TOURISM Guidebook - Department Of Tourism INTRA - Philippine

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TOURISM Guidebook

FOR LOCAL GOVERMENT UNITS

Copyright © 2014 By Department of Tourism Department of the Interior and Local Government Department of Environment and Natural Resources Development Academy of the Philippines This knowledge product is produced through the collaboration among the Department of Tourism (DOT), Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) with the funding support provided by the Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity Partnership Project (BPP) and the Center for Governance of the Devepopment Academy of the Philippines (DAP). Please direct your subscription and inquiries to the: Office of Tourism Planning, Research and Information Management Department of Tourism 5th Floor, 351 DOT Building, Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City 459-5200 loc 506 [email protected] www.tourism.gov.ph ISBN 978-971-91303-9-0 This Guidebook is owned jointly by the DOT, DILG, DENR and DAP, with each party having royalty free non-exclusive and irrevocable license to use, publish, copy, reproduce or distribute the work for government or public purposes.

Getting started... Do you think your city, municipality, or province has potential for tourism development that you want to harness? Is tourism a thriving industry in your locality and you want to take better advantage of it? Do you currently observe undesirable impacts of tourism in your area that you want to manage or control?

Then this Tourism Guidebook is for you.

The development of this Tourism Guidebook would not have been possible without the initiative and collaboration of the Department of Tourism, Department of the Interior and Local Government, and Department of Environment and Natural Resources, with vital funding support provided by the Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity Partnership Project (BPP). This project owes its completion to the following members of the Technical Working Group (TWG) for the Development of Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units and to the consultants and project staff from the Development Academy of the Philippines.

Department of Tourism • Tourism Development Planning Rolando Cañizal- Assistant Secretary • Office of Tourism Planning, Research and Information Management Milagros Say – Officer-in-Charge Warner M. Andrada- Chief, Planning and Product Development Division Leni I. Pajarillo- Project Officer, Planning and Product Development Division

Department of the Interior and Local Government • Bureau of Local Government Development Anna Liza F. Bonagua, Career Service Executive Eligible (CSEE) - Director Dennis D. Villaseñor - Assistant Director Maria Matilde Go - Division Chief, Local Fiscal Resource Development Division Luzviminda L. Fortaleza - Local Government Operations Officer V

Department of Environment and Natural Resources • Biodiversity Management Bureau Theresa Mundita S. Lim - Director Meriden E. Maranan - OIC-Chief, Nature Recreation and Extension Division Rochelle Cervantes – Ecosytems Management Specialist II

Development Academy of the Philippines • Project Management Team Magdalena L. Mendoza – Senior Vice President for Programs Imelda C. Caluen – Managing Director, Center for Governance Lilibeth L. Coronado – Project Supervising Fellow Kim Dyan A. Calderon – Project Manager Eugen R. Bunao – Deputy Project Manager Ashley May Alison M. Monsanto – Project Staff • Writers Julie Catherine D. Paran, PhD. Donna Paz T. Reyes, PhD. Rodrigo P. Millares, Jr. Kim Dyan A. Calderon Lilibeth L. Coronado • Peer Reviewer Architect Maria Lisa V. Santos • Copy Editor Jeremaiah M. Opiniano • Graphics and Lay-out Artist Rodolfo R. Dela Cruz

Donors • Government of Canada through the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED)

Francis E. Gentoral – Field Director Ramon A. Alampay, PhD. – Program Manager Sylvia Bagadion-Engracia - Gender Equality Adviser Veronica Paula C. Manzon - Specialist, Business Friendly and Competitive LGUs

• United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through the Biodiversity Partnership Project (BPP)

Jose M. Regunay - Project Manager Joy Reyes-Eugenio - Project Officer

Acknowledgment

Acknowledgment

Acknowledgment

Provincial Government of Batangas City Government of Lipa Municipal Government of San Nicolas Municipal Government Lobo Municipal Government of Nasugbu Municipal Government of Mabini Provincial Government of Bohol City Government of Tagbilaran Municipal Government of Panglao Municipal Government of Catigbian Municipal Government of Tubigon Municipal Government of Pilar Municipal Government of Maribojoc Municipal Government of Danao Municipal Government of Dauis Provincial Government of Davao del Norte City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal Municipal Government of New Corella Provincial Government of Compostela Valley Municipal Government of Mabini Municipal Government of Nabunturan Provincial Government of Negros Occidental City Government of Bacolod City City Government of Bago City Government of Talisay City Government of Sagay City Government of Sipalay City Government of Silay City Government of San Carlos City Government of Victorias City Government of Kabankalan Municipal Government of Pulupandan Municipal Government of Don Salvador Benedicto Municipal Government of Calatrava Municipal Government of Murcia

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations AIP Annual Investment Plan ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BLGD Bureau of Local Government Development BMB Biodiversity Management Bureau BOT Build-Operate-Transfer BP Business Plan BPP Biodiversity Partnership Project CDP Comprehensive Development Plan CDs Cluster Destinations CENRO Community Environment and Natural Resources Office CESO Career Service Executive Officer CIDA Canadian International Cooperation Agency CLUP Comprehensive Land Use Plan CPDO City Planning and Development Office DA Department of Agriculture DAO Department Administrative Order DAP Development Academy of the Philippines DAR Department of Agrarian Reform DBM Department of Budget and Management DDF Destination Development Framework DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources DFA Department of Foreign Affairs DILG Department of Interior and Local Government DILG Department of the Interior and Local Government DOF Department of Finance DOT Department of Tourism DOT-ROs Department of Tourism-Regional Offices DRRCCA Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation DRRM Disaster Risk Reduction and Management DRRMC Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council EDP Economic Development Plan EIA Environmental Impact Assessment ELA Executive Legislative Agenda EO Executive Order ETC European Travel Commission GAD Gender and Development GAM Goal Achievement Matrix GIS Geographic Information System GREAT Women Gender Responsive Actions for the Transformation of Women HLURB Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency JMC Joint Memorandum Circular KSA Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes LAC Limits of Acceptable Change LCCAP Local Climate Change Action Plan LCE Local Chief Executive LDC Local Development Council LDIP Local Development Investment Plan LDRRMP Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan LGC Local Government Code LGOO Local Government Operations Officer LGSP-LED Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Special thanks are given to the Local Chief Executives, Local Planning and Development Officers, and the Local Tourism Officers and representatives of the following LGUs who participated in the focus group discussions and pilot-testing activity for this project:

TDP Tourism Development Plan TEZs Tourism Enterprise Zones TIEZA Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority TOWS Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Strengths TPC Tourism Planning Committee TS Tourism Site TSMLGU Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units TWG Technical Working Group UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization USAID United States Agency for International Development USP Unique Selling Point WTO World Tourism Organization WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

LGU Local Government Unit LPC Local Planning Committee LPDO Local Planning and Development Officer LTO Local Tourism Officer M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MC Memorandum Circular MCW Magna Carta of Women MGB Mines and Geosciences Bureau MICE Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office MRF Materials Recovery Facility NAIA Ninoy Aquino International Airport NEDA National Economic Development Authority NGA National Government Agency NGO Non-Government Organization NIPAS National Integrated Protected Area System NPAAAD Network of Protected Agricultural and Agri-Industrial Development Areas NTA National Tourism Act NTCC National Tourism Coordination Council NTDP National Tourism Development Plan NTPCMU National Tourism Program Coordination and Management Unit OA Objective Analysis OIC Officer-in-Charge P/C/MPDC Provincial/City/Municipal Planning Development Coordinator P/C/MPDO Provincial/City/Municipal Planning and Development Office PA Problem Analysis PADI Professional Association of Diving Instructors PAMB Protected Area Management Board PASU Protected Area Superintendent PD Presidential Decree PDP Philippine Development Plan PDPFP Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan PENRO Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office PhD Doctor of Philosophy PHILGBC Philippine Green Building Council PIDWWO Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization PIUs Project Implementation Units PNTDP Philippine National Tourism Development Plan PO People’s Organization PPAs Programs, Projects and Activities PPDO Provincial Planning and Development Office PPP Public Private Partnership PTO Provincial Tourism Office RA Republic Act RTCCs Regional Tourism Coordination Committees RTPMUs Regional Tourism Project and Management Units SB Sanggunian Bayan SCDs Strategic Cluster Destinations SDA Strategic Destination Areas SOCA State of the City Address SOMA State of the Municipality Address SOPA State of the Province Address SP Sanggunian Panlalawigan/Sanggunian Panlungsod STMP Sustainable Tourism Management Plan SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats TBP Tourism Promotions Board TDA Tourism Development Areas TDC Tourism Development Cluster

Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not 1 related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Tourism development and promotion are among the functions of Local Government Units (LGUs) as mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160). As local governments shifted to more participatory forms of development governance, they were also encouraged to enjoin other stakeholders in local tourism development and promotion. The National Tourism Act of 2009 (RA 9593) encourages LGUs to ensure they prepare and implement a tourism development plan, enforce standards and collect statistical data for tourism purposes. Local tourism development plans should integrate zoning, land use, infrastructure development, the national system of standards for tourism enterprises, heritage and environmental protection imperatives in a manner that encourages sustainable tourism development. The plans should also take into account gender considerations as well as disaster risk reduction and climate change 2 adaptation principles.

4

Tourism contributes to the overall development of the LGU. Thus, in formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan, LGUs need to ensure its alignment with other local plans like the Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP), Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) and Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP). Alignment of the Local Tourism Development Plan and LGU Business Plan is important to ensure that development of vital tourism-related investments or business opportunities are considered. Further, ensuring the linkages of the Local Tourism Development Plan with the PDPFP, CDP, and CLUP helps mainstream two major development concerns like Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation (DRR/CCA), which significantly impact tourism development.

Beyond this, the Tourism Act emphasizes that Tourism development is a shared responsibility of both the national and local governments. Thus, the DOT, DILG and LGUs shall integrate and coordinate local and national plans for tourism development. The role of TPB and the TIEZA is also vital in that they are mandated to promote and assist LGUs which successfully adopt and implement their tourism development plans. 3

LGUs, particularly those identified as priority Tourism Destination Areas, also need to understand the following key tourism planning concepts which served as basis for the Destination Development Framework used in the the National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) 2011-2016:

• Tourism Sites (TSs) are the specific places which tourists come to see and experience. A TS may be an existing natural attraction (volcano); an area of natural scenic beauty (national park); or man-made attraction (heritage structure, beach/golf resort). It can also be a site or area for potential development or enhancement for tourism such as a green field site for a new resort, or a coastal area, which could be designated as a marine park. • Tourism Development Clusters (TDCs) are identified and delineated using the following criteria: existence of a sufficient number and range of tourism sites with capacity to meet long term development possibilities; topographical features; contiguousness of land masses; geographical size – large enough to contain extensive range of potential tourism products/ experiences; location of “gateway” centers and cities; location of significant brand/unique features and/or “world class” attraction; robust, sustainable environmental base; and, access transport linkages/connectivity. • Tourism Development Areas (TDAs) consist of at least one, but more usually several tourism sites. A TDA can either have considerable existing tourism activity or have the potential for significant tourism development. By virtue of a combination of attractions, facilities and amenities which meet tourists’ interests and needs, TDAs provide the operational focus for the development of tourism within the various TDCs. Although TDAs are not limited by geographical size, their boundaries correspond to administrative units – barangay, municipality or province, depending on size.

Photos by George Tapan

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

• Strategic Destination Areas (SDAs) are a group of priority TDAs that are adjacent to each other and are within their respective clusters. The criteria used to identify the SDAs were: critical mass of attractions, facilities and services in the area; capacity of environment to sustain tourism development; capability of direct accessibility from key source markets; diversity of product offer in a way that can be promoted to different niche markets, thereby facilitating product/branding; area geographically large enough to allow different forms of tourist development to co-exist, for example including particular areas for nature tourism only, other areas for more intensive use; and, capable of being promoted as “stand alone” destination in the market place.

This Tourism Guidebook has been developed as one of the support mechanisms to “enhance the capability of LGUs to monitor and administer tourism activities, and enforce tourism laws, rules and regulations in their respective jurisdiction.” 5 The Provincial, City and Municipal Tourism Officers can benefit a lot from this Guidebook given their responsibilities in the local tourism development. Local Tourism Officers play a central role not only in tourism promotion but also in the preparation, implementation, and updating of local tourism development plans, as well as enforcement of tourism laws, rules and regulations.6 Being the coordinator for all these activities, the Tourism Officer should be able to have good grasp of the fundamental concepts and process of tourism development. The Provincial, City and Municipal Planning and Development Officers can also use the Guidebook to properly integrate tourism development into the larger context of the land use and comprehensive development of their respective LGUs. They should also work closely with the tourism officers to ensure that planning standards are considered and other development concerns are addressed in the implementation of tourism programs and projects. Tourism development in the localities is not the sole function of the LGU as it requires concerted effort of the whole community and active engagement of different stakeholders. Thus, this Guidebook may be used by stakeholders (who may also be members of the Tourism Council) so that they can fully participate in each phase of local tourism development from planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. This Tourism Guidebook is divided into two major parts: • The guide in Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan (TDP) contains simplified discussions of concepts, methods, step-by-step processes and worksheets, including examples to aid users in developing elements of the TDP. • Supplemental Readings which can help you understand the different tourism concepts and tourism planning processes better. The supplemental readings can be used separately, depending on the needs of your LGU and the specific level of tourism development in the destination. They may also be used in combination with other readings. The eleven supplemental readings are as follows: 1) Profiling the Local Tourism Industry helps you prepare an inventory of tourism resources and assets; assess the tourism situation in your area; list down potential safety, security risks and natural hazards; and prepare a profile of tourists and visitors in your locality. 2) Linking the Local Tourism Development Plan with the Local Mandated Plans outlines how the TDP would be placed in the context of your CDP (Comprehensive Development Plan) and CLUP (Comprehensive Land Use Plan), at the municipal/city level or the PDPFP Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan) at the provincial level. 3) Adopting the Local Tourism Development Plan walks you through the steps on mobilizing support and commitment towards plan institutionalization and provides tools and tips to facilitate adoption and institutionalization of the TDP.

1 United Nations World Tourism Organization. 2007. Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary, Retrieved from media.unwto.org/en/content/understanding-tourismbasic-glossary on November 7, 2013. 2 RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism GA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, SECTION 37. Local Tourism Development Planning. overnance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, SECTION 37. Local Tourism Development Planning. 3 RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 35. Coordination between National and Local Governments. 4 DOT and JBIC, 2007. Sustainable Tourism Management Plan for the Central Philippines. Final Report. 5 RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 41. Local Government Capabilities Enhancement. 6 RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 42. Tourism Officers.

5) Financing the Tourism Development Plan guides you to outsource funds from public and private sectors to finance the ranked tourism project and show the importance of writing an effective tourism project proposal. 6) Monitoring and Evaluating the Tourism Development Plan presents a simplified discussion of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and recommends simple tools on doing M&E. 7) Managing the Impacts of Tourism helps you identify and analyze the positive and negative impacts of tourism and teaches you how to manage the impacts by enhancing the positive and minimizing the negative impacts. 8) Developing Tourism Products and Marketing the LGU Destination aids you in understanding how tourism products are developed and promoted to attract visitors. It will also orient you on tourism marketing and promotions techniques. 9) Institutionalizing Tourism Standards assists you in understanding existing national and international tourism standards and encourage you to develop your own local standards based on local situation. 10) Organizing a Local Tourism Office helps you understand the legal framework in organizing a local tourism office as it also suggests possible roles and functions of a local Tourism Officer. 11) Relevant Laws, Policies and Tourism-related Literature presents relevant laws, policies and tourism-related literature. It also presents web links on tourism-related laws and policies as well as on development planning, the environment, gender and other issues.

Using the Tourism Guidebook

Using the Tourism Guidebook

Using the Tourism Guidebook

4) Preparing for Tourism Development Plan Implementation helps you in prioritizing and ranking prioritized tourism projects for implementation. It also provides tools and examples on capacity development to enhance success of plan implementation.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tabl e of Contents

Who should be involved in tourism planning? What are the steps in tourism planning? Where are you at present?

1 4 5

Site Evaluation Problem Identification Problem Analysis

What do you want to achieve?

13

Goals and Objectives

What paths do you take?

21

Strategies Types of Tourism Strategies Tourism Circuits Developing Destination Themes What tools can be used in strategy formulation?

What actions need to be done?

26

What are programs, projects and activities? What tools can be used for project identification? Identifying Programs and Projects within a Circuit

How will you measure progress? Why is packaging your plan Important? References

28 29 30-31

Annex A: Work Plan Worksheet

33

Annex B: Site/Attraction Evaluation Worksheet

34

Annex C: Site Prioritization Worksheets

36

Annex D: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary Worksheet

43

Annex E: Site Prioritization Ranking Worksheet

44

Annex F: Problem Identification Worksheet

45

Annex G: Tourism Goals, Targets And Success Indicators Worksheet

46

Annex H: Worksheet 7: Swot Analysis Worksheet

47

Annex I: Scenario-Planning Worksheet

48

Annex J: Tourism Circuit/Cluster Worksheet

49

Annex K: Project Identification Worksheet

50

Annex L: Worksheet For Program, Projects And Activities Identification Within Circuits

51

Annex M: Monitoring And Evaluation Strategy Worksheet

52

Annex N: Tourism Plan Implementation Monitoring Worksheet

53

List of Tables Table 1: Guide Questions to Tourism Planning Table 2: Steps in Conducting Site Evaluation Table 3: Steps in Problem Analysis Table 4: Steps in Objectives Analysis Table 5: Steps in Developing Tourism Clusters/Circuits

List of Boxes Box 1: Local Tourism Council Box 2: Scenario Building Options Box 3: Components of a Tourism Cluster/ Circuit Box 4: Recommended Contents of the Tourismm Development Plan

List of Figures Figure 1: Problem Analysis: An Example Figure 2: Link between Goals and Objectives Figure 3: Tourists Entertained by PIDWWO from 2003-2010 Figure 4: Sample Objectives Analysis Figure 5: HIPADA Eco-Cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte

1. Presents a step-by-step guide to formulating a Tourism Development Plan for local destinations; 2. Showcases examples to aid users in developing elements of the TDP; and 3. Provides templates, tools and tips to simplify and facilitate plan formulation.

Who should be involved in Tourism Planning? While the LGUs have primary responsibility for tourism in their jurisdictions, the tourism industry benefits if planning becomes a multi-sectoral collaboration, involving various stakeholders in the locality. Ideally, a Tourism Planning Committee (TPC) should be created under the Local Development Council (LDC), the LGU’s mandated planning body, to ensure that the plan is adopted. The local legislative body or the Sanggunian, should also be represented early on in the planning process to help secure the plan’s approval. The LGU has to ensure that women are well represented in the team. The Tourism Council, in particular plays a crucial role in shaping local tourism and should be part of the committee. Box 1 defines the important role of the tourism council in the sector’s development. It is suggested that the committee be composed of the following officials and representatives:

Box 1

Example 1: Executive Order Creating the Local Tourism Planning Committee Example 2: Work Plan Example 3: Site/Attraction Evaluation of Chocolate Hills Example 4: Site Prioritization Scores Per Category Example 5: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary Example 6: Site Prioritization Ranking Example 7: Problem Identification Matrix Example 8: Problem Tree Analysis: Destruction of Primary Tourism Resources Example 9: Link Between Goals and Objectives Example 10: Scenario Building of the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization Example 11: Scenario Planning for PIDWWO Example 12: Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators Example 13: Sector Goals, Objectives, Targets and Success Indicators Example 14: Objectives Analysis: Primary Tourism Resource (Coral Reefs) Protected. Example 15: Translating Problems into Objectives Example 16: Sebay Central Resort Price-based Strategy Example 17: Turtle Surf Camp Differentiation Strategy Example 18: Davao City Hybrid Strategy Example 19: The Province of Bohol Focus Strategy Example 20: The Bohol Countryside Tour Example 21: HIPADA Eco-cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte Example 22: SWOT Analysis as a Tool for Strategy Formulation Example 23: Relationship of Goals and Objectives Examples 24: Identification of Tourism PPAs Examples 25: Identifying PPAs Within Circuits Examples 26: M&E Strategy

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

This Main Section of the Tourism Guidebook:

List of Examples

Local Tourism Councils In 1995, DILG issued Memorandum Circular (MC) No. 95-162, encouraging Local Chief Executives (LCEs) to organize Tourism Councils in their jurisdictions, composed of government and private sector representatives to: formulate programs and recommendations to develop local tourism facilities and attractions tapping local resources and funds; assist in the regulation and supervision of tourism-oriented establishments thereby ensuring wholesome and clean tourism activities; assist in monitoring the implementation of the LGC on the matter of licensing of tourism establishments in the locality to ascertain safe and enjoyable stay of travelers; and strictly enforce sanitary standards in public restrooms frequented by public utility vehicles and tourist transport services, i.e. gasoline stations, restaurants along main highways and bus stops. All DILG Regional Directors (RD) are also tasked to disseminate this MC to LGUs and provide the needed technical support on the matter if requested.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Local Chief Executive Tourism Council (private sector representative) Tourism Officer Local planning and development coordinator (LPDC) Sangunnian Chairperson for tourism development Local agriculturist (if the LGU plans on venturing into farm tourism) People’s Organization working in tourism areas Women’s organization involved in tourism Non-government organization (NGO) working in tourism Barangay Captains of barangays with tourism attractions Academe Department of Tourism Regional Office (DoT-RO) Department of the Interior and Local Government Local Government Operations Officer (DILG LGOO) Local Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Philippine National Police (PNP) Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (DRRMC) Transport sector Protected Area Superintendent (PASU), when there is a NIPAS area located within the locality Other sectoral representatives and LGU offices deemed important in tourism planning

1

Example 1: Executive Order Creating the Tourism Planning Committee Republic of the Philippines Office of the Governor/Mayor Province/City/Municipality of _____________ Executive Order No. ____ Creating the Tourism Planning Committee WHEREAS, local governments are mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991 otherwise known as R.A. 7160 to develop and promote tourism and the general welfare in their respective jurisdictions; WHEREAS, DILG Memorandum Circular (MC) No. 95-162, encouraged Local Chief Executives (LCEs) to organize Tourism Councils in their jurisdictions, composed of government and private sector representatives to formulate programs and recommendations to develop local tourism facilities and attractions tapping local resources and funds; NOW, THEREFORE, I (Name of Governor/Mayor), Governor/Mayor of the Province/City/Municipality of__________, by powers vested in me by law, do hereby order the creation of the Tourism Planning Committee. I. Functions of the committee 1. Prepare a work plan for the preparation of the tourism plan 2. Formulate the tourism plan 3. Consult with residents and other stakeholders of tourism areas II. Composition of the Committee. The Committee shall be headed by the Governor/ Mayor who shall serve as the chairperson. The members are the following: Representatives from Government: Member

Representatives from Tourism Council: Office

(Name)

Representatives from Civil Society: Member

Once the Tourism Planning Committee has been created, the next step is to develop a work plan to determine in detail the specific activities, responsibilities, resource requirements and duration of the activities. The duration for planning varies depending on the resources and requirements of the LGU. It may take between three to six months. A sample work plan is shown below. A pull-out worksheet is found in Annex A.

Example 2: Work Plan Activities

Persons Responsible

Expected Output/ Milestones

Office

(Name)

III. Roles of the Committee.

Resource Requirements

Timeframe/ Duration

1. Conduct tourism training/workshop for planning committee

Training/workshop

LPDC

2. Data gathering

Baseline data

Tourism Officer/ Planning Officer

3. Site/Attraction Evaluation and Prioritization

Ranked list of attractions

Site evaluation team

3. Situation Analysis

Problem Analysis Objectives Analysis

Team leaders of groups

4. Planning Workshop

Draft elements of the plan

Tourism Officer

Venue Meals Accommodations

April 23 - 25

5. Finalization of Goals, objectives and strategies

Goals, objectives and strategies

Team leaders of groups

Meals

May 2 - 15

6. Identification of programs, projects, and activities (PPAs)

PPAs

Team leaders of groups

Meals

May 16 - 30

7. Prioritization of PPAs

Prioritized PPAs

LPDC

Meals

June 2 - 3

8. Packaging of the tourism development plan

Packaged tourism development plan

Tourism Officer with LPDC

Office

(Name)

Member

Preparing the work plan

Venue Meals Accommodations

March 3 - 5

March 6 - 31 Transportation Meals March 6 - 31 Venue for prioritization session

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

The Local Planning and Development Office (LPDO) can serve as the secretariat of the Tourism Planning Committee. To create the needed push and help ensure that the plan is developed within schedule, it is highly recommended that an Executive Order (EO) creating the committee be issued by the LCE (see sample below.)

April 1 - 11

June 4 -13

The Chairperson shall have the principal responsibility for directing and overseeing the development of the tourism plan, according to schedule. The chairperson is responsible for chairing major tourism planning sessions, and shall designate a representative in sessions that he/she will not be present. The Committee shall actively participate in all activities identified in the work plan. The team shall develop realistic goals, appropriate strategies and identify programs, projects and activities that best contribute to the attainment of the tourism goals and objectives of the locality. IV. Funding. The budgetary requirements for the conduct of activities and delivery of outputs shall be sourced from __________________________. V. Effectivity. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately. (Signature) (Name) Governor/Mayor

3

There is no universal planning formula and process for tourism planning, and stakeholders need to think outside the box and respond to the needs and issues of individual destinations. In tourism, creativity and innovation are key ingredients for success. Experimentation may also help in coming up with new strategies that actually work. “… A rich diversity of different approaches to tourism planning and policy may be found within one country” (Davidson and Maitland, 1997). Planning at the local level stresses specific, practical actions and is more detailed than their national counterparts (Davidson and Maitland, 1997). Moreover, there are no overarching solutions (Dredge and Jenkins, 2007) that can apply to all destinations. Destinations apply to a variety of spatial scales – a country, region, local, to an individual attraction or site (Davidson and Maitland, 1997, Dredge and Jenkins, 2007). In this Guidebook, we define the destination as either a province or a city/municipality. It is highly beneficial to plan, promote and market the whole province as a destination than for individual municipalities/cities to sell their areas individually. A destination needs to have a critical mass of tourism development – offering a rich variety of diverse attractions and services to meet the needs of several market segments (Gunn, 1984). Planning for individual attractions, no matter how well done, falls short if it is not related to the planning of the whole destination. The final tourism product is the totality of the tourist experience (Ibid), so that it is important to plan the province as a destination.

The participation of local or host communities that will be affected by tourism development is important early on in the planning process as it drums up support for the industry and minimizes resistance for any future project in the area.

The suggested steps to developing your tourism plan are: • • • • •

Where are you at present? Analyzing the tourism situation follows from the inventory of tourism resources and assets undertaken by the Planning Committee. Tourism planning requires an analysis of the present situation to determine the desired future of tourism in a destination. Planning must deal with all components of supply and ensure that these work in sync to provide a pleasing and memorable experience to travelers (Gunn, 1979). Gathering and analyzing past and present information need to be undertaken for evidence-based tourism planning.

Site Evaluation Determining areas that have the greatest potential for tourism is critical for tourism planning. Evaluation is the act of conducting on-site investigation of criteria items using appropriate methodologies such as direct observation, mapping, oral interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions, and workshops (Sugaya, 2013). The Tourism Planning Committee should go through the process of evaluating and ranking sites to determine their potential and readiness for tourism. The Committee can also benefit from the expertise of people who have experience in site evaluation. Whenever possible, the Committee can invite experts to join on-site evaluation. The output of the process is a ranked list of sites for development. Follow the step-by-step guide below in conducting the site evaluation. You may find the pull-out worksheets of the Attraction/Site Evaluation, Site Prioritization Scores Per Category, Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary and Site Prioritization Ranking in Annexes B, C, D and E respectively.

Table2: Steps in Conducting Site Evaluation

Analyze the situation Formulate goals and objectives Develop strategies Identify and prioritize actions (can be programs, projects and activities) Develop a monitoring and evaluation strategy

STEP

Table1: Guide Questions to Tourism Planning

4

What is the tourism situation in your locality at the present time?

Formulate goals and objectives

What do you want to achieve for tourism in your locality in the future? When do you want to achieve this?

Develop Strategies

What paths do you take? How do you get from the present tourism situation to the future state you desire?

Identify programs, projects and activities

What will you do to implement your strategies?

Develop a monitoring and evaluation strategy

How do you measure progress?

OUTPUT

Step 1

Step 2

After all the sites are evaluated and given scores, the team proceeds to accomplish the Site Prioritization Worksheet. Example 4 shows partially accomplished worksheet. This is done for all categories. A complete set of the worksheets is found in Annex C. The categories include Uniqueness and Natural Beauty (Annex C.1), Historical/Cultural Value (Annex C.2), Accessibility (Annex C.3), Availability of Basic Utilities (Annex C.4), Availability of On-Site Facilities (Annex C.5), Ownership of Property (Annex C.6), Quality of Sorroundings (Annex C.7).

Site Prioritization Scores Per Category

Step 3

The team then proceeds to fill out Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary Worksheet available in Annex D and creates a ranked list of sites for enhancement and/or development - which can be accomplished using The Site Prioritization Ranking Worksheet found in Annex E.

Ranked list of sites

Guide Questions

Analyze the situation

ACTIVITY As a team, conduct on-site investigation and individually accomplish the site/attraction evaluation worksheet found in Annex B, for all sites identified. Example 3 shows a partially accomplished Site/Attraction Evaluation Worksheet.

As the Tourism Planning Committee goes through the different stages of tourism development plan formulation process, it is essential to be guided by the following questions.

Steps

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

What are the steps in Tourism Planning?

Site/attraction evaluation sheet

5

Ownership of Property Characteristics

Province/City/Municipality

Municipality of Carmen, Province of Bohol ____________________________________________

Local government owned

Site/Attraction

Chocolate Hills ____________________________________________

Privately owned/managed/leased

Site Classification (Existing/Emerging/Potential)

Existing ____________________________________________

Travel Time (From Tagbilaran to Chocolate Hills)

Approximately 1 hour ____________________________________________

Characteristics

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Natural/Undisturbed

1 1 1

3

4

5

Recognized tourist attraction by DOT

1

2

3

4

5

Unique attraction – one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) Beauty – how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste)

Criteria 2.

5

1

5

Quality of Surroundings

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Culinary experience

1 1 1

3

4

5

Museum

1

2

3

4

5

Built Heritage (50 years or above) Festivals

Yes 1 1

Landfill/ dumpsite Mining Site

No 5 5

Informal settlements

1

5

Beatiful vista/ view

5

1

Presence of support services

1

5

(Surroundings refer to areas which are within 5 kilometers radius from the site) Source: Adapted from Site/Attraction Evaluation Sheet.

Example 4. Site Prioritization Scores Per Category UNIQUENESS AND NATURAL BEAUTY

Historical/Cultural Value Characteristics

Criteria 3.

1

Ancestral domain/land claimants

Characteristics

Uniqueness and Natural Beauty

No 1 5

Under CARP or CARPable

Criteria 7.

Instructions: If the site possesses the given characteristics to the highest degree, this is given a value of 5, while site possessing least/none of the characteristics is given a value of 1. Criteria 1.

Yes 5 1

Site/Attraction

Location

Uniqueness Attraction

Beauty

Natural/ Undisturbed

Recognized by DOT

Total Score

Chocolate Hills

Carmen

5

5

3

5

18

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Criteria 6.

Example 3: Site/Attraction Evaluation of Chocolate Hills

Site 2

Accessibility Characteristics

Accessible all year (please specify vehicle type: all kinds of vehicle) Regular/Commercial transport service available

Characteristics

Least 1 1

Distance from town center

2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Least 1 1

Distance from service center

Most

Site 3 Site 4

Most 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Site 5

(The maximum acceptable travel time from the service center is two hours; while from the town center is thirty minutes.)

Criteria 4.

Availability of Basic Utilities Characteristics

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

Communications (i.e. internet, telephone)

1 1 1

3

4

5

Drainage/sewerage system

1

2

3

4

5

2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Clean and quality food service

1 1 1

3

4

5

Other activity facilities (picnic huts, pools, sports facilities, etc.)

1

2

3

4

5

Directional and information signage

1

2

3

4

5

Clean water supply Sufficient power supply

4

5

4

5

Solid waste management system

Criteria 5.

Availability of Onsite Facilities Characteristics

Clean and safe restrooms for women and men Good accommodation facilities

6

Least

Most

7

Site/ Attraction

Uniqueness/ Historical/ Availability Availability Ownership Quality of Natural Cultural Accessibility of Basic of Onsite of Property Surroundings Value Beauty Utilities Facilities

Chocolate Hills

18

Site 1

Total Score

Problem Identification Surfacing critical issues and problems affecting tourism in your destinations is an important activity that should be given attention in planning. The activity takes off from the inventory of tourism resources undertaken in Supplemental Reading 1 – Profiling the Local Tourism Industry. Alternatively, problem identification can also be done once you have prioritized a circuit for development. You may find the pull-out worksheet in Annex F. You may also refer to Example 7 to guide you in filling out the worksheet.

Site 2 Site 3

Example 7: Problem Identification Matrix

Site 4

Site/ Attraction/ Circuit

Site 5

Pamilacan Island

Component Activities Environment • Natural • Social • Economic

Example 6. Site Prioritization Ranking Site/Attraction Chocolate Hills

Site 1

Total Points

Ranking

98

1

Problems/Issues Activity is limited to dolphin and whale watching.

Solid waste is not managed; Improper waste disposal

Transportation (to and from site)

There are no regular transport services to the site which makes travel to the area very expensive; Transport is incorporated with the dolphin and whale watching tour.

Other infrastructure

Electricity in the island is present only six hours a day

Accommodations

Basic accommodation facilities

Other facilities and services

There are no restaurants/food establishments in the island

Institutional

The community-based organization managing the dolphin and whale watching tour has dwindling membership

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 5: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary

Note: The problems/issues identified are for instructional purposes only, and may not necessarily reflect the real situation of the site.

Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5

8

9

Problem Analysis (PA) is a tool that can be used to break down a problem into small, detailed parts to understand it better. The PA aids in identifying the causes and effects of problematic situations and its output can be used in pinpointing goals, objectives, programs, project and activities. The step-by-step guide to doing PA is found below.

It is difficult to accomplish anything without a plan. A necessary step in planning is to identify goals and objectives for tourism. Simply put, goals and objectives are statements of what you want to achieve in the future or your desired results for developing tourism. Identify only a few goals (2-3 may be sufficient, although you can develop more if you have to), refer to them often and use them to guide you in succeeding steps so as not to get sidetracked with strategies and programs that do not contribute to their achievement.

Table 3: Steps in Problem Analysis Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

The most obvious tourism goals are economic in character. However, your goals must go beyond increasing tourist arrivals and profit making. Balancing economic, social, and environmental goals are important in tourism planning. Setting goals to conserve, protect and rehabilitate the natural environment is especially important since most tourism is highly dependent on the state of the natural resource of an area.

Define the problem in the way of tourism development. As a guide, you can ask the question: What negative thing do you see happening? Problems should be expressed and formulated as negative conditions. Collect data pertaining to the problem. • What proof do you have that the problem exists? • How long has the problem existed? • What is the impact of the problem? Identify the causes of the problem. During this stage, identify as many causes as possible until you get to the root cause of the problem. Position the causes below the problem. As a guide, you can ask the question: • Why does the problem exist?

Step 4

Identify the effects of the problem and position them above the problem.

Step 5

Establish the cause-effect relationship among the problems identified.

Step 6

Review the diagram as a whole. Verify the cause and effect relationship and go through and examine the soundness and completeness of the problem tree.

3Ps Approach to Tourism Planning should adopt the 3Ps approach - Tourism for People, Planet and Profit

Goals and Objectives

Source: Adapted from MindTools.com, 2013; Pabalan, Paran and Caluen, 2004.

Goals and objectives are intimately interrelated that the attainment of objectives will lead to the achievement of a goal (LGSPA, 2009). This relationship is shown in Example 9.

Example 8: Problem Tree Analysis - Destruction of Primary Tourism Resources

Effect

Decreasing tourist arrivals

Example 9: Link between Goals and Objectives

Algal bloom

Destructive Fishing

Problem

Destruction of primary tourism resource (coral reefs)

Careless boating, snorkeling and diving

Poor fishing practice (Muro-ami)

Cause

Pollution from liquid waste

Pollution from solid waste

In tourism planning - you have to be clear about the results you want to achieve. Both goals and objectives are results of implementing strategies and actions. As a guide, the team can ask the question “why are we doing these strategies or actions?” Goals tell us what we want to achieve in the long term (i.e. nine years and above), while objectives tell us what we want to achieve in the short to medium term (i.e. three to six years). Clarifying tourism goals and objectives helps the Tourism Planning Commitee focus on a set of interventions that best contribute to their realization.

What do we want to achieve in the long term? What do we want to achieve in the short to medium term?

Goal: Increased tourist arrivals

Objective 1: Improved access to tourism attractions

+

Objective 2: Improved quality of tourism products

+

Objective 3: Improved tourist facilities and services

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

What do you want to achieve?

Problem Analysis

Success Indicators Success indicators (SI) measure the extent of achievement of desired results. They are needed for both goals and objectives. They measure performance qualitatively or quantitatively. There is a need to develop measures that matter – those which provide and deepen stakeholders understanding of success and progress in the implementation of the plan. As a guide, the question that needs to be answered is: what information will provide stakeholders with a good understanding of the performance in tourism? One has to consider the ease of gathering data in identifying success indicators. Indicators need to be simple and easy to measure. If the data requirements for a particular indicator are difficult to obtain or not cost effective to gather, a proxy indicator that can perform the same function can be chosen. In Example 12 for instance, one can opt to use the indicator for E1 instead of E3.

Targets A target is an explicit and definitive statement of a result (goal or objective) you want to achieve. It answers the question: what do you want to achieve concretely and when will it be achieved?

Scenario Building One may choose to construct: exploratory scenarios with a few different futures to highlight the different relationships between factors under different logics, or normative scenarios, often with only one ‘desired future’. This is sometimes done as a consensus - building exercise. However, if consensus becomes difficult, it may be beneficial to start with an undesired future – since it is often easier for everyone to agree upon what they do not want (Slocum, 2005).

There are two ways of looking at how the future may evolve for tourism in your areas, namely 1) forecasting; and 2) scenario planning. Forecasting shows where you are headed if you stay on the current course. It tries to predict the future by extrapolating from the present and assuming that existing trends will continue. In tourism however, it is more beneficial to visualize scenarios of the future. Scenario planning allows understanding of your environment and what it means through alternative views of the future. Scenarios identify significant events, main actors and their motivations, and convey how the world functions. They are based upon possibilities that are grounded in current knowledge and experience. These provide the basis for action (Yeoman, Pearce and Moriarty, n.d.). It may be challenging to grapple with multiple plausible futures, which is why it is recommended that only three to five scenarios are done in a single workshop (Slocum, 2005).

Scenarios are defined as “narrative descriptions of potential futures that focus attention on relationships between events and decision points” (Slocum, 2005). Scenario building helps establish the effects of strategies and interventions (i.e. programs, projects, activities, and policies) and consequences of current trends.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism goals should not divert but rather contribute to the sustainable development of the locality. Tourism, although part of the economic sector, must cover the three sectors, namely: economic, social and environment. Tourism should make a major contribution to improving living conditions of communities within or near attractions. In identifying goals and objectives, the well-being of host communities need to be taken into account.

Scenario Building Box 2

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Goals and objectives are logically linked to the issues and concerns affecting tourism in a destination. Tools that can be used to ensure the linkage are the problem analysis and objectives analysis (see Table 3 and Table 4).

Scenario construction is useful in situations where the past or present is unlikely to be a guide for the future, specifically when:

the problem is complex and many factors need to be considered there is a high probability of significant change the dominant trends may not be favorable and thus must be analyzed

Baseline Data Baseline data show the situation to be addressed by the tourism development plan prior to the planning period. For tourist markets, it is advisable to establish historical data for at least three to five years. Historical data answer the question: Where have you been? The data is useful in planning ahead. Supplemental Reading 1 - Profiling the Tourism Industry presents a more detailed discussion on baseline data. Baseline data need to be gathered from the onset – they serve as the starting point for scenario building and can also later be used in evaluation studies, and are useful for measuring the performance of the tourism industry, as a whole.

the time-horizon is relatively long (Slocum, 2005).

Building scenarios should be well-informed so that realistic futures can be developed. In identifying trends, it is important to base your assessment on evidence rather than supposition. Ensure that trends are built on sound foundations (Mindtools, 2014).

13

To aid you in coming up with coherent tourism goals, targets, and success indicators, fill out the worksheets found in Annex G.

A community-based approach to ecotourism was introduced in Pamilacan Island in 1997 to provide fishers with an alternative livelihood after whaling and poaching was banned in 1992. The whale and dolphin tour was initiated in 1998, a year after the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization (PIDWWO) was formed. It has been considered as best practice in sustainable tourism management (Heah, 2006), and has also been recognized both locally and internationally. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) acknowledged Pamilacan’s Dolphin Watch as finalist in the 2006 Tourism for Tomorrow Awards at the 6th Global Travel and Tourism Summit for the Conservation Award Category. Tourism for Tomorrow Awards recognizes and promotes best practices in tourism development all over the world. In 2001, the number of tourists engaged in whale watching was 260 (Baclayon MPDC, 2001). Tourist arrivals in the island slowly increased from 2003 to 2006, with PIDWWO, being the sole provider of the dolphin and watch tour. While tourism arrivals in the island have been increasing, PIDWWO tour sales have decreased in 2007 and 2008, recovering slightly from 2009 and 2010 (Paran, 2013).

Figure 3: Tourists Entertained by PIDWWO from 2003-2010

Example 12 shows targets and success indicators per tourism goal. Example 13 on the other hand illustrates more examples of goals, objectives, targets and success indicators.

Example 12 : Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators Tourism Goals

Targets

Success Indicators

Economic E1

Increased tourist arrivals

50% increase from 2012 baseline by 2022

Number of tourists (male and female)

E2

Increased income to host communities

50% increase from 2012 baseline by 2022

Average income of host communities

E3

Increased tourist expenditures

E4

Increased tourism employment in host 50% increase from baseline by 2022 barangay

Number of people employed in tourism (male and female)

Social S1

Improved well-being of island host communities

50% increase in access to electricity Number of households with of island host community from 2012 access to electricity in the island baseline by 2022

S2

Increased income of host community

50% from baseline by 2022

Average household income of host community

Environmental/Ecological En1

Significant cultural heritage sites conserved

At least two significant cultural heritage sites

Number of cultural heritage sites protected by legislation

En2

Natural condition of biodiversity maintained/protected • mangrove/seagrass/seaweed cover

No physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity from 2012 baseline

No physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity observed/ recorded

En3

Forest cover increased

Hectarage increased by 10% from baseline

Number of hectares of forest cover

En4

Coral reefs protected

No physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity from 2012 baseline

Physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity observed/ recorded

En5

Natural condition of biodiversity maintained/protected • mangrove/seagrass/seaweed cover

No physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity from 2012 baseline

Physical damage or alterations to particular biodiversity observed/ recorded

En6

Increased awareness on biodiversity conservation by visitors/tourists

At least 20% of tour packages in the LGU

Number of tour packages incorporating environmental education and nature interpretation

Example 11: Scenario - Planning for PIDWWO Situation

Tourist arrivals in the island has been increasing but PIDWWO has been losing out to competitors from Bohol mainland and Panglao PIDWWO product has been mainly whale and dolphin watching Barangay government has accredited members of the Pamilacan community as snorkeling guides of marine sanctuary Marketing of PIDWWO is limited to word of mouth while competitors have website

Scenario

Intensifying competition from private sector in Bohol Mainland Social media and the internet is becoming an increasingly important marketing medium for tourism

Goal

Strategies

Increased number of tourists Diversify ecotourism entertained by PIDWWO by products to be offered by 100% from its 2010 level by PIDWWO 2016 Invest in marketing through social media and the internet

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 10 : Scenario Building of the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization

Result

Sector Goals

Targets

Success Indicators

What tools can be used for goal and objective setting?

Economic

The Objective Analysis (OA) is a handy and versatile tool that can be used for goal and objective setting. A well examined problem can provide a good starting point to identifying goals and objectives. Likewise, the analysis can be used as basis for identifying programs, projects and activities that contribute to the achievement of desired results.

Goal

Increased income of host community

50% increase from baseline by 2022

Average household income of host community

Objective

Improved tourism skills of host community

50% of host community trained in tourism

Number of trained community members (male and female)

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by community

100% increase in the number of tourism businesses owned by community members

Number of new tourism business permits issued by LGU

Both the PA and OA are highly participatory instruments that allow the planning team to scrutinize and discuss issues and concerns affecting tourism in their localities. Stakeholders collectively probe deeper into what ails tourism in their areas using a problem tree and objective tree. Well-articulated problem statements are important starting points to identifying actions that are appropriate to their situations. The step-by-step guide to objectives analysis is shown below.

Goal

Significant cultural heritage sites conserved

At least two significant cultural heritage sites

Number of significant cultural heritage sites protected by legislation

Table 4: Steps in Objectives Analysis

Objective

Cultural heritage sites adapted to modern use

At least three sites adapted to modern Number of cultural heritage sites use adapted to modern use

Improved well-being of island host communities

50% increase in access to electricity of island host community from 2012 baseline by 2022

Environment

Step-by-Step Guide to Objectives Analysis

Social

Goal

Number of households with access to electricity in the island

Objective 1

Increased access to sanitary toilet facilities in host island communities

100% access

Number of households with septic tanks

Objective 2

Improved tourism skills of host community

At least 50% of host community trained in tourism are employed by the industry

Number of trained community members employed due to skills training (male and female)

Step 1

Taking off from the problem analysis, convert the negative statements/conditions into positive. Form a structure showing the means-ends relationships in the form of an objectives tree.

Step 2

From the positive conditions, identify goals, objectives, programs, projects, activities and policies.

Step 3

Review the diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness. Revise the statements as necessary.

Source: Adapted from Pabalan, Paran and Caluen, 2004.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 13: Sector Goals, Objectives, Targets and Success Indicators

Increased tourist arrivals

Objectives

Primary tourism resource (coral reefs) protected

What paths do you take? Strategies Strategies are means to achieve goals and are undertaken to gain competitive advantage over rivals (Tribe, 2005). “Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term: which achieves advantage for the organization through the configuration of resources within a changing environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholders expectations (Johnson and Scholes, 2001: 10 in Tribe, 2005)

Development of diving, snorkeling, and boating protocol

The tourism products to be offered by a destination can be underpinned by a strategy (Dredge and Jenkins, 2007). A well researched and realistic tourism strategy can be a very effective tool to the advantage of residents, their environment, and the tourism industry in general (Davidson and Maitland, 1997). An effective strategy can result in the attainment of objectives such as increased number of tourists at a destination or improved well-being of host communities.

Development of ordinance establishing a septage management system

Solid Waste Management Program

There are a number of steps in the development of strategy. These are (Tribe, 2005):

PPALs

Development of ordinance banning destructive and poor fishing practice

Generation of strategic options; Evaluation of strategic options; and

Development of ordinance establishing a solid waste management system

Selection of strategy.

Liquid Waste Management Program

A number of key strategic options can be generated from strategic analysis. This can be done by selling a product that is: cheaper than the competition;

Example 15: Translating Problems into Objectives Problem Analysis Components

Negative Statements

Objectives Analysis Components Goal

better than the competition; Positive Statements

Effect

Decrease in tourist arrivals

Increased tourist arrivals

Problem

Destruction of primary tourism Objective resource (coral reefs)

Primary tourism resource (coral reefs) protected

Causes

Careless boating, snorkeling and Programs, Projects, Activities diving and Policies

Development of diving, snorkeling and boating protocol

Algal bloom

Pollution from liquid waste

• Liquid waste management program • Development of ordinance establishing a septage management system

Pollution from solid waste

• Solid waste management program • Development of ordinance establishing a solid waste management program

Destructive fishing

Development of ordinance banning destructive and poor fishing practice

Poor fishing practice (muro-ami)

18

Note: Matrix form of the PA and OA example (see Example 8 and Example 14).

cheaper and better product (Tribe, 2005).

Choosing a particular strategy should be done in an objective manner. This can be done by using a set of criteria, such as feasibility, suitability and acceptability (Tribe, 2005).

“The attraction of a destination arises from a mix of resources and services. Without such a mix, a place will not work as a destination. The mix varies from one place to another, and this variation gives each destination its individual character – its different total tourism product.” (Davidson and Maitland, 1997)

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Goal

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 14: Objectives Analysis - Primary Tourism Resource (coral reefs) Protected

Hybrid Strategy

Price-based Strategy

One can opt to adopt a hybrid strategy by providing value-added and high quality products at low prices. However, this is hard to achieve since doing so adds to costs resulting to price increase. This type of strategy can only be feasible if one can achieve economies of scale where “the average costs fall in line with a growth in output” (Tribe, 2005).

A price-based strategy tries to find competitive advantage by offering the lowest prices in the industry (Tribe, 2005). One way to achieve this is to reduce costs by offering a “basic, standardized, mass-produced, no frills product with inessential aspects stripped out of the value chain” (Tribe, 2005: 127).

Example 18: Davao City Hybrid Strategy Example 16: Sebay Surf Central Resort Price-based Strategy The Sebay Surf Central Resort tries to gain competitive advantage by offering the lowest prices for a surfing tour package in La Union. The table below shows the budget prices for a package of one-hour surfing lesson with instructor, surf board rental, and 3 days/2 nights standard air conditioned room accommodation with breakfast.

The collaborative efforts between the Davao LGU, the malls of the city, and the Department of Tourism Region XI to offer the lowest retail prices in a city-wide sale is a good example of a hybrid strategy. The endeavor is geared towards establishing the City as a unique, fun and preferred shopping and dining destination in the country and improving the image of Davao as a thriving destination for business and investment. Dubbed as The Big Davao Fun Sale!, the City takes a big tourism leap as it plays host to the first ever four-week long shopping frenzy in the Philippines with its major malls offering fantastic deals like unique activities, freebies, awards, parties and discounts as high as 80%. The event marks the start of the festivities to celebrate the inauguration day of the City.

La Union Resorts and Packaged Rates Number of Persons No. of Persons

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

San Juan Surf Resort

3740

3474

3520

3370

3065

3119

3724

3421

3508

Sebay Surf Central Resort

3400

2720

3200

2816

2400

2743

3150

2800

3024

Little Surfmaid Resort

3740

3173

3520

3200

2800

3086

3525

3173

3360

Kahuna Beach Resort

7120

6521

6675

6338

5705

6005

6397

6265

6475

Note: Rates are quoted per person based on the number/group of persons indicated. Rates are in Philippine Pesos.

Source: e-philippines.com.ph, 2009-2014.

Differentiation Strategy Getting ahead in the tourism sector entails creativity and inventiveness. A differentiation strategy can be employed to offer something that stands out – a better quality or unique product. This can be done through a number of ways which includes, among others investing in design, innovation, attention to quality, and advertising (Tribe, 2005). Consumer perception is important in tourism. As a guide, one can ask: Does the tourism product or service offer improved quality or value added over the competition? (Tribe, 2010)

Example 17: Turtle Surf Camp Differentiation Strategy The development of destination themes which feature the unique tourism resources of the locality is a good example of a differentiation strategy. The Turtle Surf Camp in Siargao which “offers accommodation, surf lessons and surfari trips to all individuals, couples or groups” shows innovation and creativity making the package stand out. The all-inclusive vacation package which provides “hassle free stay” provides value added over other competitors offering the components separately. Similarly, province-wide themes showcasing the unique features of the locality and offering them as a packaged tour product can make a good strategy.

Focus Strategy The LGU can make use of a focus strategy and customize products and services for a particular market segment rather than to the whole market. A focus strategy may take the form of cost focus or differentiation focus (Tribe, 2005).

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Types of Tourism Strategies

Example 19: The Province of Bohol Focus Strategy The Province of Bohol has opted to develop its locality as an ecotourism destination. Community-based ecotourism organizations in the province have established their market niche and have developed ecotours such as dolphin and whale-watching in Pamilacan Island in the Municipality of Baclayon, the Cambuhat River and Village Tour in Buenavista, the Candijay Mangrove Adventure Tour, in Rajah Sikatuna, and a variety of adventure tours in Rajah Sikatuna National Park.

The Cluster Strategy Cost is one of the factors which affect the choice for a holiday destination. More important than cost, however is value for money. Tourists want to go home feeling that the price they paid was fair for the quality or standard of the goods or services they purchased, or for how good or unique an experience was (British Tourist Authority, 2003). Clustering increases the economic viability of attractions, and offers the tourist value-for-money destinations. Compatible attractions can be clustered by physical feature or by tour. A good example of clustering attractions by tour is the Bohol Countryside Tour.

“…a destination with high tourism potential is certain to bring together, within a cohesive geo-spatial framework, an ample range and variety of complementary tourism assets. The precise range of facilities, services and attractions within easy access of one another, will depend on the place.” -Doswell, 1997

21

Destination or holiday themes can be powerful in promoting tourist destinations. Themes can be varied and the possibilities are endless. There are countryside themes (i.e. Countryside Tour of Bohol); heritage (i.e., Vigan Heritage Tour; “Walk This Way” Intramuros Tour); cuisine themes (i.e. Binondo Food Trip); wildlife (i.e., Dolphin and Whale Watching in Pamilacan, Bohol); religious themes (i.e. Ilocandia Church Tour), aquatic theme (i.e., Calaguas Beach Escapades and Bagasbas Surfing).

Blood Compact Site (Tagbilaran City) – Cultural attraction which showcases the spot where the Spaniards and the Filipinos fostered friendly relations through the ritual of blood compact. Baclayon Church (Baclayon) – Considered as one of the oldest stone church in the Philippines with a museum that contains religious relics dating back to the early 16th century. Loay Backyard Industry (Loay) - Local craftsmen are seen forging bolos and other metal crafts; and making traditional roofing materials out of nipa palm leaves. Clarin Ancestral House (Loay) - Declared by the National Historical Institute as a heritage site, the well preserved home contains collections of the Clarin Family.

Table 5: Steps in Developing Tourism Clusters/Circuits Steps

Step 1

Tarsier (Loboc) – Sightings of the smallest monkey in the world along the Loboc River. Step 2

Chocolate Hills (Carmen) – A major attraction in the province, the attraction has 1,268 haycock hills which turn brown during dry season. Loboc-Loay River Cruise (Loboc) – Lunch is served while cruising the river, with locals providing local music. The river is flanked with nipa palm plantation with the occasional wild ducks.

Moreover, clustered attractions are more efficiently serviced with infrastructure of water, waste disposal, police, fire protection, and power (Gunn, 1979). The linkage between attraction-services is important. Attractions need support by travel services. Park plans, for example, are incomplete if the non-attraction needs of travelers are ignored. Food service, lodging, and supplementary services (i.e., purchases of medicines and souvenir items) must be within reasonable time and distance reach of travelers. A number of attractions (i.e., protected areas) need to be planned for day-tour only, with majority of services available in nearby communities where they can be serviced more efficiently. This results in gain for local businesses. More remote attraction features, however, may require minimum services within the attraction, such as food service, toilets, and visitor centers (Gunn, 1979).

A popular version of the cluster strategy is the tourism circuit. Attractions within the circuit should not be separated by long distances. A visitor should be motivated to visit all the places within the circuit. Tourist circuits are used as a strategy to increase the total number of visits to all the destinations within the circuit as well as provide tourists with a more rewarding experience and value for money by providing a mix of attractions and activities in a destination. Develop principal packages based on distinctive elements of the destination, and the market which you want to attract (e.g., adult, family or short-stay market as against long- stay market).

Identify the major sites/attractions in the province/city/municipality. Location of major sites/attractions determines tourism development. Use the tourism resource/attraction map developed in Supplemental Reading 1- Profiling the Local Tourism Industry. Identify secondary sites/attractions. Secondary sites/attractions (e.g. cultural) may or may not be developed depending on resources, potential and other objectives set in the plan.

Man Made Forest (Bilar) – A linkage corridor showcasing a Mahogany Forest.

Tourism Circuits

Activities

Components of a Tourism Cluster/Circuit The cluster/circuit comprises the following key components:

• These attractions are of the type that can be located elsewhere • Usual approach is to develop secondary attractions near a major attraction so that the area is of greater overall importance to the tourists

Step 3

Create possible circuits, based on the location of your sites. In developing circuits, make sure to consider how sites are related in terms of geography, access and travel time. Identify the entry/exit points.

Step 4

Identify circuit themes.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Entrepreneurs of Bohol have succeeded in coming up with a tour package by clustering compatible attractions. Since its test run, it has become a favorite of tourists visiting Bohol. Several businesses now offerred the tour with some variations but with major attractions being included in the package. The day tour spans several municipalities in the province and the package includes entrance fees, land transfers, tour guide, river cruise, and lunch during the river cruise. Pick-up and drop-off points are pre-arranged but usually are from Tagbilaran seaport, airport, or major hotels. The following is a sample itinerary:

Box 3

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Developing Destination Themes

Example 20: The Bohol Countryside Tour

Identify the following: Step 5

• Enroute facilities such as restaurants, restrooms, etc. • Transport infrastructure and services • Service center which provides accommodations, and other needs of the tourist Make sure your circuit components are complete.

Step 6

Identify possible activities for every site/attraction.

Step 7

Identify those which can be developed in 0-3 years, 4-6 years, and 7- 9 or more years.

Step 8

Create a summary report of your circuits using the Tourism Circuit/Cluster Worksheet in Annex J.

Example 21 presents an eco-cultural-tourism circuit. The circuit components include the entry/ exit points, attractions, service centers and transport infrastructure and services.

• Set of compatible attractions • Enroute facilities such as restaurants, restrooms, etc. • Transport infrastructure and services • Service center which provides accommodations, and other needs of the tourist

23

What tools can be used in strategy formulation? The SWOT or TOWS Analysis has become a very popular tool for tourism in recent years. It has been used extensively by various tourism organizations. SWOT is an acronym that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Developing strategies using the SWOT entails research, creativity and experimentation on the part of the Tourism Planning Committee. Strategies are place specific and depend on the distinctive situation of the locality. Strategies that work for some areas may not happen as expected for your locality. Also, strategies that have not worked in the past should be withdrawn. An example of a SWOT analysis is shown in Example 22 while an example of the relationship between goals, objectives and strategies is presented in Example 23. The SWOT Analysis Worksheet for you to accomplish is found in Annex H.

Example 22: SWOT Analysis as a Tool for Strategy Formulation Internal Environment

External Environment

OPPORTUNITIES (O) - Ecotourists on the rise worldwide

THREATS (T)

Source: Surigao del Norte Sustainable Tourism Plan, 2006 - 2015

- Neighboring province sells dolphin watch ecotour at a very low price. - Similar island resources with neighboring province (corals)

STRENGTHS (S) - Presence of national park with high biodiversity - Presence of unique cultural assets; - Presence of small islands surrounded by white sand beaches, with high marine biodiversity - Excellent coral cover S-O Strategies Develop new tourism products with eco-cultural theme

S-T Strategies

WEAKNESSES (W) - High poverty incidence of communities in small islands - Absence of electricity in small islands - Very limited fresh water in small islands

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 21: HIPADA Eco-Cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte

W-O Strategies Development of community-based ecotourism packages for small islands

W-T Strategies

Develop eco-cultural tourism circuits that include small islands as part of the tour package

25

Sector Goal

Sector Objectives

Strategy

Increased income of host island communities

Improved tourism skills of host island community

Develop community-based ecotourism packages for small islands

Goal Increased income of host island communities

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by host island community

What actions need to be done?

Objectives Improved tourism skills of host island community

Strategy Develop community-based ecotourism packages for small islands

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by host island community

Programs/Projects/Activities • Tourism planning for host barangay • Product development workshop • Tour guiding seminar • Pilot testing of product • Homestay program • Microcredit program

Planning helps stakeholders focus the use of limited resources on priority actions (programs, projects and activities) that can best contribute to desired results.

Identifying Programs and Projects within a Circuit

What are programs, projects and activities?

If the LGU opts to adopt the circuit strategy and have identified and prioritized a circuit, identifying programs and projects can revolve around development within the cluster. The aim would be to provide all infrastructure facilities and other requirements necessary to make it ready for tourists.

Programs, projects and activities (PPAs) are means towards the achievement of results (Goals and Objectives). A project is defined as an undertaking that involves the use of resources (e.g., human resources, money), addresses a well-defined purpose, undertaken within a specific timeframe, with a start and an end. A program on the other hand is defined as a package of interrelated projects. Programs and projects are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’. Developing successful tourism destinations combines soft (e.g. marketing and promotions) and hard programs (e.g. infrastructure) in a creative manner. All program and projects however need to be linked with all other components in a smooth manner, with each development contributing to the overall attractiveness of the destination. Tourism programs and projects can be simple or complex. A one-off training project to improve the capacity of the tourism planning team is an example of a simple project. The project becomes more complicated when one undertakes a capacity building program which includes various components such as a series of training activities, to setting up the tourism office.

What tools can be used for project identification? The Problem and Objectives Analyses are practical tools that can be used in identifying PPAs. With proper analysis of social, economic, and environmental issues and concerns facing the local tourism industry, and a little creativity, the Tourism Planning Committee can identify PPAs that can address them. The project identification matrix can help you align your programs, projects and activities with the goals, objectives and strategies of your tourism plan. An example of this is provided in Example 24.

If the LGU has identified several circuits for development, it is more prudent for the LGU to develop them in stages. Tag circuits can be developed in the short (0-3 years), medium (4-6 years) and long term (7-9 years). The timetable for development can be included as criteria for choosing priorities.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Example 24: Identification of Tourism PPAs

Example 23: Relationship of Goals and Strategies

You may find the pull-out Worksheet for Programs, Projects and Activities Identification within Circuits in Annex L. You may also refer to Example 25 to guide you in filling out the worksheets.

Example 25: Identifying PPAs within Circuits Name of Circuit

Issues and Concerns

Timeframe for Development (in Years)

Programs and Projects

Loay Backyard Industry (Loay)

Bohol Countryside Tour

• Local craftsmen are producing low-quality products (i.e. bolos and other metal crafts). • Products produced by the craftsmen are limited and lacked variety. • Craftsmen are not used to receiving tourists (seeming uncouth behavior)

0-3

• Product development workshop • Skills training • Training on Basic Tourism and Tourists Receiving

Notes: 1. See the complete Bohol Countryside Tour in Example 20.

The Project Identification Worksheet for you to accomplish is found in Annex K.

27

How will you measure progress?

Packaging puts a face and identity into your tourism plan. It affects the marketing of your plan to potential donors who can help in providing funding requirements for the programs, projects and activities that need to be implemented. It also helps in mobilizing support from the various stakeholders that are critical in fulfilling the requirements of the plan.

But it is not enough that the plan is formulated. How would you know if the local TDP was able to achieve its goals and objectives? It is thus important that a monitoring and evaluation mechanism must be put in place.

Naming your plan is also an important concern in packaging. A name describes and provides an identity to your plan document. For example, the Province of Surigao del Norte named its document “Surigao del Norte Sustainable Tourism Plan,” demonstrating the principle that guided the planning team in developing the plan.

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is a management tool that informs all tourism stakeholders about the efficiency and effectiveness of strategies, programs, projects and activities that have been implemented in the destination. Evaluation results can be useful in replicating successes and correcting mistakes, and can also serve as an accountability and learning tool for local government units. The development of an M&E strategy should not be an afterthought, but should be undertaken as an integral part of the planning phase. The M&E mechanism serves as the perfect ending for your local TDP, which starts with goals and proceeds up to programs, projects and activities. See Example 26 below as well as worksheets found in Annex M (Monitoring & Evaluation Strategy Worksheet) and Annex N (Tourism Plan Implementation Worksheet). Meanwhile, Supplemental Reading 6 - Monitoring and Evaluating the Tourism Development Plan further explains M&E.

Another important concern is the contents of the tourism plan. More often than not, local government units put too many information in the document, which can make it thick and confusing. The rule is to make the document as concise as possible. Below are the recommended contents of the tourism plan:

Recommended Contents of the Tourism Development Plan Tourism Council Resolution endorsing the Tourism Development Plan Sanggunian Resolution/Ordinance adopting the Tourism Development Plan Location Map Introduction 1. Tourism Profile a. b. c. d.

Example 26: M&E Strategy Goals & Objectives

Success Indicator

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by host community

Number of business permits issued by LGU with owners from host community

Targets per Indicator

Data Source to Assess Performance

Collection Methods

100% increase in Business Permit Document number of tourism and Licensing review related businesses Office owned by community

Frequency

Every three years

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Why is packaging your plan important?

Box 4

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Programs, projects, and activities identified to address tourism impacts in Supplemental Reading 4 – Preparing for Plan Implementation, need to be included in the long list for prioritization. Equally important is to incorporate the list of legislation in the legislative agenda of the Sanggunian.

Existing tourism attractions, products and activities Existing tourism markets Accommodations Other tourist facilities and services i. Tour and travel operation ii. Restaurants and other food establishments iii. Shops iv. Banks v. Tourist information offices vi. Personal services (e.g. barber shops) vii. Health facilities

Responsibility

Local Planning and Development Office and Tourism Office

e. Transportation (transportation access into the area and internal transportation system) f. Other infrastructure i. Power and electricity ii. Telecommunications iii. Water iv. Sewage and waste disposal facilities v. Drainage g. Natural and socio-economic environment h. Institutional 2. Goals, Objectives and Targets a. Strategic issues and challenges affecting local tourism b. Tourism goals, objectives and targets i. Economic (i.e. growth scenarios) ii. Social iii. Environmental 3. 4. 5. 6.

Strategic Directions/Strategies and Programs, Projects and Activities Implementation Plan for Priority Programs, Projects and Activities Priority Capacity Development Needs Monitoring and Evaluation

29

References

British Tourist Authority. Why Does Value Matter? 2003. http://www.visitbritain.org/britaintourismindustry/tourismaffairs/value/

Site Attraction Evaluation Sheet.

Davidson, Robert and Robert Maitland. Tourism Destinations. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997.

Site Prioritization Scores Per Category.

Doswell, Roger. Tourism: How effective management makes the difference. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Slocum, Nikki. Participatory Methods Toolkit: A practitioner’s manual. Edited by Stef Steyaert and Herve Lisoir. King Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for Science and Technology Assessment, 2005.

Dredge, Dianne and John Jenkins. Tourism Planning and Policy. Milton: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd, 2007.

Sugaya, Bill. THL Tourism Site Assessment Tool. Tibetan and Himalaya Library. https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/wiki/toolbox/Thl%20Tourism%20Site%20Assessment%20Tool.html. 2013.

Federation of Community Based Tourism Organizations. Tourism Circuits, 2013. http://www.fectokenya.org/circuits.

Tribe, John. “Unit 8: Strategic Directions and Methods.” In Strategy for Tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers, 2010. http://www.goodfellowpublishers.com/free_files/fileCh8v2.ppt2.ppt.

Goeldner, Charles and J.R. Brent Ritchie. Tourism: Principles, Practices and Philosophies. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2009.

Tribe, John. “Strategy for Tourism.” In The Management of Tourism, edited by Lesley Pender and Richard Sharpley. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2005, 119-134.

Gunn, Clare A. “Conclusions and Principles.” In Tourism Planning. New York: Taylor and Francis, 1988.

Yeoman, Ian, Doug Pearrce and John Moriarty. Future Maker or Future Taker: Scenarios for Tourism in New Zealand. N.d. http://www.med.govt.nz/sectors-industries/tourism/pdf.

Gunn, Clare A. “Getting Ready for Megatrends in Travel Attractions.” Paper at the Travel America National Conference and Showcase, Travel Industry Association, Dallas, September 13, 1984. Gunn, Clare A. Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. London: Taylor & Francis, 1979.

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

References

MindTools.com. (2013). Root Cause Analysis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_80.htm. [Accessed: December 10, 2013]. MindTools.com. (2014). Scenario Analysis: Exploring Different Futures. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_98.htm. [Accessed: April 19, 2014]. Pabalan, Concepcion, Julie Paran and Imelda Caluen. A Facilitator’s Guide: How to Formulate Executive and Legislative Agenda, 2004. Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP) Paran, Julie. The Nexus between Ecotourism, Empowerment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Pamilacan Island. (Doctoral dissertation). 2013 Pender, Lesley and Richard Sharpley. The Management of Tourism. London, SAGE Publications Ltd., 2005. Rose, Edgar A. “Philosophy and Purpose in Planning.” In The Spirit and Purpose of Planning, edited by Michael J. Bruton, 31-65. London: Hutchinson, 1984. Ruhanen, Lisa. “Strategic Planning for Local Tourism Destinations: An Analysis of Tourism Plans.” Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development. Routledge, 2004.

31

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Formulating the local tourism development plan

Annex A: Work Plan Activities

Expected Output/ Milestones

Persons Responsible

Resource Requirements

Timeframe/ Duration

Annexes

pull-out worksheets

33

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Formulating the local tourism development plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex B: Site/Attraction Evaluation Criteria 5.

Availability of Onsite Facilities

Province/City/Municipality

____________________________________________

Site/Attraction

____________________________________________

Site Classification (Existing/Emerging/Potential)

____________________________________________

Clean and safe restrooms for women and men

Travel Time

to ____________________________________________

Characteristics

Instructions: If the site possesses the given characteristics to the highest degree, this is given a value of 5, while site possessing least/none of the characteristics is given a value of 1.

Available 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Clean and quality food service

1 1 1

3

4

5

Other activity facilities (picnic huts, pool, sports facilities, etc.)

1

2

3

4

5

Directional and information signage

1

2

3

4

5

Good accommodation facilities

to ____________________________________________

Least

Criteria 6.

Ownership of Property Characteristics

Yes 5 1

Local government owned

Criteria 1.

Uniqueness and Natural Beauty Characteristics

Privately owned/managed/leased

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Natural/Undisturbed

1 1 1

3

4

5

Recognized tourist attraction by DOT

1

2

3

4

5

Unique attraction – one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) Beauty – how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste)

Criteria 2.

Historical/Cultural Value Characteristics

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Culinary experience

1 1 1

3

4

5

Museum

1

2

3

4

5

Built Heritage (50 years or above) Festivals

Criteria 3.

Under CARP or CARPable

1

5

With tenants/residents

1

5

Ancestral domain/land claimants

1

5

Yes

Criteria 7.

Quality of Surroundings Characteristics

Landfill/dumpsite 1 and 5

1

Mining site

1

No 5 5

Informal settlements

1

5

Beautiful vista/view

5

1

Presence of support services

5

1

(Surroundings refer to areas which are within 5 kilometers radius from the site.) Source: Adapted from Site/Attraction Evaluation Sheet.

Characteristics

Accessibility Characteristics

Accessible all year (please specify vehicle type: all kinds of vehicle) Regular/Commercial transport service available

Characteristics

Least 1 1

Distance from town center

2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Least 1 1

Distance from service center

Most

No 1 5

Least

Most 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

Natural/Undisturbed

1 1 1

4

3

4

5

Recognized tourist attraction by DOT

1

2

3

4

5

Unique attraction – one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) Beauty – how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste)

5

Nearest 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

(The maximum acceptable travel time from the service center is two hours; while from the town center is thirty minutes.)

Criteria 4.

Availability of Basic Utilities Characteristics

Least

Available 2 2 2

3 3

4

5

4

5

Communications (i.e. internet, telephone)

1 1 1

3

4

5

Drainage/sewerage system

1

2

3

4

5

Clean water supply Sufficient power supply

Solid waste management system

35

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C: Site Prioritization Annex C.2: HISTORICAL/CULTURAL VALUE

Annex C.1: UNIQUENESS AND NATURAL BEAUTY Site/Attraction

Location

Uniqueness Attraction

Beauty

Natural/ Undisturbed

With Tourism Activity

Recognized by DOT

Total

Site/Attraction

Location

Built Heritage (50 years and above)

Festivals

Culinary Experience

Museum

Total

37

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C.3: ACCESSIBILITY Type of Attraction

Location

Accessible all year

Regular/ Commercial Transportation Services Available

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C.4: AVAILABILITY OF BASIC UTILITIES Distance from Service Center

Distance from Town Center

Total Points

Type of Attraction

Location

Clean Water Supply

Power

Communications Solid Waste Drainage/ Sew(Internet, Management erage System telephone) System

Total Points

39

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C.6: OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY

Annex C.5: AVAILABILITY OF ON SITE FACILITIES Type of Attraction

Location

Clean and Safe Restrooms for Women and Men

Good Accommodation Facilities

Clean and Quality Food Service

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Other Activity Facilities

Directional & Information Signage

Total Points

Type of Attraction

Location

Local Government Owned

Privately Owned/ Managed/ Leased

Under CARP or CARPable

With Tenants/ Residents

Ancestral Domain/ Land Claimants

Total Points

41

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C.7: QUALITY OF SURROUNDINGS Type of Attraction

Location

Landfill/ Dumpsite

Mining Site

Informal Settlements

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex D: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary Beautiful vista/view

Presence of Support Service

Total Points

Site/ Attraction

Location

Uniqueness/ Natural Beauty

Historical/ Cultural Value

Accessibility

Availability of Basic Utilities

Availability Ownership of Quality of Total of Onsite Property Surroundings Score Facilities

43

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex E: Site Prioritization Ranking Site/Attraction

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex F: Problem Identification Total Points

Ranking

Site/ Attraction/ Circuit

Component

Problems/Issues

45

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex G: Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators Tourism Goals

Targets

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex H: SWOT Analysis Success Indicators

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

Opportunities

Threats

Economic E1

E2

E3

E4

Social

S1

S2

Environment/ Ecological

En1

En2

En3

En4

En5

En6

47

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex J: Tourism Circuit/Cluster

Annex I: Workshop 8: Scenario-Planning Situation

Scenario

Goal/ Objectives

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Strategies

Name of the Circuit: Circuit Theme: Duration: Target Market: Circuit Components/ Tourist Attractions

Possible Activities

Service Center

Enroute Facilities & Services

Frequency and Type of Transport Service

49

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex L: Program, Projects and Activities Identification within Circuits

Annex K: Project Identification Goal

Objectives

Strategy

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Programs/Projects/Activities

Name of Circuit

Issues and Concerns

Timeframe for Development (in Years)

Programs and Projects

51

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex M: Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy Goals & Objectives

Success Indicator

Targets per Indicator

Data Source to Assess Performance

Collection Methods

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex N: Tourism Plan Implementation Frequency

Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report Municipality of ________________

Responsibility

Programs, Projects, Activities

Outcome/ Output Indicators

Target

Accomplishment

Beneficiary Sector

Coverage Area

Project Cost (Php)

Actual Disbursement

Remarks

53

with support from

This knowledge product is produced through the collaboration among the Department of Tourism (DOT), Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) with the funding support provided by the Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity Partnership Project (BPP) and the Center for Governance of the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP)

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading

1

• • • •

Prepare an inventory of tourism resources and assets in the locality; Assess the situation of tourism in the area; List down potential safety and security risks and natural hazards in the locality; and Prepare a profile of tourists and visitors in the locality.

The Philippines is a beautiful country endowed with rich, diverse natural, cultural and historical assets that visitors and locals alike can enjoy. Our tourism industry is a testament that truly, it’s more fun in the Philippines! Every municipality or city has the potential to become a tourist destination and/or provide services for the tourism industry within the province or region. Whether your Local Government Unit (LGU) is still starting to develop local tourism or tourism is already a thriving local industry, it is important to make an inventory of your tourism resources and assets so that they can be optimized and sustained. The process of making a profile of the local tourism industry also entails identifying tourism and related problems so that they can be solved and minimized. This section requires you to make a profile of tourism resources in your LGU that you can use in preparing your Tourism Development Plan (TDP). The profile of the local tourism industry includes the following components (Inskeep, 1999): Transportation Tourist attraction and activities Accommodation Other tourist facilities and services Institutional elements

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Ttourism Industry

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

Other infrastructure

Accomplish the following forms and templates provided to complete the inventory of your LGU’s tourism resources and assets. You may find the pull-out worksheets for you to fill out at the Annexes. Examples are provided to serve as guide. If you are already using the DOT-JICA Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units, you may already refer to the Inventory Data Sheet produced for your LGU.

Box 1. Basic LGU Information Name of LGU: _______________________________________________________ Province:_______________________ Region:_________________________ Population:_____________________

Land Area:______________________

Number of barangays:____________

Ethnic groups:___________________

Religions:______________________ ___________________ ______________________

___________________

Language/s spoken: ________________________________________________ Major economic activities:___________________________________________ Local Government Officials Mayor:_______________________________________ Vice Mayor:___________________________________ Sanggunian Bayan/Panlungsod/Panlalawigan Members:

Figure 1. Components of the Local Tourism Industry International Tourist Market G estic & roup Dom s Tourist Attractions and Activities

Transportation

Other Infarastructure

R es

Natural and Socioeconomic Environment

Accommodation

Other Tourist Facilities and Services

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

Tourism Officer:_________________________________________

Institutional Elements

iden tie s acili ts’ Use of Tourist Attraction and F

Planning and Development Coordinator:____________________________________________________

Source: Inskeep, 1999

-1

____________________________

-2

List down tourism attractions and activities in your locality like in Example 1 below. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B.

Example 1. Tourism Attractions and Activities Example 1. Tourist attractions and activities Category Attraction Nature Tourism Forests, rivers and lakes (inland waters), coastal and marine areas, mountains, caves and other geologic formations, and wildlife (wild flora and fauna) Cultural Tourism (Forts, cathedrals and churches, gardens, street and town sites, historical roads and paths, historic remains, museums, art museums, zoo and botanical gardens, aquariums, other structures and buildings, events and festivals, folk music and dance, local culture) Sun and Beach Tourism Beach, water activities, island hopping Leisure and Entertainment Tourism (Golf courses, tennis courts, cycling roads and areas, hiking courses, camping grounds, nature trails and paths, large scale parks, leisure-land, theme parks, sports and resort complex, other sports and recreational facilities)

Location

Activities

Paoay

Sight seeing

Paoay

Church visitation; sight seeing

Kapurpurawan Beach

Burgos, Ilocos Norte

Trekking

Fort Ilocandia

Laoag City

Casino

Courses offered by Mariano Marcos State University

Batac Campus

Educational tour

Paoay Lake

St. Augustine Church in Paoay St. William’s Cathedral

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Profile of Tourism Resources and Assets

Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE) and Events Tourism (Trainings, study tours, conferences, for a, meetings) Health, Wellness and Retirement (Medical treatment, spa, aesthetics, retirement villages)

Cruise and Nautical Tourism (Cruise) Diving and Marine Sports Tourism (Scuba diving, boating)

Education Tourism

Categories of Tourism Attraction adapted from: DOT 2012, Tourism Development Planning Guidebook for Local Government Units

-3

-4

Plot the attractions listed in Example 1 in a Local Tourism Map and draw a possible tourism loop connecting these attractions. You may use a base map available in your Local Planning and Development Office. Example of a Local Tourism Map is provided below.

Example 2. Local Tourism Map

You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex D. Example is provided below.

Example 3. Accommodation and other facilities* Nature

Accommodation

Establishment/ Facility

Traveller’s Pensionne House

Location General Luna, Siargao Island

Contact Details

0915-5648185

Restaurants and Dining Places

Ocean 101 Bar and Restaurant

General Luna, Siargao Island

0919-8268537

Transportation

Sulpicio Lines

Kaimo Street, Surigao City

(086) 231-7548

Transportation hubs

Surigao Airport

Surigao City

(086) 826-3898

Shopping centers / markets

Dapa Public Market

Siargao Island

Banks

Land Bank of the Philippines

Surigao City

Health services

Del Carmen District Hospital

Travel agencies/ tour operators Parola Travel and Tours

(086) 231-7192

Siargao Island P. Reyes Street, Surigao City P. Reyes Street, Surigao City

(086) 926 1564

Souvenir shops

Parola Souvenir Shop

(086) 926 1564

Dive shops

Palaka Dive Center

Siargao Island, Surigao

0918-6262303

Internet shops

Dragonsden Internet Cafe

Navalca, Surigao City

(086) 2316045

Libraries

Surigao Del Norte Provincial Library

Surigao City

(086) 826-1474

Gasoline stations

Shell Gasoline Station

Borromeo, Surigao City

(086) 826-6224

Places of worship

Pentecostal Missionary Church

San Juan, Surigao City

0918 724 3243

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

The listing below will help you identify the businesses, services and facilities available for the use of tourists. Information on contact details can also be made available to tourists.

Name of establishment

Type

# of Rooms

Average rate

Occupancy rate

Paradise Place

Resort

18

P1,200 per person

70%

Example 5: Transportation Type Daily

Bus

Bachelor Express Daily

*Source of information: CLUP, LGU

1- 6

Route

Van

Daily Asian Spirit Daily 10:00AM to 11:45AM

Airplane

Sulpicio Lines Every Thursday 5:00PM to 6:00AM

Average fare

Surigao to Butuan

70.00

Surigao to Butuan

110.00 (Ordinary) 125.00 (with Aircondition)

Surigao to Lanuza

465.00 (Ordinary) 484.00 (with Aircondition) 160.00 (with Aircondition)

Surigao to Cantilan

130.00 (with Aircondition)

Surigao to Manila

4,065.00 (one way)

Surigao to Manila

1, 750.00 (one way)

Surigao to Davao

Others

Legend: Accommodations: include hotels, pension houses, resorts, homestay, lodges, tourist inn, BnB, etc. Restaurants and Dining places: include restaurants, fast food chains and traditional eating places Transportation: includes air, water, and land transportation. Transport Hubs: includes airport, sea ports, bus stations, hubs, and terminals Banks and Money Changers: includes international, national and local banks and financial intermediaries providing financial transaction services, such as ATM, foreign exchange, etc. Health Services: includes hospital, health centers, doctors clinics, barangay health centers, dialysis centers, midwives, manghihilot (traditional healers)

Schedules

Jeepney

Boat

Others

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Example 4: Accommodation profile

Knowing the players and stakeholders in the industry will help you in working with them and soliciting their active participation and involvement in the planning and implementation of tourism projects. It will also facilitate enforcement of rules and regulations and promote standards because you deal with them as a group rather than as individual companies. You may find the pull-out worksheets for you to fill out in Annexes D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, N.

Example 6. Accommodation and other facilities Groups Hotels, Resorts and Restaurants’ Association

Role in Tourism

Name of Organization and Head

Provide accommodation/billeting/ sleeping quarters for tourists

Food and Beverage (Association of restaurants, bars, etc.)

Provide food and drinks for tourists

Transport Groups (Bus, airline and public transport groups)

Provide transport services to tourists to and from the destinations

Association of Travel and Tour agencies

Help promote and market the destinations and plan/package tours; and serve as initial points of contact for tourists

Business Organizations (Industry Associations, Chambers of Commerce, etc.)

Help provide funds for tourism projects

Tour Guides

Provide tour guiding services to visitors and get accreditation as local guides

Civil society/ civic action groups

Conduct capacity-building activities for grassroots organizations and individuals who want to engage in tourism-related livelihood

Rotary Club

Outdoor clubs

Serve as markets for adventure tours and venue to promote your tourism products

Mountaineering clubs, Association of bikers

Environmental NGOs

Help in conservation of tourist destinations and assist in capacity-building of local groups

Haribon Foundation

Special interest groups

Provide services for special groups of tourist e.g. scuba divers

PADI

Historical/cultural groups

Provide information on historical sites and events and promote the destination to historical and cultural enthusiasts

People’s Organizations

Provide local guides and services for their livelihood

SAMAKABA with guide groups and catering services

Youth groups

Help promote outdoor activities and may be tapped as volunteers

YES, Rotaract

Women’s organizations/interest groups

Help in safeguarding against human trafficking Women’s association/ and exploitation of women and minors Gabriela local chapter

Academic institutions

Conduct research and extension activities on various aspects of tourism and provide graduates in tourism; and serve as hosts for educational tours

College or university with tourism courses and/or NSTP activities supportive of tourism

Religious groups

Provide contacts on places and activities of worship that tourists can attend

Couples for Christ

Media Offices

Provide media mileage for your destination

ABS-CBN, GMA, local media (print, radio and TV, etc.)

TODA

Address and Contact Details

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Ttourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

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Institutional Elements

Example 7. Labor Force Category

Male

Female

Accommodation

97

110

Travel agency

40

75

Transportation

213

137

Others

Example 8. Total revenue contributions to LGU for the past 3 years Category

Total Revenue contributions (PhP) Year 1:____

Accommodation Transportation Restaurants Travel companies Meetings and events centers Others

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Number of Employees

Year 2:______

Year 3:_____

You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill in Annex J.

Example 9. Emergency Contacts* Office/ Agency Local Police Station Women’s and Children’s Desk

Contact Person

Address Old Albay, Legazpi City

Phone Number (6)52) 820-2030

Patrol 117 Provincial / City / Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council Office

Albay Provincial Capitol

(052) 480-3772 (052) 742-0149

Government Hospital/ Health Services Albay Fire Department

Brgy. 57 Coastal Road, Dap-dap, Legazpi City

(052) 435-0502 (052) 481-2555 / (052) 742-0123

Provincial / City / Municipal Hall Office Protected Area Superintendent (PASU) Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) Tourism Office/ Tourist Information Center (if available)

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

The LGU needs to provide the tourists and visitors with contact information that they can refer to in cases of emergency. This information should be readily available in tourist accommodations and attraction sites so that the tourists can easily access them.

The LGU needs to document the capacities of the local government staff in terms of trainings, study tours, seminars and workshops on tourism and allied fields. These may either be conducted by your LGU, or availed by the tourism officer and/or LGU staff from other training providers in the last 5 years. This will give you an idea on how prepared your staff and other partners are on various aspects of tourism. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out Annex K.

Example 10. Tourism Education* Title of training/ study tours

Number of participants Date, venue

Training on Ecotourism

Training on Catering Training on Managing Homestays

Training on Protected Area Management

First Aid Training

Basic Training on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation

Lakbay Aral

Albay Provincial Capitol

(052) 418-0250, 742-0241

Others

Others

*Source of information: LGU, Planning Office

*Source of Information: LGU

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Male

Female

Participant groups

Organized/ conducted by

You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex L. Example is provided below.

Example 11. Tourism Projects in the past 5 years* Name of Project

Duration

Implementing Agency

Partners

Amount

Sources of Funds

Tourism Awareness Orientation

January 2012

Island Garden City of Samal Tourism Office

DOT Regional Office

P 250,000.00

Regular Funds

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

What tourism projects have your LGU undertaken in the past 5 years? This will tell you if you have invested on improving tourism in your area and give you an indication on how to proceed.

Safety and security are two of the main concerns for many tourists. To address these, incidence of crime involving the local tourism industry in the past ten (10) years based on the police reports should be identified and monitored. This will require coordination with the Local Police Office. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex M.

Example12. Peace and Order and Incidence of Crime* Nature of incident Kidnapping of tourists Drowning of tourists Petty theft involving local guides Road accidents involving tourists Prostitution/ sexual harassment Use of prohibited drugs Pedophiles caught Masseurs got pregnant by tourist Trafficking of women and children

Incidence of female tourists travelling alone

Others:

*Source of information: LGU, Tourism Office, Planning Office

*Source of information: Local Police Office

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Description

Simply list the hazards identified in your LGU. Provide the location of the areas vulnerable to these hazards. Then identify if a tourist attraction is located within these areas or around its vicinity. If possible, indicate the number of population vulnerable to these hazards. Note that the population affected are not only limited to those employed in the specific tourist attraction. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex N.

Example 13. Hazards matrix* Hazard

Location

1. Earthquake 2. Landslide 3. Tidal wave 4. Volcanic eruptions

5. Storm surge 6. Tsunami

Tourist Attraction Location

No. of Population Affected

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

This section will help you prepare for a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan for tourists. You may get a multi-hazard map from the Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB) from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and note the possible hazards in your tourism circuit and tourism sites.

Using the multi-hazard map, plot the location of tourist attractions in the locality. This will provide an illustration of the vulnerability of the tourism areas to natural and hazard. This may also help you in planning for the development of tourism sites in the future. Please see the following examples below.

Example 14. Sample Multi-hazard Maps*

7. Others

*Source of information: MGB-DENR, Office of Civil Defense NAMRIA, CLUP

Source: Municipality of Rodriguez *Local Multi-hazard maps are available at MGB-DENR, OCD

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You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex P.

Example 15. Infrastructure: Roads and Bridges * Roads and Bridges (Roads to and from tourist attrations)

Attraction

Areas Covered/Location

Sumaguing Cave in Sagada

Barangay Ambasing

Bumod-ok Falls in Sagada

Barangay Fidelisan

Provincial Road

Status/condition

Concrete two-lane smooth roads from Barangay Ambasing to town proper Some parts of the road to Barangay Fidelisan are one-lane

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

What is the status of roads, bridges and other facilities? Describe them in the table below. The data will help you in planning, particularly in improving the facilities and filling the gaps of tourism infrastructure.

Example 16. Infrastructure: Others* Infrastructure

Visitor Information Center

Rest areas with separate comfort rooms

View Decks

Signages

Communications

Electricity

Water utility

Others

*Source of information: CLUP

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*Source of information: CLUP

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Attraction

Taal Volcano

Taal Volcano

People’s Park

Areas Covered/Location

Status/condition

Picnic Grove, Tagaytay City

Fully operational; manned by the staff of the Tourism Office; provide leaflets or information sheets about the tourist destination

Picnic Grove, Tagaytay City

Sepate comfort rooms for male and female; the cleanliness of the facility is regularly checked by the management

Tagaytay City

Needs renovation, installment of safety grills, and maintainance

LGUs that are already into tourism should have basic information of their visitors. You should be able to identify your tourist market and analyze their needs to be able to provide them with the best experience possible during their stay in your locality. LGUs that are ahead in tourism keep an inventory of tourism data and other resources that are useful in planning for tourism development in your area. However, for LGUs that have yet to start tourism development, there has to be a way to systematically know their current visitors. You may use the following guide questions to determine the basic characteristics of tourists who come to visit your LGU.

Table 1. Guide Questions for Collecting Tourist Information 1. Where do your visitors come from? 2. How far do they travel to reach your attractions? 3. What is their average age? 4. How many males? Females? 5. Do they travel in groups, i.e., couples, families, small groups or friends or colleagues, etc? 6. How would you describe their income group and lifestyle?

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Profile of Tourist/Visitors

7. What are their interests?

Example 17. Visitor Activity Survey



Please put a check mark ( ) on the specific box beside your answer. Additional information may also be asked. Please provide answers accordingly.

Q1

Where do you reside? In this Province Outside of this Province Name of Province:_____________________________ Foreign Country Name of the Country:___________________________

Q2

Are you going to stay overnight or one day trip in this province? One-day visitor Over-night visitor

Q3

How many night(s): ______

Which attractions and destinations did you visit or going to visit during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below. (List down all the attractions found in your municipality/city/province.) Example: Tourist Attractions Kapurpurawan Beach

8. How do they book your tourism products?

Saud Beach, Pagudpud Paoay Lake

9. Who/ What influences their decisions?

St. Agustine Church in Paoay

10. How did they hear about your tourist destination?

St. William’s Cathedral

11. What are their activities in visiting your locality?

Dragon Fruit Farm (agri-tourism) Bangui Windmill La Paz Sand Dunes

Gathering the answers to the questions above may be done through a survey. The following is a template sample for a Visitor Activity Survey that you may use. Survey questionnaires may be distributed in points of entry/exit or in the tourism information centers. You may also coordinate with accommodation and other tourist establishments to help you gather this information among their clients.

Shopping Malls/Department Stores Laoag Public Market Food: Ilocos longganisa, Empanada, Bagnet

You may find the pull-out survey questionnaire worksheet for distribution in Annex R.

Pamulinawen Festival

Oftentimes, data on tourism may not be available in various offices. Thus, primary data such as a visitor survey may be conducted to obtain more information necessary for tourism planning. A sample of this survey is found in the succeeding page.

Patapat Viaduct Fort Ilocandia Casino

***List may be regularly updated to include additional attractions

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What are your activities during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below.

Example: Tourist Attractions Trekking Swimming, snorkeling Scuba Diving Church visitation Exposure visit to fruit processing Sight seeing Sand boarding Shopping for souvenirs Food tasting, dining Participation in festival activities

***List may be regularly updated to include additional activities

Q5

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Q4

less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Q8

PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

Are you traveling by package tour? Yes No If "Yes" How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province excluding the cost of package tour? less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

If "No" How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province per person? less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Q11

PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

How did you hear about __________ (the municipality/city province or the specific attraction)? Family/ friend Advertisement Brochure Tourism Fair Internet

How many persons are traveling with you?

Please write down your Age: __________

1-2 persons 3-5 persons 6-10 persons 10-above number of persons

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How much did you spend or will spend for the whole trip? (Approximated total of expenses including all expenditures of food and accommodation, transportation, leisure, shopping, etc.)

Are there any person(s) traveling with you? Alone Family Friend(s) Business Colleague(s) Others Please specify:_____________

Q6

Q7

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Others, please specify:____________________

Sex:

Male

Female

Example 18. Summary of Tourists/ Visitors Attraction

Year

Sex

Number Male

Female

Place of Residence Philippines Resident

Paoay Lake St. Agustine Church Paoay Paoay Ancestral Houses La Paz Sand Dunes Paoay Golf Course Paoay Public Market Food: Ilocos Longganisa Abel Loom Weavers Guling-Guling Festival Paoay Lake St. Agustine Church Paoay

Non-resident

Foreign

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

After floating the survey questionnaire, you may collate the results and summarize it using the following template. You may find the pull-out summary worksheet for you to fill out at the Annex S.

Paoay Ancestral Houses La Paz Sand Dunes Paoay Golf Course Paoay Public Market

Sub-total Point of entry Laoag International Airport Subtotal Adapted from DOT 2012, Tourism statistics manual for local government units

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References Calanog, L., Reyes, P. & Eugenio, V. (2011). Making Ecotourism Work. Manila, Philippines: Japan International Cooperation Agency. Department of Tourism & Japan International Cooperation Agency (2012). Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units. Manila, Philippines: Authors. Department of Tourism (2011). National Tourism Development Plan 2011 – 2016. Inskeep, E. (1991). Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Supplemental reading 1

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex A. Basic LGU Information

Name of LGU: _______________________________________________________ Province:_______________________ Region:_________________________ Population:_____________________

Land Area:______________________

Number of barangays:____________ Ethnic groups:___________________ Religions:______________________ _________________________ ______________________ ________________________ Language/s spoken: ________________________________________________

Annexes

Major economic activities:___________________________________________

pull-out worksheets

Local Government Officials Mayor:_______________________________________ Vice Mayor:___________________________________ Sanggunian Bayan/Panglungsod/Panlalawigan Members: ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Name of Tourism Officer:_________________________________________ Name of Planning and Development Coordinator:____________________________________________________

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Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex C: Tourism Map

Annex B. Tourist Attractions and Activities Category

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Attraction

Location

Activities

Categories of Tourism Attraction adapted from: DOT 2012, Tourism development planning guidebook for local government units

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Supplemental reading 1

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

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Establishment/ Facility

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex E: Accommodation

Annex D. Accommodation and Other Facilities Nature

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Location

Contact Details

Name of establishment

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Number of rooms

Average rate

Occupancy rate

Average length of stay

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex G. Total Revenue Contributions to LGUs for the past 3 years

Annex F: Transportation Type

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Schedules

Route

Average Fare

Category

Total Revenue contributions (PhP) Year 1:____

The revenue contributions to LGU per category can be determined for business planning of tourism in the LGU.

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Year 2:______

Year 3:_____

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex H. Labor Force

Supplemental reading 1

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex I. Tourism Stakeholders

Category

Number of Employees

Male

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Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Groups

Female

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Role in Tourism

Name of Organization and Head

Address and Contact Details

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex J. Emergency Contacts Office/ Agency

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex K. Tourism Education Contact Person

Address

Phone Number

Title of training/ study tours

Date, venue

Number of participants Male

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Female

Phone Number

Participant groups

Organized/ conducted by

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex L. Tourism Projects in the Past 5 Years Name of Project

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Duration

Implementing Agency

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 1

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex M. Peace and Order and Incidence of Crime Partners

Amount

Sources of Funds

Nature of incident

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Description

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex N. Hazards Based on Hazard Maps Hazard

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Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex O. Multihazard Map Location

Tourist Attraction

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Supplemental reading 1

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex P. Infrastructure: Roads and Bridges Roads and Bridges (Roads to and from tourist attrations)

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Attraction

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex Q. Infrastructure Areas Covered/Location

Status/condition

Infrastructure

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Attraction

Areas Covered/Location

Status/condition

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 1

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex R: Visitor Activity Survey Please put a check mark ( ) on the specific box beside your answer. Additional information may also be asked. Please provide answers accordingly.

Q1

Q4

Where is your residence?

(List down all the tourist activities that they can do in your municipality/city/province.)

In this Province Outside of this Province Name of Province:_____________________________ Foreign Country Name of the Country:___________________________

Q2

Tourist Attractions

Are you going to stay overnight or one day trip in this province? One-day visitor Over-night visitor

Q3

What activities did you do during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below.

How many night(s): ______

Which attractions and destinations did you visit or going to visit during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below. (List down all the attractions found in your municipality/city/province.)

Q5

Tourist Attractions

Are there any person(s) traveling with you? Alone Family Friend(s) Business Colleague(s) Others Please specify:_____________

Q6

How many persons are traveling with you including yourself ? 1-2 persons 3-5 persons 6-10 persons 10-above number of persons

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Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Q7

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

How much did you spend or will spend for the whole trip? (Approximated total of expenses including all expenditure of accommodation, transport, meals, drinking, shopping, etc.) less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Q8

Attraction

If "Yes" How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province excluding the cost of package tour? PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

If "No" How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province per person? PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

did you hear about __________ (the municipality/city province or the Q11 How specific attraction)?

Please write down your Age: __________

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Others, please specify:____________________

Sex:

Male

Sex

Number

Female

Place of Residence Philippines Resident

Yes No

Family/ friend Advertisement Brochure Tourism Fair Internet

Year

Male

Are you traveling by package tour?

less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex S. Summary of Tourists/ Visitors

PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00

less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Supplemental reading 1

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Female

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Non-resident

Foreign

Linking the Tourism Development Plan with the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading

2

The local TDP can also provide important information in updating the CDP, CLUP and PDPFP, especially in developing prospective tourism potentials that are not yet included or identified in the existing plans. Likewise, the Tourism Officer must know and understand the vision of the LGU enshrined in its CLUP and CDP to establish the link of the Tourism Development Plan (TDP) with its future state. This linkage would then be strengthened by finding the relevance of the proposed TDP goals with the existing goals of the CLUP and CDP.

and development plan of the province containing its long – term vision, development goals, objectives/strategies and corresponding programs, projects and activities (PPAs) as major inputs to investment programming, budgeting and implementation. CLUP describes the existing and future land uses of the LGU. CDP is a multi-sectoral development plan comprising the following sectors: social, economic, infrastructure, environmental and institutional sectors.

Situating the TDP within the PDPFP The TDP has to link with the PDPFP as it is the physical and development plan in the provincial level. Provinces which have existing tourism plans often develop tourism circuits 1 consisting of municipalities and cities within their political jurisdictions. It is an important first step to determine if the province has already developed a tourism circuit. Then, identify the municipalities/cities included in it. Their role in the circuit must be considered during the formulation of the TDP.

Situating the TDP within the CDP The tourism industry is a sub–sector of the economic sector. It is also a multi-sectoral industry which

should have an interface with the sectoral goals of the CDP. This is necessary to make the TDP relevant with the desired sectoral aspirations of the LGU.

Box 2

Local Government Units (LGUs) are mandated by Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991 to prepare two sets of plans at the provincial level the Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP) is prepared while the CLUP and CDP are prepared at the City/Municipal level. Revisiting them for the purpose of land use and sectoral analysis is necessary before formulating the Tourism Development Plan. Brief Description of Local Plans Through this, existing situations are re-examined to provide valuable PDPFP inputs in the preparation of the Tourism Development Plan. is the merged physical framework plan

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan with the Mandated Local Plans

• Link the TDP with the LGU’s mandated local plans.

Box 1

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan with the Mandated Local Plans

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This supplemental reading outlines how the Local Tourism Development Plan (TDP) would be placed in the context of the Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) and Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of the Local Government Units (LGUs). Specifically, this will help LGUs:

Brief Description of Sectors Social Sector embodies the social characteristics of the LGU revealed through indicators, for instance on health and nutrition, housing, education, social welfare and protection services. Economic Sector shows data on economic goods and services, such as food, manufactured products; employment opportunities, etc., as results of the following sub–sectors: agriculture, commerce and trade, industry and tourism. Environment Sector demonstrates the environmental quality of the LGU with respect to its natural resources and other physical attributes. Infrastructure Sector determines the capacity, adequacy, efficiency and condition of existing infrastructure facilities and utilities of the LGU to cater the needs and requirements of providing services to the local population. Institutional Sector discloses how the LGU performs in terms of managing its local affairs and resources. It shows how local governance is run by the current set of elected officials.

The linkage between TDP and the CDP can be established through the inter-relatedness of their goals. For instance, the tourism goals in the main Guidebook (Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan) are related to:

increasing the income and employment of community people (Economic sector); improving access to tourism skills development and utilities/facilities (Social sector/Infrastructure sector); and increasing biodiversity cover and wildlife sightings (Environment sector) are linked to the CDP sectoral goals as displayed in Example 1. To situate tourism in local development, refer to the CDP and follow the steps below. STEP 1: Revisit the social, economic, environment, infrastructure and institutional sectors in the CDP; and STEP 2: Choose the sectoral goals which are relevant to tourism development. Please note that not all the goals stated in the CDP are necessarily significant in tourism.

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Goals

2

1. Expanded healthcare services made accessible to all, 1. Providing health care program for tourists. especially to the vulnerable and disadvantaged sectors. 2. Enhanced social welfare delivery 2. Promoting socially inclusive welfare services that can be made available to tourists 3. Preserved cultural legacies 3. Preserving significant cultural heritage sites 4. Improved gender parity and equality 4. Promoting equal employment opportunities for male and female applicants in tourism establishments

Environment Sector

Economic Sector

1. Competitive agricultural development

Infrastructure Sector

Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan

2. Premier eco-tourism destination 3. Balanced economic development 4. Increased number of employment – generating establishments doing business in the municipality

1. Promoting agri-tourism where prime agricultural lands can be productively developed for both agriculture and tourism 2. Developing circuits/clusters of tourism attractions/sites 3. Making tourism industry as an engine of growth that stimulates development of other industries 3 4. Granting tourism investment incentive to attract businesses

1. Ecologically – balanced ecosystem that promotes viable healthy living in harmony with nature

1. Spearheading tourism activities that promote viable healthy living in harmony with nature

2. Sustainable forest, freshwater, mineral resources and other natural resources development

2. Initiating tourism development that promotes conservation of biodiversity and sustainable natural resources development

3. Effective and efficient implementation of eco – waste management promoting clean environment and healthy community living 4. Improved protection and safety from disaster risks and natural hazards 1. Improved safety, mobility and less circuitous access routes leading to important locations and institutions 2. Enhanced water quality for human consumption and sufficient water supply for agriculture and production 3. Sustainable, stable and adequate power supply for the different socio-economic power requirements 4. Maximized role of Information and Communication and Technology (ICT) in developing a competitive agri-industrial and eco – tourism destination

1. Strengthened human resource development 2. Enhanced fiscal administration 3. Enhanced fiscal autonomy and improved tax administration system that would raise LGU revenues 4. Transparent and accountable governance

3. Establishing proper disposal of liquid and solid wastes by tourism establishments 4. Locating tourism development away from hazardous and risky areas

1. Providing feasible alternate roads and access routes connecting tourism sites / clusters/circuits 2. Providing safe water supply from available water concessionaire or natural sources 3. Providing electricity to tourism sites and support establishments 4. Making information and communication technology accessible in tourism sites.

1. Creating and institutionalizing the local tourism office 2. Initiating means of generating funds to finance tourism development 3. Making tax collection from tourism establishments efficient 4. Implementing RA 9184 (Government Procurement Reform Act of 2002) through the use of Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System (PHILGEPS) posting bidding of tourism projects

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Situating the Tourism Development Plan within the CLUP The CLUP describes the present physical conditions (at the time of formulation) and identifies existing land uses in the LGU. These pieces of information are useful in tourism development planning. It also indicates areas that need to be conserved, preserved and those with physical constraints that may impede any type of tourism development. These are illustrated in thematic maps found in CLUP which are useful in giving particular information through a visual display or illustration. In working with thematic maps, the Tourism Officer can seek the assistance of the City / Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator who is already cognizant of the CLUP.

Box 3

Social Sector

Sector

Supplemental reading 2 Linking theTourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Example 1.Summary: Relevance of CDP Sectoral Goals to the Tourism Development Plan

Institutional Sector

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

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The following is an example of the relevant sectoral goals from the CDP. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex A.

Please take note that a legend of the thematic map provides the color scheme information which is being used. This is different from the color code used in the zoning map whose standard is prescribed by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB). A zoning map color code is provided in Annex E and F for your reference. Similarly, the zoning ordinance must be considered because it legally enforces the existing land uses specified in the CLUP. It can also help establish the parameters of tourism–related zones so that they can be properly monitored.

Thematic Map Information Combined hazard map indicates areas prone to landslides, flooding and erosion. Soil map shows areas whose ground conditions are not good for tourism infrastructure development. General land use map exhibits built up areas, forest areas, etc. Infrastructure map displays road networks; electricity lines, etc. Institutional map points location of schools, municipal and barangay halls, cemetery, etc. Tourism map indicates existing and potential tourism sites.

The following steps will situate the tourism development plan within the CLUP: STEP 1: From the existing land use classification of the LGU, pick out those relevant to the tourism development. STEP 2: Find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B. Illustrate the location of attractions and sites in your city/municipality using the Tourism Map. It is also important to take into account other thematic maps in the CLUP when you are planning for tourism development. To proceed, follow the steps below:

STEP 1: Overlay the land use map found in the CLUP into the Tourism Map. The example uses the Tourism Map of Rodriguez, Rizal. STEP 2: Afterwards, overlay the following thematic maps: a. Infrastructure Map; b. Multi-hazard map; and c. Other types of map. The process described above is called Sieve Mapping. To familiarize ypurself with this method, you can refer to Annex D. You may also seek the help of the City / Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator who can provide technical assistance.

Existing Land Use Classification 4

1. Forestland

Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan Production forest / orchard, protection forest, watershed, NIPAS and Non – NIPAS areas fall under this classification. Restricted or regulated tourism development within forestland. National policies are administered by DENR, specifically the Biodiversity Management Bureau, ENRO, etc. “CARPable” Zone, SAFD Zone, etc.

2. Agricultural land

3. Built-up areas

4. Mining and Quarrying

Restricted or regulated tourism development within agricultural land. National policies are administered by DAR and DA. Land uses for residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, roads and bridges, etc. Availability of tourism support services, infrastructure and utilities. Mineral resources extraction activities and quarrying of sand and gravel. Incompatible land use with tourism development. RA7942 or the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 serves as the legal basis. Tourism attractions/ sites, examples: zoo, parks, resorts, etc.

5. Tourism Zone

Land use dedicated to tourism development and activities. The following serve as legal bases: • Executive Order 111, S. 1999, Establishing the Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Philippines issued on 17 June 1999. • Republic Act 7916 (Philippine Economic Zone Authority Act 1994) • Republic Act 9593 (Tourism Act 2009) Creeks, rivers, tributaries and other bodies of water found in the LGU.

6. Water

Tourism development, establishment and activities that may contribute pollution and adverse impact to water bodies should be mitigated. The following serve as legal bases: • Presidential Decrees 600 and 979 (Marine pollution policies by National Pollution Control Commission) • Presidential Decree 1067 (Water Code) • Republic Act 9275 (Clean Water Act of 2004)

Supplemental reading 2 Linking theTourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

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Example 2. Relevance of Existing Land Use Classification to the Tourism Development Plan

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Example 3. Overlaid Tourism Map

Example 4. Characteristics of Tourism Attractions/ Sites based on Thematic Maps, Land Use, and Zones 5

Thematic Maps Attraction/Site from Tourism Map

Avilon Zoo

Noah’s Park

Infrastructure Map

Combined hazard map

Refer to HLURB Guidelines for other types of map

Land Use

Zoning Classification

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

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The example below describes the characteristics of the tourism attractions/ sites in terms of their location in the land use, zoning and thematic maps. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex G.

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It is important for the LGU to map out the road networks connected to the tourist attractions/sites. This will provide a picture of the accessibility of the attractions/sites to tourists and visitors. The same Sieve Map should show the internal road networks and its classification leading to the tourism site/attraction. An example is provided below. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out at the Annex H.

Example 4. Road classification to attractions/site Attraction/Site from Tourism Map

Location

Road Classification

Avilon Zoo

Brgy San Isidro

Pathway / track

Noah’s Park

Brgy San Isidro

Pathway / track

Some information regarding the status of roads and access routes to the tourist attraction/ site may not be found on the Sieve Map. Thus, you should maximize Annexes P and Q in Supplemental Reading 1 (Profiling the Local Tourism Industry) to gather such information.

1

The National Tourism Development Plan, 2011-2016 also identifies the cluster destinations and Tourism Development Areas (TDAs) in the regional, provincial, city and municipal levels.

2

Goals of CDP 2011 – 2016 of San Clemente, Tarlac (with modifications)

3

The “Guide on Business Planning for Local Government Units (LGUs)” is a useful reference in creating the business plan of the LGU specifically dedicated for the development of the tourism industry.

4

CLUP should have a National Park as one of the land use classifications, apart from forestlands. As stipulated in

5

You may refer to Supplementary Reading 7 - Managing the Impacts of Tourism section of this Guidebook for

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Notes

References Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2006). Community Enterprise Development and Management Guidebook. Quezon City, Philippines: Author. ________________ (2008). DENR-Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2008: “Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Republic Act No. 7586 (NIPAS Act of 1992. Department for Communities and Local Government (2006). Good Practice Guide on Planning for Tourism. London, United Kingdom: Author. Doswell, R. (1997). Tourism: How Effective Management Makes the Difference. Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. (2002). “Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management”. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom: IUCN. Forbes, J. (2007). A Map Analysis of Potentially Developable Land . Regional Studies, 3(2), 179-195. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09595236900185191 Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2006). A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation (Volumes 1 and 2). Quezon City, Philippines: Author. _________ (2001). Planning Strategically. Quezon City, Philippines: Author. _________ (1996). Model Zoning Ordinance. Volume X. Fourth Revised Edition. Quezon City, Philippines: Author. National Economic and Development Authority, Department of Budget and Management and Department of Finance (2007). Joint Memorandum Circular No. 1. Guidelines on the Harmonization of Local Planning, Investment Programming, Revenue Administration, Budgeting and Expenditure Management. Municipality of Rodriguez, Rizal (2011). Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2012 – 2022. Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2011 – 2020. Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Comprehensive Development Plan 2011–2016. Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Local Development Investment Programming 2011–2020. O’Sullivan, D. (2014). Boolean Overlay and Sieve Mapping. Unpublished raw data, Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania. Retrieved from https://www.e-education.psu. edu/geog586 Republic of the Philippines (1975). Presidential Decree No. 705. Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines. ____________________ (1977a). Presidential Decree 1151. Philippine Environmental Policy. ____________________ (1977b). Presidential Decree 1152. Philippine Environmental Code. ____________________ (1978). Presidential Decree 1586. Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System.

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____________________ (1981). Presidential Proclamation 2146. Proclaiming Certain Areas and Types of Projects as Environmentally Critical and within the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement System Established under PD No. 1586. ____________________ (1991a). Republic Act 7160. Local Government Code of the Philippines. ____________________ (1991b). Republic Act 7192. Women in Development and Nation Building Act. ____________________ (1995). Republic Act 7942. Philippine Mining Act. ____________________ (1997). Republic Act 8435. Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act. ____________________ (2001a). Republic Act 9147. Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act. 2001. ____________________ (2001b). Republic Act 9072. National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act. ____________________ (2002). Republic Act 9184. Government Procurement Reform Act. ____________________ (2009). Republic Act 9593. Tourism Act. Serote, E. (2005). Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines. Bureau of Local Government Development Department of the Interior and Local Government. United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization (2005). Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Maker. Madrid, Spain: Authors. World Tourism Organization (2003). Sustainable Development of Ecotourism: A Compilation of Good Practices in Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises. Madrid, Spain: Author.

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the tourism development plan within the Mandated local plans

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References

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Annexes

pull-out worksheets

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex A. Relevance of CDP Sectoral Goals to the Tourism Development Plan Sector

Goals

Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex B .Relevance of Existing Land Use Classification to the Tourism Development Plan Ex isting Land Use Classification

Social Sector

Economic Sector

Environment Sector

Infrastructure Sector

Institutional Sector

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Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

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Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex C. Overlaid Tourism Map

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex D:

Sieve Mapping Methodology Sieve mapping entails combining spatial data sets (which contains information from different sources) using Geographic Information System (GIS) applications. This process will allow easy/direct reading and analysis of the spatial distribution of land characteristics (Forbes, 2007). The resulting output is a single map where layers displaying varied information are shown superimposed. In the sieve mapping process, four basic steps were taken to come up with a map overlay for analysis, they are:

Basic Steps

4

1. Determining the inputs 2. Data acquisition 3. Putting the data sources into a uniform coordinate system 4. Overlaying the maps

Data Inputs The data used are barangay and municipal Boundary, water systems, infrastructures such as roads, bridges, and transportation terminals, well-known tourism sites, and areas prone to natural hazards such as floods, landslides, and faults. Using GIS techniques, these data were digitized, edited, and transformed from their original formats to a consistent data format (and placed in a geodatabase). This is essential in showing a discernible spatial distribution or phenomenon. Furthermore, data processing was applied so that they can be used for further analysis.

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Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Data Acquisition

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Annex E

Data were acquired from different government agencies and various open data sources available to the public. These sources are: • • • • • • • • •

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

COLOR CODES FOR ZONING MAP (URBAN)

National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) Municipal Planning and Development Office (MPDO-Rodriguez) Department of Environment and Natural Resource (DENR) Land Management Bureau (LMB) Mines and Geosciences myrBureau (MGB) Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philvocs) Google Earth Open Street Map (OSM) Global Administrative Areas (GADM)

ZONING CATEGORY

COLOR CODE

1. Residential R1 R2 R3

Uniform Coordinate System 2. Commercial

Since the data came from different sources, their coordinate systems (a reference system used to represent the real world locations of geographic features) were not identical. Thus, the input data need to be converted into a common coordinate system to ensure that the map layers are referenced to the same planar surface. This was done using projection and transformation tools in GIS. The final coordinate system is WGS 1984 UTM Zone 51 North, a projected coordinate system.

C1 C2

Map Overlay and Resulting Output

C3

3. Institutional

The final step in the sieve mapping process is overlaying the different data layers. The output map shows the location of tourism sites in reference to the road network, river network, transportation terminals, infrastructures, fault lines, and areas that are prone to hazards such as flooding and landslide.

G1 S1

4. Industrial I1 I2 I3

5. Infrastructure

6. Open Space

Overlaying the different data layers

7. Others (Cemetery, Land fill site)

Source: HLURB, 1996

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Appropriate color other than the above

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 2

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Supplemental reading 2

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex G. Situating Tourism Potentials / Sites Annex F

Thematic Maps

COLOR CODES FOR ZONING MAP (GENERAL) ZONING CATEGORY

Attraction/Site from Tourism Map

COLOR CODE

1. Built-up 2. Agriculture 3. Forest 4. Special Use 4.1 Mining/Quarrying 4.2 Grassland/Pasture 4.3 Agro-Industrial 4.4 Tourism 4.5 Other Uses

Appropriate color other than the above

Source: HLURB, 1996

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Infrastructure Map

Combined hazard map

Refer to HLURB Guidelines for other types of map

Land Use

Zoning Classification

Supplemental reading 2

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex H. Road Classification to Attractions/ Site Attraction/Site from Tourism Map

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Location

Road Classification

Adopting the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading

3

• Walks you through the steps on mobilizing support and commitment towards plan institutionalization; and • Provides tools, worksheets and tips to facilitate adoption and institutionalization of the tourism plan.

Why is there a need to adopt the plan? Formally adopting the Tourism Development Plan (TDP) through a resolution provides the necessary impetus for implementation. Once the TDP has been approved by the Local Chief Executive(LCE), he/she can endorse it to the Sanggunian for adoption. There are two ways of gaining support and commitment of the Sanggunian towards this end, depending on the situation in the LGU, to wit:

The Sanggunnian Chairperson for tourism development, with assistance from the Local Planning and Development Coordinator, presents the draft plan to the Sanggunian. It is important to include a representative from the Sanggunian early on in the process to build his/her commitment to champion tourism in the local legislative council; or The LCE presents the draft plan to the Sanggunian. The LCE, as the Chairperson of the Local Development Council (LDC), the mandated planning body, is in a position to rally support of the members of the legislative body to approve the plan. It is essential to involve non-government organization members of the LDC in all stages of the tourism development planning to show that the development of the plan was a result of a collaborative effort of various stakeholders, and as such, enjoys broad-based support.

Supplemental reading 3 Adopting the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 3 Adopting the Tourism Development Plan

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units:

Example 1: Resolution Adopting the Tourism Development Plan Resolution No. ___, Series of ___ “ADOPTING THE TOURISM PLAN OF THE PROVINCE/CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF _________________” WHEREAS, the Local Government Code has identified the development and promotion of tourism as a mandate of the local government; WHEREAS, the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) recognizes that tourism can serve as the primary engine of growth for the local economy; WHEREAS, ____________ Province/City/Municipality possesses enormous tourism potential which, if tapped and developed, can generate revenues for local businesses, create jobs, and improve the well-being of the community; WHEREAS, the adoption of a tourism development plan, a blueprint of progress and development for the ____________ province/city/municipality, paves the way for the realization of the stakeholder’s aspiration to become an established tourist destination; NOW THEREFORE, this body in session assembled; RESOLVED, to adopt as it hereby adopts the Tourism Plan of the Province/City/Municipality of ______________. CARRIED. I hereby certify to the correctness of the foregoing resolution which was duly adopted by the Sanggunian Panlalawigan/Panglungsod/Bayan during its regular session on _____________. (Signed) Secretary to the SP/SB ATTESTED: Presiding Officer

How can we institutionalize the plan? The active participation of the Sanggunian in the formulation of the TDP is envisioned to facilitate its approval. The Sanggunian can issue a resolution to adopt the plan to jumpstart tourism development in their respective jurisdictions. A sample resolution is provided in Example 1. The presentation to the Sanggunian should include proposed legislative measures that are needed for tourism development, which can be integrated in their respective legislative agenda. This may include updating of the Zoning Ordinance to protect identified tourism sites and infrastructure requirements of the plan.

3- 1

SB Member

SB Member

SB Member

SB Member

SB Member

SB Member

APPROVED: Governor/Mayor

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Preparing for Tourism Development Plan Implementation

Supplemental reading

4

• Prioritize tourism projects for implementation; • Rank prioritized tourism projects using the Goal Achievement Matrix (GAM) method; and • Enhance success of the plan implementation through capacity development.

This section will tackle how the TDP would be implemented through the ranked tourism projects from its list of programs/projects/activities (PPAs) identified in the section on Formulating the Tourism Development Plan. The GAM method, developed by Morris Hill in 1966, will be used in the process of selecting, prioritizing and ranking all those listed PPAs using a set of criteria and assigned weights. Similarly, it will cover discussion on capacity development for implementors and stakeholders which can boost the successful implementation of the TDP. There is a need for LGUs to implement those ranked projects in the TDP because they are the fulfillment of its goals and objectives. However, it has to be complemented with the necessary capacity development of the implementers and stakeholders to make the implementation successful.

Tourism Project Profile A project profile is a document that briefly describes the tourism project, indicating the objectives, location, and target beneficiaries. Likewise, it also indicates the possible sources of funds and the period of project implementation. More importantly, it spells out the project components and activities and their corresponding costs. A tourism project can be broad enough to include component projects which are related and complementary. It can also be specific such that it has no component projects. This is illustrated in Example 1.

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

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This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

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You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex A.

Example 1. Tourism Project Profiles Project Name

Brief Description

Ecotourism Development Project

The proposed project advocates protection of the natural resources, the base from which the ecotourism industry thrives. It seeks to put in place mechanisms that are environmentally sustainable, economically viable, and socially equitable in order to bring about development in the municipality that would redound to the benefit of local communities.

Wawa Dam Road Improvement Project

The proposed project is a rehabilitation of the 5 – km access to Wawa Dam which will benefit xxx people / residents.

Others

Estimated Project Cost (Php) 13.2 M

50 M

Set a hierarchy of prioritization categories and match them with a set of criteria. Serote (2005) provides a valuable means of doing this, as shown in Table 1, which can be adopted by LGUs.

Table 1. Criteria for Prioritizing Tourism Projects CATEGORY

Urgent

GENERAL CRITERIA Projects that cannot be reasonably postponed Projects that would remedy conditions dangerous to public health, safety and welfare Projects that maintain critical programs Projects that respond to emergency situations

Essential

Projects required to complete or make usable a major public improvement Projects required to maintain minimum standards as part of on-going program Desirable self-liquidating projects Projects for which external funding is available

Necessary

Projects that should be carried out to meet clearly identified and anticipated needs Projects to replace obsolete or unsatisfactory facilities Projects for repair or maintenance to prolong life of existing facilities

Desirable

Projects needed for expansion of current programs Projects designed to initiate new programs considered appropriate for a progressive community

Acceptable

Projects that can be postponed without detriment to present operations if budget cuts are necessary

Deferrable

Projects recommended for postponement or elimination from immediate consideration in the current LDIP Projects that are questionable in terms of over-all needs, adequate planning or proper timing

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STEP 2

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

These are the steps in prioritizing tourism projects:

STEP 1

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

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After screening the tourism projects, the shortlisted ones would then be prioritized to determine those to be given utmost importance during the implementation phase.

Based on the given table for prioritizing tourism projects in Step 1, construct another table and write down the set of prioritized tourism projects as shown in Example 2. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B.

Example 2. Prioritized Tourism Project Timeframe1 Project Name

Estimated Cost (Php)

1 Yr 1

Yr 2

2 Yr 3

Yr 4

Ecotourism Development Project Wawa Dam Road Improvement Project

Others

1 Timeframe assumes the maximum tenure of the Local Chief Executive.

Yr 5

Implementing Office

3 Yr 6

Yr 7

Yr 8

Yr 9

STEP 1

Here are the steps in ranking tourism projects: Establish a project rating scale. The rating scale provided by Serote (2005) shown in Table 2 may be used to assess the contribution of a particular prioritized tourism project to the fulfillment of any TDP goal. The rating for each tourism project may be represented by letter R with a subscript corresponding to the project rating to distinguish them from each other.

Assign a corresponding weight on each goal from the TDP. If the weight is in terms of percentage, the total weight should be equal to 100%. The weight for each tourism project may be represented by a variable W with a subscript corresponding to the number assigned to the goal. Examples of weighted TDP goals are presented in Table 3.

Table 2. Tourism Project Rating Scale Project Rating

Representation

Description

3

R1

Project contributes greatly to the fulfillment of the goal

2

R2

Project contributes moderately to the fulfillment of the goal

1

R3

Project contributes slightly to the fulfillment of the goal

0

R4

Project does not contribute to the fulfillment of the goal

-1

R5

Project slightly inconsistent with the goal

-2

R6

Project moderately inconsistent with the goal

-3

R7

Project greatly contradicts the goal

Table 3. Weight of TDP Goals Goal

Representation

Weight

1. Premier ecotourism destination

W1

20%

2. Improved safety, mobility and less circuitous access routes to tourism sites

W2

20%

3. Improved protection and safety of tourists from disaster risks and natural hazards

W3

20%

4. Sustainable ecotourism development

W4

20%

5. Enhanced social welfare delivery

W5

10%

6. Maximized role of ICT in the tourism industry

W6

10%

Total

STEP 3

The result would be a tabulation of ranked tourism projects based on their total scores derived from summing up the products of the assigned weight for each goal multiplied by the rating of each prioritized tourism project.

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

The GAM determines which of those prioritized tourism projects contribute substantially to achieve the goals and objectives ofthe TDP, especially if the investments poured into these projects would bring favorable socio-economic benefits to the host LGU. The GAM is a familiar tool among City / Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators because it is used in the formulation of the Local Development Investment Programming (LDIP). Hence, you can ask them to assist you in using GAM to rank your prioritized tourism projects.

STEP 2

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

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Ranking Tourism Projects

100%

Construct a GAM table similar to Table 4. In order to compute for the total score of each project, refer to Table 4 and the sample on Example 3. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex C.

Table 4. Goal Achievement Matrix Proposed Project No.

Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W) Goal 1 (a) 2

Goal 2 (a)

Goal 3 (c)

Goal 4 (d)

Goal 5 (e)

Goal 6 (f)

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

1

R x W1

2

R x W1

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

3

R x W1

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

4

R x W1

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

5

R x W1

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

6

R x W1

R x W2

R x W3

R x W4

R x W5

R x W6

Others

2 Subscript of R depends on the project rating

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Total Score (a + b + c + d + e + f)

Rank

Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W)

Total Score

Rank

Goal 1

Goal 2

Goal 3

Goal 4

Goal 5

Goal 6

1

3 (0.2)

2(0.2)

1(0.2)

0(0.2)

2(0.1)

-1(0.1)

1.30

1

2

0 (0.2)

-3(0.2)

2(0.2)

-1(0.2)

1(0.1)

-2(0.1)

-0.50

6

3

-2 (0.2)

0(0.2)

3(0.2)

1(0.2)

3(0.1)

2(0.1)

0.90

2

4

2 (0.2)

1(0.2)

-2(0.2)

0(0.2)

-1(0.1)

0(0.1)

0.10

3

5

1(0.2)

2(0.2)

0(0.2)

-2(0.2)

-3(0.1)

-3(0.1)

-0.40

5

6

-1(0.2)

0(0.2)

-3(0.2)

2(0.2)

2(0.1)

1(0.1)

-0.10

4

Others

The total score is derived from the summation of all the R x W products.

RxW Products GOAL

GOAL

GOAL

GOAL

GOAL

GOAL

TOTAL SCORE

To illustrate a Proposed Project No. 1 in Example 3 can be taken out and analyzed. With reference to Table 2, the total score of Proposed Project No. 1 can be interpreted as follows:

it “contributes greatly to the fulfillment of goal 1”;

STEP 4

Proposed Project No.

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Example 3. Goal Achievement Matrix (Sample with scores)

Construct a table for the ranked tourism projects using the GAM method in Step 3, as illustrated in Table 5. The 10 topmost ranked tourism projects or more can then be submitted to the office of the Local Chief Executive for funding consideration. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex D.

Table 5. Ranked Tourism Projects Timeframe Rank No.

Project Name

Estimated Cost (Php)

1 Yr 1

Yr 2

3

2 Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5

Yr 6

Yr 7

Yr 8

Yr 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3

Timeframe assumes the maximum tenure of the Local Chief Executive

Action Planning Process After having ranked the tourism projects, an action plan is needed to implement the TDP. The following are the steps in action planning:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Identify the activities for implementing the tourism development plan in a chronological manner.

Define each activity and include the timeframe (start and end) for its implementation.

it “contributes moderately to the fulfillment of goal 2”; it “contributes slightly to the fulfillment of goal 3”;

Identify the means of verifying that the activities are undertaken.

it “does not contribute to the fulfillment of goal 4”;

Allocate the resources available to support these activities.

it “contributes moderately to the fulfillment of goal 5”; and it is “slightly inconsistent with goal 6”.

Provide a mechanism where these activities can be evaluated.

Identify office responsible for each of the activity.

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Implementing Office

3

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The Action Plan Matrix is the product of the action planning process. The matrix contains the identified activities to implement the plan; definition of each activity; means to assess an activity; resources needed to undertake such activity; how the activity can be evaluated; and the office/s responsible in doing the activity.

Example 4. The Action Plan Matrix Activity

Definition

Means of Verification

Resources Needed

Responsible Office/s

Evaluation

1. Organizing the different implementing teams

Formation of all implementing teams and identification of members. (Weeks 1 – 2)

List of implementing team and names of team members

Transportation, supplies, food, venue, etc.

Percentage of implementing teams organized

Mayor’s Office / LGU Administrator, Tourism Officer, HR, MPDC

2. Holding an orientation meeting

Briefing the implementing teams on the expected outputs and deliverables, etc. (Weeks 3 – 4)

Attendance sheet, Minutes of meeting, etc.

Transportation, supplies, food, venue, etc.

Attendance to meeting, Contents of the minutes.

Mayor’s Office / LGU Administrator, Tourism Officer, HR, MPDC

Others

The Activity Plan From the action plan matrix, an activity plan can be formulated to specifically list down related activities that would help in the plan implementation. Example 5 stems from the action plan matrix in Example 4.

Example 5. The Activity Plan Schedule

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

The Action Plan Matrix

Week

ACTIVITY 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Organizing the different implementing teams Holding an orientation meeting. Others

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Building Capacities for TDP Implementation As part of the preparation in implementing the TDP, capacity development is necessary to help enrich the skills of stakeholders and implementors that are needed for its successful implementation.

What is capacity building? Capacity building or development is the process by which individuals, groups, organizations, institutions and societies increase their abilities to: a) perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve objectives and b) understand and deal with their development needs in a broad context and in a sustainable manner (UNDP, 1998). The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) defines capacity development in the same manner. Capacity development refers to the approaches, strategies and methodologies used to improve performance at the individual, organizational, network/sector or broader system level. Among its key objectives are to: a) enhance or more effectively utilize skills, abilities and resources; b) strengthen understandings and relationships; and c) address issues of values, attitudes, motivations and conditions in order to support development goals (DILG-LGSP, 2009). There is no singular definition of capacity building. Over the years, capacity building has evolved from being a focus of individual training towards the development of institutions and recently a complex systems at large. Recent definitions emphasize the continuing process of strengthening of abilities to perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve objectives, and understand and deal with development needs (UNESCO, 2005). A capacity development plan is a document that seeks to rationalize and strategically focus the capacity building efforts of LGUs (UNESCO, 2005). Such plan also outlines the capacity interventions or programs that need to be undertaken to address perceived gaps in knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) of an individual or organization.

There is no “one way” to capacity development planning. The following are some suggested steps:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Establish the organizational and individual competencies that are needed to implement the TDP (What capacities should be present in the LGU to support the implementation of priority programs and projects?) Examine existing capacity vis-à-vis desired competencies. (Does the LGU have adequate leadership, management, technical skills, organization arrangement, motivation, technology and equipment, systems and procedures, regulations, ordinances, and funds to accomplish the goals of the TDP?) Identify capacity gaps. (Where are gaps in capacities? Which capacity areas need to be prioritized?) Identify priority strategies or actions that need to be taken to improve capacities. (What should be done to improve or develop capacities?) Prepare a capacity development plan and budget. (How much time, effort and budget would be required to make improvements in the present capacity of the LGU and is it worth it?) Assign roles and responsibilities to achieve the goal and the capacity objectives. Monitor the plan and make adjustments as required. (Should goals and objectives be adjusted given present capacity?)

Source: Adopted and modified from the Manual on the Local Planning Process, Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM, DILG-LGSP, 2009.

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

What are the steps in formulating a Capacity Development Plan?

What does capacity building involve? Capacity in the broadest sense is concerned with the following (UNESCO, 2005): Human Resource Development. It is the process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and providing access to information, knowledge and training that enable them to perform effectively. Organization Development. This covers the elaboration of management structures, processes and procedures, not only within the organizations but also within sectors (public, private and community). Institutional and Legal Framework Development. This concerns the making of legal and regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels, and in all sectors, to enhance their capacities. Human resource development for tourism must be given priority in order to offer the quality of services expected by the tourist markets. Developing the human resources for tourism requires a systematic approach of projecting personnel needs and determining the training required to provide the qualified personnel. Personnel in both the public and private sectors require education and training (UN-WTO, 1998).

Developing the human resources for tourism requires a systematic approach (UN-WTO, 1998): Surveying and evaluating the present utilization of personnel in tourism and identifying any existing problems and needs, for example, upgrading the skills of some personnel; Projecting the future personnel needed based on the number of personnel required in each category and skill level of employment; Evaluating the total human resources that will be available in the future. This involves examination of the number of persons in the area who will be seeking employment in the future, and the educational qualifications of these persons; and Determining education and training needs of the personnel required and formulating the education and training programme needed to provide the qualified personnel.

Capacity Assessment Ideally, LGUs need to undertake a serious capacity assessment and establish the individual and organizational competencies needed in the implementation of the TDP. In Supplemental Reading I – Profiling the Local Tourism Industry, worksheets enumerating the tourism stakeholders and their role in tourism, tourism education, as well as tourism projects in the past five years are provided. This will have to be accomplished by tourism officers and planners, the target users of this Tourism Guidebook. Such listings can help LGUs identify and later analyze certain tourism-related capacity building needs in the locality. In this Supplemental Reading, priority tourism programs, projects and activities (PPAs) have been identified and ranked. LGUs can also utilize the data from the list of PPAs in ascertaining capacities needed to realize the PPAs.

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LGUs can use the pull-out worksheet found in Annex G to formulate their own capacity building assessment matrix.

Example 6. Capacity Building Assessment Matrix Priority Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs) 1. Development of Homestay Program

2. Microcredit Program

3. Lobbying and Advocacy

Perceived Skills/ Knowledge Gaps Community household members are not used to receiving visitors

Capacity Building Intervention Recommended to Address Gaps** Conduct of : • Formal Training • On-the-job training (OJT) • Study tour

Staff of tourism enterprises lack knowledge and skills on financial management

Conduct of: • Formal training • OJT • Mentoring and coaching

The staff of the local tourism office lack the skills to influence policy and access resources from donors

Conduct of : • Formal training • Exchange visit/ Study tour

Priority Capacity Building Intervention

Target Stakeholders

Conduct of training on homestay development and management • Basic Food Preparation and Handling • Basic Hygiene • Table Setting • DOT’s Minimum Standards on Homestay

Participants to the homestay program in the community

Conduct of OJT in business establishments

Staff of Tourism Enterprises

Conduct of study tour in other municipalities and cities

Staff of the Local Tourism Office

** Capacity Building Intervention may include formal training/workshop, mentoring and coaching, on-the-job training, study tour, exchange visit, etc.

Capacity Building Intervention Plan

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

A sample capacity building assessment matrix is provided below. LGUs would also need to prioritize their capacity building interventions form the list of recommended interventions taking into consideration budget and other resource requirements.

Using the data in the Capacity Building Assessment Matrix, LGUs can proceed to develop a more detailed capacity intervention plan. This Plan indicates the contribution of the LGU’s capacity building efforts to the much larger tourism goals as well as desired outcomes. It also shows the resource requirements, number of participants, and implementation details and target to undertake the priority capacity building interventions identified in the capacity assessment matrix.

LGUs can also refer to other capacity assessment and capacity development planning tools such as the System on Competency Assessment for Local Government (SCALOG) and the Local Government Performance Management System (LGPMS), the latter found at www.blgs.gov.ph/lgpms.

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A sample capacity development plan is provided below. This plan can be modified, to include more information/data depending on the requirements of the user. LGUs can use the pull-out worksheet found in Annex G to formulate their own capacity building assessment matrix.

Example 7. Capacity Development Plan

Tourism Sectoral Goal

Priority Capacity Building Intervention

Target Office

Target No of Participants M

F 15

Example: Increased income of tourism community enterprises

Training on Homestay Development and Management

Municipal Tourism Office

15

Example: Improved access to financing

On the Job Training

Tourism Enterprise Office

10

Example: Improved skills of the local tourism office staff

Study Tour in other municipalities/ cities

Municipal Tourism Office

5

10

5

Desired Outcome

Resource/ Budget Requirements

Implementation Details (Timeframe, Who are involved)

Net income increased by 10%

Honoraria for tourism experts Training materials P 50,000.00

One week

1 Million mobilized from microcredit organizations

Transportation and meal allowances P20,000

Two weeks

Enhanced skills on advocacy and lobbying

Transport Meals P10,000

Two days

Adapted and modified from the Manual on Local Planning Process: Formulation of the CDP and ELA in ARMM, 2009, DILG-LGSP.

Participants to the homestay program in the community

Staff of tourism enterprises

Saff of the Municipal Tourism Office

(2007). Lecture slides from Special Course in Urban and Regional Planning (SCURP), University of the Philippines School of Urban and Regional Planning. Department of Interior and Local Government and Local Government Support Program (2009).Manual on the Local Planning Process: Formulation the CDP and ELA in ARMM. Manila: Authors. Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2001). Planning Strategically. Manila: Author Local Government Academy, Department of Interior and Local Government (1998). Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. Manila: Author. _____________________________________ (2009). CapDev Agenda in a Nutshell A Primer on the Formulation of a Competency –based Capacity Development Agenda. Manila: Author. Republic of the Philippines (1991).Republic Act 7160: Local Government Code of the Philippines. __________________ (2001).Republic Act 9147:Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act. Serote, E. (2005). Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines. Manila: Bureau of Local Government Development Department of the Interior and Local Government. United Nations Educational, Cultural and Social Organization (2005).Guidebook for Planning in Education, Emergencies and Reconstruction, Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. Retrieved from http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/ Guidebook/Guideboook.pdf. United Nations World Tourism Organization (1998).Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. Madrid: Author.

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

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References

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Annexes

pull-out worksheets

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Project Name

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex B. Prioritized Tourism Project

Annex A. Tourism Project Profile Project No.

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Brief Description

Estimated Project Cost (Php)

Timeframe Project Name

Estimated Cost (Php)

1 Yr 1

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Yr 2

2 Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5

Implementing Office

3 Yr 6

Yr 7

Yr 8

Yr 9

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex C. Goal Achievement Matrix

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Goal 1 (a)

Goal 2 (b)

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex D. Ranked Tourism Projects

Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W) Proposed Project No.

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Goal 3 (c)

Goal 4 (d)

Goal 5 (e)

Goal 6 (f)

Total Score

(a+b+c+d+e+f)

Timeframe Rank

Rank No.

Project Name

Estimated Cost (Php)

1 Yr 1

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Yr 2

2 Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5

3 Yr 6

Yr 7

Yr 8

Implementing Office Yr 9

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex E. The Action Plan Matrix Activity

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Definition

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex F. The Activity Plan Schedule Means of Verification

Resources Needed

Evaluation

Responsible Office/s

Week

ACTIVITY 1

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex G. Capacity Building Assessment Matrix Priority Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs)

Perceived Skills/ Knowledge Gaps

Capacity Building Intervention Recommended to Address Gaps**

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex H. Capacity Development Plan Priority Capacity Building Intervention

Target Stakeholders

Tourism Sectoral Goal

Priority Capacity Building Intervention

Target Office Staff

Target No of Participants

M

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F

Desired Outcome

Resource/ Budget Requirements

Implementation Details (Timeframe, Who are involved)

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 4

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 4

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex I

Project profile

I II III

Budgetary Requirements (in millions)

5

Title of the Project: Ecotourism Development Project Project Proponent: San Clemente Municipal Tourism Office

Program / Projects / Activities 2011

2012

2013 2014 2015 2016

2017

2018

2019

Tourism Infrastructure Support Development

1

1

1

1

1

Promotion of Ecotourism Events

-

0.1

0.1

0.2

LGU support Institutionalization

0.1

-

-

Strengthening Partnership for Environment Protection and Management

-

0.1

Promotion and Marketing of Banner and Emerging Sites

-

Competency Building for Tourism Industry Personnel

2020 TOTAL

1

1

1

1

1

10

0.2

0.2

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.075

0.075

0.075

0.075

1

-

0.25

0.25

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

-

-

1

1.1

1.65

1.55

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.225

1.225

1.125

1.125

13.2

Brief Description of the Project : The proposed ecotourism development in San Clemente aims to advocate protection and conservation of the natural resources, the base from which the ecotourism industry thrives. Specifically, it seeks to put in place mechanisms that are environmentally sustainable, economically viable, and socially equitable in order to bring about economic development in the municipality that would redound to the benefit of local communities.

IV

Project Goals and Objectives: Goal: Attainment of socio-economic growth of the municipality through sustainable ecotourism development Objectives: 1. To increase investment in ecotourism project by improving infrastructure, security, communication, community development and local pride; 2. To improve performance in terms of tourist arrivals and receipt and develop a strong backward linkages with other sectors ; and 3. To increase share of jobs generated

V VI VII

Project Location :

Sitio Lippet and Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin

Target Beneficiaries :

TOTAL

Sitio Lippet and Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin Target Beneficiaries: Local communities of San Clemente and Brgy. Maasin

VIII IX X

Sources of Funds :

LGU San Clemente Provincial Government Department of Tourism Official Development Assistance

Proposed Period of Implementation: 2011-2016 Project Status: NEW

Project Components/Activities and Cost

5 With modification from the original version (LDIP 2011 – 2020 of San Clemente, Tarlac)

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LDIP Period

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Photo credits by George Tapan

Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading

5

• Prepare the tourism project milestone matrix; • Present how to source funds from public and private sectors to finance the ranked tourism projects; and • Know the importance of writing an effective tourism project proposal.

Financing the Tourism Development Plan (TDP) is a means of funding the ranked tourism projects. This is made possible by determining the total cost of all these projects through formulating the Tourism Project Milestone Matrix. Likewise, it is at this stage of the tourism development planning process where LGUs allocate resources or source out the funds needed to implement those ranked tourism projects. The resources or funds may be sourced internally (locally) or externally (national/international) from various financing options.

Funding Sources It is assumed that for each ranked tourism project, a Project Profile has already been prepared and submitted to the office of the Local Chief Executive for funding consideration. In response, the LGU may employ different strategies to mobilize financial resources to fund those ranked tourism projects. There are financial options available both from local and external sources.

a.

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

Table 1. Local Financing Schemes

Table 2: External Financing Schemes Official Development Assistance (ODA) • Multilateral loans (may also be grants) • Bilateral loans (may also be grants)

Private Financing

• Bond Floatation (Provincial equity funds)

c. d.

Borrowing • Public (Government Financial Institutions) • Private (Commercial banks)

Private Business Investment:

Coordination • Taxes • User Fees/Charges • Service Fees

2

1 Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) No. 2011 – 1 dated April 13, 2013 further strengthened the utilization of the 20% component of the annual

internal revenue allotment shares, especially if it is directed to social development and economic development programs and projects.

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As Republic Act 7160 puts it, “It shall be the basic policy that any local government unit may create indebtedness and avail of credit facilities to finance local infrastructure and other socio-economic development projects in accordance with approved local development plan and public investment program”. (Sec. 296)

The LGU may enter into contract with a private sector to make the latter provide financial, technical and other operational support to implement those ranked tourism projects. The Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) and its variants2 are forms of a PPP.

For tourism development projects which are to be funded internally, there are two possible funding sources: Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) and local revenues, as illustrated in Table 1.

• Development Fund 1

For LGUs which would want to implement a tourism project even if it is not included in the Local Development Investment Plan (LDIP), Annual Investment Plan (AIP) or Executive and Legislative Agenda (ELA), they may resort to alternative financing schemes. These financing options are illustrated in Table 2.

Public- Private Partnership (PPP):

Local Funding Source:

Destination

b.

External Funding Source:

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Private individuals may donate to the LGU or provide grants to support the implementation of its tourism projects.

Some of these variants are: Build and Transfer (BT), Build-Own-and-Operate (BOO), Build-lease-transfer (BLT), Build Own Operate Transfer (BOOT), Design, build, operate, maintain (DBOM), Design, build, finance, operate (DBFO), etc.

The project milestone matrix contains the total costs of all the ranked tourism projects in the TDP along with some brief features such as location, estimated cost, project milestone and funding source of each project.

Accomplishing the Tourism Project Milestone Matrix Consider the following hypothetical ranked tourism project below: Ranked tourism projects, especially those which have large estimated costs, can be implemented in phases to cushion their impact to the financial coffer of LGUs. This is called the project milestone, which makes it possible to put all those ranked tourism projects in place annually. Thus, implementing them is made financially viable for LGUs.

• Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project; a P 50 million – project to be funded by LGU and DPWH Take the following steps:

1 2 3

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

The Tourism Project Milestone Matrix

Identify the deliverable/s on each project which can be implemented annually. •

Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project Deliverable: 5-Km Improved Access Road

Name of Project

Milestone (P’000) 1

2

Yr 1

Yr 2

Yr 3

25,000

15,000

10,000

25,000

15,000

10,000

Source of Implementing Funds office

3

Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 Yr 8 Yr 9

Wawa Dam 5 – Km Access Road Improvement Project San Rafael Rodriguez

1

50,000

Phase I Phase II Phase III

TOTAL

50,000

-

-

-

-

-

-

LGU, DPWH

An existing example of a tourism project is that of the City of Alaminos, in the Province of Pangasinan, which has embarked on the Hundred Islands Marine Theme Park Project. The project is designed to establish an ecological theme park within the Hundred Islands National Park (HINP). Composed of several islands from the hundred islands, it will feature an island – connecting bridges, floating bamboo rafts and cottages, diving and marine sanctuaries, among others. The project components are: establishment of fish sanctuaries, snorkeling and diving areas; installation of floating connectors; establishment of “boat houses” or floating day cottages and bamboo rafts; acquisition of water – based sports facility; promotion of the theme park to residents and tourists; and conduct of capability building activities to manage the theme park.

A tourism project proposal 3 is a document used to convince a prospective sponsor / grantor that a tourism project must be implemented to solve a particular problem or to respond to an opportunity. It contains technical information, financial requirements and the steps how it would be carried out. The basic outline of a project proposal is presented in Box 1. There are instances, however, that tourism project proposals need supporting documents such as a pre-feasibility study or a feasibility study. This would entail the conduct of socio-economic, financial and technical studies, return of investment (ROI), etc. to support the viability of the proposed project.

P 25 million P 15 million P 10 million

Plot them in the worksheet shown in Example 1.

Project proposals that were already funded by external benefactors / grantors could serve as a guide for writing effective tourism project proposals. They are available at the M/CPDC Office of LGUs.

3 Funding

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Location

Estimated Cost (P’000)

When an LGU considers tapping external sources to fund the implementation of tourism projects, it prepares and submits tourism project proposals to prospective funding institutions.

Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project Deliverable: 5-Km Improved Access Road Phase I – 2.5 km Phase II – 1.5 km Phase III – 1 km

Rank No.

Project Proposal

For each deliverable, distinguish if it can be done in phases. Then, estimate the cost in each phase. •

Example 1. Accomplished Tourism Project Milestone Matrix

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institutions have different project proposal formats which can be downloaded from their websites.

I

II

General Information Project Title Nature of Project Proponent Contact Person Project Cost Project Location

Executive Summary Project Background Project Description Objectives and Expected Outputs Target Beneficiaries Activities, Strategies and Expected Outputs Funding Source 4 Investment Requirements Target Date of Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Box 1

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Project Proposal Outline

References City Government of Alaminos, Pangasinan (n.d.).“Tourism.”Retrieved from http://www.alaminoscity.gov.ph/thecity/cityproject.aspx?id=1&agenda=Tourism. Department of Interior and Local Government (2011).Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) No. 2011- 1: Amending DIG-DBM Joint Memorandum Circular No. 1, dated September 20, 2005, titled ‘Guidelines on the appropriation and utilization of the 20% of the annual Internal Revenue Allotment for development projects,’ and DILG Memorandum Circular no. 2010-138 dated December 2, 2010, titled ‘Use of the 20% component of the annual Internal Revenue Allotment shares.’ Retrieved from http://www.dilg.gov.ph/ PDF_File/issuances/joint_circulars/DILG-Joint_Circulars-2011414-c7a40511f3.pdf Local Government Support Program in ARMM (2009).A Manual on the Local Planning Process (Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM).Davao City: Author. National Economic Development Authority and Asian Development Bank (2006). Investment Programming Planning and Revenue Generation Guidebook. Manila: Authors. Republic of the Philippines (1990).Republic Act 6957: An Act Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector. 1990. _______________________(1991).“Republic Act 7160: Local Government Code of the Philippines.” _______________________(1994).“Republic Act 7718.Expanded Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Law.” Republic of the Philippines-Office of the President (1987). “Executive Order No. 226: Omnibus Investments Code of 1987.”

4

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This must separately identify those projects which are for public investment, private investment and PPP.

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Supplemental reading 5

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

-7

Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Annex A. Tourism Project Milestone Matrix Milestone (P’000) Rank No.

Name of Project

Location

Estimated Cost (P’000)

1 Yr 1

Annexes

pull-out worksheets

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Yr 2

2 Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7

3 Yr 8 Yr 9

Source of Implementing Funds office

Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading

6

How did we do? Checking on the progress of plan implementation (monitoring) and taking stock on where things are (evaluation) need to be done on a regular basis. Doing monitoring and evaluation will give us indications how future efforts in tourism can be improved. Monitoring and evaluation (or M&E) functions as a management tool to inform all tourism stakeholders about the efficiency and effectiveness of strategies, programs, projects and activities that have been implemented in the destination. Evaluation results can be useful in replicating successes and correcting mistakes, and can also serve as an accountability and learning tool for local government units.

The focus of monitoring and evaluation differ: • Monitoring is the continuous tracking/measurement of progress and performance against what was planned (schedules, outputs, resource use, cost); and • Evaluation is the systematic measurement of performance at the level of tourism goals and objectives.

How do we measure progress? The development of an M&E strategy should not be an afterthought, but should be undertaken as an integral part of the planning phase. As has been discussed in the section on Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan , goals ,objectives, targets and success indicators are identified during plan formulation.

Key elements of an M&E strategy The following elements need to be identified during the planning process: • • • • • • •

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan

• Presents a simplified discussion of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) concepts; • Discusses the importance of undertaking M&E; and • Recommends simple tools to doing M&E.

Box 1

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units:

Results (goals, objectives, outputs); Success Indicators to measure progress towards results; Explicit targets per result; Data source to assess performance; Collection methods; Frequency at which measurements will be made Roles and responsibilities

Source: Paran, 2009

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-2

M&E analyzes progress towards actual achievement of results. An example of an M&E Strategy is found in Example 1 below. A pull out worksheet is found in Annex A.

Example 1: Tourism M&E Strategy Goals & Objectives

Success Indicator

Targets per Indicator

Data Source to Assess Performance

Collection Methods

Frequency

Responsibility

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by host community

Number of business permits issued by LGU with owners from host community

100% increase in number of tourism-related businesses owned by community

Business Permit and Licensing Office

Document review

Every three years

Local Planning and Development Office and Tourism Officer

MONITORING & EVALUATION

The LCE can include the following in his/her report. • Goals and objectives achieved (e.g., capacities of stakeholders developed; benefits to residents/host community; resources generated from tourism ventures); • Projects, programs, and activities accomplished; and • Expenditures.

Baseline data How will you know if the interventions identified in the plan are effective unless you know the situation beforehand? This is where baseline data come into play. Baseline data show the situation to be addressed by the tourism development plan prior to the planning period. Baseline data serve as the starting point for evaluation studies, but need to be gathered from the onset. They are useful for measuring the performance of the tourism industry in your localities. You can determine the effect of the strategies by comparing the situation before and after plan implementation. The difference between the baseline and the actual results will show if interventions undertaken have been effective. Supplemental Reading 1 - Profiling the Local Tourism Industry discusses more about baseline data.

Evaluating Plan Implementation Example 2 below shows plan targets vs. accomplishments for tourism. The example indicates that the programs, projects and activities identified in the plan that have been implemented were very successful in accomplishing the economic goals and objectives. This also signals the effectiveness of the strategic directions/strategy chosen by the stakeholders. If the actual accomplishments are lower than the target, there may be a need to review and change the strategy.

Example 2: Tourism Targets vs. Accomplishments Results

Strategy

Baseline Data

Goal

Increased income of host island communities

Develop community –based tour packages for small islands

Average annual household income is Php 40,000 in 2007

Objectives

100% by 2013 (Php 80,000)

Improved tourism skills of host island community

50% of male members of people’s organiztion and 50% of female members of people’s organization trained in tourism

50% male members; 60% female members trained in tourism

Increased number of tourism-related businesses owned by island community

100% increase in the number of tourism businesses owned by community members

200% increase in new tourism business permits issued by LGU

The use of established and existing monitoring mechanisms and structures in the LGU can help reduce the cost of monitoring. It is recommended that the Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report (as shown in Example 3) be used to report the accomplishments of the LGU in implementing the tourism development plan. The Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment worksheet is found in Annex C. . It is important for the local government to use M&E results in re-planning. The non-attainment of goals and objectives requires a re-evaluation of strategies as well as the programs, projects and activities that have been implemented by stakeholders. Data source to assess success In order to have a cost effective M & E Strategy, the use of already available tourism data is recommended such as: Business permits issued by the local government Hotel room inventory and occupancy rates Attraction visitor counts and admissions Event related figures Visitor information from visitor centers National, regional, provincial studies and data Other studies by academe, private sector and NGOs

Source: Adapted from Leones and Dunn, 1999

-4

Actual Accomplishments

50% by 2013

• • • • • • •

6- 3

Targets

Economic

Box 2

The local chief executive (LCE) has to regularly report back the accomplishments of his/her administration to the constituents. The results of the Tourism Plan M&E can be integrated in the State of the Province/City/Municipality Address (SOPA/SOCA/SOMA) of the local government unit.

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Using and Communicating M&E Results back to Stakeholders

Example 3: Annual / End of Term Accomplishment of an LGU Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report Province/City/Municipality of ________________ Strategy Develop commnity-based tour packages for small islands

Programs, Projects, Activities

Success Indicators (Outcome/Output)

Target

Community-Based Ecotourism Project

Number of Community-based tour/s operating in the host barangay

One community-based tour operating by 2012

Activities Community organizing

Number of community members

At least thirty community members belong to the organization Three skills training program

Community-based organization formed with 60 members

Skills Training Program

Number of skills training conducted

One product developed

Three skills program conducted

Product Development

Number of products developed

One community based tour

One product developed

Community-based tour developed

Product pilot testing

Accomplishment

Host-community

Whale and Dolphin Watching tour itinerary developed

Tour pilot -tested

Tour pilot tested

One community-based ecotourism organization/s registered with the SEC

One community-based ecotourism organization registered

Beneficiary Sector

Tour was pilot tested

Coverage Area Whole barangay

Project Cost (Php) 7 Million

Actual Disbursement 6 Million

Remarks Community organizing took a longer time which resulted in delay of registration in SEC; however membership of the organization exceeded target. SEC registration is set to be completed by June 2013

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

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The Annual/ End-of-Term Accomplishment Report can be adapted to suit the requirements of tourism plan monitoring.

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References Leones, J. & Dunn, D. (1999). Strategies for Monitoring Tourism in Your Community’s Economy. Tucson: University of Arizona. Paran, J. C. (2009). A Manual on the Local Planning Process: Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM. Davao City: Local Governance Support Program in ARMM.

Supplemental reading 6

Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

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Annex A: Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy Results Goals & Objectives

Annexes

pull-out worksheets

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Success Indicator

Targets per Indicator

Data Source to Assess Performance

Collection Methods

Frequency

Responsibility

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Supplemental reading 6

Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex C: Annual/ End Term Accomplishment

Annex B: Targets vs. Accomplishments Reporting Goals

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Results

Strategy

Supplemental reading 6

Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units

Baseline Data

Targets

Actual Accomplishments

Strategy

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Programs, Projects, Activities

Success Indicators (Outcome/Output)

Target

Accomplishment

Beneficiary Sector

Coverage Area

Project Cost (Php)

Actual Disbursement

Remarks

Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading

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• Identify and analyze the positive and negative impacts of tourism in the area; and • Manage these impacts by enhancing the positive impacts and minimizing the negative impacts.

Sustainable Tourism Tourism has to be sustainable, following the principles of the Philippine Agenda 21 (Calanog, Reyes and Eugenio, 2011):

Economically viable. Thus, tourism provides self-sustaining and long-term livelihood for people, it is pro-poor, and provides jobs;

Environmentally sound. Here, tourism enriches natural resource base, reduces negative impacts, promotes the value of biodiversity as well as non-living resources e.g. air water and land;

Culturally appropriate. Tourism in this respect promotes native culture, local knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems, and respects local traditions; and

Socially just, humane and gender equitable. Tourism upholds the rights and dignity of

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

people, including women, children and persons with disabilities.

Identifying and Managing the Impacts of Tourism Tourism impacts our community, economy, society and ecosystems. We should always be on the watch for these impacts so that we can manage them properly. Positive impacts such as more job opportunities for the people, more forest cover can be enhanced. On the other hand, negative impacts such as increased incidence of pollution, increased crime must be mitigated by adoption of appropriate policy and pursuing good environmental management practices. Such impacts can be categorized as economic, social and ecological/bio-physical based on the principles of sustainable development. The following discussions of this supplemental reading will assist you in assessing these impacts and suggesting possible measures to manage them so that tourism becomes sustainable and can be enjoyed by future generations.

A.

Ecological/Bio-physical Impacts

Tourism activities can create negative impacts on the environment. Tourists generate wastes, trample on vegetation, cause traffic, etc. Thus, the negative impacts have to be mitigated to preserve the beauty of the natural environment and also the quality of life of the local residents. Positive impacts can be made if utmost care is placed on preservation and conservation of natural resources in the destination and in rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems. To assess the ecological/biophysical impacts of tourism in your LGU, please answer the following questions and then fill up the following table:

a) b) c) d)







Figure 1. Sustainable Tourism Principles

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Assess and describe the ecological/bio-physical impact of tourism in your destination.

Are these impacts positive or negative? Please check.

Describe the existing management measures to mitigate negative impacts and enhance positive impacts. Identify possible policies, programs, projects, and activities that may address the impacts.

Category

Description of existing and potential impact

+

-

Management measure

Programs, Projects, Activities, Policies (PPAP)

(Pls. check) Ecosystems e.g. forests, rivers, coral reefs

Wildlife species

Increased forest cover

Forest protection; reforestation

Destruction of coral reefs

Enforce regulations on tourists to avoid stepping on corals and on boatmen not to anchor on the coral reefs; establish a marine protected area.

Diminishing bats in caves

Do not put lights in the caves

Blocking of natural view due to construction of buildings

Enact building ordinances to avoid construction of physical infrastructure that will block the view

Agriculture and fisheries Aesthetic

Rocks/caves

Landslides in tourism area due to mining; gathering of stalactites and stalagmites in caves

Cleanliness and solid waste

Increased litter

Noise level

Increased noise in public places

Crowding

Increased crowding in public places

Enforce protected area environmental regulations

Reforestation project

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Example 1. Checklist of Ecological/ Bio-physical Impacts of Tourism

Compute carrying capacity and limit visitors or increase carrying capacity

Some of the management measures below may help you solve your problems:

1

Compliance to Environmental Laws How do you rate your LGU’s compliance to existing environmental laws in relation to tourism? Please rate with 5 being the highest and 1 the lowest:

Example 2. LGU’s Compliance to Environment Laws Checklist Law/Ordinance

Comments

National Integrated Protected Areas Systems Act of 1992 (Republic Act 7586)

There is mutilation, defacing and destruction of objects of natural beauty; damaging and leaving trails in damaged condition; dumping wastes; and altering, removing destroying or defacing boundary marks or signs.

Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Republic Act 9275)

The river destination is very dirty, leading to the closure of the river cruise.

Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act 8749)

Air pollution due to tricycles in town center disturbs tourists.

Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (Republic Act 9003)

Litter is everywhere – in the beach and on roads.

Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 (Republic Act 6969)

There is a high level of mercury content in the river, making swimming hazardous.

Environmental Impact Assessment (DENR-Department Administrative Order(DAO #25)

The mitigating measures in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of some companies are not being followed; the multi-partite monitoring team is not active.

.Philippine Mining Act of 1995 (Republic Act 7942)

Mining is occurring in the protected areas polluting the river and limiting swimming activities.

Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines (Presidential Decree 705)

Kaingin is rampant.

Water quality

Increased water pollution from sewerage

Improve sewerage system and septic tanks

Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act (Republic Act 9147)

There is unregulated gathering of wildlife resources.

Air quality

Increased air pollution from tricycles

Anti-smoke belching campaign; improve four- stroke engine implementation

National Environmental Awareness and Education Act of 2008 (Republic Act 9512)

There is limited knowledge of the community concerning ecology.

Moratorium on Logging (Executive Order #23)

There is rampant illegal logging in the protected areas and tourist destinations.

National Greening Program (Executive Order #26)

Some reforested areas have low survival rates.

Climate Change Act of 2009 (Republic Act 9729)

The tourist areas are constantly flooded.

Convention on Biological Diversity

Habitat conservation is poor certain areas; diminishing number of wildlife populations particularly of wildlife species (e.g. Philippine eagle, Philippine tarsier, tamaraw).

Others:

DENR- DAO2013 – 19 Guidelines on Ecotourism Planning and Management in Protected Areas LGU Ordinances Others

Legend: + Positive -Negative

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Rating

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2

Managing Environmental Impacts Regulating tourism development through the issuance of permits. An Environmental

Impact Assessment (EIA) may be required before final approval of project. DENR DAO# 25 determines the coverage of projects that requires EIA. Environmentally critical projects including mining need EIA. Projects inside protected areas, including tourism projects may require EIA. Likewise, anti-pollution control devices have to be installed before permits are issued. Smoke belching vehicles should be denied permit to operate. For restaurants, sanitation services should be satisfactory. New building sites can be chosen to avoid cutting of centennial trees or virgin forests.

Are there proposed projects related to tourism that have to be studied now, before a permit is granted? What are they? What needs to be done? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

If the implementation of the laws is wanting, your LGU can improve law enforcement, enhance monitoring techniques and create programs and projects to promote conservation of natural resources and waste minimization and management, and use other techniques. Some management measures are described in the following section.

____

diminishing water supply

____

decreased number, diversity and distribution of wildlife

____

crowded tourism sites

____

overbooked hotels

____

crowded areas for visitors - (e.g. swimming pools, trails)

____

trampled trails

____

steep slopes are over-utilized for human habitation in hotels and resorts

____

increased garbage and litter

____

lack of transportation

The following measures may be considered in arriving at solutions: • Diversify products and activities • Manage the flow of visitors in attractions • Increase the number of facilities • Distribute evenly the viewing sites • Increase the numbers of accommodations, beds, restaurants • Limit the number of hours for visitation at protected areas

Are there existing projects related to tourism that need a closer environmental monitoring? What are they and what needs to be done?

• Encourage off-season use

_________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

• Increase durability of heavily-used resources

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• Provide adequate information and interpretation • Improve participation of stakeholders

Tools have been developed to respond to problems of overcrowding or over-use. One such tool is carrying capacity analysis that considers the maximum number of visitors in an attraction. Several formulas have been developed to compute for carrying capacity.

Considering Carrying Capacity and Limits of Acceptable Change

You may consult an instrument in computing for carrying capacity from the manual Making Ecotourism Work (2011). Alternately, the limits of acceptable change (LAC) approach may be used, especially in developing visitors management programs in protected areas (McCool, 1996).

Often times, when a tourist destination is overcrowded or water resources are inadequate for tourists, this can be an indication that the number of visitors in the area has surpassed its comfortable and enjoyable limits. Sometimes, visitors would complain about these problems. Do you have such tourism sites and activities that are overcrowded or where deterioration of the environment has been felt due to tourism?

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Have you observed the following indicators in any of your tourism sites? Please check if yes:

While carrying capacity is oftentimes used to manage impacts, it can also contribute to planning spatial development in tourism, and is one of the mechanisms for establishing standards for sustainable tourism (Jovicic, 2008).

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Biodiversity is an important resource for tourism. More tourists come if the coral reefs for snorkeling and diving are pristine. Trekking and sightseeing are more enjoyable with a good forest cover. Food is good if the fishing grounds provide for fresh and abundant catch. Swimming is enjoyable if the quality of the water is Class A or good for recreational purposes. Thus biodiversity conservation is an essential part of tourism management.

A science-based approach can be useful in planning on the use of biological and wildlife resources in tourism. The following steps can be undertaken: 1. Identify the habitats and wildlife species to be featured. For instance, birds especially migratory birds are abundant in mangrove areas or bats are found in the mouths of caves; 2. Develop tourism activities that are based on the natural habitats; 3. Undertake measures to mitigate impacts of tourist activities on wildlife; and 4. Monitor and evaluate the impacts on the wildlife population and quality of the physical environment.

The DENR-DAO 2013-19 Annex B prescribes a procedure for full ecotourism planning and management to include the following steps: site assessment, ecotourism planning, implementation of the ecotourism management plan, and monitoring and evaluation. You may consult the website for the full text of this planning tool (URL is http://server2.denr.gov.ph/uploads/rmdd/dao-2013-19.pdf ). Generally, biodiversity conservation can be done through:

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

4

Managing the Tourism Impacts on Biodiversity

a) Protection and restoration of habitats;

Please check if the following situations are observed in your tourism attractions. Also note the principles and recommendations for biodiversity conservation that can be included in your TDP.

Example 3. Situations Observed in LGU Tourism Attractions Checklist INCIDENTS/SITUATION

PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION Recognize the limit of activities within the Protected Area Management Plan. Reduce the use of the entire area. Limit the number of visitors in the entire area.

Are visitors allowed and found all over the protected area?

Limit ecotourism activities within the tourism zone. Although more people can be accommodated in the multiple use zones and buffer areas, activities must respect the natural and cultural assets of the place. Keep the strict protection zone of national parks and sanctuaries free from tourists. Encourage the use of other sites. Charge higher visitor fees.

Do visitors and locals collect wildlife?

Are visitors in protected areas and natural sites allowed to enter anytime of the day?

Are visitors allowed to touch the wildlife in their natural habitats? Are the wildlife migrating to nearby untouched areas?

b) Minimization of interactions of wildlife with humans through distance and time; and

/X

Avoid gathering of wildlife in protected areas and elsewhere. Check DENR AO No. 2004-15 for list of threatened terrestial wild faura and DENR AO No. 2007-01 as ammended by DENR No. 2007-24 for list of threatened Philippine Plants. Observe the provisions of RA 9147 (Wildlife Resources and Conservation Act) to conserve and protect wildlife species and their habitats to promote ecological balance and enhance biological diversity. Do not disrupt the natural pattern and life cycle of animals. For example, limit the visitations at daytime to avoid disruption of sleep of nocturnal animals. Night safaris or cave visits should limit the use of light. Encourage putting limits of distance to observe the animals so as not to disrupt their daily activities. An example of this is whale watching in Pamilacan, Bohol and Donsol, Sorsogon.

c) Utilization of biological resources properly. Do tourists step on the corals causing their destruction?

Do not harm the habitats of wildlife. Tourists should not step on coral reefs. Maintain trails so as not to trample on forest vegetation. Protect caves and their wildlife e.g. bats. Carrying capacity should be considered to avoid overcrowding.

Are the caves and wildlife destroyed due to the activities of visitors?

Respect the nocturnal habits of bats, visitation hours must be limited to daytime and artificial lighting restricted. Visitors should not be allowed to gather stalactites and stalagmites and touch the walls of caves. The number of caves open for tourism should likewise be chosen and limited to ensure there are undisturbed habitats for bats and other wildlife.

Is there an absence of a biodiversity monitoring team and system?

HABITAT

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Conduct regular monitoring of wildlife populations to monitor impacts on biodiversity. A Participatory Biodiversity Monitoring System can involve more stakeholders including the local community, DENR, local NGO/PO.

Green designs, as stipulated in BERDE (a green building rating system developed by the Philippine Green Building Council or PHILGBC), is used to measure, verify, and monitor the environmental performance of buildings that exceeds existing mandatory regulations and standards. Green design will help enhance the use of natural elements in architecture, thus maximizing the use of natural light, wind ventilation, local materials and minimizing the use of electricity and water. Such principles and standards can be implemented in the construction of hotels, resorts, information centers, etc. (URL: www.berdeonline.org/). Green architecture principles can also be done in making trails in national parks and other tourist attractions.

The component-strategies for the Formulation of the Ecotourism Management Plan (DENR DAO No. 2013 – 19): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Zoning for visitor use; Visitor site planning and design; Sustainable infrastructure design; Visitor management; and Revenue generation.

Another reference is DENR AO 2009-09 re: Standard Design and Specification of Signs, Buiding Facilities, and other Infrastructure that maybe installed and/or constructed within protected areas.

Can you implement a local ordinance on green architecture? What steps can be done to do this?

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

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Sustainable infrastructure design: Utilizing green architecture for tourism buildings

________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

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Example 4. Environmental Education Activities PARTNERS

DepEd

Conduct exhibits, seminars/talks

CHED Universities/colleges

Undertake National Service Training Program (NSTP) projects Conduct trainings and related activities Conduct research Grant of graduate school scholarships for tourism employees

Research Institutions

Conduct research to enhance knowledge on biological diversity and to monitor pollution

National Government Agencies DENR

Celebrate Earth Day and other Environmental Events

DOT

Promote and market tourist destinations

DA

Showcase model farms

Groups dealing with communities: People’s Organizations/cooperatives NGOs/civic action groups

The Media:

Environmental Education

Radio TV

a) b) c) d)

Print -newspapers, magazines) National newspapers (pls. identify) Community newspapers (pls. identify)

adoption of whole-school approach in environmental education (in schools);

Brochures

capacity-building for marginalized communities and other stakeholders (in communities);

Social media and internet Facebook Twitter Webpage

education of the general public (through media); and Explanations to visitors when they are visiting parks.

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POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES

Schools:

Others

Environmental awareness is key in having communities and stakeholders value ecological integrity. To increase their awareness and concern for environment, as well as enhance their skills, the following can be done:

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Make an inventory of stakeholders and identify possible activities that you can undertake in collaboration with them. Such activities can lead to conservation and/or an increase in the number of visitors to your attractions.

Enhanced Environmental Monitoring Participatory biodiversity monitoring system to monitor commercially important species and indigenous or rare species can be used. Such a system can have multi-partite composition to include DENR-PAWB, PO, NGO, the academe, among others. The local community and forest rangers can monitor the movement or use of commercially important and endangered species. The academic research institutions can verify and classify them and conduct further research.

Biodiversity Monitoring Sheet for monthly reports by community groups and forest rangers: Example 5. Biodiversity Monitoring Sheet by Community and Forest Rangers PLACE AND DATE OBSERVED Ex. November 10, 2013; 6:25 pm

LOCAL/ COMMON NAME

Paniki, Bats

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat)

OBSERVATIONS Local community (Juan de la Cruz, Elpidio Santos) caught bats for pulutan

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

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B.

Social Impacts of Tourism

Tourism also has social impacts. Due to the interaction of the community with other people from various cultures, their values, habits and attitudes may be affected. Your job is to enhance positive impacts and minimize negative social impacts brought about by this interactions. What are the possible social impacts of tourism in your locality? What are your safeguards against negative social impacts?

Identify the positive / negative impacts of tourism in your destination using the table below: Example 6. Checklist of Social Impacts, Management Measures and PPAPs

Category

Development and better maintenance of public facilities

More and cleaner public toilets

Increased profile of region

More publicity for the LGU

Increased local pride More recreational opportunities

Rise in delinquent behavior Disruption of traffic Mixing of different cultures in community

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Excessive demand for public services (e.g., health, police, fire services) by tourism industry leading to less access to locals

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Overcrowding in public places

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Increase in prostitution and human trafficking

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Increase in sexual harassment and abuse

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Change in social and moral values

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Others:

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-

(Pls. check)

Change in local character and culture

The use of text messaging can also be employed to encourage local citizens in monitoring (e.g. texting or using video regarding traffic violators such as smoke belchers in the Bantay Usok campaign). Is there a campaign that you want to launch to enhance awareness and monitoring of local citizens? If yes, describe the campaign and the initial steps to bring this about:

Description of existing and potential impact

+

Management Measure

Programs, Projects, Activities, Policies (PPAPs)

Example 7. Checklist of Practices to Manage Social Impacts of Tourism CATEGORY

PRACTICE

YES

Preservation of historical sites – churches, monuments Heritage conservation

Building museums, exhibits on local culture Accurate heritage interpretation of historical and cultural data Utmost care taken to safeguard marginalized sectors of society against negative impacts of tourism Women and children must be safeguarded against sexual abuse and violence (e.g., policy that female masseurs cannot enter private rooms in hotels; children working in tourist establishments need parental consent.)

Protecting the rights of women, children, indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities

Please refer to laws that address gender issues that tourism establishments should comply with, e.g. Anti-Sexual Harassment Act. Proper physical infrastructure for persons with disabilities, e.g. ramps, must be constructed in tourism sites Free Prior and Informed Consent sought prior to use of indigenous peoples and cultural sites for tourism Manufacturing from the local agricultural produce, local clothing and accessories

Promoting local culture – foods, dances, songs, crafts.

NO

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Does your LGU utilize some of the following management practices in dealing with social impacts of tourism? Please fill up the following checklist:

C.

Economic Impacts

Tourism is good for the economy because the money that visitors spend when they come to the destination helps stimulate the local economy. Tourism promotes employment opportunities and local businesses. Thus, you have to ensure that your LGU and community will benefit most from such economic changes. Fill up the table below to help you identify the economic effects of tourism in your locality.

Example 8. Checklist of Economic Impacts, Management Measures and PPAPs Category

Increased in tourism jobs Increased in business opportunities New Infrastructure, e.g., better shopping, dining, and /or recreational opportunities in the region because of tourism Rise in property values

Increased employment opportunities

Local hotels display local culture and crafts

Higher cost of rent Local cultural presentations, adhering as close as possible to what is authentic and traditional, should be part of tourist entertainment

Improved opportunities for local business

Nudity in beaches not to be tolerated

Respecting local norms and traditions – religious festivals, dress codes

Engaging in continued research on local culture

Increased funding for public services (e.g. health, police, fire services)

Scanty clothing in churches and other places of worship not allowed e.g. dress code Permission granted prior to entering local villages Respect for the elderly observed

Increased revenue for local government

Common courtesies, e.g. saying thank, encouraged

Rise in the overall cost of living

Researches in universities and other research institutions on local culture and local knowledge promoted

The increase in prices and property values

Coordination with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts undertaken

Increased prices

Again, please ensure that such policies and practices are mainstreamed in your tourism planning, management, monitoring and evaluation.

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-

(Pls. check)

Increased shopping opportunities

Culinary tours featuring local delicacies, and mandating every culinary establishment to promote local food

Description of existing and potential impact

+

Management measure

Programs, Projects, Activities, Policies (PPAPs)

1 2 3 4 5

Mandate a certain percentage of the work force in hotels, resorts, and other establishments to come from the local population. • For example, 80 percent of the work force should come from the LGU Negotiate the percentage during the public consultations • Have a good gender balance in the work force, employing also females Where capable, get management positions and not just blue collar jobs • Consult with the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA) on such rules

Encourage community-based ecotourism enterprises – these include local guides groups, travel agencies and souvenir shops

Engage in capacity-building for the industry sector. These activities include: • Trainings and skills development; • Micro-credit and enhanced financing of tourism projects; and/or • Multi-stakeholder collaboration in the tourism industry.

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Optimizing Local Socio-Economic Benefits

Developing your program Collate all data listed in the succeeding sections, to develop a comprehensive program for managing environmental concerns in tourism in your TDP. More time and research may be needed to validate the initial input. The stakeholders can participate in the analysis of data. Integrating the TDP and other local plans will help ensure that such measures are institutionalized and help make tourism sustainable. Also make sure that the recommendations are implemented, monitored and further improved through the years. Whatever the results of the proposed projects and legislations should be inputted in the TDP.

Developing a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) program for tourism The Philippines is the third most vulnerable country in the world to natural calamities. Our country is also located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, making us prone to earthquakes. Climate change brings more typhoons, floods, droughts and other natural calamities. DRRM will help us reduce risks, loss of lives and destruction of property. Your job is to enhance the capacity of the people to cope with the hazards and minimize the impacts of these disasters.

Understanding DRRM

Develop products to diversify tourism offerings in your LGU

Proper collection and use of fees for tourism, e.g. visitor receipts in attractions, environmental fees. The income gained should contribute to local GDP, LGU income or local economy

Figure 2. Disaster Management Cycle Source: Office of Civil Defense

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• • • •

Hazard is a phenomenon, event, occurrence or human activity that may cause injury, loss of lives and damage to property and the environment. This includes natural calamities such as typhoons, floods, droughts, earthquake, tsunami and human-induced hazards such as fire, wars, epidemics and terrorism; Exposure is about the degree to which people and properties are likely to experience hazards. To reduce exposure, there might be a need to evacuate or relocate tourists; Disaster Risk is the exposure of vulnerable communities to a hazard, as well as the probability of harmful consequences resulting from hazards; and, Capacity or the capability of coping and recovering from the damaging effects of a disaster (e.g. wise use of resources, robust infrastructure, strong and good governance).

Risk is covered by the following formula:

Risk =

Hazard x Vulnerability Capacity

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

DRRM Act of 2010 (Republic Act 10121) defines Disaster Risk Reduction as a systematic effort to analyse and manage the causes of disasters by reducing vulnerabilities and enhancing capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and probability of disaster. The following definitions will help us understand the principles of DRRM:

Typhoon Yolanda, stongest typhoon to hit the Philippines in 2013 had reminded us to keep our DRRM programs in check. To prepare for a DRRM Program, these elements should be present:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Example 9. Checklist of DRRM Program Elements STEPS/ACTIVITIES

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Prevention/mitigation Make a checklist of natural and humanmade hazards in your area

Obtain a multi-hazard map from MGB-DENR or from the Office of the Civil Defense in your region. Plot tourist destinations in the map

Have you assessed the buildings and other physical infrastructure of tourism investments along hazardous areas, eg. fault lines, flood prone areas, landslide areas?

Once the hazards and risks are identified, you might need to relocate tourism establishments and tourists in disaster-prone areas. Retrofit historical sites such as old churches or demolish old buildings that may collapse in the event of an earthquake. Also inspect electrical wiring to prevent outbreaks of fire. After a disaster, conduct damage needs assessment of tourism infrastructure

Is there a green protective wall in your LGU, if your LGU is located in a coastal area and has a history of tsunamis or storm surge, ?

For beaches, a “green wall” of mangrove forests can break the impact of the water during storm surges. Where appropriate, you can construct a flood retaining wall to protect tourism establishments and communities

2. Preparedness Do you have calamity funds that the tourism industry can access?

Calamity funds are needed for easy access during relief and rehabilitation operations

Are there DRRM programs for tourism attractions?

The tourism industry should prepare for natural disasters. After assessing the hazards, further assess the vulnerabilities and capacity of the industry. Organize DRRM teams in tourist attractions. Ensure that community drills e.g. Earthquake drills are conducted in hotels, resorts and other establishments. In addition, DRRM Plans must be formulated for tourist attractions and service providers

Are there early warning systems in tourism attractions?

Early warning systems must be established in destination sites. For example, bells or sirens can ring during floods. It takes several days before assistance can arrive from national agencies so attractions and establishments should have stockpile food and relief goods

Do you have a list of contacts of foreign embassies?

For foreign visitors, make a list of contacts of foreign embassies especially those who frequent your destination so that they can be alerted in case of emergencies of their nationals

Do you have an evacuation and relocation plan for visitors who may be affected by calamities?

Should a disaster strike, evacuate visitors to higher grounds and relocation sites. Be sure that such relocation sites are safe for the visitors e.g. not easily flooded

Do you have a provision for visitors in your DRRM response and relief plan?

Also conduct search and rescue operations of some visitors who are dead or missing. Provide first aid to injured visitors. Distribute relief goods when supplies are cut. In addressing psychological trauma, provide counselling services. Report to embassies death and injuries of foreign visitors

Do you have provisions for energy in cases of disasters?

Solar powered supplies and appliances can be installed for power outage

Do you have access to psychologists who can deliver first-aid counselling in cases of trauma?

Provide professional services by psychologists based in schools and in DSWD to reduce trauma

FINANCIAL AID

Response; and Rehabilitation.

Did you deliver relief goods to tourists and tourism establishments?

Relief goods should contain food, water and other basic needs

Did you relocate tourists to evacuation areas or safe places?

Safe places should be used in relocation until further help will arrives

Did you assist in providing transportation and communications to tourists?

Signals for cell phones will have to be accessed to contact relatives and friends. Transportation may need to be provided to safe areas

4. Rehabilitation Did you evaluate the needs of the tourism industry for rehabilitation?

For rehabilitation, buildings, ecosystems may need to be repaired

Have you provided alternative livelihood for affected tourism workers?

Boats may need to be repaired or new ones purchased. Farmers may need new stock of seeds

Did you provide financial aid to affected tourism-related businesses?

The financial aid can come in the form of donations, grants or soft loans

Others:

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YES

3. Response

Prevention / Mitigation; Preparedness;

Have you done the following to prepare your tourism sites for disasters? Please check if yes.

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PHASE Prevention and Mitigation

Preparedness

Relief

Rehabilitation

ACTIVITY

TIME FRAME

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

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Do you have a DRRM Program covering the tourism industry? Use the following template in creating one.

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References Calanog, L., Reyes, P. &Eugenio, V. (2011). Making Ecotourism Work. Manila, Philippines: Japan International Cooperation Agency. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2003). Department Administrative Order # 30–2003 (DENR-DAO 03-30): Implementing Rules and Regulations of Presidential Decree 1586, Establishing the Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment System. ____________ (2013).Department Administrative Order (DAO) 2013-19 Guidelines on Ecotourism Planning and Management in Protected Areas. Retrieved from http://server2.denr.gov.ph/uploads/rmdd/dao-2013-19.pdf McCool, S. (1996). Limits of Acceptable Change: A Framework for Managing National Protected Areas: Experiences from The United States. Paper presented at Workshop on Impact Management in Marine Parks, sponsored by Maritime Institute of Malaysia, August 13-14, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Jovicic, D. & Dragin, A (2008). The Assessment of Carrying Capacity – A Crucial Tool for Managing Tourism Effects in Tourist Destinations. TURIZAM, 12: 4-11. Republic of the Philippines (n.d.). Philippine Agenda 21

Developing Tourism Products and Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading

8

Tourism Product Development What are tourism products? A tourism product is an object that attracts tourists. There are various levels of a tourism product: core product, main (tangible) product and augmented product. The core product is the unique experience of the tourist while visiting your destination. As a customer, the visitor should experience enjoyment, and a level of comfort and safety. The level of satisfaction is also dependent on meeting the purpose of the trip and his/her needs, based on age, budget, socio-economic status and attributes. The figure below will help you understand the levels of tourism product:

Figure1. Tourism Product

Core Product

(Experience)

Main Product (Tourist activity) Augmented Product (Souvenir)

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

• Understand how tourism products are developed, and promoted to attract tourists and visitors; and • Get oriented with tourism marketing and promotion techniques.

The main (tangible) product includes tourist activities and destinations such as tours, diving and spelunking, etc. which will provide enjoyment. The augmented product includes accommodations, souvenirs and food, which will contribute to an overall experience in your destination.

Attractions gain by clustering. Clustered attractions have better promotional impact thereby providing more revenues for businesses (Gunn, 1979). For tourists, especially those on day tours who have time constraints, clustered attractions become more attractive. In today’s mass tourism, the minor and isolated attractions require too much time and effort by the visitor to reach and is seldom worth it (Gunn, 1979). Attraction themes are best carried out when attractions are grouped together, physically or by tour (garden tours, historic tours, architectural tours, and cruises). National parks are examples of attraction clusters, offering many complementary nature attractions such as beautiful scenery, hiking trails, wildlife conservation parks, challenging topographic features, and outdoor recreation sites (Gunn, 1979). Thus, accommodation, transportation, dining and entertainment, attractions and tours normally constitute a tourism product (with an object that serves as a magnet for tourists: e.g. Taal Volcano). All these elements are meant to give the tourist a worthy experience. According to the Philippine National Tourism Development Plan 2011- 2016, the Philippines can capitalize on its diverse tourism assets and markets by positioning and marketing a portfolio of nine (9) core products:

9 Core products

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

1) Nature-based; 2) Cultural tourism products able to deliver higher growth, higher length of stay and expenditure, and wider-spread benefits that will appeal to long haul markets in Europe, Middle East and North America, and selected markets such as Australia and niche segments in the regional markets (China, South Korea, Japan, Hongkong, Taiwan and Singapore); 3) Sun and beach; 4) Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE); 5) Leisure, entertainment and shopping;

Introduction

6) Diving and marine sports tourism products capable of attracting large regional markets (specially China, South Korea, Japan, India, Taiwan, Malaysia, Australia, and USA); 7) Nautical and cruise; 8) Health/wellness/retirement; and

9) Education tourism products capable of delivering strong future growth with long average length of stay and expenditure — appealing to European, Middle East and North American markets, and selected markets such as Australia, and the South Korean and China markets for educational tourism.

For purposes of product development in your LGU, the tourism product will be categorized in this Guidebook as the following:

There is a core product and a peripheral or optional product. The core product includes the right kinds of accommodation, restaurant and recreational facilities together with tourist attractions. The peripheral product builds onto this, adding the possibilities of other tourist attractions in the form of various scenic, historic, leisure, amusement, entertainment, shopping, recreational sites and installations. An ideal destination represents a cluster of all these components (Doswell, 1997).



a. Destination b. Circuit c. Attraction d. Tour

Each of these product levels will be assessed and developed, based on what is most needed by your LGU.

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Understanding and developing your product can be done through various tools: a. Use of the value chain analysis. “A value chain describes the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production, delivery to consumers, and final disposal after use” (Kaplinsky and Morris, 2002). Figure 2. Value Chain

Travel agent

Transport Company

Hotel Restaurant

Site Operator Cultural Group

These activities can be coordinated by a tour operator, and thus a tour becomes a product by itself. • What are the gaps in your value chain? • How can they be improved?

Table 1. Product Development and Improvement Product category

Products

New/improved options

Attractions Natural

Protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, flagship species, islands, beaches, volcanoes, caves

Heritage

Museums, monuments, ruins

Activities

e.g. zip line

Cultural activities

Songs, dances

Convention centers

e.g. Philippine international Convention Center

Eco-adventure tour , mountaineering/ trekking

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

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Assessing Tourism Products

Product category

New/improved options

Fiestas

Town fiestas

Songs and dances

Ati-atihan dance, native dances and songs of the region

Religious and cultural events

e.g. Penafrancia festival, Higantes Festival

Transportation Land

Bus, FX, Jeepneys, tricycles

Air

Airplanes

Water

Boats

Accommodation

Hotels, hostels, resorts,

Food and beverages

Native delicacies

Merchandise

Souvenir items

Product development improves the profitability of tourism businesses by increasing the number of products and services available for tourists – as well as the number of visits, length of stay and spending by individual visitors .

b. The 5As Framework The 5As Framework “encourages LGUs to adopt a more strategic approach in tourism development, and promotes cooperation with their neighbouring areas to cover for components that may be lacking in their locality in order to create a seamless tourism experience” (Alvia and Libosada, 2009). Figure 3. 5As Framework

Arrival • Pre-arrival marketing • Air/sea/land transport • Air/sea ports

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Products

Access

Accommodation

Attractions

Activities

• Roads

• Hotels

• Natural

• Rest

• Terminals

• Lodging

• Human-made

• Recreation

• Related infrastructure

• Restaurants

• Education

Figure 4. Tourism Product Life Cycle Life cycle of the Tourism product

Stagnation

De

cli

La un ch

ne

ery cov

Dis

Mediterranean Tourism Life Cycle Model Source: Barcelona Field Studies Center

STAGE 1: DISCOVERY During the early “discovery stage” of the cycle a small number of unobtrusive visitors arrive seeking “unspoiled” destinations. These early “explorer” tourists generally speak the language and identify with the local culture. The social impact in this stage is generally small and resident attitudes are fairly positive towards tourism.

STAGE 2: LAUNCH This is the stage when the number of incoming tourists increases. The host community responds to the increasing numbers of tourist by providing facilities. Businesses remain family based and the visitor-resident relationship is still harmonious. Later in this stage, visitor numbers increase and the community becomes a tourist resort. Outside interests become involved developing businesses and tourist facilities.

STAGE 3: STAGNATION

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Tourism products experience a life cycle. Product development takes into consideration the life cycle so that corrective action can be undertaken to ensure that tourists will continue to come back and patronize your product.

Number of Tourists

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

c. Use of Tourism Product Life Cycle

The stage in which saturation is reached. The quality of tourist services falls, demand levels off, and the environmental degradation of the tourist destination begins to cause alarm. The tourist destination at this stage is said to have reached “maturity”.

LGUs can act as catalysts in the tourism industry. Tourism product development can be undertaken in different levels, namely, a) Destination planning b) Circuit planning c) Attraction planning d) Tour planning and packaging Tourism planning is primarily economic development planning that is directed towards tourism-related objectives. However, tourism planning differs when undertaken by the public sector and the private sector. In the public sector, most planning is done by different levels of government. Public sector tourism planning includes consideration of economic and social factors, land use policies and zoning controls, environmental concerns, infrastructure development, employment concerns, and the provision of public services. On the other hand, private sector tourism planning is usually focused on investment objectives involving various aspects of product development, building and design, financial feasibility, marketing, management and operations (University of Hawaii, 2013). Attraction planning involves plans for specific sites, e.g. protected areas. Planning for events such as fiestas is usually the task of LGUs. These fiestas should be based on cultural research and be true to the genuine cultural features of the area e.g. costume, natural features. The themes for fiestas should not be concocted just for marketing purposes.

The tour packaging process involves: 1. Research and design, identifying and selecting attractions to be visited; 2. Building your itinerary, considering modes of transportation, travel time, delivery of services, visitation time; 3. Negotiating and booking; 4. Proper costing and pricing based on marketing segments (e.g. schools, budget tours); 5. Handling clients and suppliers; and, 6. Evaluating tours.

LGUs can improve delivery of tours by: 1. Developing the tourism loop – expanding possible attractions and improving the quality, capacitating the barangays and establishments to deliver new and improved attractions; 2. Improving access through improved farm-to-market roads; and. 3. Improving public facilities such as toilets, transportation hubs, parks.

STAGE 4: DECLINE The stage which represents the current state of mature tourist destinations. Falling profits lead to foreign-owned businesses withdrawing and the community is left to “pick up the pieces”. Select a tourist product to work on e.g., something that your LGU is known for. • In what stage is it in? • How can it be improved? • What new and improved products can you offer?

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Developing New Products

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1 2 3 4 5

Festivals should be based on heritage e.g. historical facts, unique cultural features.

Souvenir products should not destroy the biodiversity and geological features of the place (e.g. no coral reefs should be gathered).

Decent and sensitive portrayal of women and children should be promoted.

Historical buildings should be preserved and restoration of building must be authentic.

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

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Some Ethical Considerations in Product Development and Marketing

Food served must be sourced locally using local cuisine.

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Marketing Tourism Products and Promoting the LGU as a Tourism Destination The purpose of marketing and promoting tourism (or any other product) is primarily to increase the number of visitors and income of tourism enterprises. In the past, this leaves most marketing activities and promotion efforts to individual entrepreneurs. Given the growing recognition of the larger role that tourism plays in local economy nowadays, the responsibility of marketing and promoting tourism in a destination requires careful planning and concerted actions of various tourism stakeholders.

It is best to start marketing and promotion activities once the tourism attractions, services and transport access have been developed. LGUs are encouraged to undergo tourism planning process prior to any promotion work. Even LGUs with thriving tourism industry should constantly revisit their tourism plan and marketing and promotions strategies to ensure the quality of tourism.

The LGU, tourism businesses and non-government organizations, and communities need to work together in promoting their municipality, city or province in order to maximize the benefits of increasing tourism receipts and manage the impacts of visitor influx into the locality. All of them should promote their local destinations, e.g. brochures of local sites should be found in shopping centers and malls. Marketing the LGU as a tourism destination entails knowing what tourism assets, products and services are available in the locality, the prices at which they are sold, the current promotion tools and the place or distribution channels through which potential visitors can avail them. It is equally important to consider how the existing products and services are packaged in a distinct way to depict a unique brand for the LGU. These four ‘Ps’: product, price, promotion, and place become part of the LGU’s destination marketing strategy. These lay down the actions that the local government and tourism stakeholders plan to undertake to sell the LGU as a tourism destination.

The LGU’s tourism efforts differ from those of individual tourism enterprises. While entrepreneurs aim at promoting their own attraction, product or service to specific market segments, the LGU should take into consideration the whole of the local tourism industry. It has the responsibility of ensuring that everyone benefits from tourism. This requires a unified marketing strategy for all tourism stakeholders within the destination. Given the cluster approach in tourism development that the National Tourism Development Plan espouses, LGUs are encouraged to coordinate the development of tourism circuits that connect different attractions in two or more cities or municipalities. The provincial government can take the lead in marketing and promoting various tourist attractions in different LGUs connected through a circuit. It is important to emphasize that LGUs should aim at complementation, rather than competition when it comes to the development of tourism attractions and products.

Table 2. Levels of Tourism Marketing and Promotions Coordination within a Destination

Destination

Coordination

Example

Country

Top Destinations and Regions

Region 2: Batanes-Cagayan CoastBabuyan Islands Cluster

Region

Tourism Cluster Destinations (groups of provinces and or cities) within the region

Catanduanes-Camarines Sur -Camarines Norte Tourism Link

Province

Municipalities and cities within the province

Bohol Country-side Tour; Ilocos Norte Paoay Kumakaway Campaign

City/ Municipality

Attractions and establishments within the city/ municipality

Heritage City of Vigan

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Role of LGUs in Tourism Marketing and Promotion

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis in Tourism Marketing The SWOT analysis has been introduced and discussed in the portion of this Guidebook on Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan as a tool for tourism strategy formulation. Market analysis may also be undertaken using the SWOT. This tool can also help the LGU formulate its marketing strategies. In conducting the SWOT analysis, team approach and brainstorming are encouraged during which the participants are suggested to write all their ideas down prior to examining them one by one (Briggs, 2001).

Table 3. Aspects of Tourism destination to be considered in the SWOT Analysis Strengths Location

Is it accessible, convenient, obvious and easy to find?

Staff/ Tourism Human Resource

Are they professional and Staff/ Tourism friendly, or do they have some Human Resource special skills such as language proficiency which make your destination superior compared to your competitor? Do you offer quality services Services or comfort or perhaps an exceptionally broad range of services?

Do they need more training or perhaps you have staff shortages?

Do you have a high profile, strong Reputation and established market, or use Image innovative marketing methods?

Could the municipality/ city/ provinces image or reputation be better?

Service

Marketing

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Location

Is the destination inaccessible or difficult to reach?

Could the services be more efficient or better in some way?

Introduction Internal Problems

Opportunities

Is the LGU reactive instead of proactive in management?

Threats

Trends or Fashion

Increased interest in certain activities, like marathons, or nature trips

Competition

New development introduced by a competitor

Change in Population

Increase in the population of a group (i.e. senior citizens, with higher disposable income)

Economic conditions

Recession, high inflation or unemployment (domestic or abroad)

Development

Technological changes (i.e. growing internet service subscriptions)

Promotional Opportunities

Presence of activities such as trade and tourism fairs and exhibitions conducted by national tourism organizations

Adapted with slight modification from Briggs, 2001

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Weaknesses

Looking at the aspects listed and explained above and considering the local conditions, the local tourism officer and planner as well as the stakeholders invited to participate in the analysis may use the worksheet in Annex H found in the main Guidebook Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan to indicate the LGU’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a tourism destination. SWOT analysis participants can later on transform the above table into the SWOT Matrix in order to formulat strategies.

The Marketing Strategy The marketing strategy for a tourism destination will help the LGU and tourism stakeholders define the following:

Image of the LGU as a tourism destination Target markets Types of

Timing of

Promotional techniques Promotional efforts Introduction

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

LGUs may wish to consider the above aspects in identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats but the choices are not limited only to those in this list. Local tourism officers and planners as well as the stakeholders conducting the SWOT analysis are encouraged to look at the other aspects of the local destination.

The LGU's Image, Brand and Unique Selling Point Destination Image An effective image has the power to invoke specific notions, impressions and perceptions in the tourist’s mind, which somehow provides a preview of the destination (Kotler, Haider, & Rein 1993 as cited in Awuah B & Reinert, 2011). It is the totality of “emotional and aesthetic qualities” (Gunn, 1998 as cited in Echtner & Richie, 2003) of a destination. One’s image of a destination greatly affects his or her decision whether to visit your area or choose another one. This model presents “seven phases of the travel experience” that shape the image of a destination for an individual. From these phases, there are three states of image formation identified.

Table 4. Phases of Travel Experience

Phases

Type of image

Accumulation of mental images about vacation experiences

Organic

Modification of those images by further information

Induced

Source of information NONCOMMERCIAL • General media, such as news reports, magazines, books, movies • Education such as school courses • Opinions of family and friends

COMMERCIAL • Promotional materials such as travel brochures, travel agents and travel guidebooks, advertisements

Decision to take a vacation trip Travel to the destination Participation at the destination Return home Modification of images based on the vacation experience

Actual Experience

Derived from Gunn (1988) as described in Echtner & Ritchie (2003).

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• First hand experiences that modify one’s initial image of the destination

What comes to your mind when you think about ( Name of LGU ) ? Answers to this question may be consolidated to provide the local tourism officers some pictures and characteristics of their LGU from outsiders’ point-of-view. Local tourism planners and officers should also be aware and constantly updated of the LGU’s social, economic, political and ecological conditions as all these necessarily affect the image it is projecting to the world. Partnerships and constant communication with stakeholders in the academe, private sector and community will help the local government assess local conditions.

Destination Brand A brand is considered the most effective and powerful way to promote a tourism attraction (Di Marino, n.d.) as well as a whole destination. It differentiates the LGU from competitors and answers the “critical need for destinations to create a unique identity” (Calanog, Reyes & Eugenio, 2012). It is “the essence of a product that makes it different from all other products in the eyes of its potential customers – its competitive identity” (School of Travel Industry Management, n.d.). A destination brand may be a symbol, name, term or design, or combination of these elements that are associated with the place (World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission, 2009). It should not be a “vague statement that locals have dreamed up to improve community self-image” (Acharya, 2010). “Destination branding alone cannot change a nation’s image” (Acharya, 2010) or that of any destination. A local politician’s “pet” idea should not also be mistaken for the locality’s brand (World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission, 2009).

Introduction

Characteristics of a good brand Attractive

Exciti ng

Memorable

Simple

Unique

Examples of destination branding are the following:

Banaue Stairway to the Sky Vigan Old World City

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

To get an idea of people’s image (how others perceive) of the LGU, here is a simple exercise that can be undertaken. This simple question below may be asked from visitors or non-residents:

Unique Selling Point (USP) A destination’s unique selling point refers to any aspect that sets it apart from others. It can be a unique experience, culture or environment offered by the existing tourism products in the locality. Examples of a USP for a local destination are the Philippine Tarsier and Chocolate Hills of Bohol.

The Target Market LGUs that are already into tourism should have the basic idea of who their visitors are. Those LGUs that are already ahead in tourism keep and maintain an inventory of tourism data and other resources that will be useful in determining the appropriate marketing strategy. However, for LGUs who are yet to start taking tourism seriously, there has to be a way to systematically know their current visitors. “It is easier to attract more of the same type of people than to attract completely new markets. This is because they already enjoy what you have to offer and presumably understand their needs” (Acharya, 2010). To get these data and information from the visitors you may conduct interview and survey. Please see the enhanced sample questionnaire based on the Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units developed by the Department of Tourism and JICA (Calanog, Reyes & Eugenio, 2010) in supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry.

Market Segmentation There is a large number of tourists and it will be quite ambitious and unrealistic to target all of them to visit your LGU. A major consideration here are the current offerings—attractions and facilities— available in the locality. This requires the local tourism officer and stakeholders to decide on specific market segments to target for the marketing of the LGU as a tourist destination. Market segmentation entails “dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have distinct needs, characteristics, or behavior and who might require separate products” (Armstrong & Kotler, 2005). The following presents the common market segmentation methods used in tourism marketing:

Methods Characteristics

Geographic Segmentation • Nations • States • Regions • Provinces • Cities • Municipalities

Demographic Segmentation • Age • Gender • Income • Occupation

Psychographic Segmentation • Social class • Lifestyle • Personality

Behavior Segmentation • Knowledge • Attitude • Use of and response to the tourism product

Adapted with modifications from Kotler, Bowen and Makens (2006)

Given the set of data that the LGU collects at present using the DOT and JICA Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units, the LGU can start a combination of geographic and demographic segmentation methods. “Segmentation usually involves combining the above method so you can develop a complete profile for different market segments” (Kotler, Bowen & Makens, 2006). To know more about other segmentation methods used in tourism marketing today, please refer to the Handbook on Tourism Market Segmentation by the World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission. The handbook presents various segmentation methodologies the LGU may use depending on the available data at hand. The handbook also proposes ways on how to generate the data needed to further subdivide the market. In conducting data gathering for market segmentation, it is suggested that the LGU coordinate with local tourism stakeholders in the private sector and non-government organizations. Results of service or product satisfaction surveys that tourism establishments periodically conduct among its customers may be used to analyze not only the lifestyles of visitors to the area but also their attitudes towards and motivations for visiting the destination.

Palawan The Last Frontier Davao

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Land of Plenty

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Promotion refers to “the various methods used to sell a product or a service” (Briggs, 2001). Promoting a destination entails a “process of communicating with selected target markets” (McIntyre, Hetherington & Inskeep, 1993) in the aim of increasing the number of visitors, through the following means:

Printed materials

Advertising

Audio-visual materials

Exhibition attendance

Public relations

Internet and social media

You can also include as marketing channels and place of promotions various embassies, international groups and business establishments. Collaterals and other products for your destination can be disseminated through them. Depending on the target market, the LGU needs to create a promotional message that capture what the destination has to offer to tourist. It should also contain the destination’s brand. For the chosen promotional tools to stand out, they should be evaluated based on the following “AIDA principles” (World Tourism Organization, 1993):

A I DA Grab Attention

Appeal to readers’/ audiences’ Interest

Arouse the desire to visit the Destination

Urge the reader to take Action

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

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Promotional Tools

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The LGU may seek assistance from the Tourism Promotions Board (TBP) for promotion strategies and techniques to be undertaken to encourage more visitors, especially foreign tourists, to come and visit the local attractions within the destination.

Type

Examples

Printed materials

• Leaflets • Brochures

Audio-visual materials

• Video-clips • Films

Public relations

• Lobbying for greater access to the destination from concerned government agencies • Positive media coverage such as press releases • Linking with the press and maintaining media contacts

Advertising

• Paid tourism campaign using mass media e.g. TV, radio, newspapers and magazines, posters and advertising spaces

Exhibition attendance

• National/ regional tourism fairs

Internet and social media

• Websites • Social networking sites - Facebook -Twitter, etc • Travel Blogs

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

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References Acharya, P. (2010). Destination branding [presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/ peshwaacharya/destination-branding?from_search=2. Awuah, G. B. & Reinert, V. (2011). Potential tourist’s image of a tourist destination: The case of Brazil. Retrieved from www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:452288/FULLTEXT01.pdf Briggs, S. (2001). Successful tourism marketing: a practical handbook. London: Kogan Page Ltd. Calanog, Reyes, & Eugenio (2012). Making ecotourism work: A manual on establishing community-based ecotourism enterprise (CBEE) in the Philippines. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Makati, Philippines. Department of Tourism & Japan International Cooperation Agency 2007, Tourism statistics manual for local government units, DOT & JICA, Manila: Authors. Di Marino, E (undated), The strategic dimension of destination image. An analysis of the French Riviera image from the Italian tourists’ perceptions. Echtner, C. & Richie, J. (2003). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal Of Tourism Studies 31(4): 3-13. Kotler, P., Bowen, J. & Makens, J. (2006). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (4th edition). Retrieved from wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/2393/2451019/PPT/ch08.ppt‎. Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2013). Principles of Marketing (15th edition). Prentice Hall. Larsen, N. (2010). Market segmentation - a framework for determining the right target customers. Denmark: Aarhus School of Business. Retrieved from http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/11462/BA.pdf. McIntyre, G., Hetherington, A. & Inskeep, E. (1993). Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners. Madrid: World Tourism Organization. School of Travel Industry Management (undated), Destination marketing. University of Hawaii- Manoa. World Tourism Organization & European Travel Commission (2009). Handbook on tourism destinations branding. Madrid: Authors.

Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Supplemental reading

9

• Understand the existing local, national and international tourism standards; • Adopt these standards, when possible, in the LGU; and • Develop their own local standards based on the local situation.

Accreditation Principles and Practices Accreditation and standardization will help ensure that your LGU is a quality tourism destination. You can adopt the following national and international standards in your LGU. You may also pattern your standards from the practices of other LGUs. Certain sectors in the industry have also initiated their own standards and accreditation process.

1

National Standards

The Department of Tourism (DOT), through its Office of Tourism Standards and Regulations, prescribes and regulates standards for the operation of the tourism industry. Primary tourism enterprises shall be periodically required to obtain accreditation from DOT as to the quality of their facilities and standard of services. Accreditation shall be voluntary for secondary tourism enterprises. Republic Act 9593 or the Tourism Act of 2009 defines primary tourism enterprises as: travel and tour services; land, sea and air transport services exclusively for tourist use; accommodation establishments; convention and exhibition organizers; tourism estate management services; and such other enterprises as may be identified by the Tourism Secretary, after due consultation with concerned sectors. Secondary tourism enterprises refer to all other tourism enterprises not covered by the ones earlier mentioned.

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

The DOT also has the power and the duty to issue tourism advisories pertaining to tourism enterprises that were found to have violated the terms of their accreditation. The statement that the advisory shall only be lifted upon continued compliance of the enterprise with the terms of accreditation. To give value to accreditation, only accredited enterprises can be beneficiaries of promotional, training and other programs of the DOT and its attached agencies and corporations.

d e t i d e r c

The standards set by the Department of Tourism vary by category (these standards can be accessed through http://www.tourism.gov.ph/sitepages/TourismStandards.aspx).

Category

Accreditation

Agri-tourism-farm site

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of agri-tourism / farm site

Ambulatory clinics

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of ambulatory clinics

Amended rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of mountain guides

Amended rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of mountain guides

Amending the tourism-related establishments code of 1989

Amending the tourism- related establishment code of 1989 and adding a new provision thereof

Calesa

Rules and regulations governing the accreditation of calesas providing transport services to tourists

Cave guides

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of cave guides

Foreign exchange dealers

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of foreign exchange dealers

Gallery

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of gallery

Hotels, tourist inns, motels, apartelles, resorts, pension houses and other accommodation establishments

Rules and regulations to govern accreditation of hotels, tourist inns, motels, apartelle units, resorts, pension houses and other accommodation establishment

Mountain guides

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of mountain guides

Revised rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of spa establishments

Revised rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of spa establishments

Spa

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of spa

Tertiary hospitals for medical tourism

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of tertiary hospitals for medical tourism

Tourism-related establishments

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of tourism-related establishments

Travel and tours services

Rules and regulations to govern the accreditation of travel and tour services

The standards of the DOT can be adopted by the LGU through an LGU ordinance. The following template can guide you in drafting your LGUs ordinance.

Ac -1

What are the standards set by the Department of Tourism?

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Ordinance No.______: Ordinance prescribing standards for tourism development in the Municipality/City of ___________ Whereas section 17 of the Local Government Code mandates the local government to promote tourism in their respective jurisdiction Whereas the local government has identified tourism as one of the engine for economic development Whereas the DOT has prescribed minimum standards for the development of tourism Wherefore the local government will create local standards to govern the development of tourism in the LGU. Now therefore, this body in session assembled; RESOLVE, to adopt as it hereby adopts… EFFECTIVITY. This ordinance shall take effect in 201__. Enacted on __________ ___, 201___.

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Republic of the Philippines Office of the Governor/Mayor Province/City/Municipality of _____________

----I HEREBY CERTIFY to the correctness of the foregoing ordinance which was duly adopted by the SanggunianPanlalawigan/Panlunsod /Bayan during its regular session on __________.

SIGNED:

ATTESTED:

APPROVED:

__________________ Secretary to the SP/SB

__________________ Presiding Officer

__________________ Governor/Mayor

2 ASEAN Tourism Standards The integration of ASEAN member-countries requires that the Philippines meet the ASEAN’s Tourism Standards. Meeting these standards will increase the competitiveness of Philippine destinations in the tourism market. The 10 ASEAN member countries —Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam— have considered standardizing tourism services so that ASEAN becomes a “Quality Single Destination”. One measure in the Roadmap for Integration of Tourism Sector to realize the ASEAN Economic Community is the establishment of the ASEAN Tourism Standards (ASEAN, 2007).

The six (6) ASEAN Tourism Standards and their basic definitions are described below:

6 ASEAN Tourism Standards

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Example 1: LGU Ordinance Prescribing Tourism Standards

1. Green Hotel. This is a hotel which is environmentally-friendly and adopts energy conservation measures. 2. Local Food and Beverage Services. These are forms of services where traditional and typical food and beverages are produced and/or sold by local people in food stalls, local restaurants or other similar outlets. 3. Public Restroom. This booth is shared by all people, and this facility should be connected to a waste pipe and must have a flushing apparatus. 4. Home Stay. This alternative tourism facility is where tourists can stay with the host’s family in the same house. That way, tourists will experience the everyday way of life of the family and the local community. There is an existing ASEAN Homestay Standard that may be adapted by member states like the Philippines in compliance to the ASEAN Tourism Strategic Plan (ATSP): 2011–2015. 5. Ecotourism. This pertains to responsible traveling to destinations with ecological diversity that involves activities, environmental and cultural conservation measures, and community participation providing benefits for the local people in the country. 6. Tourism Heritage Site. It is an outstanding cultural or heritage area in the country that is protected, conserved and managed in a sustainable manner — provided the site has easy access and support facilities for visiting tourists. * Cultural Heritage. This refers to outstanding monuments and groups of buildings in a country that has authentic, historical, archaeological, scientific, anthropological and ethnic value/s. * Natural Heritage. This refers to outstanding physical, biological and geological formations including its habitat and species that may be threatened and endangered.

ASEAN Standards for homestay can be adopted as part of the moves to create a single, quality tourism destination. The standards cover areas such as accommodation, cleanliness in food preparation, eco-friendliness, involvement of visitors in local activities, with homestay operators free of criminal records and in good health.

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1 2 3 4 5 6

Awareness raising of stakeholders and training. Disseminate information and initiate capability building activities for tourism stakeholders.

Application. Accomplish application forms with attached documents, then evaluate qualifications.

Audit. Do on-site audit: interview, audit without prior notice, observation and checklists.

Audit report. Advice all concerned about deficiencies, if any.

Correct all deficiencies.

Monitoring. Check the standard maintenance at least every two years, such as checking the use of logo, and the certificate itself.

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Guidelines for Certification of ASEAN Tourism Standards

3 Tourist Attraction Standard in China China has five (5) Tourist Attraction Rating Categories (TARCs): A (1A, the lowest level), AA (2A), AAA (3A), AAAA (4A) and AAAAA (5A, the highest level). The bases of these categories are the importance of the site, transportation, tours, safety, cleanliness and sanitation. The China National Tourism Administration administers these ratings based on the code Categories and Rating Standard of Tourist Attractions. Your LGU may adopt such a rating in your area to raise the interest of potential tourists to visit the attraction

4 Industry Standards The Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) certifies members and conducts technical diving courses and recreational drives. The courses are carried out by a scuba instructor using standardized knowledge sessions. Local industry associations e.g. Cagayan de Oro Hotel and Restaurant Association (COHARA) supports and promotes the DOT standards.

5 LGU Standards The LGUs follow the DOT’s standards. However, the Local Government Code of 1991 mandated the regulation of tourism enterprises and activities. As such, the standards and policies on fees and charges including environmental charges, fees for services, can be set by the LGU. For example, the LGU can set rules and regulations for entrance fees in public facilities, taxi fares and jeepney fares to and from destinations, solid waste management standards, anti-littering regulations, building architecture and the like.

6 Health and Safety Standards and Regulations Buildings for tourism purposes should comply with all building codes in the country. The Sanitation Code sets the standards for sanitation in hotels, resorts and other buildings. The Fire Code also sets standards for fire prevention e.g. fire exits. The National Building Code and the National Structural Code of the Philippines determine the area requirements for basements, alleys, etc. These should follow the Environmental Impact Assessment/Environmental Impact Statement Process based on DENR DAO # 25. The LGU through building official conducts inspections for compliance to these regulations.

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The Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) sets standard fees for guides, entrance fees, rentals and parking fees for protected areas. As part of the PAMB, your LGU contributes to the formulation of these standards and must likewise comply with these. In addition, DENR DAO 2009-09 provides for the standard design and specification of signs, buildings, facilities and other infrastructure that may be installed and/ or constructed within protected areas. LGUs can either adopt these guidelines or provide a more detailed guidelines.

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Gender Considerations in Tourism

The Magna Carta for Women (Republic Act 9710) upholds women’s rights and freedoms. Some practices promoting gender sensitivity can guide you in formulating your own standards in the form of an ordinance. The standards can be inputted in developing your local tourism code. Republic Act 9262 or an Act Defining Violence Against Women and Their Children prohibits sexual abuse, psychological violence, treating women and children as sex objects, human trafficking, etc. also applies to the tourism industry. Supplementary Reading 11 - Relevant Laws, Policies and Tourism-related Literature, of the Tourism Guidebook contains a Gender and Development (GAD) Checklist for the tourism sector.

Considerations

Yes

No

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

7 Rules and Regulations Set by Attractions

Do your facilities have a breastfeeding and diaper-changing areas? Are there segregated comfort rooms for males and females in tourism attractions and facilities?

9 Considerations for Persons with Disabilities Facilities should be constructed for persons with disabilities in tourism facilities such as hotels, resorts and restaurants to improve access.

Considerations

Yes

No

Are there wheelchair ramps in hotels, restaurants and other tourism infrastructure? Are there transportation facilities for PWDs? Are there toilets designed for PWDs? Are there parking lots near sidewalks? Are hotel employees trained to give advice on accessibility for PWDs? Others:

Source: Adapted from Disabled World Travel, http://www.disabled-world.com/travel/

10 Considering the Rights of Indigenous People The Indigenous People’s Rights Act (Republic Act 8371) protects the rights of indigenous people. Their culture and ancestral domain should be protected while developing tourism in your area.

Do women’s comfort rooms have provision for urinals and toilets for children?

Considerations

Are there provisions for sale of sanitary pads and other needs? Do you have bidet or tabo in the women’s comfort rooms?

Are the IPs provided with tourism-related livelihood opportunities whenever possible or appropriate?

Are tour guides oriented on preventing abuse of women?

Is the privacy of the IP communities respected by tourists during visits?

Is there gender balance in providing guiding and other services related to tourism?

Is free prior and informed consent sought before developing tours or facilities in their ancestral land?

Others:

Is the culture of the IPs depicted authentically or accurately in your tourism products? Others:

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Yes

No

Special considerations should be made to make travel comfortable for senior citizens and the elderly due to their physical fragility. Republic Act No. 7432, as amended by Republic Act No. 9257, otherwise known as the “Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003” identifies privileges of senior citizens that are also applied to the tourism industry.

Considerations

Yes

No

Do you have special seats for senior citizens and the elderly in public transportation facilities or other public areas? Do you have express lanes for senior citizens and the elderly in queuing for public services, e.g. transportation, banks?

Do the tourism services apply the necessary discounts for senior citizens and the elderly? Do you have health facilities nearby to cater to the health needs of senior citizens? Others:

LGUs Control in Tourism Development

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

Supplemental reading 9 Institutionalizing Standards for Tourism

11

Considerations for Senior Citizens and the Elderly

References ASEAN Tourism Standards (n.d.). ASEAN Tourism standards. Retrieved from http://www.visitmyphilippines.com/ index.php?title=ASEANTourismStandards&func=all&pid=874&tbl=1 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2009). DENR DAO 2009-09 Standard Design and Specification of Signs, Buildings, Facilities and Other Infrastructure that may be Installed and/ or Constructed within Protected Areas. Retrieved from http://www.denr.gov.ph/section-policies/laws.php?sort=dt&page=8&ord er=&filter=&filterID=&tomonth=&dateval=true Department of Tourism Standards (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tourism.gov.ph/sitepages/TourismStandards.aspx Disabled World Travel http://www.disabled-world.com/travel/ Republic of the Philippines (n.d.).National Structural Code of the Philippines. ______________________ (1972).Republic Act 6541: The National Building Code. ______________________ (1997).Republic Act 8371: Indigenous People’s Rights Act. ______________________ (2004a). Republic Act 9262: An Act Defining Violence Against Women and their Children. ______________________ (2004b). Republic Act No. 7432, as amended by Republic Act No. 9257: The Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003.

The LGU can control tourism development and standards based on the LGU’s vision-mission of tourism development, land use, thrusts of tourism, theme for tourism development (e.g. Heritage cities such as the City of Vigan, Ilocos Sur).

______________________ (2009a). Republic Act 9593: Tourism Act of 2009.

While accreditation is the function of the DOT, your LGU is responsible for implementing the ordinance on tourism standards under the leadership of your mayor.

______________________(2009b). Republic Act 9710: Magna Carta for Women.

You must remember that you are responsible in providing tourism services to the highest standards that your LGU can adopt, and thus be the “master of your destiny” in tourism.

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Organizing a Local Tourism Office

10

Supplemental reading

• Understand the legal framework in organizing a local tourism office; • Determine the need to organize a local tourism office; and • Understand the roles and functions of a local tourism office and a local tourism officer.

The LGU must establish within its over-all structure an institutional framework that will support tourism development. Operationally, this will include the establishment of tourism office and the corresponding staff complement within the LGU organizational structure that shall be primarily responsible for the development and implementation of TDPs (Alvia and Libosada, 2009).

Is tourism a significant industry in the municipality, city or province? If the answer is YES, the LGU is mandated to appoint a permanent tourism officer position, by virtue of the policy and legal framework provided in RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) and RA 9593 (Tourism Act of 2009)

A province, city or municipality must meet the following criteria as espoused by the Department of Tourism, if the area considers tourism as a significant industry: 1. The area is identified as a priority cluster in the Tourism Development Areas (TDAs), as stated in the National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) 2011–2016; 2. The area is business-friendly (Seal of Good Financial Management); and 3. The area has a minimum of 100 tourist arrivals per month.

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

Policy and Legal Framework in Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Meanwhile, Republic Act 9593 (the Tourism Act of 2009) stipulates the mandatory appointment of a permanent position for a tourism officer. In coordination with the DOT’s regional offices, every province, city or municipality in which tourism is a significant industry shall establish a tourist information and assistance center in order to assist tourists and tourism enterprises. The Tourism Act further states that DOT must ensure that local TDPs and projects are properly coordinated, integrated, prioritized and implemented accordingly with those of the National Government. The DOT delegates certain powers, functions and services to the regional offices, in consultation with LGUs in implementing tourism policies, plans, programs and projects.

Organization of a Local Tourism Office Government tourism offices at the national, regional and local levels typically are organized according to functional needs or activities. These functions are categorized into planning and development; marketing services, statistics and research; and education and training (World Tourism Organization, 1998). Implementing these functions is dependent on the number of staff in a local tourism office. The size of this office depends on the size or level of development of tourism in the area, as well as the financial capacity of the LGU. In 2013, the province of Batangas, for example, had 24 staff in its tourism office (12 permanent, 10 casual, 2 job order) since the province is a major domestic tourism destination, and is a first-income class province. On the other hand, the province of Compostela Valley had only seven staff (1 permanent, 2 casual, 4 job order) in its tourism office though the province is planning to create more positions (from 7 to at least 15). The Davao del Norte Provincial Tourism Office is manned by five personnel (1 permanent, 1 co-terminus, 2 casual and 1 job order) 1 Meanwhile, the Local Government Code (LGC) states that the Sanggunian Bayan / Panlungsod / Panlalawigan may decide on matters concerning the organization of a local tourism office, pursuant to certain provisions:

• The tourism office may maintain existing offices not mentioned in subsection (a) and (b) hereof (mandatory and optional position); create such other offices as maybe necessary to carry out the purposes of the municipal government; consolidate the functions of any office with those of another in the interest of efficiency and economy (RA 7160).



• The tourism officer has the responsibility to determine the duties and powers of officials and employees of the tourism office subject to the relevant provisions of the Code (RA 7160).



• The tourism office is also empowered to determine the positions, salaries, wages, allowances and other emoluments and benefits of the officials and employees paid wholly or mainly from municipal/city/ provincial funds and provide for expenditures necessary for the proper conduct of programs, projects, services, and activities related to tourism of the municipal/city/provincial government (RA 7160).

The organization of a local tourism office can be realized through the passage of an ordinance on the re-organization of the structure and staffing pattern of a municipality, city or province (see Annex 3).

Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 provides the legal basis for the organization of a local tourism office. The LGC suggests that any local government unit can create and staff any office as it deems fit and necessary. An LGU may opt to organize one based on its service requirements and financial capability.

The local tourism office can be under the Office of the City Mayor as in the case of Antipolo City, Rizal and Office of the Municipal Mayor of Dolores, Quezon. The Municipality of Miag-ao placed the Office of the Tourism Promotion and Tour Packaging Service under the Office of the Municipal Economic Enterprise Office.

“Every Local Government Unit (LGU) shall design and implement its own organizational structure and staffing pattern taking into consideration its service requirements and financial capability, subject to the minimum standards and guidelines by the Civil Service Commission”.

Likewise, the Provincial Tourism Office (PTO) can be under the Office of the Provincial Governor but administratively supervised by the Office of the Provincial Administrator as in the cases of Davao del Norte and Compostela Valley. The PTO of Northern Samar is directly under the Office of the Governor manned by three permanent personnel headed by the Provincial Tourism Officer, and four Job Order staff (Berkman Consulting, 2011).

Source: RA 7160 or Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991,

Provincial Tourism Staff of Davao del Norte and Compostela Valley, November 2013 and January 2014.

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“Every province, city or municipality in which tourism is a significant industry shall have a permanent position for a tourism officer. He or she shall be responsible for preparing, implementing and updating local tourism development plans, and enforcing tourism laws, rules and regulations”. Source: RA9593 or the Tourism Act of 2009, Chapter II-A, Section 6-N – Structure of the Department

Table 12 presents the roles and functions grouped according to the functions as suggested by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), discussed in the earlier part of this supplemental reading.

Table 1. Perceived Roles and Functions of a Local Tourism Officer Functions/ categories

Provincial Tourism Officer

City/Municipal Tourism Officer

• Coordinates and aligns tourism projects of the LGU • Implements national initiatives under the DOT

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Roles and Functions of a Local Tourism Officer

• Designates tourism zones • Regulates standards • Provides assistance to LGUs Planning and Development

• Performs consultative and recommendatory functions to the LCEs

• Aligns the strategic direction of the provincial tourism development to that • Helps develops destinations of the national plans • Sets the vision and mission of tourism development – positioning of tourism in the province • Coordinates with the City and Municipal Planning Office for the technical aspects in preparation for the development of the master plan

Marketing Services

• Develops and markets competitive products and destinations • Helps municipalities and cities promote tourism in their areas

• Prepares tourism brochures

Derived from the focus group discussions conducted for the Development of the Tourism Guidebook project in the Provinces of Batangas, Bohol, Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte . 2

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Functions/ categories

Provincial Tourism Officer

• Conducts inventory of tourism spots Statistics and Research

• Gathers data on tourism (including sex-disaggregated data)

City/Municipal Tourism Officer • Conducts data gathering activities on the tourism industry • Monitors tourism arrivals • Computes for carrying capacity of accommodation establishments

• Encourages tourism establishments to engage in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) • Conducts tourism awareness through orientation in various LGUs, including barangays Education and Training

• Organizes special groups that will help in tourism (e.g. cave society, travel and tours operations, accommodation and security) • Builds the capacities of tourism stakeholders through human resource development (e.g. tour guides) • Assists tourism enterprises in the accreditation process

• Manages the parks • Implements tourism-related policies with the help of the City/Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (CMPDC) • Performs all front-line services in tourism

ORDINANCE NO. 327, SERIES 2011 AN ORDINANCE CREATING THE POSITION OF SUPERVISING TOURISM OPERATIONS OFFICER AND PROVIDING FUNDS THEREOF.

The Sangguniang Panlungsod of the City of Surigao hereby ORDAINS: SECTION 1. CREATION . – There is hereby created the position of Supervising Tourism Operations Officer with Salary Grade 22 in the Office of the City Mayor. SECTION 2. FUNCTIONS. – The Supervising Tourism Operations Officer who shall be responsible for the development and promotion of tourism of the city shall: a) Prepare tourism related portfolio showcasing tourist spots and destinations; b) Produce and circulate tourist information; c) Publish or cause to be published tourism press releases in various media outlets; d) Prepare travel tours and arrange itineraries for tourists and visitors seeking tourism assistance and services; and e) Perform such other related functions as may be authorized by the City Mayor. SECTION 3. EFFECTIVITY. This ordinance shall take effect in 2012.

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Example 1: Sample Ordinance on the Creation of a Local Tourism Officer Position

Table 2 : Plantilla (Staffing Pattern) of the Davao del Norte Provincial Tourism Office Position

Supervising Tourism Operations Officer

Salary Grade

22

Enacted on November 03, 2011. ----I HEREBY CERTIFY to the correctness of the foregoing ordinance.

NENITA G. LOAYON Sanggunian Secretary ATTESTED: DANILO C. MENOR City Vice Mayor Presiding Officer

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APPROVED: Senior Tourism Operations Officer

ERNESTO T. MATUGAS City Mayor

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Job Description

- Supervises the staff in the performance of their tasks and functions - Formulates policies, plans, program and projects for the development of the tourism industry - Advises the Governor on the promulgation of resolutions relative to policies, plans, programs, and projects designed to promote and develop the tourism industry - Coordinates with national government agencies, non-government organizations and local government units in the promotion of tourism - Facilitates the protection, maintenance and preservation of historical and natural assets which are tourist attractions with the appropriate government agencies or with the private sector and maintains a statistical data bank on the tourism industry - Upholds and assists the indigenous people of their traditional arts, customs and traditions - Represents the Governor in conferences and meetings concerning tourism and travel - Designs programs to encourage private-sector investment as their participation in tourism projects - Undertakes research studies and surveys for the continuing analysis of the tourism industry - Monitors and evaluates programs and projects of tourism industry in the province - Coordinates and assists in the implementation of tourism-oriented projects, plans of national and local government, those of private activities so as to make possible the accelerated and balanced growth and development of tourism in the province - Develops and conceptualizes new products which lead to enhancement of tourist sites and facilities - Initiates and coordinates with all sectors, both government and private the development of the provincial plans and policies - Plans promotional campaigns through advertising and publicity and coordinates promotional efforts with the private sector through sales campaigns and information dissemination - Attends meetings/ conventions on tourism - Submits annual performance targets and semestral performance evaluation reports - Performs other related tasks assigned by the supervisor

Educational Requirements

Relevant Experience

Training

Eligibility

Bachelor’s degree relevant to the job

3 years of relevant experience

16 hours of relevant training

Career Service (Professional 2nd level eligibility)

Bachelor’s degree relevant to the job

2 years relevant experience

8 hours of relevant training

Career Service 9Professional 2nd level Eligibility)

Tourism Operations Officer II

Tourism Operations Officer I

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Salary Grade

15

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Job Description

- Assists in the packaging, marketing and promotions of tourism products -Organizes special events for the promotion of local destinations - Coordinates with the Public Information Office (PIO) in the conduct of pictorials of tourist spots and events for tourism promotion material purposes and for souvenirs - Monitors and evaluates plans, programs and projects of the province to ensure their effective implementation - Formulates operating standards for tourism oriented establishments including hotels and resorts, restaurants, inns, motels and other related facilities and services and ensure a harmonious, positive and constructive development of the tourism industry - Conducts educational campaigns aimed to make Davaoeños aware and able to appreciate their cultural heritage including those of indigenous peoples and Muslim constituents of the province - Coordinates with artists and cultural groups and provide assistance in terms of promoting their work for greater understanding of the public - Provides continuous education/ training for the growth of the staff - Submits annual performance targets and semestral performance evaluation reports - Performs other related tasks assigned by the supervisor - Maintains updated data bank on both local/regional/national and foreign tourism-related information for public awareness and guidance - Researches, gathers, reviews and lays-out data and write-ups for production and guidance - Conducts tours/ exposure trips to airport, port, bus terminals, luncheon and dinner receptions for visitors of the Province assigned by the Division Head - Assists in the preparation for the conduct of Special ad Major Events of province - Attends/ conducts seminars, conferences, trainings and conventions for personal development as requested by the Division Head

Educational Requirements

Bachelor’s degree relevant to the job

Bachelor’s degree relevant to the job

Relevant Experience

1 year of relevant experience

None required

Training

4 hours of relevant trainings

None required

Eligibility

Career Service (Professional 2nd level Eligibility)

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Position

Career Service (Professional 2nd level Eligibility)

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Position

Tourism Operations Assistant

Administrative Aide IV (Clerk II)

Salary Grade

7

4

Job Description

- Assists in the implementation of tourism oriented programs and projects of the province - Keeps, maintains and updates records on the tourism profile of the province - Receives and records incoming and outgoing communications - Takes charge in the preparation and approval of disbursements - Assists in the orientation and organization activities on the community level - Submits annual performance targets and semestral performance evaluation reports - Performs other related tasks assigned by the supervisor - Sorts, indexes, files and binds communications, records and other documents - Routes communications and other documents received - Compiles statistics of basic data related to the work of particular office - Performs other related tasks assigned by the supervisor

Educational Requirements

Completion of two years studies in college

Completion of two years studies in college

Relevant Experience

Training

Eligibility

None required

None required

Career Service (Sub Professional 1st level Eligibility)

None required

Career Service (Sub professional 1st level Eligibility)

None required

SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD 5th City Council EXCERPT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE 59TH REGULAR SESSION OF THE SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD OF THE ISLAND GARDEN CITY OF SAMAL, DAVAO DEL NORTE HELD ON AUGUST 16, 2011 AT THE SP SESSION HALL. PRESENT: Hon. Al David T. Uy City Vice Mayor, Presiding Officer Hon. Richard A. Guindolman SP Member Hon. Napoleon P.G. Villarica SP Member Hon. Jaime A. Pichon SP Member Hon. Gaspar R. Valera SP Member Hon. Glenn C. Colmenares SP Member Hon. Teresita B. Antalan SP Member Hon. Guillermo E. Olden SP Member Hon. Isidro P. Requina, Sr. SP Member Hon. Nieljun C. Esdrelon SP Member Hon. Metodio D. Gonato SP Member Hon. Godofredo M. Mara SP Member Hon. Samuel C. Rosario SP Member Hon. Joel L. Olivares Liga Representative

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Annex 3 – Ordinance of the Re-organization of the Organizational Structure and Staffing Pattern of the City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal

E. COTERMINOUS APPOINTMENT - an appointment issued to a person whose entrance and continuity in the service is based on the trust and confidence of the appointing authority or of the head of the organizational unit where assigned. It may also be co-existent with the incumbent or with the period for which an agency or office was created. F. CASUAL APPOINTMENT - issued to a person to do only essential and necessary services where there are not enough regular staff to meet the demands of the service. G. CONTRACTUAL APPOINTMENT - issued to a person to undertake a specific work orjob for a limited period not to exceed one year. H. REAPPOINTMENT - is the re-issuance of an appointment during reorganization, devolution, salary standardization, re-rationalization or similar events. Reappointment presupposes no gap in the service. I. TRANSFER - is the movement of employee from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level or salary without break in the service involving the issuance of an appointment. J. DEMOTION - is the movement of an employee from one position to another with reduction in duties, responsibilities, status or rank which may or may not involve reduction in salary and is not disciplinary in nature. K. REMOVAL - shall connote separation from the service as a result of reorganization. L. APPOINTING AUTHORITY - the person or body authorized by law to make appointments in the Philippine Civil Service. M. PERFORMANCE - an employee’s accomplishments in terms of the requirements of the job and evaluated through a systematic method of appraisal.

City Ordinance No. 2011-181

N. UPGRADING/RECLASSIFICATION - refers to the change in position title with the corresponding increase in salary grade.

“AN ORDINANCE ADOPTING THE REVISED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND STAFFING PATTERN OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT OF THE ISLAND GARDEN CITY OF SAMAL AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE CITY ORDINANCE NO. 99-13 SERIES OF 1999”

O. PLACEMENT COMMITTEE - a committee to assist the appointing authority in the judicious selection and placement of personnel in order that the best qualified and most deserving persons shall be appointed in any reorganization, composed of the following: - Two (2) members appointed by the head of department or agency - A representative of the Appointing Authority - One (1) member duly elected by employees holding positions in the first level of the career service - One (1) member duly elected by employees holding positions in the second level of the career service - A representative of an employee association duly registered in accordance with Executive Order No. 180 and its implementing rules. - The members shall elect their Chairman. - A representative of the Civil Service Commission may be requested by the agency to render assistance to the Committee.

Be it ORDAINED, by the Sangguniang Panlungsod of the Island Garden City of Samal in session assembled, that: Section 1. TITLE. This Ordinance shall be known as “The Revised Organizational Structure and Staffing Pattern of 2011” of the City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal. Section 2. DEFINITION OF TERMS A. REORGANIZATION - a process of restructuring the bureaucracy’s organizational and functional set-up to make it more viable, in terms of economy, efficiency, effectiveness and make it more responsive to the needs of its public clientele as authorized by law. B. TOTAL REORGANIZATION - the process of restructuring the whole agency’s organizational and functional set-up. C. PERMANENT APPOINTMENT - an appointment issued to a person who possesses all the qualifications prescribed for the position to be filled, including the appropriate civil service eligibility.

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D. TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT - an appointment issued to a person who possesses all the qualifications for the position to be filled, except the appropriate civil service eligibility. The appointment will be for a period of not more than twelve months.

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A. Organizational Structure of the City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal.

B. Organizational Structures and Positions Chart of all Offices under the Executive and Legislative Departments, to wit: B.1. Office of the City Mayor B.2. Office of the Sangguniang Panlungsod B.3. Office of the City Administrator B.4. Office of the City Treasurer B.5. Office of the City Assessor B.6. Office of the City Accountant B.7. City Budget Office B.8. City Planning and Development Office B.9. Office of the City Engineer B.10. City Health Office B.11. Office of the City Civil Registrar B.12. City Legal Office B.13. Office of the City Veterinarian B.14. City Social Welfare and Development Office B.15. City General Services Office B.16. City Agriculturist Office B.17. City Human Resource Management Office B.18. City Environment and Natural Resources Office B.19. City Investment and Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

Section 3. The revised Organizational Structure and Staffing Pattern of the City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal duly indorsed by the Local Chief Executive as authorized by the Sangguniang Panlungsod in its Resolution No. 51, s. 2010 with the assistance of the Reorganization Committee created by the Local Chief Executive thru Executive Order No.15, s. 2010 who was tasked to make the necessary revisions in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. 6656, s. 1988 and its Implementing Rules, Civil Service Commission Memorandum Circular No. 19, s. 1992, Section 76 and Section 325 of Republic Act No. 7160otherwise known as Local Government Code of 1991 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations and Republic Act No. 8471, s. 1998 creating the Island Garden City of Samal, are hereby APPROVED which shall form as integral parts of this ordinance, to wit:

C. Staffing Pattern of all Offices under the Executive and Legislative Departments, to wit: C.1. Office of the City Mayor C.2. Office of the Sangguniang Panlungsod C.3. Office of the City Administrator C.4. Office of the City Treasurer C.5. Office of the City Assessor C.6. Office of the City Accountant C.7. City Budget Office C.8. City Planning and Development Office C.9. Office of the City Engineer C.10. City Health Office C.11. Office of the City Civil Registrar C.12. City Legal Office C.13. Office of the City Veterinarian C.14. City Social Welfare and Development Office C.15. City General Services Office C.16. City Agriculturist Office C.17. City Human Resource Management Office C. 18. City Environment and Natural Resources Office C.19. City Investment and Tourism Office

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Section 4. Special Provision – a. The position of Security Guard under the Office of the City Mayor shall be automatically abolished when the present occupant is no longer qualified to the position. b. The positions of Carpenter, Electrician, Park Attendant and Administrative Aide III shall be automatically abolished when the present occupants will retire, resign or terminated from the service. Section 5. The Budget Allocation and Plantilla of Personnel of all Departments/Offices of the City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal shall be provided/prepared in accordance with the approved organizational structure and staffing pattern. Section 6. Mandatory Review. The Sangguniang Panlungsod shall undertake a mandatory review of this Ordinance at least once every five (5) years and as often as it may deem necessary with the primary objective of providing a more responsive and accountable local government structure. Section 7. REPEALING CLAUSE. That City Ordinance No. 99-13 series of 1999 is hereby repealed. Section 8. This ordinance shall take effect upon confirmation by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and after posting in at least three (3) conspicuous places in the city.

ENACTED AND APPROVED this 16th day of August 2011.

CERTIFIED CORRECT:

ATTESTED:

APPROVED:

ERNESTO A. GULBEN SP Secretary

AL DAVID T. UY City Vice Mayor

ANIANO P. ANTALAN City Mayor

Supplemental reading 10 Organizing a Local Tourism Office

References Alvia, Eric and Libosada Jr, Carlos (2009). Tourism Development for LGUs. GTZ-PSP SMEDSEP. Makati, Philippines. Berkman Consulting (2011). Tourism Master Development Plan for Samar Island Final Report. Commissioned by the Department of Tourism, 2011. Bohol Provincial Government (2010). Bohol Human Resources Management and Development (HRMD) Plan 2011 – 2015. Bohol Provincial Government. Davao del Norte Provincial Government. Provincial Tourism Office Documents. Department of Tourism (2010). National Tourism Development Plan 2011–2016. Documentation of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) in Batangas, Bohol and Davao del Norte and Compostella Valley. Development of Tourism Guidebook Project. Development Academy of the Philippines. September 2013. Republic of the Philippines (1991). Republic Act 7160: The Local Government Code of 1991 Republic of the Philippines (2009). Republic Act 9593: The Tourism Act. World Tourism Organization. Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. 1998. Telephone interviews • Ms. Joevy Miedes of the Davao del Norte Provincial Office, November 2013 and January 2014. • Ms. Christine Dompor, Provincial Tourism Office, Province of Compostela Valley. January 2014. Links www.miagao.gov.ph/the-lgu/legislative/ordiances/332-anordinance-creating-the-municipal-economic-enterprise office www.surigaocity.gov.ph/city-ordinances/ordinances.html www.doloresquezon.gov.ph/offices/13-municipal-tourism www.tubigon.gov.ph/services/tourism-office www.islandgardencityofsamal.gov.ph/ordinances www.ecomval.com.ph www.batangas.gov.ph

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Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

11

Supplemental reading

• A compilation as well as weblinks of relevant laws, policies and literature on tourism and related issues.

Relevant laws and policies INVESTMENT-RELATED LAWS AND POLICIES • Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of RA 6957 – An Act Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector. • Republic Act 7160 – The Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 - Local budgets shall operationalize approved local development plan (Sec. 305). • Republic Act 7652. Investor’s Lease Act - Lease agreements of Filipino landowners with foreign investors are now up to 75 years; 50 years renewable for another 25 years. • Republic Act 7718 – Expanded Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT) law. • Republic Act 7916 –Special Economic Zone Act – tourism development zones and tourism estates, upon registration with PEZA may be granted Special Economic Zone status subject to the issuance of the required Presidential Proclamation. • Executive Order 63 – Foreigners investing US$50,000 in tourist-related project or in any tourist establishment may be granted a Special Investor’s Resident Visa (SIRV) for as long as the investment exists. • Executive Order 226 – the Omnibus Investments Code of 1987 encourages private/Filipino and foreign investments that include tourism. The government can extend fiscal incentives to projects to recognize performance that contributes to economic development.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

This supplemental reading of this Tourism Guidebook presents:

• Republic Act 9262 or the Anti-Violence against Women and their Children Act of 2004, which includes the crime of prostituting women and their children. • Republic Act 9710 or the Magna Carta for Women.

Environment-related laws and policies BIODIVERSITY • Presidential Decree 984 – Pollution Control Law (1976). • Presidential Decree 1219 – The Coral Resources Conservation and Protection Decree (1977). • Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991 (Section 20) provides that cities and municipalities may reclassify agricultural lands into non agricultural land uses within their respective jurisdictions, subject to the limitation and other conditions prescribed. • Republic Act 7586- National Integrated Protected Areas System (1992). • Republic Act 8550 – Fisheries Code (1998). • Republic Act 9072 – National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act (2001). • RA 9147 -- Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act (2001).

Water Quality and Water Pollution • Presidential Decrees 600 and 979. • Presidential Decree 1067 Water Code (old). -Governs the ownership, appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development, conservation and protection of water resources - Identifies rights and obligations of water users and the administrative agencies that enforce laws on water use and availment

WOMEN AND GENDER- RELATED LAWS • Republic Act 7192 – Women in Development and Nation Building Act - Government departments, including its agencies and instrumentalities shall: - Include an assessment of the extent to which their programs and/or projects integrate women in development process and of the impact of such programs or projects on women…” - Ensure the active participation of women and women’s organizations in the development programs and/or projects including … the planning, design, implementation, management, monitoring and evaluation..” - Collect sex-disaggregated data and include such data in its program/project paper, proposal or strategy.”

• Marine pollution policies by National Pollution Control Commission. • Enforcement by Philippine Coast Guard. • Republic Act 9275 – Clean Water Act of 2004.

• Republic Act 7877 or the Anti Sexual Harassment Act of 1995. • Republic Act 8353 or the Anti Rape Law of 1997, which classifies rape as a crime against person, hence not a private crime. • Republic Act 8505 or the Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act of 1998.

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• Republic Act 9208, or the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003.

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• RA 8749- June 23, 1999 “An Act Providing For A Comprehensive Air Pollution Control Policy And For Other Purposes” also called “Clean Air Act”. - A comprehensive policy and program for air quality management in the country, revised the air quality management sections of PD 984 - Most innovative feature- promotes the conduct of air shed-specific air quality management while respecting national-set emission reduction targets and following control strategies, incentives and collective actions provided in the National Framework Plan - DENR Department Administrative Order No. 2000-81- Implementing Rules And Regulations (IRR) for RA 8749 Clean Air Act

Solid Waste • RA 9003 – Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2001. - adopts the program of national integrated solid waste management which covers generation, segregation, collection, re-use, recycling, composting, transport and disposal of waste - formulates a national solid waste management framework which emphasized waste reduction goals, waste minimization techniques, and public participation in plan preparation - institutes measures to promote a more acceptable system which corresponds to the vision of sustainable development. Generally, it aims to merge environmental protection with economic pursuits, recognizing the re-orientation of the community’s view on solid waste, thereby providing schemes for waste minimization, volume reduction, resource recovery utilization and disposal. - offers incentives for innovations to improve solid waste management practices - DENR Department Administrative Order N.-2001-34 issued on December 21, 2001 is the Implementing Rules and Regulations for R.A. 9003.

Others • Republic Act 9572 – National Environmental Awareness and Education Act of 2008.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Air Quality

Tourism Related Policies of National Government Agencies (NGAs)

Department of Agriculture (DA) • Section 6 of RA 8437 states that a Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Development (NPAAAD) shall be established and identify the Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ) within it to safeguard efficiency in utilizing land for agriculture and agro – industrial development.

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) • Executive Order 129-A, s. of 1987, mandates the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) to approve or disapprove the conversion, restructuring or readjustment of agricultural lands into non-agricultural uses.

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) • Department Administrative Order No. 2009 – 07 issued on May 27 2009 spelled out the rules and regulations governing the issuance of permit over reclamation projects and special patents over reclaimed lands. This amended Section 4.1 and Sections 5 of DAO 2007 – 20. • Memorandum Circular No. 54 “Prescribing the Guidelines Governing Section 20 of RA 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code Of 1991 authorizing Cities and Municipalities to reclassify Agricultural Lands into Non-Agricultural Uses”.

• Republic Act 9729 – Climate Change Act of 2009. • Republic Act 10121 – Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources • DENR Memorandum Circular No. 2008 – 08 issued on December 24, 2008 clarified the role of LGUs in the Philippine EIS System in relation to MC 2007 – 08. It emphasized their roles for the project area being considered during the EIA scoping, conduct of the EIA study and public consultations.

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Executive summary Purpose: The Philippine National Tourism Plan (NTDP) aims to provide a strategic framework and an action plan to guide the Department of Tourism (DOT) and other stakeholders in the development of the tourism sector for the period 2011 to 2016. Method of Preparation: The plan has been developed using a process involving: • Preparation of a tourism sector situation analysis involving document review, consultations with industry stakeholders in the public and private sector, and conduct of site observations in the field. • Identification of the main challenges facing the evolution of Philippine tourism, and its causes and effects; and doing a competitive analysis of internal strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities and threats. • Conduct of consultations with stakeholders on the results of the situation analysis and to identify and agree on the overall destination development framework, the broad goal and vision for tourism development by 2016, and the strategic directions and actions in the four (4) clustered regional tourism planning workshops held in the cities of Davao, Cebu and Manila and in Clark, Pampanga. • Delineation of the tasks and functions and specification of outputs that must be delivered to achieve the strategic outcomes and overall goal and vision. • Initial evaluation of the economic, environmental, and social impacts of implementing the NTDP. This plan is inclusive in orientation, i.e. it includes women, youth, and indigenous peoples as well as local host communities. The plan is also pro-poor in approach, i.e. it addresses poverty reduction by including poor provinces in the tourism value chain. Situation Analysis: The Philippines has a rich and diverse set of tourism resources as represented by its extensive natural and cultural heritage sites and landscapes that are globally unique. Notable of these are the Historic City of Vigan, the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, the Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River national Park, and the Tubbataha Reefs National Park which have been recognised by UNESCO as World Heritage sites. The Philippines has 10 designated International airports, as well as 34 principal airports used for domestic scheduled flights. The international airports are served by 36 international airlines including five (5) of Philippine origin (also domestic carriers) operating an average of 806 scheduled flights per week with 197,000 seats per week from 42 foreign ports, and 3,000 flights with 348,000 seats per week on domestic routes in 2010. In addition, there are 25 sea ports operated by the Philippine Ports Authority providing passenger and RORO facilities served by 45 RO-RO and inter-island shipping companies servicing a total of 184 routes; and 31,242.38 km of mainly asphalt and concrete paved national highway system served with 6,000 inter-island buses.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Philippine National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) 2011 - 2016

In 2010, the Philippines attracted 3.52 million international tourists staying an average of 8.21 nights and spending an average of US$ 83.59 per day; and estimated 27.91million domestic travellers in 2010 staying an average of 4 nights and spending an average of PhP 553.09 per day. The main source of international tourists is South Korea, the USA, and Japan followed by China and other countries with leisure-based and visiting friends and relatives being the main reasons for visiting. In the domestic market, the main sources are urban centres such as Metro Manila, Cebu, Davao, and the secondary cities with visiting friends and relatives and leisure travel as the main reasons for travelling. DOT surveys indicate that in 2010, the top tourist destinations were Metro Manila, Cebu-Mactan, Boracay Island, Camarines Sur, Baguio City, Davao City, Zambales (including Subic), Bohol, Camiguin Island, Negros Occidental, Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Norte, and Puerto Princesa. Overall, it is estimated by DOT and National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) that in 2010 domestic and international tourism contributed 5.76% to GDP and directly employed 3.69 million persons or 10.25 % of total employment in the country. Between 1995 and 2010, the annual average growth of international arrivals was 4.7% notwithstanding good recovery in arrivals between 2009 and 2010 while between 2005 and 2010 the average annual rate of growth in the domestic market was 3.3%. These growth rates are quite low relative to the competing countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Viet Nam where long-term international arrivals have grown at +8% per annum and domestic tourism at +5% per annum. In terms of its position in ASEAN, the Philippines’ tourism performance by volume is ranked below all ASEAN countries except for Myanmar, Lao PDR and Cambodia. The main causes and effects of the historic poor international and domestic tourism growth performance are summarized in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Diagnosis of Philippine Tourism

The country has an estimated 96,052 hotel and resort rooms with another 16,654 rooms either in the final planning stage or already under construction that will bring total rooms capacity to 112,706 by 2014 sufficient to handle an extra 4 million domestic and international guests. Around 314 inbound, domestic and outbound travel operators and 1,474 tourist transportation operators are accredited with the DOT. Many more are yet accredited. Philippine tourism is regulated at the national level by the DOT as provided for by Republic Act 9593 or the Tourism Act of 2009. The DOT is responsible for tourism policy and planning, international and domestic marketing, facilitating investment, the accreditation of tourism enterprises, maintaining data on tourism and its economic impacts, and supporting through capacity building the tourism activities of the LGUs. Its activities are financed through annual appropriations, contributions from the Philippine Travel Tax, and profits from the operations of Duty Free Outlets. At the local level, the LGUs under the Local Government Code of 1991 are responsible for licensing the operation of tourist enterprises on payment of a business tax, inclusion of tourism in their Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs) and zoning ordinances, regulating health, fire, and other safety hazards, providing security in partnership with the Philippine National Police (PNP), and undertaking promotions activities designed to attract tourists to their area.

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Notwithstanding the challenges facing the industry, the SWOT analysis indicates that there are significant opportunities for large and sustained market growth given that the key constraints and weaknesses are effectively addressed. If so, then market research indicates that between 2010 and 2016, the Philippines could increase its current number of international arrivals from 3.52 million to around 6.7 million, and domestic tourism from 28.9 million travelers to around 35million. If achieved, these levels of international and domestic tourism could sustain direct gross value added of PhP 890,000 million or around 6.8% of GDP, and direct employment of around 6.5 million persons by 2016. Moreover, with careful targeting, a significant number of the additional 2.8 million

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Goal and Vision and Strategic Directions for Tourism to 2016: Figure 2 gives a snapshot of the stakeholder-based goal and targets, overall vision, and based on addressing the challenges, the strategic directions and actions that the Philippines should take to achieve these.

Figure 2 Stakeholders’ Goal and Vision for Tourism Development in the Philippines

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

directly employed in the industry by 2016 would come from the poorer sectors of the population as well as provide new employment opportunities for returning overseas workers.

The stakeholders identified 21 strategic cluster destinations (SCD) covering 77 existing and emerging tourist development areas (TDAs) and their tourism transportation, infrastructure and development needs and deficiencies that could be effectively addressed through coordinated investment between 2011 and 2016, and help to deliver the targets of the goal and vision for the industry. The 21 clusters provide an inclusive destination framework designed to ensure that all Filipinos are able to participate in and enjoy the benefits of the tourist industry. Within the overall destination framework, there are nine (9) SCDs that also have international airports and thus serve as the main international gateways to the other SCDs. Ensuring that this function effectively is thus a priority in the NTDP action plan as ensuring that all SCDs maintain a good tourism growth momentum even while the necessary market connectivity infrastructure and services are developed in the nine (9) gateway SCDs. Action Plan: The action plan for implementing the strategic programs under each strategic direction of the NTDP is attached. Depending upon the nature of the activity and the agencies concerned, the action plan will be implemented by a series of initiatives both at the national and cluster level in the 16 regions.

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The following NTDP actions will be coordinated and undertaken at the national level: 1. Improving Market Access & Connectivity: • Renegotiating Air Service Agreements with key growth markets to include all international airports as points that can be served by international carriers of other countries. • Reducing foreign carrier operations costs in the Philippines by removing ad hoc charges such as CIQS overtime costs, and eliminating the common carriers and tax on gross Philippine billings that reduce the competiveness of the Philippines as a destination through higher airfares. • Simplifying border formalities and procedures for key growth markets such as China. • Improving sea and road transportation services focusing on safety, reliability, frequency of service and ability to book a seat on-line. 2. Developing and marketing competitive destinations and products: • Designating TEZs • Designing and implementing the mandatory tourism enterprise accreditation system. • Facilitating business investment and simplifying business set-up at the national level. • Undertaking international and national level domestic marketing 3. Strengthening institutional governance and human resource capacities: • Strengthening tourism institutional, policy formulation, and governance structures at the national level and providing the policy framework, resources and guidance for implementation in the clusters at the regional level. • Strengthening DOT support for LGUs at the national level and providing the policy framework, resources and guidance for achieving this in the clusters at the regional or cluster level. • Providing the policy framework for skills capability building at the national level and the resources and support mechanisms to implement this in the clusters at the regional level. • Providing the policy framework and resources for improving labor relations and support mechanisms to implement this in the clusters at the regional level. • Providing the policy framework and resources for professional tourism training and education at the national level, and support mechanisms to implement this in the clusters at the regional level. • Providing the policy framework and resources for Human Resource (HR) recognition, networking, and development. • Improving governance for tourism development at the national level, and providing the policy framework, resources and guidance for this in the clusters at the regional level. • Establishing a Tourism Crisis Management Unit in the DOT, and providing the policy and support mechanisms to coordinate activities in the clusters at the regional level.

1. Improving Market Access & Connectivity:

• Upgrading the secondary international airports to decongest and increase capacity to handle international tourists.



• Decongesting NAIA and increasing its capacity to handle more international tourists.

2. Developing and marketing competitive destinations and products:

• Designing and implementing services infrastructure projects in the tourist development areas of the SCDs.



• Implementing tourism site access and visitor infrastructure improvements.



• Facilitating business investment and simplifying business set-up and licensing procedures/costs at the LGU level.



• Safeguarding natural and cultural heritage sites, and vulnerable groups from the negative effects of tourism.

• Encouraging private sector investment on tourism product within and outside TEZs.

3. Strengthening institutional governance and human resource capacities:

• Implementing tourism institutional, policy, and governance strengthening programs at the LGU level.



• Implementing DOT support policies and mechanisms for strengthening LGUs.



• Implementing the policy framework for skills capability building.



• Implementing the policy framework for improving labor relations.



• Implementing the policy framework for professional tourism training and education.



• Improving governance for tourism development at the LGU level.



• Supporting the Tourism Crisis Management Unit in the DOT at the regional and LGU level.

• Implementing the policy framework for HR recognition, networking, and development.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

The following actions will be undertaken at the level of the clusters within the regions:

The actions at the national and cluster level in the regions will need to be effectively coordinated through an appropriate implementation framework and organization structure that relies as far as possible on existing institutions rather than creation new ones. The timing of both the national and cluster level actions is shown below.

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Implementation: The overall supervision of the implementation of the NTDP will be coordinated through the National Tourism Coordinating Council (NTCC). To support the NTCC and provide coordination at the management level, a National Tourism Program Coordination and Management Unit (NTPCMU) will be established within the DOT. On the hand, to facilitate the execution of the NTDP programs in the strategic cluster destinations at the regional level, Regional Tourism Project Coordination Committees (RTPCC) will be formed. A Regional Tourism Project Coordination Management Unit (RTPCMU) will be established within the DOT Regional Offices to support the RTPCCs and to provide coordination at the management level and implement the institutional strengthening and capacity building components of the NTDP. The overall organization structure for implementation is shown below.

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Timing

2016

2015

2014

2013

Description of Activities 2012

Strategy and Action Plan Elements

2010

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

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Cost Estimates: The overall indicative cost of the NTDP between 2011 and 2016 is estimated at PhP 123,073 billion of which PhP 20,270 billion comprises public sector investment and PhP 102,803 billion comprises private sector investment. An initial assessment of the economic performance of the NTDP investment against the additional tourism expenditure generated indicates a fairly robust performance with EIRR of 23.9%, and NPV surplus of PhP 28,986.2 billion over a project life cycle of 20 years.

Cost Estimate (PhP ‘000)

Lead Responsible and Strategic Partners

Success Indicators

1 Improving Access & Connectivity 1.1 Rapidly expand capacity of secondary international airports 1.1.1 Upgrading Secondary International Airports

• Clark, Mactan, and Davao • Iloilo, Puerto Prinsesa and Laoag & Zamboanga

1.1.2 Increasing International Tourists at NAIA

•Complete renovation of Terminal 1 Arrival and Departure areas • Complete renovation of Terminal 2 • Rationalize aviation operations at NAIA • Improve Airport management and operations

3,902,990

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x

3,864,990

- DOTC/CAAP/ Airport Authorities - Private sector stakeholders

Renovation and expansions works and other requirements completed and operating

38,000

- DOTC/CAAP/NAIA - Private tourism companies where appropriate, e.g. airport operations and maintenance

Renovation works and other requirements completed and operating

Activities: • Improve city side aspects (e.g. terminal capacity, poor access, lack of parking, and inadequate support services) • Improve air side constraints and limitations (e.g. runway, taxiway, air navigation system, fire and rescue service) • Improve airport management and operations limitations

1.2 Expand connectivity between Philippines and its key growth markets

40,000

11.2.1 Renegotiating Air Service Agreements with Key Growth Markets

• Forge an agreement of complete Scheduling of ASA negotiations with main tourism growth market countries • Consult with carriers and industry stakeholders to prepare Philippine positions • Undertake negotiations • Implement results

x

x

x

30,000

x

x

x

x

x

x x

- DFA - DOT/CAB, Airports, Airlines and Other Major Private Sector Stakeholders

RAir Service Agreements renegotiated with main growth markets

1.2.2 Reducing Air International Air Operations Cost in the Philippines

• Conduct a comprehensive study of existing handling charges • Forge an agreement with key agencies on cost reduction approach • Amend necessary laws and regulations •Implement

x

x

x

5,000

x

x

x

Carrier taxes and surcharges removed

x

x

x x

- DOTC/CAAP/NAIA - Private tourism companies where appropriate, e.g. airport operations and maintenance

1.2.3 Simplifying border formalities / procedures for key growth markets

• Work with DFA and BI to provide visa free/visa on arrival privileges for key growth markets • Introduce long-term stay visa categories for medical and ”enjoy the sun” retiree markets • Implement revised visa program

x

x

5,000

- DOJ/BI - DFA

Visa restrictions relaxed for key growth markets of China and India

15,653

- CAAP, CAB, DOTC, DOT, NEDA, DBM, PPA, MARINA, DPWH - LGUs, Tourism Councils, Regional Development Councils, CSOs

Access infrastructure completed / operating Reduced safety and security incidences

15,000

- DOT, DOTC (MARINA and LTFRB), Office of the President and the Congress - Sea and Road Transportation Operators and Private Sector Stakeholders

Access infrastructure completed / operating Reduced safety and security incidences

x x

1.3 Implement a strategic access infrastructure program between secondary international airports and strategic destinations 1.3.1 Design and implementation of strategic access infrastructure subprogram

• Improve, rehabilitate and expand airports that connect to tourism clusters. (Improve, rehabilitate, and expand 23 domestic airports) • Improve, rehabilitate and expand seaport facilities that connect tourism clusters. (Improve, rehabilitate, and expand 21 seaports) • Improve, rehabilitate, and upgrade 28 strategic connecting roads with total distance of approximately 850kms

1.3.2 Improving sea and road transportation services

• Enlist support of existing sea and road transportation operators for improved tourism transportation services • Designate developmental sea and road “Open Service Routes” • Undertake transportation regulatory reforms

x

30,653

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

2.1 Implement a sustainable tourism destination infrastructure program

9,659,572

2.1.1 Designing and implementing services infrastructure in tourist development

• Provide water and water treatment (6 locations), power (4 locations), and solid waste management in (27 locations) • Design and construct tourism information centers and support infrastructure (26 tourism development areas) • Design and construct transport terminals and services in (26 tourism development areas)

1,548,086

2.1.2 Designing and implementing tourism site access and visitor infrastructure improvements

• Prepare site evaluations for the 99 priority sites located in the strategic cluster destinations with International airports • Design access and site visitor infrastructure improvements at the sites and package for funding • Arrange funding with multi lateral / bi-lateral funding institution • Implement construction of site access and visitor infrastructure projects • Improve, rehabilitate and upgrade an approximate 450 kilometers of roads in destination centers and to 152 sites into all weather conditions • Maintain and operates

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

8,111,486

2.2 Develop diversified tourism products that engage local communities

14,245,573

2.2.1 Developing Major Mixed-use Tourism complexes in the vicinity of the International Airports

13,895,640

2.2.2 Linking local communities to the tourism value chain created by the major mix use tourism complexes upgraded tourist sites in their vicinity

• Identify sites and forge an agreement on their development with major landowners. • Provide TEZ designation, zoning, permits and approvals, and incentives to support site development. • Provide infrastructure support to sites. • Undertake construction of projects. • Support the marketing of the completed projects in International and domestic tourism activities.

• Undertake consultations with affected communities and private sector operators • Design and provide funding of program • Implement program on progressive basis • Monitor and evaluate

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x

x

349,933 x x

x x x

x x x

x x

2.3 Implement a PPP-based mandatory tourism enterprise accreditation system and facilitate tourism investment and lower cost of business

87,410

2.3.1 Design and implementation of a PPP-based mandatory tourism enterprise accreditation system

67,410

• Complete framework paper and TOR for enterprise accreditation and certification system • Establish task force to supervise design / implementation of the system (Implementation to 2016) • Contract out consulting firm to design, pilot, set-up and provide training on the system • Roll-out implementation of the system

• Conduct study to identify annual private sector investment requirements in hotels and resorts, • Undertake investment promotion drive • Provide investment incentive support • Coordinate with DTI program to simplify business set-up / business tax and licensing procedures at LGUs

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

20,000 x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

Operators and drivers associations

- DOT (TIEZA), Major Land Owners, site managers (DENR, LGUs, etc.), Provincial Government - Investors and Financial Institutions, LGUs, DENR, DTI, SEC, and BIR, Bilateral and multi-lateral financial institutions, DTI (OTOP), DA, etc. Tourism Councils, CSOs, DPWH, DA, DAR

- DOT (TIEZA), Major Land Owners, site managers (DENR, LGUs, etc.), Provincial Government - Investors and Financial Institutions, LGUs, DENR, DTI, SEC, and BIR, Bilateral and multi-lateral financial institutions, DTI (OTOP), DA, etc. Tourism Councils, CSOs, DPWH, DA, DAR - DOT (TIEZA), Major Land Owners, site managers (DENR, LGUs, etc.), Provincial Government - Investors and Financial Institutions, LGUs, DENR, DTI, SEC, and BIR, DTI (OTOP), DA, etc. Tourism Councils,

Program designed and financing structure arranged and being implemented

8 Sites identified/ designed Investment and operators secured Construction in progress Key projects operational

91 Sites identified / designed Private sector partners + financing secured Physical and software elements substantially implemented

- DOT Accreditation and its sections, Regional Offices - Private sector at National and Regional/Provincial levels constituted as Task Forces to work together with the DOT in the design, RDC, LGU

Framework paper presented, discussed and agreed Task Force Established and meeting actively Procurement of contractor completed System is rolled out in all regions

- LGU, DTI,

Annual list of projects by value identified Annual investment conference held Number and value of TIEZA/ BOI endorsed projects Document processing time reduced to 10 working days.

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Timing

2016

2015

2014

Description of Activities 2013

Strategy and Action Plan Elements

2012

Success Indicators

2010

Lead Responsible and Strategic Partners

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

Description of Activities

Cost Estimate (PhP ‘000)

2 Developing and marketing competitive tourist destinations and products

2.3.2 Facilitating business investment and simplifying business set-up and licensing procedures and cost

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Timing

2010

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategy and Action Plan Elements

Cost Estimate (PhP ‘000)

Lead Responsible and Strategic Partners

Success Indicators

2 Developing and marketing competitive tourist destinations and products 2.4 Safeguarding natural & cultural heritage and vulnerable groups 2.4.1 Safeguarding natural & cultural heritage

2.4.2 Safeguarding vulnerable groups

• Develop uniquely Filipino destinations and products • Conduct conservation workshops • Advocate the sustainable use of heritage sites • Increase the number of heritage sites for international recognition • Provide a professional interface between sustainable heritage and tourism

x

x x x

• Advocate change in the highest level of governance to generate support • Raise awareness developing mechanism at community level • Create tourism industry partnerships • Link and partner with NGO’s such as ECPAT, and with UN agencies especially UNWTO.

x

x

x

x

x

x

561,165

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

- DOT, DENR, DPWH, NCCA, LGU, ICOMOS, ESCUELA TALLER (INTRAMUROS), - NCCA, ICOMOS, UNESCO Philippines for World Heritage an MAB, IUCN, RAMSAR, Private Sector

Training completion reports Visitor management plans in place 91 community participation programs completed Number of new sites listed

550,000

- NGO’s suchs ECPAT, and with UN agencies especially UNWTO

Reduced incidence of trafficking, exploitation and STDs

31,920 32,340 37,800

- OT (TPB) - Branding agency/ company Tourism private stakeholders

Brand established Pilot product clubs set up and operating MIS established

563,938

- DOT (TPB) - Branding agency/ company Tourism private stakeholders, Airlines, Hotels, etc.

Regional offices with local marketing representatives at country level in place

3,784,662

- Branding agency/ company Tourism private stakeholders, Airlines, Hotels, etc.

orientated to key, strategic and opportunity/ niche markets and products with substantial funding, and good market penetration

x

2.5 PPP-based marketing strategy and action plan

4,450,660

2.5.1 Strategic Marketing Subprogram

• Create a country tourism brand • Create tourism product development clubs • Design and implement a marketing intelligence information system

x x x

x x x

2.5.2 International and Domestic Marketing Network Subprogram

• Define and readjust international and domestic marketing networks according to market priorities • Develop business and management plans for marketing offices • Develop marketing office network capabilities. • Design Domestic Tourism Campaign • Develop and implement domestic tourism awareness campaigns

x

x

x

x

x x

x x x

x

• Design product commercialization plan (direct marketing, product lounges, road shows, partnership) • Design promotion program involving travel trade shows, workshops, and familiarization trips • Design communication plan through country image brand, publications, trade/consumer advertising, & PR • Design online marketing program for domestic and international tourism • Implement (upon completion of every design work) up to 2016)

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

2.5.3 Operational Marketing Subprogram

11,165

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

3 Improving tourism institutional, governance, and human resource capacities 3.1 Institutionalize roles and responsibilities of DOT and LGUs

418,320

3.1.1 Strengthening tourism governance structures

123,900

- DOT, LGUs, - Civil Society, NGOs,

Policy body established Tourist Council’s (TCs) charter amended and DOT reorganization completed

151,620

-- DOT, TIEZA, TPB, LGUs - Tourism Private Sector,

Partnerships in place with stronger financial support. Private sector strongly engaged in infrastructure & marketing

12,600

- DOT, LGUs (Provincial), CIDA, AUSAaid, etc. - Tourism stakeholders

DOT Provincial Officers in place Capacity building programs on-going Stronger TCs in place

• Establish a National Tourism Policy advisory body to advise the Secretary of Tourism • Review and adjust the constitutions of regional, provincial, and local tourism councils to make them more effective. • Strengthen the structure of the DOT for effective destination management organization.

x

3.1.2 Strengthening tourism policy formulation approaches

• Lobby and link with public government stakeholders • Create a financial framework to facilitate the planning & development of tourism infrastructure and marketing activities. • Encourage Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in tourism infrastructure and marketing development

x

3.1.3 Strengthening DOT support for Local Government Units (LGUs)

• Expand DOT capacity to support local tourism development at the provincial level. • Build capacity of provincial LGUs for tourism planning and development, destination marketing, and tourism enterprise accreditation and regulation. • Strengthen multi-stakeholder mechanisms and institutions for partnerships in local tourism development

x

x

x x

x

x x x

x

x

x

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

Description of Activities

Cost Estimate (PhP ‘000)

Lead Responsible and Strategic Partners

Success Indicators

3 Improving tourism institutional, governance, and human resource capacities 3.2 Develop a competent well motivated and productive tourism workforce

31,833

3.2.1 Skills capability building

6,175

- DOT, TESDA, DOLE - Tourism Private Sector

Workshops convened TESDA Skills centers established / operating Certification and audit system in place and functional

795

- DOT, TESDA, DOLE - Tourism Private Sector

Reduced labor incidences, and increased

17,163

- DOT, TESDA, DOLE, CHED, DEPED - Tourism Private Sector

Enhanced employability of entry-level trainees

7,700

- DOT, AHRM, PMAP - Tourism Private Sector

Annual Tourism HTD Conference organized

3.2.2 Improving labor relations

3.2.3 Professional Tourism Training and Education

3.2.4 HR Recognition, Networking, and Development

• Conduct capability building workshops to identify and finalize worker competencies certification process, accreditation of assessment centers and assessors • Establish TESDA Skills assessment centers and disseminate new skills assessment system • Undertake compliance audit • Establish recognition for national certification for entry level positions

x

x

x

x

• Legislate extension of contractual employees from 6 months to 3 years • Conduct information drive on correct implementation of service charge distribution • Undertake benchmarking on acceptable ratio on tenured and non tenured employees

x

x

x

• Re-engineer tourism and hospitality education • Develop and implement graduate programs in tourism and hospitality management • Introduce tourism in basic education • Create industry-academe linkages • Privatize all TESDA training centers

x

x

x x x

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

• Form Association of Human Resources Managers in the tourism hospitality industry • Support the hosting of the “Mabuhay Awards” program and event • Organize a national tourism and hospitality human resource conference

x x

x x

x x

3.3 Improve governance in the area of safety, security, and in dealing with tourists

646,000

3.3.1 Subprogram for Transparency and Host Community Involvement

• Create an Audit Committee in DOT that will oversee and inspect all tourism-related activities, programs • Conduct training and education on tourism, hospitality and entrepreneurship skills for host communities

x

280,000

x

x

- Tourism Private Sector, League of Mayors, International Grant

Established Host training programs ongoing

3.3.2 Sub program for Improving Governance for Tourism Development

• Adopt “Mabuhay! Tuloy Po Kayo” Program for CIQS at International Airports • Expand DOT TOP-COP Program • Conduct Tourism Front-Liners Awareness and Values Training Program

x

x

216,000

x

- DOT, BID, BOC, DILG, PNP, - PCCI Tourism Congress (and member trade associations) LGU Leagues

Mabuhay Tuloy Po Kayo, and front-liners training ongoing. TOPCOP program being expanded

3.3.3 Establishing a Tourism Crisis Management Unit

• Conduct workshops with key stakeholders to establish TOR the crisis management unit • Prepare organizational structure and staffing requirements of the crisis management unit • Establish unit, recruit staff, and implement

x

- DOT, NDCC, PNP, DILG,

Crisis management unit established in the DOT

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

150,000

x x x

x

x

x

x

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Timing

2010

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

- 14

Strategy and Action Plan Elements

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Formulation of the Philippine National Tourism Development Plan 2011-2016

Although previous tourism plans attempted to focus destination development and marketing on a few selected priority tourism destinations, these efforts have generally been unsuccessful and slow to develop, while leaving many stakeholders largely excluded. As a result, the destination and product development and marketing process and related investments done in the past has generally been organic rather than planned. This is amply illustrated by the ad hoc, unplanned, poorly managed, and underfunded approach that has characterized the evolution of Philippine tourist destinations. Given the above situation, the purposes of this paper are to: to set out a logical framework to guide the DOT and LGUs in the planning, development and regulation of tourism; help other national government agencies to converge their investments in infrastructure, human resource development and capacity building; and assist the private sector in determining the location of viable tourism investments.

Destination Development Principles A key discussion point in the regional stakeholder consultations was the need to have a logical framework for destination development that would provide the stage on which the NTDP strategic directions and the related programs and projects could be implemented to achieve the NTDP’s overall goal, vision, and targets from 2011 and 2016. The principles adopted by the stakeholders in defining the logical destination framework are:

» the destination development framework must be as inclusive as possible—all major stakeholders at the national government, LGUs, and private sector level as well local communities, need to see that they are included; » the destination framework must be responsive not only to international market demand, but also to the much larger domestic market demand; » the framework must identify and align priorities for public sector planning, investment in infrastructure, marketing and promotions, as well as institutional organization and human resources development; » the framework must guide the type and location of private sector investment as well as Public-Private Partnership-based infrastructure investment opportunities.

This approach recognizes that not all destinations in the Philippines can be international destinations. The reality is that the more flexible domestic market will drive most tourism investments and generate most of the economic benefits including poverty reduction. While it is true that much of the economic benefits of tourism will accrue to those destinations that are able to attract both international and domestic markets, the primary rationale for having a broader and more inclusive destination approach is that domestic market development even at a modest scale outside the main destinations requires less investment, can have significant income, employment, and poverty reduction effects, and have lower environmental and social mitigation costs.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Introduction

Proposed Destination & Product Development Framework The stakeholders deemed that in order to address the abovementioned issues it will be necessary to strengthen stakeholder support and commitment at the regional and LGU levels. This calls for developing and marketing an inclusive market-thematic cluster tourist destination and product development framework. This framework should cover the main existing and emerging tourist development areas of the country that offer a wide range of day visitor sites and activities including some that are “must experience” in nature—all stakeholders should feel that they are included in some way in the NTDP. However, as noted by the stakeholders, the rate of development of the existing and emerging destinations depend upon the extent of interest of the local stakeholders but what was needed is an inclusive planning framework. The DOT is tasked to develop the said framework in close collaboration with LGUs and other stakeholders.

During the regional consultations with the stakeholders from the 16 Regions and the ARMM, and guided by the approach adopted in the Sustainable Tourism Management Plan for the Central Philippines sponsored by JBIC, the stakeholders identified existing and emerging tourist development areas that comprised main tourism centers and clusters of tourist sites and activity areas based on the principle illustrated in the above diagram. A total of 77 existing and emerging tourist development areas (TDAs) were identified. The stakeholders also identified the main transportation and destination infrastructure, product development and marketing, and institutional and human resource development needs and deficiencies of each TDA. The detailed results of this exercise are contained in Volume 1: Philippine Tourism Situation Analysis and the key findings are that:

In this context, the stakeholders adopted a destination framework that would support destination development throughout the Philippines, while at the same time giving priority to key destinations with the capacity to increase international and domestic tourism volumes quickly. The stakeholders deemed that while many areas of the Philippines may not attract international tourist either due to the lack of necessary attractions or access, facility and safety and security limitations, this should not prevent these destinations from pursuing domestic markets, especially those living in the vicinity of the destination such as in the case of Bukidnon where the Mindanao domestic market is the mainstay of tourism development. The stakeholders thus opted for a parallel destination development strategy based on identifying destinations that should focus mainly on: (a) domestic market development in which the ratio of domestic market to the total market ratio is 95%; and (b) a mix of domestic and international market development in which the maximum ratio of international market to total market is 60%.

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Destination & Product Development



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» The primary and secondary international airports are unable to handle rapid growth in international tourism unless their capacity is quickly improved; » The air, sea and road access infrastructure and transportation connectivity between the main and secondary international airports and the TDAs need to be improved; » The destination center services such as water, power, sanitation and solid waste management must be increased in many destinations if they are to cope with rapid increases in tourism activities without adverse environmental impacts; » Many destination centers must be decongested, their overall environment made more orderly, and tourism support infrastructure such as information, sanitary rest areas, signage, lighting and landscaping provided and improved; and » The road and water access to 278 identified natural and cultural tourist sites, and site visitor infrastructure must be improved to increase their carrying capacity to provide a better, safer and more secure site experience.

The 77 TDAs were further clustered into 21 thematic Cluster Destinations (CDs) based on their linkage to one or more main international and domestic tourist air, sea, and road gateways and then further divided into those that included an international airport—defined as international strategic cluster destinations, and those without— defined as domestic strategic cluster destinations. The layout of the CDs and their TDAs is shown in Figure 3 below. The 21 CDs were grouped into three (3) “greater regions” within the Philippines as follows:

» Northern Philippines based on North and Central Luzon, CAR, CALABARZON, and NCR comprising 7 CDs containing 27 TDAs with three international CDs: DC-NP-2 (Laoag-Vigan) based on Laoag as international gateway; CD-NP-6 (Central Luzon) based on Clark as international gateway; and CD-NP-7 (Metro Manila-CALABARZON) based on NAIA as international gateway. » Central Philippines based on MIMAROPA, Bicol, and the Visayas comprising 7 CDs containing 24 tourism TDAs with four international CDs: CD-CP-1 (Bicol) based on Daraga International Airport in Albay still under construction; CD-CP-6 (Central Visayas) based on Mactan-Cebu International Airport and Panglao International Airport once it is open; CD-CP-4 (Palawan) with Puerto-Princesa as the gateway; CD-CP-5 (Western Visayas) with Iloilo, and Kalibo as international gateways; and » Southern Philippines based in Mindanao comprising 7 CDs containing 26 TDAs with three (3) existing international CDs: SP-CD 6 (Davao Gulf & Coast) based on Davao International Airport; SP-CD-4 Zamboanga Peninsula based on Zamboanga International Airport; and subject to completion, Laguindigan International Airport near Cagayan de Oro.

Table 1 lists the CDs under each of the international airports in the Northern, Central and Southern Philippines. Table 1: International Airports and Linked Cluster Destinations Northern Philippines Greater Tourism Area Laoag International Airport to service: NP1 - Batanes-Cagayan Coast -Babuyan Islands Cluster, NP2 - Laoag-Vigan Cluster, NP3 - Sierra Madre Cluster, and NP4 - Cordillera Cluster

Southern Philippines Greater Tourism Area

Daraga International Airport, Albay to service:

Cagayan de Oro Laguindingan International Airport to service:

CP1 - Bicol Cluster, CP7 – Eastern Visayas Cluster, CP2 - Marinduque – Romblon Puerto Princesa International Airport to service:

SP2 - Agusan River Basin & Coastal Cluster SP3 - Cagayan de Oro-Camiguin IslandTangub Coast and Bukidnon Highlands Cluster

Clark and Subic International Airports to service:

CP3 - Mindoro - Calamian Cluster, and CP4 - Palawan Cluster

Davao International Airport to service:

NP3 - Sierra Madre Cluster, NP4 - Cordillera Cluster, NP5 - Lingayen Gulf Cluster, and NP6 - Central Luzon Cluster

Iloilo and Kalibo International Airports to service:

SP5 - Davao Gulf and Coast Cluster, SP6– Cotabato - Saranggani Cluster. (Note: Saranggani could also host international charter flights).

Manila International Airport to service: All other destination clusters NP7 - Metro Manila and the CALABARZON Cluster, CP1 - Bicol Cluster, CP2 - Marinduque – Romblon CP3 - Mindoro - Calamian Cluster, CP4 - Palawan Cluster, and

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Central Philippines Greater Tourism Area

CP5 - Western Visayas Cluster, CP6 - Western portions of the Central Visayas Cluster Cebu-Mactan and Panglao International Airports to service: CP6 - Central Visayas Cluster, CP7 – Eastern Visayas Cluster, SP1 - Surigao – Dinagat Islands Cluster, and SP4 - Zamboanga Peninsula Cluster

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Moreover, the stakeholders also identified the following: a) the additional investments needed in private sector product developments such as resorts, hotels, convention and entertainment centers, wellness and medical tourism, retirement and sports tourism facilities, and theme attractions among others; b) the need to improve tourism planning, tourism human resource, and tourist facility and service standards; and © the need to improve the level of marketing and promotion of the destinations.

Zamboanga International Airport to service: SP4 - Zamboanga Peninsula Cluster, SP7 - Sulu Archipelago-Maguindanao Lanao del Sur (ARMM) Cluster.

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Figure 1. Map of Strategic Cluster Destinations

In the CDs with international airports, priority should be given to:

» Improving their capacity to handle increased international tourists; » Improving infrastructure and transportation connections between them and other CDs without international airports; » Planning the expansion of services infrastructure in their TDAs and improving access and facilities at key tourist sites to enable them to get a good share of tourism growth going forward; » Designating TEZs in the vicinity of the international airports and developing mixed- use leisure, entertainment convention and exhibition, resort, shopping and health and wellness products; » Developing a program to link the poorer sector in the Cluster to the tourism value chain; » Improving institutional arrangements for tourism planning, investment, governance, regulation and marketing.

In the remaining CDs priority should be given to:

» Improving connectivity infrastructure between them and the International CDs; » Planning the expansion of services infrastructure in their TDAs and improving access and facilities at key tourist sites to enable them to get a good share of tourism growth going forward; » Participating in domestic and international marketing campaigns designed to attract domestic and international markets interested in their existing product offering; » Developing a program to link the poorer sector in the Cluster to the tourism value chain connected with the TDAs and their tourist sites; and » Improving institutional arrangements for tourism planning, investment, governance, regulation and marketing.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

A profile of each of the 21 CDs in terms of their LGU composition, main tourism assets, accessibility, accommodation capacities, international and domestic arrivals in accommodations and growth trends, their future development potential, the key public sector infrastructure deficiencies and needs facilities, and the likely growth scenario for international and domestic arrivals between 2011 and 2016 is provided in Attachment 1 of this paper.

Prioritizing Tourism Interventions in the CDs For purposes of determining the priorities for planning market and product development, public sector investment, and private sector investment, the CDs and related TDAs located in the Northern, Central and Southern Philippines were evaluated according to the following criteria: (a) the extent of existing tourism activities; (b) potential for domestic and international market growth to 2016; (c) connectivity to international airports; (d) private sector interest; (e) potential for direct international access; (f ) environmental carrying capacity; (g) security and safety; and (h) level of poverty. The extent to which these CDs and their TDAs could cater to the key, strategic and opportunity/niche product-market groups identified in the market research (see Attachment 1) was mapped in terms of:

» Key products capable of delivering higher growth potential, higher lengths of stay and expenditure, and wider spread benefits comprising: (a) nature-based tourism, (b) sun and beach tourism, and (c) cultural tourism products targeting long haul markets in Europe, Middle East and North America, and selected markets such as Australia and niche segments in the regional markets. » Strategic products capable of attracting large regional markets with moderate length of stay and expenditure comprising: (a) meetings, conventions, incentive and events, (b) leisure and entertainment and shopping complexes, (c) health and wellness, and (d) cruise tourism products targeting the regional markets especially China, South Korea, Japan, India, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Australia. » Opportunity/niche products capable of delivering strong future growth with long average length of stay and expenditure comprising: (a) nautical, (b) educational, and (c) retirement products targeting Europe, Middle East and North America, and selected markets such as Australia and segments in the regional markets.

The capacity of the CDs and their TDAs to provide these key, strategic and opportunity/niche products is evaluated and set out in Attachment 2 of this Paper. The major implications for each area of the Philippines are discussed below. Northern Philippines The top three (3) CDs in the Northern Philippines were those containing TDAs with international gateways, i.e.: NP-6 Central Luzon based on Clark as the international gateway; NP-7 Metro Manila and CALABARZON with NAIA as the international gateway; and NP-2 Laoag-Vigan based on Laoag as the international gateway. These CDs support the full range of key, strategic and opportunity/niche products and are already capable of attracting significant volumes of domestic and international markets. The remaining 4 CDs, i.e. NP1—BatanesBabuyan Islands Cluster, the NP3—Sierra Madre Cluster, NP4—Cordillera Cluster, and NP5—Lingayen Gulf Cluster are dependent upon domestic air and road access links to the main international gateways and support mainly nature and culture based tourism products in the domestic market and to a smaller extent, the international market. In terms of TDAs, the top five ranked TDAs in the Northern Philippines are: » NP-6A Subic-Clark-Tarlac Corridor; » NP-2A Laoag-Pagudpud; » NP-7A Metro Manila and Environs; » NP-7B Nasugbu-Looc-Ternate-Cavite Coast; and » NP-6E Zambales Coast Moreover, these TDAs have the capacity to support the full range of key, strategic and opportunity/niche products and are already capable of attracting significant volumes of domestic and international markets. The productmarket focus of the remaining TDAs tends to be towards nature and culture based tourism where domestic tourism is the most important market but where with strategic air and road improvements, an increasing number of international tourists could visit.

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As with the Northern Philippines, the top three CDs were those containing TDAs with international gateways, i.e. CP-6 Central Visayas based on MIA in Cebu, CP-5 Western Visayas based on Kalibo as the charter international airport, and Iloilo as the scheduled service international airport, and CP-4 Palawan based on Puerto-Princesa as the international airport. The TDAs in these CDs support a broad range of key, strategic and opportunity/niche products and are already capable of attracting significant volumes of domestic and international markets. The remaining 4 CDs, i.e. CP-1 Bicol, CP-2 Marinduque-Romblon, CP-3 Mindoro-Calamian, and CP-7 Eastern Visayas Cluster have the capacity to support either key products and markets such as the Bicol and Mindoro-Calamian cluster, or opportunity/niche products and markets driven mainly by the domestic market. In terms of TDAs, the top five ranked TDAs in the Central Philippines are:

» CP-6E Tagbilaran-Panglao Island; » CP-6B Metro Cebu-Mactan-Olango- Islands » CP-4B Puerto Princesa; » CP-1B Albay-Sorosogon-Masbate » CP-5C Boracay Island-Northern Antique-Kalibo

Again, these TDAs have the capacity to support the full range of key, strategic and opportunity/niche products and are already attracting or capable of attracting significant volumes of domestic and international markets. The product-market focus of the remaining TDAs tends to be towards nature and culture based tourism as well as sun and beach and nautical tourism where domestic tourism is the most important market and where with strategic air and road improvements, an increasing number of international tourists could visit. It should be noted however, that the Boracay Island component of the Boracay Island-Northern Antique-Kalibo TDA is already considered to be operating beyond its sustainable environmental carrying capacity and that there is a need to promote other TDAs to de-concentrate tourism development in the Western Visayan Cluster. The most viable candidate for this is the closely 6th ranked Metro Iloilo-Guimaras TDA. Southern Philippines In the Southern Philippines, the top three ranked CDs included three with international airports either operating or soon to be operated, i.e. SP-5 Davao Gulf and Coast, and SP-3 Cagayan de Oro City-Tangub Coast, and the SP-4 Zamboanga Peninsula cluster. The TDAs in these CDs support a broad range of key, strategic and opportunity/ niche products and are already capable of attracting significant volumes of domestic and international markets. The TDAs in the remaining 4 CDs, i.e. SP-6 Cotabato – Saranggani, SP-7 ARMM, SP-2 Agusan River Basin, and SP-1 Surigao Dinagat Islands support mainly key and strategic products tailored to Mindanao domestic tourism markets. In terms of TDAs, the top five ranked TDAs in the Southern Philippines comprise:

» SP-3B: Cagayan de Oro City/ Misamis Oriental Coast » SP-5A: Davao City - Samal Island - Davao Del Norte » SP-6D: Gen Santos – Saranggani » SP-4B: Zamboanga City-Sta. Cruz-Isabela; and » SP-3E: Bukidnon

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Central Philippines

Of these, the top three (3) TDAs that have the capacity to support a wide range of key, strategic and opportunity/ niche products although none of them is currently attracting any significant international markets due to security concerns in the case of Zamboanga and the limited or lack of direct international air connections in Davao and at Cagayan de Oro. The remaining TDAs offer mainly key nature and culture-based tourism products to the domestic market coming mainly from within the Southern Philippines itself.

Implications For Setting Development Priorities Given the analysis of tourism development potential of the TDAs and the CDs within which these are clustered, and the identification of their transportation and destination infrastructure, and product development needs, it is clear that priority should be given to:



By Q4 of 2011: designation of large LGU or private sector TEZs in the following locations: - least one TEZ from the following TDAs: Laoag-Pagudpud, Nasugbu-Looc-Ternate-Cavite Coast, or the Zambales Coast, - the whole of CP-7E: Panglao Island as a TEZ in partnership with the LGUs, and - a major area (+400 has.) in the vicinity of Laguindingan International Airport that is to be completed in 2012.



By Q4 2012: designation of large LGU or private sector TEZs in the following locations: - at least one from the following TDAs in the Northern Philippines: Laoag-Pagudpud, Nasugbu-Loc_Ternate-Cavite Coast, the Zambales Coast, or the La Union Coast, - at least one from the following TDAs in the Central Philippines: Metro Cebu-MactanOlango- Islands Puerto Princesa; Albay-Sorosogon-Masbate, Boracay Island-Northern Antique-Kalibo, or Iloilo-Guimaras, - at least one from the following TDAs in the Southern Philippines: Davao City - Samal Island Davao Del Norte, Gen Santos – Saranggani, Zamboanga City-Sta Cruz-Isabela, and Bukidnon.



By Q4 2013: designation of large LGU or private sector TEZs in the following locations: - at least one from the following TDAs in the Northern Philippines: Laoag-Pagudpud, Nasugbu-Loc-Ternate-Cavite Coast, or the Zambales Coast, La Union, or Benguet-Baguio-Ifugao-Mt. Province, - at least one from the following TDAs in the Central Philippines: Metro Cebu-MactanOlango- Islands Puerto Princesa; Albay-Sorosogon-Masbate, Boracay Island-Northern Antique-Kalibo, Iloilo-Guimaras, or Bacolod-Silay, - at least one from the following TDAs in the Southern Philippines: Davao City - Samal Island Davao Del Norte, Gen Santos – Saranggani, Zamboanga City-Sta Cruz-Isabela, Bukidnon, or Dapitan.



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» Moving quickly to develop the capacity of the 9 international CDs in the Northern, Southern, and Central Philippines to handle increased international and domestic tourism based on offering a broad range key, strategic and opportunity/niche products to international and domestic markets. This will entail: » Improving the capacity of the international airports to handle increase international tourism arrivals by upgrading these airports through renovation and proceeding with the plans to expand existing terminal capacity or completion new airport developments already in the pipeline such as Laguindingan in Cagayan de Oro and Panglao Island in Bohol; » Prioritizing the improvement of destination and site access and visitor infrastructure in the 9 international CDs. » Promoting private sector investment in larger-scale key, strategic and opportunity/niche tourism products such as integrated resorts and leisure, entertainment and MICE facilities; » Working with local government units and private sector partners to designate multiple municipality-wide Tourism Enterprise zones in the vicinity of the secondary international TDAs targeting investment in key, strategic and opportunity/niche products and supporting infrastructure. The roll out of TEZs should follow the following program:

» Moving in parallel to improving air and road connectivity between each international CD and the other CDs in their orbit in order to develop an improved platform for increasing international and domestic tourism to these CDs and their TDAs. » Rolling out TDA-based tourism infrastructure development program that seeks to enhance service infrastructure, tourist support infrastructure, improve access and site visitor infrastructure targeting first the 8 CDs outside of Metro Manila and Environs with international airports; and then, the remaining CDs; and » Rolling out a program that seeks to engage local communities in the tourism value chain created by the investments in improved access, destination infrastructure, and site access and visitor facilities.

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

NP-1 Batanes - Cagayan Coast - Babuyan Islands Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two emerging Tourism Development Areas: NP-1A Batanes Islands (mainly Itbayat, Batan, Ivuhos, and Sabtang), NP-1B Babuyan Islands (mainly Camiguin, Calayan, Dalupiri and Fuga), NP-1C Cagayan Coast

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

The islands offer rich island marine life, small beaches, island scenery, indigenous cultures and archaeological sites, e.g. Ivatan ethnic culture and historic sites of batanes (Basco Lighthouse and island scenery), etc..

Access

Basco in Batan Island is accessible by air from Manila via SEAIR, Laoag via Sky Pasada and Batanes Air, Tuguegarao, Cagayan via Sky Pasada and Batanes Airlines, and by sea from Ilocos Norte and Cagayan. The Babuyan Islands (Fuga, Clayan, and Babuyan Islands) are accessible from Claveria by sea banca and by regular ferry from Sta. Ana in Cagayan.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

8 establishments with 79 hotel rooms (15 economy and 27 Standard rooms accredited with DOT). Many small-scale accommodation inns, guesthouses and home-stays are present.

Tourism Metrics

Estimated 8,562 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 951 were international and 7,611 were domestic tourists. Only a small fraction of total arrivals occurred in the Babuyan Group of islands. 2000-2008 CAGR was -2.25%

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Rich marine environment Unique Ethnic culture and history Still rustic, friendly and undeveloped Relaxed lifestyle

Inadequate access, power, water, and solid waste handling infrastructure Lack of accommodation capacity Limits of land and water carrying capacity Poor safety compliance Limited season due to poor weather Weak tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Developing niche marine resort and wildlife encounter markets Improving air and sea access infrastructure and services Capitalizing on unique assets of the Cluster.

Uncontrolled development leading to pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage vale Typhoons, earthquakes and tsunamis

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche island resort, ecotourism, marine experiences such as humpback whale and dolphin encounters, scuba diving, nautical tourism and adventure-based activities Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

--

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Attachment 1

Upgrade Basco Airport elevation and length and provision of all-weather passenger seaport Jetty improvements at all main Islands and at Claveria on the Cagayan Coast Increase air and sea transportation services Improve telecommunications on Islands Improve water and power availability and solid waste management

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Tourist information centers Improve site access, information and visitor facilities especially sanitary rest rooms and solid waste management, and sustained operations and maintenance of these. Restore historic stone houses in Sabtang and adaptive reuse for home stay to maintain asset

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche (20 to 50 rooms) beach resort, and ecolodge facilities on main islands

-24

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 951 Domestic: 7,611

Foreign: 951 Domestic: 7,611

Foreign: 1,274 Domestic: 10,199

Total: 8,562

Total: 8,562

Total: 11,473

NP-2 Laoag-Vigan Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two existing Tourism Development Areas: NP-2A Laoag-Pagudpud and NP-2B Vigan along the Ilocos Norte and Sur South China Sea Coast in Northern Luzon

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

The main tourism assets include the coastal beaches, marine environment, history especially UNESCO listed Vigan and Paoya Church, and Ilocos culture, festivals and food.

Access

International Air Charters to Laoag from Macau, Taiwan and China, from Manila by air to Laoag, and by national road from Metro Manila via Central Luzon and La Union, and Tuguegarao in Cagayan.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

3 establishments with 522 hotel rooms (267 deluxe and 132 AAA) accredited with DOT. Many small-scale inns, guesthouses and home-stays are present but not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

232,381 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 22,513 were international and 209,868 were domestic tourists. Vigan: 2,073 international and 47,105 domestic arrivals. 2000-2008 CAGR was 4.09%

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Rich historic heritage and unique Ilocos culture Extensive beach/coastal wetlands Proximity to extensive mountain ecotourism hinterland sites Established destination access, infrastructure and accommodations with capacity to expand

Inadequate site access and visitor infrastructure and safety compliance Inadequate air access to Vigan and lack of international sea cruise terminal facility Insufficient accommodation capacity to allow growth Weak tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving international and domestic air, and international sea access Leverage off its international air access, historic, entertainment, and marine and hinterland environment

Uncontrolled development leading to pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage values Typhoons, earthquakes and tsunamis

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing large integrated resort destinations at Laoag, Pagudpud and in Vigan Area; leisure, entertainment and MICE facilities in Laoag; and niche resort and ecotourism facilities with day trips based on nature and culture sightseeing, marine, and adventurebased activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade Mindoro Airport-Vigan Upgrade Curimao Seaport to handle international cruise passengers Improve last mile access roads Improve solid waste management, visitor information, parking center, rest areas, restoration of sites and structures, and sustainable operations and maintenance of sites. Develop large integrated beach resort properties (250 to 1,500) rooms Niche beach and wetland and hinterland forest ecolodge facilities Develop major leisure, entertainment

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016 Baseline (2010)

Name of Cluster

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

-25

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 19,670 Domestic: 253,843

Foreign: 22,152 Domestic: 321,192

Foreign: 58,734 Domestic: 449,698

Total: 273,513

Total: 343,344

Total: 508,432

Name of Cluster

NP-3 Sierra Madre Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three Tourism Development Areas: NP-3A Tuguegarao-Tabuk, NP-3B Ilagan & Isabela Coastal Areas, and NP-3C Quirino TDA located on the Pacific Coast of Northern and Central Luzon

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

The main tourism assets include the Pacific coastal beaches and marine environment, the mountain forest and rich biodiversity, as well as its history and culture of local peoples.

Access

International Air Charters to Laoag then by national highway to Cagayan portion of Sierra Madre; International air transportation to Clark then by national highway to all portions of the Cluster, and international transportation to NAIA and by national road.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

451 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +60% room occupancy. Many small-scale inns, guesthouses and home-stays are present but not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

307,504 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 17,457 were international and 47,105 domestic arrivals. Average length of stay is 1 night with up to 3 persons per room. 2000-2008 CAGR was 18.45%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Largely untapped rich natural mountain forest biodiversity and wildlife Extensive Pacific beach/coastal and island marine environment Reasonable road access to key points

Inadequate airport access Inadequate site access and visitor infrastructure and safety compliance Insufficient accommodation capacity to allow growth Weak tourism governance Security concerns

External Opportunities

External Threats

Expanding international and domestic tourism markets Improving international and domestic air and road access Leveraging off the unique and unspoiled mountain forest and Pacific coast assets

Uncontrolled development leading to pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage value Typhoons, earthquakes and tsunamis Out of control security situation

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing niche, small to medium scale marine resorts at key points such as Baler; developing mountain forest and marine ecolodges, and developing day trip marine wildlife, adventure, and sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

--

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade Tuguegarao and Cauayan airports Upgrade road connections to Cluster from central Luzon Undertake road improvements to key areas of the Cluster

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Improve last mile access roads to key mountain forest and marine tourist sites Improve solid waste management, visitor information, parking center, rest areas, restoration of sites and structures, and sustainable operations and maintenance of sites.

-26

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 28,789 Domestic: 580,141

Foreign: 36,427 Domestic: 777,444

Foreign: 51,001 Domestic: 1,027,755

Total: 608,930

Total: 813,871

Total: 1,078,756

NP-4 Cordillera Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three Tourism Development Areas: NP-4A Central Cordillera, NP-4B Benguet-Baguio-Ifugao-Mountain Province, and NP-4C Nueva Vizcaya located in the central mountain region of Northern Luzon.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

The main tourism assets of the Cluster comprise its mountain forest environment, scenery and cool climate; its ethnic tribal groups and their unique mountain culture including the UNESCO listed Rice Terraces, the highland resort city of Baguio.

Access

International Air from Laoag, Clark, and NAIA, and by national highway from international airports.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

2,606 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +60% room occupancy. Many small-scale inns, guesthouses and home-stays are present but not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

996,554 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 121,565 were international and 874,989 were domestic arrivals. Average room occupancies are of the order of +60%. 20002008 CAGR was -1.91%

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Largely untapped rich natural and cultural heritage Presence of major city mountain resort center at Baguio Reasonable good road access to perimeter of Cluster

Unreliable all weather internal road access Poor tourist site access and visitor infrastructure and safety compliance Insufficient accommodation capacity Overdevelopment/congestion in main mountain centers e.g. Baguio City Weak tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Expanding international and domestic tourism markets Improving international and domestic market road access Leverage off improving access and connectivity to expand market to other centers outside Baguio City

Uncontrolled development leading to overdevelopment, congestion, pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage values Typhoons and earthquakes

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing niche, small to medium scale mountain resorts, hotels, and ecolodges; expanding existing and developing new mountain resort centers and developing meeting and convention facilities in the main mountain centers where capacity permits; and providing new mountain trekking, sport, and nature and culture sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

--

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016 Low Growth Scenario 2016

Name of Cluster

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Niche and medium sized beach resort properties (50 to 150) rooms Niche mountain forest ecolodge facilities

Baseline (2010)

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Upgrade road connections between the main centers within the Cluster and to the main road gateways from outside the cluster Upgrade telecommunications facilities Improve last mile access roads to key tourist sites Improve solid waste management, visitor information, parking center, rest areas, restoration of sites and structures, and sustainable operations and maintenance at key tourism sites and activity areas. Small to medium scale mountain resorts and hotels Niche hotels and ecolodges

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-27

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 108,901 Domestic: 1,160,180

Foreign: 137,795 Domestic: 1,231,554

Foreign: 192,925 Domestic: 1,554,752

Total: 1,269,081

Total: 1,369,349

Total: 1,747,677

Name of Cluster

NP-5 Lingayen Gulf Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises four Tourism Development Areas: NP-5A La Union Coast, NP-5B Lingayen Coast and Islands, NP-5C Western Pangasinan Loop, and NP-5D Eastern Pangasinan Tourism Circuit located in the northeastern part of Central Luzon.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

The main tourism assets of the Cluster comprise its coastal and island landscape, its protected mountain hinterland and ecotourism resources, as well as leisure, entertainment, sport and meetings facilities.

Access

By road from NAIA, Clarke and Laoag international airports and charter flights and domestic air services to San Fernando Airport.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

729 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +60% room occupancy. Many smaller scale hotels, resorts, inns, and guesthouses are not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

119,384 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 15,400 were international and 103,984 were domestic arrivals. 2000-2008 CAGR was -1.81%

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Contains the iconic 100 islands Proximity to Clark and Subic and Baguio Presence of existing resort and hotel developments Good road access to and within Cluster

Poor tourist site access and visitor infrastructure Insufficient accommodation capacity to allow for sustained growth Weak tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Expanding international and domestic tourism markets Repositioning the Cluster as a beach and island resort, leisure, entertainment sport and ecotourism center Leverage off the capacity of main cities, coastal and mountain hinterland ecotourism resources

Uncontrolled development leading to overdevelopment, congestion, pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage values Typhoons and earthquakes

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing beach and island resort, leisure, entertainment sport and ecotourism facilities as well as multi-purpose convention facilities directed at the regional international and domestic tourist markets supported by broad range of nature and culture sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

--

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade airport at San Fernando to handle regional international charter air services and complete the new airport at Alaminos in Pangasinan. Improve last mile access road and/or jetty access to key coastal, island and mountain landscapes and protected areas Improve solid waste management, visitor information, parking center, rest areas, restoration of sites and structures, and sustainable operations and maintenance at key tourism sites and activity areas.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

NP-6 Central Luzon Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises seven Tourism Development Areas: NP-6A Subic-Clark-Tarlac Corridor, NP-6B Nueva Ecija, NP-6C Pampanga, NP-6D Bulacan, NP-6E Zambales, NP-6F Bataan Coast and Hinterland, and NP-6G Aurora.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches and coves, protected forested mountain landscapes and ecotourism resources, rich cultural heritage—historic sites and buildings, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals of its peoples, and its leisure, entertainment, sport and meetings facilities.

Access

Direct international air services to Clarke and Subic and by road (mostly expressway) from Metro Manila, as well as from Northern Luzon.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

2,089 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +65% room occupancy. Many smaller scale hotels, resorts, inns, and guesthouses are not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

533,847 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 165,322 were international and 368,525 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 10.65%. The Subic-Clark-Tarlac Corridor accounted for around 60% of total arrivals.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Largely untapped rich natural and cultural heritage Presence of major city mountain resort center at Baguio Reasonable good road access to perimeter of Cluster

Substandard access and visitor infrastructure at most tourist sites Insufficient accommodation capacity to allow for sustained growth Weak public sector coordination and tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Expanding international and domestic tourism markets Positioning the Cluster as a major mixed use tourism destination attracting niche to mass international and domestic markets Consolidate Clark as the premier international tourism gateway to the Philippines

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development leading to overdevelopment, congestion, pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage value Volcanic eruptions --Mt. Pinatubo, earthquakes and Typhoons

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing beach and island resort, leisure, entertainment sport and ecotourism facilities as well as major multi-purpose convention and exhibition facilities directed at the regional international and domestic tourist markets supported by broad range of nature and culture sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Education, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Expand small to medium scale resorts and hotels Develop a diverse range of ecotourism-based accommodations Develop mixed-use city-based leisure, entertainment, wellness-spa, shopping and multi-purpose convention centers.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-28

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 20,627 Domestic: 183,826

Foreign: 20,627 Domestic: 183,826

Foreign: 31,834 Domestic: 246,344

Total: 204.453

Total: 204,453

Total: 278,178

Complete phase 2 of terminal 1 (budget carrier terminal) and second terminal at Clark Complete national road improvements linking the provinces within the cluster and to the clusters to the North. Improve last mile access road access and at-site visitor infrastructure and operations and maintenance to key natural and cultural heritage tourist sites coastal, island and mountain landscapes and protected areas. Develop small, medium and large beach resorts . Develop major leisure, entertainment, sport, and convention and events facilities in Clark and Subic and Tarlac. Develop extensive day tour sightseeing, theme attraction, adventure, and sport products.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-29

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 145,767 Domestic: 446,338

Foreign: 195,342 Domestic: 598,136

Foreign: 435, 258 Domestic: 790,715

Total: 592,105

Total: 793,478

Total: 1,225,973

Name of Cluster

NP-7 Metro Manila and CALABARZON Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises five Tourism Development Areas: NP-7A Metro Manila and Environs, NP-7B Nasugbu-Looc-Ternate-Cavite Coast, NP-7C Laguna de bay, NP-7D Batangas Peninsula, NP-7E Quezon Coast and Islands.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches, coves, lakes, protected volcanic mountain landscapes, National Capitol, rich cultural heritage—historic sites and buildings, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals, major leisure, entertainment, sport and meetings facilities.

Access

Direct international and domestic air services through NAIA and by road (mostly expressway) from Metro Manila to most parts of the Cluster.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

32,407 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +70% room occupancy.

Tourism Metrics

4,789,797 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 1,250,313 were international and 3,539,484 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 4.76%. Metro Manila and Laguna accounted for 69% of total arrivals.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

NAIA international/domestic gateway Well developed road access to and within the cluster Diversity of tourism attractions including major sites such as Intramuros and city leisure and entertainment and MICE centers

Runway and terminal congestion at NAIA Poor access and visitor infrastructure at most tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Rationalizing NAIA operations to make room for more international tourism arrivals Positioning the Cluster as a global leisure, entertainment, convention and exhibition, and resort destination attracting mass markets with broad range of day trip activities

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development leading to overdevelopment, congestion, pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage value Volcanic eruptions—Taal, earthquakes, and typhoons

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing major city leisure, entertainment, medical and wellness, and convention and exhibition facilities, developing small, medium and large scale satellite resort destinations in the provinces outside Metro Manila, and developing a broad range of nature and culture heritage sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Education Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Rationalize NAIA to handle increased international arrivals Complete national road improvements linking Metro Manila with key resort and tourism activity areas in the surrounding provinces Improve last mile site access road access and site visitor infrastructure Undertake major restoration of Intramuros and seek UNESCO listing for it and consider adaptive reuse for public sector buildings to generate revenue for O&M.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Develop small, medium and large beach resorts in provinces outside Metro Manila Develop major leisure, entertainment, sport, and convention and events facilities in Manila Bay Area, and Batangas Improve and expand existing day tour activities for sightseeing circuits, theme attractions, adventure, sport, and other products.

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

CP-1 Bicol Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two Tourism Development Areas: CP-1A Camarines & Catanduanes, and CP-1B Albay-Sorsorgon-Masbate located in the Southern Luzon area.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches, coves, islands, marine biodiversity, protected volcanic mountain landscapes, rich cultural heritage—historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

International air access via NAIA with and domestic airports at Naga, Legaspi, Daet, Pili, Caramoan, and Masbate; by good quality national road from Metro Manila; and RORO connections to Masbate, Samar and Leyte from Cebu.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

6,646 hotel rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +50% room occupancy.

Tourism Metrics

1,307,782 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 249,237 were international and 1,058,545 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 15.77%. Camarines Sur and Naga accounted for 55% of total arrivals.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Position between Metro Manila and Cebu—good road and rail access to the cluster from Metro Manila Diversity of tourism attractions Strong public sector interest in developing tourism

Weak internal road and RORO connectivity Poor access and visitor infrastructure at most tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Positioning the Cluster as a city, beach and island resort, marine and forest-based ecotourism and adventure destination offering a broad range of day trip activities

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development—overdevelopment, congestion, pollution and loss of natural and cultural heritage value Volcanic eruptions—Mt. Mayon, earthquakes, typhoons and tsunamis

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing city leisure, entertainment, shopping, medical and wellness, and multi-purpose convention facilities, developing niche and medium scale beach and island resort destinations, developing marine and forest adventure ecotourism products, and supporting these with a broad range of nature and culture heritage sightseeing and adventure activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade existing domestic airports to improve air operations and reduce congestion and support daily rail services from Metro Manila Upgrade national road links including RORO access between the main tourist development areas in the cluster.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site access road access and site visitor infrastructure including restoration of historic sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Develop small and medium scale beach and island resorts in areas outside the main provincial capitols and expand network of community-based marine, coastal, and forest-based ecotourism sites Develop mixed use leisure, entertainment, shopping, sport, and multi-purpose convention and events facilities in main urban centers of the cluster. Improve and expand existing range of day activity products.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-30

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 1,669,578 Domestic: 3,575,659

Foreign: 2,237,394 Domestic: 4,146,668

Foreign: 2,957,759 Domestic: 5,518,320

Foreign: 324,243 Domestic: 1,159,471

Foreign: 434,517 Domestic: 1,344,631

Foreign: 968,184 Domestic: 2,054,074

Total: 5,245,237

Total: 6,384,062

Total: 8,476,079

Total: 1,483,714

Total: 1,779,148

Total: 3,022,258

-31

Name of Cluster

CP-2 Marinduque-Romblon Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two Tourism Development Areas: CP-2A Marinduque Island, and CP-2B Romblon Islands.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches, coves, islands, marine biodiversity, protected marine and forest landscapes as well as a rich cultural heritage—historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

International air access via NAIA with domestic connections to Marinduque Airport and Tugdan Airports; and by RORO from Lucena City (Marinduque) and Batangas (Romblon).

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

83 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +50% room occupancy. Over 57 establishments with 341 rooms not registered.

Tourism Metrics

15,650 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 789 were international and 14,861 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 6.21%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Pristine and unspoiled nature of Romblon Islands High marine and forest biodiversity Extensive cultural historic heritage Strong public sector interest in developing tourism

Poor air and sea accessibility Poor access and visitor infrastructure at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Positioning Marinduque and Romblon as island beach and marine and forest ecotourism destinations

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Impact of mining and logging activities in Romblon and especially Marinduque Earthquakes, typhoons and tsunamis

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing niche and small scale beach and island resort destinations, developing marine and forest adventure ecotourism products, and supporting these with a broad range of nature and culture heritage sightseeing and adventure activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade existing domestic airports to improve air operations from NAIA and Clark International Airports. Upgrade RORO access and provide fast ferry services from Lucena City, as well as Batangas and Manila.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of historic sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche and small scale beach and island resorts Network of community-based marine, coastal, and forest-based ecotourism sites Develop appropriately sized mixed use leisure, entertainment, shopping, sport, and multi-purpose convention and events facilities in main urban centers of the cluster Improve and expand existing range of day activity products.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

CP-3 Mindoro-Calamian Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three Tourism Development Areas: CP-3A Puerto Galera, CP-3B Southwest Mindoro Coast and Hinterland, and CP-3C Busuanga-Coron-Culion Islands.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches, coves, islands, internationally protected marine reserves, WWII wrecks, marine karst, and forest landscapes; indigenous cultures; other cultural heritage including historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

International air access via NAIA with domestic connections to Busuanga, and San Jose Airports; and ferry services between Batangas to Puerto Galera and San Jose, and to Coron.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

1,677 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +50% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

470,641 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 168,980 are estimated to be international and 301,661 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 13.08%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Well-developed small-scale resort base at Puerto Galera Pristine and unspoiled nature of the Busuanga-Coron-Culion Islands High marine and forest biodiversity Indigenous cultural heritage

Poor air and sea accessibility Poor access and visitor infrastructure at tourist sites Limited capacity of key sites Poor reputation of some sites Weak public sector coordination and tourism governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Positioning the Cluster as a an eco-resort destination based on its island beach and marine and forest ecotourism assets

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Impact of extractive industries (mining and logging) Security concerns on Mindoro Typhoons, earthquakes and tsunamis (Mindoro)

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing niche and small scale beach and island eco-resort and wellness-spa destinations, developing marine and forest adventure ecotourism products, developing diving and nautical tourism facilities, and supporting these with a broad range of nature and culture heritage sightseeing and adventure activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade existing domestic airports to improve air operations from NAIA and Clark International Airports, and improve fast ferry access from Batangas and Manila and upgrade RORO access. Upgrade road access between Puerto Galera and San Jose, and Ferry/RORO connections to Busuanga-Coron-Culion Islands.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche and small-scale beach and island eco-resorts. Network of community-based marine, coastal, and forest-based ecotourism sites Develop appropriately sized mixed use leisure, entertainment, shopping, and multi-purpose convention facilities in San Jose Improve and expand existing range of day activity products.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-32

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 60,344 Domestic: 31,799

Foreign: 60,344 Domestic: 42,614

Foreign: 106,903 Domestic: 56,334

Total: 92,143

Total: 102,958

Total: 163,237

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-33

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 91,897 Domestic: 217,093

Foreign: 154,120 Domestic: 384,593

Foreign: 212,563 Domestic: 502,149

Total: 308,990

Total: 538,713

Total: 714,712

Name of Cluster

CP-4 Palawan Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three Tourism Development Areas: CP-4A San Vicente-El Nido-Taytay, CP-4B Puerto Princesa, and CP-4C Southern Palawan.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches, coves, islands, internationally protected marine reserves (UNESCO listed Tubbatha Reef ), karst geological features—including UNESCO listed St Paul’s Underground River, and highland forest landscapes; and cultural heritage (indigenous cultures), historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Domestic air access from NAIA to Puerto Princesa, Taytay and Elnido, by road from Puerto Princesa, and by sea from Manila.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

4,298 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +55% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

260,233 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 35,915 are estimated to be international and 224,318 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 9.39%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Existing airport at Puerto Princesa Well-developed small-scale resort base at Puerto Princesa and El Nido-Taytay, Presence of two UNESCO sites High marine and forest biodiversity Indigenous cultural heritage Strong public and private sector interest in tourism

Poor international air connectivity Poor road and sea connections between the TDAs of the cluster and compliance with safety standards Inadequate water, sewerage, power, and solid waste management Poor access and visitor infrastructure at tourist sites and limited site carrying capacities Weak public sector coordination

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Upgrade Puerto Princesa to international airport status and complete San Vicente Airport Positioning the Cluster as a global eco-resort destination based on activities linked to its island beach and marine and forest ecotourism assets

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Impact of extractive industries (mining and logging) Security concerns in Southern Palawan Typhoons

Market Product Development Opportunities Developing niche and small scale beach and island eco-resort and wellness-spa destinations, developing marine and forest adventure ecotourism products, developing diving and nautical tourism facilities, and supporting these with a broad range of nature and culture heritage sightseeing and adventure activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Upgrade Puerto Princesa Airport to handle international traffic, complete the development of San Vicente Airport, and upgrade Taytay and El Nido Airports Upgrade Puerto Princesa Seaport to handle Cruise Ship Calls Improve telecommunications facilities throughout Cluster Upgrade road connections between Puerto Princesa and other areas.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Larger scale resorts in Puerto Princess and San Vicente, and niche and small-scale beach and island eco-resorts in sensitive marine and forest areas with lower carrying capacities. Network of community-based marine, coastal, and forest-based ecotourism sites Develop appropriately sized mixed use leisure, entertainment, shopping, and multi-purpose convention facilities in Puerto Princesa.

-34

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 69,831 Domestic: 335,599

Foreign: 93,580 Domestic: 449,735

Foreign: 161,523 Domestic: 594,534

Total: 405,430

Total: 543,315

Total: 756,057

Name of Cluster

CP-5 Western Visayas Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three Tourism Development Areas: CP-5A Bacolod-Silay, CP-5B Iloilo-Guimaras, and CP-5C Boracay-Northern Antique

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, coves, marine reserves; karst and forest landscapes; and cultural heritage (indigenous cultures), Iloilo City and Silay historic sites (UNESCO Site at Miagao), customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Domestic air from Manila, Cebu and Davao to Iloilo and Bacolod Airports as well as RORO and Passenger ferry connectivity between Manila and Cebu.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

3,212 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +65% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

1,269, 247 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 198,084 were international and 1,071,163 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 10.62%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Range of urban and rural cultural and natural tourism attractions/ sites with capacity for expansion Modern international standard domestic airports capable of charter operations Well-developed small-medium scale hotel and resort base Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Inadequate solid waste management Poor tourist site access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards Poor quality of existing RORO and ferry terminal facilities linking the key areas in the cluster Inadequate road connectivity between TDAs in cluster Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Spreading tourism development to Guimaras Island and Silay Providing international passenger facilities in Iloilo Airport Developing and linking ecotourism resources in Guimaras Island to resort development

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Security concerns Typhoons and earthquakes Weak governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach and island resort and wellness-spa developments; marine and forest adventure ecotourism products; health and wellness tourism; leisure, entertainment, and multi-purpose convention centers; supporting with provision of a wide range of culture and nature based sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Undertake renovation of Iloilo Airport, improve RORO port facilities. Improve telecommunications system. Complete road connectivity projects in Iloilo, Guimaras and Bacolod-Silay.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche, small and medium scale beach resorts on Guimaras Island Thematic leisure, entertainment, medical tourism, shopping and multi-purpose convention centers in Iloilo and Bacolod with associate city hotels.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016 Baseline (2010)

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

-35

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 70,719 Domestic: 670,341

Foreign: 82,012 Domestic: 800,422

Foreign: 125,283 Domestic: 1,187,550

Total: 741,060

Total: 882,434

Total: 1,312,833

Name of Cluster

CP-5C Boracay-Northern Antique

Location & Composition

CP-5C Boracay Island-Northern Antique-Kalibo area in Northern Panay, central Philippines.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, coves, marine reserves; upland karst and forest landscapes; and cultural heritage (indigenous cultures), historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Charter international and domestic air access to Kalibo, domestic air access to Caticlan, and RORO access from Batangas to Caticlan via Mindoro, and ferry access from Manila, and road access from Iloilo.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

7,557 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +65% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

736,662 arrivals in tourist accommodation in 2008 of which 246,969 are estimated to be international and 489,693 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 15.56%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Existing international charter operations at Kalibo Well-developed small-medium scale resort base at Boracay Strong public and private sector interest in tourism in area

Inadequate water, sewerage, power, and solid waste management Poor access and visitor infrastructure at tourist sites Boracay island - limited site carrying capacities and poor compliance with safety standards Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Spreading tourism development to Northern Antique (Pandan) and Aklan (Nabas) Upgrading Kalibo airport and completion of Caticlan Airport expansion Leveraging off its existing resort base and ecotourism resources of Nabas and Northern Antique

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Security concerns Typhoons Poor governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach and island resort and wellness-spa developments; destinations; marine and forest adventure ecotourism products; diving and nautical tourism; and providing a wide range of heritage sightseeing and adventure activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Complete planned airport upgrading at Kalibo and Caticlan, and reopen Jose Airport Provide Jetty Port at Barangay Pook, a passenger terminal at Cagban Jetty Port, a RORO link to Masbate, and at Caticlan Seaport, a cruise ship terminal Upgrade road connections between Caticlan and Kalibo and Pandan in Antiques.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Larger scale resorts in Nabas area with niche and small-scale beach resorts in Pandan. Develop network of community-based marine, coastal, and forest-based ecotourism sites in Northern Antique and Aklan.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

CP-6 Central Visayas Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises five Tourism Development Areas: CP-6A Northern Cebu-BantayanMalapascua, CP-6B Metro Cebu-Mactan-Oango Islands, CP-6C Southern Cebu, CP-6D Negros Oriental-Dumaguete-Siquijor, and CP-6E Tagbilaran-Panglao Island.

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, coves, marine reserves; forest landscapes; and cultural heritage (indigenous cultures), historic sites, customs, tradition, cuisine, and festivals.

Access

Direct international access to Cebu-Mactan, and domestic access by air and sea from Manila, Iloilo, and Mindanao.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

23,987 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +65% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

2,118,378 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 782,758 were international and 1,335,620 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 9.77%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

International airport at Mactan and good air connectivity to main domestic markets Well-established tourism industry with full range of accommodations at Cebu-Mactan Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism Capacity for expansion outside Cebu and Mactan

Poor road access conditions between Cebu and other main development areas Inadequate solid waste management outside Cebu City while potable water services need to be improved Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving and expanding international passenger terminal facilities at Mactan-Cebu Leveraging off its city and rural natural and cultural heritage to spread tourism development to other areas outside Cebu-Mactan

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Typhoons and earthquakes Weak tourism governance Safety and security

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach and island resort and wellness-spa centers; marine; leisure, entertainment, medical tourism, and convention and exhibition facility; expanding range of culture and nature based sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Education, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade and expand Mactan-Cebu International Airport. Develop cruise ship terminal and marina in Cebu Undertake road connectivity improvements from Cebu to other TDAs Provide improved solid waste management and more reliable power supply

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche, small, medium and large scale beach resort and hotel developments Thematic leisure, entertainment, medical tourism, shopping and convention and exhibition center in Cebu.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-36

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 307,085 Domestic: 546,441

Foreign: 411,523 Domestic: 732,283

Foreign: 544,020 Domestic: 968,054

Total: 853,526

Total: 1,143,806

Total: 1,512,074

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-37

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 874,614 Domestic: 1,492,358

Foreign: 1,014,284 Domestic: 1,730,678

Foreign: 2,023,035 Domestic: 2,303,158

Total: 2,366,972

Total: 2,744,962

Total: 4,326,193

Name of Cluster

CP-7 Eastern Visayas Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises six Tourism Development Areas: CP-7A Northeastern Leyte – Basey Marabut Area, CP-7B Northwestern Leyte – Biliran Area, CP-7C Southern Leyte, CP-7D Western Samar, CP-7E Eastern Samar Area, CP-7F Northern Samar Area

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, coves, marine reserves; forest landscapes; colonial and modern historic sites, customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Air access from Manila and Cebu-Mactan, and RORO access between Luzon. Bohol and Cebu.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

483 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +65% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

133,028 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 17,908 were international and 115,120 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was -0.24%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Proximity of Mactan-Cebu International airport Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Limited air, sea, and road connectivity to main markets, and between main TDAs in the Cluster Inadequate solid waste management Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways Leveraging off the capacity of its main cities, untapped marine and forest resources, and WWII history and cultural assets.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Typhoons, earthquakes and tsunamis Weak tourism governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach and island resort and wellness-spa centers; marine; leisure, entertainment, spa, and convention facilities; marine and forest community-based ecotourism developments; and nature and culture based sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade and expand air, sea and road connections to main international gateways and domestic markets. Undertake road connectivity improvements between the Clusters TDAs Provide improved solid waste management

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche, small and medium scale beach resort and city hotel developments Thematic leisure, entertainment, wellness-spa shopping and multi-purpose convention facilities Community-based ecotourism development linked to beach and city resorts and hotels.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

-38

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 10,861 Domestic: 109,610

Foreign: 14,555 Domestic: 146,888

Foreign: 19,241 Domestic: 169,161

Total: 120,471

Total: 161,443

Total: 188,402

Name of Cluster

SP-1 Surigao-Dinagat Islands Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two TDAs: SP-1A Surigao-Dinagat Islands, and SP-1B Surigao City-Lake Mainit

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Island and coastal beaches, coves, lakes (Mainit), wetlands (Del Carmen Wetland), marine karst, and marine environment; and cultural landscape based on customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Air access from Manila and Cebu-Mactan via Surigao City then RORO to Siargao Island or by air direct to Siargao Island. Access to Dinagat is via ferry, while access to Lake Mainit area is by road.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

718 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +50% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

129,763 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 18,887 were international and 110,876 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 7.66%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Insufficient air, sea, and road connectivity to main markets, and between main TDAs in the Cluster Inadequate water and power on islands, lack of solid waste management Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tour Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways (Cebu, Davao, Manila and Clark) Leveraging off its Island marine, wetland, lake and city resources

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Flooding, earthquakes and tsunamis Safety and security concerns Weak tourism governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale island resort and wellness-spa centers supporting marine based soft and hard adventure sports such as kayaking, diving, snorkeling, surfing, para-surfing, sail-boarding, etc.; city-based leisure, entertainment, shopping, wellness spa, and convention facilities; community-based island and lake ecotourism developments; and nature and culture based sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016 Baseline (2010)

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade and expand air, sea and road connections. Improve road and sea connectivity between Surigao City and Dinagat and Siargao Islands and road connectivity on the Islands Improve telecommunications on Islands Improve water supply, power, sewerage treatment and solid waste management Improve last mile tourist site road and sea access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance and compliance with safety standards Niche, small and medium scale beach and lake resort/city hotel developments Thematic leisure, entertainment, wellness-spa shopping and multi-purpose convention facilities Community-based ecotourism linked to beach/city resorts and hotels.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-39

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 17,415 Domestic: 175,528

Foreign: 20,196 Domestic: 209,590

Foreign: 23,338 Domestic: 235,224

Total: 192,943

Total: 229,786

Total: 258,562

Name of Cluster

SP-2 Agusan River Basin Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises four TDAs: SP-2A Butuan City-Cabadbaran, SP-2B Agusan Marsh, SP-2C Agusan-Sur-Hinatuan, and SP-2D Agusan Sur-Bislig

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal beaches and wetlands such as the Agusan River Delta and Agusan Marsh and Wildlife Sanctuary); Pacific marine environment; Balangay archaeological site; and cultural landscape based on customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals, e.g. Balangay Festival.

Access

Air access from Manila and Cebu-Mactan to Butuan City and road from other parts of Mindanao to various parts of the Cluster.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

428 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +50% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

289,789 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 12,981 were international and 276,808 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 6.13%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Insufficient air, sea, and road connectivity to main markets, and between main TDAs in the Cluster Inadequate solid waste management Poor tourist site access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways Leverage off the Pacific coast marine and hinterland resources as well as of Butuan City access and utility infrastructure, and unique archaeological and wetland resources.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Flooding and earthquakes Safety and security concerns Weak tourism governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale city hotels, beach resorts, and ecotourism lodges; city-based leisure, entertainment, shopping, wellness spa, nautical and marine tourism, and multi-purpose convention facilities; community-based island and lake ecotourism developments; and nature and culture based sightseeing activities. Key Products:

Nature Based, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

--

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Upgrade Butuan Airport, and improve sea connections to Butuan City, Tandang and Bislig.

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance Comply with safety standards.

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Niche, small and medium scale beach and lake resort/city hotel developments Thematic leisure, entertainment, wellness-spa shopping and multi-purpose convention facilities in Butuan City Marine centers in Tandabg and Bislig including pocket cruise passenger terminals, marinas, and related cultural pavilions, shopping, entertainment and restaurants Community-based ecotourism developments linked to beach/city resorts and hotels.

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Name of Cluster

SP-3 Cagayan de Oro Coast, Island and Hinterland Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises five TDAs: SP-3A Camiguin Island, SP-3B Cagayan de Oro City-Misamis Oriental Coast, SP-3C Iligan City-Lanao Del Norte, SP-3D Misamis Occidental Coast and Hinterland, and SP-3E Bukidnon Highlands

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches and wetlands, city, and mountain forest and highland tourism resources, with extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups and range of customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Air access from Manila, Cebu-Mactan and Davao to Cagayan de Oro City, and to Camiguin Airport from Cebu on a seasonal basis, sea ferry from Manila and Cebu, RORO link between Bohol and Camiguin and Cagayan de Oro, and road from other parts of Mindanao to various parts of the Cluster.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

1,932 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +60% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

1,041,362 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 46,665 were international and 994,697 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 9.0%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Presence of well developed cities Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Insufficient air, sea and road access infrastructure and service connectivity to Tangub City and Camuigin Island Inadequate public bus transportation suited to tourist requirements Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways Leverage off the coastal and island marine, city, and mountain hinterland environments.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Flooding, volcanic eruption, earthquakes and tsunamis Safety and security concerns Weak tourism governance

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale city, beach, and community-based ecotourism and adventure products targeting international and domestic holiday markets; city-based leisure business and marine products targeting leisure, meetings, and nautical markets. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Education, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-40

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 11,313 Domestic: 269,905

Foreign: 13,120 Domestic: 322,281

Foreign: 15,161 Domestic: 361,699

Total: 281,218

Total: 335,401

Total: 376,860

Complete Laguindigan International Airport and its operation by private sector, upgrade Camuigin and Labo Airports, improve ferry links to Camuigin Island from new airport and reopen Silanga Wharf RORO service. Improve highway connections between TDAs Improve last mile tourist site road access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance with improve compliance with safety standards Niche, small and medium scale beach resort/city hotel and ecolodge developments Thematic leisure, entertainment, marine, wellness-spa shopping and multi-purpose convention facilities in main cities Community-based ecotourism developments linked to beach/city resorts and hotels.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-41

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 49,090 Domestic: 1,459,806

Foreign: 56,929 Domestic: 1,743,085

Foreign: 65,785 Domestic: 2,070,763

Total: 1,508,896

Total: 1,800,014

Total: 2,136,548

Name of Cluster

SP-4 Zamboanga Peninsula Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three TDAs: SP-4A Zamboanga Sibugay, SP-4B Zamboanga City-Sta. Cruz-Isabela, and SP-4C Pagadian City-Zamboanga del Sur

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, wetlands and marine, city, and mountain forest tourism resources; and extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups, historic sites, and range of customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals.

Access

International charter air access and domestic air access from Manila, Cebu and Davao to Zamboanga, Manila and Cebu to Pagadian Airport, sea ferry access from Manila-Cebu, and road connection to other parts of Mindanao.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

349 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +55% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

466,099 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 37,292 were international and 399,336 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 1.15%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources suited to beach, ecotourism, city Presence of a medium scale resort facility (Dakak) Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Insufficient air, sea and road access infrastructure and transportation service connectivity Poor road and sea connectivity infrastructure between TDAs Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways Leverage off the undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources and Zamboanga hospitality.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Volcanic eruption, earthquakes, flooding Safety and security concerns

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach resorts, and community-based ecotourism products targeting Mindanao holiday markets; city-based leisure and entertainment and convention products targeting Mindanao business markets; and nature and culture sightseeing products targeting domestic markets from Mindanao. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade terminal facilities at Zamboanga International Airport, improve communications facilities at Pagadian Airport and upgrade passenger terminal at Zamboanga Sea Port Improve highway connections between Zamboanga and other TDAs as well as tourist friendly public transportation services

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

-42

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 65,174 Domestic: 433,579

Foreign: 65,174 Domestic: 502,819

Foreign: 75,582 Domestic: 532,979

Total: 498,753

Total: 567,993

Total: 608,561

SP-4D & SP-4E Dipolog-Dapitan Cluster

Location & Composition

SP-4D Dapitan/Zamboanga del Norte, and SP-4E Dipolog/Zamboanga del Norte

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches and wetlands, city, and mountain forest tourism resources, with extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups, historic sites, and range of customs, traditions, cuisine and festivals.

Access

Air access from Manila and Cebu to Dipolog Airport, RORO access from Dumaguete to Dapitan, and road connection to other parts of Mindanao.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

330 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +55% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

50,559 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 1,542 were international and 49,017 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 4.93%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources suited to beach and ecotourism Presence of a medium scale resort facility (Dakak) Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Insufficient air, sea and road access infrastructure and transportation service connectivity Poor road and sea connectivity infrastructure between TDAs Poor tourist site access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving air, sea and road connectivity to key markets and gateways Leverage off the undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Volcanic eruption, earthquakes, flooding Safety and security concerns

Market Product Development Opportunities Niche, small and medium-scale beach and community-based ecotourism products targeting international and domestic holiday markets; and city-based leisure and marine tourism products targeting nautical markets. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Upgrade Dipolog Airport and improve Pulauan Port Improve highway connections between Dipolog and Dapitan and key tourist areas and public transportation services Improve last mile tourist site road access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance Improve compliance with safety standards Niche, small and medium scale beach resort/city hotel and ecolodge developments Marine tourist centers in Dipolog and Dapitan City Community-based ecotourism developments linked to beach/city resorts and hotels.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

Niche, small and medium scale beach resort and ecolodge developments City hotel in association with multi-purpose convention and leisure and entertainment center.

Low Growth Scenario 2016

Name of TDA

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Improve last mile tourist site road access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance Improve compliance with safety standards

Baseline (2010)

Destination Profile

-43

Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 3,245 Domestic: 94,422

Foreign: 3,245 Domestic: 112,745

Foreign: 3,763 Domestic: 126,535

Total: 97,667

Total: 115,990

Total: 130,298

Name of Cluster

SP-5 Davao Gulf and Coast Cluster

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises three TDAs: SP-5A Davao City-Samal Island-Davao del Norte, SP-5B Davao del Sur, and SP-5C Compostella Valley-Davao Oriental

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal gulf and island beaches, wetlands, marine, city, and mountain forest tourism resources (Iconic Mt. Apo highest mountain in Philippines) with extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups, historic sites, range of customs, traditions, cuisine & festivals.

Access

International air access from Singapore and Manado and domestic air access from Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Cagayan de Oro and Zamboanga to Davao International Airport, sea ferry access from Manila-Cebu, and road connection to other centers in Mindanao and Cagayan de Oro.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

4,814 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +55% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

875,334 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 58,331 were international and 81,003 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 9.91%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

International airport and seaport Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources suited to beach, ecotourism, city tourism Existing well organized tourism establishments and operations in city and Samal Island Large carrying capacity for tourism development Strong public and private sector interest and organization in tourism

Inadequate international air and sea access infrastructure and transportation service connectivity Poor road and sea connectivity infrastructure between TDAs Poor tourist site access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing international and domestic tourism Improving international regional air connectivity Leverage off the undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources in the cluster focusing on Mt. Apo, Samal Island, and Davao, Tagum and Digos

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Volcanic eruption, earthquakes, tsunamis and flooding Safety and security concerns

Market Product Development Opportunities Mt. Apo—ecotourism, Samal Island—resort and ecotourism, Davao City—Marine, leisure, entertainment and conventions, Tagum City—leisure, entertainment and multi-purpose events center, Digos City—multi-purpose sports center, and pocket themed attractions and resorts in other areas with nature and culture based-sightseeing products. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping, Health & Wellness, Cruise Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism, Education, Retirement Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade and expand terminal facilities at Davao International Airport and improve airport facilities at Mati Improve highway connections between Davao City and other TDAs including RORO connections to Samal Island, seaport passenger facilities at MACO and Lupon Seaports, as well as tourist friendly public transportation services Improve telecommunications and other utility infrastructure

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

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Foreign: 66,032 Domestic: 842,256

Foreign: 76,577 Domestic: 1,006,020

Foreign: 88,489 Domestic: 1,129,065

Total: 908,558

Total: 1,082,597

Total: 1,217,554

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises five TDAs: SP-6A Cotabato-Mt Apo, SP-6B Cotabato-Lake Sebu, SP-6C Sultan Kudarat, SP-6D General Santos-Sarangani, and SP-6E Cotabato City

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal gulf and island beaches, wetlands, marine, city, and mountain forest tourism resources (Iconic Mt. Apo highest mountain in Philippines) with extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups, historic sites, range of customs, traditions, cuisine & festivals.

Access

International air access via Davao, and domestic air access from Manila. Sea ferry access from Manila-Cebu-Davao, and road connection from other centers in Mindanao.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities

594 hotel and resort rooms accredited with DOT located mainly in urban centers operating at +55% room occupancy. Many smaller establishments not accredited.

Tourism Metrics

652,061 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 8,421 were international and 643,640 were domestic arrivals. 2000 to 2008 CAGR was 15.8%.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Relatively undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources suited to beach, ecotourism, adventure, and city tourism development Large carrying capacity for tourism development

Poor air access infrastructure and transportation service connectivity Poor road connectivity infrastructure between TDAs Weak telecommunications coverage Insufficient accommodations Poor access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards at tourist sites Weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing domestic tourism Improving air connectivity to domestic markets Leverage off the undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources in the cluster focusing on Mt. Apo, Sarangani Bay, Lake Sebu, and cities.

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Volcanic eruption, earthquakes, tsunamis and flooding Safety and security concerns Extractive activities (mining and logging)

Market Product Development Opportunities Mt. Apo—ecotourism, Sarangani—beach resort and ecotourism, Lake Sebu—cultural ecotourism, cities—leisure, entertainment and multi-purpose events centers, with pocket themed attractions and resorts in other areas with nature and culture based-sightseeing products where security permits. Target markets are domestic mainly from Mindanao. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

MICE, Leisure & Shopping Tourism

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Complete M’lang Airport at M’lang in North Cotabato and President Quirino Airport in Sultan Kudarat, passenger terminal at Port of General Santos, and provide passenger terminal at Port of Glan in Sarangani Improve telecommunications, water, electricity, solid waste management infrastructure in main tourist centers. Improve last mile road access as well as visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained operations and maintenance at key tourist sites Improve compliance with safety standards. Niche, small and medium scale thematic beach/dive/adventure/ecotourism establishments. City hotels in association with multi-purpose convention and leisure and entertainment centers.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016 High Growth Scenario 2016

SP-6 Cotabato-Saranggani Cluster

Tourist Accommodation Needs

Niche, small and medium scale thematic beach/dive/adventure/ecotourism/marine establishments. City hotels in association with thematic multi-purpose convention, wellness-spa, leisure, entertainment and shopping

Low Growth Scenario 2016

Name of Cluster

Tourist Site & Attraction Development

Improve last mile tourist site road access as well as site visitor infrastructure including restoration of sites and structures with sustained O&M Improve compliance with safety standards

Baseline (2010)

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

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Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 8,421 Domestic: 643,460

Foreign: 9,766 Domestic: 768,540

Foreign: 11,285 Domestic: 862,539

Total: 652,061

Total: 778,306

Total: 873,824

Name of Cluster

SP-7 Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao

Location & Composition

The Cluster comprises two TDAs: SP-7A Basilan-Jolo-Tawi Tawi, and SP-7B Lanao del Sur-Maguindanao

Main Tourism Resources / Assets

Coastal and island beaches, wetlands, and lakes (lake Lanao); marine coral biodiversity; mountain forests; and extensive cultural landscape including indigenous groups, historic sites, range of customs, traditions, cuisine & festivals.

Access

Air access via Zamboanga from Davao, Manila and Cebu. Sea ferry access from Zamboanga, and road connection between mainland TDA and other centers in Mindanao.

Tourist Accommodation Facilities Tourism Metrics

210,003 arrivals in tourist accommodations in 2008 of which 23,513 were international and 186,490 were domestic arrivals.

Development Potential Internal Strengths

Internal Weaknesses

Undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources suited to beach, ecotourism, adventure, and city tourism development Large carrying capacity for tourism development on mainland

Poor air and access infrastructure and transportation service connectivity Weak telecommunications coverage Insufficient accommodations Poor tourist site access and visitor support infrastructure and compliance with safety standards weak public sector coordination and governance

External Opportunities

External Threats

Increasing domestic tourism from ARMM and selected international markets from region Improving air connectivity to domestic and international markets Leverage off the undeveloped and pristine state of tourism resources in the cluster focusing on Tawi Tawi

Uncoordinated and uncontrolled development Safety and security concerns

Market Product Development Opportunities Tawi Tawi—Maldives style island beach resort and community-based marine and forest ecotourism products directed at domestic and regional international markets. Key Products:

Nature Based, Sun and Beach, Cultural Tourism

Strategic Products/Markets:

--

Opportunity/Niche:

Nautical Tourism

Key Development Deficiencies and Needs Access & Connectivity

Tourist Site & Attraction Development Tourist Accommodation Needs

Upgrade Tawi Tawi airport and seaport passenger terminals, upgrade local roads, and develop inter-island jetty system. Improve water, electricity and solid waste management infrastructure in main tourist centers. Improve last mile road access as well as visitor infrastructure including restoration of historic sites and landscapes with sustained operations and maintenance at key tourist sites Improve compliance with safety standards.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Strategic Cluster Destination Profile

Niche island resorts following Maldives style of development supported by themed marine-shopping-leisure center at Bongao.

Forecasts Arrivals 2010 – 2016

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Baseline (2010)

Low Growth Scenario 2016

High Growth Scenario 2016

Foreign: 23,513 Domestic: 186,490

Foreign: 23,513 Domestic: 186,490

Foreign: 27,268 Domestic: 216,271

Total: 210,003

Total: 210,003

Total: 243,539

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GAD checklist for the tourism sector This checklist brings together the guidelines prepared by the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) and that crafted by the Department of Tourism (DOT) with support from the Gender Responsive Economic Actions for the Transformation of Women (GREAT Women) Project. LGSP-LED and the GREAT Women Project are projects of the Philippine Program of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD, formerly the Canadian International Development Agency, or CIDA) of the Government of Canada. Harmonization of the guidelines was facilitated by the Advancing Philippine Competitiveness (COMPETE) Project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The tourism sector is composed of the public and non-public sector. The former includes national government agencies, mainly the Department of Tourism (DOT) and its various offices and agencies, and local government units, while the latter consists of the private sector (business enterprises in various areas of tourism), nongovernment organizations (NGOs), academic institutions, and, more importantly, communities. This gender and development (GAD) checklist applies to tourism-related programs and projects of key tourism stakeholders. The GAD checklist for the tourism sector seeks to bring gender-related aspects of tourism to the attention of policymakers and program or project developers, especially the issues of women’s employment in the tourism industry and women’s participation in tourism planning and management. In compliance with Republic Act (RA) No. 7192 (Women in Development and Nation Building Act) and, more recently, RA 9710 (Magna Carta of Women, or MCW), DOT, through the Inter-agency Committee on Gender and Development that was created under Administrative Order No. 94-07, continuously implements various GAD programs, activities, and projects addressing gender issues and concerns in the tourism industry.

The tourism industry offers vast income-generating opportunities, from employment to operation of enterprises. It is labor-intensive, providing a wide range of job openings that the poor with vocational skills training can access. Tourism also creates economic prospects for small entrepreneurs, as there are many support services that can be established with minimal start-up costs. The Magna Carta of Women (MCW) instructs DOT, like other government agencies, to “pursue the adoption of gender mainstreaming as a strategy to promote and fulfill women’s human rights and eliminate gender discrimination in their systems, structures, policies, programs and processes” (MCW Implementing Rules and Regulations, Rule VI, Section 37, pp. 104-105). It also stresses the importance of the non-discriminatory and non-derogatory portrayal of women in media and film, including commercials and promotional materials used for tourism, among a number of purposes (MCW Implementing Rules and Regulations, Rule IV, Section 37, pp. 65; and Section 19). The MCW promotes women’s rights to representation and participation, including undertaking “temporary special measures to accelerate the participation and equitable representation in the decision-making and policy-making processes,” and instructs appointing authorities to ensure the representation of women or women’s groups in policymaking and decision-making bodies (MCW, IRR, Rule IV, Section 14, pp. 53−54.). Further, it provides that girl children “shall be protected from all forms of abuse and exploitation (MCW IRR, Rule V, Section 35, Article B, page 103).” The United Nations Environment and Development UK Committee report on Gender and Tourism (Report prepared for the 2002 Earth Summit) shows that, worldwide, tourism is a particularly important sector for women, who make up 46 percent of the tourism labor force. This statistic masks several gender issues related to workers in the sector:

• Gender-role stereotyping. In formal sector employment in tourism-related industries, the quality and type of work available to women is heavily influenced by sex stereotyping and sex segregation. Women are usually employed as waitresses, chambermaids, cleaners, travel agency sales persons, flight attendants, and front desk personnel. Meanwhile, men are employed as barmen, gardeners, construction workers, drivers, pilots, etc. Gender stereotyping arises partly because traditional gender roles and gender identity help create notions of women and men as being suitable for certain, gender-appropriate occupations.



• Gender inequalities in occupational distribution. Gender bias in occupations and positions in the tourism industry occurs because of not just horizontal segregation but, as important, vertical gender segregation of labor that places women and men in different occupations. The typical “ gender pyramid” is prevalent in the sector, with women dominating lower levels and occupations offering few career development opportunities and men dominating key managerial positions.



• Limited access to capital of woman micro entrepreneurs for tourism-related enterprises. While tourism opens up prospects for the establishment of tourism-linked businesses (such as the production of handicrafts and souvenir items), women’s lack of access to adequate credit may limit women from taking advantage of such opportunities. Establishment of credit windows that do not require land-based collateral can benefit women.



• Negative impact of tourism. Although tourism creates economic opportunities and brings in foreign exchange, it also causes adverse social and environmental problems, including:



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Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Gender issues and strategies



- Some environmental effects. A boom in tourism can result in a water crisis that can place severe burden on women, as they are responsible for household care (Haladi, 2005). The diversion of water for use in resorts and golf courses can heighten water scarcity in the local communities. Moreover, prices of essential commodities escalated during peak tourist season, creating difficulties to poor households, particularly the women who had to manage the household budget. It is essential therefore, for projects to include measures to ensure that poor households are able to benefit from tourism initiatives.

• Issues related to management of the sector



- Women’s influence in the development of tourism policymaking and programming is limited, as they are not well represented in decision-making and policymaking bodies, and may lack the capacities for planning and budgeting.



- Analysis of relevant gender issues and tracking of gender-related results of tourism are hampered by the lack of sex-disaggregated data and information on the negative impact of tourism in tourism statistics.



- Sexual harassment in the workplace can take various forms. One is when sexual favor is made as a condition for hiring or employment, re-employment, or continued employment of said individuals or for granting said individuals favorable compensation, terms, conditions, promotions, or privileges.



- Lack of awareness of gender issues in tourism among tourism sector employees leads to the inappropriate portrayal of women and children in tourism commercials and advertisements.

The last cluster of issues pertains to gender mainstreaming will require actions from tourism agencies. These actions can include naming woman members to tourism bodies, building the capacity of agency personnel for planning and budgeting establishing a gender-aware tourism database, and instituting measures to combat sexual harassment in the workplace. Training of tourism agency staff and workers in tourism industry establishments, especially involving hotel and homestay operations, can include sessions on relevant laws protecting women and children, as well as their accompanying implementing rules and regulations, among others: RA 9208, or the Anti- Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003; RA 7877, or the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995; RA 9262, or the Anti Violence against Women and their Children Act of 2004, which includes the crime of prostituting women and their children; RA 8353, or the Anti Rape Law of 1997, which classifies rape as a crime against person, hence, not a private crime; and RA 8505, or the Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act of 1998. These sessions must include discussions of possible actions that may be taken by the hotel staff, homestay operators, and the community in general to prevent trafficking, sexual harassment, and other forms of abuse and exploitation. The Women’s Desks of the local police force can also be strengthened and its capacity built to recognize signs of violence and human trafficking. Links with NGOs working to address these concerns can also be forged. Training of women working in hotels and relevant tourism-related services (e.g., tour guides) must include sessions on their rights and the laws that protect them. Local tourism bodies must prohibit advertising and marketing strategies that use stereotypical images of women or portray women as sexual objects.

- Prostitution, sexual exploitation of children, and human trafficking. Tourism can worsen social problems, such as prostitution, sexual exploitation of children, and human trafficking. These lead to more problems, including increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS. Sexual exploitation of women and children (boys and girls) is particularly linked to the notion of certain places as destinations for sex tourism. - Sexual objectification of women. This is related to stereotypical images of women as part of the tourism product. Advertisements of tourist destinations show scantily clad women. Women working in the industry are expected to play along and accept sexual harassment from clients (UNED-United Kingdom, 2002)

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Recognition of the above issues can help planners design interventions that can ensure tourism projects benefit women and men equally. The Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2011−2016 seeks to “encourage LGUs to develop tourism related-products and services using the community-based and ecotourism approaches as implemented by innovative and entrepreneurial local governments in Bohol, Palawan, and Bicol, and have contributed to poverty reduction, protection of the environment, and gender equality in local areas.” With respect to wage and self-employment, the PDP notes: “In providing opportunities for formal or self-employment or access to credit, government shall take particular cognizance of the special needs of women, whose potentially large social contributions to social and economic development are stunted by their domestic and other social circumstances” (page 30). Gender equality outcomes or results should be linked with the changes in the gender issues that have been identified. Examples of gender equality results are:

• Increased employment of women, particularly in management and non-traditional occupations; within tourism government agencies, increased number of women in third-level CESO (Career Executive Service Officer) positions;



• More positive, realistic portrayals of women and children in advertising and marketing campaigns and collaterals;



• Safer workplaces for woman workers, or reduced incidence of sexual harassment;



• Reduced incidence or elimination of human trafficking and prostitution;



• Increased woman-owned or operated tourism-related enterprises;



• Improved productivity and incomes of woman-owned or operated enterprises;



• Greater access of women to higher credit levels and technical support;



• Higher level of stakeholder awareness/consciousness of gender issues in tourism;



• Improved representation of women and men as stakeholders of tourism development;



• More active promotion of gender equality, respect for human rights, and economic empowerment of women in tourism through more gender-sensitive tourism-related establishments; and



• Increased knowledge and skills of tourism sector employees and applied GAD tools in policymaking, planning, and budgeting.

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Gender equality and women's empowerment results

Gender analysis questions The discussion of gender issues in the previous section serves as a reference for the gender analysis that must be conducted when identifying and designing tourism programs or projects. Gender analysis should be done at two points: as part of project identification and analysis of the development problem, and as an assessment of the likely impact of the project design. The gender analysis questions related to the definition of the development (tourism) problem are as follows: Gender division of labor and gender needs

• What is the age−gender composition of the tourism-sector workforce? What do the women/men do in tourism-related enterprises? Alternatively, how are woman/man workers represented in the different parts of the tourism value chain? Do these patterns suggest gender-role stereotyping or gender-based biases in occupations?



• What are the gender-related problems encountered by female/male tourism workers and tour operators (e.g., sexual harassment or advances, demand of tourists for sexual services or sex-related entertainment, prostitution)?

Access to and control of tourism services and benefits

• What resources (training, capital, information, market linkage, etc.) do woman/man workers or owners of tourism-related enterprises need to improve their efficiency, productivity, and/or effectiveness? If there are differences between women and men, why?

Constraints and opportunities

• What competencies or skills need to be developed among relevant staff of tourism agencies and establishments for them to be able to identify gender issues and address these?



• What are the current (pre-project) opportunities present for micro-entrepreneurs supplying tourism- related products and services?



• What gender-based factors hinder or constrain women/men from participating in tourism-related initiatives or enterprises? From accessing resources, including training opportunities, that can improve their productivity, efficiency, or effectiveness as tourism-sector workers or entrepreneurs?

After the project design has been completed, it is necessary to subject the design to a gender analysis. There are ten questions listed in box 24 below, summarizing the possible gender impact of the designed project, as follows: Gender division of labor and gender needs

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• Will the project help in determining policy reforms that will safeguard the interests and concerns of women in tourism?



• Will the project, as designed, improve the portrayal of women and girls in tourism promotional materials, standards, and regulations?



• Will the project be able to reduce gender-role stereotyping, particularly among workers in the target venture?



• Has the project design considered how contributions of women and men to the project will affect their other responsibilities?



• Will the project, as designed, promote safety and security in the workplace, including control of sexual harassment and other forms of gender bias?



• Will the project help the tourism sector and its stakeholders in improving women’s access to jobs and employment in tourism development areas?



• Will the project enable women to maximize economic opportunities, improve their status in local communities, and develop leadership capability and ability to manage the natural and cultural resources?



• Does the project design ensure that information on tourism opportunities will be readily available to women and men?



• Will women be engaged in decision making on the focus and direction of the project’s technical assistance? On the distribution of opportunities among members of business service organizations?

Constraints and opportunities

• Will the project, as designed, enhance the implementation of the GAD Plan of the tourism sector?



• Is the project design socially or culturally acceptable, and will it make the project and its resources accessible to women?



• Will women’s participation in the project affect the attitudes of women and men toward women?



• Will the project consult women’s groups, women-in-business organizations, and woman labor union leaders? Or, has the project consulted woman and man beneficiaries?



• Does the project offer facilities or services that will maintain women’s involvement at different stages of the project?



• Will the project improve women’s representation in qualifying for third-level positions?

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Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

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Access to and control of tourism services and benefits

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Possible GAD monitoring indicators Listed below are examples of monitoring indicators for tourism initiatives that have been developed for the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED). A separate list for capacity development is also presented, since capacity development activities are usually part of various initiatives. The choice of GAD indicators, however, should be guided by the program’s or project’s GAD outcomes or outputs. Entrepreneurial leadership development

• Percentage change in the number of women in management positions in tourism-related businesses and organizations



• Presence/absence of gender equality core messages in leadership courses

Entrepreneurial systems improvement

• Number of legislation and policies passed that consider the differential impact of the issuance on women and men, or address the social problems that may escalate with increased tourism



• Presence/absence of gender-aware organizations in policy consultations



• Number of partnerships built that enhance outreach and improve access of poor women and men to tourism resources and benefits and/or help prevent or reduce social problems that may be aggravated by increased tourism



• Presence/absence of sex-disaggregated data and gender-related information in knowledge management systems



• Increase/decrease in the use of sex-disaggregated data and gender-related information in policy and systems development, planning, and the like

Enterprise development

• Number of jobs created for women and men



• Maximum amount of credit of loan windows for women versus that for men

• If project involves the creation of groups or organizations: -­‐ Number of members, by sex -­‐ Number of officers of the organization, by sex -­‐ Number of organizations that have adopted policies promoting gender equality in their organizations

• Percentage of woman-owned enterprises.



• Increase/decrease in profitability of woman-owned enterprises.



• Increase/decrease in the capacity of woman-owned enterprises to meet the market demand for their products or services.



• Increase/decrease in incidence of sexual harassment.



• Proportion of women to total training participants.



• Proportion of woman trainers and resource persons to total trainers and resource persons



• Presence/absence of modules in training programs that build awareness of gender laws and the rights of women and children



• Presence/absence of gender-fair language, messages, and graphics in training materials



• Extent to which gender core messages are embedded in course content and materials

Guide for accomplishing the checklist Box 24 enumerates the ten requirements for a gender-responsive tourism sector project. Each requirement is usually accompanied by a set of guide questions. The guide for accomplishing the checklist and the interpretation of the total GAD rating are reproduced below for easy reference. Guide for accomplishing box 24

1. Put a check √ in the appropriate column (2a to 2c) under “Response” to signify the degree to which a project has complied with the GAD element: under col. 2a if nothing has been done; under col. 2b if an element, item, or question has been partly answered; and under col. 2c if an element, item, or question has been fully complied with.



2. A partial and a full yes may be distinguished as follows.



a. For Element 1.0, a “partly yes” response to Question 1.0 (or Q1.0) means there have been much fewer women than men in consultations to validate or determine the needs, gaps, and status of women and men in the community. A full “yes” means women constitute at least 40 percent of the people consulted.



b. For Element 2.0, “partly yes” means some gender-related information and sex-disaggregated data from research surveys, business trends, and profiles of current enterprises and microenterprises or enterprise-related training programs are reflected in the project concept paper, but these may not be relevant in identifying gender issues or problems related to the planned tourism project. A full “yes” means gender information and sex-disaggregated data have been used in the analysis of tourism issues that the proposed project must address.



c. For Element 3.0, a “partly yes” response to each of the questions means a superficial or partial analysis has been done by focusing on only one aspect of the set of concerns (e.g., gender roles, needs, and perspectives; access to and control of resources; constraints and opportunities to participation; and negative effects of tourism). A full “yes” response to Q3.1 signifies that the needs of both men and women have been considered in developing the situation analysis. To Q3.2 and Q3.4, a full “yes” implies that a gender analysis of the differences in access and control (Q3.2) and constraints and opportunities between women and men and their participation in the tourism project (Q3.4) is reflected in the document. To Q3.3, a full “yes” indicates that the negative effects of tourism have been fully discussed in the analysis of the development problem.



d. For Element 4.0, “partly yes” means women are identified in the project objectives but only in connection with traditional roles or economic activities (Q4.1), or the project has token gender equality outputs or outcomes (Q4.2). A full “yes” means the project’s outputs or outcomes include the expansion of opportunities for women and men (Q4.1) or significant reduction in gender gaps or incidence of gender-related issues (Q4.2)

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Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

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Capacity building program



e. For Element 5.0, “partly yes” means having gender equality strategies or activities but no stated gender issues to match the activities while a full “yes” means there is an identified gender issue and there are activities seeking to address these issues.



f. For Element 6.0, a “partly yes” response to any of the items and questions is associated with superficial or partial effort to address the likely impact of the project, particularly in terms of ensuring women’s and men’s equal access to resources provided by the project; improving women’s and men’s efficiency in their chosen fields in the tourism sector; providing equal opportunities for participation of women and men; creating strategies for avoiding or minimizing negative effects on the status and welfare of women and girls; adhering to the Media and Gender Equality Committee Guidelines; promoting environmental sustainability; and respecting the cultural sensitivities of communities and their woman and man members. In contrast, a full “yes” involves a coherent, if not a comprehensive, response to the items or questions.



g. For Element 7.0, “partly yes” means the project monitoring plan includes sex-disaggregated indicators but no qualitative indicator of empowerment or status change. A full “yes” means the inclusion of both quantitative and qualitative indicators to measure the reduction in gender gaps or improvement in the empowerment and status of women and girls and men and boys.



h. For Element 8.0, “partly yes” means the project requires the collection of sex-disaggregated reduction in gender gaps or improvement in the lives of women girls, and men and boys. A full “yes” means all sex-disaggregated data and qualitative information will be collected to help track the reduction in gender gaps or minimization of the incidence of gender issues.



i. For Element 9.0, a “partly yes” response to Q9.1 means there is a token budget for gender training programs that aim to build competencies in promoting GAD in the project; and to Q9.2 means there is a budget for GAD–related activities but this is too little to ensure the project will address relevant gender issues or help achieve its GAD objectives and targets.



j. For Element 10.0, a full “yes” response to Q10.1 means the project is in line with the agency’s policies and guidelines for gender-responsive tourism; and to Q10.2 means there will be convergence/ collaboration with other agencies/stakeholders in the implementation of a gender-sensitive tourism project, particularly through formal, signed agreements, e.g., MOAs. A “partly yes” response to Q10.3 implies that there are GAD initiatives but no local regulations to strengthen the GAD rule; to Q10.4 indicates that there is a mention of the agency’s GAD plan but there is also a need to ensure that the project requires developing or reinforcing the commitment to empower women; and to Q10.5 signifies that the project has a sustainability plan for its GAD efforts but makes no mention of how this may be institutionalized within the implementing agency or its partner.



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3. After ascertaining whether a GAD requirement has been done or not, enter the appropriate score for an element or item under column 3.



a. To ascertain the score for a GAD element, a three-point rating scale is provided: “0” when the proponent has not accomplished any of the activities or questions listed under an element or requirement; a score that is less than the stated maximum when compliance is only partial; and “2” (for the element or requirement), or the maximum score for an item or question, when the proponent has done all the required activities.



b. The scores for “partly yes” differ by element. For instance, for Elements 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 8.0, the score for “partly yes” is “1.” For other elements that have two or more items or questions (such as Element 3.0), the rating for a “partial yes” is the sum of the scores of the items or questions that fall short of the maximum “2.”



c. For Element 3.0, which has four items (3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4), the maximum score for each item is “0.50” while that for “partly yes” is “0.25.” Hence, if a project scores a full “0.50” in one question but “0” in the other, or if a project scores “partly yes” (or 0.25) in each of the two items, the total rating for Element 3.0 will be “partly yes” with a score of “0.50.” If a project scores “partly yes” in one item but “no” in the other, then the total rating for the element will be “0.25.”

4. For an element (col. 1) that has more than one item or question, add the scores for the items and enter the sum in the thickly bordered cell for the element.



5. Add the scores in the thickly bordered cell under column 3 to come up with the GAD score for the project identification and design stages.



6. Under the last column, indicate the key gender issues identified (for proponents) or comments on the proponent’s compliance with the requirement (for evaluators).

Box 24. GAD checklist for designing and evaluating tourism projects

Element and item or guide question (col. 1)

1.0 Involvement of women and men (possible scores: 0, 1.0, 2.0) Have prior consultations included women and women’s groups to validate the data and determine the gender gaps, and the needs and status of women and men in the community?

2.0 Collection of sex-disaggregated data and gender-related information (possible scores: 0, 1.0, 2.0) Have gender information and sex-disaggregated data on the community, industry, or sector (from official statistics, research survey, business trends, or profiles of current enterprises, microenterprises, or enterprise-related training programs) been considered in crafting the project concept, particularly in the analysis of the development/tourism issue or problem?

3.0 Conduct of gender analysis and identification of gender issues (max score: 2.0; for each item or question, 0.5) (See text for articulation of the gender analysis questions.)

3.1 Are the needs of both women and men considered in the situation analysis? (possible scores: 0, 0.25, 0.50)

Response (col. 2) No (2a)

Partly yes (2b)

Yes (2c)

Score for the item/ element (col. 3)

Result or comment (col. 4)

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature



Element and item or guide question (col. 1)

4.1 Do project objectives explicitly refer to women and men? Specifically, does the project aim to improve women’s access and opportunity to benefit from tourism initiatives, as well as men’s? (possible scores: 0, 0.5, 1.0)

4.2 Does the project have gender equality outputs or outcomes? (See examples in text.) (possible scores: 0, 0.5, 1.0)

5.0 Matching of strategies with gender issues (possible scores: 0, 1.0, 2.0) Do the strategies and activities match the gender issues and gender equality goals identified? That is, will the project reduce gender gaps or inequalities, or minimize the negative gender effects of tourism?

6.0 Gender analysis of the likely impact of the project (max score: 2.0; for each item or question, 0.2)

6.1 Will the project build on women’s and men’s knowledge and skills? (possible scores: 0. 0.1, 0.2)

6.2 Will the project enable women and men to take on non-traditional, non-gender-stereotypical roles and jobs? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

6.3 Will women and men have equal access to training, gender-related tourism information (e.g., needs of tourists), and other resources (including additional income-earning opportunities) provided by the project? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

6.4 Will the project help women and men become more efficient in their chosen fields in the tourism sector? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

3.2 Are there gender-based differences in access to and control of resources (skills, capital, information, etc.) between women and men, and is the analysis of these differences reflected in the project document? (possible scores: 0, 0.25, 0.50)

6.5 Does the proposed project offer equal opportunities for women and men to participate in project activities, including planning and decision making? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

3.3 Has the analysis of the development problem considered the negative effects of tourism (e.g., sexual harassment, child trafficking, prostitution)? (possible scores: 0, 0.25, 0.50)

6.6 Has the project designed measures to address constraints to equal participation and benefits of women and men? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

3.4 Is there an analysis of gender-based differences in constraints and opportunities related to women’s and men’s participation in tourism projects? (possible scores: 0, 0.25, 0.50 )

6.7 Has the project included strategies for avoiding or minimizing negative impact on the status and welfare of women and girls? Specifically, has the project design provided measures to avoid or reduce the negative effects of the project in terms of sexual harassment, prostitution, child pornography, and the like? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

4.0 Gender equality goals, outcomes, and outputs (max score: 2.0; for each item or question, 1.0)

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Box 24. GAD checklist for designing and evaluating tourism projects

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Response (col. 2) No (2a)

Partly yes (2b)

Yes (2c)

Score for the item/ element (col. 3)

Result or comment (col. 4)

Element and item or guide question (col. 1)

6.8 Will the proposed project’s tourism promotional and IEC materials and advertisements conform to existing gender-sensitive policies and guidelines (e.g., the Media and Gender Equality Committee Guidelines, or MGEC)? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

6.9 Will the project, as designed, promote environmental sustainability? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

6.10 Does the designed project respect the cultural sensitivities of communities and their woman and man members? Of female and male tourists? (possible scores: 0, 0.1, 0.2)

7.0 Monitoring targets and indicators (possible scores: 0, 1.0, 2.0) Does the project have an M&E system that includes gender equality/gender-responsive targets and indicators for welfare, access, consciencitization, participation, and control?

8.0 Sex-disaggregated database requirement (possible scores:0, 1.0, 2.0) Does the M&E system include the collection of sex- disaggregated data and qualitative information that will track the reduction in gender gaps or changes (improvements) in the lives of women and men?

9.0 Resources (max score: 2.0; for each item or question, 1.0)

9.1 Has the project allocated a budget for gender training programs that will build competencies (within DOT, communities, and other stakeholder groups) in promoting GAD in the project? (possible scores: 0, 0.5, 1.0)

Response (col. 2) No (2a)

Partly yes (2b)

Yes (2c)

Score for the item/ element (col. 3)

Result or comment (col. 4)

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Box 24. GAD checklist for designing and evaluating tourism projects

Element and item or guide question (col. 1)

Response (col. 2) No (2a)

Partly yes (2b)

Yes (2c)

Score for the item/ element (col. 3)

Result or comment (col. 4)

10.3 Will the project support the implementation of relevant local ordinances that reinforce national gender laws in project sites? (possible scores: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4)

10.4 Will the project build on or strengthen the agency’s commitment to empower women? (possible scores: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4)

10.5 Does the project have an exit plan that will ensure the sustainability of the GAD efforts and benefits? (possible scores: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4)

TOTAL GAD SCORE FOR PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND DESIGN (Add the scores for each of the ten elements.)

Interpretation of the GAD Score 0 - 3.9 4.0 – 7.9

GAD is invisible in the project (proposal is returned). Proposed project has promising GAD prospects (proposal earns a “conditional pass,” pending identification of gender issues and strategies and activities to address these, and inclusion of he collection of sex- disaggregated data in the monitoring and evaluation plans)

8.0 – 14.9

Proposed project is gender-sensitive (proposal passes the GAD test).

15.0 – 20.0

Proposed project is gender-responsive (proponent is commended).

References Republic of the Philippines (2000). Magna Carta for Women (Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR).

9.2 Will the project fund activities that will help achieve its GAD objectives and targets? (possible scores: 0, 0.5, 1.0)



10.0 Relations with the agency’s /LGU GAD efforts (max score: 2.0; for each item or question, 0.4)

• Rule VI, Section 37, pp. 104−105. • Rule IV, Section 19, p.65; • Rule IV, Section 19, Article A, p.66. • Rule IV, Section 14, pp. 53−54. • Rule V, Section 35, Article B, p. 103

UNED-United Kingdom (2002). “Gender & Tourism: Women’s Employment and Participation in Tourism.” Report prepared for the 2002 Earth Summit. Retrieved from www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/women/current/ gendertourismrep.html

10.1 Is the project in line with the existing agency policies and guidelines for gender-responsive tourism? (possible scores: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4)

10.2 Will there be collaboration with other agencies/ entities in the implementation of a gender-sensitive tourism project? (possible scores: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4)

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Box 24. GAD checklist for designing and evaluating tourism projects

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Title

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

This supplementary volume for Asia and the Pacific is designed to be used in conjunction with the core volume (Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism) – they should be used in combination to provide comprehensive guidance for developing tourism at the local level in the region. This supplementary volume is structured around two major sections:

Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism (Supplementary Volume on Asia and the Pacific)

Guidelines

Section 1 – Tourism in Asia and the Pacific examines quantitative and qualitative tourism trends in the region, reviews the major opportunities and constraints for developing tourism in the region, identifies some special considerations that must be made in developing tourism in Asia and the Pacific, and describes efforts that are being directed toward regional cooperation on tourism in the region.

World Trade Organization. (1999). Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism (Supplementary Volume on Asia and the Pacific). (p. 92). Madrid: World Tourism Organization

Section 2 – Case Studies of Tourism Development in Asia and the Pacific presents several case studies of various types of tourism development in Asia and the Pacific that illustrate the planned and sustainable approach to development. The case studies reflect principles that have application to other local areas in the region and therefore will be of value to local authorities in different areas.

National Tourism Development Plan 2011-2016

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Document Type

Policies and Standards

The Department of Tourism has prepared the National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) that seeks to address the key challenges of the sector over the next five years. The National Tourism Development Plan led by the Department of Tourism is the result of the combined inputs of the national government agencies, local government units, the private sector including the Chambers of Commerce, and concerned non-government organizations. The NTDP, as mandated under Republic Act No. 9593, provides a framework to guide the Department of Tourism (DOT) and stakeholders in the private and public sector, at the national, regional, and local levels, to harness the potential of the tourism sector as an engine for sustainable growth. This is in line with the President’s 16-point agenda, the goals and targets of the Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 that focuses upon inclusive socio-economic growth, and the designation of the tourism sector by Joint Chambers of Commerce as one of seven (7) key growth sectors in the economy. The NTDP has been built upon the following: (a) comprehensive diagnosis of the tourism sector’s competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats; (b) extensive consultations with more than 1,380 stakeholders throughout the country; (c) the lessons learned from previous tourism strategies and plans.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Tourism-related Literature

Department of Tourism. Department of Tourism, Office of Tourism Planning, Research and Information Management. (2012). National Tourism Development Plan 2011-2016. Manila: Department of Tourism.

Title

Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations (A Guidebook)

Making Tourism More Sustainable (A Guide for Policy Makers)

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Guidelines

The guidebook is designed for tourism planners in promoting sustainable tourism by utilizing the best and most relevant information possible. It uses a set of indicators focused on both impact and sustainability for tourism. The Guidebook is most useful to tourism planners and managers at the destinations sites. Many managers operate in an environment which can be considered as data-rich but information-poor. Indicators can help to select, process, analyse and present data to better link with sustainability issues. Decision-makers are often inundated by large quantities of data, and often find it difficult to determine which data are important. Indicators development will occur at several scales, but the primary focus of this Guidebook is at the destination level – with destinations being defined generally in terms of the marketable destination, which may range in size from a small nation to a region, or to a specific resort or site. This Guidebook, produced by the World Tourism Organization, is intended to help the managers of tourism companies and destinations, their partners and other stakeholders to make better decisions regarding tourism. It focuses on the use of indicators as a central instrument for improved planning and management, bringing managers the information they need, when it is required, and in a form which will empower better decisions.

World Tourism Organization. (2004). Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations (A Guidebook). (p. 507). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Policies and Standards

Making Tourism More Sustainable: a Guide for Policy Makers builds on United Nations Environment Programme’s and World Tourism Organization’s previous work on different aspects of sustainability, undertaken over the past ten or so years. In addition to earlier work by WTO and UNEP, an extensive research survey was undertaken within WTO Member States, in 2003 and 2004, to identify specific policies and tools applied in their territories that had effectively contributed to making their tourism sector more sustainable. The conclusions drawn and the policies and tools recommended in this Guide are therefore based on real cases, collected from around the world, that have proven to be effective and successful in achieving the aims of sustainable development. The guide defines what sustainability means in tourism, what are the effective approaches for developing strategies and policies for more sustainable tourism, and the tools that would make the policies work on the ground. It shows clearly that there is no ‘one-fits-all’ solution to address the question of sustainability in tourism development. It does, however, highlight one key universal message: to succeed in making tourism more sustainable it is crucial to work hand in hand with all relevant stakeholders, within and outside government. The purpose of this document is to provide governments with guidance and a framework for the development of policies for more sustainable tourism as well as a toolbox of instruments that they can use to implement those policies.

United Nations Environment Programme. , & World Tourism Organization, (2005). Making Tourism more Sustainable (A Guide for Policy Makers). (p. 207). Paris: United Nations and World Tourism Organization.

Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism

Tourism and Poverty Alleviation Recommendations for Action

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Guidelines

With this book, the World Tourism Organization intends to strengthen its efforts to achieve tourism sustainability worldwide. It particularly seeks to provide technical guidelines and methodological instruments to local authorities, public service officials operating at the local level, as well as private tourism developers, enabling them to assume their responsibilities in this field with more effective, up-to-date technical know-how. These guidelines are eminently practical and easy to apply. The numerous examples of sustainable tourism best practices contained in this volume and the supplementary volumes on sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, North Africa and the Americas should be readily adaptable to the particular conditions and level of development of each country, region and local territory. To assist local authorities in making better decisions on developing tourism, this guide has been prepared on the planning, development and management of tourism at the local level. The guide will also be very useful to regional and national tourism agencies who need to understand tourism development at the local level in order to provide direction and assistance to local authorities. This is an interactive guide that involves its users. It includes checklists, diagrams and questions for discussion by local authorities about developing tourism in their areas. An underlying principle of this guide is achieving sustainable development of tourism. The fundamental importance of the sustainable approach for all types of development including tourism is now universally accepted, if not always practiced as it should be.

Theoretical/ Conceptual

This is the second publication launched by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) in a series on Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. The first one, launched on the occasion of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August 2002, examined a number of cases where tourism has been fundamental in reducing poverty levels in various countries. The present book provides further evidence of the contribution that tourism can make to achieving one of the most pressing United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals: alleviating poverty. Based on a more extensive analysis of successful experiences, it gives clear and practical recommendations - to governments, private tourism companies, international and bilateral development agencies and other stakeholders - on the various ways and means they can utilize to use tourism as a poverty alleviation tool.

Bibliographic Entry

World Tourism Organization. (1998). Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. (p. 194). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

World Tourism Organization. (2004). Tourism and Poverty Alleviation Recommendations for Action. (p. 47). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Title

Title

Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas (Guidelines for Planning and Management)

Sustainable Development of EcoTourism (A Compilation of Good Practices in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises((SMEs))

Quebec Declaration on EcoTourism

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Guidelines

The link between protected areas and tourism is as old as the history of protected areas. Protected areas need tourism, and tourism needs protected areas. Though the relationship is complex and sometimes adversarial, tourism is always a critical component to consider in the establishment and management of protected areas. These guidelines aim to build an understanding of protected area tourism, and its management. They provide a theoretical structure, but are also intended to help managers in practical ways. The underlying aim is to ensure that tourism contributes to the purposes of protected areas and does not undermine them. The main purpose of these guidelines is to assist protected area managers and other stakeholders in the planning and management of protected areas, visitor recreation and the tourism industry, so that tourism can develop in a sustainable fashion, while respecting local conditions and local communities. A key message is the importance of managing resources and visitors today, so that tomorrow’s visitors can also experience quality sites, and the conservation values that these places represent.

Eagles, P., McCool, S., & Haynes, C. (2002). Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas (Guidelines for Planning and Management). (p. 183). Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge: IUCN, Cardiff University, United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization.

Good Practices

This compilation, initiated in July 2002, aims at providing a structured, easy to understand description of exemplary practices especially in small ecotourism businesses. It has been widely recognized that small businesses represent the core of the ecotourism segment, given that the majority of private ecotourism operations provide specialized services for small tourist groups or individual tourists, while the related facilities they use (accommodation, transportation) also tend to be small. The compilation contains rich details on methodologies and business approaches applied successfully by a wide range of ecotourism small and medium sized companies; they provide a valuable well of information that can serve for generating ideas and adapting sustainable ecotourism practices to the specific local conditions elsewhere. The experiences presented in this book come directly from the field, from the people who have developed these initiatives and who are daily in charge of these business ventures. They reflect well the complexity of small businesses, the great challenges and opportunities they face, and the endless creativity that this business allows for. The objectives of this publication are also in line with the resolutions of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg 2002), its specific recommendations on sustainable tourism, biodiversity and local communities, and with the wider aims of poverty reduction through tourism.

World Tourism Organization. (2003). Sustainable Development of Ecotourism (A Compilation of Good Practices in Small and Mediumsized Enterprises (SMEs). (p. 305). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Policies and Standards

This document takes into account the preparatory process, as well as the discussions held during the World Ecotourism Summit on May 2002. It is the result of a multi stakeholder dialogue, although it is not a negotiated document. Its main purpose is the setting of a preliminary agenda and a set of recommendations for the development of ecotourism activities in the context of sustainable development.

Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism. (2002). Soft law – Declaration/ Recommendation World Ecotourism Summit, Quebec City, Canada.

Tourism Congestion Management at Natural and Cultural Sites

Tourism, Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation (Recommendations to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and to Microfinance Insitutions)

Davos Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism

Davos Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism Responding to Global Challenges (Advance Summary)

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Theoretical/ Conceptual

This handbook is aimed at a variety of professional users, both within the tourism industry and for people who welcome and manage visitors to their destination or site, including also public tourism, cultural and natural authorities. For the many different people in the tourism industry it provides recommendations for how they might positively contribute to the minimization of tourism congestion. For destination and site managers it provides a range of recommendations for managers to build a well-informed understanding of their places and their visitors, and provides recommendations for upgrading the operational and physical capacities of their areas to handle high levels of tourism activity to and from sites. The handbook has been written to provide very practical recommendations, using illustrations from the case studies. Some users will be familiar with many of the recommendations and will already have implemented some of them in their day-to-day activities. Others will find new information or suggestions that they can apply as appropriate to their circumstances.

World Tourism Organization. (2004). Tourism Congestion Management at Natural and Cultural Sites. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

This publication is a result from the collaboration between WTO and PlaNet Finance (an organization for international solidarity with a mission to reduce poverty worldwide by developing microfinance). This report gives an overview of the impact of tourism on poverty reduction. It helps to bring tourism and microfinance together, identifying opportunities for tourism to reduce poverty in developing countries and pinpointing the potential role and the reality of microfinance in solutions for tourism micro projects. The report also aims to promote cooperation between microfinance institutions (MFI) and the tourism sector as a whole, encouraging these institutions to adapt their conditions for granting loans to the specific characteristics of tourism activity.

World Tourism Organization. (2005). Tourism, Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation (Recommendations to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and to Microfinance Institutions). (p. 62). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Guidelines

Policies and Standards

Policies and Standards

This document provides a summary of the analysis on the possible courses of actions following the Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism in Davos, Switzerland. It also contains a list of the main agreements established in the Conference.

This advanced summary is based on an extensive report commissioned to an international team of experts by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in order to provide background information for the Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism (Davos, Switzerland, 1-October 2007). This advance summary and the full report to be released are principally aimed at the tourism industry and government organizations at the different levels, who will have the primary responsibility of developing mitigation and adaptation strategies to respond to the challenges that global climate change will bring to the tourism sector. The report will also constitute an important tool for international agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and financial institutions.

Bibliographic Entry

Davos Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism. (2007). Declaration Second international conference on climate change and tourism.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Title

Title

Making Tourism Work for Small Island Developing States (A Guide for Policy Makers)

Tourism Planning Toolkit for Local Government Climate Change and Tourism Responding to Global Challenges. (2007). Advance Summary Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Davos, Switzerland.

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Guidelines

This WTO report presents a summary of the current status of tourism in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), while providing evidence of the key importance it has for the sustainable development of many islands and for the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals. It also addresses the key issues that need to be considered by small island nations in order for the tourism industry to be more sustainable in the long term. It provides policy orientations, guidelines and other tools to the National Tourism Authorities (NTAs), the tourism industry and other tourism stakeholders in SIDS on how to develop and manage tourism in a sustainable manner for the benefit of their population. A set of WTO recommendations, existing guidelines, key measures, policies and new initiatives are presented in the context of SIDS such as the Tourism Satellite Account, guiding principles for sustainable tourism development for SIDS, Sustainable Tourism Indicators, certification issues, the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and Sustainable Tourism for the Elimination of Poverty (ST-EP Programme). With these guidelines and tools, the WTO intends to: 1) demonstrate the importance of tourism in SIDS and the need to support its sustainable development by both, governments and international and bilateral development assistance agencies; 2) examine the various areas that need to be considered by governments and the private sector if they wish tourism to contribute successfully to the overall economic, social and environmental sustainability of their territories; and 3) assist governments and other stakeholders in SIDS in their efforts to develop a tourism industry that is sustainable in the long term, maximizing the social and economic benefits and reducing the negative impacts on the environment of SIDS.

World Tourism Organization. (2004). Making Tourism Work for Small Island Developing States (A Guide for Policymakers). (p. 87). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Guidelines

The Tourism Planning Toolkit (TPT) is a resource to help local government understand and plan for tourism. It provides resource for territorial local authorities (TLAs) to respond to the opportunities and challenges tourism presents. The kit consists of a series of toolboxes, each dealing with different aspects of tourism planning and management which can be used together or separately. The four (4) main sections of the kit are: Situational Analysis, Strategic Planning, Implementation, and Monitoring. Within these sections are the toolboxes that contain checklists, good practices/case studies, methodologies for obtaining data, additional materials, and frameworks/diagrams showing various process and relationships in one or more sections mentioned above. The intended audience for the Tourism Planning Toolkit includes planners, economic development officers, and environment officers in TLAs. It also includes regional tourism organizations (RTOs), private planning firms which work with TLAs, and anyone else with an association with or interest in tourism planning. The Tourism Planning Toolkit aims to enable local authorities to take a comprehensive, sustainable approach to tourism planning. This might involve developing a full tourism strategy for a region, or improving specific aspects of existing tourism planning or management.

Tourism Recreation Research and Education Center. New Zealand Tourism Recreation Research and Education Center, (2006). Tourism Planning Toolkit for Local Government (810387 578239). Retrieved from website: http://www.med.govt. nz/sectors-industries/tourism/pdf-docs-library/Tourism policy/tourismplanningtoolkit. pdf

Bibliographic Entry

Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations

The Philippine Cave Handbook

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Policies and Standards

The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria are an effort to come to a common understanding of sustainable destinations, and are the minimum undertakings that any tourism management organization which wishes to be sustainable should aspire to reach. To satisfy the definition of sustainable tourism, destinations must take an interdisciplinary, holistic and integrative approach which includes four (4) main objectives: to (a) demonstrate sustainable destination management; (b) maximize social and economic benefits for the host community and minimize negative impacts; (c) maximize benefits to communities, visitors and cultural heritage and minimize impacts; and (d) maximize benefits to the environment and minimize negative impacts. The criteria are designed to be used by all types and scales of destinations. The criteria and indicators were developed based on already recognized criteria and approaches including, for example, the UNWTO destination level indicators, Global Sustainable Tourism Council’s (GSTC) Criteria for Hotels and Tour Operators, and other widely accepted principles and guidelines, certification criteria and indicators. They reflect certification standards, indicators, criteria, and best practices from different cultural and geo-political contexts around the world in tourism and other sectors where applicable. Potential indicators were screened for relevance and practicality, as well as their applicability to a broad range of destination types. The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations were conceived as the beginning of a process to make sustainability the standard practice in all forms of tourism. The criteria indicate what should be done, not how to do it or whether the goal has been achieved. This role is fulfilled by performance indicators, associated educational materials, and access to tools for implementation from public, NGO and private sector providers all of which are an indispensable complement to the Destination Level Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria.

Guidelines

After various efforts in formulating and proposing programs, laws, and policies on Cave Management, this handbook provides a versatile, handy, and very useful reference for everyone in need of information about caves. The handbook serves as a ready reference on basics about caves, their management, protection, and classification. The handbook also aims to impart to cavers and every other individual the value of caves and the wildlife fauna found therein. Part 1 discusses cave conservation and management while Part 2 presents the Department Administrative Order 2007-04 or Guidelines for Cave Classification. Other important considerations in classifying caves are provided in Part 3. Also included are annexes on other pertinent information about caves that are deemed necessary for cavers as well as the general public.

Bibliographic Entry

Global Sustainable Tourism Council. (2012, October 12). Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations. Retrieved from http://www. gstcouncil.org/ sustainable-tourism-gstccriteria/criteria-fordestinations.html

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Title

Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesProtected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. (2009). The Philippine Cave Handbook. Quezon City:

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Title

Community Enterprise Development and Management Guidebook

Inclusive Green Growth The Pathway to Sustainable Development

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Guidelines

In its second decade, the Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) Program faces the challenge of alternative sources of income for the forest occupants. Thus, an essential component of CBFM is the initiation of community-based enterprises. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources has produced this DENR Community Enterprise Development and Management Guidebook to encourage the commercial production of forest-based and forest-friendly goods, and provide decent livelihood alternatives to forest communities. The intended users of this guidebook are the DENR Technical Staff, People’s Organizations, LGUs, and other entities that may be interested in forest-based and forest-friendly goods and consumers, traders, producers, and are interested to partner with People’s Organizations to pursue mutual benefits from a Community Enterprise. The guidebook is divided into eight (8) sections representing phases in the cycle applied to a community-based enterprise. It should be noted that this document is referred as a guidebook to differentiate it from a manual of procedures or a compilation of rules and regulations. It is a practical reference that summarizes DENR’s experiences to date, in supporting Community Enterprises implemented in forestlands. It is a synthesis of “must be” and “must do” that have been found to spell the difference for success.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, (2006). Community enterprise development and management guidebook

Theoretical/ Conceptual

This report argues that sustained growth is necessary to achieve the urgent development needs of the world’s poor and that there is substantial scope for growing cleaner without growing slower. Green growth is necessary, efficient, and affordable. It is the only way to reconcile the rapid growth required to bring developing countries to the level of prosperity to which they aspire with the needs of the more than one (1) billion people still living in poverty and the imperative of a better managed environment. Indeed, green growth is a vital tool for achieving sustainable development. But sustainable development has three pillars: economic, environmental, and social sustainability. We cannot presume that green growth is inherently inclusive. Green growth policies must be carefully designed to maximize benefits for, and minimize costs to, the poor and most vulnerable, and policies and actions with irreversible negative impacts must be avoided. The report is comprised of frameworks and strategies in designing inclusive green growth policies, as well discussions on the implications of the latter in terms of human, natural, and physical capital.

The World Bank. (2012). Inclusive Green Growth the Pathway to Sustainable Development (10.1596/978-08213-9551-6). Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas

Making Ecotourism Work A Manual on Establishing Community-based Ecotourism Enterprise (CBEE) in the Philippines

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Policies and Standards

The “Key Biodiversity Areas” (KBA) approach presents an appropriate framework for identifying fine-scale conservation priorities in the Philippines. These globally significant sites provide the building blocks for landscape-level conservation planning and for maintaining effective ecological networks aimed at preventing biodiversity loss. Governments, international organizations, NGOs, the private sector, and other stakeholders can use KBA as a tool for expanding the protected area network in the Philippines, and more generally, for targeting conservation action on the ground. Through this approach, the aim is to identify, document, and protect networks of sites that are critical for the conservation of globally important biodiversity. Here, a “site” means an area of any size that can be delimited, and actually or potentially managed for conservation. KBAs are identified using simple, standard criteria based on the conservation planning principles of vulnerability and irreplaceability. Vulnerability is measured by the confirmed presence of one or more globally threatened species, while irreplaceability is determined through the presence of geographically concentrated species. Inside the report are maps of the key biodiversity areas in the Philippines, including tables that provide a more detailed profile of these areas.

Guidelines

The Philippines is now included in the list of biodiversity endangered countries in the world. Much effort is exerted to formulate management strategies that will address this pressing concern, and one of these is ecotourism. Nowadays, ecotourism is fast becoming a popular buzzword for both local and foreign tourists, nature enthusiasts, and other individuals who view nature and nature-based tourism as educational, recreational, and a form of relaxation. With the Department of Tourism’s (DOT) current slogan “It’s more fun in the Philippines!” and the many positive responses to it, the national government expect a big lift in the country’s tourism industry. For 2012, the DOT is optimistic to attract at least 4.2 million tourists. In line with this target, the need to conserve and protect the country’s biodiversity while supporting the livelihood of local communities, ecotourism is considered as an alternative approach. More than advocacy, ecotourism is now viewed as an “enterprise” that, if properly developed, will benefit not only local communities, but most importantly, the very local resources that local people heavily depend on. This manual, therefore, hopes to contribute in attaining this cause. Specifically, it aims to: 1) provide a guideline on how to make ecotourism work at the community level; 2) cultivate local talents, skills, and indigenous knowledge, and translate them into productive community-based ecotourism enterprise; and 3) integrate and mainstream ecotourism, including its processes and technologies, into their specific needs without compromising local culture. The manual tackles the planning and development, strategies, setting-up, and operations and management of CBEEs.

Bibliographic Entry

Conservation International Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Nature, & Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureaus. (2012). Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas. Quezon City: Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureaus.

Calanog, L. A., Reyes, D. P. T., & Eugenio, V. F. (2012).Making Ecotourism Work A Manual on Establishing Community-based Ecotourism Enterprise (CBEE) in the Philippines. Makati City: Japan International Cooperation Agency.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

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Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The ASEAN Heritage Parks A Journey to the Natural Wonders of Southeast Asia

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Guidelines

This report presents the consensus of more than 300 scientists and decision makers from more than 100 local and international institutions, on the most biologically important areas in the Philippines. The intent of the report is to present the results of the Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priority-Setting Program (PBCPP) in order to influence the conservation and development planning throughout the Philippines. The results contained herein are intended for policy makers within the government and the private sector, as well as for activists, scientists, and research institutions. They provide the biological justification and recommendations for geographic areas in need of conservation. Preservation of these areas is a prerequisite if the wholesale extinction of Philippine biodiversity is to be averted. The information in this document is based on decades of combined field experience, expert opinion, and two years of data accumulation, processing, analysis, and consensus-building. Chapter 1 provides a background on Philippines’ biodiversity and conservation initiatives in the country; Chapter 2 explains the methodology employed throughout the priority-setting process; Chapter 3 presents the results and maps. Chapter 4 provides a discussion and analysis of the results; and, Chapter 5 discusses the recommendations for their implementation.

(2002). P. Ong, L. Afuang & R. Rosell-Ambal (Eds.), Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Quezon City: Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureaus, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrated and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment.

Policies and Standards

The book compiles the profiles of the identified ASEAN Heritage Parks from the following ASEAN countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It features as well brief profiles of the biodiversity and natural resources of each of the member states of the ASEAN, and some glimpses about the cultural history and heritage of some indigenous peoples within the region. Indigenous and local people are inherent to conservation sites as their culture and traditions are basically tied to nature, and their indigenous knowledge systems provide lessons in conservation management. This book aims to encourage greater appreciation for the ASEAN’s natural heritages, as well as generate greater support for their protection and conservation and encourage more collaborative activities for their sustainable development and management. It also tries to capture the essence of each Park’s integrity and naturalness for one to understand why these have to be preserved and/or conserved for everybody’s enjoyment, appreciation, and benefit.

ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity. (2010). The ASEAN Heritage Parks a Journey to the Natural Wonders of Southeast Asia. (pp. 1-310). Los Banos, Laguna: ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity.

Tourism Development Planning Guidebook for Local Government Units

Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units

Tourism Development Planning Digest

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Guidelines

It was identified that the lack of statistical data and maps in planning documents is a common difficulty encountered by government officials in the tourism sector. Cities and municipalities prepare the comprehensive land use plans and development plans for their jurisdictions; however, most of them do not have tourism related data, or target visitor profiles as part of their planning documents. As a response, this guidebook was created to: 1) improve the tourism planning situations in cities, municipalities, and even provinces, by introducing a tourism statistics data gathering system that was developed to be initiated in the regions, and eventually nationwide in the future; and 2) to improve the graphic communication skills of tourism officers in smallscale-tourism offices that possess limited resources. How the data are used and presented are the central themes of this guidebook. The guidebook is fashioned to reflect the three basic elements of tourism development planning. They are (1) tourist attractions, (2) facilities and (3) market/visitors. It is also divided into five (5) parts: Part I is the introductory portion. Part II is on the current state, or situation. How to organize tourism related data and information is included in this part. Part III covers the evaluation of mainly facilities, tourist sites and TDAs. Part IV is on target setting. Part V covers the tourism development-planning digest.

Guidelines

Guidelines

This manual provides basic information and appropriate forms to guide the gathering and reporting of tourism statistics at the regional, provincial, city and municipal levels. Through a simplified and uniform system for collection and compilation of tourism supply and demand data, the LGUs would be able to embark on greater task to prepare development plans, marketing strategies and investment programs to harness the tourism potentials of their localities. The LGUs’ adoption and utilization of this manual will institutionalize and standardize collection of tourism statistics at the local level. It is prepared mainly for tourism officers at LGUs to establish a uniform-tourism-statistics-survey system in the Republic of the Philippines. To support the activities of LGUs, some of the activities of DOT officials at the regional and central levels are included. This manual has two major parts: fundamental demand and supply data collection, processing and analysis; and visitor surveys which consists of interview survey and questionnaire survey. The digest for Tourism Development Planning is an exercise designed to incorporate the initial capacity development on tourism statistics of local government units (LGUs), while advancing into the complex area of tourism development planning, as well as being a valuable source of information for future planning purposes. During the process of preparing this Digest recognition has been of the relationship and value of tourism statistics to a Tourism Development Plan, ultimately placing further emphasis on the importance of tourism statistics. The selected digests contained herein are for Capiz, Puerto Princesa City and San Jose de Buena Vista. All tourist statistics data that are utilized, reflected or referred to within are the accumulated results of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) training.

Bibliographic Entry

Department of Tourism. , & Japan International Cooperation Agency, Department of Tourism, (2012). Tourism development planning guidebook for local government units. Manila: Department of Tourism.

Department of Tourism. , & Japan International Cooperation Agency, (2012). Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units. Manila: Department of Tourism.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Title

Department of Tourism. , & Japan International Cooperation Agency, Department of Tourism, (2012). Tourism Planning Digest. Manila: Department of Tourism.

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Tourism for Nature and Development A Good Practice Guide

Eco-city Planning Policies, Practice and Design

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Good Practices

This series of guides aims to compile good practices that support biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction in a number of different development sectors. It is hoped that these guides provide practical direction for governments, development agencies, businesses, and non-governmental organizations working to ensure that biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction activities go hand in hand. To this end, the guide aims to: 1) outline the status and trends of global tourism in terms of its effects on biodiversity and development; 2) introduce public decision-makers to the available toolbox of techniques, technologies and procedures that optimize the social and environmental contributions of tourism and minimize negative impacts; 3) introduce good practices on the interface between tourism, development and biodiversity; 4) assist Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in establishing tourism development policies, strategies, plans and projects that consider poverty reduction and biodiversity; 5) provide suggestions for organizing tourism training and workshop sessions; 6) provide a checklist of good-practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the guide have been adopted in a specific destination, region, or country; and 7) provide sources and references where readers can find more detailed information.

Convention on Biological Diversity. , & , (2010). Tourism for Nature and Development A Good Practice Guide. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Theoretical/ Conceptual

Eco-city planning is putting the emphasis on the environmental aspects of planning while sustainable planning treats equally the economic, social and environmental aspects. Eco-city planning and management are based on the principle of a cyclical urban metabolism, minimizing the use of land, energy and materials, and impairment of the natural environment, ultimately leading to zero carbon settlements. The rest of this book is divided into three parts, covering (a) macro-level policies issues, (b) practice and implementation experiences, and (c) micro-level sustainable design and management measures. The intent is to provide both big picture as well as issue-specific discussion on eco-city planning, development and management. Each chapter is written by specialist authors. This book volume has also mentioned international “green” evaluation systems for individual buildings, mostly commercial. More recently, recycling friendliness has been added to be another assessment criterion, using the “cradle to cradle” approach. This book gives a number of glimpses about the multiplicity of eco-planning assets. It constitutes a welcome addition to the literature about eco-city planning and opens important perspectives for further research.

(2011). T. Wong & B. Yuen (Eds.), Eco-city Planning Policies, Practice and Design (pp. 1-319). Singapore: Springer.

Handbook of Sustainable Development

Rationalized Local Planning System

Module 6.0 Sustainable Tourism Development (Draft)

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Document Type

Abstract/Description

Theoretical/ Conceptual

This book has, at its heart, a concern with taking stock, 20 years on from the influential Brundtland Report (WCED, 1987), of the concept of sustainable development and its implications for the conduct of public policy. There is little doubt about the prominence of the term ‘sustainable development’ in contemporary debates about environmental and resources policy specifically and development policy more generally. Indeed, if anything the term itself has suffered from overuse alternatively as a panacea for all modern ills or as a meaningless catch-all theme to which all policy challenges (no matter of what complexion) are somehow inextricably linked. Nor is there consensus about what sustainable development is, which has led to another source of criticism. All this has led some critics to dismiss the concept altogether as one further example of the triumph of rhetoric over substance. Such criticisms are understandable but ultimately undeserved and, in reflecting within these pages on what sustainable development is, how it can be achieved and how it can be measured, it is the aim of this volume to provide ample demonstration of this.

(2007). G. Atkinson, S. Dietz & E. Neumayer (Eds.), Handbook of Sustainable Development (pp. 1-505). Massachussets: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Existing Plans and Framework

A document detailing the planning structure and systems for local governments. It tackles both the Comprehensive Land Use and Comprehensive Development Planning Processes. Tools for Implementation and Monitoring and Evaluation are also included in this volume.

Department of Interior and Local Government, Bureau of Local Government and Development. (2005). Rationalized local planning system Department of Interior and Local Government.

Module

This program is designed to develop and sustain a tourism workforce capable of supplying accurate information and providing services of globally-competitive standards to visitors traveling around the country. A combination of lecture discussion, group dynamics exercises, immersion tour, workshops, and case studies will be used. Trainings and problem-solving sessions will also be conducted to assist LGUs build their respective tourism profiles, strategies, initiatives and investment programs. The specific objectives of this Module are: 1) To promote tourism awareness among LGU tourism stakeholders and equip them with knowledge relating to tourism planning, promotions, standards and regulation, etc.; 2) Demonstrate LED planning knowledge and skills using the following tools and methods on tourism development: a. Tourism profiling, b. Value chain analysis, c. Tourism action plan agenda preparation; 3) Outline the elements of LED action plan, investment program and pre-feasibility studies for a tourism project by developing local industry potentials for tourism enterprises; and 4) Explain gender equality and climate change adaptation concepts and principles as applied in tourism development.

Bibliographic Entry

Department of Interior and Local Government, Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development. (2012). Module 6.0 Sustainable Tourism Development (Draft). Department of Interior and Local Government.

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

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Sustainable Development of Ecotourism (A Compilation of Good Practices)

Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners

Tourism Development for LGUs

Document Type

Abstract/Description

Bibliographic Entry

Good Practices

The main objective of this publication is to disseminate good practices relative to the planning, development, marketing, management and monitoring of ecotourism activities by providing specific examples of projects, enterprises and other initiatives in various countries of the world. For the purposes of the International Year of Ecotourism, the WTO has decided to use the concept of ecotourism for “all forms of tourism in which the main motivation of tourists is the observation and appreciation of nature, which contributes to its conservation, and which minimizes negative impacts on the natural and socio-cultural environment where it takes place”.

World Tourism Organization. (2001). Sustainable Development of Ecotourism (A Compilation of Good Practices). (p. 261). Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Guidelines

This guide was produced to assist local decision-makers and planners in implementing a sustainable approach to the tourism development in their communities. “Local level” refers to any homogenous places capable of tourism development such as cities, towns, villages, major tourist attraction sites, and rural areas, below the national and regional levels of planning and development. Often referred to as the community level of planning, this is an important level of tourism planning and development because community decision-makers and planners, ideally in consultation with their constituents, can greatly influence the success of sustainable tourism. This Guide acquaints local decision-makers and planners with the concepts, principles and techniques of planning for integrated and sustainable tourism development in their areas. Community involvement in the planning and development process is also emphasized.

(1993). G. McIntyre, A. Hetherington, E. Inskeep, and WTO, Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners (pp.1-166). Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization

Guidelines

This booklet serves as a guide for local government units (LGUs) in assessing local attractions that have a potential for tourism development. It is intended to aid local chief executives in: a) recognizing the functions that make up the domestic tourism industry; b) acquainting them with the range of activities involved in the sector; c) identifying areas within their jurisdiction with tourism potential; and d) understanding the competitive advantages of the LGU within the framework of the tourism value chain.

(1993). G. McIntyre, A. Hetherington, E. Inskeep, and WTO, Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners (pp.1-166). Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization

Republic Act 9593. Tourism Act of 2009 http://www.tourism.gov.ph/Downloadable%20Files/RA%209593.pdf The Local Government Code of 1991 http://ppp.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/The-Local-Government-of-the-Philippines.pdf ASEAN Tourism Standards http://www.aseantourism.travel/media/files/20130111081324_asean_tourism_standards_book.pdf Heritage Law http://www.ncca.gov.ph/downloads/RA%2010066%20Heritage%20Law.pdf Memorandum Circular re Guide to Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) Preparation for Local Government Unit http://www.dilg.gov.ph/PDF_File/reports/DILG-Reports-2011712-1939d5d3d3.pdf The National Tourism Development Plan: Strengthening the Philippines Strategic Process http://asiapacific.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/philippines_5.pdf Rationalizing the Local Planning System http://www.dilg.gov.ph/PDF_File/reports/DILG-Reports-2011712-ea7ba5859e.pdf Planning Strategically: Guidelines for the Application of the Strategic Planning Process in the Preparation of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) and to Important Urban Area issues and Problems - 2001 http://hlurb.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/services/lgu/Vol4.pdf Public Private Partnership http://ppp.gov.ph/?page_id=5779 http://ppp.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Republic-Act-7718.pdf Omnibus Investment Code http://invest.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/part2/omnibus-investment-code-of-1987.pdf http://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1987/eo_226_1987.html Republic Act 6957 – An Act Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Projects by the Project Sector, and for Other Purposes http://www.gppb.gov.ph/laws/laws/RA_6957.pdf

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Supplemental reading 11 Relevant Laws, Policies & Tourism-related Literature

Related web links

Republic Act 7652 – An Act Allowing the Long Term Lease of Private Lands by Foreign Investors http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno7652.htm#.U37D_9KSy3k Magna Carta for Women http://pcw.gov.ph/law/republic-act-9710 Republic Act 9208 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act: A briefer http://www.pcw.gov.ph/publication/republic-act-no-9208-briefer Harmonized Gender and Development Guidelines http://www.neda.gov.ph/?page_id=1081 Republic Act 7877 An Act Declaring Sexual Harassment Unlawful in the Employment, Education or Training Environment and for Other Purposes http://www.ecop.org.ph/downloads/presentations/march20/RA-7877-Anti-Sexual-Harassment-Law.pdf Department of Environment and Natural Resources- Department Administrative Order (DENR-DAO) 25 http://www.psdn.org.ph/chmbio/dao25.html

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News Releases: DOT and DENR Bare Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan http://www.tourism.gov.ph/Pages/DOTandDENRbaresecotourismstrategyandactionplan.aspx Republic Act 8749. Clean Air Act http://www.emb.gov.ph/mmairshed/Policies/ra8749-clean%20air%20act.pdf Solid Waste Management http://www.emb.gov.ph/laws/solid%20waste%20management/ra9003.pdf Other Environment-related Laws http://www.pcsd.ph/Related%20Laws/republic_acts/ra9147.htm http://www.pcsd.ph/Related%20Laws/republic_acts/ra9072.htm http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/presdecs/pd1977/pd_1219_1977.html http://www.gov.ph/downloads/1998/02feb/19980225-RA-8550-FVR.pdf http://www.denr.gov.ph/policy/basicpol/envcode/pd984.pdf http://www.coastguard.gov.ph/index.php/related-laws/189-presidential-decree-no-600 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/presdecs/pd1976/pd_1067_1976.html http://www.emb.gov.ph/eeid/2010/factsheet/RA%209275.pdf

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