see slash fiction as cultural work reflecting sub-ordinate culture in cyberspace. I regard the word ‘sub-ordinate’ in terms of slash fiction as a matter of subordination in two levels. First, it refers to women (slash authors) considered as subordinated gender and second, it relates to the subordination of samesex relationship (illustrated in slash fiction) in patriarchal values as the dominant ideology. The internet users actively involved in the site of fan fiction not only use the Internet as a medium, but also do their fandom activities in it; expressing their minds by uploading their own fictions, collaborating and having interaction with other fans, and expressing their expectations. This corresponds to what Bell says about cybersubcultures as “those that signal an expressive relationship to the technology through subcultural activities" (2001: 163). The scholars’ studies about fan fiction show that most fan fiction is written by heterosexual women. Regarding the less controlled and anonymous characteristic of the Internet, the question that may rise is: is it true that women write slash fictions? Isn’t it possible that anonymities in cyberculture enables slash writers to fake their identities as ‘real’ women? To answer this, it is necessary to have a brief review about the history of slash fiction. In the mid 70s, far before the fanfiction phenomena are booming in the Internet, the fans of Star Trek TV series published fanzine (fans magazine) in limited number and distributed it among fans. The first slash fiction in the fanzine was written by a heterosexual woman who told about homosexual relationship between Kirk and Spock, the major characters in Star Trek, who were originally heterosexuals. In Textual Poachers, Jenkins depicts in detail how the women fans of Star Trek illustrate homosexuality between Kirk and Spock. He claims that fans write fan fiction out of a combination of fascination and frustration with their favorite media products. Furthermore, he believes that fans are not passive consumers, but active producers and manipulators of meanings (1992). Jenkins’ writing is based on his ethnographical research for years which proves that what has been said about heterosexual women being the slash writers is not a mere assumption. Furthermore, Derecho’s assumption about fan fiction corresponds to what Jenkins has put by saying that fan fiction is “the literature of the subordinate, because most fan fiction authors are women responding to media products that, for the most part, are characterized by 312

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies an underrepresentation of women” (2006: 71). Regarding ‘more freedom’ cyberculture offer compared to offline world, the slash writers attempts to express their dissatisfaction to media text dominated by patriarchal values. They do subcultural activities by uploading their cultural work in forms of slash fictions; constructing their expectation unfulfilled by patriarchal media text, and hence, becoming the subject in cyberculture. Providing opportunities for women to be the subject by creating stories about homosexualites between main male characters, cyberculture enables the women to have power over men, while in offline world dominated by patriarchal values they are frequently underrepresented and objectified. Women’s attempts to depict homosexual relationship between main male characters in slash fictions are interesting due to their position as ‘second class gender’ in patriarchal culture and the taboos they have to face in the hierarchy of system. In patriarchal world with its dominant ideology, particularly in Indonesia, the matter of sex cannot be separated from the discourse of gender dichotomy that poses men as subject and women as object of sex. Since men are the subject, it is believed that men are to be aggressive while the women are the otherwise. Furthermore, “the women’s sexual satisfactions are valued as long as they satisfy men’s sexual needs” (Munti, 2005: 37). Researches have been conducted regarding to female potential as the subject of sex; one of which is conducted by Warianto about a rubric of sexuality in Cosmopolitan Indonesia magazine. The interesting findings Warianto has shown in her research is that despite being considered as a pioneer magazine which tries to liberate women from patriarchal values, it is concluded that the construction of gender role regarding sexualities in the magazine is still under the dominance of patriarchal values: ‘objectifying’ women as those who are to satisfy men’s sexualities. Since women are the objects of sex, women being initiative in sexual acitivies is considred taboo; sex become more about their ‘service’ towards men rather than pleasure and attempt to fulfill their own needs. One of Indonesian cinemas representing women’s attempt to be liberated from patriarchal value is entitled Perempuan Berkalung Sorban, which tells about the life of a woman who questions her right to be initiative in sexual actitivies, and gets answer from her teacher that an initiative woman must be a bad woman (Bramantyo: 2009). Based on previous elaboration about cyberculture, slash fiction, and sexual taboos for women, I believe cyberculture provides wide opportunities for women to produce a counter discourse towards the dominant ideology. In other words, cyberculture enables them to express their resistance in two levels: first, the resistance towards women’s objectification in patriarchal culture and second, the resistance toward mainstream values believing that heterosexual relationship is the ‘right’ one, all of which is represented through their cultural activities in cyberspace.

The Method As stated before, this paper writing is based on previous research in 2012 about slash fictions written by several Indonesian women. They uploaded their fictions on www.fanfiction.net, the biggest site of fan fiction today. Millions of non-professional writers uploaded their fictions on the site, and those fictions are written in various languages. As the main resource of data, I chose several slash fictions written by Indonesian women who wrote their fiction in Indonesian language. At the first step, textual analysis was done referring to two slash fictions entitled More Than Words (2011) and Another Time Another Attitude (2010). The two fictions were written by two Indonesian women pen-named Confeito and Mizore Kibishi. The analysis was done not only based on the fictions, but also based on the author’s note commonly found in the end of the fictions. Author’s note sometimes contains the author’s comments on the story they have written, but sometimes it is a means of an author to address their readers. By analyzing the two texts, it expected to figure out how the two women construct their expectations concerning sexualities represented through their main characters’ physical 313

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies attraction and sexual activities. Furthermore, since the research was conducted to figure out how the Internet provides them freedom to speak as subjects, more particularly to speak about sexuality as an issue considered ‘taboo’ for women to speak frankly in patriarchal value, online interview with Confeito and Mizore was also conducted. In conducting the interview, the two women were initially sent personal message provided in www.fanfiction.net to ask for their agreement as interviewees. The interview was conducted online using chatting facilities on the Internet.

Female Gaze and Women’s Version of Male Sexualities Slash fiction, being very popular among heterosexual women, is commonly uploaded in personal weblog or particular websites. Considered as the biggest fan fiction site, www.fanfcition.net contains millions of fan fictions written in various languages. In one of her writings, a slash writer pen-named Confeito, depicts the homosexual relationship between two main characters in Harry Potter: Tom Riddle and Harry Potter. Her attempt to exploit male’s body is seen in the following quotes of slash fiction: “… Harry bisa dikatakan sebagai cowok cantik. (They say Harry is a beautiful boy)… Dengan wajah berbentuk hati, iris mata indah hijau zamrud, dan bibir merah merekah yang menantang siapapun untuk menciumnya.(with a heart-shaped face, beautiful green eyes and red lips challenging everyone to kiss him)… (Confeito: 2011) The foregoing quotes show how Harry’s physical appearance is illustrated not only through its physical attraction but also its sensuality. The phrase ‘challenging everyone to kiss him’ emphasizes such sensuality. Like what is commonly seen in patriarchal media text on women’s physical exploitation, Confeito’s illustration in her slash is obviously a matter of male’s physical exploitation through the character of Harry. Further depiction of homosexualities between Tom and Harry is illustrated by Confeito in the followings: “…. Jari-jari Tom berlari meraba tubuh Harry. (Tom’s fingers ran through Harry’s body). ... Dalam posisi terikat, dia tersenyum setengah malu-setengah genit pada Tom. (Being tied, he smiled timidly, but seductively, to Tom). ‘Then punish me, Master.’ Sorotan mata Tom berubah menjadi sorotan predator yang mengincar mangsanya. Dia tanpa segan lalu meremas pantat Harry keras, membungkam desahan Harry dengan ciuman ganas.(Tom’s eyesight turns predatory ready to attack its preys. He squeezed Harry’s bosom hard, silenced Harry’s moan with fierce kiss) … Harry hanya bisa mengangguk, entah menangkap perkataan Tom atau tidak. (All Harry could do is nodding, either he understood what Tom was saying or not) …Dia akhirnya menyerahkan diri pada dominasi kuat Tom. Berada sepenuhnya pada kuasa si laki-laki bermata hijau turquoise” (He finally surrendered to Toms’ domination. Being totally dominated by the man with green turquoise eyes). (Confeito: 2011). The dictions chosen to describe Harry and Tom’s sexual activities emphasize Harry’s position as a passive object. During their intimacy, Harry is described in tied position saying ‘Punish me, Master’. The illustration of Harry’s being tied and the words ‘punish’, master ‘surrender’ and ‘domination’ implies to the unequal power relation between the couple. Harry Potter is placed as a dominated object, and even asks for the domination himself. Confeito also illustrates Harry as a ‘prey’ and uses the word ‘predatory’, which also underlines the domination over Harry. In sum, Harry is portrayed as a sexual object being dominated by his lover. 314

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies What Confeito describes in her slash initially leads me to ponder her attempt in objectifying male’s body through the portrayal of Harry. The voyeurism persisting in slash fiction is voyeurism over male’s body through his body exploitation and sexual activities. In cyberspace, not only is the male body exploited by the women authors of slash, but also consumed by women readers of slash fiction. This proves that cyberculture enables female gaze to exist. Due to the female gaze in cyber space, it can be said that Mulvey’s concept about ‘male gaze’ in media texts as well as what Hayles says about ‘masculinitst bias’ in virtual reality are to be reconsidered. The concept of masculinits bias, as Hayles states, corresponds to the logic of capitalist market with its masculine characteristic: the desire to have autonomy and control (Trend: 2001). What Hayles states about masculinits bias, is perhaps, more compatible to the media text representing dominant ideology that places women as objectified gender class. In terms of slash fiction, which represents women’s expectation as their respond toward patriarchal values, it is obvious that the concept of ‘male gaze’ and ‘masculinist bias’ becomes irrelevant. On account of women slash authors, masculinist bias in cyberspace is potential to transform into ‘feminist bias’. In describing the sexual activities between two male characters, it is obvious that Confeito doesn’t attempt to be ‘gentle’ or ‘romantic’. Instead, she depicts the sexual activities in a ‘direct’ language with reference to domination and power over Harry. This shows how Confeito really tries to liberate herself from the sexual taboos she has to face in offline world. As a subject in cyberculture, she ignores the rules in offline world by constructing her expectation about sex; ‘talking’ about sex using ‘direct’ language. However, it seems more interesting to me as I continue reading the slash fiction which is closed by Confeito’s note: *sigh* Yep, I know I'm pervert. Shush *blushing* (2011). This note shows Confeito’s ambivalence. Despite using direct language in her slash, Confeito closes her story by expressing her feeling of embarrassment as she calls herself a ‘pervert’. Confeito’s saying of being pervert basically represents her limitation in being a ‘real subject’ in cyberculture. In other words, this shows that Confeito does not totally liberate herself from sexual taboos persisting in patriarchal culture. With regards to homosexualities, I was interested to know more about how Confeito faces challenges in offline world concerning such issue. Being involved as a reader in www.fanfiction.net as well as a researcher on slash fictions in 2012, I managed to make online interview with her. The following quotes show Confeito’s response to my questions about whether or not she would be interested in publishing her stories about homosexualities in offline world: Tidak. Indonesia bukanlah negara yang menerima slash dengan suka rela. Masyarakat kita sebagian besar menganggap slash adalah suatu hubungan yang seharusnya tidak boleh dijalani. Saya sebagai warga negara Indonesia harus tahu diri dan menerima hal ini pada batasan tertentu, ie saya hanya akan menulis cerita slash di internet (lebih tepatnya di FFn), dimana orang-orang yang membacanya berkemungkinan besar adalah penggemar slash. Boleh dikatakan, saya ambil jalan amannya saja. (I won’t. Slash is not kindly accepted in Indonesia. Most people consider relationship in slash the wrong thing. Being an Indonesian, I really have to know my position. I will go on with this idea of slash relationship in limited area, in the internet, whose readers are also the fans of slash. Let me put it briefly: I want to play safe in this ‘slash matter’. (online interview, March 2012) Being a part of society who believes that homosexuality is not acceptable, Confeito decides to keep ‘living in a secure world’, where people are more tolerable to the idea. Cyberspace is an ‘ideal’ place for Confeito in playing with her fantasies, though from the previous elaboration it is obvious that she cannot totally liberate herself from the patriarchal values persisting in offline world.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Further analysis on Confeito’s story reveals more about her ambivalence in being a ‘subject’. The character of Harry, being a sexual object, is obviously dependent on the character of Tom, which is also the main character in her slash. This proves that despite exploiting Harry’s body, Confeito also poses male’s dominance through her characterization of Tom who has power over Harry. It can be said that as a ‘subject’, Confeito maintains patriarchal values which pose men as the subject of sex, as portrayed through Tom in her slash fiction. When Confeito illustrates sexual activities between male characters using direct language, Mizore depicts it differently, as seen in the following quotations: ‘Harry, aku selalu menunggu saat ini datang. Aku selalu menunggumu memelukku dan menenangkanku seperti ini…. (Harry, I’ve been waiting for this moment to come. I’ve been waiting for you to hold me and comfort me like this…). … Harry merasa jantungnya berdebar kencang ketika Draco mengungkapkan lagi rahasia perasaannya. Ia memejamkan mata pelan ketika mulai memasuki tubuh pria yang sudah lama ia cintai.(Harry felt his heart beating fast as Draco expressed his true feeling. He closed his eyes while getting into Draco, the man he had always loved for ages). …. ‘Yah, aku disini Draco. Aku mencintaimu, sayang.’ Harry memeluk erat Draco dan mencium bibirnya lembut. ‘Aku mencintaimu sejak lama.’ … ( I am here, Draco. I love you, honey. Harry hold Draco tight and kissed him gently. ‘I’ve loved you since ages ago…’) (Mizore, 2010). It is interesting to discuss that in describing the sexual intercourse between Harry and Draco, Mizore refers to a gentle, unhurried attitude which emphasizes more on love expression. In other words, Mizore does not construct her idea about sexual activities with reference to domination or power. It is obvious that the sexual activities between Harry and Draco is not focused on technical matter related to body per se; it focuses on their spiritual intimacy expressed as ‘love’ between them instead. Sex is not, in Mizore’s slash, a matter of sole penetration, but more about their ways in expressing the deepest feeling of love. Mizore is more interested in illustrating emotional attachment between Harry and Draco. When patriarchal media texts commonly pinpoint the notion that sex is closely related to power and conquest, as Seidler has put that sex is a means of proving men’s masculinities in Rediscovering Masculinities (1998), Mizore as a subject in cyberspace has a different view through her slash fiction. Sex in Mizore’s notion is focused more on emotional attachment between lovers. Sexualities in Mizore’s expectation is not ‘autonomous’, as Seidler (1998) says, which ignores the emotional aspects. In Mizore’s slash, despite being engaged in sexual intercourse, the two male characters’ emotional attachment is considered more important than sexual intercourse per se. Sexual activities in Mizore’s slash does not refer to the belief about sex for the sake of power and conquest. The previous elaboration on the quotes of two slash fictions shows that the women authors have uniqueness in constructing their idea about sexualities. When Confeito is more direct and aggressive in illustrating the sexual activities, Mizore is the otherwise. Due to this distinction between the two authors, further question may rise. Regarding their contrastive illustration on sex, do the two women represent contrastive ideas regarding the dominant ideology? If Confeito is unable to totally liberate herself from patriarchal values, does it mean that Mizore is more ‘successful’ in her attempt of liberation? Does it mean that, being gentle in portraying the main characters’ intercourse in her slash, unlike pornography media text which is, as Dowkins (in Seidler, 1998) believes, the perfect example of male’s domination over female, Mizore represent her counter idea towards the dominant ideology? To answer this question, it is important to know more about Mizore’s subcultural activities in cyberspace. As a slash author, Mizore has two accounts in facebook. One account is specifically made for her fans as a slash author, which disguises her real name. The following shows our conversation about her reason of using a disguised name in one of her facebook accounts: 316

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Q: ada alasan mengapa akun FB untuk pembaca fanfic disendirikan? (Are there any reasons why you created a specific account for slash readers?) A: karena bahasanya membahayakan, hehehe. Akun FB saya yang asli banyak teman yang baik-baik sih, saya tidak mau mereka menjadi sesat, hoho… (because the language (of my slash) is dangerous… I have a lot of friends, who are good people, and I certainly don’t want them to be deviants… (online interview, March 2012). The illustration of sexual activities in Mizore’s slash is far from being ‘direct’ and ‘aggressive’. Nevertheless, Mizore finds it necessary to make a special account for her slash readers in facebook due to the language she considers ‘dangerous’. On the other hand, Mizore believes that all her friends in her ‘real person’ account are ‘good people’ whom she doesn’t want to be deviant. This implies that she considers the subcultural activities she has been doing in the internet morally wrong in ‘real life’. In deeper level, her subcultural activities concerning slash fiction will keep her from being ‘a good woman in real life’. Mizore’s attempt to reveal herself as ‘a good woman’ makes her make two accounts concurrently; one (with her disguised name) for her slash readers and the other with her real name for her friends in ‘real world’. Mizore chooses to be a ‘good woman’ in offline world by hiding herself as a slash author. Regarding the slash fictions and cyberculture, it is obvious that the slash authors attempt to escape from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values in two levels: first, the women attempt to get involved in ‘taboo area’; constructing their ideas through the depiction of sexual activities between main male characters in slash fiction. It implies that cyberculture enables them to have control and power over men and thus, become the subject in terms of sexualities. Secondly, cyberspace paves the way to the women authors of slash to construct gender ideology which is ‘liberated’ from the hetero-normative values in dominant ideology. It is furthermore seen, however, the slash women authors seem to play in the position of ‘in-between-ness’. As has been previously elaborated, they choose to ‘remain safe’ by disguising themselves as ‘slash women’ and thus, maintain the dominant ideology regarding sexual activities; which put them as objectified gender class with sexual taboos to avoid. In this point, it is obvious that being actively engaged in subcultural activities as subjects, they cannot, however, become the ‘real subject’ totally liberated from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values. While previously I see the potential of cyberspace’s masculinits bias to transform into ‘feminist bias’, in this context the cyberspace seems to lose its ‘feminist spirit’ due to its inability to totally liberate the women from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values.

Conclusion As a new media, internet enables anyone to be actively engaged in cultural text production, instead of merely become passive text consumers. Cyberculture eases people to do what is considered ‘taboos’ in offline world. In terms of slash fiction, women are potential to break the taboos they face in offline world by doing subcultural activities in cyberspace; constructing their ideas about male sexualities in cyberspace and hence, become the subject. Cyberculture enables ‘female gaze’ to exist as the women slash authors have power and control over the objectified males as the main characters, which are also objectified by slash readers most of whom are heterosexual women. In slash, the women as slash authors are able to show their resistance toward dominant ideology: their resistance toward women objectification and their resistance toward the hetero-normative relationship. However, their subcultural acitivies in cyberspace cannot totally liberate them from the dominant ideology with its patriarchal values.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Bell, David. 2001. An Introduction to Cyberculture. London: Routledge. Bell, David. 2007. Cyberculture Theorists. USA: Routledge. Confeito. 2011. More Than Words. http://www.fanfiction.net/s/7691604/1/More_Than_Words. (accessed 12 Januari 2012). Derecho, Abigail. 2006. “Archontic Literature: A Definition, a History and Several Theories of Fan Fiction”. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays. Ed Karen Hellekson & Kristin Busse. London: McFarland & Company. Gibson, William. 1984. Neuromancer. London: Grafton Grossberg, Lawrence & Ellen Wartella. 2006. Media Making: Mass Media in A Popular Culture. USA: Sage. Hayles, N. Katherine. 1993. “The Seductions of Cyberspace”. Reading Digital Culture.ed David Trend. USA: Blackwell Publishing. Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge. Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers. New York: Routledge. Liesbet, Zoonen Van. 1994. Feminist Media Studies. London: Sage. Mizore Kibishi. 2010. Another Time and Another Attitude. http://www.fanfiction.net/s/6600192/1/Another_Time_and_Another_Attitude (accessed Agustus 2011). Mulvey, Laura. 1975. Visual Pleasure and Narrative C inema. Screen 16.3, Autumn 1975, pp. 6-18. Munti, Ratna Batara. 2005. Demokrasi Keintiman Seksualitas di Era Global.Yogyakarta: Lkis. Seidler, Victor J. 1989. Rediscovering Masculinity. London: Routledge. Warianto, Vivi Natalia. 2011. Konstruksi Peran Gender dalam Rubrik Seks di Majalah Cosmopolitan dan Femina. Surabaya: Universitas Kristen Petra. Wood, Julia T. 1994. Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender. http://www.udel.edu/comm245/readings/GenderedMedia.pdf. (Accessed12 Januari 2012)

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Tone Perception Errors in Mandarin Chinese Kay Liu1 (劉采婕) and Jason Mattausch2 (馬傑生) Providence University Taiwan, R.O.C. [email protected] ,[email protected]

Abstract This study investigated tone identification performance of learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language. We sought to determine which of the four lexical tones of Mandarin were most commonly misidentified by Chinese language learners, and to explain the results in terms of a contemporary model of tone perception. The study begins with a perception experiment, whose results are analyzed in terms of an incremental tone perception paradigm. We ultimately argue that the major causes of toneidentification errors of in our study werethreefold: (a) a positive correlation between onset tone height and identifiability,(b) the tendency of subjects to overestimate contour distance, rather than underestimate it, and (c) lack of awareness regarding the so-called ‘3rd tone half-sandhi’ of standardChinese. Keywords: tone perception errors, tone sandhi, CFL, gating paradigm

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to report and interpret the results of a tone perception experiment involving lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese and adult second-language learners of Mandarin. The authors conducted a toneidentification experiment whose subjects were adult learners of Mandarin Chinesewith 2+ years of Chinese language learning experience,whose mother languages were non-tonal languages. The results show that Mandarin’s 2nd and 3rd tones were muchmore likely to be misidentified as compared to the other two tones (the 1st and 4th tones). In addition, a conspicuous lack of symmetry in the confusion among certain pairs of tones (i.e., mistaking x for y, but not y for x) is noted. We ultimately argue that the cause of the majority of tone-misidentification errors were due to two factors:(a) a positive correlation between onset tone height and identifiability,(b) the tendency of subjects to overestimate contour distance, as opposed to underestimating it, and (c) lack of awareness regarding the so-called ‘3rd tone halfsandhi’ of standard Mandarin.

Background Mandarin Chinese is a tonal language with four lexical tones, typically referred to as: the 1st tone, often called a ‘high level tone’, e.g., [da˥] (pinyin:dā) ‘to hang over something’; the2nd tone, often called a ‘rising tone’ , e.g., [da˧˥] (pinyin:dá) ‘to answer’; the3rd tone, often called a ‘dipping’ or ‘falling rising’ tone’, e.g., [da˨˩˦] (pinyin:dǎ) ‘to hit’; and the4th tone, often called a ‘falling tone’, e.g., [da˥˩] (pinyin:dà) ‘big’. Following (Lee-Schoenfeld & Kandybowicz, 2009), we identify the underlying forms of the four lexical tones of Mandarin as consisting of various combinations of tone-segments of three different heights: High (H), Mid (M), and Low (L). 1st tone (T1): /HH/ 2nd tone (T2): /MH/ 3rd tone (T3): /MLH/ 4th tone (T4): /HL/ 319

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Additionally, the 3rd tone in Mandarin has three possible pronunciations or ‘allotones’. The underlying /MLH/ contour is actually only pronounced fully when the syllable bearing it also bears contrastive stress. (Contrastive stress is exhibited in a phrase like好看‘good looking’with emphasis on the contrast with, say, average looking). T3 can also be pronounced as a 2nd tone, in particular when it appears before another 3rd tone, as a result of a well-known ‘3rdtone sandhi’ rule of Chinese: T3 →T2 / _T3. (The actual rule is a bit more complex, though this will not concern us. See, e.g.,(Zhang, 1997)for details.) (Chen, 2000)and(Lee-Schoenfeld & Kandybowicz, 2009), inter alia,also recognize a second type of 3rd tone sandhi in Mandarin, socalled ‘3rd tone half-sandhi’, whereby the complex contour of Mandarin’s T3 collapses to a midfallingtone, whenever it does not appear before another T3, and is not in a syllable that bears contrastive stress).The ‘half sandhi’ ruleresults in what is, thus, the most usual pronunciation of the 3rd tone, and anunderlying /MLH/contour typically surfaces allotonically as [ML].

Figure 1 Allotonic variation of Mandarin’s 3rd tone For speakers whose native language is not tonal, learning to differentiate various tones in a tonal language is often the source of significant difficulty. Much pedagogical and academic attention has been paid to the issue of the teaching and learning of the tones in tonal languages, of which Mandarin Chinese is the most widely spoken in the world.(See, e.g., (Kiriloff, 1969), (Bluhme & Burr, 1971), (Shen, 1989), and(Wang, Sereno, & Jongman, 2006).) The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency and character of tone-perception errors of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners, with particular attention paid to which tones caused the most difficulty and what, if any, confusion might be caused by their perception of the the phenomenon of ‘half sandhi’ and the resulting ‘collapsed’ 3rd tone.

Methodology In order to examine how well Chinese learners perceive the four tones of Mandarin, and to examine which tones are the most challenging for them, and explain the differences in difficulty among the various tones, we first conducted a tone perception experiment. Our subjects were six adult CFL learners with 2-4 years’ experience learning Chinese, all of whose native languages(Spanish, Japanese and English) were non-tonal. Subjects were played recordings of trisyllabic nonsense-phrases spoken in native Mandarin.The purpose of using meaningless phrases was to insure, as best as possible, that each subject’s judgments would need to rely on his/her own actual perception of the phrase and its tones, rather than on his/her knowledge of memorized of vocabulary.The experiment was designed in such a way that the phrasesthat were recorded represented the full range of possibilities of tone patterns that could show up in a three-syllable phrase of Chinese(111, 112, 113, …, 444), with a total of sixty-four possible combinations. Thesephrases were played in random order. No word in any of the examples bore contrastive stress, and thus all phrases consisted of syllables with one of four surface tones: T1 [HH], T2 [MH], T3 [ML], or T4 [HL]. 320

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Pinyin transcriptions (asystem of romanization for Chinese, which all subjects were familiar with, as it is one of the first things they were taught as students of the language), without tone markings, were provided toeach subject for the purpose of recording his/her perception judgments about the tone that each syllable in each phrase bore. The subjects were instructed to add tone markings (‘ˉ’for T1, ‘ˊ’for T2, ‘ˇ’for T3, and ‘ˋ’for T4) to each syllable to indicate what s/he perceived to be the tone carried by the syllable s/he heard in the recording.

Results The average error rate for all the subjects in the experiment was around 20%.This number alone is fairly meaningless, though, as certain tones were much more likely to induce errors than others.The misidentification rates for the four individual tone-types were as shown in Table 1, with the actual tone that was pronounced on the top-horizontal axis and the subjects’ identifications on the left-vertical axis. The most significant error rates are highlighted. As shown in Table 1, the T1 [HH] and T4 [HL] were the least problematic and were each misidentified less than 7% of the time.On the other hand,the T3 [ML] was misidentified over 25% of the time. Where the T3 was misperceived, it was usually misidentified as a second tone or as a fourth tone.The most problematic of all was the T2 [MH], which was misidentified almost half the time. Very often it was misheard as a third tone, and less often it was misidentified as a first tone.Interestingly, every time (27.5%) that a subject falsely identified a syllable as having a third tone, he or she was actually hearing a T2. Table 1 Tone perception errors based on four pronounced surface forms

Analysis In order to analyze the error patterns reflected in the data, we referred to the ‘Gating Paradigm’model of tone identification proposed by(Lai & Zhang, 2008). They propose an incremental model whose first step is to identify the ‘onset tone height’, i.e., the height of the first part of the tone segment and whether it is high or mid, then proceed stepwise.Based on that model, and on the three tone-height system (H, L and M) proposed by(Lee-Schoenfeld & 321

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Kandybowicz, 2009), we may put the five surface tones of Mandarin (T1-T4 + ‘contrastive’ T3), successful perception of T1 and T4 would both first involve the identification of H_ as the onset tone height, with T1 (red arrow in Figure 2) being resolved as final _H, versus T4 (blue arrow) being recognized as having _L as its final segment. Likewise, correctly identifying T2 or T3 would require the initial identification of M_ as the tone onset height, after which the distinction between the two could be made by distinguishing the final tone segment as either _H (T2, green arrow) or _L (T3, purple arrow).Correct identification of the ‘contrastive 3rd tone’ [MLH]would require the incremental identification of three tone heights: M_, _L_, and _H (represented by the additional pink arrow), in that order.

Figure 2 Procedure for Mandarin tone identification, per (Lai & Zhang, 2008) With these things in mind, the major findings of our experiment can be summarized with three separate points: Fact 1: T1 and T4 were much easier to perceive for CFL learners than T2 and T3. Fact 2: T3 was often misidentified as T4, but T4 was never misidentified as T3. Fact 3: T2 was misidentified as T3 more than twice as often as T3 was misidentified as T2. What follows is an analysis of those facts, taking them one at a time.

Interpreting Fact 1: Why are T1 and T4 easier to perceive than T2 and T3? Based on the results of our study, CFL learners’ ability to distinguish the two groups based on onset tone height was a lopsided affair: Initial-H was interpreted correctly almost 97% of the time. Initial-M was interpreted incorrectly as H more than 30% of the time.

Figure 3 Error rates for onset tone height (dotted lines indicate errors) We believe there are three reasons for this.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Firstly, we can gather that initial H is much easier to identify than initial M, and that it is the less marked choice for the listener. This matches some of the predictions in the generative literature (e.g., (Lee-Schoenfeld and Kandybowicz2009)), which identify H as the most ‘marked’ tone for the speaker, and thus could be assumed to be the least marked for the auditor.More simply put: it should not surprise us that the tone with the highest pitch is the most identifiable. This interpretation would also help explain why T1, when misidentified was always misidentified as a T2 or a T4, but never as a T3: both the [MH] T2 and the [HL] T4 share a H tone segment with T1, whereas the [ML] T3 does has no H segment. Additionally, regardingthe ease with which CFL learners identified the T1 as compared to the T2 and T3: the fact that the first tone [HH] is the only Mandarin tone that lacks any contour (i.e., any change between the onset tone height and final height) gives it a substantially recognizable character. Finally, regarding the relative ease with which CFL learners identified the T4 as compared to the T2 and T3: the distinction between H and L is greater than the distinction between M and H or M and L. In other words, the T4 has a ‘long-distance’ contour, which should be easier to hear then the ‘short-distance’ contours of the T2 and T3. Those three observations alone facts alone would predict that first and fourth tones are much easier to identify than second tones and third tones.

Interpreting Fact 2: Why was T3 often misidentified as T4, but never vice versa? In our results,CFL learners confused the [ML] T3 with the [HL] T4 almost 10% of the time they were exposed to a [ML] tone. Conversely, though, [HL] T4 was never misidentified as a third tone. Part of our explanation for this is related to two things that was already observed about Fact 1. Firstly, high onset tones are easier to identify than mid. Secondly, the long-distance contour of the T4 is more easily recognizable than the short-distance contour of T3. Additionally, though, we must also draw the following conclusion: CFL learners tend to overestimate the distance of the contours they perceive, rather than underestimate them.Only this fact would fully explain the unidirectionality of the tone perception errors between T3 and T4. In terms of the gating paradigm, Figure 4 illustrates the two types of errors we are talking about, one of which never occurred in our data, and the other which occurs with significant frequency.

Figure 4 Error rates misidentifying T3 as T4 and vice versa (dotted lines indicate errors) Interpreting Fact 3: Why wasT2 misidentified as T3 more than twice as often as T3 was misidentified as T2? One major question that remains is what to say about the discrepancy between the degrees of difficulty that pertain to T2 and T3. In our study, subjects mistakenly identified the [MH] T2 as a third tone an outstanding 27.5% of the time, but made the opposite mistake – misidentifying a 323

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies [ML] T3 as second tone – only in only 12.5% of cases. As stated, both T2 and T3 were the most challenging for all subjects, but confusion between the two clearly favored one direction. This invites the questions: if distinguishing H from L is so easy after a H onset tone, why is it so difficult after a M onset tone, and why is one so much more likely to (think that s/he) hear(d)‘MH’ as opposed to ‘ML’? We think that an intuitive explanation can be given, and is related to the conclusion we drew from Fact 2.We concluded that subjects tend to overestimate the contours of tones rather than underestimate them. With this fact in mind, we believe that listeners who are hearing a final M-to-H rise are often misperceiving it as an L-to-H rise. Recall that, lexically, a third tone is /MLH/. And when learners are introduced to the third tone, that is what they learn, and this is despite the fact that, as noted in section 2, Mandarin’s ‘dipping tone’ is in fact usually not a dipping tone at all, since it is pronounced as [ML] in the large majority of cases.Because the phenomenon of half-sandhi is not something that tends to show up in textbooks or other pedagogical instruments, it is likely something that students of Mandarin as a second language are unfamiliar with. Because of their ignorance of this phenomena, they could associate the final rise with the third tone and interpolate a low segment that wasn’t actually there. In other words, we believe that the results can be interpreted not as an actual miscue of confusing ‘final H’ with ‘final L’, but rather as a misinterpretation of the [MH] surface form as an [MLH] surface form. (I.e., inferring the existence of a medial L tone where there is in fact none.) In terms of the gating paradigm, it will be a picture that looks as in Figure 6. Where a listener perceives a M-to-H rise, s/he exaggerates his/her experience a bit and mistakes an MH for MLH, being wholly or partially ignorant of the fact that a ‘third tone’ is usually pronounced [ML] anyway, not [MLH].

Figure 5 Model of [MH] interpreted as [MLH] (T3) tone error

Conclusion This research presented here investigated which tones of Mandarin were most easily confusable with which others, and offered an explanation for the most common type of error in terms of a familiar model of tone recognition. In brief, we found evidence in the data that we collected that supports the conclusion that the major discrepancy between the relative ease of identification of T1 and T4 is due to the relative ease with which H onset tones are identified versus M onset tones. Two other major patterns, namely the discrepancy between the tendency to misidentify T3 as T4 (which was common) versus the misidentification of T4 as T3 (which never occurred) and the discrepancy between the tendency to misidentifyT2 as T3 (which was the most common error in the data) versus the misidentification of T3 as T2 (which occurred far less) evidences a tendency for learners to overestimate the distance of tonal contours rather than underestimate them. 324

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Finally, we argued that a second causal factor contributing to the fact that Mandarin’s T2 is most commonly misidentified, and is usually mistaken for a T3 occurs partly due to unfamiliarity with ‘3rd tone half-sandhi’, which, coupled with athe tendency to exaggerate the distance of tone-contour, causes learners to mistake a [MH] tone for a tone that involves a […LH] contour, although the latter contour is not present in spoken Mandarin, except when involving contrastive stress. A more formal (i.e., rule-based or constraint-based analysis of the misperception of Mandarin tones by non-native speakers must remain a matter of further research.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Bluhme, H.& Burr, R. (1971). An audio-visual display of pitch for teaching Chinese tone. Studies in Linguistics, 22, 51-57. Chen, M.Y. (2000). Tone Sandhi: Patterns across Chinese Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kiriloff, C. (1969). On the auditory discrimination of tones in Mandarin. Phonetica, 20, 63-67. Lai, Y.& Zhang, J. (2008). Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, 30, 183-194. Lee-Schoenfeld, V.& Kandybowicz, J. (2009). Sandhi Sans Derivation: Third Tone Patterns in Mandarin Chinese. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 15(1), 125134. Shen, X.S. (1989). Toward a register approach in teaching Mandarin tones. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 27, 27-47. Wang, Y., Sereno, J.A.& Jongman, A. (2006). L2 acquisition and processing of Mandarin tones. in LiP., Tan, H.L., Bates, E.,& TzengJ.L.O (eds.), Handbook of East Asian Psycholinguistics (Vol. 1: Chinese), 250-267. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Zhang, N. (1997). The Avoidance of the Third Tone Sandhi in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 6, 293-338.

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Politeness in English of Thailand’s Ordinary National Educational Test (ONET) Krongtham Nuanngam

Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract Although many studies found pragmatic failures among Thai students learning English as a foreign language, pragmatic aspects in English subject of the O-NET (Thailand’s national test) have never been investigated. This paper, therefore, attempts to encourage pragmatic awareness by categorizing the types of linguistic politeness in the O-NET’s English conversation section which requires students to fill the gaps of the dialogues with the most appropriate utterance of all options. Completed by the answer keys of all five academic years (2005-2009), 40 dialogues in the tests for Prathom 6 (2009), Matthayom 3 (2008-2009), and Matthayom 6 (2005-2009) students were analyzed by the theories of speech act, adjacency pairs’ preference, and of politeness. The content of dialogues in the O-NET for three education levels depends on Ministry of Education’s standards of learning foreign language (English) which manipulate English teaching in Thai schools and English testing in the national test. The most common type of speech act found in the O-NET is requesting, especially in the tests for Matthayom 6. There are also a number of suggestions, offers, and invitations in that order. According to adjacency pairs’ preference, it is found several preferred responses (acceptance) of requests, suggestions, offers, and invitations. The number of their dispreferred ones is, however, quite small. Each speech act was constructed based on English conventional structures and strategies as in previous studies. Due to politeness theory of Brown & Levinson (1987), the findings reveal four types of politeness strategies: 1) bald on record, 2) on record with redressive action by positive politeness strategies, 3) on record with redressive action by negative politeness strategies, and 4) off record. This study has implications to teaching English pragmatics for Thai primary and secondary school students. Keywords: linguistic politeness, speech act, adjacency pairs’ preference, testing, TESOL

Introduction Apart from linguistic competence focusing on grammatically correct structures, pragmatic competence dealing with language use in a particular context has been considered crucial to teaching and testing English as a second/ foreign language (Canale & Swain, 1980; Schmidt & Richards, 1980; Bachman 1990; Bachman & Palmer, 1996; Kasper, 1997; Rose & Kasper, 2001; Roever, 2011). Even though many aspects of pragmatic competence have been investigated, pragmatic failure is still found among English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners. For Thai EFL learners, it has been recently found, to illustrate, pragmatic transfer in the speech acts of refusal (Wannarak, 2005), and of apology (Thijittang & Lê, 2010; Srisuruk, 2011), and pragmatic failures in the context of hotel front office (Sirikhan & Prapphal, 2011). According to the standards of learning foreign language (English), pragmatic competence has been set as one of the criteria for all students after finishing each basic educational level (Ministry of Education, Thailand, 2001; 2008). These criteria certainly manipulate teaching English in Thai schools and testing English in the national test (NIETS, 2012). As the content and structure of language testing always influence those of language teaching, Rose & Kasper (2001) recommended investigating the ways the existing tests can 327

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies assess pragmatic ability. Hence, English subject in the high-stakes test of Thailand needs to be analyzed in terms of pragmatic perspective. Subsequently, some pragmatic aspects might be noticed significant to be introduced or emphasized in English classrooms where the students can develop their pragmatic competence to reach such learning standards assessed by the national test. In Thailand, the test that every student who is going to finish his/her educational level must take for progression of higher education is the Ordinary National Educational Test (O-NET). The O-NET conducted by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS) is for Prathom 6 (P.6), Matthayom 3 (M.3), and Matthayom 6 (M.6) students only. In the O-NET’s English, conversation section requiring students to fill the gaps of the dialogues with the most appropriate utterances of all options is, therefore, the assessment of pragmatic knowledge which helps learners to produce and interpret appropriate language in “a particular language use setting” (Bachman & Palmer, 1996, pp. 69-70). Additionally, most of the pragmatic research has been conducted in relation to the theories of politeness – which strategies are chosen to perform a certain speech act appropriately or politely in different context (Thomas, 1995; Kasper, 1998, 2009; LoCastro, 2003). For that reason, the objective of this study was to discover the types of linguistic politeness in English conversation section of the O-NET from the first to the recent academic years. As this high-stakes test has been conducted for several years, various types of politeness strategies might be found. Due to Kasper (2004), theories of speech act and conversation analysis are needed to employ altogether as the tools to examine the learners’ competence. Both theories were used in this study as well to divide all utterances in dialogues into speech acts. As one kind of cultural aspects, politeness strategies of each speech act vary by languages and cultures (LoCastro, 2003; Watts, 2003, 2005). Thus, theory of politeness, especially strategies in English speech acts, is the core framework to analyze each dialogue. As the O-NET is a written test, only linguistic politeness was of interest. Non-linguistic or non-verbal was indeed disregarded. In addition, the sociological variables: social distance, relative power of speakers in the dialogues, and ranking of impositions were not the main factor in analysis process. Although the research data was test items, the elements of language testing including validity, reliability, and authenticity were not judged here.

Methodology As a document research, content analysis is its main method. This section will explain how to answer the research question, including the collection of research data, the design of data analysis, and its example. Data collection The tests of English subject for all three educational levels from the academic years of 2005 to 2010 were authoritatively given for this study by the director of the NIETS. As the NIETS provided only the answer keys of the 2009, the others needed to be retrieved from academic publishers. For validity of the answers, the keys with explanation from at least two different academic publishers were counted. Due to such qualification, the keys of the tests for M.6 (2005-2008), and those for M.3 (only 2008) were found. In consequence, the data of this research are all test items and their answers in conversation section of the English subject for P.6 (2009), M.3 (2008 and 2009), and M.6 students (2005-2009). Data analysis Every test item’s dialogue, and their correct choice in this section of each educational level were categorized based on Searle’s (1975) speech acts, and on Schegloff’s (2009) together with Levinson’s (1983) preference of adjacency pairs, and then analyzed by Brown & Levinson’s (1987) politeness strategies in English language as well as by such related studies. The units of 328

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies analysis are dialogues and correct choices of all data. In conversation section, the number of dialogues which requires the fulfillment of either one or both speakers’ part varies due to academic years and educational levels, as shown in Table 1. Table 1 The number of dialogues in conversation section of the O-NET’s English of all educational levels’ academic years Level P.6 M.3 M.6 Total

Number of dialogues in each academic year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 5 7 7 4 3 2 2 10 4 3 2 9 22

Total 5 14 21 40

The research tool is a code sheet for one dialogue, in which all utterances of dialogues together with assigned codes was filled. The codebook with full explanation were designed in reference to literature review of speech acts, conversation analysis and politeness strategies.

Figure 1 The academic year of 2009’s test item 9th for M.6 students Example of code sheet for data analysis: Speakers

Utterances

Speech acts

A student (S1)

Excuse me, Mr. Benson. (A) I wonder if you would be available at two this afternoon.

requesting

Mr. Benson (S2)

(B) Let me see. Oh, yes. I won’t be doing anything then.

granting (+R)

Politeness strategies negative 2 - hedge on illocutionary force bald-on-record + reason

This example is the dialogue from the test item 9th of the O-NET’s academic year of 2009 for M.6 students. The given situation is that a student (S1) asks to see his instructor (S2). There are two gaps in this dialogue: (A) in the first pair part and (B) in the second one. As the underlined answers were filled in, it is found that the first pair part is the request, and the 329

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies second one is the grant of request – preferred response (+R) The politeness strategy in S1 is negative politeness (Strategy 2: Question, Hedge) since S1 asks S2 for his exact free time (at two this afternoon) to see him by using the structure “I wonder if...” which is regarded as an English expression of performative hedge on illocutionary force in order to avoid assuming that S2 is able or willing to do what S1 requests. The utterance “Excuse me, Mr. Benson.” is the polite summon to get S2’s attention. In S2, bald-on-record strategy “Oh, yes.” is used to grant S1’s request, preceded by the request for checking “Let me see.” and followed by the reason why he is free.

Results In order to answer the research question (What types of linguistic politeness are found in English conversation section of the O-NET?), each utterance was classified by theories of speech act and of adjacency pairs’ preference before the analysis of politeness strategies. The results were divided into three interrelated parts accordingly. Speech act Based on Searle (1975), there are four types of speech acts, the utterances performing specific actions, in the O-NET as in the Table 2 below: Representatives, the speech acts that commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition include stating, answering, disagreeing, and complaining, Directives, the speech acts that are intentionally to cause the addressee to perform a particular action include requesting, suggesting, and warning, Commissives, the speech acts that commit the speaker to some future action, include offering, inviting, and promising; and, Expressives, the speech acts that express the speaker's attitudes and emotions, include thanking, apologizing, welcoming, complimenting, and congratulating. The code in the square brackets refers to [educational level/ academic year /#test item]. Thus, the sample utterance of stating is from the academic year of 2009’s test item 7 th for M.6 students. It was found no declarations, the speech acts that change the reality in reference to the proposition of declaration. The directives, especially requests, were most found. There were also a great number of suggestions, offers, and invitations in that order. Adjacency pairs’ preference In relation to the notion of preference, the second pair parts are either preferred or dispreferred response to their first pair parts. Due to Levinson (1983) and Schegloff (2009), the results of adjacency pairs’ preference in the dialogues showed several preferred responses of requests (granting) as in the example of code sheet for data analysis above, of suggestions/offers/invitations (accepting), and of statements (agreeing). But the number of the dispreferred ones (rejecting and disagreeing) was quite small as in the dialogue’s excerpt (1). (1) S1: S2:

I’m thinking of buying a bigger refrigerator. That’s a good idea. But it’s rather expensive.

[M3/09/#15]

The dialogue (1) is from the test item 15th of the academic year 2009 for M.3 students. The utterances of S2 represent the dispreferred response to the first speaker’s statement – disagreement preceded by token agreement plus but (Malamed, 2010, p. 204). This is one of the thirteen strategies for disagreeing adapted from previous studies

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Table 2 The examples of speech acts in conversation section of the O-NET’s English TYPE 1) Representatives - Stating

EXAMPLES

SOURCE

During final exam week, the main library is open 24 hours a day. Joseph…Peter Joseph Davis. You can’t do that. You’re late again!

[M6/09/#7] [M6/05/#8-10] [M3/08/#53] [M3/08/#55]

Excuse me, have you got any change? Let’s go to the Chinese restaurant again. Look out for that car!

[M6/06/#12-15] [M6/06/#1-6] [M3/09/#14]

3) Commissives - Offering - Inviting - Promising

Can I help you carry those books? Will you come to the library with me? I promise to do my best.

[M3/08/#52] [M6/09/#6] [M6/08/#1-8]

4) Expressives - Thanking - Apologizing - Welcoming - Complimenting - Congratulating

Thank you. Oh, I do apologize,… Welcome to Bangkok. You’ve really done a very good job! Congratulations!

[P6/9/#6] [M6/08/#9-15] [M6/09/#5] [M6/09/#10] [M6/07/#8-15]

- Answering - Disagreeing - Complaining 2) Directives - Requesting - Suggesting - Warning

Politeness strategies As presented in the Table 2 above, most speech acts were constructed baldly, without redressive action. This part, therefore, included only those with diverse politeness strategies – requests, suggestions, offers, and invitations as well as their preferred and dispreferred responses. The analysis was based on Brown & Levinson’s (1987) politeness strategies, and related studies of English speech acts. Requests as stated by Trosborg (1995 as cited in Usó Juan, 2010, p.238) can be divided into two types: requests for a particular object, action or service, and requests for information. To construct the first type in the O-NET, all four politeness strategies are utilized: 1) Bald on record, 2) Positive politeness - Strategy 12: Include both S1 and S2 in the activity, 3) Negative politeness - Strategy 1: Be conventionally indirect, Strategy 2: Question, hedge, and Strategy 6: Apologize, and 4) Off record - Strategy 1: Give hints. As presented in the Table 3 below, only the requests (S1) of this type with their responses (S2) were derived from the whole dialogue. The preferred responses are granting with follow-up question (3&9), with immediate action (5), and with reason (8), as well as granting by a promise (4), and by a suggestion (10). The dispreferred ones are refusals done by apology plus but (2), interjection with explanation (6), and by the most common conventionalized construction of requests’ refusals “I’m afraid…” followed by reason (7), which was also used in (2).

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Table 3: The examples of requests’ politeness strategies and their responses STRATEGY

EXAMPLES [source]

1) Bald on record

(2) S1: …Please let me go…. S2: Sorry, madam, but I’m afraid I have to give you a ticket before letting you go... [M6/08/#9-15] 2) On record with redressive action by positive politeness strategies - Strategy 12: (3) S1: Let’s eat out tonight, okay? Include both S1 and S2 S2: That would be nice. Where would you like to go? in the activity [M6/06/#1-6] 3) On record with redressive action by negative politeness strategies - Strategy 1: Be conventionally indirect

(4) Ability (hearer-based) S1: Can you ask him to return my call? S2: I’ll tell him as soon as I see him. (5) Willingness (hearer-based) S1: …Fred, will you pass the salt, please? S2: Certainly. Here it is.

[M6/09/#1]

[P6/09/#9]

(6) Permission (hearer-based) S1: …May I see your driving license, please? S2: Oh, dear me! I haven’t got it with me…

[M6/08/#9-15]

(7) Wishes (speaker-based) S1: …I’ like to get a refund for this shirt. S2: I’m afraid you can’t, sir, because it was on sale. [M6/06/#7-11] - Strategy 2: Question, hedge - Strategy 6: Apologize

4) Off record - Strategy 1: Give hints

(8) S1: …I wonder if you would be available at two this afternoon. S2: Let me see. Oh, yes. I won’t be doing anything then. [M6/09/#9] (9) S1: Er…I’m sorry to trouble you again. Can you show me how it works? S2: Sure. What would you like? [M6/06/#12-15]

(10) S1: I am awfully hungry. S2: Should we stop working now?

[M6/05/#4-7]

For another type, requests for information, they are either Yes-No or Wh-questions with on-record responses; S2 provides expected (relevant) answer regarded as a preferred response, directly for S1’s question as in the dialogue’s excerpts (11) and (12). (11) S1: Have you two met each other before? 332

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies S2: Oh, yes. John introduced us.

[M3/09/#10]

(12) S1: What are you doing, Tom? S2: I’m watching a basketball game on TV.

[M3/09/#9]

Suggestions in the O-NET are constructed by both positive politeness - Strategy 12: Include both S (S1) and H (S2) in the activity as in (13/S3), and negative politeness - Strategy 1: Be conventionally indirect in (13/S1) and (14), which are interrogative forms (Martínez Flor, 2010). The second pair part of this speech act can be preferred by acceptance as in (13/S2.2), and dispreferred by refusal with reason (Eslami, 2010) as in (13/S2.1). For the utterance (14), its second pair part was not provided in the test’s dialogue. (13) S1: What about the French restaurant at the corner? S2.1: No, the prices are outrageous there. S3: Let’s try Tom’s Restaurant. The food’s all right and it isn’t too far from here. We can walk in ten minutes. S2.2: Yes. There is a taxi though. [M6/05/#4-7] (14) But have you checked with your secretary? [M6/09/#8] Offers found in the data are baldly, without redressive as the imperative with please (15), and the statement (16) as well as on record with redressive action by positive politeness strategies - Strategy 10: Offer, promise in the telephone conversation (17), and at the store in person (18). All responses to these offers are preferred by performing action, thanking, and by requesting Yes-No interrogative and declarative of wish in that order. (15) S1: Hello, Ladda. Please take a seat. S2: Good morning, Mrs. Carson…

[M6/08/#1-8]

(16) S1: This gift is just for you. S2: Oh. Thank you so much.

[M3/08#50]

(17) S1: Hello, MC Apartment. Can I help you? S2: Have you got a room for rent?

[M6/07/#1-7]

(18) S1: Good afternoon, sir. Can I help you? S2: Yes, I’d like to get a refund for this shirt.

[M6/06/#7-11]

Invitations, quite similar to offers, are baldly, without redressive as in the declarative (19), and also created by Strategy 13: Give (or ask for) reason of positive politeness with imperative in (20) as well as with interrogative in (21). This speech act’s responses are preferred as acceptance with promise in (21), and dispreferred as refusals with reason in (19). The utterance’s (20) second pair part was not given in the test’s dialogue. (19) S1: We’d like to have you and your family over for dinner next Saturday evening. S2: Oh, dear! I’m afraid we can’t make it this Saturday. My daughter is rehearsing a play at her school. [M6/07/#8-15] (20) Oh, come on. Go with me. There won’t be another match like this. [M6/09/#3] 333

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(21) S1: Jum, I’m going for a swim tomorrow. Would you like to come? S2: I’d love to. I’ll see you at the pool, then [P6/09/#8] To summarize, most of the English speech acts in the O-NET’s conversation section were constructed, apart from the baldly on record, by politeness strategies compatible with its either positive or negative face-threatening act (FTA). To make it clear, requests and suggestions threatening hearer’s negative face were usually done by negative politeness strategies, while offers and invitations threatening their positive face were mostly done by positive politeness strategies. Off-record strategy was used once as a request (see in Table 3).

Discussion and conclusions In conclusion, the majority of utterances in English conversation section of the O-NET were constructed by bald-on-record strategy. Only the construction of requests, the most frequent speech act found in this section, was done by all four types of Brown & Levinson’s (1987) politeness strategies. For other speech acts, negative politeness strategies and positive politeness strategies were also utilized mostly in agreement with their corresponding types of FTA, but only one off-record strategy was found. Although a number of types are strikingly different, the findings can confirm the hypothesis on the variety of linguistic politeness in this section. Despite of several English speech acts in this national test, the analysis of each educational level’s tests of all academic years, however, revealed its limitation of some types of speech acts. To illustrate, the speech act of requesting for a particular object, action or service was not found in any tests for M.3 students, but plentiful in those for M.6 ones. In reference to previous studies, the utterances in each speech act were created based on their English conventional structures and politeness strategies. Even though the second pair parts of some utterances were not provided in the O-NET’s dialogues, it was found both preferred and dispreferred responses with different structures as well as politeness strategies. In accordance with the results, the content of dialogues in the O-NET for three education levels depends on the standards of learning foreign language (English) in Basic Education Curriculum A.D. 2001 which was elaborated and revised in Basic Education Core Curriculum A.D. 2008. In the recent version, the learners’ quality as graduating basic educational levels is clearly stated (Ministry of Education, Thailand, 2008), and used for designing the O-NET since the academic year of 2009 (NIETS, 2012). For P.6 students, the given situations are simple and often experienced in daily context, such as greeting and requesting. Most utterances in dialogues for P.6 also reflect conversational routines in English (Aijmer, 1996). For M.3 students, the dialogues’ topics are more complex, but still related to family, school, as well as friendship. For M.6 students, the situations in 2005-2008 are not totally complicated but some may be unusual for students. The latest test (2009) for M.6 whose format is similar to those for M.3 and P.6 consists of general and specific situations which require interpretation together with selection of expressions to react appropriately. Consequently, the ways the O-NET assess pragmatic knowledge of Thai EFL learners in three educational levels should be realized for developing not only test scores but also communicative skills. It is important to encourage pragmatic awareness, especially the same and the different aspects of speech acts between the native language (Thai) and the target language (English). If such aspects cannot be differentiated, pragmatic failures will occur in intercultural communication. Certainly, there are numerous kinds of teaching methodology to be properly applied for students in each educational level, and previous studies are the beneficial sources for making a decision. Since the students are aware of English speech acts, the 334

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies use of appropriate or polite utterances in a particular context can be taught. Based on English learning standards and content in the national test, teaching English pragmatics for Thai primary (before finishing P.6) and secondary (before finishing M.3 and M.6) school students should not be the same in terms of materials and activities. For primary school students, basic speech acts in English should be introduced by examples via short written conversations with illustrations or via motion pictures, and be developed by common tasks like exercises, work sheets and role plays. For secondary school students, basic speech acts in English should be reviewed including their politeness strategies, and compared to those in Thai. More complex speech acts frequently used in daily routines can be taught by those common tasks and by activities involving real conversations produced by English speakers. For high school students, politeness strategies of speech acts in a certain context like telephone conversation should be emphasized via media, role plays or created activities. Moreover, the interpretation of and the appropriate expressions to react to declaratives of good or bad situations should be explicitly taught. However, language teachers may add English pragmatics in any available lessons of the main materials. The teaching methodology can be adjusted concerning students’ English proficiency, their learning styles, and classroom environment. According to the recent research, Martínez Flor & Usó Juan (2010) suggested making simulated situations for students to use the learned speech acts of foreign language via classroom activities, whose effectiveness needs to be investigated among Thai students in all educational levels as the future research.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Aijmer, K. (1996). Conversational routines in English: convention and creativity. Singapore: Longman Singapore Publishers. Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. New York: Oxford University Press. Bachman, L.F. & Palmer, A.S. (1996). Language Testing in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brown, P. & Levinson, S.C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Canale, M. & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing, Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47. Eslami, Z. R. (2010). Refusals: how to develop appropriate refusal strategies. In Martínez Flor, A. & Usó Juan, E. (Eds.), Speech act performance: theoretical, empirical and methodological issues (pp. 217-236). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Company. Kasper, G. (1997). Can pragmatic competence be taught? [HTML document]. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Retrieved March 24, 2012, from http://www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks/NW06/ ______. (1998). Politeness. In Mey, L.J. (Ed.), Concise encyclopedia of pragmatics (pp.677-684). New York: Elsevier. ______. (2004). Speech acts in (inter)action: Repeated questions. Intercultural Pragmatics, 1(1), 125-133. ______. (2009). Politeness. In D'hondt, S, Ostman, J., & Verschueren, J. (Eds.), The pragmatics of interaction (pp.157-173). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. LoCastro, V. (2003). An introduction to pragmatics: social action for language teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Malamed, L. H. (2010). Disagreement: how to disagree agreeably. In Martínez Flor, A. & Usó Juan, E. (Eds.), Speech act performance: theoretical, empirical and methodological issues (pp. 199-216). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Company. Martínez Flor, A. (2010). Suggestions: how social norms affect pragmatic behaviour. In Martínez Flor, A. & Usó Juan, E. (Eds.), Speech act performance: theoretical, empirical and methodological issues (pp. 257-274). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Company. Martínez Flor, A. & Usó Juan, E. (Eds.). (2010). Speech act performance: theoretical, empirical and methodological issues. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Company. Ministry of Education, Thailand. (2001). Basic Education Curriculum B.E. 2544 (A.D. 2001) (Electronic version). Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://202.143.181.3/e_book_teacher/01001.pdf ______. (2008). Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008) (Electronic version). Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www.act.ac.th/document/1741.pdf NIETS. (2012). Kan Nam Phon Khanaen Kan Thotsop O-NET Pai Chai Patthana Kan Rian Kan Son Lae Yok Radap Phonsamrit Thang Kan Rian [The Use of O-NET Results for Developing Teaching Methodologies, and Improving Learning Achievement]. Bangkok: NIETS. 336

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Roever, C. (2011). Testing of second language pragmatics: Past and future. Language Testing, 28 (4). 463-481. Rose, K.R. & Kasper, G. (2001). Pragmatics in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schegloff, E.A. (2009). Sequence organization in interaction: a primer in conversation analysis I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schmidt, R. W. & Richards, J.C. (1980). Speech acts and second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 1, 129-157. Searle, J.R. (1975). A Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts. Language, Mind, and Knowledge, 7, 344369. Sirikhan, S. & Prapphal, K. (2011). Assessing pragmatic ability of Thai hotel management and tourism students in the context of hotel front office department. Asian EFL Journal Professional Teaching Articles, 53, 72-94 Srisuruk, P. (2011). Politeness and pragmatic competence in Thai speakers of English. Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University, U.K. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/10443/1189/1/Srisuruk%2011.pdf Thijittang, A. & Lê, T. (2011). Pragmatics Strategies of English of Thai University Students. Paper presented at the AARE International Education Research Conference, Australian Association for Research in Education, Australia. Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in interaction: An introduction to pragmatics. London: Longman. Usó Juan, E. (2010). Requests: a sociopragmatic approach. In Martínez Flor, A. & Usó Juan, E. (Eds.), Speech act performance: theoretical, empirical and methodological issues (pp. 237256). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Company. Wannaruk, A. (2005, October). Pragmatic transfer in Thai EFL refusals. Paper presented at the 13th Annual KOTESOL International Conference, Sookmyung Women’s University, Korea. Watts, R.J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ______. (2005). Linguistic polite research: Quo vadis? (2nd ed.). In Watts, R.J., Ide, S., & Ehlich, K. (Eds.), Politeness in language: studies in its history, theory and practice (pp.xi-xlvii). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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How can Thai students learn Spanish literature? A practical approach. María de las Mercedes Fuentes Hurtado Spanish Department Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Khon Kaen University.Thailand. [email protected]

Abstract Teaching Spanish Literature is a complicated task when students don’t have a high level of Spanish. Even for native Spanish people, understanding literary text and poems is hard, above all if they were written before the XIX century. However, Literature can be taught in different ways to allow Thai students to learn without feeling disappointed or upset because of complicated texts. Assorted activities can be designed to facilitate the learning for Thai students who study Spanish literature. From another point of view, Literature can be an excuse to improve students´ capabilities and skills in oral and written Spanish language. This article will be based on several activities that have been created to teach literature to Thai students at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, taking into account that these students don’t have a high Spanish level. With these activities designed especially for them, their oral comprehension, oral expression, writing comprehension and writing expression skills will improve through Spanish Literature. Besides, these activities are very useful due to the fact that they can be easily adapted to teach other languages, not only Spanish. Keywords:activities, Literature, Spanish.

Introduction Literature is one of the most complicated subjects for students of all languages, even when they study Literature in their own language. The task is even harder when they study Literature in a foreign language and this is the case of students who study Spanish all over the world. Bernal Marín (2012) explainhow Literature has been traditionally taught in Spanish lessons,most of times, Spanish teachers present to their students literary resources in the same way that they would teach to native students. That makes that Spanish lessons go far away from real interests of learners(own translation). Reviewing texts books specially dedicate to teach Literature to Spanish learners (Cabrales, 2009), it is easy to realize that they are very similar to text books created for Spanish native students who study at secondary school. Due to the fact that Spanish learners have different needs and interests from native students, it is important to take into account these differences to adapt resources presented in class to the students who will use them in class. Literary texts are supposed to include difficult words or, in the opinion of authors, words that make the text more beautiful. In fact, this is one of the main objectives of Literature, to combine words to create a stunning text that cannot be created by everybody, only by experts in literary texts that develop their imagination playing with words and using them in a way that normal people don’t do. This is the point that makes a wonderful author different, in comparison to normal people who use words of the language in a simple way only to communicate with others. 338

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies The beauty of Literature is sometimes difficult to appreciate for students of foreign language, because they see a huge wall between the literary texts and themselves. Quoting again to Bernal Marin (2012), literary text includes too rich and too complex vocabulary. That can block the student. Or in other way: it is likely that the learner feel scared because of the difficulty of the text(own translation).In my humble opinion, the real work of a language teacher is to demolish that wall in order to bring literary texts closer to students. Closing the gap between Literature and students requires a big dose of imagination, above all if teachers are working with students that have not already reached a high level of the language and can be classified as students with A2 or B1 levels according to the international guidelines of CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) for languages, which describes six levels from A1(breakthrough or beginner) to C2 (mastery or proficiency). Despite the description of the level being quite wide, I would like to focus my work on students who have a level similar to A2 or B1. The main reason is that Literature, in Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Khon Kaen University, is taught in the Fourth Year of Spanish Studies and students at this Fourth Year have not reached a level superior to A2 or B1, taking into account the guidelines of CEFR. CEFR describes A2 and B1 learning levels as it is shown below in Table 1. Table 1

A2

Way stage or elementary







B1

Threshold or intermediate





 

Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.

Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics that are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.

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As it is shown in Table 1, students who belong to A2 or B1 levels can deal with text on topics that are familiar to them or have an immediate relevance. Therefore, students will find great difficulties understanding texts which include more thanjust simple connectors such as: and or because (y and porque, in Spanish). Unfortunately, authors do not care whether their texts are appropriated to be used in language lessons for A1 or B2 students, so the work of the teachers consists in choosing, from the Literature, the best examples to motivate their students when they face a literary text and learn about an author’s life and work. To make Literature a little simpler and much more interesting for Thai students who study Spanish, a whole class activities addressed to them have been created especially for them in order to cover their educational needs and interests.Activities designed by Palencia and Borobio in ELE Actual (2012) for Spanish students have been used as an example to develop much more activities adapted to Thai students. Some of these activities will be described below. Activities proposed. The activities presented below are especially created for Thai students who are enrolled in Spanish Language and have to study the subject of Literature in their Fourth Year when they have reached an A2 or B1 level according to CEFR of Languages. Although these activities are suitable for teaching Spanish Literature, they can be easily adapted to teach other second or foreign languages following the guidelines provided. These activities are organized in the followingfivegroups. However, some activities belong to several groups and help to improve two or more skills.     

Activities to improve oral expression: pronunciation Activities to improve oral expression: speaking skill Activities to improve oral comprehension: listening skill Activities to improve writing expression: writing skill Activities to improve writing comprehension: reading skill

Activities to improve oral expression: pronunciation. In Literature lessons, the teacher can create a pleasant ambiance where students can practice their pronunciation while they are having fun with their classmates. Below, some activities, whose aim is improving Spanish pronunciation, are presented. 

Poetry to improve Spanish pronunciation Title Contest of poems recitation. Introduction Some of students are not very interested in poetry and it is very likely that they do not read poems very often even in their own language. However, an easy activity can be performed in class to improve pronunciation and intonation using poetry. 340

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Guidelines Every student has to look for a poem on the Internet by one important author who writes in Spanish, for example Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer or Pablo Neruda. Teacher can help to students in this task by giving them a list of poems which contains vocabulary adapted to their level with some new words to learn. Once each student has chosen their favorite poem, teacher has to check in class to see if the students know how to pronounce every single word. Students have to learn by heart the poem in a period of one week practicing reading aloud at home. Finally, all students have to recite their poem and a jury composed by native speakers decides who is the winner and presents the award. Commentary Students usually find an extra motivation if the activity implies an award at the end. Besides, they are free to choose the poem that they like the most and the teacher can advise but not impose any poem or author. 

Theater play in class Title Actors and actress for one day. Introduction In Spanish, there are a lot of wonderful theater plays written by well known authors. Some of them has been changed and adapted to Spanish language today and can be used in class with students even if they are ancient theater play. Guidelines One of the most important theater plays in Spanish is “Don Juan Tenorio” which is often played in Spain and Mexico every year on the night of 31st of October. The text of this theater play can be found adapted to kids, and this is very useful for Thai students. This theater play is divided into several acts so, students will be separated in groups and, after practicing at home, each group will play the role of different characters one day in class. Commentary Not a lot of preparation time is needed, nor wonderful set or costumes, students can simply use can used old clothes that they can find at home. Thanks to that activity,they will know the plot of the story while they are playing.

Activities to improve oral expression: speaking skill. It is not only important to bring Literature closer to students, it is even more important to improve their skills in Literature lessons. In the activities presented below, students will learn how to make a presentation, how to speak in public and details about the life and work of well know authors.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 

Presentations Title Authors life and work presentations. Introduction In this activity students have to present in class to their classmate the work and life of one author that the teacher proposes. Guidelines Instead of it being the teacher who explains the life and work of relevant authors, students will be teachers for one day for their classmates. Teacher proposes different authors to be presented in class. In groups, students prepare a Power Point presentation with the information that teacher provides them and with the data that they look for on the Internet doing a small research. Teacher should give them a guideline about how to make a good presentation and speak in public: explanatory slides including videos or pictures, body language during presentation, avoiding reading, and so on. Finally, students who attend lessons could make ask their colleagues questions. Commentary Students can feel bored if teacher is always the person who explains things in class. They can show more interest if their classmates explain the life and work of an author using words that they already know.



Expo Title Expo of poets of the “Generation of ‘27” Introduction Students will develop their imagination to create posters about poets of the “Generation of ‘27”. Guidelines Spanish poets of the “Generation of ‘27” are admired all over the world, so, in pairs, students will create a poster about one of these authors explaining some details about their life and work. All posters will be exhibited in class and other Spanish students or native people will be invited to enjoy the expo. Each pair should explain in Spanish some details about the author when somebody goes toward their poster. Commentary Students will appreciate that their work is shown in an expo and other people will enjoy it. This is an extra motivation to work harder on the project. Besides, learning about authors’ lives, students will learn more about Spanish History and social life at that time.

Activities to improve oral comprehension:listening skill. 342

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Nowadays, technology allows us to have a lot of resources that can be used in class to make lesson more enjoyable for students. The activities that are presented below take advantage of videos and audio files than can easily be found on the Internet. 

Films Title “La Celestina” novel and film. Introduction Students will approach to learn about characters and the story of the novel “La Celestina” written in s. XVI, through the Spanish film starring Penélope Cruz. Guidelines The students have to guess the story of “La Celestina” through small videos shown in class which comes from the Spanish film starring by the celebrity Penélope Cruz, where key moments of the story appear. Commentary This film contains some sex scenes that make the film not suitable to be shown in class completely, so only parts avoiding sex scenes will be shown. This activity could be adapted easily to present in class other important novels that have been made into a film, for example, the Mexican novel “Como agua para chocolate”.



Interviews Title Isabel Allende and her work. Introduction Most of current novelistsare interviewed in TV programs every time they publish a new novel. This is the case of the Chilean writer Isabel Allende. Guidelines A video of an interview of the author Isabel Allende will be shown in class while students have to answer in a paper, previously given to them, some questions about the video. Commentary This activity resultsproves very interesting with interviews of writers from different countries where Spanish is spoken, so that student can listen the varieties of the Spanish language through the voice of well known writers.

Activities to improve writing expression: writing skill. Literature gives the opportunity to teachers to improve students writing skill. First of all, students are in contact with very well written texts that can be used as examples. Besides, Literature can help students to develop their imagination when they create their own texts. 

Modifying important novels 343

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Title Change the end. Introduction Students will be writers for one day and they will have the opportunity to change the end of well known novels as if they were the real author. Guidelines Teacher presents some novels from different authors talking about the story with pictures of the characters. Teacher tells the story line and explains with details the end of the story. Students have to rewrite in pairs a new ending for this story. Commentary Students will feel free to choose the end of the story, so they will not be intimidated about the wrong details of their story line because they can invent a complete new story with the same characters.



Easy poems for students of Spanish Title Creating Gregerías Introduction The Spanish author Ramón Gómez de la Serna wrote a lot of small poems with only two verses called “greguerías” which are similar to Japanese haiku. Guidelines After reading some “greguerías” by R.G. de la Serna and trying to explain the meaning in other words, students will write individually their own “greguerías” trying to represent with a drawing their meaning. All works will be shown on the walls in order that other students can enjoy them. Commentary It is important that students do not feel that their work will be lost into the teacher’s drawer. If teacher has the opportunity to show the student’s work, they will feel more motivated and very likely proud of themselves.



Working with comics Title Mafalda and their friends. Introduction Mafalda is a famous Argentinian comic about a girl who is very clever and give us important moral lessons through her words. Guidelines Students will be read some examples of Mafalda comic strips. After that, teacher will give to the students several comic strips but with the text erased. Students will have to rewrite the comic taking into account the pictures that appear in the comic

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies strips. Commentary This comic is very suitable to shown the students the variety of Spanish language in Argentina and they can help to develop their imagination rewriting the story using new vocabulary to fit the pictures. Activities to improve writing comprehension: reading skill. For Thai students who study Spanish it is very hard to deal with the original text of a novel written in Spanish. To make Literature more achievable for them, summaries of novels written by young native students who study Literature, as well, can be more suitable for Thai students. 

Reorder texts Title Text in parts. Introduction Teacher can find on Internet the resume of well known novels in Spanish. These texts, more suitable for Thai students than the original one, can be used in class. Guidelines Teacher gives to the students a text which tells the story of a novel that it is important that the students know, but the texts have to be separated in paragraphs with no order. Students have to read carefully the different paragraphs and try to join them in the correct way. Commentary This activity can be performed using texts which tell the life of the author, as well.



Choosing the best character for every statement Title Who said what? Introduction Theater plays can be an easy way to show students to Literature without deal with very complicated texts full of vocabulary that they don’t know and make them feel disappointed. Guidelines First of all, teacher explains in class the characters that star the theater play and talk a little about the story line. After that, teacher gives to the studentsa text about a theater play where the names of the characters have been erased. Students have to read carefully the text carefully and decide which character speaks in every each statement. Commentary This activity can be performed using dialogs in novels, although in the original novel the names of the speakers do not usually appear.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Conclusions Literature does not have to be a hard task for students; on the contrary, Literature can be used by teachers to improve oraland writing expression and comprehension. What is most important is that teachers have to take into account which kind of students attends their lessons. For example, Thai students who study Spanish are interested in working in companies where Spanish is spoken, for example in travel agencies, hotels or Spanish and Latin American companies with headquarters in Thailand. So, they really need to improve their Spanish to reach a high level. This is more important to them than learning by heart names and dates about all authors who have written beautiful novels or poems in Spanish. For a teacher, the aim in Literature lessons has to be focusing on their students, understanding their needs and trying to help them to achieve them. Maybe, through contact with literary texts by Spanish or Latin American writers, they can discover novels, poems o theater plays that might be interesting for them in the future to be read completely in their original version when students reach a higher Spanish level. Besides, little by little, Literature will open students’ minds and will make them grow up in several aspects, but the main objective is that Literature helps them to improve their Spanish to be able to communicate fluentlywith accuracy in a complicated language that is not their mother tongue. After one semester teaching Literature to Thai students using the activities previously described, it can be said that students have learn more and in an easier way that in the traditional way. Before putting into practice these new activities, students said that Literature was very hard for them and almost impossible to learn. After using these activities in class, a survey was conducted to know students’ opinion about Literature lessons.Thai students at Khon Kaen University affirmed that they prefer learn Literature while they are doing useful and funny activities like reciting poems, listening interviews about authors life and work or performing short theater plays instead of listening to the teacher who explain Literature to them. It is relevant that 90% of students said that the best activity for them is watching films or videos related to novels to understand betterthe argument and they get bored or lost when teacher speaks about a novel. Students suggested too that teachers should prepare more games for Literature lessons. The aim of the activities presented in this article is to be an example of multiple possibilities that Literature bring us to teacher even when our students do not have a high language level.All activities are useful to improve the knowledge of Literature to students but in an easy way for them while they enjoy learning. These activities represent a different option to master classes where the teacher speaks about Literature and students don’t have the opportunity to participate actively. In these proposed activities, the students get involved in their own learning while joining in with theircolleagues.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Bernal Marín, M. J. (2012). La literatura en el aula de E/LE. Retrieved from http://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/redele/MaterialRedEle/Biblioteca/2012bv13/2012_BV_13_06BernalMartin.pdf?documentId=0901e72b 8125b8af Cabrales, J. M. &Hernández,G. (2009). Literatura española y latinoamericana 1: de la Edad Media al Neoclasicismo. SGEL (Ed.). Madrid. Cabrales, J. M. &Hernández,G. (2009). Literatura española y latinoamericana 2: del Romanticismo a la actualidad.SGEL (Ed.). Madrid. Council of Europe. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) (2007). European Language Portfolio. Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/elp/elp-reg/Source/Key_reference/CEFR_EN.pdf Palencia, R. & Borobio, V. (2012).ELE Actual B1. Curso de español para extranjeros. SM (Ed.). Madrid.

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An Investigation of Students’ Types and Frequency of Errors in Paragraph Writing Marilou L. Villas

English Lecturer, Faculty of Management Science UbonRatchathani University [email protected]

Abstract Writing effectively is highly regarded in the world of academe. In fact, it is a chief tool to succeed in any scholastic challenges equally important to thrive in future professional career. For second language learners, writing is a difficult skill to acquire and develop. Students at any level face several problems and numerous errors in writing. This study investigates the types and frequency of errors students made in paragraph writing. The researcher utilized first-year Thai students enrolled in the International Program taking Intensive English writing class. Using writing tasks approaches, students were required to submit a daily diary entries as a course requirement and as a tool to assess their writing performance used in this study. Researcher provided teacher feedback strategies focused on correcting errors, giving comments and suggestions for students’ writing improvement. A standard format for paragraph writing consisting of 10 criteria was used for evaluating the types of errors. The study showed that 65.88% of students made all types of errors in paragraph writing. Being aware of their mistakes,41.62% of them were able to correct their own errors. Meanwhile, a high percentage of the study revealed that the students need help from their teacher. Thus, the researcher suggests teachers to continually provide environment to practice writing both inside and outside classroom learning and offer positive direct feedbacks to the students at possible means. Also, a collaborative work between teacher and students providing support necessary for building confidence through group interaction and an exchange of knowledge is equally important. Keywords: Writing, Types of Errors in Writing, Frequency of Errors, Teacher’s Writing Feedback, Peer Correction in Writing

Introduction Excellent writing skill is very important nowadays. It is vital tool for anyone to succeedespecially in any academic or business related communities. College students face rigorous tasks by producing numerous academic papers mainly to evaluate how they demonstrate their knowledge and show proficiency with certain disciplinary skills of thinking, interpreting and presenting (Irvin 2010).Inability to meet these learning expectations greatly affects the students’ academic performance. Hence, writing effectively constitutes good academic standing. For business professionals such as finance, marketing and human resource managers need good writing to properly convey their ideas and concepts. Some of their tasks involve various company communications such as writing emails, reports, sales materials and brochures. Writing without discreet can create serious problems for the person as well as the company (Suttle, 2009). Similarly, for EFL international business management students, it is 348

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies imperative that they should give extra effort to improve their ability to write fluently and effectively in English since the great deal of their future work will involve writing reports, presentations, business proposals, company’s advertisement, visual aids etc. needed in all major industries of international business. However, developing English writing ability is seriously difficult for second language learners. Its nature of complexities spring from the relying fact emerged between the native and the second language differences both in cognitive process and socio-cultural expectations (Silva 1993). As a result, students’ mental process is constantly challenged when writingrequiring sufficient time and energy (Liu and Braine 2005:623-624). This constant strenuous mental activity consequently leads to more writing errors in student writing. Writing errors as defined by Corder (1971) and Norrish (1983) are the “result of failure of performance” and a “systematic deviation”. They stated that errors are committed based on the writers failure to learn previous concept. Additionally, Reid (1993) and Richards (1971) argued that errors occur because learners fail to acquire the “significant knowledge of the target language”. Reid (1993) strongly believes that because of“first language interference”is one of the distinct factors that makes writing more complicated and difficult for L2 writers resulting to inevitable occurrence of grammatical errors in their writing.In the study conducted bySereebenjapol (2003), types and frequency of errors occurring in scientific theses are analyzed to examine the source of errors found in four categories, which are syntax, lexis, morphology and orthography, respectively. It is found that the most frequent local errors are the use of subordinators and conjunctions. The causes of each error vary reflecting on the students’ carelessness, incomplete application of rules, and differences between English and Thai. It can be seen that errors occur because of L1 interference as a distinct cause of L2 writing problem. Moreover, a number of research studies werefurtherlyconducted which sought to identify/analyze frequent errors and common problems of second language learners in writing. Chen (2007) identified student’s writing problems in the misuse of cohesive devices among 23 EFL Chinese undergraduates using essay test as an instrument. It has shown that the students were able to use various cohesive devices in their writing. Lexical devices had the highest percentage of use, followed by reference devices and conjunctions. Also, this study found out that there is no significant relationship between the number of cohesive devices and writing quality.Boettger (2012) carried out a study on the types of errors found in 13 editing tests administered to prospective medical editors. Theresults indicate that grammatical/mechanical and style errors had a higher than expected frequency and the most predominant error was unnecessary or missing capitalization. In Thailand, Sattayam and Ratanapinyowong (2011) found out the types and frequency of errors in paragraph writing in English committed by 134first year medical students from four medical schools at Mahidol University. They were assigned to write an opinion paragraph in English on medical ethics based on a reading passage chosen from the Internet. It was shown that most students had errors in standard format of paragraph writing.Thananart (2000:88-101) examined errors in comparison and contrast paragraphs written by EFL university students at Chulalongkorn University. The vast majority of errors were grammatical structure (73.86%), and the other types of errors were errors in using transition signals (10.01%), verb forms (7.68%), word choice (6.90%) and spelling (1.55%). Instructors as the one obligated to correct students’ writing which often bring negative impact to students can actually shift responsibility to students themselves that proves more 349

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies effective and motivating. Studies have found that “students can catch more than 60% of their own errors if they are taught to proofread and are held accountable for correctness in their writing” (Kittredge, 2003).When students correct their own writing; they begin to reflect on their mistakes and improve their writing (Pulverness, 2010).This way, students are more reflective on their work and be more cautious in committing writing errors. In the Faculty of Management Science in UbonRatchathani University, students enrolled in International Bachelor of Business Administration major are required to take one-year Intensive English class in writing. The students acquire a wider experience and environment where they can study and practice the four English skills namely speaking, listening, reading and writing as taught by foreign teachers in separate classes. In intensive writing class, students are required to write daily diaries from various topics given at the beginning of the course as part of their project. With this approach, students are engaged to a more effective way to exercise writing through using their real-life experience as the baseline for writing called contextualized writing (Hedge, 2010). The researcher realized the importance of developing further the skill in written communication among L2 students. Thus, it is imperative that language teachers should provide any means possible to educate students as better language learners. For that reason, this study was conceived to evaluate the writing skills of first-year IBBA students in writing English paragraphs and identify the types and frequency of errors made in order to develop guidelines for correction and improvement of their writing skills especially these students are taking all subjects taught English.

Research Questions This study attempted to find out the first year students’ types and frequency of errors in paragraph writing. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What are the types and frequency of errors made by students in writing? 2. Which types of errors to which students could correct by themselves?

Research Design and Methodology This study utilized a descriptive design. This method is used to collect information that will describe naturally occurring phenomenon and other characteristics of a particular group. Bickman and Rog (1998) suggest that descriptive studies can answer questions such as “what is” or “what was”. This design is appropriate as to the objectives stated above from which the researcher derived her study. Subjects of the study included all (22) first-year students of UbonRatchathani University taking up International Bachelor of Business Administration. This sampling method used complete enumeration sampling technique which means, a set of objects from a parent population that includes all such objects that satisfy a set of well-defined selection criteria. Holmes (2004) stated that complete enumeration of some variables is always needed to obtain raising factors when totals of variables are required. In the case of this study, all first year students enrolled in IBBA were counted as samples since the size of the population is considerably small. They are divided into three levels according to their English ability- 6 students from level 1, 8 students from level 2 and 8 students from level 3. Level 3 is the highest level and level 1 is the lowest. The subjects were required to write diary entries submitted in a daily basis. Each entry includes a set of topics either in question or situational type. Students were instructed to write a paragraph about the given topic and hand it on for suggestions and comments from the teacher. Following this process, the teacher then allowed 30 minutes for students to correct their own 350

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies work from the given comments and suggestions according to 10 criteria as shown below and came up with a final draft. The researcher utilized the Diary Entry # 13 with the topic “What is your favorite quote from a famous person? Explain why” as an instrument for this study. The ten criteria used for analysis are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Inability to perform the assigned task because of not understanding the question. No introduction Lack of main ideas No topic sentence stating the main points Lack of development of main ideas (adding details and facts about the main point) Lack of organization Accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/ or usage No transitional words Incoherence No conclusion

All the ten criteria were gathered from the survey and the principles of good paragraph writing from many books such as TOEFL criteria for correcting paragraphs (Mahnke& Duffy, 2002),Writing Academic English (Oshima&Hoque, 2006), Logic, Language, and Composition (Willis, 1975). They are considered as types of errors. The frequency of errors found in the paragraph writing of the students was calculated using the following formula. Thisdata analysisused for this studyis adapted from the previous study conducted by Sattayatham and Ratanapinyowong (2011). Percentage of errors= numbers of errors (for each criterion) x 100 Total number of subjects

Results of the Study The following are the results that the researcher obtained. Part 1: The most frequent errors in paragraph writing There are 65.88% ofstudents made all types of errors in writing. A high percentage of errors were found in nine out of ten criteria. The top four criteria of errors were: lack of organization, no transitional words, incoherence and no conclusion. These errors determine students’lack ofthe basic knowledge in writing composition. They tend to write without considering the basic features of paragraph writing which eventually resulted to poor writing skills. Table 1 Frequency of errors (according to the type of error or criteria). Criteria Analysis

Amount

%

1

Inability to perform the assigned task because of not understanding the question.

6

27.27

2

No introduction

8

36.36

351

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Criteria Analysis

Amount

%

3

Lack of main ideas

7

31.81

4

No topic sentence stating the main points

14

63.36

5

Lack of development of the main ideas

15

68.18

(adding details and facts about the main point) 6

Lack of organization

19

86.36

7

An accumulation of errors in sentence structure

18

81.81

and/or usage 8

No transitional words

19

86.36

9

Incoherence

19

86.36

10

No conclusion

20

90.90

Total

65.88%

Part 2 Frequency of types of errors in paragraph writing that students could correct by themselves From the total number of subjects who made types of errors in writing showed in Table 1, 41.62% of the subjects could correct errors by themselves. The distribution of percentage is quite similar in all criteria. The top three criteria that the students could correct by themselves were: inability to perform the assigned task because of not understanding the question, lack of main ideas and lack of development of the main ideas. It showed that students have the ability to make some corrections on their own. This encourages teachers to leave a room for students to correct their writing as it triggers their mental ability and awareness of their own writing problems. Criteria Analysis

Amount

Errors made

%

(From Table1) 1

Inability to perform the assigned task because of not understanding the question.

352

5

6

83.33

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Criteria Analysis

Amount

Errors made

%

(From Table1) 2

No introduction

2

8

33.33

3

Lack of main ideas

5

7

71.43

4

No topic sentence stating the main points

3

14

21.42

5

Lack of development of the main ideas

8

15

53.33

(adding details and facts about the main point) 6

Lack of organization

5

19

26.32

7

An accumulation of errors in sentence structure

7

18

38.89

and/or usage 8

No transitional words

6

19

31.58

9

Incoherence

6

19

31.58

10

No conclusion

5

20

25.00

Total

41.62%

Conclusions Most of the students understood the question/writing prompt they were asked to write a paragraph about but they had a problem how to structure the paragraph. They wrote a paragraph without an introduction and topic sentence and also transition words. In addition, the paragraph was incoherent and lack of organization. The se related writing problems are often observed in L2 classes. It would seem that the concept of coherence in writing is not fully absorbed or learned as this involves an interaction of the text depending on one’s prior knowledge considered as a complex process (Ahmed, 2010). Besides, they wrote too much detail on the topic but neglected to write a conclusion. So, the conclusion is often missing on the students’ paragraph writing. Also, most students had the difficulty to use English grammar. Few students were able to improve their own writing by correcting writing errors they easily recognized. These errors were inability to perform the assigned task because of not understanding the question, lack of main ideas and lack of development of the main ideas.Although some of them can make corrections however except for minimal errors like spelling and punctuation. Although they were able to recognize and made some correction, their writing has not changedreally much since it still lacked organization and coherence which 353

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies are very important aspects in paragraph writing. Hence, students face more serious problems, more fundamental mistakes than “classical errors” of verb of agreement, punctuations, spelling etc. which are in fact impossible to deal with by traditional method (Krishna, 2001). Lastly, definitely all students need much help from their teacher for their writing problems especially on organizing ideas, writing conclusion and coherence. Other criteria not mentioned, students should also consider serious attention for improvement. Error analysis plays an important role both to students and teachers. Students’ error recognition from their writing output aids them in writing well-structured paragraph after they learn how to correct these errors through practice. Teachers’ analysis to students’ error reinforce them to reassess and redesign methods and strategies for students’ writing improvement more effectively.

354

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Ahmed, A.H. (2010). Students’ Problems with Cohesion and Coherence in EFL Essay Writing in Egypt: Different Perspectives . Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), Volume 1, Issue 4, 211-212 Cahudron, C. (1984). “The effects of feedback on students’ composition revision.” RELC Journal, September 15, 2:1-14. Chaudron, C.(1986). “The role of error correction in second language teaching.”Workign Papers of the Department of English as a Second Language. University of Hawaii at Manoa, 59, 8: 414-422. Chen, J. (2007). An Investigation of EFL Students’ Use of Cohesive Devices. 94-96 Heydari, P., &Bagheri, M. S. (2012). Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners’ Errors. Theory and practice inlanguage studies, 2(8), 1583-89. Karra, M. (2006).Second language acquisition: Learners errors and error correction in language teaching. Kaweera, C. (2013). Writing Error: A Review of Interlingual and Intralingual Interference in EFL Context . Canadian Center of Science and Education. 10-15. Kittredge, R. ( 2011). Correcting Grammatical Errors in Student Writing: The Importance of Shifting Responsibility to the Student.Teaching Effectiveness Program, Teaching and Learning Center. Lalande, J. (1982). Reducing Composition errors: An experiment.Modern language Journal, 66, 140-49. Sattayatham, A. et.al (2008).Analysis of Errors in Paragraph Writing in English by First Year Medical Students from the Four Medical Schools at Mahidol University. SUI Journal .2127. Wongsothorn, A. (1994).An Investigation of students’ writing improvement through various types of teacher’s investigation.”Research in Reading and Writing.SEAMEO Regional Language Center, 118- 125. http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/sdsu/res_des1.htm

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Language Ideology and the Development of Arabic Moh’d Tawfiq Bataineh Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics and Translation Jerash University

Abstract This article is primarily a cultural and linguistic study on the development of the Arabic language. It aims at clarifying the change which Arabic has been undergoing, referring to future demands that the language is in need, and attitudes towards them. The researcher argues that this change is ordinary and represents a normal linguistic development which all languages experience. In this article, the researcher trigger the importance of Arabic language planning as Arabic faces new challenges in this age of globalisation.

Introduction The researcher, in this research, argues that the Arabic language essentially needs to modernise as it is like any other language which changed in the past and is undergoing change in this globalising era. This is a linguistic and ideological account of the development of Arabic which aims at providing clearer image of the status quo for the need of Arabic language policy. Since this research is qualitative in nature, it relies on descriptive and argumentative discussion of ideological principles in Arabic culture. The researcher attempts to critically focus on the influence of major pillars of the Arabic culture on language. Therefore, the researcher has dealt with Islam and Pan-Arabism as bases which the history of Arabic development relies on. Throughout a period of many centuries, the stages of Arabic growth from ascendance to decline are clarified. The researcher highlights the stage of the so-called linguistic consciousness during the Arab Awakening in the last two centuries which stressed that the Arabic language is the base for national awareness. The historical description of the stages of Arabic development in this research intend to prove the changes which Arabic underwent throughout its different phases of being a language of literature and science, stagnancy age, to the age of Arab awakening where Arabic has regained part of its supremacy which it enjoyed in its golden age. Because globalisation has become a distinct aspect of today’s cultures, the researcher has chosen, in this research, to underline its influence on present Arabic and visualise the future of Arabic in this age of globalistion with stressing the need for Arabic language policies to face the new challenges in the twenty-first century. This research argues that globalisation is an ongoing, inevitable process which has been influencing the different life aspects of the Arab peoples; on top of those is the effect over language. The researcher assumes that the dramatic increase in the usage of borrowed lexicons by young Arab generations is an aspect of cultural and linguistic globalisation. Moreover, the researcher argues that the linguistic phenomenon of the newly coined blend ‘Arabish’ which is coined from ‘Arabic’ and ‘English’ is a normal change to cope with new technological demands. It primarily refers to writing Arabic in English letters, and is widely used by younger generations in language of electronic chatting and mobiles’ short messages. Spreading of code-switching as a sociolinguistic phenomenon in some Arab societies between Arabic and English or French is another evident example of linguistic globalisation on Arabic. The researcher concludes his study by recommending that a linguistic reform is a must; and it should be implemented at speed. From a language planning perspective and as far the 356

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies researcher is concerned, this call for language reform must be linked to the entire political and economic reform movement which has erupted recently in the Arab world and is known as the ‘Arab Spring’.

1.1 Background to the development of Arabic Chejne (1969, 52-53) identifies three periods in the pre-modern era covering the growth, ascendance and decline of the Arabic language. The first period covers the pre-Islamic and early Islamic era (500-661 A.D.). During this time Arabic was chiefly a spoken language. While writing was very rare in the pre-Islamic era, it became more widespread in the early Islamic period. On the basis of Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484 BC – 425 BC), Hoyland (2001, 201) infers that old Arabic prevailed as early as the fifth century BC, but it seems to have been rarely written down until a century or so before the dawn of Islam. Throughout this time, Arabic was limited to the Arabian Peninsula as a regional language. The second period extends from the start of Umayyad rule (661-750 A.D.) through that of the Abbasids (750-1258 A.D.). In this period, Arabic grew enormously. It became not only a language of state and religion over a huge empire, but also the medium of a rich literature. The third era is one of decline (1258-1800 A.D.). Chejne (1969, 80-81) ascribes this decline in the tenth and eleventh centuries to the deterioration in the causes of its success, primarily the religious ones. Another major factor contributing to the decline and scholarly stagnation of Arabic was the periodic attacks on Muslim lands by East Asiatic hordes. For example, Baghdad, the centre of intellectual life, was devastated in 1258 by the invading forces of the Mongols. In his introduction to Stetkevych’s book The Modern Arabic Literary Language (Stetkvych, 1970, xi-xii), William R. Polk, a historian concerned with the development of the modern Middle East, states: The Arabs, although heirs to a proud and coherent civilisation which had reached its peak at the time of the European Dark Ages, with an empire stretching from France to China, were exhausted by the enormity of the task they had undertaken and depleted by the physical dispersion of their resources. Consequently, coming under the domination of fellow Muslim Turks, Mongols, Berbers, and Persians, the Arabs fell into a long ‘sleep’, from the end of the thirteenth until the nineteenth century. During this period they did not participate significantly in the cultural, economic or political life of the world or even of the Middle East. They engaged in no further conquests and ceased even to govern themselves. At least in the Mediterranean, the Arabs were no longer the great merchants. Their scholars lapsed into a habit they became so lethargic that not only was the creative impulse lost but the conservation of Arabic learning was jeopardised. Polk provides a clear picture here of the decline of the Arabs until they were aroused in the nineteenth century during the Age of the Awakening ‫ النهضة‬an-nahḍa by the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt in 1798. The huge impact of that decline was first seen in and influenced the Arabic language, the major tie to the golden age alongside religion. The Arab Awakening followed centuries of stagnancy under the Ottoman rule of Arab lands – a stagnation which in fact dates back further to the late Abbasid times, when religious and social clashes among the different parties and sects that had come to embody the ethnic and geographic mixture of the region had undermined the intellectual environment. There was no longer a safe environment for the free expression of intellectual ideas. The Mongol devastation in the thirteenth century of the centres of Arab civilisation which followed the end of the Crusades marked the end of the golden age of Arabic literature. This stagnation came centuries 357

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies after the ascent and growth of Islam, which had produced a diverse and superior literature (Gassick, 1979, 1-3). Although the Abbasid state technically continued until the thirteenth century, it had in practice ceased to exist long before that. According to Hourani (1991, 212) from the tenth or eleventh century forwards there was a long stage of displacement, of which the obvious symptoms are the breakdown of the ‘Abbasid caliphate’, the foundation of challenging caliphates in Egypt and Andalus, and the coming into the world of Islam of new dynasties drawing their power from other ethnic groups, some of them moved by religious passion: the Christians in Spain expanded at the expense of the Muslim states in southern Spain; the Almoravids and Almohads emerged in the Maghrib, growing out of religious movements which moved Berbers from the mountains and desert fringes of Morocco; the Turks and Mongols invaded from the east. Subsequently, the Mamluk state and the states of the Maghrib were confronted by new dynasties which were able to build huge and efficient armies, hold power over large agricultural areas and take their surplus, and encourage manufacture and trade in cities. In the western Mediterranean the challenge was to the religious as well as the political order, from the Christian kingdoms of Spain, unified into one kingdom soon after the disappearance of the last Muslim dynasty in 1492, and soon to have the vast wealth plundered by the Europeans from the pre-Columbian civilisations of the Americas. In the eastern Mediterranean, the new and growing power was that of a Muslim dynasty, named after its founder, ‘Uthman’ or ‘Osman’ in its Turkish spelling hence the adjective in Turkish ‘Osmanli’, anglicised as ‘Ottoman’ (Ibid, 214). Among the chief tasks of the Ottoman Empire was that of gathering the taxes on which it heavily relied. By the seventeenth century ordinary tax collecting was substituted by a system of taxfarms, by which people, whether merchants or officials, undertook to gather a certain tax and forward the proceeds to the central government in Istanbul, after subtracting a proportion of it as a commission. By the end of the seventeenth century, some tax-farms had become practically inherited possessions. Even leaders of the army and local governors were mostly drawn from the ruler’s own household. Members of the household came from among those hired into the army as slaves brought from the Caucasus or from members of previous ruling families. It was also common for the sons of those who held important positions in the government to go through the household; whatever their origin, however, all were considered the ruler’s slaves. They were cautiously trained for service in the palace, and then promoted to positions in the army or government (Ibid, 218). In many ways, the Ottomans were religiously tolerant. A huge proportion of the population of the Ottoman Empire was Christian – not only in the Balkans, but also in Anatolia – and the millet system granted all religious sects and communities a reasonable degree of internal selfgovernment (Hourani 1991: 220). Hourani notes that the Ottoman Empire was a multi-religious state, giving an acknowledged status to Christian and Jewish communities. The various Jewish and Christian communities had a special situation, because they paid the poll tax and had their own legal systems of personal law, and also because the government had to be assured of their loyalty. In both the capital and the provinces, the government recognised a spiritual head for each community having a certain legal jurisdiction, being in charge of gathering tax ‫ة‬the ِ jizya َ‫جزي‬ and preserving order. In this way, non-Muslims were incorporated into the political system. They did not entirely fit into it, but a person might ascend to a position of power or influence. Jews were crucial in the financial service in the sixteenth century, and towards the end of the seventeenth Greeks became the principal interpreters for the grand official and governors. NonMuslims do not seem to have lived in segregation or under pressure. They belonged to a trade or craft, and worship and education were free within limits (Ibid). 358

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Some Arab societies are still influenced by the results of Ottoman and Western colonisation. The ‫ اقطاع‬iqṭā’ system which was used by the Ottomans in Arab countries is still influential in some Arab countries. This involved tax-farming rights being given to leading local families. The revenues of Egypt and Syria were a main element of the Ottoman budget, and they were the places where the annual pilgrimage to Mecca was organised. For example in Jordan, which was ruled by the Ottomans as part of Greater Syria before British colonisation, some families, recognised as local governors or tax-collectors, still have tribal power and inherited governmental positions as they were the leading tribal families under the ‫ اقطاع‬iqṭā’ system. These families ran their regions and controlled the land and collected taxes in exchange for providing the central authority in Istanbul with revenue. This phenomenon will not come to an end unless democracy prevails in the Arab countries. In the process of development, Arabic has become indebted to a number of languages from which it has borrowed a vast amount of vocabulary. In its turn, Arabic has made its own contributions to numerous Eastern and Western languages. Arabic has left its mark on the vocabulary and script of many languages, not only Islamic countries adjacent to the Arab world, but also languages of Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Maltese, for instance, although written in Latin script is basically a form of Arabic (similar in particular to Libyan Colloquial Arabic) with contributions from other languages such as Italian. Arabic has also made central contributions to a number of Western languages, chiefly Spanish and Portuguese. Words in general English use such as cipher, algebra, arsenal, admiral, alcove, alkali, alcohol, lemon, sugar, coffee and rice represent only a few of the many words found in western languages which either are of Arabic origin or have been passed on to the West via Arabic (Chejne, 1969, 4). 1.2 Linguistic consciousness during the Arab Awakening

an-nahḍa al-

’arabiyya In the eighteenth century the balance between Ottoman central and regional governments altered, and in some regions of the empire local Ottoman ruling families gained virtual autonomy, while remaining loyal to the general interests of the Ottoman state. There was a change also in the relations between the empire and the states of Europe. Whereas the empire had enlarged into Europe in previous centuries, by the latter part of the eighteenth century it was under military danger from the west and north. There were also the beginnings of a transformation in the nature and track of trade, as European governments and merchants became stronger in the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. By the end of the century, the Ottoman governing elite were becoming aware of a relative decline in their power and independence, and were beginning to make their first cautious responses to the new conditions (Hourani, 1991, 207-208). By the last quarter of the eighteenth century, at least, some members of the Ottoman intelligentsia realised that the empire was endangered by forces which were bringing about a modification in its relations with the world around it. From early times the Ottoman Empire had been in contact with western and central Europe; it inhabited the eastern and southern shores of the Mediterranean. Trade was generally carried on by European merchants: Venetians and Genoese in the earlier Ottoman centuries, the growing western powers, the British and French in the eighteenth. In the last quarter of the century, however, the situation began to change swiftly and radically, as the gap between the technical skills of some western and northern European countries and those of the rest of the world became wider. Throughout the centuries of Ottoman rule there had been no progress in technology and a decline in the level of scientific and intellectual knowledge (Hourani, 1991, 259). 359

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Some countries of Europe had now moved on to a higher level of power. Plague had ceased to devastate the cities of Europe as quarantine systems took effect. Enhancement and progress in the building of ships and the art of navigation and routing had taken European sailors and merchants into all the oceans of the world, and led to the foundation of trading points and colonies. Trade and exploitation of the mines and fields of the colonies had led to a growth of capital, which was being used to construct manufactured goods in new ways and on a bigger scale. The growth of population and wealth made it possible for governments to maintain huge armies and navies. Thus some of the countries of Western Europe like England, France and the Netherlands in particular had started on a course of continuous accumulation of resources, while the Ottoman countries, like other parts of Asia and Africa, were still living in circumstances in which the population was held down by plague and food crises, and in some places had decreased. Production did not yield the capital needed for essential changes in methods or any increase in the organised power of the government (Ibid). By the latter part of the nineteenth century, the consciousness of the power of Europe which previously scarcely existed in the Ottoman ruling elite had become extensive. There had grown up a new knowledgeable class looking at itself and the world with eyes sharpened by western teachers, and communicating what it saw in new ways. This new elite class, whether Turkish or Arab, was formed in schools of a new kind. The leading groups were those founded by reforming governments for their own purposes. To begin with, these were specialised schools training officials, officers, doctors and engineers in Istanbul, Cairo and Tunis. Side by side with government schools were a small number of schools set up by native bodies, and a larger number maintained by European and American missions. In Lebanon, Syria and Egypt some of the Christian communities had their own schools, in particular the Maronites with their long tradition of higher education. A few modern schools were established by Muslim voluntary organisations (Ibid, 302-303). During the nineteenth century the idea of nationalism developed among Turks and Arabs. The diverse national movements came about in response to varied challenges. Turkish nationalism was a response to the growing force of Europe, and the collapse of the ideal of Ottoman nationalism. As the Christian peoples of the empire seceded one by one, Ottoman nationalism obtained more of an Islamic colouring, but when, under Abdulhamid, the coalition between the throne and the Turkish ruling elite broke down, the idea of a Turkish nation materialised, on the grounds, that the empire could endure only on the basis of the unity of one nation sharing a common language (Ibid, 309). In the nineteenth century when the Arabs began to comprehend the situation of serious decline in which they found themselves, they set out to revitalise the language of their ancestors and the valuable resources it had. Ayalon (1987, 9-13) points out that by the end of the nineteenth century, the linguistic efforts of the Age of the Awakening began to bear fruit in the Mashriq, mainly in Egypt and Lebanon, which were the two centres of nineteenth century intellectual activity. Books, periodicals and newspapers were sources through which understanding of the new world of the emerging powers of Europe and America came to the Arabs. Much of what they printed was translated or adapted from French or English; the movement of translation started under the reign of Muhammad Ali in Egypt, who needed manuals for his officials and officers and textbooks for schools. Some of those like Rifa’a al-Tahtawi (1801-1873) who had been educated and trained in Europe and had learnt English and French wrote books describing what they had experienced in Europe (Hourani 1991, 304). The Arabic language had come to be capable of managing new needs with clarity. For instance, the Egyptian School of Translation was established in 1835, afterwards called the School of Languages. Rifa’ah al-Tahtawi, its 360

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies director and an intellectual pioneer of the Age of the Awakening, produced and took charge of the translation of European books on all themes. He made Arabic translations of many works dealing with business and civil legislation in addition to technical works. Conscious of the deficiency of the Arabic language in communicating new ideas, he worked hard to adjust, develop and adapt it to this task. Butrus al-Bustani of Lebanon assisted with the translation of the Bible into Arabic (Chejne, 1969, 89). More than any other institution in the Age of the Awakening, the Arabic press transmitted the essential ideas of other civilisations to the Arabicspeaking community. It also played a central role in transforming the language into a tool fit for the new tasks which it had to undertake. The intellectual revival of the Arab world can be in part correlated with contact between the West and the East. The beginning was in Lebanon and Egypt, the heart of Arab intellectual activity. One reason for Lebanon’s early relationship with the West was the interests of the papacy and other Christian groups, Lebanon at this time being a majority Christian country. Lebanon, part of the region of Greater Syria, which includes also present-day Palestine, Jordan and Syria, was at the forefront of the intellectual revival. By the eighteenth century, intellectuals had established the base for the revival of the Arabic language, which contributed a great deal to the creation of a modern Arabic literature. This included the foundation of many political, social and scientific institutions. Libraries also contributed a great deal to the spread of learning and private and public schools and universities were established in almost all Arab countries (Chejne, 1969, 87). Although it was a military rather than a cultural mission, the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt had an immense impact on the Arab world. It brought about ongoing contact between Egypt and the West which had already passed through a series of social and intellectual upheavals including the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Industrial Revolution. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Arab world became open to many new ideas which significantly influenced the thinking and way of life of Arabic-speaking people. The Arab intellectual became progressively more conscious of the inadequacy of his society in terms of government, social structure, religious thoughts, and education – all of which he had inherited from long centuries of stagnation during the rule of the Ottomans and the invading powers which had preceded it (Ibid, 85-86). Christian Arab intellectuals played a vital role in the Arab Awakening, their zeal partly deriving from their desire to halt Islamic expansion represented by the Ottoman caliphate, which had held power over Arab Muslims and Christians for four centuries. The French presence in Egypt gave rise to various transformations. Educated Egyptian-Arabs in colleges and mosques were supported to develop a local administrative system. Bonaparte initiated printing in Egypt in the form of announcements, declarations and news sheets. This gave rise to some changes in Arabic terminology, pronunciation and grammar (Gassick, 1979, 2). Thus, in the early part of the nineteenth century, the Arab Awakening had begun. Publishing in Arabic had rarely existed before the nineteenth century, but it developed throughout the century, especially in Cairo and Beirut, which were to stay the most important centres of publishing. Newspapers and Lebanese-Egyptian periodicals, which were more vital than books in that period, began to play a crucial role in the 1860s and 1870s. Among these periodicals of ideas, opening windows on to the culture, science and technology of the West, َ‫مقط‬ were two created by Lebanese Christians in ‫طَف‬ Cairo: ُ ‫ ال‬al-muqṭaṭaf, founded in 1876 by Ya’qub Sarruf (1852-1927) and Faris Nimr (1855-9151), who were two young teachers in the Syrian Protestant College, and ‫ ال ِهالل‬al-hilāl, which first emerged in 1892 by Jurji Zaydan (1861-1914). The two periodicals were inclined to stay away from anything bearing directly on local politics or religion. But they attempted to express the truths that the Arabic reading public ought to know: that civilisation was good in itself; that science was the basid of civilisation, and the 361

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies European sciences were of worldwide significance; that they could and must be accepted by the Arabs through the medium of the Arabic language (Hourani, 1962, 246- 247). In the nineteenth century, the Arab intelligentsia decided that an intellectual resurgence and national awareness had to be based on the Arabic language and the historical customs of the Arabs. There was near-total agreement that Arabic was a pre-requisite for cultural revival. The offerings of the Bustanis and Yazijis, in particular Nasif al-Yaziji (1800 – 1871), the foremost Lebanese writer of his time in Lebanon, to linguistic revitalisation mirror efforts throughout the Arab world from the middle of the nineteenth century up to the present (Chejne, 1969, 18-20). Nasif alYaziji published a work in the mode of the ‫ َمقامات‬maqāmāt, a series of tales about an imaginary hero, reported in intricate rhymed prose (Hourani, 1991, 305). The first Arab novelists included a number of talented writers in Egypt like Ahmad Amin, Abbas Mahmoud alAqqad, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Abdul Qader al-Mazini and Taha Husayn. The most brilliant thinker among them was Taha Husayn; he can be seen as the last great representative of a line of thought, inspiring social thought and political action in the Arab countries (Hourani, 1962, 325326). Taha Husayn pursued urgent reforms to the Arabic language that would allow it to attain uniformity and would make it easily available to all the Arabs (Chejne 1969: 18-20). For him, the Arabic language is the common property of all Egyptians, which they have inherited from the past. Unlike the Islamic reformers, he does not accentuate the importance of the language as a means to religious awakening, but as the basis of a sound national life; and time after time, he regards it as no less significant for Copts than for Muslims. He insists that Egypt is the centre of modern Arabic culture, and her task and responsibility in the Arab world is to disseminate the modern sciences via the Arabic language (Hourani, 1962, 334-335). The solutions to the lexical problems of Arabic in the Age of the Awakening were sought in the existing resources of the language. These could be used in a number of ways. Writers could derive neologisms from existing roots, revive terms from the immense stock of obsolete Arabic expressions to designate new ideas, enlarge the range of references of existing words to provide new meanings, or combine two or all three of these processes in making compounds. In drawing upon the wealth of their own language, Arab writers were first and foremost guided by the rule of analogy (Ayalon, 1987, 6). 1.3 The impact of Islam, pan-Arabism and culture on Arabic language ideology Issues of language and ideology have deeply affected the Arabic language. Scholars in the fields of sociolinguistics, anthropology, sociology, politics and cultural studies have focused on the impact of cultural and political ideologies on language. In Arabic, the twin factors of religion and nationalism have had the principal impact on the expansion of Arabic since the nineteenth century. The way in which ideologies have interacted with the Arabic language must be given much weight in understanding the link between the need to modernise Arabic, endeavours to realise this development and attitudes which have impeded advancement. Religious and cultural views of Arabic have determined the ideological standpoints which Arab scholars have built their thoughts on. Ideology in relation to the Arabic language is, of course, not distinguished from ideology in other domains of human activity. Arabic, however, achieved additional dimensions with the expansion of Islam, the spread of Arab culture and the ascendance of nationalism in modern times. In the Arabic-Islamic world, both the Arabic language and Islam are often looked at as indivisible parts of the Arab-Muslim personality. Both Arab and non-Arab scholars describe the 362

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies relationship between the Arabic language and Islam as inseparable (Elkholy & Desmond 2007: 2). They consider the Arabic language not only the unifying feature of the Arab world, but also a phenomenon that shapes the Arab-Islamic world in all facets of life. Arabic is the language of the Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of God. Thus, it obviously has an even bigger influence on its speakers than other languages have on theirs. Speakers of Arabic and those who read it via their devotion to the Quran identify the language as directly providing God’s word and commandment. The more general function of Arabic in Arab Muslim culture cannot also be ignored. Arabic grew as a literary language in the Muslim empire and turned into the primary language of the Muslim nations. With the development of the so-called ‘Arabic and foreign sciences’, the language gained a universal nature (Chejne 1969: 13). The fact that Arabic has long endured and still has the vigour to flourish is due to religious and social reasons, but its ability to expand and develop without losing its vital qualities are virtues of the language solely (Stetkvych 1970, 1). Sulaiman has argued that the study of nationalism in the Arab Middle East has made huge strides in recent decades, especially since the middle of the twentieth century during the expansion of pan-Arabism. The study of nationalism and pan-Arabism in the Arab Middle East has moved beyond the traditional sphere of history and politics. Anthropologists and sociologists have contributed from the edges in a way which has improved our appreciation of the social techniques concerned in the internalisation and negotiation of national identities. But there are also evident weak points, the most prominent of which is the unwillingness to take the study of nationalism in the Arab Middle East into the wider cultural arena of literary production, the arts, film, music, sports, tourism, festivals, school textbooks, architectural styles, naming practices, maps, stamps and other media of symbolic expression (Sulaiman, 200, 1-4). Another obvious gap in the study of nationalism in the Arab Middle East is the lack of serious study of language, the most central of all systems of practical and symbolic expression, in relation to nationalism. Sulaiman has claimed that no study of this sort has yet been produced, not even in Arabic, although partial studies touching on aspects of language and nationalism do exist. He has confirmed that the responsibility for this lacuna does not rest with historians or political scientists only, although so far they are the ones who have dominated the study of nationalism in the Arab Middle East. A historian or political scientist is not conscious of the functional and symbolic responsibilities of language per se or in any of its approaches. In a world of disciplinary specialisation, this is observed to be the task of the linguist. The closest approach to a linguistic-related field of study which can examine the query of language and national identity is sociolinguistics (ibid). Sulaiman (Ibid) refers to the lack of Arabic studies that demonstrate the connection between language and nationalism. However, Arabs have paid much attention to this inseparable relation. Even before the dawn of globalisation, the Arabs realised the challenges that face their language; this enthusiasm, I assume, stems from their zealousness to protect Arabic, which unifies them regardless of the political antagonism between the different Arab regimes and the differences of religion and religious sects (particularly in the countries outside the Maghreb, where almost the only religious sect is Sunni Islam). Only a few individuals deny the importance of Arabic as a unifying factor which is essential to our Arab identity. These few people have advocated using the different colloquial Arabic dialects in each Arab country instead of using Modern Standard Arabic as the formal variety which creates linguistic unity among its speakers. For example, in some Arabic-speaking countries like Lebanon and Egypt, some Westernised writers have advocated adapting and changing the local dialect into the official language and

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies downgrading Standard Arabic. Such calls have always been unsuccessful, due largely to a deep Arabic-Islamic identity (Morrow & Castleton, 2007, 2). Culture is the major component of a nation’s identity, and when we talk about the Arabic culture, we necessarily talk about language and religion. Islam, Arabic culture and the Arabic language are inseparable entities; understanding any of them requires knowledge of all. Like Muslim Arabs, non-Muslim Arabs basically have one culture that is based on the ArabIslamic identity of which the Arabic language is an essential part. Many nationalist parties and movements in the Arab world were led by Christian Arabs. ‫ انطون َس َعادة‬Antun Sa’adeh (19041949) founded the Syrian Social Nationalist Party to resist the French and British splitting up of the region. ‫ميشيل‬ ‫ َعفلَق‬Michel Aflaq (1910-1989), born in Damascus, was the ideological founder of Ba’ath Party; it was a form of Arab nationalism which was combined with Arab socialism. Such people confirm our national identity regardless of differences in religion. This common identity is built on a shared language, culture and heritage. Alongside other factors like politics, culture has a strong influence in determining the advancement or backwardness of different societies. In his book well-known ‘The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order’, Samuel P. Huntington (1996) asserts the importance of the role of culture as a basic factor of human development and sometimes of clash between civilisations. 1.4 Globalisation The term ‘globalisation’ is used, amongst many other things, to refer to a phenomenon involving sweeping changes that are occurring world-wide. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. Human history can be envisaged as a process of globalisation from its inception. For instance, the Roman Empire globalised its values within its own world. Arabic culture reigned over broad areas outside the Arab world throughout the period of the Islamic empire following the rise of Islam. Arabic culture influenced north and central Africa, south-east Asia, the Caucasus and parts of Europe. It has left many aspects of its widespread civilising system (Ota 2010). From the period 650 to 850 A.D there was an enormous growth of Islam from the Western Mediterranean to East Asia, involving not only the religion of Islam, but all the cultural and social aspects brought by the Islamic civilisation. Hobson (2004: 29-30) asserts that the Islamic golden age was an essential early era of globalisation when Muslim and Jewish traders participated in the economy across the old world resulting in a globalisation of crops, trade, knowledge and technology. Globally important crops such as sugar and cotton became extensively grown across the Muslim world in this period. Hobson believes that at that time, the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture. Kiely (1998: 2-3) writes that there is frequently a need for clarity in the definition of the term ‘globalisation’, its originality and how it affects people through the world. He treats globalisation as a phenomenon which refers to a world in which societies, cultures and economies have come closer together, i.e. he claims that more and more parts of the world are drawn into a global system and so are influenced by what occurs elsewhere. Thus, the job of a coal miner in Britain or a butcher in Jordan may depend on events like the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in the year 2010. Likewise, the need for grain crops in Egypt and other countries has been influenced by the deadly forest fires which ravaged the Russian countryside and created a food crisis in 2010 summer. According to Waters (1995: 1) globalisation is ‘a key idea by which we understand the transition of human society into the third millennium’, while Giddens (1990: 64) defines globalisation as ‘the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in 364

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa’. The notion of the ‘global village’ has altered the view of developing societies. Marshall Mcluhan has pointed out the importance of information communicated by diverse kinds of mass media such as press, magazines, TV, radio, the technologies of the data base and the global media network which far exceeds the quantity of information communicated through school and university teaching and textbooks. This facet of the ‘global village’ has destroyed the walls between nations and countries (Mcluhan 1960: 1). The development of satellite television and information technology is a major new element in the growth of a new information society. The new communications technologies have encouraged a global culture. However, the world is already a ‘global village’ in a Mcluhanian way in a few specific areas, otherwise it remains varied or even divided in several realms. It is commonly emphasised that we live in an era in which the larger part of social life is identified by global processes, in which national cultures, national economies, and national borders are melting. Central to this insight is the idea that we are witnessing the latest phase of economic globalisation. The world economy has internationalised in its essential dynamics, it is controlled by uncontainable market forces, and it has its major economic agents of change – truly transnational corporations that owe commitment and loyalty to no nation-state and locate wherever in the globe market advantage dictates (Hirst & Thompson 1996: 1). Hirst & Thompson (ibid: 2) argue that the current extremely internationalised economy is not unique. Rather it has existed since an economy based on new industrial technology started to be generalised from the 1860s. They claim however that the existing international economy is less open and integrated than the regime that prevailed from 1870 to 1914. The Economic and Social Commission of Western Asia (ESCWA) (2002: 4) argues that globalisation in an economic context refers to ‘the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour’. The ESCWA also argues that globalisation is an old phenomenon. It began in the late nineteenth century, but its growth slowed during the period from the start of the First World War until the third quarter of the twentieth century. The ESCWA ascribes this slowdown to the inward-looking policies followed by a number of countries in order to defend their own industries. Geographically, in the Western world, globalisation has reached a point where national borders might eventually vanish. At the same time many nations are still opposing demands to match the Western mode of globalisation. At least in part, the Islamic world rejects the Western-based globalisation process. Globalisation appears to produce broad changes in civilisation, and its impact on language and culture can be noticed in every aspect of life. The global economy has affected long-established values and ways of thinking. Haynes writes that it is necessary to understand the interactions between politics, theology and culture in order to gain information and achieve understanding of a Third World that obstinately rejects Western stereotypical prospects (Haynes 1993: 2). There has been a mounting curiosity in the so-called Islamic threat and the alleged clash of civilisations between the West and the Orient (Huntington 1996). The belief, that globalisation represents a straightforward expansion of ‘Westernisation’ is still vigorous. However, some writers (Robertson 1992) have identified the appearance of Islamic activism as a global, but also anti-Western, force. Kiely (1998: 16) asserts that the concept that globalisation basically represents the expansion of Western supremacy of the world system has been damaged by the rise of East Asia. This can be seen in the case of the ascendant of the East Asian newly industrialising countries since the 1970s. The rise of South Korea, Taiwan and others was a main issue in the decline of underdevelopment theory, which is based on the core-periphery relations where the ‘the Rest’ or (Third World) are set to become more like ‘the West’ or (the First World). Kiely originally 365

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies addressed this through underdevelopment theory. However, underdevelopment theory was substituted by more supple theories of reliance, which argued that the rise of East Asia did not constitute capitalist development because East Asia remained reliant on the core countries. This implies again that the West is the norm or standard, and so by definition other countries are deviations from the norm. The three biggest economies in the world today are the United States, China and Japan. This means that two out of three of the world’s biggest economies are East Asian. India, although an extremely poor country, is also by progressing rapidly economically. Globalisation is experienced in different ways by different people at different times. The powers which have been central in the past few decades – largely United States and to a lesser extent the states of Western Europe – since the fall of the former Soviet Union, are subject to competition from other states which are likely to grow to dominance in the next few decades, chiefly China and India in Asia. The meaning of globalisation is likely to be influenced by the rise of different economies and new cultural entities. Kiely (ibid) is concerned to show in particular the unfairness that exists in the global order. He has tried to demonstrate the classification of the world into cores and peripheries is not a function of the fact that the former consciously creates the latter, but in that these divisions are an outcome of the way in which global social relations function. Such cores and peripheries are likely to modify over time, but in such a way that uneven development will not be eliminated. According to Schelling (1998: 144-145) one of the consequences of globalisation is that power and decision making are less obviously attached to the structures of the nation-state. They are stretched and spread across different regions as well as greatly concentrated in the hands of supranational economic and political bodies such as transnational companies, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund or the G8. The elites of these organisations are typically centred in the North. Marfleet (1998: 186) states that for theorists of globalisation, the augmented significance of religion is consistent with socio-cultural change at a world level. Certainly, globalisation and religion are said to be closely associated. In globalisation theory, religious resurgence is an imperative expression of a unified world. With nation-states much weakened, supranational or transnational ideas and institutions have very much enlarged in influence. The major universal religions, particularly Islam and Christianity, have made their perspectives more appropriate; and the outcome is what Haynes (1993: 10) calls ‘a global religious revival’. Huntington (1993: 23) writes: DURING THE COLD WAR the world was divided into the First, Second and the Third Worlds. Those divisions are no longer relevant. It is far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their political or economic systems or in terms of their level of economic development but rather in terms of their culture and civilization. Distinctions between nation-states and regions, between developed and developing world or between North and South countries, are said to be far less important than previously, or to have become extraneous. The globalist account has an important influence on social and cultural theory. A global culture materialises in which social relations are powerfully affected by the singularity of the contemporary world. Under these conditions, it is argued, religious resurgence or revival can be a vital appearance of the new global social reality. Marfleet refers to Daniel Lerner who argued that in the face of modernisation, Islam is completely defenseless. In the late 1970s, the United States identified a new threat; and it began to give a picture of Islamism as a 366

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies force for global rebellion which would gravely intimidate and threaten US interests (Marfleet 1998: 186). In his theory of the ‘clash of civilisations’ Samuel Huntington (1993: 25) asserts that the prospect of the world will be formed by the interactions among seven or eight main civilisations. These are; Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and possibly African. He suggests that these civilisations will be the key players in international relations; the future will be shaped by the aforementioned cultural blocs; he argues that world events will turn on the conflicts between such blocs, producing a global ‘clash of civilisations’. The most important of these clashes will be those founded upon the ‘JudaeoChristian’ West, the Confucianism/ Buddhism of East Asia and Islam, centred in Middle East. Huntington attempts to emphasise that the crescent-shaped Islamic bloc or what Prince El Hassan bin Talal of Jordan has called the ‘Arc of Crisis’ is the key threat to world order. Huntington distinguishes the boundaries of this Islamic bloc by ‘bloody borders’ (ibid: 35). Robertson (1992: 67), a world-systems theorist, emphasises the cultural aspects of the new global order. He writes: Culture has thus become a significant consideration in world-systems theory. Indeed we are approaching the point where it has become an accepted part of world-system theorizing to include culture as a critical variable. Robertson (ibid: 10) regards the world as a whole entity, i.e., the sense that the world is one body or place which brings nations together culturally. There is a ‘global universal’ civilisation, he argues, which comes out from the communication of the corresponding images of local societies. I believe that Robertoson’s view of the role of culture necessarily leads to the conclusion that human civilisation is an accumulating process. (Mcluhan & Fiore 1968) asserts that all human advancement is a consequence of standing on the shoulders of our predecessors. Beyer (1994: 1) argues that people, cultures, societies and civilisations are now in ordinary and inevitable contact. Such changes, says Beyer, have particular implications for religion because as social space contracts there may be much greater consciousness of the diversity of human experience. Robertson (1992: 170) argues that the varieties of religious fundamentalism are a product of globality. Like several ideological groups in Europe and Afro-Asian world who desire to witness a non-hegemonic globalisation, many Muslim intellectuals and ideological groups are urging other processes. These diverge from intellectuals who merely refuse globalisation as a domination and conceited form of Eurocentricity and support dialogue with other groups which include Muslim activists. Robertson interprets the emergence of religious activism as a reaction to the hegemony of globalisation. The notion of religious movements or fundamentalism is not restricted only to Islam, but is found also in Christianity, Judaism and even Hinduism. Hallencreutz & Westerlund in (Marfleet 1998: 197) note that the term ‘fundamentalism’ has its roots in North America in the beginning of twentieth century, when it was applied to a specific interdenominational Protestant movement which insisted on the idea of the inerrancy of the Bible. It has since then been applied to all manner of religious activisms, most of which are in the non-Western world and have relatively diverse agendas. Hallencreutz & Westerlund in (ibid) observe that although the tradition of tagging Muslims and other non-Christians fundamentalists may be clear cut, it is more complicated to locate sufficient scholarly reasons for it. Marfleet in (ibid) says that in the West the term has become a synonym for religious activisms, notably those of the Third World, and especially for Islamic currents. Marfleet (ibid: 198-209) has mentioned the two movements of ‘Liberation Theology’ in Latin America and ‘Islamism’ in the Islamic world as examples of 367

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies religious activism. He adds that not all religious movements are activists and not all movements in the Third World are anti-systemic. Protestant evangelicalism, for example, has not irritated and provoked the anxiety which has accompanied the expansion of Christian radicalism or Islamism. Islamic fundamentalism has been partly responsible for the rise of anti-Islamic sentiment or ‘Islamophobia’ particularly, in the West and in America, where it is frequently linked to rightwing Christian and extreme pro-Zionist groups. 1.5 Globalisation and the new linguistic world order Massive communication and world trade have enhanced globalisation; the information technology revolution has made almost every form of information reachable from anywhere in the world. Although languages have in the past been a major barrier to globalisation, they are now a big influence supporting it. Thus English has become an international language (Ota 2010). Globalisation and the establishment of new economic trading unions have already started to have effects on the interrelations between the major languages. The construction of big economic blocs raises language demands: in the countries of the European Union (EU), two trends have been pre-eminent in respect of language learning and acquaintance with different languages - the generalisation of English and the teaching of a limited number of other languages to a minority of students. Multilingualism in Europe is, however, costly: the translation and interpretation market in Europe in 1997 was estimated at 3.75 billion Euros (Maurais 2004: 13). The growth and abandonment of languages is a social fact, which typically mirrors power relations. The vanishing of a language always has non-linguistic causes which are the consequence of a balance of forces. According to Maurais, it has been estimated that 90% of all the world’s languages will disappear or be close to disappearing in the twenty-first century. Some scholars, however, reject the view that a significant number of languages will disappear in the twenty-first century. They believe that the current number of languages in the world is larger than most linguists believe (there may be 10,000 languages instead of 6,000) and the pace of disappearance is less than has been estimated (Maurais 2004: 28). Huntington focuses on the supposed threat to English as other languages may replace English as an international language. He states: As the power of the West gradually declines relative to that of other civilisations, the use of English and other Western languages in other societies and for communications between societies will also slowly erode. If at some point in the distant future China displaces the West as the dominant civilisation in the world, English will give way to Mandarin as the world’s lingua franca (Huntington 1996: 63). Although many scholars view the current dominance of English purely as a result of political and economic factors, Graddol (1997, in Kibbee 2004: 48) describes the supremacy of English internationally as the effect of the intrinsic qualities of the language. A basic feature of English is that it is remarkable for its diversity and its tendency to change. This allows it to expand quickly into new domains, explaining in part its success as a world language. Another explanation for the position of English in the world is the believed simplicity of learning English compared to other languages like German and French. 368

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There is a human as well as economic cost to bringing endangered languages up to the level some consider essential to guarantee their continued existence. If existence requires the condition of formal education and government services in each of these languages, the economic costs are beyond the ability even of developed countries, much less of developing countries. They are consequently theoretical and practical obstacles to the conception of linguistic justice promoted by some linguists. Theoretically also, the notion of linguistic purity - just as hazardous as notions of racial purity - lies just underneath the surface. On the practical side, the human and economic cost of providing all services in all languages is beyond the means of even the richest nations, and most of the world’s jeopardised languages are found in the developing, rather than the developed, world. It has been argued that as researchers we can and must help those who wish to maintain their linguistic inheritance (ibid: 54-56). I took part in the UNESCO International Conference ‘Multilingualism in Europe’ which was held in Vienna in 2008. I believe such conferences are necessary in the Arab world where many minority languages need intervention to preserve them. In Jordan for example, Circassians, Chechens, Kurds and Armenians are keen to revitalise their ancestral languages. The first conference in Jordan on the Circassian language was held in 2009. 1.6 Arabic and the challenges of globalisation Some Arabs have, to some extent, very slowly and reluctantly come to accept globalised values which are basically western. Many Arab scholars, however, have warned of the destruction of traditional Arab values by globalisation. But because globalisation is an ongoing process in the modern world, Arab societies cannot in practice prevent globalisation from crossing their borders. Despite the rejection of globalisation by many Arab scholars, politicians, economists and academics, I believe that globalisation has affected almost all aspects of life in Arab societies and their governments. These influences vary from daily routine – food, clothes and social habits – to the more complex ways of thinking which result in requests to changes in critical matters like modification of civil law which may eventually contradict with Islamic law ‫ شَري َعة‬šarī’a and deeply-rooted social conventions and traditional habits. Such traditions can be sometimes more influential than religious teachings. The ‘Islamic modernists’ who appeared in the nineteenth century believed that Islam is not only attuned with reason, advancement and social harmony and the bases of modern civilisation, if suitably understood, it positively directs them. Such ideas were put forward by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897), whose writings were vague but significant. They were developed more fully and clearly in the writings of the Egyptian Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905), whose writings were to have a huge and permanent influence all over the Muslim world. Such a vision of Islam was to become an element of the equipping of the mind of many educated Arab Muslims, and of Muslims beyond the Arab world. Abduh’s most famous follower, the Syrian Rashid Rida (1865-1935), tried to develop laws fitting to the modern world within the structure of a revised ‫ شريعة‬šarī’a (Hourani 1991: 307-308). There is currently much speculation among Arab scholars about the standing and direction of the Arabic language. As far as the researcher is concerned, the use of thousands of loan words by Arabic speakers, particularly the new generations is clear evidence of the linguistic impact on Arabic of globalisation. The infiltration of foreign terms into the Arabic language is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently become more pronounced because of globalisation. The Arabic language is unique in its rapid expansion following the rise of Islam as one of the world’s major languages. Nabil (2001) affirms that Arabic has survived for seventeen centuries 369

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies as the most prominent element of Arabic culture which is totally linked to the Arab Islamic identity. Stetkevych (1970: 1) says of Arabic that What remains certain is that, in a way, it is a privileged language. It has lived for one millennium and a half essentially unchanged, usually gaining, never completely losing. In the overall context of the problems facing Arabic language in the age of globalisation, Morrow & Castleton (2007: 2) look at historical precedents, such as the eradication of Arabic in Spain. After the fall of the Arab-Muslim kingdoms in Spain, the Arabic language was forbidden and severe penalties were imposed on those who spoke or wrote in Arabic. There were also bans on Islamic dress, prayers, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca. Morrow & Castleton relate the ban on Arabic to the purging of Islamic presence and culture. They also note that when the Western powers colonised the Arabic-Islamic world, they tried to weaken Islam through the elimination of Arabic because they were conscious of the great influence of the Arabic language. Consequently they attempted to replace it with their own languages; and they fought Standard Arabic by promoting local varieties and regional dialects of Arabic. Morrow and Castleton attempt to prove that Arabic was fought as a means of fighting Islam, regardless whether this rejection of Islam came from within or abroad. For example, they explore the past attempts to undermine Islam by removing the Arabic alphabet in Turkey on the part of Kemal Ataturk who replaced it with the Latin one, so future generations in Turkey would have to make a huge effort to learn the Arabic script to read the Quran and Islamic religious texts. Morrow and Castleton regard the false perspective of Westerners towards Islam and Muslims as a central problem, affirming that the two billion Muslims are not the few who react aggressively according to their understanding of Western and American policy. They argue that this misconception of Muslims and Islam has created a new version of anti-Semitism, which they term ‘anti-Muslimism’ or ‘anti-Islamism’, and claim that this has distorted the image of Muslims. Beira Jakli (2010) distinguishes between aspects and goals of current globalisation and the old globalisation during the Greek, Roman and Islamic periods. Present-day globalisation is economic and cultural in nature, aiming to impose capitalism on the nations of the world by eliminating their cultures. By contrast, in Arab Islamic culture the notion of ‘globalism’ ‫عالمية‬ ‘ālmiyya presupposes equality between people and the organisation of relations between nations on the basis of mutual respect. I believe that this kind of globalism – a form of universalism – has been emphasised for fourteen centuries in Arabic culture. One of the most important verses in the opening chapter of the Quran ‫حة‬ ‫ سو‬sūrat al-fātiḥ a reads (praise be to Allah, َ ‫الفا َرتِة‬ َ‫ما ُل‬ the cherisher and the sustainer of the ‫مين‬ worlds ‫م‬ ‫ل ّ َِع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ al-ḥamdu lilahi rabbi al -’ālamīn). Universalism, ََِِ here, is emphasised and given much weight in a way which implies the universality of all mankind through referring to all people of the world alike. The Arabic language, as the basic pillar of Arab-Islamic culture, is undoubtedly influenced by globalisation, which is deemed to be a threat to the so-called marginal cultures. Morrow & Castleton (2007: 2) focus on the frequency of religious terms in Arabic which are purely Islamic expressions. Samuel Huntington (1996: 56-68) affirms that language and religion are the major constituents of any culture. Thus, Arabic faces the challenge of globalisation, which threatens the non-western cultures of the world. If Islam is a target for those who try to distort its essence, then the Arabic language is necessarily and indirectly attacked as the carrier of Islamic civilisation. 370

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Beira Jakli (2010) summarises the effects of linguistic globalisation on Arabic. These include the insistence on resorting to foreign languages such as English or French as a media of instruction in many Arab universities and schools. The use of English digits to represent Arabic sounds that do not exist in English is, in her opinion, another dangerous aspect of the impact of globalisation on the Arabic language. Young Arabs use this in two major facets of globalisation, the internet and texting messages. Some designate this phenomenon by the newly coined term ‘Arabish’ from the two words ‘Arabic’ and ‘English’ that is writing Arabic in English letters. I believe that this change is not a threat to Arabic as it only involves transliteration. Other symbols already exist to represent Arabic sounds that are lacking in English. What end users have done is to create a new system which has been applied through the new technology of internet and mobile phones. They have chosen English numerals that are similar in shape to Arabic letters, for example, the numeral ‘7’ for the Arabic letter ‫( ح‬ḥ), and ‘3’ for the Arabic letter (‫)‘( )ع‬. In this context, we may note that the numerals which are used now in English are originally Arabic (having been adopted by the Arabs from India), and are known as Arabic numerals, to distinguish them from the older Roman numerals, in English. Another sociolinguistic aspect of the influence of globalisation on Arabic is the spread of code-switching between Arabic and English among younger Arabs. It is believed by some speakers that the use of English words when speaking in Arabic will make them appear educated and superior to others in their society; code-switching, thus, has social implications (Eid 1992: 50-52). The linguistic relativity theory of Sapir and Whorf assumes that speakers of different languages think and act in a different way partly because of the differences in the way languages decide cultural and cognitive categories. In other words, language determines thought and linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories. Whorf (1956: 134) develops Sapir’s view of the significant interconnections between language, culture and psychology. In (ibid: 159) Whorf emphasises the connections between cultural norms and linguistic patterns. He concludes that there is a relation between a language and the other aspect of culture. On this basis, it can be argued that a language is a representation of its native speakers’ reality; whether this actuality reflects the advancement or backwardness of the society (Al-Maqaleh 2007). The current situation of the Arabic language is a reflection of and response to the current intellectual weakness of the Arab nation. The Arabs have the potential to rise again together with their language through the adoption of a civilisational project. The efforts to carry this burden must be shouldered by all; it is not merely the responsibility of the Arabic language academies as the mission is huge. Intellectuals, academics, political groups, the mass media, language academies and translation associations must work hand in hand to create coordinated co-operation built on methodical plans to improve Arabic. Globalisation is a two-sided coin. Any culture which can creatively adapt itself to globalisation and make use of its advantages, will achieve much progress. China, for example, is growing rapidly having become at least relatively open to other cultures and having translated knowledge into Chinese. Mandarin has become a language for many people to learn. This demand for Mandarin has accompanied the rise of its civilisation and advancement of its economy and people. Srouri (2009) claims that the Arab mentality is a result of an isolating environment which segregates the Arabs intellectually and linguistically in a way that prevents the Arab individual from coping with modernity and moving towards the age of globalisation. This delineation of the current state of Arab intellectuals helps to understand the reasons behind the fear of and slow movement towards reform in the Arabic language. However, the Arabs have no choice; they have to accept the new world order and face it rather than deny it and retreat. The result, if they were to do so, would only be further ignorance. 371

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Srouri (ibid) summarises the basic challenges facing Arabic. The first is the lack of a base for digital knowledge which has become the focus of contemporary knowledge and sciences. He also stresses the deficiency of translation work into Arabic, which he calls ‘translation anaemia’. Few of the great books of modern civilisation have yet been translated into Arabic, although Arabic was itself the language of human civilisation in the Abbasid era by virtue of translation missions to render books of philosophy, medicine, astronomy, logic, mathematics and arts from Greek, Persian, Sanskrit, Ethiopic and many other languages into Arabic. Assayid et al. (2010) believe that the economic, social and political conditions in the Arab world, the information explosion and globalisation have not shown that Arabic is incapable of handling modernisation. Arabic is not the obstacle; rather it is the intellectual petrifaction of some scholars. We believe that this is right; Arabic has proved that it is a flexible language capable of taking words from different languages which can successfully become part of the lexical reservoir. Language is fundamental to transformations in scientific fields as a basic means for acquiring scholarly knowledge, and no growth can be made without it. The technological challenges that Arab culture and language face are alarming. Each country therefore finds itself forced to form its language in ways that adjust to and gain from the requirements of the modern age. The confrontation which is imposed by technology on languages influences every country in the world, including the Arab countries. The internet as one facet of globalization, for example, has increased the number of Arabs looking for new technologies. They demand that their language assimilates these new technologies, in order to become one of the major technological languages (Laroussi 2004: 250-151). 1.7 Overcoming objections to the development of Arabic Arabic language modernisation and the different attitudes towards it are indissolubly linked to the overall development of the Arab world. Like many other nations, the Arabs have been modernising the material side of their culture by developing the infrastructure of their countries. Nevertheless, the development and modernisation of the Arab countries is still unsatisfactory. There exists a strong opposition on the part of a majority of people to changes in some pillars of Arab-Islamic culture, foremost among which are the Arabic language and religious thinking. The strong opposition to cultural and linguistic change does not mean that no change has yet taken place. On the contrary, change is evident in the public life of the Arabs and in the Arab media. This is because of the strong influence coming from the West, in particular, which has started to change some people’s mind-set. For example, a visitor to Damascus, the old capital of the Umayyad Caliphate, would notice that many shops have English rather than Arabic names, even though, the cultural and political norms in Syria stress the use of Arabic. These norms are not only influenced by the nationalist party which rules the country, but also by the public opinion of Syrian academics, scholars and educated people. Ultimately, the researcher believes that change is inevitable regardless of the existence of opponents of change in cultural aspects of life. This being the case, we believe that everyone can consent to the following idea. For a language to be open to technology on which economic and social growth depends, it is crucial to sustain it with satisfactory instruments. It is not easy to react confidently to the future of Arabic in a globalising world. If Arabic is to become one of the major technological languages, the Arab 372

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies countries must provide all the necessary resources to realise this. This calls into question a linguistic ideology which considers language as a pure, harmonised, and accordingly unchangeable object. The difficulty is enormous as the Arabic language is not the language of a single country and is not managed by a single agency, but rather by quite a few agencies often having inconsistent language policies. Any appraisal of Arabic must be conscious of problems posed by numerous, distinct and habitually contending national sovereignties. While there exists near-agreement about the requirement to bestow on Arabic new instruments and techniques in order to make it into one of the major technological languages, there is no accord about the vision that diverse Arab countries have of the issue, their approaches, their strategies, or the means to attain them (Laroussi 2004: 250-151). In endeavouring to restore Arabic as a flexible tool of thinking and, at the same time, to make it representative of cultural revival in the nation-state, the Arabs have encountered a number of problems. As examined above (see 5.1 and 5.2), the lengthy stage of stagnation following the intrusion and dominance of foreign powers led to a decline in Arab culture and the Arabic language. The inability to adopt one single approach has also slowed down much-needed linguistic development. The linguistic argument has been complicated by the range of attitudes and the clash of values. For example, some people have called for radical reform including the Latinisation of the Arabic script, and the renovation of grammar and the lexicon. Others seek simplification of the language but with strict adherence to the Classical traditions. The backers of purism would like to protect the language in compliance with traditions and literary usage from both foreignism ‫ دَخيل‬daxīl and indigenous colloquialism ‫‘ عا َّمي‬āmmi. Unaware, conceivably, of the advances made elsewhere in the different disciplines, they have failed to realise that language is subject to the same changes as those affecting society in the political, economic, intellectual, and educational spheres (Chejne 1969: 145-149). 1.8 Conclusion Rapid development in a globalising world will inevitably lead to extensive changes in societies and their languages in particular at the lexical level. Arabic is rich, and adequate for the purposes which have been assigned to it for a long period; but it should adapt itself to new tasks to eliminate any inability to transmit novel ideas and concepts. If the Arabs continue to treat Arabic as a sacred language which accepts no change, they will soon find it difficult to discuss the new sciences and knowledge properly with traditional vocabulary (Ayalon 1987: 4). Reform in Arab societies is linked to reform in the Arabic language. Some Arab scholars accepted this in the early twentieth century. Before the current period of globalisation, they grasped the necessity of developing the Arabic language to face new challenges. The future of Arabic depends on several trends of which the most important are political and ideological. No real endeavour has been made to carry out a true reform of the language which can cope with the present challenges. Languages develop and change naturally because they express human thought, which changes according to peoples’ needs and innovations. Changes in thought yield change and development in languages. This phenomenon is applicable to all languages with no exception. Developing the Arabic language is a basic step towards comprehensive development in the Arab world. The development of the Arabic language will empower the language to encompass the knowledge revolution in all scientific fields. This development will not necessarily distort the linguistic

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies system of Arabic, as it is related to the functions of the language, its stylistics, vocabulary enrichment and semantics. The modernisation of Arabic to cope with the challenges of globalisation requires all concerned people to know that: 1. Arabic is like a biological entity which grows and develops according to the needs of its native speakers, those speakers deciding on language change rather than language academies and planners who can only organise such change. 2. The modernisation of Arabic must be linked to social, economic and political changes in the Arab societies. Thus, the Arabic language development process must correspond to the development of society. 3. It is necessary to be open to all advances in a globalising world, and to adopt ideas of knowledge transfer to Arabic. 4. Arabic language modernisation efforts should make use of other nations’ experiences in this field, and the modernisation process must be based on the scientific methodology of linguistics and language planning. 5. The relationship between all bodies concerned with this process must be organised within a legal framework to be drawn up by governments and authoritative bodies. These concerned bodies are the language academies and language practitioners who plan for the language, the government which legislates and issues regulations for language usage, and the end users who use the language and initiate the change. Throughout the process of revitalisation which started in the nineteenth century, the Arabic language gained in importance. Whether under the Ottoman Turks or European colonialism, constant calls were made not only to revitalise the language, but also to make it the acknowledged instrument of expression in the nation-state and at all levels of Arab society. In the age of globalisation, we need to follow the Arab Muslims of medieval times and possess the self-assurance required to borrow at will in order to meet linguistic needs. Present-day problems should not prevent linguistic revival, nor should they reduce faith in the success of the language. There is almost undivided agreement that remaining linguistic problems can be solved only if a single programme is adopted and implemented by the whole Arab-speaking world. The achievement of this project will be guaranteed only if it is undertaken quickly. Chejne (1969: 172-175) concluded that the core of the linguistic problem confronting the Arabs is that the language has been subject to internal and external demands; it has been caught between the past and the present, and between the ideal and the real. For Arabic to move ahead as a global language, the willingness to change needs to become deeprooted. One cannot waste time in ideological debates that are of no advantage to the language. Rather, it is necessary to agree on a pragmatic, practical approach that will enhance language policies. No linguistic reform relying on the wide agreement of users of the language is likely outside a democratic context. It is, of course, legitimate for the Arabs to look back to their glorious past, but it is essential that this past also stimulates them to achieve the transformations necessary for the required reforms in language and other domains alike.

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References Ayalon, Ami (1987). Language and Change in the Arab Middle East: the Evolution of the Modern Political Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beyer, Peter (1994). Religion and Globalisation. London: Sage. Chejne, Anwar (1969). The Arabic Language: Its Role in History. University of Minneapolis Press. Eid, Mushira (1992). ‘Directionality in Arabic- English code switching’ in Rouchdy, Aleya (eds.), The Arabic Language in America. Michigan: Wayne State University Press. Gassick, Trevor (1979). Major Themes in Modern Arabic: An Anthology. The United States of America: The university of Michigan press. Giddens, Anthony (1990). The consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Haynes, J. (1993). Religion in Third World Politics. Buckingham: Open University Press. Hirst, Paul & Thompson, Grahame (1996). Globalisation in Question. USA: Blackwell Publishers Inc. Hobson, John (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hourani, Albert (1991). A History of the Arab Peoples. United States of America: The Be lknap Press of Harvard University Press. Hourani, Albert (1962). Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Huntington, Samuel (1993). The clash of civilisations?, Foreign Affairs 72 (3), Summer. Huntington, Samuel (1996). The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster. Kibbee, Douglas A. (2003). ‘Language Policy and Linguistic Theory’ in Maurais, Jacques , Morris Michael A. (eds.), Languages in a Globalising World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kiely, Ray (1998). ‘Globalisation, (Post-) modernity and the Third World’ in Kiely, Ray & Marfleet, Phil (eds.), Globalisation and the third World. London: Routledge. Laroussi, Foued (2003). ‘Arabic and New Technologies’ in Maurais, Jacques , Morris Michael A. (eds.), Languages in a Globalising World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marfleet, Phil (1998). ‘Globalisation and religious activism’ in Kiely, Ray & Marfleet, Phil (eds.), Globalisation and the third World. London: Routledge. Maurais, Jacques (2003). ‘Towards a new global linguistic order’ in Maurais, Jacques , Morris

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Michael A. (eds.), Languages in a Globalising World. Cambridge University Press. Mcluhan, Marshall (1960). ‘Classroom without walls’ in Mcluhan, Marshall & Carpenter, Edmund (eds.), Explorations in communication: An anthology. Boston: Beacon Press. Nabil, Ali (2001). ‘The Arabic Language and Challenges of Globalisation’. Journal of the Jordan Academy of Arabic. Amman. Robertson, Roland (1992). Globalisation: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage. Schelling, Vivian (1998). ‘Globalisation, ethnic identity and popular culture in Latin America’ in Kiely, Ray & Marfleet, Phil (eds.), Globalisation and the third World. London: Routledge. Stetkevych, Jaroslav (1970). The Modern Arabic Literary Language: Lexical and Stylistic Development. Chicago & London: the University of Chicago Press. Sulaiman, Yaser (2003). The Arabic Language and National Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Waters, M. (1995). Globalisation. London: Routledge. Whorf, Bejamin Lee (1956) Caroll, John (eds.) Language, Thought and Reality. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T Press. Websites articles: Al Maqaleh, Abdul Aziz (2007) Arabic Language Academies: Challenges and Obstacles. A Lecture to The Cairo Academy of Arabic. http://www.almaqaleh.net/pdf/tahadiat_almagma2007.pdf Assayed, Mahmoud and Rahmo, Abdul Qader, The Arabic Language and the Challenges of Cultural Globalisation, ‫الثقافية‬ ‫العولمة‬ ‫تحميات‬ ‫العربية‬ ‫امام‬ ‫اللغة‬. A Lecture delivered in the Arab Centre for Strategic Studies. http://www.albadil.net/?page=ShowDetails&Id=295&table=articles Beira Jakli, Zainb (2010). The impact of globalisation on Arabic. http://www.alimbaratur.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=12055&view=previous&sid=f96 a1e4834310f6f1c699b381c40e423 Morrow, John A. & Castleton, Barbara (2007). The Impact of Globalisation on the Arabic. http://www.uri.edu/iaics/content/2007v16n2/16%20John%20A.%20Morrow%20&% 20Barbara%20Castleton.pdf Ota, Norio (2010). Impact of Globalisation on Japanese Language and Culture. http://buna.arts.yorku.ca/japanese/ejlt/globalization.pdf Srouri, Habib Abdul Rabb (2009). The Arabic Language in Globalisation’s Storm. Al Jazeera Studies Centre. http://al-tagheer.com/arts2624.ht ml UNESCO & Infoterm (2005). Guidelines for Terminology Policies: Formulating and Implementing 376

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Terminology Policy in Language Communities. Paris. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001407/140765e.pdf United Nations (2002). Annual Review of Developments on Globalisation and Regional Integration in the Countries of the ESCWA Region. United Nations: New York. http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/grid-02-2.pdf

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The Relationship between Cohesion and Coherence in Writing: The Case of Thai EFL Students Parin Tanawong Department of Western Languages, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand [email protected] Somsak Kaewnuch Department of Western Languages, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand [email protected] Abstract This study investigated the relationship between cohesion and coherence in English compositions. Cohesion facilitates text comprehension and is assumed to be related to text coherence and overall writing quality. However, previous studies’ results showed fluctuation in the strength of the relationships amongthese features. The fluctuation of the correlation might have been caused by an improbable analogy between the quantity of cohesive ties and the other two features. This study, therefore, avoided the improbable analogy by using the quality of cohesion in examining the correlation betweencohesion and coherence. Forty-six English compositions from Thai EFL students were analyzed. Cohesive ties were identified, counted, and categorized. The characters of cohesion and coherence were described and used to evaluatetheir qualities. The result shows that the correlation coefficient between the quality of the two features is r=0.48 with a significance level at ρ=0.002. This suggests that there is a statistically significant medium correlation between the quality of cohesion and that of coherence in the English compositions of Thai EFL participants. Keywords: Cohesion, Coherence, Correlation, EFL Writing, Thai Students

The background of the study Researchers have been looking for overarching factors that distinguish good and poor writing. These factors are crucial in shaping classroom instructionshelping foreign and second language learners to write in the target language.At the beginning of the searching,contrastive analysis(Lado, 1957)was introduced. It explains that the degrees of difficulties learning aforeign or second language depend on the distance between the native and the target language of the learners.Later, it was found that such difficulties were instead mostly from the process of learning, similarly to that of learning the native language.This led the researchers toerror analysis(Corder, 1967).Error analysisfocuses on types and quantity of errors. It shed light on the wayfor the learners to walktoward errorless writing. However, well-formed and correct sentences yet do not guarantee good writing quality. A piece of writing could still be appearedin chunks of unrelated sentences. Therefore, researchers must look beyond the sentential boundary toward the connectedness of sentences which is the mechanism of discourse features, cohesion and coherence. Cohesion is the use of cohesive ties to sequence and connect sentences together and cause text to be understood as connected discourse(Halliday & Hasan, 1976), andcoherence is a continuity of senses among the knowledge activated by the expressions of the text and make text makes 378

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies sense to the reader (de Beaugrande & Dressler, 1981). Researchers claim that for a text to be coherent, it needs cohesion. Johns(1986) suggested that coherence in a written text involve a multitude of text-based features: cohesion and unity, and reader-based features: the interactions between the readers and the text depending on prior knowledge. Lee(2002)reviewed a number of literatures and came up withfeatures that contributes coherence. These features are macrostructure(Hoey, 1983; Martin & Rothery, 1986), information structure(Danes, 1974; Firbas, 1986 as cited in Lee, 2002),the connectivity of the underlying content(Kintsch & van Dijk, 1978; van Dijk, 1980), metadiscourse(Crismore, Markkanen, & Steffensen, 1993; van de Kopple, 1985), and cohesion(Halliday & Hasan, 1976).Hence, there must be an interaction between cohesion andcoherence. Coherenceplays an important role in writing quality (Lee, 2002; Witte & Faigley, 1981). This implies that cohesion must also have a role in writing quality, because cohesionis considered to be part of coherence. However, the investigations of the relationships among these features yield fluctuated results.Witte &Faigley(1981)studied high and low rated essays written by university students and found that highrated essays have denser cohesive ties than low rated essays.Khalil (1989)studied the relationship between the quantity cohesive ties and the coherence score in twenty essays written by Arab university students. The result shows that there is low correlation between cohesion and coherence. Chiang(1999)studied the relationship between variousgrammatical and discourse features in 172 essays using rating scales. He found that the raters relied heavily on cohesion in judging the quality of essays. Liu & Braine (2005)studied the relationship between the quantity of each type of cohesive ties and quality of writing in fifty essays written by freshmen in a university in China. The result shows that the quality of writing correlate to each type of cohesion at different degrees.Lexical cohesion correlates to the quality of writing the most followed by reference and conjunction.Dueraman(2006)studies the relationship between the quantity of cohesive ties and writing quality in essays written by fourteen Malaysian and fourteen Thai medical students. The result shows that there were no differences in the number of cohesive ties used between high and low rated essays. Crossley& McNamara(2010) investigated the relationships among cohesion, coherence, and writing quality of 184 essays written by university students. The result shows that coherence is predictive to writing quality and there is negative correlation between the quantity of cohesive ties and the writing quality. This means high rated essays in coherence have less cohesive ties and vice versa. The fluctuation of theprevious results suggested that the actual relationships between cohesion and coherence/writing quality have not yet been discovered. The present study suggests that the fluctuation might have been caused by improbable analogy between the quantity of cohesive ties and the quality of coherence. The analogy is assumed to be improbable because of two assumptions. First, to determine the relationship, the researchers looked at correlation coefficient which represents the strength and the direction of linear relationship between the two variables. This means the correlation would be positive if and only if the text samples show increasing quantity of cohesive ties along with increasing quality of coherence/writing quality. However, it is questionable that does the increasing quantity of the ties yield the increasing quality of coherence indefinitely, or should there be an optimum amount of cohesive ties in a text that effectively facilitates maximum coherence.If it is the latter,the amount of the ties which is greater than this optimum point is redundancy and do not facilitate coherence. The correlation between the features cannot be in linear. By applying linear correlation, the result, therefore, yield low or no correlation. The second assumptionrelates the participants’ native language background.Investigating the relationship on native speakers, researchers could assume that the participants, who mostly were in the academic environments, used cohesive ties correctly and appropriately because it is their native language. Therefore, the quantity of 379

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies the ties could be an indicator distinguishes high and low coherence or good and poor writing quality. For foreign and second language learners, there are more chances that grammatical errors and inappropriate use of cohesive ties occurs. A high number of them in a text cause difficulty to a reader to comprehend. In result, the reader feels that the writing is less coherence and has poor writing quality. But this does not mean cohesion does not facilitate coherence and writing quality in general.As such, more research is necessary to reveal the actual relationships between cohesion and coherence/writing quality and the researcher should be concerned about the improbable analogy caused by the use of the quantity of cohesion in the investigation.

Objectives of the study

1. To underline the characters of cohesion and the characters of coherence in order to evaluate their qualities. 2. To compare the quality of cohesion and the quality of coherence in order to find the relationship between these two discourse features.

Research questions

1. What are the characters of cohesion and the characters of coherence in English compositions written by Thai EFL participants? 2. Is there a relationship between cohesion and coherence in the compositions written by Thai EFL participants?

Methodology Participants The participants in the present studyare twenty three undergraduate students in English major, Srinakharinwirot University. The participants were taking Writing Composition I course when they participated in the present study. The present study also required two raters to extract cohesive ties and evaluate the quality of cohesion and that of coherence. The raters were M.A. students in Teaching English as a Foreign Language. One of the raters has been teaching English as a foreign language for five years. The other rater has experiences in academic writing in English speaking country for several years. Composition Forty-six compositions were used in this study. The compositions were written bythe participants.Each participant wrote two compositions to response two articles they have read in class.The participants had chances to present their compositions in the class for teacher and peers reviews and produced final drafts. Final drafts were collected and used in this present study on purpose to investigate cohesion and coherence at students’ best capability.

Instrumentation

This study needs three instruments to extract data from the compositions and to prepare the data for the analysis. The instruments are cohesive tie identification form, cohesion rating scale form, and coherence rating scale form. Cohesive tie identification form providedspace for the raters to fill information of cohesive ties. The information are (1) cohesive ties and the sentence number the ties are found, (2) the subtype of each type of cohesion, (3) the presupposed items and the sentence number the presupposed items are found, (4) the correctness or appropriateness of how each tie is used, 380

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies and (5) comments and suggestions. The raters used this preliminary data to rate the quality of cohesion using cohesion rating scale form. Cohesion rating scale form was used to measure the quality of cohesion. The form consists of five items which relate to the five types of cohesion defined by Halliday&Hasan (1976): (a) references are used appropriately and accurately, (b) substitution is used where needed and accurately, (c) ellipsis is used where needed and accurately, (d) conjunction words are used judiciously and accurately, and (e) sets of words are used meaningfully and appropriately.Each item contains scale from 5 to 1 indicating the highest and lowest cohesion quality. If a type of cohesive tie was not found, the raters selectedN/A and it is not included in the calculation of averaged cohesion score. Coherence rating scale formwas used to measure the quality of coherence. The form consists of five items: (A) The beginning section is effective in introducing the reader to the subject and the ending gives the reader a definite sense of closure, (B) The ideas in the essay are all very relevant to the topic, (C) Ideas mentioned are elaborated, (D) The division of paragraphs is justifiable in terms of content relevance and the transition between paragraphs is smooth, and (E) The writer's overall point of view is clear. These items reflect the overall organization of a composition. They are adapted from Chiang (1999). Similarly to cohesion rating scale, items in coherence rating scale contains scale from 5 to 1 indicating the highest to lowest quality of coherence.

Data collection To collect data, first there was an orientation between the researcher and the two raters. The purpose of the orientation is to clarify knowledge about the two discourse features, to instruct how to identify cohesive ties, to instruct how to score cohesion based on information from cohesive tie identification form, and to instruct how to score coherence. Later, both raters received all forty six compositions and the instrumentation.The raters had a specific period of time to complete all the forms and returned them back to the researcher. The researcher, finally, managed descriptive data such as the characters of cohesion and coherence and inserted numerical data such as the quantity of cohesive ties and cohesion and coherence scores in a spread sheet program for statistical analysis.

Data analysis The correlation between cohesion and coherence were determined by Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient (PPMCC or PCC).The result of PPMCC ranges from 0.0 to 1.0 for positive correlation and from -1.0 to 0.0 for negative correlation. Cohen (1988)interprets these values as presented in table 1. Table 1 The interpretation of the correlation calculated by PPMCC Correlation Negative Positive None Small Medium Strong

-0.09 to 0.0 -0.3 to -0.1 -0.5 to -0.3 -1.0 to -0.5

0.0 to 0.09 0.1 to 0.3 0.3 to 0.5 0.5 to 1.0

Two sets of data to be calculated for the correlation were cohesion and coherence scores. The scores from items (a) to (e) in a cohesion rating scale form of an individual composition were averaged. Similarly, the scores from item (A) to (E) in a coherence rating scale form of this individual composition were averaged. Therefore, one composition containedtwo pairsof cohesion score and coherence score, from two raters. The averaged cohesion scores and coherence scores between the two raters were used to calculate the correlation. Finally, all 381

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies forty-six compositions gave two sets of data: forty-six cohesion scores and forty-six coherence scores. By applying a mathematic function in a spreadsheet program, it carried out PPMCC with a significance value. In addition, the correlation between the two raters was also calculated. This is to verify that the two raters scored cohesion and coherence on the same trend.

Findings The quantity of cohesive ties

Figure 1 Thequantity of cohesive ties used in forty-six compositions. Cohesive ties identification forms revealed that the participants used lexical cohesion and reference cohesion the most at 44.00% and 43.36%, followed by conjunction at 12.14%. In lexical cohesion, the participants used reiteration at 88.69%, collocation at 9.85%, words that perform both reiteration and collocation at 1.45%. In reference, the participants used personal reference at 75.26%, demonstrative reference 24.32%, and comparative reference 0.42%. In conjunction, the participants used causal conjunction at 34.02%, additive 24.62%, temporal 23.50%, adversative 17.67%, and others 0.19%. Substitution and ellipsis were used the least, both less than 1% which nominal substitution and nominal ellipsis were used the most.

The characters of cohesion Cohesive ties identification forms revealedcohesion errors in the participants’ compositions.Grammatical and non-grammatical errors were found inlexical cohesion, reference, and conjunction. A lexical cohesiongrammatical errorissingular/plural disagreementbetween a wordand its reiteration. For example, a participant wrote “Another reason is she has many better ways to solve her problems. The first way is talk to her husband about causation of his behavior and solves this problem together.” The word “problems” in the first sentence is used in plural from, while its reiteration “problem” in the second sentence is used in singular form. The error could confuse a reader whether the writer wrote about the same problem(s). A lexical cohesion non-grammatical error is a wrong selection of a word. For 382

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies example a participant wrote “It is sticky, stretch, durable and flexible fitting. So, condom is clause that sperm cannot pass away. When man ejaculate condom can block sperm not to pass through enter the uterus of the female has no sperm was not pregnant.” In this example, a set of words were used inappropriately. The participant should have selected a pair of words from either “man” and “woman” or “male” and “female” to naturalize the text. Several types of grammatical error were found when the participants used reference. First, the error is singular/plural disagreement between a word and its pronoun. For example, a participant wrote “Sometimes I have seen many organizations to distribute free condoms. It is commonly used for nowadays because it is a simple to buy.” Reference “It” and“it” should have been “They” and “they” because “condoms” is written in plural form. The singular/plural disagreement is also found when the participants used demonstrative reference “this”, “that”, “these”, and “those”. The reference was used not correspond to singular/plural form of the forthcoming words. Second, reference grammatical error is the misuse of demonstrative reference “the”. For example, a participant wrote “I think that six of them is so pity because they have to solve a problem alone. In this article was told by priest is about the woman who get married with a bad fellow” Demonstrative reference “the” is misused because it is used with a non-specific noun. Therefore, an article “a” should have been used instead. Last, reference grammatical error is the misuse of subject pronoun, object pronoun, and reflexive pronoun. For example, a participant wrote “They do not think about health risk involved with those pills. Nowadays, especially teenagers who want to be proud of them choose this method that is the wrong way.” The participant used object pronoun “them”, but with the structure of the sentence, reflexive pronoun “themselves” should have been used. Reference non-grammatical erroris theuseof referencetie to refer to multiple items intext. For example, a participant wrote “The important thing after the accident was,Nichkhun was really concerned about the motorcycle driver. He got off a car to see him immediately and didn’t escape anyhow.” A pronoun reference “he” and its objective form “him” is used to refer back to both Nichkhun and the motorcycle driver. A reader needs effort to interpret which “he” and “him” the participant is referring to. The present study found that conjunction grammatical error is the misuse of conjunction tie with respect to the sentences’ meanings. For example, a participant wrote “Korean wave has become one of the most beloved pop cultures among Thai teenagers over the last 10 years, more than American popular culture and they are choosing what they consider to be more Asian.”According to the sentences’ meanings, the part after “and” is the cause of the previous part. Therefore, the participant should have used “because” to emphasize the relationship. Conjunction non-grammatical error is found when the participants do not write sentences in the way that deserve a conjunction tie. For example, a participant wrote“News reported said that Nichkhun was drunk because he had an alcohol over the limit of Korean law.” When a person is drunk, it is because the amount of alcohol in the blood is over the limit of the body to maintain consciousness, not because the amount of alcohol is beyond the accepted level written by law. It seems that the information is not enough to use “because”. An alternative rewriting could be“Nichkhun was drunk and he was arrested because he had alcohol over the limit allowed by the law.” Substitution and ellipsis were found rarely in the present study and only grammatical error is found. Substitution grammatical error is found when nominal substitution “one” was used to substitute none of the item in text. For example, a participant wrote “For me, male is the sexual which should help and protect the women and the poor one, they must not injure them. It would be the worst thing for men if they injured the poor one.”From this example, a reader would not be sure what “one” the participant was substituting. Ellipsis grammatical error found when a verbal ellipsis was used, but it was difficult for a reader to realize which verbhas been omitted. 383

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies For example, a participant wrote“If they tell you that it is good, you must follow them. Sometimes you want to know the explanation that how it is good or useful, but they don’t…”,whichthe full form is “…but they do not explain.” However, none of the prior sentences consist of the verb “explain” only a noun “explanation”is presented.

The characters of coherence Plenty of coherence weaknesses were found in the compositions. These weaknesses degraded the quality of text coherence. A composition is presented here is to illustrate coherence weaknesses. This composition is a response tothe article “A Sharp, Beribboned Message to Abusive Husband”. Violence is not Our Culture The present, our country has been face with a lot of problems from the smallest aspect up to the most grievous ones. One of problem, it’s about life after marriage. This problem can be caused by other problems such as domestic violence, drug and so on. Similarly, in the story is about a wife tried to protect herself from her husband who abused again and again when he drunk.In my opinion, I disagree with violence behavior of them because it's not a good way to solve a problem. I think the story is a dilemma problem because the sheriff investigated what everybody already knew that she made a mistake but nobody prosecuted her mistake. Everyone would like to say with her to take her feel better. I know it’s none of their business but they should suggest and assist to deserve the right way. Whether, she should divorce decision or conduct the prosecution in such a way as to achieve justice. For instance, in my village has one family like the story. They have four people in family. There are father, mother, and two daughters who are young children. Erewhile, father likes to socialize with his coworkers after working ends. He had drunk a lot before he come back home. He had often quarreled with his wife when he arrived home. Sometimes he injured her. But now, this family is a very warm & loving family because they are talking a lot about their problem. My mother asked them. They said ‘they don’t want to be a bad role model for their daughters. I think they choose a good way to solve a problem instead they decided to attack or make a mistake that bring about to homicide. In conclusion, as you can see. Now, domestic violence is an important problem in Thailand. Describe my opinion as seen from the newspaper. A lot of news had domestic violence that a lot of people don't think long-term any more. I think last thing we should havea pureconscience. If you think only of yourself, you'll only destroy yourself same this object and spend the rest of your life in prison. The introduction and the conclusion inthe composition are not efficient. The introduction consists of two topic sentences. The first topic sentence is the underlining domestic problem among other problems in Thailand. The second topic sentence is the writer’s disagreement to the actions of the couple from an article. Moreover, the introduction is not well written.It does not contain any controlling ideas. This results in the unclear clue to the readers about the point to discuss in the body of the composition. In the conclusion paragraph, the writer concludes that domestic violence is an important problem in Thailand, whereas none of the content has discussed the severity of domestic violence in the country. The rest of the conclusion paragraph is the opinion of the writer, not related to the topic sentence. This means the conclusion does not perform its function which the main argument should be restated and the writing should give definite sense of closure. The ideas in the composition are not relevant to the topic. From the topic, the readers would expect a discussion about violence and the Thai culture. However, the introduction proposes 384

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies only problems of the country and contains the writer’s opinion about the article she had read. The body contains the writer’s disappointment about the neighbors of the couple in the article and exemplifies domestic violence in the writer’s village. The conclusion part underlines domestic violence as a crucial problem and contains the writer’s opinion toward people in the society. None of the content discusses the connection between violence and the Thai culture. Therefore, the ideas in the composition fail to meet the reader’s expectations. The ideas in the composition are not elaborated. Many ideas are introduced but then left without supporting details, causing discontinuous reading and leavingno important content for the reader. In the introduction paragraph, the writer introduces the problem of life after marriage, but there is no clear explanation about how such problem is caused by domestic violence and drugs as stated. In the body, the writer wrote about people’s actions, but no details leads the readers to the example about the problem in the writer’s village. In the conclusion, there is no detail that supports the statement “domestic violence is an important problem in Thailand”. The lack of details causes the discontinuity of ideas and spoils coherence. The division of paragraph is not justifiable in terms of content. There seem to be three paragraphs in the composition: introduction, the body, and the conclusion. As said above, the introduction and the conclusion are not effective. Ideas throughout the composition are not relevant to the topic. There is no linear flow of the story and points disperse over the writing. Hence, the readers are left bewildered and cannot catch the exact main idea the writer wants to convey.

The correlation between cohesion and coherence Statistical calculation revealed the correlations between the two discourse features and between the two raters. In the process of data collection, the two raters scored six compositions divergently. This causes very low correlation between the two raters. Therefore, the six compositions were excluded from the analysis to adjust correlation coefficient to an acceptable level. After the exclusion, the correlation of cohesion scores between the two raters is r = 0.56 with significant level at ρ= 0.0002 and the correlation of coherence scores between the two raters is r = 0.53 with significant level at ρ = 0.0005. This means both raters likely scored coherence and cohesion in forty compositions toward the same direction. Then cohesion scores from both raters were averaged alongside with coherence scores. The data was inserted in to a spreadsheet program and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient function was applied. The correlation reveals value r=0.48 with significance level at ρ = 0.002. The value suggests that there is a statistically significant mediumcorrelation between cohesion and coherence among forty compositions by the interpretation of Cohen (1988).

Discussion The cohesive ties identification form enabled us to see the quantity of the ties and theerrors of the ties in the compositions. It is not surprising that reference and lexical cohesion were found the most, more than eighty percent in total. This is because in writing, when a person needs to write about a specific topic the person needs to repeat it or to have it being referred throughout the composition. Conjunction is used a little bit above ten percent. They are used only to show the relationship of meanings between sentences. Substitution and ellipsis were used infinitesimal because they are found commonly in speech. The errors of cohesion were found. According toHalliday&Hasan (1976), reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction are grammatical, while lexical cohesion is the selection of vocabulary. 385

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies From the definition, it seems that to evaluatethe quality of the first four cohesion types is to determine grammatical errors and to evaluate the quality of lexical cohesion is to determine the selection of word. The present study, however,goes beyond this point. We determined both grammatical and non-grammatical errors on all types of cohesion. The cohesion grammatical errors found in the present study are also found in common grammatical errors in writing investigated by Pongsiriwet(2001) and Watcharapunyawong& Usaha (2012). The intersection between cohesion grammatical errors from the present study and the grammatical errors from the two studies are article, singular/plural form, pronoun, and word choice. We can assume that to look for the causes and the treatments of cohesion grammatical errors is to look in general grammatical errors. This is probably the way to help the learners improve their cohesion quality. In the case of non-grammatical error, the present study assumes that it occurs because the participants did not project themselves as readers. A good example of this is when a personal reference tie is used to refer to multiple items.The writers themselves knew which personal reference tie is refereeing to whom in the text, but they were not aware that the readers could not see this connection unless it was clearly written down in the text. The non-grammatical error could also occur because the participants do not understand the content they were writing. This is found when the participants used conjunction. When the participants do not understand the content, they could not write sentences to show the relationship between the sentences and when a conjunction tie is applied, the readers feel that a point is missing or the text is not deserved to use that conjunction tie. To fix cohesion non-grammatical errors, writers need teacher and peers review. The reviews would help the writers recognize the parts of their composition that is difficult for the readers to understand. The weaknesses of coherence were found. The finding corresponds to a recent study on coherence in Thai context (Kaewcha, 2013) on the point that the introduction does not give a clue to the readers, the ideas are not elaborated, and the main point of discussion is not clear. In addition, Kaewcha (2013) suggested that incoherent compositions in her study caused by the absent of transition signals. In other words, the compositions need temporal conjunctions, a conjunction subtype defined by Halliday&Hasan (1976). Teacher and peers review are necessary to help the writers improve their coherence. The reviews would help them spot coherence weaknesses in their compositions. The writers may need to be instructed about the structure of a composition and how to convey the meanings and the main ideas using such structure to improve coherence in writing. Statistical analysis revealed that the quality of cohesion does have medium correlation with the quality of coherence. Witte &Faigley (1981) explained that the low correlation between the two discourse features found in the previous studies is because coherencedepends a great deal on factors outside the text, the factors that lie beyond the scope of cohesion. However, this explanation is based on the studiesthat used the quantity of cohesion in the investigation. Therefore, the present study is not the case. Yet we cannot conclude that the medium correlation in our result is because we use the quality of cohesion in the investigation. More studies with similar methodology to the present study are needed to confirm such analogy. There are limitations of cohesion’s quality evaluation in this study. First the study did not take the absence of cohesive ties into the evaluation. When a writer does not use a cohesive tie when it is needed, it might be difficult for the reader,who has less knowledge about the topic, to bridge the conceptual gaps in the text(Crossley & McNamara, 2010). Second, this study disregards for the possibility thateach type of cohesion may correlate to coherence at different degrees, e.g. the resultfromLiu & Braine (2005). Averaging all type of cohesion scores to be compared with that 386

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies of coherence may conceal the actual correlation between them. For example,if coherence depends more heavily on conjunction than reference, a composition with very high conjunction score should yield high coherence score. But in the method to calculate cohesion score, high conjunction score is averaged with low reference score, therefore, averaged cohesion score is medium, and the calculation would not show the actual value between cohesion and coherence.

Conclusion Cohesion and coherence are important factors in writing. Cohesion is the connection on the surface of text, while coherence is the connection of ideas.Theoretically, it is believed that there is a relationship between cohesion and coherence. However, previous studies’ resultsshowedfluctuation. Some of these studies confirmed the relationship, but others found that such relationshipwas very weak. The improper analogy between the quantity of cohesion and the quality of coherence might be responsible for the fluctuation. Therefore, this study introduced a way to investigate the relationship between cohesion and coherence on their qualities. The quality of cohesion was evaluated on the characters of the cohesive ties. Alongside, the quality of coherence wasevaluated on the compositions’organization. The result from this study shows that the relationship between cohesion and coherence is medium. Further researches are necessary to investigate the relationship between the quality of cohesion and that of coherence. Accumulating more results should confirm the result from the present study and reveal the actual relationship between cohesion and coherence.

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The effectiveness of teaching foreign language to a non-background group: A case study of teaching Elementary French for social sciences students at the University of Phayao Raksi Kiattibutra

Ph.D in Language Science School of Liberal Arts, University of Phayao [email protected]

Abstract Language is a cultural symbol of a nation. Study a language helps students understand the cultural aspect, living style, as well as the way of thinking of people in such nation. Teaching a national language to a native speaker can be simply done both inside and outside the classroom, no matter if intentionally or not. That is because of the environment would allow students to learn quickly. But teaching a foreign language to one who has no background in such language may be a hard work for teachers. A teacher would need some good teaching techniques. Students may need more attention in studying a foreign language before going on to study its structure or the different forms other than their mother tongues. Hence, to teach a new language effectively that help students easily understand and be able to analyze or imagine what it is about, we may need some applications of students’ aptitude to the lesson. In this paper, the researcher introduces an effective way of teaching Elementary French to a group of 37 social sciences students at University of Phayao during 4 months using Action-oriented Approach with specific context. The study found that those students were eager to practice in speaking, reading and writing when they were set in a context close to their study experiences in social sciences rather than learning a core feather of the language. The results of this research can be applied to increase the efficiency and attention to teaching foreign languages to suit the learner needs. It would also be beneficial especially to our young generation to be graduated and ready for a changing situation in the future when Thailand will join the ASEAN Community. Keywords: Effective Teaching, Foreign Language, Action-oriented Approach, Specific Context

Introduction At present, to study a second language is not less important than doing other branches of study. As language is a symbol of culture, it could help learners understand the nature of live, culture and the way of thinking of people in such nation. For Thailand, foreign language has been designed to study since King Rama V. Since it deems necessary for communication at national as well as international level, the enforcement for foreign language study, especially English, has been included in Thailand national education plan for many decades. In all social sciences curriculums of higher education, English language subjects are included as compulsory units of a second language while other such as French, Japanese or Chinese are often taught as an elective subject. Nevertheless, English proficiency in Thailand is rated at the 43th place compared to other Asian countries (Saengbun, 2012). This is one of major problems in teaching foreign language to Thai people. To teach a native language to its own population could be easy, both inside and outside the classroom. In this way, the teaching environment takes an important role to allow students to learn quickly. The learners are normally acquainted with the sound of their mother tongues they hear every day. Moreover, they should have been thoroughly taught since young by their parents and families before entering into a formal educational system. In 390

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies this case, studying language should not confront with many problems. However, to teach a language to a non-native speaker is not that easy. A learner could have some difficulties since the beginning such as; a problem of pronunciation, spelling, sentence building, and translating (in other words: phonology, syntax, and semantic problems). The fact is that, although language structure is well understood, still the learners cannot communicate by such language. Some Thai students, for example, have studied English for several years but they still couldn’t use it. Many of them are too shy to speak even a simple English sentence. That leads to a waste of educational resources. Teaching foreign languages to students with no background is then considered a hard work. When teachers introduce a new thing that is unfamiliar to students, they might require some appropriate techniques to meet with learners’ conditions and circumstances. So, an instructor may need to draw attention of the learners before start teaching a different structure of another language of which may not the same as national language the learners use in their routine lives. As stated by Saengbun (2012), it is also suggested that teachers should neither focus only on grammar teaching nor teach the children just how to pass an examination. But the teaching style should be as natural as possible. As a French language teacher at the University of Phayao, the researcher is interested in finding out an appropriate method of foreign language teaching. This paper discusses a successful teaching style of teaching a French language to a non-background group of 37 social sciences students. In terms of a successful knowledge transferring that leads to the best result, the researcher introduce specific content building in aspect of students’ aptitude and an action oriented-approach. Teaching a foreign language effectively may also need to consider other factors such as intelligence, perception, and learning behavior of students.

Objectives This paper is conducted under two main objectives as following: 2.1 To find out an effective way of teaching French language as a second language subject to a non-background group of social sciences students at the University of Phayao. 2.2 To confirm the appropriateness of the action oriented-approach method with a specific content building in teaching a foreign language.

Methodology Study Framework Population - This study is designed for a non-background group using a selective sampling of 37 social sciences students registered in Elementary French I as a second language (elective) subject, 2nd semester of 2012 at the University of Phayao. Duration – 8 months from October 2012 – May 2013. Study method – It is aimed that the effectiveness of the action oriented-approach method with a specific content building is tested in this study. From communicative approach to action-oriented It has been introduced by Hancock (2010): if learners want to be able to use a language (English), they need an action-oriented approach to develop communicative competences rather than just knowledge of form. To this end, Corbett (2003) mentioned earlier in his book “An Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching” that former communicative methods of second language teaching viewed language as a bridge of information gap which helped learners understand linguistic knowledge and skill. However, cultural content always stripped from learning material. With a new approach, integrated culture content would broaden the 391

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies four skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Commensurate with intercultural approach, Zhang (2012) commented that Chinese manuals are designed to teach grammar (which is the main part) at the time of initiation. But for French language, it would be better to start with French words and use textbooks in teaching grammar as well as culture. At the meantime, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) project was born to serve the European economy by facilitating the movement of people and skills in a politically fragmented, culturally and linguistically in many independent states area where no common language was imposed. Published in 2001 by the Council of Europe, one of the missions was "awareness of a European identity based on shared values and beyond particular cultures. The linguistic approach is not only multilingualism but also linguistic diversity, mutual understanding, democratic citizenship, social cohesion, all with professional and cultural aspects” (Rosen (2010:10-12). With this attempt, Little (2011) explained that, at the level of policy, the CEFR quotes Recommendation R(82)18 of the Committee of Ministers: […] it is only through a better knowledge of European modern languages that it will be possible to facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues in order to promote European mobility, mutual understanding and co-operation, and overcome prejudice and discrimination (CEFR2). According to Little (2011), the action-oriented approach of CEFR intends to persuade a taskbased approach, while its conception of how we learn second languages seems that language use has a meta-cognitive as well as a communicative dimension. With its characteristic, the CEFR does not have only a final perfect answer to the complex problems of the teachinglearning context of languages, particularly as necessarily located in Europe or elsewhere. The Framework is not only a method or a repository language but also a tool to establish a common basis in language teaching. For Thailand, teaching is regarded as "traditional" (controlled by the teacher) and authoritarian in nature (Chayanuvat 2003). Students may start learning French at school in grade 10 (Mathayom 4), following the same teaching style of grammar structure, exercises, and translation which focuses on reading comprehension activities. Learners do not speak spontaneously for fearing of an error or of expressing a different thought of the group. They are often encouraged not to be independent or to ask questions. It deems necessary to fine some good methods to meet our situation. Apparently, the action-based approach represents a break with the communicative method. For Bourguignon, (2006) it is a new teaching configuration in addition to an earlier method without replacing them. The task-oriented approach is conceived, for her, as an additional/ complementary tool that gives a full right to school learning an authenticity that the communicative method had denied for three decades. Indeed, in the communicative approach, the communication is both means and end, while the action-oriented, language communication is only one way in the service of action. To find our own approach, we have tried to combine these aspects to our students’ aptitude. Implementation An approach of specific content building and action-oriented Realizing its significance, we follow an approach of action-oriented by enhancing a contextualization. According to Blanchet (2009), the didactic contextualization continued and completed by turning a "communicative revolution" over 80 years ago. In addition, to make our class more active, we activate our specific content building. Our study group consists of 37 political science students studying Elementary French I as an elective subject. We encourage 392

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies them to talk about their interests. Our action oriented-approach here may also be explained as a communicative approach in a sense that students need to talk to each other at least 3 sentences in each round. To support our technique, the steps are as follows: 1. First of all, we put the students into different groups of a free-designed political content (3 students per group). 2. Each group would need to set up several sentences (dialog) within its content (first in Thai, then translate into French and to be corrected by a teacher). These dialogs would be used for their performances. 3. Students will be asked to repeat all the dialogs they’ve built, and then presented them in front of the classroom. The presentation may be only a conversation of an event or a short performance. 4. At the end of this action, the teacher has to explain the language grammar and vocabularies used in the students activities. 5. In each turn of performance, the result of learning competence of each student is noted. The measurement is done by a reduction of 1 point once a member of a group made a mistake. The total score in each round is set at 5 points for each skill. We repeat 2 times for one performance to enhance a better score. 6. The duration of this method is 16 weeks, 8 weeks as a beginning period and another 8 for an evaluation. Act1. The next job is to move from the didactic reflection on pedagogical implementation, by releasing "action-learning scenarios" with a context of political science. The first part of our project is a test of the method. We divided 12 groups of students working on this project for a period of 8 weeks (3 students in each group while there is one group of 4 students). After that, we evaluated the result and continued the process for another 8 weeks. A task-based learning applied in our current language. A scenario was developed and each student had a role in their stories. We tested this technique in a class of “Elementary French I”. Act2. This is the measuring step. Each group is announced the final score they’ve done. A discussion of the results are arranged to encourage students’ abilities. The teaching of action-oriented is defined as “a teaching perspective and language learning”. It considers foremost the user and the language learner as social actors who have to perform their tasks in a given environment within a particular field of action.

Discussion We developed different methods to action-based approach that gives a better result to language teaching. Thus, the co-action-oriented works collectively to make a better progress in learning by sharing the same goal. Learning also takes place during the implementation of communicative tasks. This leads to the final goal. It is the scenario of action learning as an implementation of communicative-action approach based on cultural aspects (as suggested by Puren 2002) created by the learners. By this way, the teaching-learning becomes an active and constructive process of information processing and constructivism. This method considers the ability of the learner to understand the reality. The results are amazing that all the twelve 393

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies groups of our students understand the lesson much better than before. We present a table of result below: Table 1 Show the average scores of four skills of the research result. Score entered for December 2012 Number of students: 37 Group Stude No.

Gr1.

GR2.

GR3.

GR4.

GR5.

GR6.

GR7.

GR8.

GR9.

Listen

Read

Speak

Write

nt

befo

No.

re

1

3.0

3.0

3.3

3.4

3.0

3.3

2.0

2.4

2

3.8

3.9

3.3

3.3

3.0

3.5

3.2

3.3

3

3.8

3.8

3.0

3.2

3.0

3.5

3.2

3.2

4

3.2

3.4

2.3

2.3

3.0

3.4

2.0

2.3

5

2.9

3.3

2.5

2.5

3.5

3.8

2.0

2.0

6

2.9

3.0

2.0

2.5

2.8

3.0

2.0

2.3

7

2.9

2.9

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.8

2.5

2.4

8

3.2

3.4

2.5

2.8

2.8

2.9

2.5

2.5

9

3.2

3.4

2.5

2.7

3.2

3.2

2.5

2.7

10

3.8

3.9

2.5

2.7

3.0

3.0

2.5

2.7

11

3.0

3.5

2.3

2.5

3.0

3.4

2.0

2.3

12

3.8

3.9

2.0

2.5

3.2

3.4

2.0

2.2

13

4.0

4.5

3.1

3.6

3.5

4.0

3.1

3.1

14

2.5

2.9

3.0

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.0

3.3

15

2.9

3.3

2.7

3.0

3.0

3.3

2.7

2.7

16

2.5

2.9

2.2

2.5

3.0

3.3

2.2

2.3

17

2.9

3.3

2.3

2.8

2.9

3.0

2.3

2.5

18

3.2

3.3

2.5

2.8

2.7

3.2

2.0

2.5

19

3.0

3.5

2.5

2.8

3.0

3.2

2.0

2.5

20

3.0

3.5

2.3

2.5

3.0

3.2

2.0

2.3

21

3.0

3.3

2.8

2.9

3.0

3.2

2.5

2.7

22

3.0

3.3

2.6

3.0

2.9

3.3

2.5

2.7

23

3.8

4.0

2.9

3.2

3.0

3.5

2.4

2.7

24

3.0

3.5

2.9

2.9

3.5

3.5

2.5

2.7

25

2.5

2.9

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.2

2.0

2.5

26

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.5

27

2.5

2.9

2.5

2.9

2.9

3.5

2.0

2.0

after

befo

after

re

befo

after

re

394

befo

after

re

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Group Stude No.

Listen

Read

Speak

Write

nt

befo

No.

re

28

4.0

4.3

3.8

3.8

3.8

4.1

3.3

3.5

GR1

29

3.2

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.9

4.0

3.5

3.8

0.

30

3.8

4.0

3.5

4.0

3.9

4.0

3.5

3.8

31

3.8

4.0

3.8

4.0

3.8

4.0

3.8

3.9

GR1

32

3.0

3.4

3.4

3.9

3.8

3.9

3.0

3.5

1.

33

3.0

3.4

3.4

3.9

3.8

4.0

3.2

3.5

34

2.8

3.0

2.5

2.8

3.0

3.4

2.0

2.5

GR1

35

3.0

3.3

2.5

2.7

2.5

3.0

2.0

2.5

2.

36

2.9

3.3

2.8

3.0

2.7

2.9

2.0

2.5

37

2.5

3.3

2.8

3.0

2.5

3.0

2.0

2.6

after

befo

after

re

befo

after

re

befo

after

re

From Table 1, it shows four columns of four skills in French language learning of the 12 study groups. In each skill, it shows two parts of scores; before and after. It is obvious that almost all the study groups have a good developing attitude. However, with this task, students must prepare at home what subject they would like to discuss in the classroom.

Conclusion and suggestion In existing methodologies for learning foreign languages, we need to choose an appropriate way for our students. Thailand is a peaceful country who has not affected by any western culture. Thai people still use Thai language officially, therefore, to be able to fluently speak other languages is a huge task for them to overcome. The method that support the theory of designed content in which the learners know and prepare what to learn is somewhat very useful. Everyone is happy to use this technique because it is not boring. That is why we agree with a prospect of using social actors as a gateway to language learning. It might be said that this technique is suitable for teaching French as a second language to our social sciences students. We consider such approach of action-oriented helpful for us to consider the ability of the learner to understand the actual context from the environment. It is expected that this teaching technique would be helpful in all language classes, especially in teaching language to a nonbackground group. It is also hoped that, with this success, Thailand would be able to educate several Asian languages to its citizen easier.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Blanchet P. (2009). « Contextualisation didactique » : de quoi parle-t-on ? Le français à l'université AUF 14-02-2009. Bourguignon, C. (2010). Pour enseigner les langues avec le CECRL : Clés et conseils, Delagrave, Paris. Chayanuvat A. (2003). English learning experiences of Thaistudents enrolled at a university: a case study, International Conference, 9-11 avril 2003, King Mongkut University, Thonburi, Thailand. Corbett J. (2003). An Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching. UK: Cromwell Press. Page 59 –60. Hancock, M. (2010). Language as Communication : an Action-oriented Approach. paper presented at Fischer International Conference, Bucharest, 3 September 2010. Little D. (2011). The Common European Framework of Reference for Language: Content, purpose, origin, reception and impact. Language Teaching 39. 167-190. Puren, C. (2002). Perspectives actionnelles et perspectives culturelles en didactique des langues-cultures : vers une perspective co-actionnelle co-culturelle, Langues Modernes, Paris, APLV, Juillet-août-septembre, p.55-71. Rosen, E. (2007). Le point sur le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues, Paris, CLE international. Saengbun, S. (2012). Teaching English to Thai Students. National Institute of Development Administration : Faculty of Language and Communication. Zhang Y. (2012). Pour une approche interculturelle de l’enseignement du français comme spécialité en milieu universitaire chinois. Thesis of a doctorate degree in Language Sciences. Université du Maine, U.F.R. des Lettres, Langues et Sciences Humaines. France.

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The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins Sorapong Nongsaeng

Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University [email protected]

Asst. Prof. Dr. Supaporn Yimwilai

Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University [email protected]

Abstract The philosophy of sufficiency economy is a life guiding principle which leads to its ultimate goal – happiness. This paper aims at studying the philosophy of sufficiency economy presented in Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins. To do this, the incidents, the characters, speech and actions are analyzed. The results show that the philosophy of sufficiency economy is emphasized throughout the novel, with special emphasis on the main character and her daily life. Knowledge derived from experience helps the main character to improve her living condition and to cope with difficulties and obstacles. In addition, prudence, frugality, and self-immunity play vital roles in her daily life. The study also reveals that the main character lives a simple life harmoniously with nature. As a result, living in accordance with the philosophy of sufficiency economy makes her happy. Keywords: sufficiency economy, American literature, live in harmony, island of the blue dolphins, nature

Introduction Happiness is the ultimate goal of life sought after by almost all of us. Happiness is also generally considered a common concept of living, as people are in pursuit of happiness from birth to death. Consequently, the most significant question arises, how can we live happily? However, the main problem that obstructs people in the society from being simply happy is their own endless desire – the need to gain more and more. Fortunately, the antidote to these endless desires is to be sufficient, both on individual and societal levels respectively. If people are equipped with the awareness and sufficiency, the struggle to meet endless desire will be curtailed and they themselves can live happily without exploiting others. Sufficiency is a required mechanism which leads to the realization and awareness of being self-dependent in order to satisfy one’s own needs. As such, the concept of sufficiency should be widely introduced to people in the society from their childhood. Therefore, children should be taught the concept of living a sufficient life since they are very young so that they can learn to live happily. Children’s books are an alternative tool which can be used to deliver the philosophy of sufficiency to children, since children’s literature has numerous advantages. Basically, it entices their curiosity and enhances their reading pleasure. Accordingly, children’s books should be used as life guidance for children. Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins is considered one of the most profound works in children’s literature. Being internationally well-known, Island of the Blue Dolphins is considered a quality novel in Children Literature. It receives several prestigious awards including the John Newbery Medal, the most distinguished contribution to Children Literature. Moreover, the book is 397

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies awarded one of the ten best American children’s books of the past 200 years by Children Literature Association. This profound work can also serve as a self-development guidance which leads to a happy life for both children and adult readers. The novel mostly deals with a young girl, Karana, who struggles to survive on an isolated island after being left alone by her tribe for years. At first, she experiences a great deal of life difficulties such as loss, loneliness and dangers. To stay alive, she gradually learns to depend on her own and live in harmony with nature. Consequently, she can be simply happy even though she lives alone. More importantly, the novel shows that Karana notably lives in accordance with the philosophy of sufficiency economy concept.

Theoretical Framework The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy Concept The concept of sufficiency has been taught for a long time in order to temper difficulties. However, it is seriously considered and practiced when His Majesty King Bhumipol Adulyadej bestowed the concept of sufficiency through his royal speeches since 1970s. The content of speeches has later come to be considered within Thailand as the philosophy of sufficiency economy. The following excerpted from a royal speech suggests the main concept of sufficiency economy: This sufficiency means to have enough to live on. Sufficiency means to lead a reasonably comfortable life, without excess, or overindulgence in luxury, but enough. Some things may seem to be extravagant, but if it brings happiness, it is permissible as long as it is within the means of the individual...Some people translate ‘sufficiency’ from the English as: to stand on one’s own feet... This means standing on our own two legs planted on the ground, so we can remain without falling over, and without asking others to lend us their legs to stand on. The philosophy of sufficiency economy consists of three components: moderation, reasonableness, and self-immunity against the risks which arise from internal or external changes. In addition, those who practice it need to be knowledgeable, honest, and persevere to any conduct. Moderation means not too little but not too much. It is the sense between want and extravagance, and between backwardness and impossible expectations. It promotes the idea of the Middle Way derived from Buddhism. For reasonableness, it means considering the reasons for any action along with knowledge and experience in the long run for oneself, others, the society, and the environment. This idea of reasonableness includes the analytic capability, self-awareness, foresight, compassion and empathy. Self-immunity means having deep-seated resilience, and the ability to endure shocks and adjust to unpredictable or unmanageable changes. Besides these three components, two conditions must be adhered to make the principle of sufficiency economy practical: knowledge and integrity. Knowledge includes wisdom and prudence, and integrity consists of virtue, ethical behavior, honesty, straight-forwardness, tolerance, perseverance, a readiness to work hard and a refusal to exploit others. Each element overlaps and perfectly interlocks. Reasonableness signifies moderation. Moderation leads to self-immunity. Self-immunity is an application for reasonableness. These elements are not separate items but a trio (UNDP, 2007, p. 29). By thoroughly considering the interlocking elements, the aim of the philosophy of sufficiency economy is definitely to achieve the state of balance. In brief, the philosophy provides life guidance which emphasizes righteous way of living in harmony with others and the environment. Such living condition leads to the ultimate goal – happiness. Those who live in accordance with the philosophy of sufficiency economy need to acquire essential knowledge and necessary skills to improve their living condition. Moreover, they need to be prudent in making decisions and taking actions. They also prepare for any unpredictable changes.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies They are satisfied with a simple life while living frugally. Ultimately, they live in harmony by helping and sharing with others and preserve the environment in which they live.

Methods In this study, the researcher analyzes Island of the Blue Dolphins by employing the philosophy of sufficiency economy concept as the theoretical framework. The study concentrates on the characters, especially the main character, concerning speeches, actions and the incidents in the novel.

Results After studying Island of the Blue Dolphins, the findings show that the philosophy of sufficiency economy concept is mostly seen in Karana. Knowledge The novel shows the importance of knowledge acquisition through Karana. She is abandoned by her tribe, so she needs to depend on her own to survive on such isolated island. Karana constantly seeks knowledge to improve her living condition as well as to cope with life difficulties encountering each day. Karana gains knowledge from her experience. According to the philosophy of sufficiency economy, knowledge can be acquired through either a formal educational system or through real-life experience to improve his or her well-being. When knowledge is acquired and utilized, it reduces the vulnerability in one’s life (Mongsawad, 2010, p. 133-134). In Karana’s situation at the beginning of her solitary life, she needs to make weapons to defense herself. However, her knowledge in this task is insufficient because her tribe neither teaches women to make nor to allow them to be involved in the so-called masculine task. Nevertheless, she endeavors and learns to make a set of weapons on her own as she says, “How would I do this, I did not know. Yet the more I thought about it, the greater was my determination to try” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 79). Trial and error eventually yield a positive result, weapons are finally made, days after the first attempt. Experience driven knowledge acquisition proves that making and possessing weapon is a necessity. Exposure to harsh living conditions alone allows Karana to seek a better living condition in which she turns her insecure life to a less harmful one. She describes this feeling by saying “I felt secure with my new weapons…” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 56). At this point, the novel reveals through Karana’s actions that knowledge acquisition is vital for those who must survive on their own as no one else will come to their aid. Such a concept of knowledge acquisition is perceived to share a common concept with the philosophy of sufficiency economy. Prudence Besides knowledge acquisition, prudence plays a vital role in Karana’s life throughout the story. According to the philosophy of sufficiency economy, knowledge encompasses accumulating information with intent to understand its meaning and prudence necessitate the use of such information. Therefore, the philosophy heightens the significance of prudence in the application of knowledge in order to keep life balance. In other words, prudence is needed to supports knowledge. This suggests that decision making and living life in general shall be a rational not emotional one. Thus risk factors in life can be greatly reduced. Considering Karana’s sole surviving experience, with the lack of family and tribal protection, prudence is required in every step of life. Prudence is exhibited when Karana builds her new shelter for which she carefully selects the best location for building the house and food storage facility. There are three different places which are considered: the headland, the place near the wild dogs’ lair, and the destroyed village of Ghalas399

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies at. She realizes that the headland is the most suitable place for building her new house because it is near the spring where she has access to water supply. The place also lived by bull sea elephants whose tusklike teeth can be used to make spears. The other two sites are more disadvantageous, compared to the chosen one. If she settles near the wild dogs’ lair, she has to spend unnecessarily time fending the place off from wild dogs. Living among the ruin of Ghalas-at village would remind her of the people who once live there and the tragic death and departure of her fellow tribe men. In addition to the house, Karana also turns a cave to be her second safe place where she can seek refuge from the wild dogs should she fall sick and weak. She also constructs shelves, adds baskets and fits a bed in this cave. Moreover, there are two vital things in which Karana is apparently prudent – keeping food and hiding the canoe. Food will ensure her survival while the canoe will permit her to evade danger should her enemy, the Aleuts, ever return. To keep food safe from being ransacked by the gulls during her absence, Karana has her dog Rontu guard the abalones as well as chase off the gulls. She hangs the abalone shells with strings so that the bright sides of the shells catch the sunrise. The flashing strings of abalone shells prove effective in chasing away the gulls. Karana always hides the canoe, she says, “When the sun was high I hid the canoe in the cave we had found, for once more it was the time the Aleuts might return…” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 107). Hiding the canoe is one of very important routines as she repeatedly describes it “When we [Karana and Rontu] came back from our voyage to Tall Rock, I hid the canoe in the cave below the headland. It was hard work, but each time I would lift the canoe from the water and onto the ledge, even though I planned to go out the next morning” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 129). Being prudent also allows Karana to be more considerate for others. For example, when the fight between her dog, Rontu, and two other wild dogs breaks out, she could easily come to his defense by throwing her spear or send an arrow, if she chooses to do so. However, she decides not to interrupt the battle no matter how much she wants to. She explains “I could have shot them [the two other dogs] for they were within reach of my bow, or driven off the pack, yet I stood in the brush and watched…If I stopped it, they would surely fight again, perhaps at some other place less favorable to him [Rontu]” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 109). It is obvious that her prudence does not only facilitate her daily conducts as mentioned earlier but help the other to be safe. It should be noted that Karana’s virtues – knowledge, skills and prudence are interconnected. Each of them perfectly complements each other. Knowledge helps to improve her skills in order to meet her daily demands. Her prudence supports the utilization of knowledge and skills. The story shows that she is prudent in making decisions and taking actions in every step of her life. Self-Immunity More interestingly, Island of the Blue Dolphins shows Karana’s self-immunity – the ability to protect herself against any external turbulence and to cope with unpredictable and uncontrollable events. The philosophy of sufficiency economy emphasizes that people’s lives are influenced by dynamic circumstances, so they need to protect themselves against uncertainties. This can be done by empowering risk management which is reducing risks or building immunity. As a result, their ability to control uncertainties is increased. Similarly, Karana thoughtfully protects herself in such a way. The way Karana protects herself from the wild dogs by making weapons can be considered gaining self-immunity. After she is accidentally left alone on the island by her tribe, she is threatened by wild dogs. To live safely, she definitely needs to have some tools to defend herself. That night I climbed onto the rock to sleep. It was flat on top and wide enough for me to stretch out. Also it was so high from the ground that I did not need to fear the wild dogs while I was sleeping…This gives me time to make weapons to protect myself

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies from the dogs, which I felt would sometime attack me, to kill them all, one by one. (O’Dell, 1987, p. 50) I thought about these things for two days and on the third night when the wild dogs returned to the rock, I made up my mind that no matter what befell me I would make the weapons (O’Dell, 1987, p.54). From the above passages, it is apparent that Karana is well-prepared in case of danger. The wild dogs can possibly harm her anytime because she is left alone, and she can no longer depend on any protection from the people of her tribe. She needs to depend on herself. This is the main reason why Karana decides to make weapons. In that case, she will live safely and sustainably because she has self-protection which is the awareness and preparation of possible internal and external challenges in her life. However, Karana is hesitant in making weapons at first because women of her tribe are forbidden to do so. According to tribal lore, the consequences from breaking the law could be fearful. She considers such a severe punishment and worries about it for days. Would the four winds blow in from the four directions of the world and smother me as I made the weapons? Or would the earth tremble, as many said, and bury me beneath its falling rocks? Or, as others said, would the sea rise over the island in a terrible flood? Would the weapons break in my hands at the moment when my life was in danger, which is what my father had said? (O’Dell, 1987, p. 54) The passage claims supernatural punishments to a woman who disobeys the law. As a member of the tribe, Karana has been taught to respect her tribal law. However, she finally decides to make weapons. There are two possible reasons why she decides to do so. The first reason is that she lives alone without any means of protection. Also, the way a pack of wild dogs constantly threaten her seems to be the second reason. Another major risk in Karana’s life that requires self-immunity is the Aleuts’ invade. The Aleuts are her enemy who once kill her people. They probably come back by chance to hunt otters. While waiting for the white men’s ship to rescue, she carefully keeps a watchful eye on the danger from her enemy as she says, “…they might come upon the cave by chance and then I must be ready to flee” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 99). Even though she sees no sign of red sails of the Aleuts’ ship during the spring and summer, she prepares a cave for hiding and the canoe with food for escaping. She says, “The Aleuts never again came to the Island of the Blue Dolphins, but every summer I watched for them, and early spring I gathered shellfish, which I dried and stored in the cave where I kept my canoe” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 157). Such practice obviously shows self-immunity. In addition, the novel shows Karana’s self-protection as she fools the Aleuts for her own safety. She leaves no tracks when having an excursion from place to place. When those hunters come to the island, she deceives them by making the house look as if no one lives there for a long time so that they cannot find her. Also, when she leaves the cave, she does not have Rontu follow her because the Aleuts dogs might be able to smell him. She says, “There I buried the ashes of my fires and threw sand over the shelves and the floor” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 131).These scenes obviously show Karana’s preparation. Her enthusiastic awareness and preparation shows her protection from the impact arising from external change. The way Karana does not trust Tutok, a girl who belongs to the Aleuts, also shows her selfimmunity. Karana is accidentally found by an Aleut girl, Tutok. She does not tell Tutok exactly where she lives. This is because she is afraid that the girl might spread the news to the Aleut, and she might be in danger. After Tutok is gone, Karana describes, “I did not go into the cave…That night I slept on the headland at the place where I left my baskets. At dawn I went back to the ravine. There I hid myself on a brushy ledge. It was near the spring and from it I could see the mouth of the cave” 401

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies (O’Dell, 1987, p. 141). The way Karana does not trust this stranger at first indicates that she has precaution to guard against the possible attacks of the Aleuts. Having considered all circumstances, Karana does not trust her enemy for her own safety. The vast ocean can also be a dangerous place for Karana when she sails in search of a better place. The journey seems aimless and hopeless due to a number of unfortunate causes. Having considered the disadvantages and critical situation, she finally decides to head back to the island to save her life instead of to paddle to nowhere. Karana says, “It was suddenly clear to me that it was dangerous to go on. The voyage would take two more days, perhaps longer. By turning back to the island I would not have nearly so far to travel” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 65). The description tells readers that sailing in the vast sea aimlessly is beyond Karana’s capacity and it is dangerous. On the contrary, living on the Island of the Blue Dolphins is safe because it has sufficient food supplies for her. Moreover, it is the place which she is able to cope with challenges rather than the ocean. It is obvious that Karana shows her self-immunity when she changes her mind to sails ashore instead of trying to go on. A Simple Life Island of the Blue Dolphins obviously emphasizes living a simple life which leads to contentment and happiness. A simple life is a moderate life that is sufficiently provided with necessities. A person who lives a simple life does not indulge in extravagance unnecessarily but frugal. Moreover, he or she does not take advantage from other people but shares with them (Office of the Royal Development Projects Board, 2004, p. 12). Karana’s simple life is generally seen in her daily activities. Initially, she fulfills her basic needs by obtaining all necessities – food, utensils, weapons, clothes, shelters, and other facilities. Therefore, she can simply live a comfortable life as she says “…my house was comfortable. I was sheltered from the wind and rain and prowling animals. I could cook anything I wished to eat. Everything I wanted was there at hand” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 78). Although the island is abundant in food and natural resources, Karana is frugal especially in food preparation. Food preparation is important for her since her people are gone. There are two things required in this process: utensils and food ingredients. Karana utilizes the materials available near her shelter in cooking and she wisely uses them in order to spare the food as much as possible. In other words, Karana does not waste food ingredients unnecessarily. She cooks by using two smooth round stones with hollow places in the center to cook as she describes, “Using these to cook in, I saved the juices of the fish which are good and were wasted before” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 77). Also, she weaves a basket from reeds and seals it with pitch so that it can hold water to make gruel mixed with plant seeds. For this reason, she saves her time, energy, and materials for preparing meal after meal. Besides, she sufficiently keeps food to eat from meal to meal especially the mice that are found abundant on the island. Obviously, Karana is thoroughly frugal in cooking and saving food. Apart from cooking, other resources are frugally utilized. For example, she builds a fence with the available materials – whale rib bones from two whales that are washed ashore years ago. The fence is also woven together with bull kelp. This shows Karana’s acuity because the bull kelp will pull the fence very tight as it dries. As a result, wild animals cannot destroy it easily. In addition, Karana realizes that she needs to save her time and resource as much as possible. Instead of making a new fire every night over and over again, she blows the flammable ashes of the old one for the following nights. She says, “In this way I saved myself much work” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 77). She also makes the fire brighter than usual by burning some dried fish called sai-sai. Having burned them, she not only produces the brighter fire but also saves other kinds of fuel. Living a simple life not only requires sufficient necessities but also mental well-being. The novel reveals that Karana is simply contented with her leisure – skirt sewing. She sews it from cormorant’s feathers. Its beauty also greatly fascinates her. Even though the beautiful skirt is unnecessary for a person who lives alone like her, this simple little thing gives her pleasure. This is

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies because her lonely life does not have anything to be pleased with. More importantly, sewing the cormorant skirts comforts her when she feels lonely and emotionally insecure. Living in Harmony with Nature Island of the Blue Dolphins also emphasizes the interconnected relationship between humans, creatures, and the natural environment. Initially, it is portrayed that daily activities of people in the village of Ghalas-at depend on nature because the island has a bunch of natural resources such as edible plants and food from the sea. As the story begins, they are digging for roots, gathering shellfish, and catching a school of white bass which Karana describes that “There were enough for everyone in our tribe for supper that night and the next…” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 13). The islanders especially males are hunters, but they hunt to survive. They do not hunt for pleasure or commercial profits. According to the philosophy of sufficiency economy, the reasonable utilization of natural resources must be taken into account. Also, overexploiting or abusing environment must be avoided. Those who utilize natural resources are supposed to preserve nature as well. Therefore, they can live harmoniously with nature (Mongsawad, 2010, p. 138). Similarly, people on the island live in such a way. Ghalas-at way of life is to live in harmony with nature. This obviously reflects sufficient life in accordance with the philosophy of sufficiency economy. Karana shows her concern about wildlife when the sea otters are exceedingly hunted by the Aleut hunters. Karana tells her father, Chief Chowig, that those hunters would finally kill all otters. However, he laughs and replies, “Many [otters] still live in other places around the island…When the hunters leave they will come back” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 16). It is obvious that Karana’s worldview towards caring creatures is pretty much different from that of her father. She wants to protect them while he does not even care nor worry much about them. Karana describes, “I was angry, for these animals were my friends. It was fun to see them playing or sunning themselves among the kelp. It was more fun than the thought of beads to wear around my neck” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 16). It is obvious that Karana is happy living with those creatures that she calls friends in natural environment. In other words, she is harmonious with wildlife. It should be noted that Karana is unhappy when she is first left alone on the island. She even feels miserable and alienated after her brother is killed by the wild dogs. Therefore, she can no longer bear loneliness as she says, “I must say that whatever might befall me on the endless waters did not trouble me. It meant far less than the thought of staying on the island alone” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 61). Therefore, she tries to flee across the sea in her canoe. However, Karana comes back to the island, and a swarm of dolphins come to swim along with her boat, and she feels that she is not lonely because they are her friends. Dolphins seem to be Karana’s encouragement that helps her to arrive the island safe and start a new life. She says, Dolphins are animals of good omen. It made me happy to have them swimming around the canoe, and though my hands had begun to bleed from the chafing of the paddle, just watching them made me forget the pain. I was very lonely before they appeared, but now I felt that I had friends with me and did not feel the same…More than anything, it was the blue dolphins that took me back home. (O’Dell, 1987, p. 6667) From the passage we can see that Karana soothed by those creatures that she calls friends. Additionally, this is the first time that she becomes cheerful since the tribe is gone and her brother is killed. She is no longer lonely because she has companions. According to A Dictionary of Literary Symbols, a dolphin means salvation or resurrection in Christianity (Ferber, 2007, p. 61). Similarly, the swarm of dolphins that Karana sees coincidentally represents the beginning of her new life. It can be said that those dolphins is a symbol of happy life derived from nature. We can also see that after 403

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Karana wakes up from falling asleep on the shore, she describes, “I was happy to be home. Everything that I saw – the otter playing in the kelp, the rings of foam around the rocks that guarded the harbor, the gulls flying, the tides moving past the sandspit – filled me with happiness” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 69). She relieves and appreciates the natural environment more than she usually does. This obviously symbolizes her new life. Moreover, dolphins also appear at the end of the story while Karana is leaving the island in the white men’s ship. They make her happy. She describes how those creatures make her feel, “Dolphins rose out of the sea and swam before the ship. They swam for many leagues in the morning through the bright water, weaving their foamy patterns” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 181). Again, dolphins symbolically foretell her new happy life. After coming back from the severe journey in the sea, Karana’s perspective towards nature is dramatically changed as she appreciates it. Nature helps her to be contented so that she decides to settle down as she says “Now I knew that I would never go again…The Island of the Blue Dolphins was my home; I had no other” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 70). It can be seen clearly that she enjoys being among natural environment when she describes her feeling. The morning was fresh from the rain. The smell of the tide pools was strong. Sweet odors came from the wild grasses in the ravines and from the sand plants on the dunes. I sang as I went down the trail to the beach and along the beach to the sandspit. I felt that the day was an omen of good fortune. It was a good day to begin my new home. (O’Dell, 1987, p. 73) It seems that Karana’s contentment in nature replaces her anxiety while waiting for the rescuer. After spending a certain time on the island with her new perspective, Karana is happier as she says, “Together we [Karana and Rontu] would walk along the cliff looking at the sea, and though the white men’s ship did not return that spring, it was a happy time. The air smelled of flowers and birds sang everywhere” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 115). She also says, “With the young birds and the old ones, the white gull and Rontu, who was always trotting at my heels, the yard seemed a happy place (O’Dell, 1987, p. 153). It is noteworthy to say that animal companions fulfill her needs of friendship from people. This is the reason why she can still live alone on the abandoned island cheerfully. This scene shows readers the interconnected relationship among human, wildlife and natural environment. It is apparent that Karana’s happiness is resulted from the interconnected relationship of human, animal, and natural environment. Being a part of nature is simply for happiness. Sharing is another distinct morality of Karana which encourages her to live harmoniously and happily with others. In Sufficiency Economy: A Happiness Development Approach, Indaratna (2007) states that happiness from gaining benefits is merely a natural instinctive capability. However, real happiness is resulted from giving or sharing. Those who give or share will live peacefully and harmoniously with others (p. 3). Since the islanders are gone, Karana has no human with whom she can share anything. However, she still has animal companions to share food with, and sharing makes her happy. For example, she shares food with Rontu – her enemy that becomes best friend and a little sea otter that she nurses until it is healthy again. She also feeds two little birds that she takes from their parents and later tames them. Having lived harmoniously with others in natural environment, Karana’s attitude towards killing or hunting animals is changed. She then realizes the similarities between humans and animals and wants to play no part in destruction. In other words, she wants to preserve nature. Ultimately, she declares not to kill any animals forever “for animals and birds are like people, too, though they do not talk the same or do the same things. Without them the earth would be an unhappy place” (O’Dell, 1987, p. 156). Island of the Blue Dolphins also signifies that one cannot be alone physically and mentally. For example, people of Ghalas-at do not separate to live on each own after they are severely threatened by the Aleuts. Rather, all of them evacuate together in the ship. Dogs, like their owners, do not live individually either; each of them joins the pack after the owners are dead or some leave the island. 404

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Karana, without human companions, lives with her animal companions so that she can continue to her normal life happily.

Conclusion In conclusion, Island of the Blue Dolphins elegantly emphasizes the philosophy of sufficiency economy. Karana, the main character, is a representative of a person who lives in accordance with the philosophy of sufficiency. She initially gains knowledge from her experience to improve her living condition. While dealing with her daily routines, she is always prudent. In addition, she has self-immunity in every step because she realizes that she lives alone on the island without any help or protection from others. We can also see that Karana lives a simple life – she acquires all necessities, enjoys sewing her dress for pleasure, and lives frugally. In addition, she appreciates and preserves nature because she realizes that human, animals, and nature are interconnected and interdependent. Therefore, she lives harmoniously with nature. All of these characteristics help her to be happy even though she is left alone for years. Ultimately, we can say that Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins storyline emphasizes self development under the sufficiency economy concept. For readers in these days, Island of the Blue Dolphins would initiate living in harmony with nature and would mitigate the global warming crisis issue.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Ferber, M. (2007). A dictionary of literary symbols. 2nd edition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Ghosn, I. K. (2002). Four good reasons to use literature in primary school ELT. ELT Journal 56(2): 172-179. Indaratna, K. (2007). Sufficiency economy: A happiness development approach. Retrieve Sep. 13, 2011, from Sathirakoses Nagapradipa Foundation website: http://gnh-movement.org/papers/indrata.pdf Mongsawad, P. (2010). The philosophy of sufficiency economy: A contribution to the theory of development. Asia-Pacific Development Journal 17(1): 124-143. O’Dell, S. (1987). Island of the blue dolphins. New York, NY: Yearling. Office of the Royal Development Projects Board. (2004). Alternative development: Sufficiency economy. Bangkok, Thailand: Monitoring and Evaluation Division. United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. (2007). Thailand human development report 2007: Sufficiency economy and human development. Bangkok, Thailand: UNDP.

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Exploratory Talk in EFL Classroom from a Systemic Functional Linguistics’ View Wannaprapha Suksawas, Ph.D Naresuan University [email protected]

Abstract Studies around dialogic classroom emphasized the benefits of exploratory talk which is perceived as an essential meaning making tool in the classroom (Pierce & Gilles, 2012, p. 40) In this way, learners learn to negotiate or build on another’s ideas , prolong their talk, and create meaning together in the class while they are conducting their problem-solving tasks. However, at present, studies highlighting the talk of learners in the content-based activities are still limited. Besides, studies employing linguistic resources as tools to investigate the nature of the classroom interaction in Thailand are rare (Payaprom, 2012). Therefore, this study employs a qualitative approach which aims to provide insight explanation into the way learners in tertiary level talk to each other to solve problems. This paper explores, from a Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) perspective, the relations among the concepts of context, register, genre (Halliday & Hasan, 1989)and learners’ talk in the classroom. To illustrate and apply the SFL theoretical and analytical resources presented, the discourse of five learners while they were working on tasks was analyzed. The data were collected from fourth-year English major students enrolled in English for Journalism. From the analysis of MOOD andSPEECH FUNCTIONS, it is suggested that learners employed cumulative and exploratory talk in their interactions. However, while working on a more content-based task, learners’ employed mostly exploratory talk which finally leaded to critical conversation (Mercer & Dawes, 2008). This type of conversation also illustrated the promotion of language learning and critical thinking skill of the learners. Keyword: Content-based activities, Systemic Functional Linguistics, Genre-based approach

Introduction Talk in the classroom is used for several personal and academic purposes. However, at present, most of the studies focus on learners’ talk on the educational context relating to the content of the curriculum or tasks. This paper describes an approach to the analysis ofthe talk occurred within the small group interactions of the students working on problem solving tasks. It reports findings from symmetrical talk of student-student interactions during collaborative learning activities when shared tasks were important to them. It is the research’s main interests to study the roles of learners’ talk as evidenceillustrating learners’ social construction of both content and language competence and ways they negotiate their meaning. Empirical studies in the field have informed this study the explanatory power of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), particularly spoken texts within a classroom context. Learners’ linguistic options provided by the SFL highlights roles and their linguistic tools when they make meaning. In order to unfold learners’ interaction, this study will present a brief introduction to Social Interactionism as an approach to education with an emphasis on Vygotsky’s concept of social mediation (cooperative learning) and studies in SFL as literature 407

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies review and theoretical background consecutively. After that, research methodology will be explained followed by the research findings. Finally, implications of the research findings in EFL classroom will be introduced.

Literature review and theoretical framework In the work of Mercer and Dawes (2008), the educational talk emphasized includes pupils-pupils and teacher-pupils which they defined teacher-pupil talk as asymmetrical talk by teachers lead the interactions. In relation to their study, the roles of both teachers and learners’ talk play vital role in the genre-based instruction classroom where both content of the lesson, language skills and contributions of both teacher and learners are significant to the language learning in this particular context (Kongpetch, 2006)However, in this small scale study, the focus is on the talk among students due to the emphasis on cooperative learning. Marr (1997) claimed that the effectiveness of group work activities in fostering cooperative learning is vitalin promoting learner engagement. The author further asserted: Cooperative learning encourages students to work together and support one another so that the learning team may reach its goal. As a result of their cooperative efforts, the students learn from one another, have an incentive to work, and learn to be active members of the learning team. (p.15) De Guerrero and Villamil(2000)also examine the dialogic interaction between ESL learners. Throughout the study, the theoretical framework is centred on the concept of semiotic mediation and the use of language as a tool for the development of language itself. This study is of interest to the current study due to its view of language as semiotic mediation during social interaction and the two-way dialogic interaction of the learners which emphasizes the importance of both speakers in the interaction process. In addition, the study by Rojas-Drummond et al. (2008) examines the use of exploratory talk among primary students while working in a group. The study confirms the sociocultural claims made by earlier researchers such as Mercer and Wegerif(2000) that language can perform as a powerful mediator to facilitate reasoning in social contexts. Rojas-Drummond et al. argue that ‘learners’ discourse functions as a scaffold to support their joint efforts at reasoning and problem solving, helping each other to reach higher levels of understanding than what they might have achieved by themselves’ (2008, p. 334). In order to analyse learners’ talk, this study employ a linguistics framework to study learners’ interaction and the ways they talk to each other. Unlike traditional formal grammar, Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), as its name suggests, regards functions and semantics as the basis of human language and communicative activity, and is primarily concerned with the contextual use of language. According to Halliday(1994): A functional grammar is essentially a ‘natural’ grammar, in the sense that everything in it can be explained, ultimately, by reference to how language is used (xiii). Thus, a functional approach to language can describe the way people actually use language through an analysis of both the linguistic data and social context. In turn, when deciding upon the theoretical 408

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies frameworks for this study it was important to consider the functional concept inherent in SFL because the theory offers a ‘systematic method’ which considers meaning and form together. Moreover, it provides a framework for examining language data ‘in such a way that it is possible to interpret texts as instantiations of a meaning-creating system and its sub-systems’ (Halliday, 1998, p. 185). One of the more important elements of SFL theory alluded to in the quotation above is that it places emphasis on the way in which linguistic choices contribute to the realization of social contextsand vice versa. (Yang, 2007, p. 24)

Methodology and data analysis

The data reported in this study are drawn from a case study of students enrolled in the English for Journalism course. Interactions were recorded when the learners were working on problem solving tasks. They were asked to work in a group of five and createweather reports in a form of written weather forecast. Participants were willing to engage in this study with their consent forms signed at the beginning of the research project. Learners’ interactions were videotaped and transcribed including descriptions of actions, gestures, facial expressions or voice intonation. A case study is considered a valuable research approach because it suggests the means of answering the ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions (Merriam, 1998, p. 8). One reason for choosing a case study based on the research questions was its emphasis on a special unit of analysis which is oral interaction which can be analyzed through linguistic analysis. A case study permits an in depth study to analyze linguistic analysis along side with other units of analysis simultaneously (Busch, 2006; Stake, 2000).

Figure 1: A Hallidayan model of language adapted from Derewianka(2001, p. 257) The Hallidayan model of language, shown above in Figure 1, seeks to show how contextual meaning is expressed in language choices. Halliday and Hasan(1985) describe the three context of situation register variables which affect linguistic choices –namely field, tenor and mode. The three elements in the register reveal the content of talk, the relationships of the speakers and also the channel of communication. Analyzing the elements of different grammatical and lexical choices can therefore be used to demonstrate how language realizes different contexts. This realization links function and meaning with grammatical expression, and accounts for the way in which whole texts (spoken texts in this study) are created (Schleppegrell, 2004). To take account of this complexity of data analyzing, this study employed the data analysis framework from Suksawas(2011) as shown Appendix1. The information from SPEECH FUNCTIONis 409

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies the main interest since the functions provide explanatory power to the report finding with explicit evidence to clarify the researchers’ commentary of the phenomena. ‘Every time speakers take on a role, they assign to the listener(s) a role as well’ (Eggins & Slade, 2004, p. 181). Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between social context and language as each SPEECH FUNCTIONis associated with a particular MOOD structure (Eggins & Slade, 2004). The basic patterns of speech roles above have been further developed by Eggins and Slade (2004). In addition, SPEECH FUNCTIONis considered to be a useful tool for identifying patterns of conversation as the role of the speakers is evident in the four potential move choices: opening, continuing, responding and rejoinder. As the focus of this study is on the learners as active participants in the interactions, the SPEECH FUNCTIONnot only identified the learners’ speech roles, it also acted as a predictor of ongoing interactions between the interlocutors. Therefore, the SPEECH FUNCTIONanalysis enabled the researcher to investigate how learners sustained their participation in the subsequent moves.

Findings

Data obtained from the Speech Functions revealed that most of the time learners provided each other support when they solved problems writing the assign tasks. From the total 322utterances of learners’ talk in English, it was found that learners were constructed their meaning in a classroom context when they were working on the small group tasks. The field of the interaction was News and Journalism writing. Their relationship was very close and they were willing to communicate with each other by helping each other producing written text through spoken discourse. The majority of these utterances was responding move followed by the continuing move which reflected learners’ acts of providing feedback, evaluating talks and criticizing each other’s ideas. Type/name No. of turns 322 Open Open: Attend Open:Initiate:demand:g&s Open:Initiate:demand:info:open:fact Open:Initiate:demand:info:open:opinion Open:Initiate:demand:info:closed:fact Open:Initiate:demand:info:closed:opinion Open:Initiate:give: g&s Open:Initiate:give:info:fact Open:Initiate:give:info:opinion Total Continue Sus:Con:Monitor Sus:Con:Prolong:elaborate Sus:Con:Prolong:extend Sus:Con:Prolong:enhance Sus:Con:Append:elaborate Sus:Con:Append:extend Sus:Con:Append:enhance Total Responding Sus:Rea:Res:Support:develop:elaborate Sus:Rea:Res:Support:develop:extend 410

Pim 100

Ann 58

Suda 74

Pat 50

Vinit 40

2 4 1 3 1 3 1 0 8 23

2 1 0 1 3 1 1 2 2 13

2 3 1 2 4 0 2 5 0 19

1 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 8

3 1 0 0 1 1 0 5 0 11

4 21 2 0 6 2 0 35

1 8 1 0 1 0 0 11

0 11 1 0 2 0 0 14

0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6

0 5 0 0 2 0 0 7

8 2

1 2

9 1

4 0

4 0

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Sus:Rea:Res:Support:develop:enhance Type/name No. of turns 322 Sus:Rea:Res:Support:concern Sus:Rea:Res:Support:engage Sus:Rea:Res:Support:register Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:accept Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:comply Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:agree Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:answer Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:acknowledge Sus:Rea:Res:Support:reply:affirm Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:disengage Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:decline Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:non-comply Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:disagree Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:withhold Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:disavow Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:contradict Sus:Rea:Res:Confront:reply:motivate Total Rejoinder Sus:Rea:Rej:Support:track:check Sus:Rea:Rej:Support:track:confirm Sus:Rea:Rej:Support:track:clarify Sus:Rea:Rej:Support:track:probe Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:resolve Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:repair Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:acquiesce Sus:Rea:Rej:Confront:challenge:detach Sus:Rea:Rej:Confront:challenge:rebound Sus:Rea:Rej:Confront:challenge:counter Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:unresolve Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:refute Sus:Rea:Rej:Respond:challenge Total

0

0

0

0

0

Pim 100 0 0 0 1 3 9 6 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 36

Ann 58 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 0 1 3 2 1 0 0 0 18

Suda 74 0 0 1 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 23

Pat 50 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 17

Vinit 40 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 17

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 5

3 2 3 0 4 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 16

2 2 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 11

5 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 13

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 5

Table 1: Data from SPEECH FUNCTION To illustrate the obtained data, the researcher would like to categorize some aspects of learners’ talk as educational talk. According to Mercer (2008), educational talk can be divided into three types: disputational talk, cumulative talk and exploratory talk. First, learners produce disputational talk when they disagree with each other and everyone just makes their own decisions. The atmosphere is competitive rather than co-operative. In this study, there was no evidence of learners’ disputation. There were times when learners disagreedwith each other, but they also share knowledge repeat and elaborate with other. This type of discourse analyzed as cumulative talk in which learners simply accept and agree with what other people say, they shared knowledge in an uncritical way. Moreover, though they elaborate each other, they do not evaluate their group members’ ideas as shown in the extract below; 411

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(1) Pim: Ok. We choose easy format ermerm. “ I write here the weather is cool” Yeah. No. Ann: Cool Suda: No. It’s hot for me. Ann: 27c is cool in Thailand. Pim: Cool Suda: Cool in the northern part of the country and….. Vinit: and windy (2) Vinit: Can I write it here? Suda: Ok Pim: Ok…small one. Pim: I mean smaller than this. Besides the cumulative talks beneficial to learners in completing their tasks, exploratory talks were also evidenced in the study. The exploratory talk is considered as a ‘think aloud’ (Mercer & Dawes, 2008, p. 65)device and also a‘thinking together tool’ (p.66) This type of talk is an excellence evidence of the critical engagement of the learners that co-construct with each other’s ideas. Learners elaborated, evaluated and treated their group members’ ideas with respect. In addition, the talk relating to discipline knowledge was explicitly revealed to the public as shown below; (3) Pat: Well, Can we put the symbol here? Ann: It’s ok if you like, but I think we need to put in words. Suda: Right. I think writing in word is better. Suda: What should we write? Ann: This is the ….what? the what? Suda: what? Ann: Name of our program Pat: Oh! Like channel 3..the TV 360 [Ong-Sa] Vinit:What do you like? Ann: I don’t know Pat: Make it funny or serious? Pim: I think serious one. We write to teacher not speak in front of the class. Suda: _Yes. Vinit:_Yes Pat: Ok (Pause) Suda: Weather… Pim: Weather Today Ann: Good..what about Weather Today with NU Suda: I like it Pat: Ok…write it down. (4) Suda: How can we describe the sea in the south? 412

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Vinit: The sea is angry. Pim: The sea is cruel or brutal. Ann: Can we make it in a sentence? Suda: Like what? Ann: Heavy rain and heavy storm makes the sea unsuitable for sailing. Pim… and small boat should be caution or proceed with caution. Ann: I like that (5) Vinit: What is mist? Ann: Ice? Vinit: I don’t think so Ann: we have in the north of Thailand. Pim: It’s like fog Suda: It’s a foggy in the north of Thailand. Drivers should be caution while driving. Ann: It’s [Mork] Vinit: I see Another example is when learners helped each other to choose the appropriate terms to describe weather. In this way the communicative approach shifted between dialogic and authoritative phases as one learner attempted to support meaningful learning by drawing attention to the differences between everyday talk discourse and weather forecast discourse. Learners demonstrated their ability to produce the written text with the discipline- appropriate discourse with the help their friend through exploratory talk. (6) Pinit: What did the teacher use to describe the showers in only some places? Pim: Some areas? Pat: What do you mean? Ann:_Oh Suda:_Oh Pat: Rain in some areas? Pinit: [Kra Chai pen Yom Yom] Pim: Thundershower Pim: Scattered thundershower Pinit: Right….I see (7) Pinit: Look at the picture… Pinit: How can we describe? Suda: It’s not bright? Pat: Dark Pim: Dim Suda: Let me check.. Pat: Dim weather is OK. Suda: We should use haze[Far Luai] Pinit: Good

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies The extracts drawn as evidence in this session illustrate the transition of learners moving to a complex usage of the language. They show their ability to adjust from every talk (or L1) to a more complex language in the appropriate context. Besides, the use of visual aid can promote learners understanding of the weather they are about to describe.

Conclusion and implication of the study In this study, a new way to analyze the educational talk in the EFL classroom is proposed by using the Systemic Functional Linguistic framework of SPEECH FUNCTION. This framework is a bit different from the original version fromEggins& Slade(2004) since there was an evidence of L1 in the learners’ discussion which illustrated their asking and providing supports to each other during the process of solving the tasks. This study argues that if educators, teachers or even students value the special features of the exploratory talk and the cumulative talk, the benefits from promoting these types of talk should be on learners’ learning not only about the language but also the discipline knowledge in other subjects. In turn, by applying linguistics framework to the phenomenon, this study works towards the provision of suitable answers to the research questions. Furthermore, while this study recognizes that more detailed work needs to be done on this issue, the underlying theoretical framework enables the researcher to successfully examine the learning context and the learners’ dialogic interaction well enough to provide answers to the research questions at this preliminary research stage.The pedagogical implications concern the contributions to learners’ oral production enacted in their talk, and the on-going reflection about the factors contributing to a learner’s production of the talk. This study reveals the notion that language as a social tool is highly integral to the language learning process. When interpreted from within the linguistic perspective, the findings reinforce the potential benefits of learners’ social mediations. Its intention is to promote the use of small group activities in order to facilitate meaningful communication and to promote learners participation during the task so as to benefit language learning. In this present study, the social mediations (both language and physical materials) enable learners to move towards the completion of their task while their dialogic interactions reveal the contributing factors affecting their willingness to participate in the task.

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References Busch, M.W. (2006). Task-based pedagogical activities as oral genres: a systemic functional linguistic analysis. University of Toronto, Toronto. DeGuerrero, M., & Villamil, O. (2000). Activiting the ZPD: Mutual scaffolding in L2 peer revision. The Modern Language Journal, 84, 51-68. Derewianka, B. (2001). Pedagogocal Grammars: Their role in English language teaching. In A. Burns & C. Coffin (Eds.), Analysing English in a global context: a reader. London: Routledge. Eggins, Suzanne, & Slade, Diana. (2004). Analysing casual conversation. London Equinox. Halliday, M. A. K. (1998). Things and relations: regrammaticising experience as technical knowledge. In J.R. Martin & R. Veel (Eds.), Reading Science: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science (pp. 185-235). London: Routledge. Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold. Halliday, M.A.K., & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, and text : aspects of language in a socialsemiotic perspective Waurn Ponds, Vic: Deakin University Press. Halliday, M.A.K., & Hasan, R. (1989). Language, context and text: Aspects of language in a socialsemiotic perspective. London: Oxford University Press. Kongpetch, S. (2006). Using a genre-based approach to teach writing to Thai students: a case study. Prospect, 21(2), 3-33. Marr, M.B. (1997). Cooperative learning: A brief review. Reading and Writing Quarterly: overcoming learning difficulties, 13(1), 7-20. Mercer, N., & Dawes, Lyn. (2008). The value of Exploratory Talk. In N. Mercer & Steve Hodgkinson (Eds.), Exploring talk in school (pp. 55). Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. California: Jossey-Bass Inc. Payaprom, Sudarat. (2012). The impact of a genre-based approach on English language teaching in an EFL yertiary context in Thailand EdD, University of Wollongong, Wollongong. Pierce, Kathry M., & Gilles, Carol. (2012). From Exploratory talk to critical conversations. In Mercer Neil & Steve Hodgkinson (Eds.), Exploratory talk in school (pp. 37-50). Califonia: SAGE. Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia, Gomez, Laura, & Velez, Maricele. (2008). Dialogue for reasoning: promoting exploratory talk and problem solving in the primary classoom. In Bert Van oers, Wim Wardekker & Ed Elbers (Eds.), The transformation of learning:advances in CulturalHistorical Activity Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schleppegrell, J.Marry. (2004). The language of schooling: a functional linguistics perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Stake, R.E. (2000). Case studies. In N.F. Denzin & Y.S Lincoin (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. California: Sage Publication. Suksawas, W. (2011). A sociocultural study of EFL learners' willingness to communicate. University of Wollongong, Wollongong. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3427

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Wegerif, R., & Mercer, N. (2000). Language for thinking: A study of children solving reasoning test problem together. In H Cowie & G Aalsvoot (Eds.), Social interaction and learning and instruction: the meaning of discourse for the construction of knowledge (pp. 179-192). Amsterdam: Pergamon. Yang, Dai, Fei. (2007). Improving networked learning in higher education: language functions and design patterns. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Sydney.

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Appendix 1

Attend ( 23 ) Demand g&s ( 138 ) Offer g&s ( 27 ) Fact ( 2 ) Give Open

Opinion ( 48 )

Initiate

Close-ended ( 8 ) Fact

Open-ended ( 11 )

Demand

Close-ended ( 64 ) Opinion

Open-ended ( 95 )

Monitor ( 6 ) Elaborate ( 230 ) Prolong

Extend ( 13 ) Enhance ( 25 )

Continue

Elaborate ( 18 ) Append

Extend ( 2 ) Enhance ( 2 ) Elaborate ( 118 ) Develop

Extend ( 6 ) Enhance ( 4 )

Concern Engage ( 4 ) Register ( 14 ) Support

Accept ( 7 ) Comply ( 23 )

Move

Move Reply

Agree ( 87 ) Answer ( 89 )

Respond

Acknowledge ( 9 ) Affirm ( 15 ) Disengage ( 1 ) Sustain

Disagree ( 9 ) Non-comply ( 5 ) Withhold ( 9 ) Confront Reply

React

Deny Disavow Disagree ( 9 ) Contradict ( 60 ) Check ( 41) Confirm ( 5 )

Track Clarify ( 17 ) Probe

Support

Resolve ( 24 ) Respond Rejoinder

Repair ( 13 ) Acquiese Detach

Challenge

Rebound Counter

Confront

Unsolve Respond to challenge

Reflute Re-challenge

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Derek Walcott and the Pastoral Yaowarut Mengkow

University of Phayao [email protected] Abstract This paper aimed at tracing Derek Walcott and his environmental perspectives. As known, environmental issues have come to the forefront of cultural debate as a result of the current global crisis. The problem, it is often suggested, has been caused by human alienation from the natural world. According to DeLoughrey, Gosson, and Handley, the causes for such alienation are linked to the historical condition of peoples after the colonial era. They suggest that postcolonial writing, especially from the Caribbean, offers a rich field for ecological studies because the Caribbean has gone through such massive alterations in terms of the migration and transplantation of people and plants. Caribbean literature’s deep exploration of place and environment has been less explored than its social and historical diversity, despite the appearance of these themes in Caribbean writers such as Antonio Pedreira, V.S. Naipaul and Derek Walcott. Additionally, it is generally agreed that modern environmentalism movement has emerged because of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), in which ‘A Fable of Tomorrow’ was introduced to the readers. In that particular text, Carson adopts a literary mode namely the pastoral in initiating the readers’ environmental awareness. Considering the initial environmental literary text, I, therefore, studied Derek Walcott’s first long poem entitled Another Life (1973) hoping that Walcott will echo the notions of the pastoral in his work as well as the functions of his pastoral. Keywords: Derek Walcott, Another Life, the pastoral, St. Lucia, environmental perspective This study is concerned with the representations of the St. Lucian landscape in Another Life, an early work of Derek Walcott, a St. Lucian poet and playwright. In this particular work, Walcott attests to the influence of European landscape ideas, the pastoral. He contrastingly presents the idea of the Caribbean pastoral in general, or the St. Lucian one in particular. The readers will be able to perceive Walcott’s disclamations of the conventional pastoral elements, which have been imposed to St. Lucia since the colonial era, by presenting the reality of the St. Lucian landscape. In doing this, Walcott has opened the minds of the readers, especially of the Caribbean people to the truth of their home countries to a means to get freed from colonial past—articulating a postcolonial sense of place. Derek Walcott, a St. Lucian poet and playwright, was born on 23 January 1930 in St. Lucia, a former French and British colony island in the Caribbean. He was raised in Castries, the capital city. His family is of African and European descent, reflecting the complex colonial history of the island which he explores in his poetry. Walcott has produced a wide range of works concerning the Caribbean and its people since he was a young boy. His position in the literary sphere was established when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992. His works include the Homeric epic poem, Omeros (1990), which many critics view "as Walcott's major achievement." In addition to having won the Nobel, Walcott has won many literary awards over the course of his career including an Obie Award in 1971 for his play Dream on Monkey Mountain, a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award, a Royal Society of Literature Award, the Queen's Medal for Poetry, and the 2011 T. S. Eliot Prize for his book of poetry, White Egrets. Critiques indicate that his works “all clearly aspire to a peaceful harmony among diverse peoples” (Baer, 1996, p.x). As he has grown up in a part of the world full of racial diversity: Africans, 418

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Asians and Europeans, it is undoubtedly that he is fully aware of the legacy of human racism. Representations about this awareness can be traced in most of his works, in which references to his native St. Lucia—a former French and British colony in terms of its landscape, its poverty, and its culture can be depicted. So, this is to say that St. Lucia has made him the poet, dramatist, theatre director, painter, critic, teacher and intellectual that he is. Among Walcott’s major works, Another Life—his first long poem, is widely known as the autobiography of his youth. The poem is divided into four books, each of which contains almost the same amount of chapters and sub-chapters. The first book, entitled “The Divided Child” in which seven chapters are embedded, deals with the major influences on the young poet and how these influential agents created the divided child. The poet is divided by the demand of his mixed heritage—“African and English, by the colonial policy, by his aspiration to be both a poet and a painter, by his twin brother, by his thriving on ambiguities and contradictions” (Baugh & Nepaulsingh, 2004, p. 220). Generally speaking, in this book, St. Lucian geography and its landscape are introduced. Book II, “Homage to Gregorias,” recounts the shared dream to become painters of the poet and his friend, Dunstan St. Omer, under a St. Lucian great artist—Harry Simmons’ supervision. It is not only the collective ideals of the poet and his friend to be elaborated in this book, but also some distinctive characteristics of the two young artists that made the poet focus more on poetry and less on painting. Undeniably, St. Lucian topography as the source of inspiration for the two artists plays a very significant role in this book. Book III, “The Simple Flame” records both literal and allegorical meanings of flame. Literally, the simple flame caused the biggest fire in Castries in 1948 while allegorically, it is a flame of love of the poet for Anna—his young sweetheart, love for art, love for the island, and as Baugh has noted: “it is Dante’s description of God at the end of his ‘Divine Comedy.’ ” (Baugh & Nepaulsingh, 2004, p. 291) In Book IV, “The Estranging Sea,” the poet’s main focus is about the tragic death of his mentor, Harry Simmons, and how Gregorias managed to overcome a tragic fate of being an artist of the New World. Additionally, in this book, the vivid image of a Caribbean countryside—Rampanalgas is described as a place where the poet can liberate himself from the idea of history.

Environmentalism, Pastoral and Another Life Greg Garrard (2004) identifies pastoral as a key term for ecocritical study, and asserts that pastoral is one of the key concerns for ecocritics because it is so deeply rooted in Western culture and so deeply problematic for environmentalism. Pastoral, as a genre of literature, emerged in the classical period and ‘provided the pre-existing set of literary conventions and cultural assumptions that have been crucially transformed to provide a way for Europeans and Euro-Americans to construct their landscapes.’ During the Industrial Revolution, Romantic pastoral had played its role in contrasting countries and cities. Contemporarily, pastoral motifs can be seen in the commercial ads, such as some breakfast products featuring golden fields in the sunshine: a fabric softener with cute little girls running in the soft looking field: and an automobile with a happy looking family driving along rural roads. Additionally, the founding text of ecocriticism, Silent Spring, followed the pastoral tradition. Garrard, then, purposes that ‘[pastoral’s] long history and cultural ubiquity’ makes it a ‘must’ and ‘will’ remain an important key concern in the study of literature and environment. From the beginning, the pastoral was written for an urban audience and exploited a tension between the town and the country of the shepherd, between the life of the court and the life of the shepherd, between people and nature and between retreat and return (Gifford, 1999, p. 15). According to Gifford, the term 'pastoral' is used in three distinguishable ways. Firstly, it is a historical form with a long tradition starting from the Hellenistic period and had been practiced in the subsequent periods such as Renaissance, Elizabethan or Romantic. It is used in the poems or dramas in which shepherds are speaking to each other about their work and their loves. The shepherds normally give the idealistic descriptions of their countryside. It is a literary device that suggests some form of retreat and return. This particular pastoral may be referred to as classical pastoral 419

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies (Garrard, 2004, p. 34). Secondly, it can refer to any literature that describes country life either in an implicit or explicit way. Thirdly, it can be used in implying an idealisation of rural life which obscures the realities of labour and hardship (Gifford, 1999, p.1). According to Garrard (2004), the ‘classical pastoral’ is taken to include all pastoral literature up until the eighteenth century. Interestingly, the pastoral conventions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were seriously accused of creating a false ideology that served to support a comfortable status quo for the landlords who had been the reading public (Gifford, 1999, p.1). Noticeably, the contrast of country and city came to the forefront of literature with the romantic pastorals, written at a time when mass urbanization made these dissimilarities relevant to many people from rural and urban areas. It was a time when the flow of labourers moved to the factories and the towns in order to earn a living. This mass emigration caused the rural population to decrease while the urban one grew dramatically. The Industrial Revolution therefore had palpable repercussion as far as the writing of pastorals was concerned. According to Raymond Williams (1985), the alienated relationship between human beings and nature turns the natural landscape into a man-made landscape in order that the land could be possessed (pp.120-126). He also investigates dependent relationship between the country and the city; and asserts that the country is a space for exploitation and function as physical and moral support for urban people. This mode of relationship was expanded on by Williams to describe the relationship between colony and metropolis or the system known to the world as imperialism. The model of country and city, in economic and political relationships, therefore went beyond the boundaries of the nation state. The ‘country’ is equivalent to all the other ‘undeveloped’ lands whilst the ‘city’ is the equivalent of those ‘industrialized’ nations (p.279). This model was applied to describe the relationship between Britain and its Empire and those ‘undeveloped’ colonies, including Walcott’s Caribbean. Significantly, such a relationship disturbs the ecological balance. The Europeans, especially the British, started upsetting the local landscape to support their aesthetic and economic demands. This had impacts on all living things in area undergoing development. In Culture and Imperialism, Edward Said (1994) affirms that: [W]herever they went the Europeans immediately began to change the local habitat; their conscious aim was to transform territories into image of what they had left behind. This process was never ending, as a huge number of plants, animals, and crops […] gradually turned the colony into a new place, complete with new disease, environmental imbalances, and traumatic dislocations for the overpowered natives (pp. 271-272). Additionally, altering the colonial landscape following the British ideology of aesthetics in landscape ‘improvement’ through clearance not only fuelled the plantation objective, but also dispelled the fears of the mysterious and disease-bearing bush: ‘[the] supposed health risks posed by tropical forests provided a further reason for extensive clearing. A common explanation for illness among Europeans was that woodlands exuded harmful vapours which caused fever and agues’ (Grove, 1995, pp. 64-65). The radical alteration in the Caribbean landscape caused the extermination of the native flora and fauna, and uprooted people for the slave trade. The transplantation of plants from both the mother countries and the other colonies resulted in alienation to the new landscape. Helen Tiffin (2005) says that landscape is not merely ‘land’ or ‘earth;’ in fact, it is a product of ‘a combination of relationships between living beings and their surroundings.’ In the case of human beings, through observations or points of view, landscape becomes a form of interaction between people and their place. This differentiates the perception of the landscapes for the indigenous peoples and the migrants, which are ‘the ancestrally or recently translocated.’ She further mentions that being ‘native’ to the land creates a sense of ‘being-with-the-earth,’ or being rooted. This allows people to identify themselves culturally as the ‘intrinsic part’ of the land. On the other hand, for migrants, whose sense of ‘being-with-the-earth’ is still with their earlier homescapes, ties with a motherland 420

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies remain. Therefore, for them, connections to the adopted land are simply for the sake of necessity (p. 199). As the attachment to the land is not strong enough, it is likely that the new land may be ignored easily. Likewise, the Caribbean, where all of the current populations are the descendants of European settlers, African slaves, and the Chinese or Indian labourers, may be neglected if its human inhabitants adjust themselves to the ‘new’ landscape only out of the ‘necessity,’ without any sense of place at all. It is this estrangement that may encourage the West Indians to migrate from the West Indies to their ex-colonizer countries. Additionally, if West Indians do not have any pride regarding the land, they might destroy it by letting other people, or the foreign investors, take advantage. What will happen next is that the Caribbean people will lose their rights to the land and may be forced to seek employment from these investors. Hence, neo-colonialism through economic dependency. The countryside—the Caribbean or, to be exact, St. Lucia for Walcott is not a place to be exploited both by its current people and foreigners like it was during colonialism. To him, St. Lucia, which was once a place supporting the glory of the Empire, is a source of inspiration. In terms of natural environment, human beings in the landscape—the working people, are characters in his works. This may reveal that Walcott’s notion of landscaping differs from that of the colonizers. Instead of moving unpleasant things out of his representation of St. Lucian landscape, both in painting and poetry, Walcott presents them in the way they appear. Classical pastoral may signify many aspects of country literature—leisure life of shepherds or different kind of life in the countryside and the city. The narrative of Another Life is embedded in St. Lucia, in which the young Walcott who values the country and making the most of his life out of being a town member. Walcott may be lucky that he has chances to make contact with the beaches, hillsides, and streets of the island; and this made him and his friend, St. Omer, consider themselves the first generation of the island’s artists (Handley, 2007, p. 54). Walcott, in an interview conducted by Hirsch (1996), said that: I can still remember the tremendous elation I had at eighteen just standing on a little hill somewhere and looking around at the sea and the sky and the town, knowing that nobody had really written about this (p. 54). The town, which was mentioned in the interview, is St. Lucia’s capital city—Castries, which is the main setting in Another Life. Walcott’s interest in pastoral might could be traced back to the time when he became a wellknown writer. He has shown his preoccupation about the topic in many of his interviews. For instance, in an interview conducted by Edward Hirch in 1977, when Walcott was asked about the Caribbean writer’s special relationship to Africa, he mentioned ‘pastoral idealized place’ as an attack to those who idealized Africa and ignored the Caribbean. He seems to encourage the West Indians to forget the idealization of African and stick to the place that they are living in. Longing to the lost past is ‘some sort of pastoral idealized place’ which cannot be true. The nostalgia for the past or ‘pastoral’, indeed, pushes people away from their place and this will not make people work for their current dwelling. The idea of pastoral and reality has brought about a question concerned Walcott’s interest pastoral and whether he ever wrote the pastoral. Was it a traditional pastoral? If not what kind of pastoral that Walcott would like to present. Apparently, Another Life is a poem about places which are portrayed both idealistically and realistically. The former portrayal deals with a peaceful landscape of Caribbean countryside or natural imagery, which was introduced to him in his early age. Rampanalgas—a tiny and remote fishing village on the north-east coast of Trinidad, can be an example of a pure idealistic kind of life where ‘History’ cannot reach. By contrast, the realistic life of poor people of the street and the countryside is one of Walcott’s favourite topics. Walcott’s attention to his surroundings suggests an engagement with the pastoral tradition in the poem. Therefore, this chapter aims to discuss Walcott’s Another Life with respect to a classical genre of literary conventions—the pastoral.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies The St. Lucian Pastoral In his book-length poem, Walcott’s readers, both local and foreign, may believe that they are introduced to what seems an idealized vision of the island. Walcott begins the poem with an image of St. Lucia in the evening when ‘a landscape [is] locked in amber,’ which is the glare of twilight at dusk. When ‘a glare / […] lower[s] the coconut lances of the inlet / […] as its amber [climbs] / […] the sky [grows] drunk with light.’ This was once ‘your [the colonizers’] heaven ’ (145.) One who has experienced watching sunset at a peninsula must appreciate and understand that the imagery of the place at sunset, which Walcott describes at the beginning of Another Life, is engraved on one's mind. Although one may not have any chances to visit St. Lucia, the landscape glazed by light at dusk encourage us to romanticize the landscape—the Vigie as a paradise. This idealization may not differ from what the British governors comprehended when they witnessed the Vigie sunset at the fort above the promontory during their colonization. According to Baugh (1978), the Vigie sunset is one of ‘the glories of the St. Lucian landscape,’ and to Walcott the Vigie means ‘the beauty of St. Lucia’ (p.21). Consequently, Walcott’s portrayal of such landscape as the glow of sunset is transforming the image geography creates, at least, the romantic and idealistic images of the Caribbean for the reader. Importantly, the scene may be referred to as pastoral scenery, which reflects the local landscape. As Another Life, in the first instance, introduces its readers to the glare of light at sunset, I would like to discuss twilight in relation to pastoral convention as the golden beam of light at dusk is Walcott’s source of aesthetic inspiration. It is a kind of light that Walcott appreciates. He mentions in an essay ‘What the Twilight Says (1998) ’ that light in St. Lucia keeps its ‘pastoral rhythm;’ and it is this light that makes ‘their strongest building tremble, its colour hints of rust, more stain than air’ (p. 3). In this sense, twilight is important in reading Another Life as a pastoral poetry because of the atmosphere it creates. It is better to discuss the effects of pastoral painting in order to understand this argument. In pastoral paintings, such as Poussin’s ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ , Watteau’s ‘The Shepherds,’ and Boucher’s ‘The Water Mill,’ the elements that help us identify them as pastoral representations are the shepherds, the countryside, and the important use of colour. The painters of these three pastoral paintings used gold hue, which is similar to the ‘glare of amber’ colour at the twilight that is used by the Old Masters to paint the Vigie landscape and Castries at sunset. The glare, he says: …mesmerized like fire without wind, and as its amber climbed the beer-stein ovals of the British fort above the promontory, the sky grew drunk with light. There was your heaven! The clear glaze of another life, a landscape locked in amber, the rare gleam (145.) The quality of the light as sunset in the St. Lucian landscape makes the young Walcott, who is watching the sunset, feels as if he is witnessing the Old Master painting the pastoral landscape. When the painting completes itself in the young Walcott’s imagination, in awe the ‘silence waited:’ […] for the tidal amber glare to glaze the last shacks of the Morne till they became transfigured sheerly by the student’s will, a cinquecento fragment in gilt frame (146.)

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies This is a landscape painting that has been valid in Walcott’s memory ever since. Having been impressed by the work of glare of amber light that transforms landscape and atmosphere in St. Lucia, and having locked such transformation in his own mind, Walcott bridges the preservation of his memory with a technique in painting by imagining the amber light at twilight as a glazing agent preserve the painting. The imaginary as such preserves the poet’s memory of the painting of the Old Master. As Baugh (1980) suggests: ‘[t]he amber glaze not only transfigures the remembered world but also transfixes the memory and the vision’ (p. 89). After all, reading Another Life is like appreciating paintings. The St. Lucian landscape, whether the natural or man-made, under the amber glaze is a living painting. New pictures can be produced each day as long as the sun still sets. It may be able to assert that the golden hue of light at sundown creates ‘pastoral rhythm’ in St. Lucia. As mentioned earlier the importance of twilight is that its glare of amber light creates in the St. Lucian landscape a pastoral atmosphere. Another characteristic of the pastoral of ‘this’ town is that it is full of light—including the light at dusk, moonlight, green light from the horizon or light from light bulbs. As we have seen, however, Walcott privileges twilight, the light that locks the St. Lucian landscape in its amber glow. This opposes to the time of the conventional pastoral. For example, Theocritus’s ideal pastoral time of day is noon, and so it is through much of pastoral literature (Ettin, 1984, p. 136). According to Ettin, the midday Mediterranean heat makes noon appropriate for resting, socializing, singing, or thinking about one’s private thoughts. The Sicilian landscape of Theocritus has noon as its centre. Rosenmeyer (1969 cited in Ettin 1894) has also pointed out that: [T]he combination as such perfectly balances these natural influences [resting, socializing, singing and thinking.] Further, as a midpoint in the day’s progress, noon is an appropriate time to reflect and seek inspiration (p. 136). By contrast, Virgil uses the descent of evening to end his first Eclogue. In the shadows from the mountains, the feeling of uncertainty and ominous on the exile of Meliboeus, the shepherd who loses his land, is created. Additionally, the eighteenth century onward twilight and nighttime pastoral have become popular. The changes in pastoral time is significant not only that the writers may have sought a time with a quality of light as inspiring as the quality that Theocritus could find at noontime, but also that the light can convey the message that each writer wants to share with the readers. Likewise, Walcott’s time at twilight may be the period when the quality of light in the Caribbean has an ability to transform the St. Lucian landscape to be a pastoral landscape. The amber light, not only does it refer to the image of the beautiful sunset in St. Lucia, but also a chemical that is glazed onto a painting in order to preserve and heighten the colour (Baugh & Neipaulsingh, 2004, p. 223). This is a painting technique used by Johannese Vermeer, a Dutch painter of the seventeenth century. Cravan comments on his technique: ‘[h]is textures are such perfect replicates that his table covers and stuffs strike the eye, not as painted illusion, but as actual material preserved in amber glazes’ (Craven cited in Baugh, 1980, p. 89). Walcott so adores Vermeer’s technique that he wrote about him and his skill in “A Map of Europe’ (1965). A cracked coffee cup A broken loaf, a dented urn become Themselves, as in Chardin, Or in beer-bright Vermeer, Not objects of our pity (p.66). According to St. Lucian historical context, their society after the decline of the Empire is like a cracked cup, a broken loaf or a dented urn—all of which, generally, are unpleasant in appearance. However, with Vermeer’s technique, applying the amber glaze converts the damaged household objects, which are ignored, into fascinating items. The metaphor of amber light here conveys a message which is different from Bough’s observations on the same topic. He notes: 423

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[t]he sealing effect of the glaze […] connotes the poet’s desire to catch or fix once for all the essential quality of the remembered life […] The sealing effect of the glaze also connote the poet’s attempt to preserve his memories […] The amber signifies the dream of art to be indestructible, to preserve man’s finest moments against the flux (Baugh, 1980, p. 89). Walcott, however, may pay attention to the ‘Not object of our pity’ which was created by the amber glazing. The ‘objects’ of Walcott’s art, as realized, are old shacks, the remains of the sugar plantation and the poor people who are descended from the colonial slaves. This, probably, draws more of the poet’s focus than preserving his ‘own’ memory. It is these ‘objects’ that Walcott wants to be seen as they appear from the perspective of the islanders and outsiders. If this is right, it is reality, preserved under the glaze of amber light, which is the thing Walcott highly values. Walcott’s pastoral, according to temporal orientation suggested by Garrard, is an ‘idyll’ - the pastoral that celebrates the present time. Furthermore, from a scientific perspective, the yellowish fossil resin may be worthless. Originally, amber is a soft, sticky tree resin, which sometimes contains small amounts of dead animal and plant material. It is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry. However, has one ever questioned oneself when seeing a dead mosquito or spider inside amber whether it is beautiful or disgusting? The effect of the yellowish resin is fascinating, as it makes whatever is trapped inside appear more pleasant. The image of the insect as such is splendid, undecayed, but, of course, dead. What are at work here are the ideas of preservation through time, and rebirth. Amber connotes preservation, and the improving quality of its colour effect. The golden yellow of the resin has can eliminate the idea of ‘unpleasant looking objects’, such as a dead mosquito, or a spider, or a drop of blood. At the same time, preservation under amber makes those objects precious. Therefore, the connotations of amber light at twilight can alter the St. Lucian landscape which contains ‘the shoddy, gimcrack architecture’, ‘grey, rotting shacking’ and poor people to be ‘the beauty of certain degradations’ (Walcott, 1998, p. 13). These are Walcott’s ‘paradisal moments’ (Baugh, 1980, p. 90). This particular natural power at dusk in the Caribbean suggests landscape modification, which is very different from the British’s concept of landscaping. As it is known, during imperialism, the British were keen on adjusting landscape both in their countryside and their colonies. This includes the Caribbean landscape. One of the purposes of the landscape alteration is to make it pleasant to the eyes of human beings. In contrast, the landscape modification at dusk in St. Lucia according to what Walcott has portrayed is to celebrate what is in the landscape—people, plants or building although they are a ‘pity’ to look at. Then, every evening, the amber light will transform the ‘pity to look at’ objects in the St. Lucian landscape into something beautiful. This is to say that light at sunset in St. Lucia has a very unique quality that not only shows the value of the landscape, but also transfixs a valuable image in the memory. This is why the St. Lucian pastoral light is important in Walcott’s imagination. Additionally, the scene comes from a memory of the poet when he was young is the memory of an idyllic landscape as sunset. The term ‘idyll’ originally referred to ‘the small picture’, but later was used as ‘the represented situation of rural escape or repose itself’(Garrard, 2004, p. 34). The sunset scene, thus, may be described as an idyllic scene since the transfiguring landscape at dusk draws in a dreamy and beautiful image to the readers’ imagination as well as the boy who is stunned by the art of the glow light at sunset. Additionally, according to Ettin (1984), as far as the works that fit into the pastoral genre are concerned, ‘any idyllic scene is at least a modal version of the pastoral’ (pp.65-66). However, Walcott’s mode of pastoral, here, draws the readers’ attention to the topography of the island. Vigie the Morne, a hill with a British military fortress, the Government House and the shacks of the poor people of Castries, St Lucia's capital. The promontory on which the British fort is situated, seems an eyesore or a scar that reminds one of what happened during the colonial period; the mighty fortress on the peninsula is next to the shacks of the poor to emphasize 424

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies that what is left from the legacy of the colonial period is not only the 'glories' of the Empire, but also poverty and destitution. Walcott (1998) has described this kind of scenes as 'nature with blistered aspects’(p. 13) and he seems to embrace the wreck of the Old World as 'the tidal amber glare' glazes the landscape in its entirety. The fortress and the shacks are painful and shameful landscape features but the St. Lucian poet believes that people feel dispossessed if they feel alienated from their immediate social and natural environment. According to Walcott it is important that people love their natural surroundings, despite their 'blistered aspects'. Walcott gains his artistic inspiration from the beauty of the island and has learnt to love every aspect of it: as a result, he never feels dispossessed. This is crucial because, instead of longing for a lost home, or a very far away past, Walcott roots himself in the present and makes the most of the opportunities afforded by the ‘present.’ Walcott’s presentation of the ‘present’ beauty of the St. Lucian landscape and his decision to celebrate nature’s ‘blistered’ aspects is against a traditional notion of pastoral literature. The classical pastoral hides the bitter aspect of life of those who dwell the countryside area, such as shepherds, goatherd, or farmer. Only the pleasant aspects of life—leisure time, singing songs or wooing women are presented. Walcott realizes that such pastoral presentation—avoiding reality, might not be able to help his people to accept the truth of the bitter West Indian history. Instead, that will encourage them to obsess with the idea of a pastoral of Africa and tie themselves to the unknown past. This may result in people’s rejection of the land and end up with migration or land exploitation. Walcott has witnessed the exile of many writers, who show detestation for the land they were born on through their literary works. Therefore, a fundamental element of Walcott’s pastoral seems admitting to the truth—without any bitterness or prejudice. After all, the land will bring in a pastoral of the Caribbean. In this light, Another Life should be characterised as pastoral because it has ‘a celebratory attitude towards what it describes ’ (Gifford, 1999, p.2). Walcott's use of pastoral tradition transcends genre and form. As Andrew V. Ettin (1984) remarks, “[w]hat makes a work pastoral [is] its attitudes toward the natural world and human experience” (p.22). Walcott’s pastoral of town differs from the traditional pastoral because it is situated on an active landscape. As known, the St. Lucian landscape was radically altered during colonization in terms of ‘human and botanic migration, transplantation, and settlement’ (DeLoughrey, Gosson & Handley, 2005, p. 2). The action transformed the local landscape into a man-made landscape; this caused the people within these dwellings to feel a sense of alienation. In Another Life, the pastoral landscape is keen on presenting itself to Walcott as if it knows that the poet can convey the message it wants to communicate. The St. Lucian landscape is on fire because it is not satisfied by the way the islanders or the outsiders perceive it. That is why ‘the landscape / frawns at its image (197.) The unique characteristic of the pastoral setting is that it is keen to present itself to the poet and the painter in order to inspire them to achieve their dream of presenting the ‘real’ images of the country. This suggests that the landscape does not want to be in the background rather, it is eager to be the centre of both the painter’s and the poet’s attention. That is why it makes a move in order to catch the artists’ attention so hard that ‘[t]he mountain’s crouching back begins to ache (197.) The poet keeps his eye on the changing of the landscape until it ‘settle[s] on / a horizon humming with balance’(198); and when the landscape finishes its job, ‘[t]he ants blacken it, signing’ (199.) The landscape wants to present itself to the eyes of human beings and the poet ‘[has] eaten nothing but the landscape’, and so he ‘[has] entered a furnace’ of both his pastoral place and his own ambition. Accordingly, the island of St. Lucia is an active location as opposed to the traditional pastoral, in which the pastoral setting does not draw attention from the pastoral characters. The setting in either The Idylls of Theocritus or Eclogues of Virgil is passive; and it is sensed as a total physical surrounding. Walcott’s landscape, by contrast, has a quality that supports its artists by showing them that their ‘place’ is their ally where they can turn to when they need some inspiration. To conclude, all that are mentioned above are the realistic images of St. Lucia. Walcott revisits the notion of pastoral, and transcends the traditional images of pastoral in order to show that in the landscape, which is full of unpleasant images of exploitation and violence culture can be 425

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies established as well as life can continue its rhythm. That Walcott embeds the exploitation, violence and disease in the St. Lucian landscape makes pastoral of town differ from conventional pastoral as his pastoral reveals some unpleasant things about the truth of the nation. However, the evidence of imperialism, especially the things they did to the ex-colony, such as poverty is vividly evident on the island. To emphasize the truth may appear to be a malicious decision, however, if people can bear its impact, it may lead to a stage that Walcott would want for his people—a recover from the legacy of colonialism. St. Lucia needs strong citizens that are able to face the realities of life, both to overcome post-colonial bitterness and the hardship of their day-to-day existence. The St. Lucians have no time to lapse into wistful nostalgia if they want to escape deprivation. Encouraging them to face reality may be the best thing Walcott can do for them.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Alpers, P. (1996). What is Pastoral. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Baer, W. (Ed.). (1996). Conversations with Derek Walcott. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Baugh, E., & Nepaulsingh, C. (2004). Derek Walcott: Another Life Fully Annotated with a Critical Essay and Comprehensive Notes. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. Baugh, E. (1978). Derek Walcott: Memory as Vision: Another Life. London: Longman. Baugh, E. (1980). Painters and Paintings in ‘Another Life’. Caribbean Quarterly, 26, 83-93. Clark, T. (2011). The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DeLoughrey, E. M., Gosson, R. K., & Handley, G. B. (2005). Caribbean Literature and the Environment: Between Nature and Culture Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Empson, W. (1972). Proletarian Literature. English Pastoral Poetry. Freeport,NY: Books for Libraries Press. pp. 3-23. Ettin, A. V. (1984). Literature and the Pastoral .New Haven: Yale University Press. Foucault, M. & Miskowice, J. (1986). Of Other Space. Diacritics, 16 ,22-27. Fumagalli, M. C., & Patrick, P. L. (2006). Two Healing Narraives: Suffering, Reintegration, and the Struggle of Language. Small Axe 20, 61-79. Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticism. Oxen: Routledge Gifford, T. (1999). The Pastoral. London:Routledge. Halperin, D. M. (1983). Before Pastoral: Theocritus and the Ancient Tradition of Bucolic Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press. Handley, G., B. (2000). A Postcolonial Sense of Place and the Work of Derek Walcott. ILSE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 7, 1-23. Handley, George B., “The Muse of (Natural) History,” in New World Poetics:Nature and the Adamic Imagination of Whitman, Neruda, and Walcott, (Athens : University of Georgia Press, 2007), pp. 279-317. Heath-Stubbs, J. (1969). The Pastoral. London: Oxford University Press. Kasarda, J. D., & Crenshaw, E. M. (1991). Third World Urbanization: Dimensions, Theories, and Determinants. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 467-501. Kennedy, D. F. (1997). Virgilian Epic. In C. Martindale (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil (pp.145-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Martindale, C. (1997). Green Politics: The Eclogue. In C. Martindale (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil (pp. 107-124).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Merrifield, A. (2000). Henri Lefebvre: A Socialist in Space. In M. Crang & N. Thrift (Eds.), Thinking Space (pp. 167-183).London: Routledge. Panofsky, E. (1955). Et in Arcadia Ego: Poussin and the Elegiac Tradition. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday. pp. 295-320. Paton, D. (2009). Obeah Acts: Producing and Policing the Boundaries of Religion in the Caribbean. Small Axe (28), 2-18. Said, E. W. (1944). Culture and Imperialism. London: Vintage Books. Saunders, T. (2008). Bucolic Ecology: Virgil’s Eclogues and the Environmental Literary Tradition. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. Schiller, F. (1985). On Naive and Sentimental Poetry, trans. Julius A. Eilas. In H.B. Nisbet (Ed.), German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism: Winckelmann, Lessing, Hamann, Herder, Schiller, Goethe (pp. 179-232). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Tiffin, H. (2005).‘Man Fitting the Landscape; Nature, Culture, and Colonialism. In E. M. DeLoughrey, R. K. Gosson, & G. B. Handley (Eds.), Caribbean Literature and the Environment:Between Nature and Culture (pp. 199-212). Charlotteville: University of Virginia Press. Walcott, D. (1993). The Antilles, Fragments of the Epic Memory:The 1992 Nobel Lecture. World Literature Today, 67(2). 261-267. Walcott, D. (1998). The Muse of History. What the Twilight Says:Essays .New York : Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. pp. 36-64. Walcott, D. (1988). What the Twilight Says. What the Twilight Says:Essays. New York : Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. pp. 3-35. Walcott, D. (1997). The Caribbean:Culture or Mimicry?. In R. D. Hamner (Ed.), Critical Perspectives on Derek Walcott (pp. 51-57). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Williams, R. (1985). The Country and The City. London:Hogarth Press.

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Conversational Implicature Analysis in a Classroom Interaction at English Department of Tegal Pancasakti University Yoga Prihatin Tegal Pancasakti University Central Java-Indonesia [email protected]

Abstract The present study is meant to report an investigation of the general situation of implicature in a classroom interaction of a speaking class at the English Department of TegalPancasakti University. The result of the analysis shows that the interaction contains two kinds of implicature; particularized implicature and generalized implicature. Particularized implicatures occurred when there were particular features of the context existed whereas generalized implicatures occurred when the utterances did not depend on particular features of the context, but was instead typically associated with the proposition expressed. The occurrence of particularized implicatures is 23% or 16 of the total occurrences of implicatures (69) and generalized implicatures occurred 53 times or 77 % of the total occurrences. It can be concluded that particularized implicatures rarely occurred in the classroom interaction. It means some special factor inherent in the context of utterance is not normally carried by the sentence used.The study also provides a detailed description of how the maxims occurred in the classroom interaction. In this study the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relation and manner were violated. Dealing with the findings above, it is suggested that there is extensive work waiting for those who are interested in this field to examine. Keywords: particularized implicature, generalized implicature, maxims

Introduction Pragmatics opens a new page with the work of American philosopher H. Paul Grice. His converstational implicature theory is widely applied to study the case where implicatures are made in conversational participants’ contribution. It is observed that language learners often pay less attention to spesific context when making conversations. The worst result it might cause is that learners give improper expressions of their ideas but these expressions just make different or even odd sense to the listeners, especially to the native speakers. When implicature are created in conversation or text, the listener or reader is required to fill the missing information not overtly stated. This information is usually filled in on the basis of previous knowldege or context. Pragmatics, the studyof language use in context, is concerned with the situational aspects of language use that, among other things, directly affect implicature required of the reader. Based on George Yule (2000) and interpretation of Grice’s conversational implicature theory, this paper will give prominence to context in the recognition of conversational implicature and, if possible , help to raise Indonesian learners awareness of context. The paper with qualitative analysis concieves to analyze the conversation quoted from ‘the classroom interaction in a speaking class of forth semester students at the English Department of Tegal Pancasakti University by means of an inferring mechanism in accordance with Grice’s conversational implicature theory and its kernel the Cooperative Principle. Review of Related Literature 429

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1. The Cooperative Principle The success of a conversation depends on the cooperation between the interlocutors. Grice (1975: 26) proposes the cooperative principle as a guidance which usually operates between the sp eakers and hearers in conversational interactions. According to Yule (1996: 128), cooperative prin ciple is a basic assumption in conversation that each participant will attempt to contribute appropriately, at the required time, to the current exchange of talk. Further, based on Grice’s opinion (1989:26-27), the cooperative principle in conversation can be described in terms of four conversational maxims (Gricean maxims): 1) The Maxim of Quantity The maxim of quantity emphasizes information. A contribution should be as informative as is required for the conversation to proceed. It should be neither too little, nor too much. 2)The Maxim of Quality It says that speakers should be truthful. They should not say something that they think or believe is false, ormake statement for which they have no evidence. Therefore, lying is an obvious violation of the cooperative principles. 3)The Maxim of Relation The maxim of relation emphasizes relevance, in which the speaker has to be relevant with the topic under discussion. Speakers who change the subject abruptly are usually considered rude or uncooperative. 4)The Maxim of Manner The maxim of manner emphasizes clarity. Speakers’ contributions should be perspicuous: clear and brief, avoiding absurdity of expression and ambiguity. 2. Implicature Grice (1975: 24) says that implicature is what a speaker can imply, suggest, or mean as distinct from what he/she literally says. It is an implied message that is based on the interpretation of the language use and its context of ommunication. He points out that there are two kinds of implicature, namely, conventional and conversational implicature. 1) Conventional Implicature Conventional implicature happens whenthe speaker is presenting a true fact in a misleading way. The implicated elements associate with the conventional meaning of the words used. In other words,it is associated with specific words and result in additional conveyed meaning when those words are used (Yule, 1996: 45). It actually does not have to occur in conversation, and does not depend on special context for the interpretation. It can be said that certain expressions in language implicate ‘conventionally’ a certain state of the world, regardless of their use. For example, the word lastwill be denoted in conventional implicature as ‘the ultimate item of a sequence’. The conjunction butwill be interpreted as ‘contrast’ between the information precedes the conjunction and the information after the conjunction. The word evenin any sentence describing an event implicates a ‘contrary to expectation’ interpretation of the event. 2) Conversational Implicature It is another level at which speaker’s meaning can differ from what is said, depends on the context of conversation. Inconversational implicature, meaning is conveyed not so much by what is said, but by the fact that it is said. The cooperative principle and the maxims take part when the conversational implicature arises. There are four kindsof conversational implicature proposed by Grice (1975) and Levinson (1983), i.e. generalized, particularized, standard, and complex conversational implicature

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According to the Cooperative principle, a conversational participant needs not and should not applyinformation which he can assume that his audience already has just as suggested by the maxim of necessity and sufficiency. However it is important to note that while conversation participants nearly always observe the Cooperative principle, they do not always observe the maxim strictly. For various reasons these maxims are often violated, or ‘flouted’. Most of these variations give rise to what Grice calls ‘conversational implicature’. In other words, when we flout any of these maxims, our language becomes indirect and we are conveying something that is not said but communicated. Some implicatures appear to invoke the Cooperative principle as a ground of interpretation. It is also possible to flout a maxim on the literal level (what is said) so as to ‘invoke the same maxim’ at a figurative level (what is implicated). Each of them ‘exploits’ a maxim violation at all, but simply invoke another maxim as a ground of interpretation. 4.Violation of Maxims Violation, according to Grice (1975), takes place when speakers intentionally refrain to apply certainmaxims in their conversation to cause misunderstanding on their participants’ part or to achieve some otherpurposes. The following are examples of violation in the four aforementioned maxims: • Mother: Did you study all day long? • Son who has been playing all day long: Yes, I‘ve been studying till know! In this exchange, the boy is not truthful and violates the maxim of quality. He is lies to avoid unpleasantconsequences such as; punishment or to be forced to study for the rest of the day. • John: Where have you been? I searched everywhere for you during the past three months! • Mike: I wasn’t around. So, what’s the big deal? John poses a question, which he needs to be answered by Mike. What Mike says in return does not lackthe truth, however is still insufficient. This can be due to the fact that Mike prefers to refrain from providingJohn with the answer. John’s sentence implies that Mike has not been around otherwise he did not have tosearch everywhere. John does not say as much as it is necessary to make his contribution cooperative. Hence,he leaves his listener unsatisfied. • Teacher: Why didn’t you do your homework? • Student: May I go and get some water? I’m so thirsty. In the above exchange, the student’s answer is by no means relevant to the teacher’s question. Onereason for this answer can be the fact that the student is trying to evade the interrogation posed by the teacher. • Sarah: Did you enjoy the party last night? • Anna: There was plenty of oriental food on the table, lots of flowers all over the place, peoplehanging around chatting with each other… Sara asked a very simple question, however what she receives from Anna is a protracted description ofwhat was going on in the party. Two interpretations can be made from Anna’s description: 1. Anna had sucha good time in the party that she is obviously too excited and has no idea where to begin. 2. Anna had such aterrible time and she does not know how to complain about it.In addition, the aforementioned example can also be a case of a multiple violation. A multiple violationoccurs when the speaker violates more than one maxim simultaneously. In this example, Anna is not onlyambiguous (violating the maxim of manner) but also verbose (violating the maxim of quantity) at the sametime.

5.Flouting of maxims 431

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Unlike the violation of maxims, which takes place to cause misunderstanding on the part of the listener,the flouting of maxims takes place when individuals deliberately cease to apply the maxims to persuade theirlisteners to infer the hidden meaning behind the utterances; that is, the speakers employ implicature (S. C.Levinson, 1983). In the case of flouting (exploitation) of cooperative maxims, the speaker desires thegreatest understanding in his/her recipient because it is expected that the interlocutor is able to uncover thehidden meaning behind the utterances. People may flout the maxim of quality so as to deliver implicitly asarcastic tone in what they state. As in:Teacher to a student who arrives late more than ten minutes to the class meeting: • Wow! You’re such a punctual fellow! Welcome to the class. • Student: Sorry sir! It won’t happen again. It is obvious from what the teacher says that he is teasing the student and his purpose is, by no means,praising him. He exploits the maxim of quality (being truthful) to be sarcastic. Likewise, the student seems tonotice the purpose behind the teacher’s compliment and offers an apology in return. Furthermore, individualscan flout the maxim of quantity to be humorous. As in the most frequently found expression among Iranianyoungsters: Majid and Ali are talking on the phone: • Ali: Where are you, Majid? • Majid: I’m in my clothes. Majid tells the truth because it is expected that people are always in some clothes, yet he flouts themaxim of quantity because the information is insufficient for Ali. While it is not what Ali really tries to findout, he still knows that Majid tries to convey a sense of humor, and the rest of the conversation continuesimilar to the following statements: • Ali: That I know. I mean, seriously, where are you man?!!! • Majid: Well, at work, but I’ll be finished in two hours. Or, they may flout the maxim of relevance to avoid hurting the recipient’s feelings: • Bob: What were you and Anna talking about? You were looking at me all the time! • Marry: Oh, well… why don’t we go get something to drink? Marry answers Bob question with a suggestion in an obvious attempt to evade it perhaps to avoid hurtingBob’s feelings. Hence, she flouts the maxim of relevance. As the rest of the conversation continues, one cannotice the reason for this flouting: • Bob: Are you avoiding this conversation? There has to be something going on about me! Why aren’tyou brave enough to tell me? • Marry: Well, you know… they think that you are the one who stole that money. Some individuals can exploit the maxim of manner, as well: • Wife: Darling….. What’s the story with that new watch on your wrist? • Husband: Oh, this watch you’re talking about! I knew it… I told my boss that my wife would becurious when she sees it. Oh, honey you have no idea how much they‘re satisfied with myperformance, lately! The husband would be better off if he told his wife from the beginning of the conversation that his bossawarded him a prize. However, he flouts the maxim of manner to assure his wife that the watch was a giftfrom a person that she also knew and there is no need for jealousy 6.Generalized vs. particularizedimplicatures. Grice also distinguishes conversational implicatures dependent heavily on context (or occasion (i.e. paricularized conversational implicatures) from those independent (i.e. generalized implicatures). A. A particularized conversational implicature is one which depends on particular features of the context, as in the example below. The proposition Sally’s car broke down' would ordinarily not

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies convey anything about Sally going to a meeting, so the implicature in this case depends on the context as well as the utterance itself. A: Will Sally be at the meeting? B: Her car broke down. +> Sally will not be at the meeting Person A reasons: (1) I assume B is following the rule of relevance. (2) His remark would not be relevant unless the fact that Sally's car has broken down is relevant to whether or not she will be at the meeting. (3) I know that when people's cars break down often they cannot get to work, or cannot get there on time. (4) If Sally will be late to work or will not get to work at all, then she will miss the meeting. (5) B probably assumes I will reason in this way, and has not said anything to stop me from doing so. (6) I conclude that B intends to convey that Sally will not be at the meeting B. A generalized conversational implicature is one which does not depend on particular features of the context, but is instead typically associated with the proposition expressed. Here are some (relatively) clear examples of generalized conversational implicatures: "Fred thinks there is a meeting tonight." +> Fred doesn't know for sure that there is a meeting tonight. "Mary has 3 children." +> Mary has no more than 3 children. 7. Previous Study First is the study written by ParvanehKhosravizadehand NikanSadehvandi from Languages and Linguistics, Sharif University of Technology entittled Some Instances of Violation and Flouting of the Maxim of Quantity bythe Main Characters (Barry & Tim) in Dinner for Schmuckspublished in 2011 International Conference on Languages, Literature and LinguisticsIPEDR vol.26 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.The focus of this study is to analyze the extent to which the maxim of quantity is either violateor flouted by the two main characters, in a movie entitled “Dinner for Schmucks”.Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded thatalthough cooperative principle describes thebest practices in communication in order to facilitate the processof conversation to be smoother for both the listener and speaker, people frequently disobey these maxims inorder to achieve certain purposes. In Dinner for Schmucks, as demonstrated in the study, Barry; an ordinaryman who viewed the world with optimism and simplicity, either violates or flout the maxim of quantity morethan Tim, an educated man from upper- middle class, does. In most of the instances, Barry was talkative,redundant, and occasionally uninformative, and these factors were in line with his genuine character in themovie. The constant violation of the maxim of quantity by Barry seems to place the character in a higherposition in terms of verbal humor. It can also be stated that comedies, mostly, portray a reverse relationshipbetween the verbal humor and social status of individuals. This can justify Tim’s single flouting of themaxim of quantity. Second is the study written by Richard Brehenya, Napoleon Katsosb, and John Williamsb published in ELSEVIER journal Cognition 100 (2006) 434–463 entittled Are GeneralisedScalarImplicaturesGeneratedby Default? An on-line Investigation into the Roleof Context in GeneratingPragmaticInferences.In this paper, they present three on-line studies of the prototypical cases of generalisedimplicatures: the scalarimplicatures ‘some of the Fs’O‘not all the Fs’ and ‘X or Y’O‘either X or Y but not both’. Thesestudies were designed to test the context-dependence and autonomy of the implicatures. Our resultssuggest that these scalar implicatures are dependent on the conversational context and that they shownone of the autonomy predicted by the Default view. We conclude with a discussion of the degree towhich such implicatures are purely contextdriven and whether an interactionist default position mayalso be plausible. 433

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Third is the study written bySheila Nanda, DidiSukyadi, Sudarsono, M.I published in Conaplin JournalToward A Leading And Outstanding Journal In Applied LinguisticsConaplin JournalVolume 1.2 January 2012entitled Conversational Implicatureofthe PresentersinTakemeout Indonesia.The result shows that the presenters tended to use generalized conversational implicature (59, 8%) rather than the particularized(40,2%). Based on the functions, inferences or motive it contains, generalized conversational implicature can be classified into ten categories implying: (1) thepresenceof the opposition, (2)the invalidity of the expressionsor eventsat the time of speaking, (3)“not all”, (4) events that have not yet occured, (5) the actual position, (6) persons or things having similarity, (7) “not completely”, (8) further actions, (9) the others of the similar kind, and (10) the opposite of the real situations. The needed inferences fall into two classifications: (1) the show‟s settings inferences and (2) general knowledge inferences. Based on the objectives, particularized implicatures are used to ensure: (1) the effectiveness of a polite criticism, (2) maximum efficiency of communication, (3) minimum degree of an imperative‟s imposition, and (4) alleviation of other‟sself offensiveness.

Method It is called qualitative research because it was conducted in natural setting and the analysis was interpretative. The key instrument of data collection was the researcher. (Nunan, 1992:4) Subject of the study is a speaking class of forth semester students at English Department of Tegal Pancasakti University. In qualitative research, however, the aim is not generalizing but explaining the phenomena as comprehensively as possible, focusing on spesific meanings and practices. It is not the purpose of qualitative study to deterrmine how typical a phenomenon is for the population. the researcher do not want to make inferences beyond the sample (Mason: 2002). Type of data of this study is the conversations between teacher and students during teaching and learning process in the classroom. How is that conversational participants are able to produce intelligible utterances, and how are they able to interpret the utterances of others (Garfinkel, 1976) . These conversations are teacher-student interaction, student-teacher interaction, and studentstudent interaction and then, transfered into the form of transcription. Method of data collection, I used classroom observation method to collect the data. There are other attractions in its favor: as Robson (2002:310) says, what people do may differ from what they say they do, and observation provides a reality check; observation also enables a researcher to look a fresh at every day behavior that otherwise might be taken for granted, expected or go unnoticed. Patton (1990:202) suggests that observational data should enable the researcher to enter and understand the situation that is being described. The observation was conducted three times with 45-60 minutes of recording the classroom activities. Since I could not operate the video-audio recorder, I was helped by an assistant in recording process. My assistant recorded the teaching learning process and I stood beside him to observe the way of recording. We recorded teaching and learning process from opening until closing activities. During the recording, we were not allowed to make convesation in the classroom. The first observation was done on March 19, 2011. The second one was recorded on March 24, 2011 and the last one was on March 31, 2011. I was helped by an assistant in recording process. My assistant recorded the teaching and learning process and I stood beside him to observe the way of recording. After recording, I made the transcription of data. This transcribing was an attempt to change the data from the spoken form into the written form. I did this step by playing video records repeatedly to ensure there were no words to be skipped. I transcribed the conversations as they were. I did not improve the grammar of the conversation. Ents u After recording the conversation between teacher and students using video-audio recorder, I made transcription of that data. This transcribing was an attempt to change the data from the spoken form into the written form. I did this step by playing video records repeatedly to ensure there were no words to be skipped. I just transcribed the conversation as they were. I did not improve the 434

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies grammar of the conversatio. Moreover, to avoid distorting the conversations between teacher and students, I was helped by proofreader. She checked every word and sentence of the transcription. Technique of data analysis of this study refers to classroom interaction, I applied Louis cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison’s theory (2007:461) say that qualitative data analysis involves organizing, accounting for and explaining the data; in short, making sense of data in terms of the participants’ definitions of the situation, noting patterns, themes, categories and regularities. Van Lier (1988: 122) adds that analyze the classroom interaction process, it needs an investigation through audio-visual of that process. To make it easier in analyzing these audio-visual recording, it should be changed into transcription form. Transcription is a written copy made by writing it word by word from the conversation. In this study I transfered data from audio-visual recording into transcriptions. Hence to get an effective analysis by analyzing the transcription, the study was conducted into five main steps; identifying, categorizing, coding, tabulating interpreting and concluding.

Results To judge the findings, the parameter of this study is limited into two parameters. Firstly in analyzing how the maxims are violated, I used the theory of Grice. There are two types of implicatures; Generalized implicature and Particularized implicature. I also use theory of maxim in analyzing how maxim are violated. The data obtained are classified into these two types of implicatures. Both of implicatures were employed by English Department of Tegal Pancaskti in learning process. The following is the classification of each implicatur shown in Table 1 found in a classroom interaction of a speaking class. Particularized implicature arises because of some special factors inherent in the context of utterances and is not normally carried out by the sentence used and Generalized implicature arises without any particular context. Table 1 The occurance of implicatures in the classroom interaction No Name Learning Activities LA 1 LA2 LA3 1 Particularized implicature 6 7 3 2 Generalized implicature 6 27 20 Total 12 34 23

Percentage 23% 77% 100%

Discussion Particularized implicature Here are the examples of particularized implicature found in learning activity 1 turn 12 T: Okay..the LCD projectors ya. Any ideas? Somebody else, please. Lady, please. Okay, what about the conversion students over there? The twin sisters from different parents. All of them are jilbabers. Who wants to say for the first. S: I think that’s good idea to use power point in speaking class because it will be help us to speak much, I think. A particularized impicature is one which depends on particular features of the context, as in the first example above. The proposition fromdifferent parents would ordinarily not convey anything about the twin sisters, so the implicature in this case depends on the context as well as the utterance itself. Teacher’s intention is to make a joke or perhaps to give spirit to the conversion students who are not the real twin sister (from different parents) to express more their ideas in speaking class. 435

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Observing the exchange above, Student fails to be cooperative. The student’s answer is by no means relevant to the teacher’s question. Onereason for this answer can be the fact that the student is trying to evade the request posed by the teacher. Learning activity 1 turn 99 T: Function of what? Function of Jilbab? S: Flash disk T: Oh flash disk. Okay. May be we can make it the good impact or the bad impact. Because we goot the function only one way, satunya ngomong masalah yang terbaik, yang terbaik mungkin easy to care, whatever something like that. Satunya ngomong bad impact dong. Because stealing the file, kan bisa ya? Mencuri data ya kan? Atau bisa..... ya gitu deh. Something bad ya, discuss it later on. Hi, Lady more than words. S: That’s song Grice says that teacher’s utterance carries the implicature that saying and writing more the function of flash disk is expected to be discussed by saying the popular song ‘more than words’. The above example is one which does depend on particular features of the context. Learning activitiy 2 turn 54 T: Seven point eight or eight point seven? I am not so sure about that. S (Koko): I am not sure T: You are not sure? I am not sure, se –suer-suernya. I am not sure at all about it because I am not the researcher of Tsunami but I know it’s may be .....Eka, are you believe? Saya percaya bukan dari..... It’s not coming from the area. Betul kata Coco, Soso? S (Koko): Chocolate Teacher’s uttarance implicates that he is unable to explain well by saying ‘I am not the researcher of Tsunami.’ We can infer that the teacher implicitly prefer saying ‘please dont ask me! I am an English teacher, I know little ’ about Tsunami. If the utterance above is spoken by a different person in different occasion than the meaning would be different. The meaning is derivable only in a specific context. Observing the exchange above, Student fails to be cooperative. The student’s answer ‘chocolate’ is also by no means relevant to the teacher’s question. Onereason for this answer can be the fact that the student is trying to evade the question posed by the teacher since the student has little evidence about the topic being discussed. Learning activitiy 3 turn 43 T: No..I mean make up nya harus yang tidak mengandung minyak, tidak harus oily. Kalau untuk yang tidak berminyak yang kering harus pake minyak kelapa sawit. May be something like that. May be more....inilah mahasiswa yang tersesat. Oh, Charlies Angels! Finally you’re coming. Tunggu tanggal mainny. Silahkan duduk di tempat ya.. Okay, may be something like that, you mean something like that Ajeng? Riski? Ana?(the three students hurriedly into the class). S (not one of charlies angels): May be we know skin care Teacher’s utterance is derivable in a specific context implicating satire for the three student who are late attending the class by saying the opposite. It is obvious from what the teacher says that he is teasing the student and his purpose is, by no means,praising them like Charlies Angels who have been waited. He exploits the maxim of quality (being truthful) to be sarcastic. Likewise, the student seems tonotice the purpose behind the teacher’s compliment and they hurriedly got into the class. Furthermore, individualscan flout the maxim of quantity to be humorous. 5.2 Generalized implicature Here are the example of generalized implicature Learning activity 1 turn 76 S: Good cosmetics I think depends on your skin type. T: Okay, skin type 436

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Grice says that student’s utterance carries the implicature that every one believes that different skin type needs different cosmetics. The above example is one which does not depend on particular features of the context, but is instead typically associated with the proposition expressed. Learning activity 2 turn 233 T: What about politics? You are discussing about politics. S: I don’t know exactly for the politics impact. Grice says that teacher’s utterance carries the implicature that it is very clear here that student knows nothing about politics. We can infer thathe wants to say that ‘I am an English Department student. I am not studying politics.’ Learning activity 3 turn 134 S: Some people have different skin so how to make your make-up looking good or natural. T: Oh, how to make you look so natural. The beauty looks like the real princess ya. Okay... Grice says that teacher’s utterance carries the implicature that the princess is one of symbols of beauty in my country. When one says she is like a princess, an important female member of a royal family means that she is very beautiful.

Conclusion The present study is meant to report an investigation of the general situation of implicature in a classroom interaction of a speaking classs at the English Department of Tegal Pancasakti University. The results of the analysis shows that the interaction contains two kinds of implicature; Particularized implicature and Generalized implicature. Particularized implicature occured when there were particular features of the context whereas Generalized implicature occured where the utterances do not depend on particular features of the context, but isnstead typically associated with the proposition expressed. The occurance of Particularized implicature is 23% or 16 of the total occurances (69) and Generalized implicature occured 53 times or 77% . it can be conclude that particularized implicature rarely occured in the classroom interaction. It means some special factor inherent ing the context of utterance is not normally carried by the sentence used. The violation and flouting the maxims are also found in the interaction.

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies References Bodgan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. 1982. Qualitative research for education; An introduction of theory and methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Cohen, S. 1986. Knowlede and Context, Journal of Philosophy, 83:574-83 DeRose, K. 2009. The case for contextualism: Knowledge, Skepticism, and context, Vol.1, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Garfinkel, H. 1967. Studies in Ethno methodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Gazdar, G. 1979. Pragmatics: Implicature, Presupposition and Logical Form. London: Academic press. Geurts, B. 1998. The mechanisms of denial. Language, 74:274-307. Geurts, B. 1998.Presuppositions and anaphors in attitude contexts. In Linguistics and Philosophy Vol. 21,pp. 545–601. Grice, P. 1975. ‘Logic and Cnversation,’ in P. Cole J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics, vol.3, Academic Press: New York Grice, P. 1981. ‘Presupposition and Conversational Implicature,’ in P. Cole (ed.), Radical Pragmatics, Academic Press: New York. Grice, P. 1989. Studies in the way of words. Cambridge (MA): Havard University Press. Grice. P. 2002.Studies in the way of words. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. Halliday, MAK and Hasan, R. 1985. Language, Context, and Text: Aspect of Language in a socialsemantic prespective. Victoria: Deakin University. HE Zhao-xiong & Mei De-ming. 1999. Modern lingustics. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. (in Chinese) Karitunen, L. And Peters. 1979. Conventional implicature. In Syntax and Semantics II: Presupposition,ed. C.K. Ob et al., pp.1-56 Levinson, S.C. 1983. Pragmatics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Levinson, S. 2000. Presumptive meanings. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA. Manion, L., & Morrison, K. 2007.Research Methods in Education, 6th edition Nunan, D. 1992. Research methods in language learning . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Patton. 1990. Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Van Lier, L. 1988. The Classroom and the Language Learner.Ethnography and Second-Language Classroom Research.Harlow: Longman Wilson, D., &Sperber, D. 2003. Relevance theory.In L. Horn, & G. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics.Oxford: Blackwell pp. 607–632. Yule, George. 2000. Pragmatics. Oxford Univ. Press.

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Listening to learn in an L2: Noticing and Restructuring Listening Activities versus Traditional Way of Teaching Yulia Makhonko Asian University [email protected]

Abstract This thesis puts to the test an instructional model based on the purported importance of attention-enhancing activities, proposed by Jack C. Richards (2005), which advocates specific listeningfor-acquisition tasks to follow the more traditional listening-for-comprehension tasks. In other words, the attention of the learners is actively directed by the teacher/instructor. Whereas this study aimed to investigate which of the two categories of listening-for-acquisition tasks are the most effective (noticing or restructuring activities), in fact its findings show that the widely propagated advice to use listening-for-acquisition tasks should be treated with caution. This research observed no positive effect of noticing and restructuring tasks on acquisition, but shows that on condition that comprehensible input is provided the traditional listening-for-comprehension tasks are more conducive to acquisition. Keywords: acquisition, comprehension, comprehensible input, noticing, restructuring

Introduction In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that listening is a much more important skill in the acquisition of a second language than was previously assumed. Researchers have produced valuable insights into the nature of listening and its contribution to the acquisition process. In the SLA debate, many people consider paying conscious attention to target language input a logical necessity for any meaningful acquisition to take place. On the other hand, many theorists defend the idea of unconscious language learning as a natural way for L2 acquisition to take place. The focus of this thesis is to define which way of teaching – Traditional or Modern – is the most influential in L2 acquisition through listening at beginner level. An experiment will be required to see the effect of noticing and/or restructuring activities, and compare it with listening-tocomprehension as in the Traditional teaching.

Hypothesis H1: Noticing and/or restructuring acquisition listening activities have an impact on L2 acquisition for beginner level learners. H2: The Traditional way of teaching facilitates L2 acquisition for beginner level learners.

Research questions

1. Do noticing and restructuring activities lead to a better listening ability? 2. Are traditional listening comprehension tasks more conducive to a better listening activity?

Literature Review

The history of listening input in language acquisition

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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies The idea of input, its modality and the appropriate amount for input to become an intake has been a controversial and elusive concept in the field of second language acquisition. Accordingly, the number of methods and approaches in ESL multiplied dramatically in the last few decades. Although every new one claimed the benefit of some particular input modification, none of them became universal and absolute. In early views of SLA, there were contrasting views on input. In the 1950s some scholars did not regard input as essential to language development, whereas the others could not imagine language acquisition without it. For instance, strong nativist B.F. Skinner in his book Verbal Behavior (1957) claimed that input does not play any role in language formation as language can develop with the help of “reward contingencies” (Kuhl, 2000, p. 1). On the other hand, Noam Chomsky, being a strict theorist, in the 1950s proposed the idea of a “language faculty”, which refers to innate constraints on language acquisition. He insisted that language could only be acquired having just an infant's innate knowledge of language and language input: “linguistic input goes into a “black box” in the mind, something happens, and the grammatical system of a particular language comes out” (Saville-Troike, 2005, p. 47). In the 1980s listening as a modality generated much faith in listening-based methods called “Listening First”. Applying mainly to listening in second language teaching with different types of students could be rather challenging. However there was a forceful idea behind this: “logically, L2 learners cannot learn a language if they never hear it; the sounds, the words, the structures, have to come from somewhere” (Cook, 2008, p. 131). The advice “Just listen … and read” given by Stephen Krashen in his Natural Approach attracted a lot of followers in the 1980s. The Natural Approach is an example of a communicative approach in ESL. In a stress-free environment the learners were not forced to speak or write, as the output was expected to emerge spontaneously. Merrill Swain proposed an Output Hypothesis that claimed that the role of input is immense for output development. Although the hypothesis insists on productive skills as the main tool in SLA, Swain states that “speaking just to speak is not enough. Students need more than this” (Swain, 1993, p. 159). The hypothesis suggests identifying and paying attention to relevant input if the learner has a knowledge gap. The controversy of the role of listening arose in the 1950-60s and continues still over enhancing its contribution to the classroom. Listening started to gain more attention along with technological advances and this resulted in listening becoming an integral part of the Communicative Approach. Listening: strategies and skills Referring to the complex nature of the modality, it is understandable why listening requires learners to obtain a number of strategies and skills in order to be successful. Cognitive models of language processing say that when people listen or read, they apply both top-down and bottom-up processing strategies. “Top-down processing: using prior knowledge (schemata, scripts) to organize possible interpretation of the input. Bottom-up processing: assembling meaning from individual sound, words, grammatical patterns, and other bits of language” (Brown, 2011, p. 20). Therefore, in listening alone learners make much more individual effort to construct the meaning, compared to reading, for example. Macaro goes on to state that there has been a steady dominance of top-down processing over bottom-up processing in listening (Macaro, 2003). However, bottom-up processing is essential for all levels of proficiency, and may be a more successful predictor of listening abilities than a schema-oriented approach. To make strategies work the learner should obtain listening skills, which are explored by Jack C. Richards (1983). He provides a taxonomy of 33 skills involved in conversational listening (twoway listening), which are not relevant to this research, which considers only one-way listening. An extra 18 micro-skills for academic listening (one-way listening) have pedagogical significance in the scope of this thesis. 440

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies

Comprehension and acquisition Listening comprehension and acquisition will always be widely debated, as some scholars do not see much difference, but others indicate a clear distinction between them. For instance, Krashen (1982) claims that acquisition will take place unconsciously if the learner is just exposed to “comprehensible input”. This means that no extra practice is needed except for thoroughly selected input to be i+ 1 level for the learner. i +1 means the “input that contains structures slightly above the learner’s present level” (Richards & Rodgers, 2006, p. 180). It is important to remember that “the distance between i and i + 1 should not be too great, i and i + 1 can only differ in small ways” (Krashen, 1982, p. 28). On the other hand, Sharwood Smith (1986) argues that “comprehension is necessary but not sufficient for acquisition to take place” (as cited in Ellis, 2003, p. 47). It is commonly accepted that these two processes are interlinked. The disputes among researchers about listening-to-comprehend and listening-to-learn raise a very interesting question: Is it possible for learners to acquire L2 as a result of doing listening comprehension tasks? (Ellis, 2003). The question corresponds the hypothesis of this research. The role of conscious attention in SLA There are several possible obstacles that hinder success of the input–intake transfer: affective factors, different learning styles and aptitudes of the L2 learners, variety of approaches and methods, etc. The Noticing Hypothesis – the idea that “input does not become intake for language learning unless it is noticed, that is, consciously registered” (Schmidt, 1990, 129-58) has inspired linguists for about two decades. The core principle of this Hypothesis is that people will learn any language if they pay attention to its features, and learn less if they do not attend to them. Therefore it seems that to facilitate intake of a language it is enough to be attentive to some linguistic items and acquisition will undoubtedly take place. A number of studies support the idea of the Noticing Hypothesis: Lund (1991), Færch and Kasper (1986), Michael Long (1996), Gass (1997), Swain (1995). Although a lot of studies demonstrate an important role for conscious attention in SLA, some theories find shortcomings in the Noticing Hypothesis and its implementation. Krashen (1982) significantly limited the role of “formal rules” and conscious attention in his Input Hypothesis, claiming that comprehensible input is a sufficient condition for acquisition to take place. The Monitor Hypothesis, which defines the relationship between acquisition and learning, posits that “conscious learning is available only as a “Monitor”, which can alter the output of the acquired system before or after the utterance is actually spoken or written” (Krashen, 1982, p. 16). To sum up, the question whether all kinds of learning require attention is still controversial. According to Baars (1998) “this dispute will never be settled, because zero-point questions are not answerable” (as cited in Schmidt, 2010, p. 725). Activities that facilitate intake To obviate any ambiguity about the nature of attention-raising activities used in the research, operational definition should be given. This kind of activities is typical for Modern way of teaching (especially Communicative Approach), that implies use of “discovery activities, which asks students to do all the intellectual work, rather than leaving it to the teacher” (Harmer, 2007, p. 52). It is commonly a combination of productive and receptive skills, e.g. listening and writing / speaking, which gives students an opportunity to learn language by practice. Two types of activities have been proposed by Richards: (a) noticing and (b) restructuring. He insists that they be used in a “two-part cycle” (Richards, 2005, p.6): (a) Noticing activities require listening texts to be “the basis for comprehension activities” (Richards, 2005, p. 7) and then “the basis for language awareness” (Richards, 2005, p. 7), which 441

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies learners may return to in order to: identify differences between what they hear and a printed version of the text, complete a cloze version of the text, complete sentences stems taken from the text, check off from a list, expressions that occurred in the text. (b) Restructuring activities include oral or written tasks that use the listening text in order to select items. This type of activity can also be categorized as a “process that selects, or engages, a particular and specific bit of information” (Tomlin & Villa, 1994, p. 192). Possible activities are: “oral or written tasks that involve productive use of selected items from the listening text, pair reading of the tape scripts, written sentence-completion tasks requiring use of expressions and other linguistic items that occurred in the texts, dialogue practice based on dialogues that incorporate items from the text, role plays in which students are required to use key language from the texts” (Richards, 2005, p.6). Research Methodology If variables are concerned, acquisition is a dependent one. Independent variables: noticing activity, restructuring activity, combination of noticing and restructuring activities. The control group will be presented by a group of learners who are not required to do either noticing or restructuring activities, to check if independent variables have any effect on dependent variable. In terms of subjects selection a convenience sampling technique was used, as all the subjects come from a “naturally occurring classroom” (Brown, 1998). The research tested four groups of Secondary 1 students (12-year-olds) at a Thai public school. They were chosen for their waystage level of English. The students’ parents are Thai. The sample of 28 students was divided into 4 groups of the same level according to the results of a Diagnostic test. Group Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4

Listening tasks Both noticing and restructuring activities Restructuring activity Noticing activity Control group

The Diagnostic test aimed to establish what level of comprehensible input was needed (Krashen, 1982). It contained 45 questions (multiple choice, fill in the gap, True / False / Unknown questions) that fulfill the requirements of A1-A2 level (CEFR) which tested basic grammar and vocabulary. The results of the Diagnostic test showed no evidence whatsoever of acquisition of the – ed rule, but good understanding of the Present Simple and Present Continuous rules. This experiment therefore focuses on acquisition of the –ed grammatical item as +1 additional linguistic item which makes the input slightly difficult for the subjects. The experiment began with the first time listening to the recording containing five pairs of statements (one of them in Present Simple Tense, another in Past Simple Tense) about a girl named Shirley, e.g.: Today Shirley acts in a film. Yesterday Shirley acted in 50 films. The recording was played twice, and was followed by a comprehension test. The test contained of 5 multiple choice questions with three options each, focusing on checking students’ understanding the difference between two grammatical tenses. All four groups of the experiment were obliged to do the test. Results of comprehension test. Group Comprehension test average score Group 1 (Both noticing and restructuring activities) 3.6 Group 2 (Restructuring activity) 3.6 Group 3 (Noticing activity) 3.3 Group 4 (Control group) 3.4

442

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies Next stage began with the third time listening to the same recording and followed by different activities for some of the groups. Group 1 performed noticing and restructuring activities. Noticing activity required students to fill in the gap with one missing verb in the right tense while listening to the recording. For example: Today Shirley works at university. Yesterday Shirley _______ in many films. Restructuring activity asked students to select the right verb in multiple choice questions in sentences from different context. For example: She loved dogs, but now she _____________ cats. A). loves B). loved Group 2 and Group 3 did only restructuring and noticing activities respectively. Group 4 was chosen as a control group which did not do anything while the students from the other groups were busy with activities. To make the experiment fair, students from all groups were not allowed to turn pages in the booklet. Moreover, students were asked to close the booklets if they are not required to do any activity, and open on the right page if there was the time to perform some task for a particular group. All the instructions were given in English, time and group numbers were written on the board. Finally, acquisition of the –ed rule was measured by an output task, which consisted of a short dialogue between two people, at the appropriate comprehension level. There were ten gaps in the text, where subjects had to fill in the verb given, and if necessary apply the –ed rule. Seven gaps required this; three gaps required a verb in the Present Simple. The analysis focused on the Past Simple gaps only; not applying the –ed rule in sentences where Present Simple is required could be regarded as evidence of acquisition (i.e. a conscious decision), but this is by no means certain. The inclusion of three Present Simple verbs serves to force the subjects to consider whether the –ed rule should apply, and prevents them from assuming every verb needed the –ed rule, regardless. The latter could not have been taken as proof of acquisition.

Output Present Simple

3 4 2 5 3

Output test

15 18 18 13 12

Output Past Simple

5 3 4 3 4 5 1 3.6

Restructuring

16 18 16 17 13 12 20 112

Noticing

Comprehension test

Names / Groups

Diagnosti c test

Data and Statistical Analysis The experiment was norm-referenced (NRT), which meant that the results of the subjects were analysed in relation to each other. A table below gives a full breakdown of the results. The Experiment Results

5 3 2 0 4 5 0 2.71

2 4 0 0 0 3 3 1.71

4 1 1 0 1 0 1 1.14

5 1 3 2 1 0 1 1.86

1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0.71

2 4 3 2 1

0 0 0 0 0

2 1 2 1 2

2 1 2 1 2

N/R (1) A B C D E F G AVERAGE Restructuring (2) H I J K L

443

The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies M N AVERAGE Noticing (3) O P Q R S T U AVERAGE Control (4) V W X Y Z AA AB AVERAGE

22 13 111

4 4 3.6

17 15 16 15 12 19 22 116

3 4 3 4 0 5 4 3.3

16 16 18 21 12 20 9 112

4 4 3 4 2 4 3 3.4

2 3 2.43 0 2 1 5 0 2 4 2.0

0 4 0.57

2 4 2.00

2 0 1.43

3 0 0 0 3 2 2 1.43

4 0 3 1 3 3 4 2.57

1 0 3 1 0 1 2 1.14

0 5 0 1 3 7 1 2.43

0 5 1 2 3 7 3 3.00

0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0.57

Comparison of the data took place with the assumption of p
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The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and

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