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The Origins of Britain, Appunti di Inglese. liceo scientifco democrito liceo scientifco democrito Inglese, Liceo Scientifico

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D ESC R IZ IO N E Brevemente tutto quello che c'è da sapere dagli Iberici ai Normanni. fonte: i miei appunti durante le lezioni di inglese, in lingua madre

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nenafresch 9 settembre 2017

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Cerca nell'estratto del documento Ricerca parole chiave... Blank THE ORIGINS - from the Iberians to the Normans THE IBERIANS Populations of farmers coming from Southern Europe, mostly from Spain 6000 years ago. They started cutting down the forests, breeding cattle, growing cereals and from 3000 B.C. they built ritual sites such as Stonehenge. During the Bronze Age they started metal working and manufacturing. They were physically short and dark haired and used to live in tribes. THE CELTS Coming from Germany in 700 B.C., the Celts lived in clans which had a different chief (king) and different tartans (skirts) each. Their religious leaders were called “druids” which were also important in medicine, justice and education. The Celts built no temples, they used wood forests for their religious ceremonies, believed in transmigration of the soul, worshipped the natural elements (water was considered holy because it generated life) and believed in life after death. They were physically tall and muscular, with blonde hair and blue eyes. They loved to fight and introduced the iron plough to make coltivation easier, plus built hill forts on top of hills, used as refugees and as tribal centres. Celtic women could choose who to marry, so we're almost equal to men. STONEHENGE Stonehenge was built on Salisbury plain, during the Iberian period. It's made of blue stone, coming from Whales, which was believed to have magical powers. Stonehenge was used for many reasons, mostly as a temple for religious ceremonies, as an observatory, as a marketplace and then as a court of justice by the Romans. ROMAN BRITAIN 43 A.D. to 409 A.D. The Roman occupation started with Claudius and ended when emperor Honorius left Britain to come back to Rome since it was being attacked by the barbarians. After Romans left Britain, it was conquered by Angles and Saxons. The Romans were attracted by the British agriculture and availability of slaves. After Claudius, the occupation lasted under Julius Caesar (5455A.D.). Later, during Hadrian’s emperor, they built the Hadrian’s wall to mark a border between the conquered Britons and the un conquered Scottish Pits. They also built roads to connect towns, which were named ‘castra’ (from latin), name that remains today in many towns ending in -cester, caster, - chester. After their way back to Rome, they left their influence on British populations through their customs, traditions, buildings, language and christianity. THE ANGLO SAXONS In the 6th Century the Jutes, the Angles and the Saxons came to Britain looking for farming land and pushed the Celts away in Cornwall (Scotland), Weallas or Whales and at the end of the 6th Century they established seven kingdoms as a Heptarchy. The main one was ‘Wessex’. Most of the Anglo-Saxons were illiterate and used runic alphabet (the runes were written on stones) instead of the latin one. Their literature was non-written, it was oral from generation to generation. They influenced the names of the places: -ING (family), -HAM (farm), -TON (settlement), and the name of the weekdays: -TĪW (tuesday), -WODEN (wednesday), -THOR (thursday). Their religion mixed Germanic and Scandinavian gods. Their society was founded on Loyalty to the clan (family) and on other pagan values such as Friendship, Generosity and Bravery. Anglo-Saxons didn't believe in life after that, as many of their precursors. Since they brought back pagan values where there was previously the Christianity brought by the Romas, the Pope sent a monk, Augustine, to bring Christianity

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The Origins of Britain - Docsity

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