THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) IN DETECTION OF

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JK-PRACTITIONER

THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) IN DETECTION OF CURRENT NATURE OF DRUG ABUSE IN KASHMIR. Mushtaq.A.Margoob MD; AB Majid MBBS; Dhuha M BSC; Imtiaz Murtaza PhD; Zaffar Abbas MD; Masood Tanveer MD;Zaid A Wani MBBS ;Arshid Husain MD;Mudasir Ahmad MBBS; Irfan Jehangeer MBBS; Huda M BSC; Ishfaq Ahmad MSC.

ABSTRACT Use of thin layer chromatography as a broad-spectrum screen for detection of drugs of abuse, as a part of this recent,larg-scale,well-designed drug abuse epidemiological study supported by the department of Science and Technology has been extremely helpful in quick diagnosis and rapid detoxification of those 61.91%of suspected substance abusers who had denied history of any drug use or abuse at first contact with the investigating team. JK - Practitioner 2004; 11(4):257-260 Authors’ affiliations: Mushtaq.A.Margoob; Abdul Majid; Zaid.A.Wani; Arshid Husain; Mudaser Ahmed; Ishfaq Ahmad; Irfan Jehangeer Department Of Psychiatry Govt Medical College Srg. Zaffar Abbas. Department of Pharmacology GMC Srg. Masood Tanveer. Department of Medicine GMC Srg. Imtiaz Murtaza Department of Biochemistry SKUAST-K Srg. Dhuha M. Department of Biotechnology Kashmir University. Huda M. Department of psychology Kashmir University. Accepted for publication: September 2004 Correspondence to: Dr. Mushtaq. A. Margoob Associate Professor Deptt. of Psychiatry e-mail:[email protected]

adjoining areas 8,9. All these indicators characterizing the situation clearly reflect it as deteriorating fast .In comparison to 9.5% use of opioid based preparations during 1980 it had increased to 73.1%during 20026 and is worst now. Despite such high incidence of substance abuse it is often misdiagnosed as drug abusers frequently deny or minimize their problems .The laboratory facilities help in making correct diagnosis by identifying a compound directly responsible for development of symptoms, thus immensely helping in proper treatment. Testing for presence or absence of drugs of abuse in body fluids also helps to monitor improvement of patients in treatment. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been used as a broad spectrum screen for detection of drug abuse. TLC results are only qualitative and cannot be quantified.12 The aim of this study therefore was to assess the results of use of modern scientific procedures for the first time in Kashmir for identifying different drugs and drug combinations in biological specimens of drug addicts identified through a meticulously planned community research endeavor. MATERIALAND METHODS: The detection of narcotic and psychotropic substances in body fluids

INTRODUCTION Psychoactive substance use and abuse is globally perceived as one of the alarming public health problems. No effective treatment and prevention related policy issues can be arrived at without adequate information regarding the nature and distribution of drug abuse in population and their causative factors .Widespread data in drug abuse is lacking and it is difficult to make generalizations because of regional variations1. The geographical location of Jammu and Kashmir makes transit of drugs possible across the state. Present prevailing disturbed conditions have worsened drug abuse scenario besides phenomenal increase in other psychiatric disorders in Kashmir 2,3 . Opiate preparations including heroine abuse has become the most serious problem in Kashmir over the past few years. Last year cases using cocaine which would cost the addict about 2000-2500 rupees per day were also detected 5. Media reports about large scale cultivation of cannabis(charas) in southern Kashmir and seizes of large quantities of opioids mostly heroin in northern border areas like Handwara are alarmingly increasing6,7. Unauthorised large scale brewing and sale outlets of alcohol are becoming a common sight in the city of Srinagar and ○

























































Key words: Drug abuse, nature, detoxification, chromatography.

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JK-PRACTITIONER of substance abusers was carried out at the thin layer chromatography laboratory established at the hospital for psychiatric diseases Srinagar by the first author (MAM)as the principal investigator of the research project titled" community survey on substance related disorders( drug abuse) in Kashmir" assisted by the department of science and technology. More than 200 biological specimens have been analyzed by means of TLC so far during the year 20032004. Methodology of TLC as a screen for detection of drugs of abuse is most inexpensive and does not require any sophisticated instrumentation. TLC results are qualitative and can not be quantified; therefore it gives positive or negative results. The major drawback of TLC is it's low sensitivity and low specificity, thus negative results of TLC are not always negative by other methods. TLC relies on a reproducible migration pattern by drug of a thin layer adsorbent (eg: silica

gel coated glass plates).Characterization of a particular drug is achieved by color reaction produced by spraying the plate with coloring reagents. To accomplish this, the patient's sample is spotted along with known drugs on a TLC plate, which is put in a solvent chamber. The solvent runs up the plate, it is dried and sprayed with various reagents. The color spots of various known drugs are then compared with sample from unknown patients. The spot location is located by an R f (retention factor ) number which is the ratio of distance traveled by the solvent from the original, where the sample was spotted. The spots on TLC plate can be visualized by ultraviolet or florescent light also. In our study we have been using the ultraviolet method for detection of the spots. Retention factor (Rf) = distance traveled by the drug/ distance traveled by the solvent The Rf provides corroborative evidence as to identify the compound.

Table 1 Socio-demographic variables Age

No.

%

Sec

No.

%

R/U

No.

%

Smo/N-smo

No.

%

16-25

60

35.71

Males

164

97.62

Urban

124

71.43

Smokers

156

92.85

26-35

84

50.0

Females 4

2.38

Rural

48

28.57

Non-smokers

12

7.15

36-45

20

11.91

46-55

4

2.38

Marital status

No.

%

Social status

No.

%

Occupation

No.

%

Unmarried

80

47.62

Upperclass

4

2.38

Students

24

14.29

Unmarried

84

50.0

Uppermiddleclass

20

11.90

Employed

72

42.56

Divorced

4

2.38

Lower middle class

124

73.82

Unemployed

28

16.66

Lower class

20

11.90

Labourers

8

4.76

businessman

36

21.43

Family status

No.

%

Education

No.

%

Onset age of drug use

No.

%

Nuclear

60

35.72

Graduates

12

7.15

11-15

16

9.52

Joint

104

61.90

Under graduates

64

38.09

16-20

52

30.99

Single

4

2.38

Upto matric

28

16.66

21-25

40

23.89

Below matric

28

16.66

26-30

36

21.42

Illiterates

36

21.43

31-35

16

9.52

36-40

4

2.38

40-45

4

2.38

Vol. 11, No. 4, October-December 2004

258

JK-PRACTITIONER Table 2 Nature of substance abused Type of drug abused

Number

Percentage

Opoids other than heroin

44

26.91

Opoids+bzp

32

19.05

Opoids+cannabis

12

7.15

bzd

4

2.38

opoids+bzp+cannabis

8

4.75

opoids+alcohol+cannabis

4

2.38

cannabis+alcohol

8

4.75

cannabis+heroin+alcohol

8

4.75

cannabis+alcohol+codeine

4

2.38

alcohol

12

7.15

alcohol+opoids

4

2.38

heroine

12

7.15

alcohol+heroine

8

4.73

alcohol+heroine+analgesic

4

2.38

alcohl+codeine+cannabis

1

2.38

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Drugs that were found in drug abusers biological fluids are shown in the table 1.The most commonly used individual drug at present in Kashmir, by those drug abusers who usually deny use of any psychoactive substance at first contact, include opioids, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines and alcohol. The findings of this study are quite alarming. As already reported few months back in the study of patient sample of 2002, the profile of substance abusers has changed with fast increasing percentage of harder substance abusers, mostly opioid6. But what is more disturbing as revealed by the present study is that within a short span of two years not only has multiple drug use doubled but alcohol use which was almost nonexistent earlier has shot up to about 30% . Our earlier studies carried out to asses the out come of treatment provided to the recovering drug addicts at the nongovernmental de-addiction centers with regard to the parameters like drug free status, employment status, adequacy of social functioning, the state of health in illegal activities, showed that the over all treatment results and the prognosis of drug abusers treated at NGO's de-addiction centers which are exclusively meant for drug abusers with better staff client ratio and much better chances of mutual understanding and joint effort s towards the common goal of total drug free status as compared to the drug abusers who enter a general psychiatric disease hospital based treatment program13 ,14. However the present research and developmental activity through this project has proved a major mile stone in the direction of developing and modernizing detoxification and rehabilitative facilities in such hospital . As pointed out in an earlier study, joint efforts by all concerned government 259

agencies, NGO's at community and individual level need to be mobilized at the earliest at least to contain this menace. Preventive measures including efforts to minimize delay and prevent people from being drug users would be helpful. Due to different conceptual models of treatment of people, involved in treating drug dependents , a well-planed strategy and co-coordinated efforts is required. Treatment in OPD, community clinic and general medical setting is cost effective and possible as well. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Thanks are due to the Department of Science and Technology Ministry of science and Technology Government of India for supporting this research work Thanks are also due to Dr Anil Malhotra Additional Professor Drug De- addiction Centre PGI Chandigarh, Dr.Guru Raj Prof.and Head Department of Epidemiology, NIMANS Bangalore and Mr.Altaf Ahmed, M phil, Additional director Department of Science and Technology Government of Jammu and Kashmir for their readily available help from time to time during the research. REFERENCES 1.

2. 3.

Mohan.D and Dawan . A. Epidemology of drug abuse behaviour in substance use disorder a manual for psychians (ed) RAY.R, Drug Dependence Treatment Centre&Department of Psychiatry.All India Institute of Medical Sciences 2000 pp21. Margoob MA ,Dutta KS drug abuse in Kashmir -experience from a psychiatric disease hospital Indian journal of Psychiatry 1993 35 (3) 163-165 Margoob MA ,Dutta KS .Some peculiar features of cannabis abuse in Kashmir journal of Indian society of health administrators 1992 Vol 3, 62-63

Vol. 11, No. 4, October-December 2004

JK-PRACTITIONER 4.

Margoob MA ,Dutta KS Mental disorders in Kashmir -Socio demographic study of 4601 cases . journal of Indian society of health administrators 1992 vol2 53-58 5. Margoob MA A study of present magnitude of psychiatric disorders and existing treatment services in Kashmir (19901994) JK Practitioner 1995 ;4:165-168 6. Margoob MA et al Changing Socio Demographic And Clinical Profile of substance use disorders patients in Kashmir valley JK Practitioner Jan Mar 2004 page 14-16 7. Margoob MA ,Dutta KS 10-15 years retrospective study of 50 patients of MDP for seasonal Variations .Indian Journal of Psychiatry 1988 30(2) 253-256 8. Hilal Bhat --Bihari laborers producing desi liquor in south Kashmir -beverage freely available , Greater Kashmir Srinagar dated June 2004 9. Police recover 400 grams of brown sugar from 3 persons at Handwara Greater Kashmir Srinagar page 3 Oct 2 2004 10. Liquor shop at Boulevard :residents aghast Greater Kashmir July 3 2004

11. Salim A M - Harvest time for opium (read as Cannabis) crop in south Kashmir spot light Greater Kashmir September 9th 2004 12. Vaswani M in Ray R (Editor) Substance use disorder:a manual for physicians . (Ed) Ray R . Drug Dependence Treatment Centre&Department of Psychiatry. All India Institute of Medical Sciences.2000,175-181 13. Dutta KS Margoob MA report on the follow up study on recovering drug addicts counseled and treated at various centers being run by non governmental organizations NGO"S/ hospitals etc in Jammu and Kashmir 1993 report submitted to ministry of welfare Govt. of India New Delhi 14. Margoob MA Beg AA and Zafar A An evaluation of recovery following treatment in drug abuse in the only psychiatric disease hospital of Kashmir Valley . Richmond Fellowship Asia Pacific Forum International Symposium Bang lore Nov 23-25 1995

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THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) IN DETECTION OF

Original Article JK-PRACTITIONER THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) IN DETECTION OF CURRENT NATURE OF DRUG ABUSE IN KASHMIR. Mushtaq.A.Margoob MD; AB M...

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