Tuberculosis hospita Pi'a
Hospital and Sanatorium
Construction WRITTEN FOR
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS
THOMAS SPEES CARRINGTON,
NEW YORK 105
EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 1911
Columbia ^ntoersiftp in tije Citp of ^cto ^orfe
CoUege of ^ft psiciang anb ^urgconsi
Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Trudeau, N. Y. The Original Oxe-roum Cuttage where \)R. Edward L. Trudeau began his Experiment with the Open-air Treatment OF Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis Hospital and Sanatorium
Construction WRITTEN' FOR
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS
THOMAS SPEES CARRINGTON,
NEW YORK 105
EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 1911
Preface The present work
an expansion of the pamphlet issued two years ago by
the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis in response
to a pressing
in the establishment of sanatoria
During this period the emphasis of the campaign has been laid particularly upon the importance of increasing our equipment for the institutional care of tuberculous patients.
The response has exceeded expectation and has been
ticularly encouraging in the degree to
accepted responsibility for the situation.
true that institutional expense
tenance than of original cost of construction
to care for the largest possible
of patients at the lowest possible cost compatible
Under these conditions the problem
tuberculosis from the institutional point of view
a matter of main-
equally true that careful prelim-
is the chief factor in subsequent economy of operation. It is with end in view that the following study has been prepared. It is hoped that the book will prove of service to those charged with the
inary planning this
responsibility of dealing with the institutional
in their several
Executive Secretary. ijth, igii
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Transportation Facilities; Extent and Nature of the Land; Lighting, Water and Sewage; Meterological Conditions; Natural Beauty; Examination of the Land; Farm Buildings; Grouping; Cleaning and Apportioning Grounds; Railroad Station; Buildings and Improvements for Block Plan; Sites for Hospitals to House Advanced Cases; Examples of Grouping and Sites.
Methods of Sanatorium Administration; Planning Administration Buildings; Class and Number of Patients; Staff and Servants' Housing; Staff and Servants' Salaries; Service Buildings; Amusement Pavilions; Industrial Buildings; Water Supplies; Light, Heat and Power; Laundries; Sterilizing Rooms; Vacuum Cleaning Plants; Ice Houses and Cold Storage Plants; Carpenter and Paint Shops; Store Houses, Bakeries and Scale Houses; Green Houses, Forcing Beds, Vegetable Cellars; Garages, Barns and Stables; Farm Outfits; Cow-barns; Silos; Milk Houses; Chicken and Hog Houses; Sewage Disposal Plants; Examples of Administration Buildings; Examples of Service Buildings.
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
Suggestions for Planning Buildings; Examples of Complete Institutions under One Roof.
Hospitals for Hospitals
Description of Hospitals for Advanced Cases; Description of Infirmaries; Description of Reception Hospitals; Examples of the Buildings at Various Institutions.
Lean-to Type of Building
Origin of These Buildings; Material; Finish; Excavation; Exposure; Arrangement of Floor Plans; Porch Space; Porch Protection; Ventilation; Fixtures; Plumbing; Examples of Lean-tos.
Cottage Type of Building.
Origin of These Buildings; Points to be Considered in Designing Cottages; Examples of Cottages.
Trudeau's Original Cottage.
Site and Grouping
Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y., V^iews of a Farmhouse before and after Remodeling Views of Land Showing Natural Features of Value on Sites for Sanatoria
Mar>'land State Sanatorium, Sabillasville,
Bird's-eye View Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga.,
Waverly HiU Sanatorium, Waverly Hill, Ky., Front Elevation and Block Plan Agnes Memorial Sanatorium, Denver, Colo., Front Elevation and Block Plan
Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind., Bird's-eye View and Block Plan Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore. Block Plan \'ermont State Sanatorium, Pittsford, Vt., View of Front Elevation and Block Plan Essex County Tuberculosis Hospital, Soho, N. J., View of Buildings and Block Plan Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me., Block Plan Preventorium for Children, Farmingdale, N. J., Bird's-eye View of Building and Block Plan
Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y., Amusement Pavilion; Views and Plans. Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y.,
Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore.,
..... ........ ...... ......
Servants' Open Air Sleeping Pavilion Air Dining Room
Amusement Pavilion; Interior Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., A Method of Storing Water. Waverly Hill Sanatorium, Waverly Hill, Ky., View from Rear of Buildings Showing Power House Preventorium
Farmingdale, N. J., Power House and Laundry; Elevations and Floor Plans District Tuberculosis Hospital, Lima, Ohio, Floor Plan of Basement Showing Arrangement of Power Plant A Rectangular Steam Disinfecting Chamber
Eudowood Sanatorium, Tow.son, Md.,
40 41 42 43
Administration Building; View and Floor Plans Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me., Administration Building; View and Floor Plans Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la., .\dministralion Building; View and Floor Plans Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada, Administration Building; Views and Floor Plans
Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind.,
-Administration Building; View and Floor Plans Preventorium for Children, Farmingdale, N. J., .Administration Building; Elevation and Floor Plans
48 5° 55
Illustrations No. 28 29
Otisville, N. Y., Service Building; View and Floor Plans Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la., Service Building; Views and Floor Plans Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., Service Building; Elevation and Floor Plan New Haven County State Sanatorium, Meriden, Conn., Service Building; View and Floor Plans
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined 32 ^^
Eastern Maine Hospital, Bangor, Me.,
Method of Protecting Sleeping Porch with Wire Netting Hospital for Insane, Washington, D. C, Method of Enclosing Porch, with Swinging Sash Frames Sharon Sanatorium, Sharon, Mass., View and Floor Plan Tuberculosis Hospital, Washington, D. C, View of Front Elevation Tuberculosis Hospital, Washington, D. C, Floor Plans Lady Grey Hospital, Ottawa, Canada, View and Floor Plans Lake Edward Sanatorium, Lake Edward, Quebec, Canada, View and Floor Plans Franklin County Tuberculosis Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, Elevation and Floor Plans Hartford County Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Hartford, Conn., View and Floor Plans Cuenca Sanatorium, -Bass Lake, Minn., Elevation and Floor Plans Association Sanatorium, Colorado Springs, Colo., Elevation and Floor Plans District Tuberculosis Hospital, Lima, Ohio, Views and Floor Plan A Design for a Small Town or Village Hospital, Elevation and Floor Plan U.
...... ..... ... ...... ...... ..... ...... .
...... ..... .
SECTION IV Hospitals for Advanced Cases 45
and Reception Hospitals
Reception Hospitals, and
of the Floor Plans of Infirmaries,
Buildings Housing Advanced Cases Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind., A Method of Connecting Rooms with Open Porches Isolation Hospital, Paterson, N. J., A Method of Heating Porches for Advanced Cases .
48 49 50 51
Concrete Pavilion; Elevation and Floor Plans Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Reisterstown, Md., Pavilion for Advanced Cases; Views of Elevations Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Reisterstown, Md., Pavilion for Advanced Cases; Floor Plans Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind., Pavilion for Advanced Cases; View and Floor Plans Isolation Hospital, Paterson, N. J., Pavilion for Advanced Cases; View and Floor Plans United States Army General Hospital, Ft. Bayard, N. M., Officers' Quarters; View and Floor Plan United States Army General Hospital, Ft. Bayard, N. M., Enlisted Men's Ward No. 2; View and Floor Plan. United States Army General Hospital, Ft. Bayard, N. M., Enlisted Men's Ward No. 2; View of Inner Court Lakeville Tuberculosis Hospital, Middleboro, Mass., Pavilion for Advanced Cases; View and Floor Plan Boston Consumptives Hospital, Mattapan, Mass., Ward for Advanced Cases; View and Floor Plan Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me., Infirmary; View and Floor Plan
Municiijal Sanatorium. Otis\ille. X. Y., Infirmary; \'ie\vs of Front and Rear Elevations Municijial Sanatorium, Otis\ille, N. Y., Inhrmar}-; Floor Plans
Eudowoocl Sanatorium, Towson, Md., Infirmary; \'ie\vs and Floor Plan Edward Sanatorium. Xaperville, 111., Infirmary and ^Medical Building; View and Floor Plans Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y., Infirmary and ^Medical Building; View and Floor Plans Mar\-land State Sanatorium, Sabillasville, Md., Infirmary; Mew and Floor Plans
Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga., Infirmary; View and Floor Plan
Danvers State Hospital, Hawthorne, 2\Iass., Paxilion; \'iew of Elevation and Floor Plan Ohio State Sanatorium, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Reception Hospital; View and Floor Plan
SECTION V P.\TIENTS' Qu.^RTERS
68 69 70 71
TyPE OF BuiLDING FOR INCIPIENT
86 87 88
Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y., Open Porch, Showing a Method of Interior Finish Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Mich., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan Marjdand State Sanatorium, Sabillasville, Md., Lean-to; View, Cross-Section and Floor Plan Delaware State Sanatorium, Wilmington, Dela., Lean-to; \'iew and Floor Plan Ohio State Sanatorium, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Lean-to; View and Floor Plan
Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga., Design for a Lean-to New Haven County State Sanatorium, Meriden, Conn., Lean-to; View and Floor Plans Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada, Lean-to; \'iew and Floor Plan Edward Sanatorium, Napen,ille, 111., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan Eudowood Sanatorium, Towson, Md., Lean-to; \'iew and Floor Plans Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la.. Lean-to; \'iew and Floor Plan Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, X. Y., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan Association Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky., Lean-to; View and Floor Plan North Reading State Sanatorium, North Reading, Mass., Lean-to; View, Cross-Section and Floor Plan Edward Sanatorium, Naperville, 111., Lean-to; \'iew and Floor Plan .
....... ........ ........ .
........ ........ ..... ........ ........ .......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ .
Comparison of Floor Plans of the Lean-to Type of Buildings for Housing Incipient Cases Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., An Open Porch Illustrating Simplicity of Construction North Reading State Sanatorium, North Reading, Mass., An Open Porch Illustrating a Method of Protection Mrginia State Farm, Richmond, Va.,
Open Porch, 72
Iowa State Hospital, Mt. Pleasant, la.. Lean-to; Elevation and Floor Plan Rush Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Lean-to; View and Floor Plans Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y.^ Lean-to; Mew and Floor Plan
Illustrations No. 92
Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Mich., Design for a Lean-to New Yorlv State Hospital, Raybrook, N. Y., Design for a Lean-to ISIunicipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y., Lean-to; View and Floor Plans Preventorium for Children, Farmingdale, N. Lean-to; Elevation and Floor Plans
SECTION VI Patients' Quarters 96 97
Type of Building
Millet Sanatorium, East Bridgewater, Mass., Cottage; View, Cross-Sections and Plans Rush Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Pa., Cottage View and Floor Plan Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y. ;
99 100 loi
Cottage; View and Floor Plan Association Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky., Cottage; View and Floor Plan
White Haven Sanatorium, White Haven, Pa., Cottage; View and Floor Plan Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y. Cottage; View and Floor Plan Plainfield General Hospital, Plainfleld, N. J., Cottage; View and Floor Plan Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la., Cottage; View and Floor Plan Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y., Wheeler Cottage; View and Floor Plan Gaylord Farm, Wallingford, Conn., Connected Cottages; View and Floor Plans Barlow Sanatorium, Los Angeles, Cal., Cottage; View and Floor Plan .
Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore., Cottage; Views Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y., Orchard Cottage; View and Floor Plan Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y;, Nathan Cottage; View and Floor Plan, River Pines Sanatorium, Stevens Point, Wis., Cottage; View and Floor Plan
160 162 .
Introduction hoped that
be found useful by those
desire to design
construct hospital and sanatorium buildings for the care of tuberculous patients.
The information presented has been
collected during a series of investigations into
the methods and materials used in the construction of buildings at various institutions
This book all varieties and stages of tuberculous disease. and expansion of the original pamphlet on construction, "Some Plans and Suggestions for Housing Consumptives," published in 1909 by the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, and includes the results of studies made on the question of sites, in order to determine in some degree the effect of location and During the past surroundings from both the cUnical and economic points of view.
where patients are treated for
two years, in a number
of states, legislation
has been enacted authorizing counties to
establish institutions for the treatment of tuberculous patients.
movement has brought about many new problems and sanatoria, and
rapid growlh of this
and maintenance work such material
in the construction
has been the aim to
in the solution of these difficulties.
Cost of Construction It is the opinion of the majority of those who have had experience in constructing and administering tuberculosis hospitals and sanatoria, that it is wise to build in a comparatively inexpensive manner. Excellent results have been obtained by the open-air method of treating tuberculous patients in institutions built on simple and economical plans; and further, this class of institutions returns patients to their homes without making them unduly discontented with the environment and life to which they belong. It may therefore Ije said that those who adhere to simplicity and economy in sanatorium construction and furnishing, and who supply patients with good wholesome food, cleanliness, light employment, and a happy, friendly atmosphere, are operating along modern and approved lines.
of the first questions
incipient cases or a hospital for
asked when the establishment
of either a
proposed in a community,
be needed for constructing and maintaining the institution?"
In general terms
for Incipient Cases,
having a capacity
of fifty patients, will cost to
build and ef|uip (exclusive of the land) $25,000 and upward.
A Hospital for Advanced Cases, having a capacity of fifty patients, will cost to and equip (exclusive of land) $50,000 and u})ward. A Hos[)ital for Both Classes of Cases, having a capacity of fifty patients, will cost build and equip (exclusi\-e of land) $35,000 and upward.
In other words,
will cost to
complete institution for Incipient
Cases about $500 per bed; for Advanced Cases $1,000 per bed; and for Both Classes of
$750 per bed. 14
Introduction Cost of Administration Buildings Administration buildings for an institution housing
patients can be constructed
and upward, the cost depending upon the material used and the
Cost of Infirmaries and Pavilions for Advanced Cases Infirmaries and pavilions for advanced cases, having a capacity of twenty patients
can be constructed for $10,000 and upward.
in single rooms,
Cost of Lean-tos Lean-tos having a capacity of sixteen incipient cases can be constructed for $800
Examples The expended
of Appropriations following
given in order to show how, in an actual case, $100,000 was
for the construction of a State
of all classes except the
Sanatorium housing one hundred and
Administration Building Four Lean-tos (each $3,500) Two Wards for Advanced Cases (each $7,000) Power House and Heating Plant Sewage Disposal Plant Water Pumping and Supply Plant
3,300 7,000 1,200
$31,500 14,000 14,000 5, 000
very far advanced cases.
is cited in order to show the distribution of an appropriation for the County Hospital having a capacity for fifty patients, of all classes.
construction of a
Site, Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Administration Building Advanced Case Pavilion (Twenty Beds) Two Incipient Case Pavilions ($2,500 each)
of the Floor
$10,000 16,000 10,000 5, 000 $41,000
Plans for Administration Buildings
Administration Buildings constructed for Tuberculosis Hospitals or Sanatoria
have been designed on general hospital
This has not proven to be the most
factory type of building for administrative purposes, as the medical
vants are often arrested or cured cases of tuberculosis.
nurses and ser-
Administration buildings that
seem best adapted for institutions of this class, are those constructed so that all persons housed in them may have, if desired, individual open-air sleeping porches. For this reason, it is
the opinion of
open type; that
buildings for tuberculosis institutions should be
to say, with walls pierced
floors to the ceiling as possible,
reaching from the
apartments arranged so that they 15
Introduction open on at
dining and sitting rooms, which are
constructed as small individual buildings, and arranged to be opened on
weather permits, are being erected in greater numbers, and prove satisfactory. used by the adniinistrati\'e departments, except in are said to gi\-e better ser\'ice sites are large
towns where land
from the patients' quarters.
enough, one-story buildings, even for administrative purposes, are becoming
Plans for Pavilions for Advanced Cases
Paxdlions for advanced tuberculous cases have also, in the past, been constructed in the
as general hospital wards,
has been found that
tuberculous patients, with proper care, quickly improve under the open-air treatment, these buildings are
now being planned
rooms pro^'ided of Floor
open porch space
for all far
Plans for Lean-tos
The only changes
importance, during the past months,
in designing the
and on the open sleeping porches in order to house the patients in smaller groups. It may be said that practically all new designs call for lockers which are large enough to be used as private dressing rooms, and in many instances fitted with a chest of drawers, a mirror, racks for toilet articles, and other conveniences.
lean-to t}^e of building, have been in the pro\dsion of larger lockers for each patient, in placing transverse partitions
the cost of maintaining an institution after
and planning the buildings. Transportation expense is one of the larger factors in this problem, and it is becoming clearer that public institutions must be placed on or near good transportation faciUties. In a number of instances, railroad companies have ^\illingly put in spurs or sidings free of charge, as the sites chosen were near their right-of-way, and it is advisable that authorities, considering erected, should be always before those selecting the site
the establishment of a sanatorium or hospital, consider this question with care before pur-
chasing an otherwise desirable property.
Sanatorium Sites site in the open country for a tuberculosis sanatorium, to house inand moderately advanced cases, a decision must be made as to whether the ad\'antage of having the patients near at hand and accessible to their friends overweighs the possible benetit to be obtained by placing the institution in a region more favorable from a
In selecting a
climatic point of view, but far from the patients' homes. in the
generally agreed that
treatment of tuberculosis excellent results can be obtained in practically any section
of the country
and the desirability of local Within a short distance
obtained where tuberculous patients
institutional provision can be accepted as of
almost every city and town, land can be
Transportation Facilities Transportation
should always be carefully considered, as a long haul from
the railroad or landing adds expense both in building and maintenance.
near future most of the institutions founded with the intention of housing over one hundred patients, will be placed
upon land that can be reached without great expense by a private
branch or spur from the nearest railroad, or by some other means of public transportation.
on a direct
It is often
very desirable in order to make
hard to hold consumptives
like to leave their families,
of the patients are
accessible to the patients'
sanatorium, for the very sick do not
and many incipient patients become
pelled to drop their regular occupations.
drawn and where by
when first comtowns from which
close to the
a short trolley trip visitors can reach
help very largely in making the patients contented.
Extent and Nature of the Land
The it will
should be a tract of land from twenty to two hundred acres in extent and
be more valuable for
are supplied with efficient
includes forest, orchard
and land that can be
generally conceded that incipient patients improve faster
medical superintendent, they
when they by an
be able to do a considerable part of the farm work
with real benefit to themselves and a reduction in the cost of their maintenance. there
a choice of a
land when selected
while the natural advantages of another property
tion of possible land
number of sites, a damp or swampy location should be avoided, as such must be drained. The expense of preparing some land is very great,
For these reasons
chosen as a
be such that a large outlay for im-
advisable to have a thorough examina-
Water and Sewage
A good supply of water is is
for this reason
building near a city
possible, to secure property within the line of the city water supply
systems, thus settling the question of water, sewage disposal and lights.
and sewer other land
considered there should be good springs, a running stream of clear water, or the possibility of obtaining it
thoroughly protected well.
be considered before the land
disposal of sewage
acquired, as the quality of the
the rise of the land and
and lakes enter into the question and increase or reduce the and maintenance. These subjects are all considered more in detail under the section on administration buildings. the position of water courses
cost of installation
Meteorological Conditions very important that the meteorological conditions
of a prospective site should This means obtaining data with regard to the altitude, average humidity,
number of stormy days in the year, highest and lowest degrees of heat and cold, prevailing winds and an}' atmospheric peculiarities which might affect either the patients or building materials. It is v:e\l to remember that vastly differing conditions are often found within a radius of a few miles;
therefore, such information should be gathered on the site itself.
strong winds prevail during certain seasons of the year and where hea\y frosts
occur more frequently during the winters than in other nearby localities should be avoided if
L^sually the southern exposure of a hill or
to be preferred.
Natural Beauty year,
The problem of holding tuberculous patients at sanatoria grows more serious each and as the institutional care of certain classes of cases seems to be an absolute necessity
in order to control the disease,
made to place patients upon sites amuse and make them contented. The
every effort should be
that have natural attractions which will help to
open country, where a sanatorium for incipient cases is generally placed, usually offers a In making a decision from choice of sites some of which may have great natural beauty. several pieces of property offered, this should be considered as a valuable asset. A sloping, rolling or hilly piece of
a lack of
desirable than a level one.
and a forest, lake or stream gives opportunities for A great deal can be done by artificially improving the grounds where there natural beauty, and in the selection of a site in a bare or flat country this should
and trees add amusement.
of the view,
by the National Association for the Study and Prevenneeded by its Bureau of Hospital and Sanatorium Construction, may be of some assistance to those examining a property for the purpose of determining its value as a site for hospital and sanatorium purposes.
following questions used
tion of Tuberculosis
acres of land are available for Sanatorium purposes? flat, roUing, or on a hillside? What is the degree and exposure of the slope of the hills? Are there trees for protection from prevailing winds? What is the direction of the prevailing winds in summer? In winter? Is the
the altitude above sea level and above surrounding country? the amount of moisture precipitation per year? 19
No. I.— Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y. Views of a Farm-house before and after Remodeling. XoTi: the Wide Sleepim; I'orc hks Constructed on the Front of the Building in the Lower Illustrxtiox. ('See illustrations 72, 73,91 and 108 for further description of this institution.)
What What What What
the average amount and duration of snow? the highest and lowest recorded temperature? 10. is the mean temperature of the winter months? 1 1 is the mean temperature of the summer months? 12. Is it possible to use the local water supply of the nearest town? 13. At what height on the property above or below the building site is the water supply? 14. What is the amount of water flow in gallons per minute? 15. What is the direction and size of the water courses on the property? 16. What are the lighting facilities in the neighborhood, gas, electricity, etc.? 17. What is the composition of the soil? iS. What building materials are available on or near the propert}^? Can sand, building stone, rough stone for foundation, brick, cement, lime and timber be easily obtained? 19. What are the transportation facilities, such as railroad, trolley lines, etc.? 20. Where is the principal approach to the proposed site? 21. What is the distance from the nearest saw and planing mill? 22. Are there any old buildings on the site? (Give full description with a drawing of the floor plans and photographs of the front and side elevation.) Note: Sketch-map of proposed property showing location of buildings, entrances, water-courses, etc., is very desirable. 8. g.
Farm Buildings Often farm-houses or other structures stand on the land chosen and can be remodeled
so as to
useful sanatorium buildings.
be materially reduced
and unsanitary conditions corrected,
season of the year.
of constructing the institution
these are good, substantial structures, but they should be examined especially
the buildings are
Careful inspection of the plumbing, drains, and cellar should always be
made by an experienced
the walls of the cellars are damp,
should be used to obtain a circulation of air about the foundation.
This can be done by a
new wall built beside the old foundation, The cellar floor should then be relaid with a foundation of broken stone, covered with cement, and openings made in the cellar walls to procure plenty of light and air. The greatest care must be used to prevent dampness trench opened on the outside of the house, and a
leaving an air space between the two waJls.
old buildings; in
in others it
some places a
subsoil system of drainage will be needed, while
be necessary to remove trees close to the house.
In all rooms, where there is sufficient wall space, new windows should be made, and windows cut down to the floor and up to the ceiling. Ventilation for the winter months may be obtained by building fireplaces or installing ventilating flues, and other appliances used to give a continuous change of air. Often it will be necessary to install baths and toilets and have connections made with the water supply and sewage disposal plants. Many old farm-houses are built of heavy timbers which are usually well preserved and can be repaired and put in excellent condition without great expense. When planning a rearrangement of an old building for administration purposes, a large dining room is usually the most important apartment to be provided, and often can be made by removing the partitions between rooms on the ground floor and throwing two or three together. old
institutions ha^'e been started
by housing the administrative department in old room and office on the first
buildings which were only large enough for a kitchen, dining floor,
and a few rooms
for the staff
on the second.
hospital started in this
provide for a large number of patients.
old country mansion will often
a good administration centre for a small,
The Natural Features of the Land shown in These Views Greatly Add to the Value of Property for Sanatorium Sites. Tiik Group of Buildings in the Upper Illustration IS THE liARLOW SANATORIUM. (See a description of the cottages on page 159.)
Site private sanatorium, in
cases without remodeling.
Small cottages of the Millet
type (Illustration 96), or those of the Open air Sanatorium, Oregon (Illustration 107), can then be built about the grounds for a comparatively small outlay.
The barns and
save a considerable outlay,
for they can be used for housing cows, chickens and other domestic animals which should
be counted on to reduce the cost of maintenance.
Grouping There on the
of funds or energy.
a hospital or sanatorium after
information as to the best methods of arranging buildings
institutions in order that the plants It is to
the initial cost of construction.
started in a small way, additions being
and very little
be remembered that the economical operation of
when completed can be run without
existing sanatoria of large size were
haphazard manner as necessity required,
planning done except for administration buildings, power houses and patients'
quarters, before the construction of the plant
superintendents of a number of
was commenced. have found after
also a fact that the
to be ready for good work, that large additions to their buildings were necessary to reduce
In order to overcome this
the cost of maintenance to a defensible figure.
future, for projected institutions, a general block plan of the site should be
particularly true for public institutions depending for their
support upon the good will of the community which they are to serve, as in producing a symmetrical
difficulty in the
whole and avoid waste in maintaining the plant when completed.
In planning a new hospital or sanatorium the object should be to house the patients in a way that will provide as much comfort as possible. The size of the site and the block plan of the
grounds depend upon the number
the completed institution
of buildings to
be erected and the manner
to be administered.
Grounds For a sanatorium having a capacity open country, a
somewhat 20 ID 20 10 20
about one hundred patients situated in the
should consist of about two hundred acres of land, to be apportioned
in the following
40 acres for sanatorium buildings, amusements, park, forest and lake. farm buildings and the care of domestic animals. to 30 acres for a vegetable garden and potatoes. to 20 acres for an orchard and small fruits. to 30 acres for corn fodder. to
to 20 acres for
60 to 80 acres for pasture or grain. Usually a part of the drives, while roads
must be cleared and
laid out as a park,
or gravel paths with water mains beside
at suitable points are required near
and between the
with walks and
For such improvements on
the grounds from $2,000 to $10,000 should be appropriated.
situated beside or near a railroad, or an interurban trolley system, the
company may be
in sparsely settled parts of the
willing to construct
for the sanatorium.
country the transporta-
one story frame or brick structure 15 feet wide by 30 feet long, divided into one large room ^ 2 feet wide by 1 5 feet long, and having at one end a cov1 5 by 1 5 feet, and two small rooms 7 ered freight shed 10 feet wide by 20 feet long. When the right-of-way is near the sanatorium buildings the station can be used to house the post-office, telephone exchange, express office
store for the convenience of the patients
often wish to purchase material for
personal use. It
said to be an advantage to a transportation
company may be
right-of-way and in
to obtain the location of a
sparsely settled sections of the country the
to local people;
Si.ooo to 81,500 per month, a part of which, at least,
brings friends and visitors to nearby hotels, benefits the merchants,
The sanatorium has a
willing to gi\'e the land for the institution's site.
great educational value;
has a pay-roll of from
and creates a market
in the vicinity.
Buildings and Improvements for Block Plan
The following is a when laying out
of the buildings
to be considered
Administration Building. Service Building. Patients' Pavilions. Amusement Pavilion. Power House (Heating, Lighting
Industrial Shop. Ice-house or Cold Storage. Railroad Station, Post-office, and Telephone Exchange. Carpenter and Paint Shop. Store-house, Scale-house and Bakery. Green-house. Two hundred feet of Cold Frames or Forcing Beds. Vegetable Cellar. Garage. Barn for Horses.
Milk House. Colony Chicken Houses. Hog House. Sewage Disposal Plant. Sites for Hospitals to
The choosing of a
House Advanced Cases site
and the grouping
of the buildings of a hospital for far
cases usually presents an entirely different problem from that involved
sanatorium for incipient cases. in or
It is usually desirable to
when founding a
provide for the advanced patient
near the town from which he comes, and therefore the choice of a
site is largely
governed by the cost of the land and the attitude of the surrounding property owners.
hospital for this purpose should not be placed in a quarter where noise, the
from factories or the dust from uncared-for streets almost any
site is suitable
will affect the patients.
which can be easily reached, and is large enough to allow for the These questions are considered more in detail
construction of porches on the buildings. in
Section III, Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined. 24
EXAMPLES OF GROUPING AND The ings
and laying out
The Maryland State Sanatorium, is
following institutions are good examples of various methods of grouping build-
a well chosen site for a state institution, situated near the top of one of the mountains
Blue Ridge range, sixty-seven miles from Baltimore on the Western Maryland The sanatorium owns the station and has placed its power house on a siding
close to the railroad in order to run coal cars directly over the storage bins. site is
reached from the power house and railroad station by a well graded macadamized
road twenty feet wide and a quarter of a mile long, which ascends gradually through a beautiful woodland.
buildings have been placed on a comparatively fiat piece of
land lying on the south side of the mountain, with a beautiful view of the valley.
them the ground rises for about four hundred yards, protecting the site from the north winds. At the top of this ridge is a concrete reservoir, having a capacity of seventy thousand gallons and supplied with water by pumps in the power house. The buildings are grouped together as shown in the illustration because of the topographical features of the land. The Administration Building stands in front and is connected by a corridor with the Service Building directly in its rear. The sleeping shacks are arranged in two rows on both sides and to the rear of the main buildings and the slope of the ground allows a good view of the valley and mountain from their porches which overcomes the objection of The capacity of the plant placing the front of one shack directly in the rear of another. is two hundred patients at an estimated cost of $150,000.
The Georgia State Sanatorium, of
land comprising two hundred and fifty-seven acres, located on the main line of the
Southern Railway, two miles from Alto and seventy-four miles southeast of Atlanta, with
The elevation is about sixteen a station about a quarter of a mile from the institution. hundred feet above sea level in a part of the country comparatively free from dust and where the air is said to be pure and invigorating the year round. The land has a general slope to the southeast and is fairly well protected on the north and west by a rising hill and
The problem for seventy-five
to be solved
architects in arranging the block plan
white patients at the present time and prepare for a future growth of the
four hundred white and colored charity cases of was adopted because of certain peculiarities in the contour of the land, which lies in the form of a horseshoe made by a flat with two promontories jutting out from it on the same level. Between the promontories is a ravine forming the main axis of the block plan. The Administration Building is located on the flat, directly at the head of the ravine at the north of all the patients' quarters, which are arranged on the two promontories. This plan worked out so well that one contour line runs institution to three
through seventy-five per cent, of the buildings, adding greatly to ease of administration, as
a level path will connect them.
Practically everything on the grounds can be
seen from the administration building, as the other structures were arranged with that idea in view.
Nearest the entrance to the west
the Reception Hospital, where
be housed for observation on their arrival. 25
early cases will
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4. Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga. Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter W. Judell, Associated Architects. Block Plan Showing the Contour Lines and the Method of Grouping THE Lean-tos on Two Promontories in Front of the Administration Building. Note the Negro Quarters on the Left of the Illustration in the Foregrountd. Capacity to be 400 Patients. Estimated Cost, $175,000. (See illustrations 65 and 78 for further description of this
the east or on the right of the illustration
administration building, and
east of this
in use as a temporary-
room and the
In front of these main buildings on both slopes of the promontories are arranged the shacks for white patients (with floor plans adopted from the King type of lean-to at the
Loomis Sanatorium) twenty-four in all, having a capacity of ten patients each. Back of On the south and the main entrance drive near the road to the station are the stables. east of the service building but on a lower level is the women's work-shop, and back of the administration building are two cottages for the superintendent's family and physicians' residence. Still further to the rear and slightly to the east are a number of small cottages A service to be used as temporary quarters for the nurses or other members of the staff. building similar in plan to the infirmary for the white patients will serve the negro quarters
which are to be practically the same as those provided for the white patients, but entirely separated from them and concealed by a thick growth of trees and shrubbery. All the buildings are grouped
below these buildings the
the pines on the southern slope of one of the
tected from the winds and with a pleasing outlook from the porches.
is a stream fed by a spring alongside of which is placed connected with an elevated tank for the storage of water, located
There is a good supply of water, of the site to the rear of the stables. by constructing a dam, to furnish power for the institution. A farm and dairy are contemplated, for which there is ample land. This block plan is intended to show the institution as it will be when completed, and the estimated cost, including power plant, water supply and sewage disposal for four hundred patients, was $175,000, divided
on the highest point large enough,
the different buildings as follows: 27
Library Recreation Building Superintendent's Cottage Doctors' Cottage Stable Negro Infirmary
Administration Building Infirmary Reception Building Ser\-ice Building 32 shacks at Si, 800 each 2 work-shops, 84,000 each
15,000 15,000 15,000 5 7, 600 8, coo
$3,000 3,000 3,500 3,500 5,000 15,000
Waverly Hill Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky. (Illustration 5.) The Waverly Hill site includes one hundred and seventy acres of land, situated on a range Park and overlooking the Ohio River and a magnificent stretch
of hills near Iroquois
buildings are erected on concrete foundations with walls of frame construction,
covered on the outside with stucco, treated in bright and contrasting colors.
steep side of a
alone in the foreground,
and the whole makes an interesting block of sanatorium buildings together. The administration building, which is two stories high, stands
are covered with red
and rear windows overlooking the patients' quarters.
the rear of the service building has been used to advantage in
relation of the
to the entire plant.
torium conducts a farm, dairy herd, and poultry in order to give the patients pure, fresh food and an opportunity for light exercise by work in the open plant
.WAVERLY MILL TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUM
No. 5.— Waverly Hill Sanatorium, Waverly Hill, Ky. J. J. Gaffney, Architect. Front Elevation AND BujcK Plan Showing Contour Lines and Method of Grouping Buildings on the Edge OF a Hill with a Steep Slope at the Rear. Note Back View of Plant, Illustration No. 18. Capacity, 40 Patients. Estimated Cost, Sioo,ooo. 28
QPh A g
O Q <
S o (A
c s bJO S o « I.
Agnes Memorial Sanatorium, Denver, Colo. when
and a medical
pavilions are two stories high with porches
the entire structures on both floors.
were outlined by Dr. G. Walter Holden and adapted to the
Spanish style of architecture. II
constructed, consisted of an administration building, two pavilions
housed in a separate bedroom
wide by 13 feet long, containing a radiator, a ventilating register and a closet These rooms open on to a central corridor at one end and at the other upon
a \-eranda space
feet 4 inches
curtains, in order to
wide by 8
the space private
raised to a height that will allow sunlight to penetrate into
off by sliding The roofs of the porches are each room at some time during
This can be curtained
has a capacity for forty patients, and cost $250,000, and was equipped for
I? D/rr/rYO Hy\j.i,
£)J-OCK. -PuA^n No.
Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind.
Brcbaker and Stern, Architects. Bird's-eye View I lax. Showinc a Compact (iKoup of Buildings Ha\ing a Capacity of 100 Patients. Lost, 8137,000. (.Sec illustrations 26, 46 and 51 for further description of this institution.)
Indiana State Tuberculosis Hospital, Rockville, Ind. (Illustration 7.) This is a good example of a well chosen site and also of a method of grouping buildings The accompanying picture is a bird's-eye perspective of the hospital and closely together. institution
a portion of the grounds.
cost the state $24,000 (approximately $50.00 per
of rolling, well- wooded land of which one hundred and twenty-five acres are along the creek bottom. The site lies on the east side of the Raccoon Valley about three miles east of Rockville, on a gravel road from Indianapolis. The hospital owns a free right-of-way for a railroad spur, of about one mile, to connect the property with the Central Indiana and the Vandalia Railroads, which run acre).
There are five hundred
through the valley. the railroads. blufT,
a station and a siding within one mile of the site on both of
buildings are located on high ground, slightly back from the edge of a
wath a beautiful view overlooking the valley.
good, clean gravel and sand
purposes on the bottom land, clear soft water in large quantities in a creek at
the foot of the bluff, ton.
and four acres
and good steam
for the institution
which can be delivered on the
The plant has
of the highest degree of purity.
artesian wells in large quantities
a capacity of one hundred patients and cost
Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore. (Illustration 8.) The site of Open Air Sanatorium consists of eleven acres, six miles south of Portland on It is situated in a grove of evergreens, well a bluff three hundred feet above the river. sheltered from the winds, and is arranged to house all its patients in separate cottages These are arranged around two courts in front of the adminfor one or two persons each. the Portland
particularly interesting to superintendents of institutions
housing only private cases, in a country having a mild, dry climate where dressing and
bathrooms do not need to be heated.
PORTLAND OPKN Alk zsssEniKiiMr
No. 8.— Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore. Whiddex & Lewis, Architects. Block Plan Showing Method of Groupixg Cottages about Open Courts and their Relation to the .Administration Buildings at a Private Sanatorium. Capacity, 40 Patients. Estimated Cost, S6o,ooo. (See illustrations 16 and 107 for further description of this institution.) 31
VERMONT 5ANATOCIVM PITTiFORD
No. 9.—Vermont State Sanatorium, Pittsford, Vt. Scopes & Feustmaxx, Architects. View of Front Klexatiox and Bloik Plan. Showing Method of Grouping Pavilions in Front, .\nd AT THE Sides of the .\d.\iinistration Building. Capacity, 40 P.\tientp. Cost, $75,000.
Vermont State Sanatorium,
and protected on
located on a practically flat piece of land with mountains on About three hundred feet to the south the north by a heavy growth of evergreen timber. ravine of the institution is a sharp drop in the land of over one hundred feet, making a the which in gravel and which there is a beautiful brook. The soil is a mii.xture of sand all sides
very rapid, and the water supply
procured from the Pittsford
waterworks. The patients are housed in individual rooms and the porches are constructed under the main roofs of the building rather than in the usual method. The administration building is planned with the infirmary in the second story and for an administrative capacity of from seventy-five to eighty patients.
placed in the
west wing and as far from the service wing as possible, in order to avoid the noise from the kitchen. The cottages are designed with a capacity for twelve patients each, six
and are connected with the administration building by covered ways which are used by the staff in inclement weather and as extra sitting-out space for the
patients on a floor,
present capacity of the plant
Essex County Tuberculosis Hospital, Soho, N. of buildings
unusual, as the administration building
are on the top of a small knoll with the land sloping rather abruptly
in every direction.
three buildings are connected
away by a covered passageway and the
pavilions have porches on the north as well as on the south side of the wards. of buildings
placed in the rear of the patients
lighted from the central
County Isolation Hospital, and is heated and power-house, which is on the same site. The pavilions are placed
as a part of the
on brick piers and the administration building on a brick foundation,
10. Essex County Tuberculosis Hospital for Advanced Cases, Soho, N. J. Hurd & Sutton, Architects. View of Bcildixgs from the Rear and Oxe Side, and Block Plan Showing Method of Grouping Buildings on a Knoll antj Connecting Them by a Covered Passageway. Capacity, 84 Patient.s. Estim.ated Cost, $75,000. 3
Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me. T. C. Stevens and J. H. Stevens, Architects. II. View and Block Plan Showing ^Method of Grouping Pavilions in the Rear of the Estimated Cost, Administration Building and Power House. Capacity, ioo Patients. $150,000.
(See illustrations 23
frame and covered
for further description of this institution.)
cases at an estimated cost of $75,000.
State Sanatorium, Hebron,
situated in the foot-hills of the
Falls Railroad, in a very beautiful country, well
White Mountains two miles from the Portland and Rumford
dryness of the atmosphere.
near the centre of the population of the state and consists of three hundred and
which one hundred and twenty-five acres are farm land and one hundred and The buildings are well sheltered by a wooded mountain
thirty-five acres forest land.
with a fine open view to the south. There are many natural and logging camps with opportunities for winter sports, which stored in a rcser\-oir, with a capacity of
The water supply comes from springs and forty thousand gallons, by a pumping station
an important consideration in holding them. is
features, such as forest land interest the patients
pumps. The soil is a loam with a subsoil of gravel, having an and great fertility. Beside the administration building and pavilions, there is a power house, a cow-barn hghted by electricity and supplied with running water, having a capacity for twenty-five cows, a milk-house thoroughly equipped, heated by equipped with
— Preventorium JuDELi.,
for Children, Farmingdale, N. J. Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter Associated ARciriTECTS. Bird's-eye View and Block Plan Showing Method (See illustrations 19, 27 and 95 for further description of this
OF Grouping the Buildings. institution.)
Section steam and supplied with
for the proper handling of
milk and cream, a
large silo with a capacity of fifteen acres of corn, a stable for ten horses
one hundred and
tons of hay.
of the plant
one hundred patients
present of about one hundred and fifty acres of land and
site consists at
situated in a
buildings are placed on a knoll seventy feet above the surrounding
and a growth of timber on the north, giving good protection from the winter winds. It is within six or seven miles of Lakewood, N. J., well known for its dry cHmate and sandy soil. The entrance is about four hundred feet to the west of the country road and all the buildings are grouped about sixty feet apart. The land, which has a gentle slope to the south,
dormitories containing the infirmaries are placed nearest to the administration building, described on page 145. buildings
and a small
a good sized creek within one thousand feet of the
river one-half mile
The Central Railroad of New company has put in a siding one-
Jersey crosses a corner of the property and the railroad
fourth mile from the power house without cost to the institution.
The water was driven
supplied from an artesian well four hundred and fifty feet deep, which
about seven hundred feet from the buildings, on lower land, and is by a small pump house in which is installed an electric pump driven by power generated in the central power house described on page 47. The water rises to within twelve feet of the surface and is conveyed to a wooden tank on a tower seventy-five feet at a point
This institution was founded for the purpose of preventing children from becoming infected with tuberculosis
where the sickly children, through wise supervision, open-air usuall}-
City and have
are sent from various clinics to the Preventorium
and pure, good food, are Only those children beand fourteen who are surrounded by tuberculous individuals and are life
completely restored to health in three or four months.
tween the ages
without active tuberculous disease can be admitted to the institution.
a capacity for one
hundred and twenty-eight
water supply and sewage disposal. Si 10,000.
necessary for the use of those
one for housing the patients and the
Therefore, some kind of a building, or a portion of one
other for administrative purposes.
charge of the institution.
three general plans of administering sanatoria for tuberculous patients.
The first method is to proxdde for this use a certain number of apartments in the same building that houses the patients. The second method (usually adopted at the present time) is to pro\dde a separate administration building and group lean-tos or cottages about it for accommodating the patients.
method (used only by large institutions of more than one hundred and and occupying a wide acreage) is to provide a general administration building near the centre of the site and di^'ide the patients' quarters into two or more units, each grouped about a small service building containing a kitchen, dining-room and other apartments needed, and placed at various convenient positions on the site. fifty
Planning Administration Buildings In planning a sanatorium a good method to follow
upon the number and
character of buildings needed for administration and maintenance, then have these structures designed
of substantial material
can be enlarged when
floor plans for the administration building
should be noted that the housing of the administrative department practically buildings on the
department conveniently and
tion, the following questions
with the exception of the patients' quarters. in
such a manner as will later tend to economical opera-
should be decided
possible before the working drawings are
begun. 1. 2.
The number of patients to be housed in the institution. The stage of the disease to be treated. The class in society from which the majority of patients will come. The number of the staff and the method in which they shall be housed. The number of servants and the method in which they shall be housed. the administrative ofhces and service department be housed under one two separate structures? Shall an amusement pavilion be constructed, or a large room for recreation purposes be provided, in the administration building? Shall an industrial shop be built for amusement and educational purposes? Shall
roof or in
Administration Buildings g.
What method What method What method
water supply and storage shall be used? be used? of lighting shall be used? Will power be needed? Shall a power house be constructed? Shall a laundry and sterilizing room be housed in a separate building, the power of
of heating shall
house, or in the administration building? vacuum cleaning plant be installed? Can natural ice be used and an ice house be constructed or will a cold storage plant be needed? Shall the post-office, telephone exchange and store be housed in a separate structure or a room provided for these in the administration building? Shall a carpenter and paint shop be constructed or housed in the basement of the administration building? Shall a central store-house with platform scale and a bakery be constructed, or the basements of the various buildings used for storage and other purposes? Shall the institution provide its own vegetables and construct a greenhouse,
15. Shall a 16.
and a root
21. Shall the institution
conduct a farm and supply
products? 22. Will a sewage disposal plant be needed?
Class of Patients
to the first three questions in this list will largely govern the solving of
Therefore, the descriptions and estimates given here were obtained from public institutions having a capacity of about one hundred patients in various stages of the disease and coming from all classes of society.
the other problems.
and Servants' Housing The
given in order to assist in planning a sanitary method of housing
the staff and servants at projected institutions.
and are ready
are low because
to accept smaller salaries
institutions, in order that they
paid at the sanatorium from
convalescent patients apply for positions
than are usually paid for the same service in other will tend to improve
remain in surroundings which
their physical condition.
and Servants and
Superintendent (Physician) Assistant Superintendent (Physician) Laboratory Director (Physician) Business Manager Bookkeeper and Clerk Stenographer
Matron Superintendent of Nurses' Training School Dietician
Three Orderlies (each $300.00) Postmaster and Storekeeper Chief
Cook Cook's Assistants (each $240.00)
$2,500.00 per annum. 1,200.00 600.00 1,200.00 300.00 360.00 4S0.00 900.00 900.00 1,800.00 900.00 120.00 960.00 480.00
Carried forward 39
Section II $12,700.00 per annum. 720.00 240.00 300.00 216.00 S64.00 1,296.00
Brought forward Chief Baker Baker's Assistant
Dish Washer Dish Washer's Assistant
Four Waitresses (each S216.00) Maids (each S216.00)
Chief Engineer Engineer's Assistant
Fireman Caqienter andiPainter Gardener, in charge of Greenhouse and Grounds Two Garden Helpers (each S360.00) Poultry Man Three Farm Hands (each S360.00)
480.00 360.00 600.00 720.00 720.00 600.00 1,080.00
Note: This makes
As has been
a pay-roll of
S1S16.00 per month.
and servants may be incipient, conemployment of this class will matericareful hygienic and sanitary housing
said a large proportion of the staff
valescent or cured tuberculous patients and while the ally reduce the size of the pay-roll
will also call for
with provisions for outdoor sleeping.
The upper used in nurses'
stories of the administration building Avhen pro\'ided
with porches, are
institutions for this purpose, although the construction of a
home, and a servants' pavilion
No. 13.— Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y. The Amusemext Pavilion. \'IK\VS OF THE KXTEKKJK AND INTERIOR WITH FlOOR Pi.AX AND CrOSS SeCTION. fSee illustrations 63, 98, 104
for further description of this institution.)
14. Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y. Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. James D. Burt, Architect. Servants' Building No. 107. This Structure is an Example of a Lean-to Constructed with Fire-proof Material, Designed to Supply Open-air Sleeping Quarters FOR Servants who wish to Remain and Support Themselves at the Institution after Completing the Treatment. Capacity, 16 Persons; Cost, ^5,000.
Municipal Sanatorium, tion 14.)
The walls are on both sides. The copings
a two-story building, with a foundation of native stone.
burned hard, and plastered moulded on both edges, and reinforced with w-aste wire. The outside is finished with wood float in sand, and coated with a water-proof paint. The inside is finished with plaster and painted with ordinary white lead and linseed oil. of eight-inch hollow terra cotta
on the parapet walls are
of cast concrete,
Each person has an individual
dressing room, about five feet square,
and furnished with a chair, table, mirror, shelf, and hooks for clothing. The sleeping porches are divided by low, transverse This practically makes of partitions running from the rear wall part way across the floor. low partitions in order to allow a free circulation of
the porches small rooms, sufficiently deep to allow space for an easy chair inside the open
and the porch floors have a pitch of three inches in order and wash water to an outlet. There is a slop sink on each floor, an iron fire escape on the walls of both wings, and an attic covering the centre of the building. The basement contains a heating apparatus, two toilets, and baths. The building accommodates sixteen persons, and cost exclusive of plumbing and
stories are alike
to drain storm
heating, about $5,000. 41
Section II Service Buildings
growing feeling among the superintendents
sanatoria that the
method of housing the dining room and kitchen, is to construct a separate service The principal ad\'antage of this method of construction is in isolating from other building. departments the preparation of food, and in giving greater opportunity to build an open It is also a much more economical way of building if an institution is to air dining room. best
be started to enlarge
way on lines which can be enlarged as it grows, for it is an easy matter an administration building by constructing a service building nearby. For
in a small
these reasons a
service buildings are described
results are to
be expected from the open
treatment of tuberculosis, the
Worry and depression are and anything that helps to do away with them is a part of the cure. patients often sit about a hospital or sanatorium day after day, brooding
question of making the patients contented must be considered. large factors in disease
Certain classes of
over their troubles and discussing retards recovery.
their physical condition,
such patients are kept interested in other things they will have
time to think about themselves, and, therefore, amusements and interesting occupations
When possible, a separate amusement pavilion should be constructed. room placed in the administration building is not satisfactory, as it is very hard to ventilate, and patients taking the open air treatment are often oppressed by remaining indoors, and refuse to use such rooms. A separate structure for an institution of one hundred patients should be about seventy-five feet long by thirty feet wide, with a peaked roof. The building can be constructed of tile, brick, concrete or frame and the roof supported by trusses and covered with shingles or some patent roofing material. The main room should be open to the roof about tw^enty-three feet from the floor to the peak. should be provided.
No. 15.— Example of a Dining
Separate Structure Which can be Opened on All Sides. 4^
-Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore. View of the Interior of the Amusement Pavilion. (See illustrations 8 and 107 for further description of this institution.)
by fifteen feet wide, with a room on either side for dressing and other purposes. The building in northern climates must be heated, either from the central power house or by a small heating plant placed in a cellar under the main floor. Both sides and the end opposite the stage, except for the supporting columns, should be entirely constructed of adjustable windows or doors, so that the side of the building exposed to a wind or storm can be closed and the opposite side remain open. There should also be large ventilators in the peak of the roof and on the sides and ends of the building. (See Illustrations Nos. 13 and 16.) stage can be placed at one end of this room, twelve feet deep
The same arguments which ment
are used in advising a separate structure for
in regard to
an industrial shop.
This building can be constructed
along the same general lines and of the same material as the amusement pavilion, the dimensions being about fifty feet long
thirty feet wide, one
both sides enclosed by glass doors or windows that can be entirely open when the weather permits. It should also be heated by connection with the general heating SA'-stem or by a separate plant of
own and equipped with
used in various industries, such as light
work and photography. If the building is rooms, porches should be added so that the patients can work out
carpentering, cabinet making, taxidermy, art
divided into a of doors in
In every institution there are always patients
by attending school and are glad of an opportunity to do so. As there is often a teacher among the patients, who is willing to teach, space for a school-room, if
needed, should be provided for in this building.
Part of the outfit can be a machine for stamping out sputum cups, for is
supplied for this purpose,
the cups used at the sanatorium can be
cost of such a building
to start in a
more modest way
about $4,000, but
in order to test the interest of the patients in various
Water Supply Where
there can be no connection
with city or other pubKc water mains, the
water supply for an institution tained in a
number of ways and
sources should be carefully studied.
sources which can be examined with-
out great expense, such as old wells, springs, brooks, rivers, ponds and lakes, or sources
which can only be accurately determined by experiments which are often quite costly, such as the driving of various kinds of wells No.
and the building
Ax Example of a Good Method of Storixg Water Where Streams can be Protected (See illustrations 30, 69, for further description of this institu-
for the collection
Wells are often the only means by
which water can be obtained, but shallow or dug wells should not be used, as the dan-
ger of contamination three hundred or tional use
FROM Coxtamixatiox. and 80
of surface or other intermittent supplies of
very great. feet, to
Driven or bored wells carried deep enough, usually
avoid surface water, should always be sunk for institu-
site carefully selected
with the \dew of preventing contamination of the
Often where from thirty to fifty thousand gallons per day are needed more than one well must be driven in order to produce a sufficient supply. The cost of driving varies from v^3.oo to ^^S.oo per foot, according to the size of the bore water when
reaches the surface.
and the depth to which the well is carried. In making investigations of a w^ater supply, great care should be used
information in regard to the chances of contamination of the source of the water, the
chemical elements held in solution, and the amount of the flow at
seasons of the year.
In order to decide w^hether a given source will supply the demand, an estimate of the daily
Although it is a very inaccuconsumed in every twentyfour hours by each individual housed on the site, about one hundred gallons, by each horse or cow fifty gallons and for every acre of lawn, streets, paths, or garden five hundred gallons, and the estimate is intended to cover all water used for drinking, cooking, toilet, sprinkling and other necessities. consumption
rate method, this
A careful sites
proposed institution should be computed.
usually done on the theory that there will be
inquiry has shown that institutions of one hundred patients having large
servants and animals, and carrying on a farm,, will use from twenty
thousand gallons of water per day and should when possible have in reserve for
at least equal to the daily consumption.
should be stored, depends upon the nature of the constructing reservoirs.
about the limit where the cost
but where natural basins can be used by erecting
a small dam, larger quantities can be held for a small outlay. inforced concrete reservoir
The amount which
which largely governs the expense of to two hundred thousand gallons is
the most satisfactory
storage of water in a re-
a natural elevation near the
Reservoirs can usually be placed in the most convenient position available with-
out fear of obtaining too great a pressure in the mains, as the force produced by water brought from a height is greatly reduced by the friction in the pipes. Where there are no 44
Administration Buildings natural elevations, water can be distributed through an institution and a moderate stored
by tanks on towers,
by small towns
or in the top of the buildings.
Also by stand pipes, largely used
middle west, which give good service and can be adopted for the and the various systems of water supply using a pressure tank for small
Heat and Power The problem
of lighting, heating,
depends largely upon
advanced cases situated trunk
Generally the furnishing of light for hospitals for
matter, as the
the city electric lighting system or the mains for illuminating gas are
usually not far distant.
The lighting of lies
sanatoria in isolated country districts of kerosene oil lamps,
between the use
more complicated and a choice
one of the various processes for generating
by individual gas machines from oil, gasolene or acetylene, or electricity produced by a privately owned plant. At the present time electricity is generally used, and when installed in an institution having a capacity of one hundred patients housed in various structures, it is estimated that about live hundred and fifty, sixteen candle power and one
two or four candle power lamps
for the buildings, six
candle power arc lights for the grounds, two six thousand candle power generators and two fifty
horse power engines will be needed, the lamps being apportioned as follows
154 lights 150 183 66
Case Pavilions Three Incipient Case Pavilions Nurses' Quarters Amusement Pavilion
Laundry Power House Tunnel Grounds
20 6 arc lights
Four candle power
can be used to good advantage in
places, such as
and are a great saving, as every candle power needlessly used in the course of a year means a waste of fuel. In heating sanatorium buildings practically every method has been tried and can These still be found giving fairly good service at one or another of the various institutions. in a general way are steam and hot water plants, hot air furnaces, stoves, fire-places and hall-ways, closets, toilets and porches,
Here again the location and climate are largely the determining factors in making a choice of a method of heating, particularly where the buildings of an institution
are heated as separate units.
Power can be used
pumping, vacuum cleaning, driving laundry ma-
chinery, a cold storage plant, elevators, .T-ray apparatus, laboratory instruments, lathes, circular
saws and other machinery in carpenter and repair shops.
Power House In discussing the needs for in
heat and power, and the methods to be employed
should be remembered that 45
possible where a central plant
No. i8.—Waverly Hill Sanatorium, Waverly Hill, Ky. J. J. Gaffney. Architect. View from the Rear Showing a :\Iethod of Using the Top and Side of a Hill in Order to Obtain a Position Below the Buildings for the Power Plant. (See illustration 5 for further description of this institution.)
be assembled to house
either in the
one of the buildings or in a power house
but there seems to be a strong feehng against installing it in the basement of any sanatorium or hospital building, as the heat from the boilers is very
especially constructed for
and dust penetrate to other parts of the structure. If the institution grows the time is sure to come when it will have to be removed, and therefore it is advisable to house even a very small plant in an isolated power house when starting an disagreeable and the noise
This should be placed below the
site of all
buildings to be heated, in order to
allow the return by gravity, of condensed steam or hot water from the heating apparatus, and if this is impossible where the land is fiat, a pit must be dug under the plant for this
In choosing a
the question of placing the building beside a siding or spur from
a railroad should be considered, for such a position will greatly reduce the expense of handling coal
The administration and
other buildings to be heated, should be
them by a concrete or brick and expense will be saved if the
grouped near enough to the power house to allow connecting tunnel three feet wide
six feet high, as
pipes and wires connecting the buildings can be inspected through their
building should be of brick or reinforced concrete construction, one story high
and divided into an engine room, boiler room, oil room and dressing room, containing toilets and shower baths. The coal bins should also be of concrete having a capacity of six or eight carloads, placed on the outside of the building, and arranged, if possible, so that the coal can be dumped directly into them from the cars. In equipping various power houses the question of installing low for high pressure boilers and substituting gasolene or oil for steam engines, in producing heat and power, has been carefully investigated.
and architects having
to be the consensus of opinion
pressure boilers with steam engines
power plants, that the use of high the cheapest method, at the present time, of produc-
large experience with isolated
Administration Buildings and power for public institutions when the exhaust steam is used is adopted the equipment for the power house should consist of:
ing light, heat If this
One Coal Truck and Track One Open Feed Water Heater Two Water Pumps One Fire Pump
Boilers of loo H. P. each for Service Hot
One Water Tank Water
Two Steam Engines Two Electric Generators
One Set of Machinist's Tools One Power Drill and Lathe
One Storage Battery One Oil Separator The
building with equipment will cost about Si 5, coo.
EXAMPLE OF POWER HOUSE The Preventorium tration 19).
are of hollow
for Children, Farmingdale, N. J.,
a two story building, 59 feet wide by 43 feet deep. The first story walls with reinforced concrete construction, and fireproof partitions of hollow is
There are two complete power units, each consisting of a high pressure horizontal tubular boiler, a steam turbine directly connected with an electric generator and a switchboard. There is also an ice-making machine, a large scale for weighing fuel and a hot water storage tank. The second floor houses the laundry and has partitions of frame, covered with wooden lath and plaster. It is divided into a receiving and sterilizing room tile.
No. 19.— Preventorium for Children, Farmingdale, N. J. Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter W. JuDELL, Associated Architects. Power House and Laundry. Front and Side Elevations WITH First and Second Floor Plans. (See illustrations 12, 27 and 95 for further description of this institution.)
Tuberculosis Hospital, Lima, Ohio. McLaughlin & Hulskin, Architects. of the Basement Floor Plan, Showing Arrangement of Laundry and Power Plant, (See illustration 43 for further description of this institution.) IN an .\dmixistration Building. 20.
equipped with a pressure steam sterilizer, a general laundry room containing metal washers, an extractor, mangles and steam pressure pumps and electric motors for running the machinery, an ironing room equipped with electric irons, a distributing room, and a room over the ice-machine from W'hich ice is distributed to the small refrigerators in the various buildings.
third or attic floor
divided into four large rooms and bath for the male help,
reached by a separate stairway w^hich does not open on to the laundry
building cost $9,000 and the mechanical equipment of the institution, including
water supply and sewage disposal, cost $32,000.
The Laundry The laundry should be housed long,
and one and one-half
crete or brick, or
open to the peak and constructed
can be placed in the power house and
of reinforced con-
a part of that building.
divided into four rooms for receiving the soiled clothes, washing, ironing and sorting.
in a separate building, thirty feet
of administration buildings
have been unsatisfactory, as
building should have a cement floor
with hard plaster and painted.
The hot water and steam
power for driving the machinery can be supplied from the power house and the equipment should consist of as the
Two Mangles Two Drying Racks
Mixing Soap with Steam
Sets of Irons
Set of Sorters' Shelves Six Tables
In some districts a cistern for storing rain water will be needed.
entire plant including
the cistern can be constructed and equipped for from $6,000 to $10,000.
Connected with the laundry there should be a sterilizing room about ten feet wide by twenty feet long, constructed of concrete with a cement floor and equipped with a rectangular steam disinfecting chamber, thirty inches wide, fifty inches high and eighty-
usually built with an inner and outer shell of steel plates and closed by doors at both ends hung from davit cranes. They are also equipped with a wrought iron car, an inside and outside car truck, two cast iron supports, a thermometer, steam pressure gauge, vacuum and pressure gauge and two safety valves. With an instrument of this size, beds, bedding, linen and clothes needing The room and sterilizer in connection with the laundry, if disinfecting can be sterilized. placed near the power house, can be constructed and installed for about $1,500. (See Illusfour inches long.
securely ri^eted to the end frames
This method of cleaning sanatoria and hospitals that from an economical point of view
per cent of the cost of cleaning, that
becoming popular. installed,
also reduces to a
wood-work, decorations and other
It is said
save in labor
minimum the wear on By this method
finish of the buildings.
up the dust and dirt, and Avaste of all kinds which cannot be reached by the ordinary means, is easily removed from corners, nooks and cracks. The usual plant installed for institutions is operated by electricity obtained from the generator, which supplies the current for lighting. The power necessary is about one hundred and ten volts, but when it is not available the plant can be operated by a two cylinder ten horse power gasolene engine. The vacuum cleaning machine itself is placed in the power house or basement of the administration building, and consists of a reciprocating pump, with a motor on the same frame, and a separator. It is connected with all the buildings by a main trunk line pipe, gi\dng off vertical pipes ending in service inlets at convenient points where a hose can be attached for the cleaners. These inlets are usually placed in the walls of the corridors near the floor but can be installed at any point desired. The hose which connects them with the cleaner can be fifty feet long, if desired, and the intakes located at points where a circle of fifty feet from them will reach every place to be cleaned. The dust and dirt is conveyed from the apartment being cleaned, through the hose, vertical lines, and trunk lines, to the separator, where about ninety-eight per cent of the dirt is taken out of the air drawn into the pipes. The balance, or two per cent of the dust and dirt, passes through the machine and out of an exhaust pipe which discharges into a flue or other convenient place to reach ing can be done without stirring
plant suitable for a sanatorium while cleaning an apartment re-
moves about two hundred and through open windows by pure, chine
forty cubic feet of air per minute. fresh air, the
If this is replaced
be well ventilated while the ma-
The pump and
separator will cost $1,500, the piping and installation of the plant
about $1,000 more, making a total cost
of the plant of $2,500.
sweepers and tools are supplied with the machine and extra sets consisting of a floor sweeper, floor brush,
renovator and tufter cost $75.00.
or Cold Storage Plant
an absolute necessity
manufacturing or storing 4
in a hospital or
sanatorium; therefore, some means of construction of an ice-house
— A Rectangular Steam Disinfecting Chamber, for Use in Connection with the Laundry. A CoxvENiEXT Shape for Tuberculosis Hospital axd Sanatorium \\'ork. Loaned BY The Kny-Sheerer Company.
for a small institution,
natural ice can be obtained on or near the
installing of a refrigerating plant is usually cheaper for large institutions
If a cold storage
than the building
should be placed in the
administration building or store house and arranged to provide coils for the various refrigerators.
cost will be
Si, 800 to 8,3.000.
The Carpenter and Paint Shop A repair shop may be combined structed as a separate building.
with one of the barns, the industrial shop, or con-
should be about ninety feet long by twenty feet wide,
constructed of frame, brick, or concrete, one story high, with peaked roof and an air space
above the storage
can be di\-ided into a carpenter's room, paint room, store-room and
drying lumber; and equipped with a circular power saw, necessary carpenter and cabinet-makers' tools, and a painter's outfit. The man in charge should be a good for
practical cabinet-maker able to repair furniture
have a painter as one of
of the entire institution
and the woodwork
of the buildings,
This department has a large share in the up-keep
repay the investment of 81,500 to 82,000 necessary
The Store House, Bakery and Scale House
of storage space
a necessity in a sanatorium or hospital.
and other winter food supplies, furnishings, hnens, clothes, and the farm or grounds must be bought in bulk or numbers, in order to obtain
ceries, grains, vegetables
At many institutions, portions of the basements and cellars of the various buildings are used as storage rooms, but this is a wasteful and inconvenient method of fair prices.
administration and .should be abandoned. Buildings are more sanitary when rightly constructed without arrangements for storage purposes, but with low foundations and cellars
having a good circulation of manner.
no good reason
housing stores in this
Administration Buildings It has
been tried and found very satisfactory, as well as a great help
expenses, to have a separate store house under the care of an employee who gives his time to
and distributing supplies. At all large institutions the bakery should be separate from the kitchen. In a number of instances it has been placed in the basement of administration buildings, but this is not satisfactory, as it requires the baker and his assistants to work in a room that is hot and hard to ventilate. A small separate structure connected with the general store house or as a part of it, should be built for this purpose; the bake room to be about twelve by fifteen feet with the oven constructed outside the walls. In connection with the store house and bakery there should be a platform scale. The weighing room may be a separate, small frame building, or a part of the store house, with the scale platform on the outside, arranged so that trucks and wagons can conveniThe scale will cost about S80.00. There is no doubt that the sa\ing ently be run over it. made by a careful oversight and concentration of the stores and the weighing of the grain and other supplies bought in bulk, will soon pay for the construction of a store house. A bakery and store house equipped with a scale can be built for from $1,200 to $2,000. the details of ordering
Green House, Forcing Beds and Vegetable Cellar
A green house for
and flowers can be placed near the power house, and the forcing beds, a supply of fresh lettuce, radishes, onions, rhubarb, spinach, parsley, turnips and other green vegetables may be produced during the entire winter. This building should ha\e in connection with it, about 200 feet of cold frame or glass forcing beds, and a root or vegetable cellar constructed of concrete, half above and half below ground level, with bins and divisions, of the same material. A root cellar is a need which is generally put off, with the idea of using the basements of the building for this purpose, but because of the pipes and mains from the heating plant, basements often cannot be used. The expense of building a green house, frames and root cellar will be about 85,000. vegetables, plants
and by using the surplus steam
Garage, Barn, Stable and Farm Outfit It is
necessary to have a stable for farm, carriage and riding horses, in conjunction
with a barn for housing saddles, harness, carriages, wagons, machinery and garage for motors when institutions are located in more or concrete,
under one roof the industrial, carpenter and
barn can be erected for from 85,000 to Sio,ooo, depending upon the size The following list obtained from a state sanatorium, is a partial
finish of the building.
and machinery, which
Two Farm Wagons One Delivery Wagon One Wagon Scale
Sulky Plow Ordinary Plow
One One One One One One One
Two Double One One One One One One
secluded sections of the
This building can be constructed of frame, brick, concrete,
Sets of Harness Single Set of Harness
Mowing Machine Side Deliverv
a part of the institution.
Potato Planter Potato Digger
Corn Planter Corn Binder Power Feed Mill Power Hay Cutter
Cart Two-horse Cultivators One One-horse Cultivator One Fanning Mill
One Feed Cooker for Garbage One Potato Sprayer
One Hay Loader
Hay Slings One Hay Carrier and Rope Two Hay Racks One Horse Lawn Mowing Machine One Horse Lawn Roller One Meadow Seeder Six
Two Scythes Two Corn Shredders One
Set of Garden Tools Shovels
Spades Other Small Farm Implements
One Manure Separator
The Cow Barn
down the cost of maintaining an institution is through ownSome institutions have shown that the purchase butter. and ing cows and producing milk amount necessary to produce it on the site. double the costs of milk from outside sources hundred patients will consume the milk from one for institution It is estimated that an One method
thirty-tive cows, as one-fourth of the herd
A cow-barn should be kept clean and the animals made comfortable. This is most easilv done if the floor is of concrete, well drained and the building arranged to admit plentv of light and air. The cows should be held by movable stanchions, facing each other on either side of a feeding alley in the centre of the building. Such a barn may be constructed of reinforced concrete, tile, bricks, or wood, the dimensions about thirty-six feet wide by eighty-six feet long, one story high, with side walls seven feet
high and nine feet clear at the centre.
roof can be supported
trusses and covered with shingles or composition roofing, the interior sealed with smooth painted tongued and grooved boards or plastered over metal lath. The concrete floor out^ht to be
drained at one end, and by gutters in the manure alleys four-
ventilation should be carried out through a
teen inches wide
double system of
air spaces in the walls, following the
six inches deep.
nine feet wide, the
sections seven feet wide. different sliced
King method of heating and ventiby the cows. The central feeding alley should be feet wide, and the cross alley dividing the stalls into
should be three feet wide, with a graded depth for
cows of from four
feet eight inches to five feet,
of iron piping,
with chain hung stanchions. The mangers can be made of concrete in the form of a long trough for each section, having a slight fall toward one end so that they can be washed, flooded with water and drained.
a tank in which fodder in the green state
It is usually
and can be built of reinforced concrete, brick, concrete tile or wood and is considered one of the best and cheapest buildings for storing and handling fodder for feeding a herd of milch cows. A silo large enough to store fodder to feed a herd of thirty-five cows for six months should have a capacity of one hundred and twenty-six tons, a diameter of fifteen feet, a height of thirty-four feet, and will require about eight and one-half acres of land planted with corn to
It should be placed beside the is
heavy, can be handled
convenient position so that the
The Milk House
milk house should be arranged to concentrate the work of the milkers and care
for the milk
by the best methods.
Hot water and steam 52
be needed and can be piped
Administration Buildings from the power house or supplied by a small vertical boiler installed in the building. A wash room for the milkers should be placed so it can be entered without passing through
the other parts of the milk house.
wide by twenty-two
a building constructed of
one story high, with peaked
with round corners, and cement
be found convenient.
on the be
vided into four rooms ten feet high in the clear, and connected with the barn by an enclosed
The weighing room
covered passageway seven feet wide.
eight feet wide
deep and contains a desk for records, a scale for weighing each milking, and a platform under a mo^able funnel for conveying the milk to the cooler in the adjoining room. The bottling
room i? eight feet wide by twelve feet long, equipped with a cooler, bottler, and a refrigerator. The utensil wash room is twelve feet wide by thirteen feet long, fitted with hot and cold water faucets, two large sinks, a sun rack and a utensil
sterilizer built into the wall so that
from the wash room can be removed
in the bottling room beside the The milkers' wash and locker room is eight feet wide by thirteen feet containing two hand wash basins, running hot and cold water, and four iron lockers for
the bottles placed in
spout of the cooler. long,
towels and milkers' clothes.
The capacity milk house,
of the barn is thirty-five cows and the plant complete, including barn, and a cow shed, can be constructed of concrete tile for from $5,000 to
Chicken and Hog Houses Chickens and hogs are also a part of the equipment of
It is said
that fifteen hundred to two thousand hens will supply chickens and eggs through the entire
year for an institution of one hundred patients
if the surplus of eggs produced in the spring and summer are preserved in lime or by cold storage. An outfit including chickens, colony houses, incubators and other equipment costs about $3,000. There is enough refuse from the tables of large institutions to feed twenty-five hogs and the annual income from this number at one sanatorium is about four hundred dollars
In order to make these animals profitable a healthy herd
a year. care
must be used
to eliminate those with disease
steam cooker should be installed and
possibility of infection later a
feeding passed through
when purchasing them. all
table refuse used for
sanitary hog house with a wire screened run can be built for
Sewage Disposal Plant
hospital or sanatorium which
disposal to be installed depending largely
obtained for the institution.
part of the property the simplest methods can be used, such as a septic tank with a
subsoil distributing field.
not situated close enough to some town for con-
need a sewage disposal plant, the method of sewage
small disposal plant of this kind to serve a limited
consist only of a septic tank about
six feet deep,
divided into two compartments and distributing the sewage at intervals to the subsoil of a level cultivated field
by open jointed
inches from the surface.
at a depth of about ten
disposal field should be divided into sections,
and the sewage
discharged into one section after another, allowing enough time to intervene after the use of each
used again for the absorption of the entire discharge.
that from one to three feet of drain
according to the nature of the
gallon of sewage. 53
dispose of one
the site of a large sanatorium
below the buildings,
beds must be
small or a running stream or lake
used in connection
with the septic tanks.
effluent of the septic tanks is then passed through siphons, which intermittently discharge a Usually two or more part of the contents of the tank evenly over the surface of a filter. filters
are used, the sewage being deposited
after another automatically.
and numerous varieties coke and other material
ent conditions require a variation of methods in sewage purification of filters
Sand, gravel, broken stone, clinker,
have been devised.
are used with success, the object being to expose the contents of the septic tank to the air and the action of bacteria, and in this manner purify the sewage as it passes through the
and before it is allowed to flow away. It is estimated that a septic tank of the dimenabove and two sand filters twenty-five by one hundred feet in area and four deep each, will purify the sewage from about three hundred people and will cost from
sions gi\-en feet
Si, coo to 8,1,000.
EXAMPLES OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS Eudowood Sanatorium, Towson,Md., Admixistration Building 22).
This building was rebuilt and greatly enlarged in igoS, only a part of the old building
havang been retained as a nucleus, and even central portion
five feet deep, of
originally a country residence.
The main or by thirty-
forty-eight feet wide
frame construction, externally covered wdth shingles, two stories with a
high basement and a third or attic story under the roof supplied with light by dormer
of native stone carried well
order to give light and air to the basement.
up above the ground
a porch twelve feet wide across the
and second stories and the interior on the first floor is divided in the by a broad hall twelve feet wide. An office 15 feet wide by 15 feet deep, and a library 12 feet wide by 15 feet deep, are on one side of the hall, and on the other a physician's office 8 feet wide by 17 feet deep, an examination room 7 feet mde by 12 feet deep and a staff dining room 12 feet wide by 17 feet deep. The second story is arranged into two separate apartments, one, of two large rooms and bath for the su[)erintendent, and the other, of three small rooms and bath, for the matron. The third story is divided into four chambers and a bath for the nurses. The new additions consisted of two large wings and a rear extension. The side wings are both 24 feet wide by 52 feet long, connected to the sides of the main building by passageways fourteen feet long, making the entire front one hundred and eighty-three feet long. The rear extension is sixty-eight feet long, also joined to the main structure by a covered corridor. The wing to the right of the building consists of one large room 23 feet deep by entire front of the first
centre from front to rear
50 feet long, with a ten foot porch on the front given up to amusement purposes. The wing is an infirmary, divided into two small wards 20 feet wide by iS feet deep, for four
to the left
bed- each, with
and baths, and a porch
in front ten feet wide.
room 54 feet wide by 35 and containing a large open
rear extension contains a spacious well lighted dining
deep, having a seating capacity
same extension is a kitchen 24 feet wide by 18 feet room and storage. The rear extension was built so as to allow the patients to enter the dining room at the rear of the administrative offices, thus avoiding the tracking of dirt and mud through the main building, and in order to cut off the noise usually made by a large number of people fireplace.
deef), a servants' dining room, pantry, sewing
Sanatorium, Towson, Md. Archer & Allen, Architects. The AdministraInfirmary and Service Buildings. View of Front Elevation and Floor Administrative Capacity, too Patients. Estimated Cost, $60,000. (See illustrations 61
for further description of this institution.)
Section II (linin.tj
extensions are constructed of frame, covered with shingles that har-
monize with the exterior of the main section, and the windows of the entire building are fitted on the outside with slat blinds in order to shut out the heat and light during the During the remodeling there was also installed a central hot water vacuum sunnncr. plant to heat the entire structure.
These improvements have resulted in providing a group of buildings extending from one centre and admirably adapted to the requirements. They have also doubled the previous administrative facilities, there now being a capacity for one hundred patients, at a cost of
State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me., Administration Building (Illustration This building is two full stories with a basement, and a third story over the centre. constructed of red brick with gray brick and concrete trimmings for the window caps,
23). It is
The roof is tar and gravel, drained in the centre because of the danger of The main front is 147 feet long by 53 feet wide, with an extension to the rear one end 66 feet deep by 33 feet wide. The front basement contains a small medical
divided into a laboratory, pharmacy, examination and waiting rooms, a sterilizing
and storage rooms.
In the rear extension of the basement
for servants' quarters.
first floor is
flanked on the front by a porch 12 feet wide
wide by 36 feet long. It is divided into a large dining room and an assembly room, both 38 feet wide by 36 feet deep, and connected through the centre
on the south side 10 of the building
rooms on both
a parlor 17 feet
by 17 feet long, and a waiting room 10 feet wide by 17 feet long. On the rear is a reading room 16 feet wide by 19 feet long and toilets, washrooms and other conveniences. The rear extension on the first floor contains a kitchen 30 feet wide by 18 feet deep, and serving room 16 feet wide by 17 feet deep, pantry, cold storage and servants' dining room 19 feet wide by 16 feet deep. The second floor is divided by a long corridor seven feet wide running down the centre of the building, wdth good-sized rooms on each side for the superintendent, staff, patients and visitors, well supplied with closets, baths, toilets and other conveniences. This story is also fianked on the front by a porch 12 feet wide by 57 feet long, and one on the south side 10 feet wide by 36 feet long. The third story over the centre of the block is devoted to quarters for nurses. The building is intended for administration purposes, offices, accommodations for trustees and visitors, and for the housing of patients who are able to be up and around. The interior is plastered over metal lath with hard plaster, having round corners wide
24 feet long, an ofl&ce 15 feet wide
and sanitary base, thus eliminating
angles in the endeavor to
smooth and simple wood-work an institution of one hundred patients,
as nearly fire-proof as possible, with a
intended to afford administrative
at an estimated cost of 850,000.
Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale,
Administration Building (Illustration by 70 feet deep, two stories high, with a basement and attic story. The foundations are of stone and the buflding is trimmed with wood painted white, and surrounded by a veranda on two sides of the first floor, the roof of which is supported by large round wooden columns. The basement contains storage rooms and a flining room for the male help. The main entrance hall on 24).
a substantial brick xencered structure 63 feet wide
No. 23.—Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me. T. C. Stevens & J. H. Stevens, Architects. Administration Building. \'ie\v of Front Elevation and Floor Plans. Administrative Capacity, 100 Patients. Estimated Cost, $50,000. (See illustrations 11 and 58 for further description of this institution.)
Section II the
tirst floor is
wide by 30
with a physician's suite on one side consisting
by 16 feet long, a small examining room 9 feet wide by 12 feet long, a second examination room 8 feet wide by 16 feet long, and a small passageway 4 feet wide and 9 feet long. On the opposite side of the main hall is a rest-room 22 feet wide by 25 feet long, a small hall 7 feet wide and 22 feet long, running down to the On the l)atients" entrance, and a small reception room 10 feet wide by 12 feet long. dining is large room hall a entrance of the opposite side of the patients' hall and at the end persons, a pantry twenty-five hundred and one will seat 30 feet wide by 43 feet long which 10 feet wide by 22 feet long, a kitchen 16 feet wide by 22 feet long, stairs to the cellar, The second floor, which is divided into quarters a refrigerator, and'other conveniences. of a reception
12 feet wide
No. 24.— Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la. H. F. Liebbe, Architect. Admimstr.\tion BuildiN(;. \iE\v ov Fro.nt Elevation a.nd Floor Plans. Administrative Capacity, 100 Patients. Estimated Cost. 823,000. (See illustrations 29, 84 and 103 for further description of this institution.)
25. Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada. Designed by Dr. D. A. Stewart. Admixistratiox Building. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plans. Administrative
Capacity, 100 Patients.
(See illustration 81 for further description of this institu-
Section II for the nurses
dining room extends above
much less The
one hundred patients, and cost $23,000, but plant,
which are housed
as the ceiling of the
building has an administrative capacity for
does not include the laundry and heating
Sanatorium for Consumptives, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada, Administration Bvilding (Illustration 25). This building has a basement, two stories and an attic lighted by dormer windows. It is 88 feet along the main front by 30 feet wide and has a rear extension 34 feet wide by 36 feet deep. The basement walls are of rough boulder stone, the ground floor of brick veneer, carried on a steel frame, and the second and third stories of frame construction, finished on the outside with stucco upon metal lath. The front and both ends of the building are considerably broken up by windows and dons and are flanked by a porch twelve feet wide. The basement is wholly above the ground in front and extends out as far as the edge of the porch, thus making it twelve feet deeper than the upper stories. It is divided into a main dining-room 27 feet wide by 52 feet long, a kitchen 19 feet wdde by 27 feet long, a servants' dining-room 12 feet wide by 17 feet long, two store rooms about 14 feet wide by 18 feet long, a laundry 16 feet wide by 29 feet long, an ironing room 14 feet wide by 28 feet long and an engine room containing
the steam plant for heating the buildings.
room 28 feet wide by 42 feet long and two by 30 feet long, one for men and the other for women, two private rooms each 10 feet wide by 12 feet long, two nurses' rooms 12 feet wide by 12 feet long, a business ofiice 12 feet wide by 16 feet long, an examining room 12 feet wide by 15 feet long, treatment room 12 feet wide by 12 feet long, laboratory 8 feet wide by 12 feet long and lavatories, toilets and closets. The second floor is cut up into rooms for the staff and nurses and the third floor for servants' quarters. The building has an administrative capacity for sixty patients, and cost 833,000, which includes its proportion of the funds expended in heating, plumbing, water and sewage disposal for the entire plant. The pavilions are illustrated under the section on The Lean-to Type of Building. first floor is
divided into a recreation
infirmary wards 12 feet wide
State Hospital, Rockville, Ind., Administration Building
This structure occupies the centre of a group of buildings, illustrated
under the section on sites and grouping. It has on the front a basement, two stories and an attic under a mansard roof; in the rear an extension of only one story and basement.
portion of the building
structed of brick on a stone foundation.
89 feet along the front and 52 feet deep, con-
front basement is divided by a long corridor and contains two storage rooms 17 feet wide by 29 feet long with cement floors, a drug room 12 feet wide by 16 feet long, a store room for drugs 16 feet wide by 24 feet long, and a servants' sitting room 17 feet wide by 31 feet long, connected with baths and toilets. The basement of the rear extension is divided into two large storage rooms, a washroom ff)r
servants and a preparation room for vegetables.
has a large reception hall in the centre 32 feet wide by 36 feet long,
running from the front to the rear of the building.
On one side is an office 17 feet wide and a library 16 feet wide by 26 feet long. On the other is a record office 15 feet wide by 25 feet long and two examination rooms 12 feet wide by 12 feet long. At the far end of the reception hall is a wide stairway to the upper floors with a staff dining hall by 26
26. Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind. Brubaker & Stern, Architects. Administration Building. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plans. Administrative Capacity, 100 Patients. Estim.ated Cost, $50,000. (See illustrations 7,46 and 51 for further description of this institution.)
Section II 17 feet
wide by 29
a barber-shop 14 feet wide
a corridor running at
and a dental room 15 feet wide by 16 feet long, on the other. At the rear of this portion of right angles to the reception hall and leading to the
patients" pavilions at the sides.
Across this corridor It
the extension, 60 feet deep
contains the dining hall 60 feet wide
one story high.
a well lighted and ventilated
room, having a high ceiling and provided with a number of small tables each seating Behind it is the kitchen and pantry containing a stairway leading to the
The second and the superintendent,
third floors of the
veniences in each story. the estimated cost
main building are divided
into apartments for
nurses and servants, wdth toilets, closets, baths and other conIt
has an administrative capacity for one hundred patients and
The Preventorium ing (Illustration 27).
for Children, Farmingdale,
the outside walls, which are of hollow
placed on a concrete foundation.
frame construction, with a shingle
covered externally with cement stucco and
floors are of
yellow pine and
rooms having much wear are covered with linoleum held
the corridors and
strips laid flush
with the flooring material.
No. 27.- Preventorium for Children, Farmingdale, N.
Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter W. J. .\SS(I< lATI 1) AurillTKI TS. AUMIMSTKATIOX BuiLDING. FrONT AND SiDE ELEVATIONS AND Flour Plans, .\d.\u.\istkatio.\ Capacity, 112 Patients. Cost, $35,000. (See illustrations 12, 19 and 95 for further description of this institution.) JrDKI.I.,
Administration Buildings The
front of the building
103 feet long by 36 feet wide and the rear extension
first floor in the main section is a business ofihce 12 by 18 feet deep, reception room 12 feet long by 14 feet deep, staff dining room 17 feet long by 20 feet deep and a doctor's office 1 2 by 1 2 feet. The main dining room occupies one-half of the front section and is 41 feet long by 31 feet deep. In the rear extension is a serving room 25 feet wide by 19 feet deep, kitchen 25 feet long by 19 feet deep, servants' dining room 13 feet wide by 18 feet deep, and cold storage. The second floor is divided in both sections by corridors. On the front is an apartment consisting of two rooms and bath for the medical superintendent, bedrooms for the head nurse and matron, and a staff sitting room. On the rear are two rooms for teachers, a sewing and linen room, a clerk's room and twelve rooms and a bath for the servants. AH the women servants are housed in the administration building, and the men in the third floor of the power house. The two entrances for the children are arranged to give them direct access to the dining room without going through other parts of the building. This building for administrative purposes has a capacity for one hundred and tweh'e children, and was constructed in connection ^^•ith a reception cottage one quarter mile distant which is a separate unit and has a capacity for thirty children. The cost of the administration building was 825,000.
63 feet long by 27 feet wide.
EXAMPLES OF SERVICE BUILDINGS The Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, New York, Service institution
of separate units;
each to house about one hundred
to be administered in a general
a central administration building.
This was planned to be the centre of a group of lean-tos and cottages at an
men's unit and contains a
way and about
the service building for
commodious dining room, kitchen, two sun and servants' quarters. where the drainage is good, with a foundation con-
parlors, a well arranged infirmary, nurses' It is
placed on the side of a
first story. As very little excavation was necessary in the front, that part of the basement is mostly above the ground, welllighted and gives practically an extra stor}-. This is used as a bathing apartment, containing a variety of shower-baths and other modern bathing fittings. The building is divided into two sections connected by a passageway 26 feet wide and 35 feet long in which the kitchen and serving room are placed." The front section, 116 feet long by 40 feet wide,
structed of stone which extends to the floors of the
has one story over the basement, of frame construction, covered with shingles.
di\ided into a large dining room in the centre, 67 feet long by 24 feet wide, seating from 120 to 150 persons, and two solaria 39 feet long by 25 feet wide for reading and amusement purposes connected by a terrace in the front of the dining room. The solaria and terrace
and sash windows which can be and usually are pushed up out
way, leaving the openings entirely
The by 32
rear of the building
for all practical
purposes a separate structure 66 feet
and as the hill at this point has a steep slope, the floor of the first story is close to the ground and contains the storage, work rooms and other apartments needed by the service staff'. The second floor is used as an infirmary and is divided through the centre by a long hall four feet wide which opens at one end into a Avard 27 feet wide by 60 feet long. On one side of the hall is a two-bed and four single-bed rooms and a locker long
m Ijjlllli ji.
No. 28.— Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y. John B. \'a\ Pelt, Architect. Designs of the I)i;P.\KTMENT OF HEALTH. SERVICE BUILDING AND INFIRMARY FOR OnE SECTION OF THE INSTITUTION. \'iE\v OF Front and Side Elevation and Floor Plans. Service Capacity, 250 Patients. Estimated Cost, $.35,000. fScc illustrations 14, 59, 60, 85, 94 and loi for further description of this institution.)
On the other is one two-bed room, a stairway, baths, toilets and a nurses' room. These are surrounded on two sides by large open verandas upon which all beds can be room. rolled
both from the ward and the private rooms.
third story under a slanting roof
closets for the use of the servant?.
fifty patients at
an estimated cost
Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale,
two dormitories, four
for construction of $35,000.
This building was erected to provide a kitchen and dining room for an infirmary group consisting of three cottages
connected by a covered corridor and built on the
— Iowa State Sanatorixun, Oakdale, la.
Designed by Dr. H. E. Kieschver. H. F. Liebbe, Service Building for Infirmary Group of Cottages. View of Front Elevation AND Floor Plans. Service Capacity, 20 P.atients. Estim.ated Cost, $6,000. (See illustrations 24, 84 and 103 for further description of this institution.) 29.
IL^ .d.Mka. j^iLaWL
Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va.
Designed by De. Ennion G. Williams. Service CONTAINIXG AX A.MUSEMEXT HaLL. FrONT ELEVATION ANT) FlOOR PlAN. SeRVICE Capacity, 70 Patients. Estimated Cost, $10,000. (See illustrations 17, 69 and So for further 30.
description of this institution.)
the inciiMcnt patients'
The Cottage Type two
the rear 21
Iowa State Sanatorium
It is of
illustrated in the section on frame construction on a stone foundation with
first floor is
and two dining rooms 12
stairway leading to the upper story.
divided into three rooms, a large kitchen in
with a small pantry, refrigerator and cupboards
wide by iS
deep on the
has a porch 11 feet wide
53 feet long
across the front with an extension fifteen feet deep to the rear on each side of the building and of the
The second by
dixided into four bedrooms for ser\-ants,
12 feet 6 inches long, a toilet
S feet 66
11 feet long
8 feet 6 inches
and a sleeping porch
Administration Buildings or loggia S feet wide
back under the roof
part of the main structure, being placed
of the building.
unusual and interesting because of the wide extent of
the simplicity of its floor plans,
with a capacity
for 20 patients, at a
estimated at $6,000.
New Haven County State Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Meriden, Conn. Foote & Towxsend, Arc:hitects. Ser\-ice Buildint;. \'iew of Front Ele\atiox and Floor Plans. Ser\'ice Capacity, 122 Patients. P^stimated Cost, $15,000. (See illustration 79 for further description of
Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., Service Building
This building is of frame construction, raised on stone piers. It is 108 feet long by 54 feet wide, with a rear extension 30 feet wide by 30 feet deep and a porch eight feet ^^dde on the It is divided into two dining rooms 27 feet wide by 40 feet deep at the front and sides. ends of the building and a large amusement hall 54 feet ^^ide by 27 feet deep between them This hall has a large fire-place and can be thrown open in connection with in the centre. the two dining rooms six
in the walls
The building has by wdndows in
entrances on the \-eranda and the front and sides are well broken up
order to give the patients open air dining and sitting rooms.
Directly behind the hall
by 37 feet deep, housed partly under the main roof and partly The kitchen is connected to each dining room by pantries or serving in the rear extension. rooms 13 feet wide by 13 feet deep and has in the rear a bakery 13 feet wide by 18 feet deep, a store room 21 feet wide by 13 feet deep, and a refrigerator. This plan for a service building is to be commended and well illustrates the reasons the kitchen 27 feet
for constructing a separate structure to
house this department, as
provides under a roof
capacity for seventy patients at an estimated cost of Sio,ooo.
New Haven 31).
County Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Meriden, Conn. is
one story with a
constructed in two sections, the front being 53 feet wide
26 feet deep.
extends under the entire building with a floor laid in cement and the exception of a
room where the heating plant
the entire front of the building and
frame construction, on a stone foundation.
52 feet wide
used for storage with
The dining room occupies
25 feet deep.
by 22 feet long and is furnished with twelve tables, seating ninety-six persons. The room is well lighted and ventilated, but is not an open air pa\dHon. At its rear in the extension is a serving room 25 feet wide by 15 feet deep, and behind this the kitchen 25 feet wide by 30 feet deep, furnished with a large refrigerator, a small toilet, dumb-waiter to the storage rooms below and connected with the cellar by stairs, which leads to a cold storage plant. It has a service capacit}- for one hundred and twenty-two patients at an estimated cost of 820,000. a vestibule from a porch 8 feet wide
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters
rapid growth of pubHc opinion in regard to the necessity of caring for and isolating the advanced tuberculosis patient and the growing beUef that the spread of this
disease cannot be checked without the removal of
advanced cases from the homes
poor and ignorant, has caused a continually increasing number of hospitals to be constructed during the past two years, designed to house the entire institution under one roof. It is claimed for this style of building that it is possible to economize on the installation of the plumbing, heating, and administrative arrangements, that it concentrates the work, and is particularly good for city use, where property is valuable and a site cannot be obtained at a reasonable cost for the erection of the pavilion t}qpe of hospital, or one-story lean-tos
and cottages spread over a large area of ground. These buildings may be used for housing either incipient or advanced cases of tuberculosis, and are planned and constructed on lines conforming in many ways to the needs of a general hospital. As they are intended usually for the service of small communities and are often placed on the outskirts or
the site selected
should be near the line of an electric car system, with enough land to allow of the free circulation of air possible,
one for the
all sides of
entrances should be provided
and the other
Planning Combination Buildings In designing these buildings there should be provided for all advanced cases, single bedrooms or rooms with not more than two beds in each, and for incipient cases small wards of not more than six patients or rooms for two patients each. Every patient housed
under the main roof should have two thousand cubic feet eight feet wide
feet deep, or at least large
concrete, brick, terra cotta or concrete
of air space
and a porch area and table.
for a bed, reclining chair
cities it is
suggested that reinforced
construction with reinforced concrete floors
be adopted, as buildings erected in this manner are practically non-combustible. structure should be wired for bells or telephonic communication
wired for lighting,
all rooms to be used by patients. The be finished in hard plaster, painted and varnished. The corners
as bell calls or telejjhones should be installed in walls
the wall angles and at the ceiling and floor should be rounded. Light colors may be used on the walls instead of a dead white; in fact, a harmonious color scheme throughout
the entire building
an advantage, as
it is is
one of the means for making patients happy
not necessary in these buildings, but
space possible should be used for windows.
floors of the interior, except the toilets,
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
Eastern Maine Hospital, Bangor, Me. T. C. & J. H. Stex'exs, Architects. Illustila.ting A ]\Iethod of Protecti-xg a Sleepixg Porch witk Heavy Wire Netting. Useful when a Porch Faces a Street or to Pre\'ext Patients from Lea\ing without Pekiiission.
No. 33. United States Hospital for the Insane, Washington, D. C. Showing a ^Iethod of Inclosing a Sleeping Porch with Swinging Sash Frames; Useful for City Hospitals with Porches Having Various Exposures.
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined baths, laundry
and kitchen, should be
hard wood, treated by
covered with battle-ship linoleum.
and wax, or ordinary which come in contact
with an unusual amount of water should be of terrazzo, cement, composition floorings.
or of one of the
the doors and passageways should be wide enough
beds through them; that is, not less than three feet six inches. There should be no door sills or panels in the doors; and all the interior finish around them and the windows should be placed flush so as not to produce projections or corners which will catch the dust. The building should be constructed on the sanitary principles laid down for general hospitals, and the rooms for advanced cases and all the porches screened with wire netting which can be removed during the cold weather. for the easy rolling of the
given are not
each one offers some suggestions, not found in the others, which
model arrangements, but
be of use to designers
of this class of institutions.
building should contain for administrative purposes the following rooms:
Dining Room for Patients Dining Room for Staff Dining Room for Servants Kitchen Diet Kitchens
Superintendent's Quarters Physician's Quarters Nurses' Quarters Servants' Quarters
Sewing Room Linen Room
Rooms Rooms Bath Rooms Store
Dish Closet Cold Storage
Physician's Office Special Treatment
Waiting Room Laboratory
Morgue Autopsy Room Heating Plant
EXAMPLES OF COMBINATION BUILDINGS Sharon Sanatorium, Sharon, Mass.
one of the oldest
buildings in America constructed for the open air treatment of tuberculosis
planned to be an administration building and patients' quarters combined. Its continuous use for fifteen years has demonstrated its convenience for housing incipient
and moderately advanced
planning to build a sanatorium and desir-
ing to have a complete unit under one roof, particularly
a farm house or country
residence on the site selected, will find this a convenient design to adopt, as the original structure
can be used for administrative purposes and an extension added on one or By using this method it is possible to build a compara-
for patients' quarters.
tively cheap sanatorium
the patients' quarters are constructed in an economical way.
extension in the illustration runs from the dining-room and includes the sun parlor,
closets, in the rear of the hall. 73
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d2< < Q^z o ^ ><
° hO 1
P- P5 "3
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Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
— Tuberculosis Hospital, Washington, D.
D\\ & Brother,
Designed by Dr. George C.ap.\city, 120 P.a.tients.
Kober. Fr.vxk Cost, Sioo.ooo.
Section III enough to give plenty of room for the patients to move around at the sides of the beds, and is protected, when necessary, from the sun and rain by a canvas awning which can be The doors from the private rooms rolled up out of the way, leaving the porch uncovered. opening on the porch are made wide enough for the beds to pass through them. It is suggested that an improvement to this building can be made by putting in Dutch doors below all windows opening on the porches and by placing a glass roof under the canvas curtain which protects and covers the sleeping balconies, as such a roof would not shut out the light from the rooms
more durable than be constructed
drawn back and woiild be bedrooms opening on the porches can the beds are chiefly out of doors and the rooms are
the curtains are
Also, that the
of a smaller calibre, as
The building has
used merely for dressing.
a capacity for twenty-five patients.
estimated cost was 845,000.
The Tuberculosis Hospital, Washington, D. was
built at a
C. (Illustrations, 35 and 36). This way it is planned to
interesting in the
house advanced and incipient, white and colored, male and female patients; each group The hospital is planned to provide a separate wing or on a different floor.
wards on the first floor for white and colored males and the second floor is arranged in the same manner for white and colored females. The incipient cases of both sexes, white and These open wards colored, are housed in open-air wards on the third and fourth floors. are roof gardens with casement windows on the north, but are entirely open on the east,
are in the later stages of the disease;
south and west
careful study of the
to the different classes of patients,
two hundred and ten
through the centre.
on the upper
wards, noting the allotment of floor space
of the building along the
wide through the Avards, and
side extensions are eighty-two feet long
floors is fifty feet long,
the entire length in the basement.
runs into the side
store rooms, boiler rooms, refrigerator,
has not been excavated
contains a large dining room, kitchen,
postmortem room, and morgue.
The arrangement of the first and second floors is the same, the side wards being 48 long by 25 feet wide, the sun parlors 25 feet deep by 14 feet wide, and the rest of
the floor space divided into rooms for offices, toilets, diet kitchen,
and the other
in a general hospital.
The wings and wards, two
the third floor are used as three large open-air
building on this floor
and one 57 is
as apartments for the nurses.
an open-air ward, 28
Over the main part
wide by 44
of the building
manner as the patients and
the lower stories, but the rooms are used as toilets and baths for
and the rear extension
on the fourth floor and dressing rooms
weU finished on the interior in hard wood, giving a good substantial appearance, and there is a commodious electric elevator. The institution is well worth a visit, not only because of its unique arrangement, but also because it will offer many suggestions to those who have to solve the problem of building
a substantial brick structure,
housing tuberculous patients in large, congested
and twenty beds, and
cost to erect
It has a capacity of
furnish, $100,000. 76
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
—Lady Grey Hospital, Ottawa, Canada. Elevatio.n and Floor Plans.
Weeks & Keeper,
Capacity, 45 Patients. 77
Architects. View of Front Cost, $60,000.
The Lady Grey Hospital, Ottawa, Canada (Illustration 37). This building was erected by the Ottawa Anti-tuberculosis Association and furnished by the Daughters of the Empire, then handed over as a gift for the people to be maintained by the city. It is situated within the western limits of Ottawa on an elevated site, with sloping ground beside a beautiful grove of mature maples forming a little park with seats and hammocks in the shade for the patients during the hot days of summer. The building is a three story structure with a large basement constructed of hard local red brick, laid in
white mortar, on a concrete foundation, with Indiana limestone
trimmings, following closely the modern English residential style of architecture.
southwest and has a number of large verandas screened by wire against insects, which open into the different wards by wide doors through which the beds are wheeled.
front of the building
130 feet long by 45 feet wide, and the rear extension
by 21 feet wide. The basement contains a laundry 22 feet wide by 20 feet deep, drying room 10 feet wide by 8 feet deep, laboratory 12 feet wide by 14 feet deep, storage for furnace coal 20 feet wide by 12 feet deep, furnace room for two boilers for the heating plant 12 feet wide by 20 feet deep, and a room for elevator machinery 6 feet wide by 8 feet deep. The main portion of the first floor is divided through its entire length by a corridor Beeight feet si.x inches Avide, having on the front a veranda 72 feet long by 12 feet wide. tween the veranda and the corridor are six single rooms 10 feet wide by 12 feet deep and at each end of the corridor on the front are two wards of the same size 18 feet wide by 18 feet deep, for three patients each, with a small veranda extending out from them at the sides of the building, the one on the right being 8 feet wide by 22 feet long and the one on the left 10 feet wide by 14 feet long. The entrance hall is in the centre of the building 14 feet wade by 15 feet deep, with the main stairway leading up on one side and a locker room on the other. On the rear of the corridor is the patients' dining-room 22 feet wide by 20 feet deep, a doctor's office 10 feet wide by 14 feet deep, an examination room 6 feet wide by 8 feet deep, a parlor 16 feet wide by 12 feet deep, a nurses' room 10 feet wide by 14 feet deep, and toilets and baths for both men and women. In the rear extension on the right of the building, back of the dining-room, is a kitchen 22 feet wide by 14 feet deep, servants' dining-room 10 feet wide by 10 feet deep, serving room, pantry, refrigerator room is
41 feet deep
and store rooms.
The second floor is arranged same dimensions,
same general arrangement planned
same way as the first, with verandas on the front rooms and two wards in front of a corridor running the entire length of the Ijuilding, and in its rear a large ward over the dining room 22 feet wide by 20 feet deep, toilet and baths for women and men, a matron's room 14 feet wide by 18 feet deep, two nurses' rooms 14 feet wide by 12 feet deep, and a locker room for i)atients. In the extension is a diet kitchen 9 feet wide by 6 feet deep, a nurses' dining njom 14 feet wide by 13 feet deep, a nurses' sitting room 21 feet wide by 21 feet deep, and a small hall three feet wide, running into the main corridor at a right angle.
sides of the
third floor also has the
except that there are no side \-erandas and the extension toilet for the servants.
steam, has an ele\-ator and
for the lower floors,
divided into bedrooms and a
building has a capacity for forty-five patients,
and cost S6o,ooo. 78
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
First Flooe- Plj\m
Second Floor Plan
— Lake Edward Sanatorium, Lake Edward, Province of Quebec, Canada. iiAxx, Architects.
Capacity, 26 Patiexts.
Quebec, Canada is
In order to protect the interior from cold
as possible the walls are constructed in layers from the outside in, as follows:
shingles, paper, siding, paper, siding, studs,
wood throughout. their
placed on a stone foundation two feet thick, and
frame construction, with a shingled
Ele\'atiox, Floor Plans. Cost, $26,000.
Lake Edward Sanatorium, Lake Edward, Province (Illustration 38).
View of Front axd Side
All patients are provided with porch space
and can be wheeled from
veranda assigned to them.
is 87 feet long by 25 feet wide, with two extensions in the rear, one 28 feet wide by 19 feet deep, and the other 28 feet wide by 54 feet deep; each porch
as a loggia,
a part of the structure under the main roof. 79
Section III The left of
divided as follows:
Beginning on the
a loggia, called the west porch, 19 feet wide
then a patients' room 9 feet wide by 12 feet deep, an ofi&ce 9 feet wide by 12 feet deep, a ]i\-ing room 2}, feet wide by 12 feet deep (from which extends in front a loggia or the south
porch 24 feet wide by 11 feet deep), a drug-room 9 feet wide by 12 feet deep, a medical wide by 12 feet deep, and a loggia (the east porch) 19 feet wide by 10 feet deep.
office 9 feet
At the rear of these apartments is a corridor six feet wide, connecting the two corner porches and behind it is the main entrance and stairway to the second floor, a men's toilet 9 feet wide by 4 feet deep,^and two alcoves 9 feet wide by 4 feet deep. On the west end of the building in the rear is the smaller extension, divided down On one side of the the centre by a hall four feet wide, opening into the main corridor. passage are two patients' rooms, one 10 feet wide by 12 feet deep, the other 9 feet wide
On the other side is a coat room 9 feet wide by 7 feet room 5 feet wide by 10 feet deep, a locker room 5 feet wide by 10 feet deep, and the toilet room for women 5 feet wide by 8 feet deep. In the extension on the east of the building is a dining-room 14 feet wide by 23 feet long, a pantry 11 feet wide by 15 feet long, a kitchen 15 feet wide by 18 feet long, a servants" loggia or porch 7 feet deep by 14 feet wide, a servants' sitting room 10 feet wide by 14 feet long, the service and cellar stairway, refrigerator and store room. On the second floor the building is divided by a corridor practically in the same way as on the first, with six rooms each 9 feet wide by 12 feet deep, on the front for patients, and an east, west and south loggia of the same dimensions as those on the first floor, the south porch being reached by a smaU hall four feet wide, in the centre of the building. In the rear of the corridor is a small loggia on one side of the main stairway and a coat room on the other. The west extension is divided into a bedroom and sitting room for the superintendent, a nurses' sleeping room, closets, toilets, baths and a linen cupboard. The east extension is di\'ided down the centre by a hall opening into the main corridor ^nth two rooms for patients, a store room, maid's room and a refrigerator room on one side, and a pantry, lockers, baths and two maids' rooms on the other. The third floor has also the same general arrangement. Six single rooms for patients on the front with a corridor in their rear, an east, west and south loggia, all somewhat smaller than those on the floors below, two rooms for patients in the west and five in the east extension, together with baths, toilets, and lockers, placed at convenient by
deep, and a linen room.
deep, a bath
a complete institution in is
supplying each patient with an in-
a heating plant in the cellar,
lighting purposes on the premises.
twenty-six beds, housing
patients, at a cost for construction of $26,000, or $1,000 per patient.
Franklin County Tuberculosis Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (Illustration 39). is constructed of brick on a stone foundation, in one long block with two small rear extensions. It is two stories high and has a basement under the entire building, and a third story over the centre. The building is one hundred and ninety-six feet This building
along the front and for convenience of description can be divided into five sections: the centre or administration block
60 feet long by 41 feet wide, the sections on each side, by 60 feet deep, and beyond these are ward sec-
including the extensions, are 28 feet wide tions 40 feet long
by 32 feet wide. The general plan of each floor is alike in the centre rooms in the front and back divided by a corridor which ends in wards.
of the building, with
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
County Tuberculosis Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. Howard & Merriam, ArchiFront Elevation and Floor Plans. Capacity, 100 Patients. Estimated Cost, $83,000.
Section III by morgue lo feet wide by iS feet, receiving room in connection with the morgue 23 feet wide by 18 feet deep, and the elevator shaft; on the rear a drying room 23 feet wide by 12 feet deep, a stairway, toilets, and a storage room. The first floor is divided in the centre by the entrance hall ten feet wide, which
central block contains in the basement, on the front a chapel i6 feet wide
iS feet deep, a
opens at right angles into the main corridor, with the stairway to the upper stories opposite the door. On the front are the public ofi&ces, doctor's office, and examining rooms. On the rear are four private rooms
The second offices in
and two locker rooms.
devoted to the children's department.
the front Are two wards 23 feet wide
Over the executive
Opposite on the rear are the locker rooms, linen rooms and
nection with them.
by the corridor which runs through the and that portion of them not under the main roof is twenty-four feet deep by twenty feet wide. In the basement on one side in the rear is the laundry, and on the other the kitchen, both 22 feet deep by 17 feet wide. In the front are the service stairways, janitor's department, machinery room and a sterilizing room. On the first and second floors are the toilets and baths, private rooms and diet kitchens. On the third floor in the rear are two wards, 17 feet wide by 22 feet deep, one for men and the other for women. In the front are the toilets and baths and linen rooms. The ward sections, 20 feet wide by 39 feet long, are not used in the basement, but on the first and a second floors are alike, having in front an enclosed porch or solarium
extension sections are also divided
by 39 feet long. This building is intended for
9 feet wide
cases and is designed to bring under one hundred patients at a cost of $80,000.
all classes of
roof an entire plant with a capacity of one
County Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Hartford, Conn.
a small building, consisting of a remodeled farmhouse used for administration purposes to
which has been added a rear extension for housing the patients.
frame construction, two
stories high, the original structure
being 40 feet wide by 36 feet
deep and the extension 93 feet long by 28 feet wide, including the veranda. There is a cellar under the main building but no excavation under the extension except for a tunnel carrying the steam pipes from the cellar in the administration building to the dressing and toilet
first floor of
the administration section
divided into a reception room 15
wide by 12 feet deep, an entrance hall 11 feet wide by 12 feet deep and an office 12 feet wide by 12 feet deep. At the rear of these rooms is a dining room 14 feet wide by 23 feet long and a kitchen 12 feet wide by 15 feet long, connected with a serving room, feet
On this floor a passageway three feet wide conroom with the patients' quarters which are divided into four single rooms 7 feet wide by 8 feet deep and a ward 48 feet long by 14 feet deep cut up into six cubicles eight feet wide. This ward opens on to a veranda twelve feet wide and into a dressing room at the far end of the extension 16 feet wide by 26 feet deep, containing toilets, baths and lockers. The second floor of the administration section is divided into four bedrooms, two 12 feet wide by 15 feet long, one 9 feet wide by 16 feet long and one 11 feet wide by 12 feet long, a stairway and a hall connecting it with the extension. This floor of the patients' fjuarters is arranged in the same manner as the first floor, with the exception of the addition pantry, closet and stairway to the cellar. nects the dining
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
No. 40.—Hartford County State Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Hartford, Conn. Foote & Townsend, Architects. View of Front and Side Flevations and Floor Plans. This is a Remodeled Capacity, 33 Patients. Estimated Farmhouse, with an Open Ward Extension in the Rear. Cost, .$15,000. 83
of a prix'ate
Sanatorium, Bass Lake, Minn. Alfred H. Wheeler, Architect. AND Floor Plans. Cap.a.city, 28 Patients. Cost, Sg.coo.
next to the main building.
of the building
S feet wide, placed
thirty-three patients at an
estimated cost of 815,000.
The Cuenca Sanatorium, Bass Lake, Minn.
building on a stone foundation, with two stories and a cellar, e.xtending out from the first floor.
and two wings or porches wide by 60 feet deep and the
wings are each 65 feet long by 13 feet deep.
On the first floor is a dining and Uving room 35 feet \Aide by 24 feet deep, a kitchen 20 feet wide by 24 feet deep, a small pantry, hall, sleeping room for the cook, and storeroom.
the second floor are four private rooms 10 feet wide
by 14 feet long, a small corriand two wards, one 10 feet wide by 20 feet long, with three beds for women, and the other 16 feet wide by 23 feet long, with five beds for men. The basement contains the laundry, and a boiler room, where a gasolene pumping engine is installed to supply two large water tanks. dor four feet wide, closets,
The wings or sleeping porches are eight feet in the clear to the ceiling and separated from the central portion of the building by a room containing the toilets, baths and lockers for the patients. Their fronts are open, but protected in stormy weather by canvas curtains, and cross-ventilation is obtained through windows in the rear walls. The dressing rooms in this building are inadequate for ten patients and would be better if located behind the porches and so arranged that the patient would not have to walk so
The porches should be wider and divided order to house the patients in smaller groups.
far to reach them. in
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined
DD No. 42. -Association Sanatorium, Colorado Springs, Colo. Elevation and Floor Plans. Capacity, 24 Patients.
N. Van den Arend, Architect. Estimated Cost, 82^.000.
building has a capacity for twenty-eight patients, and cost, including water
supply, plumbing and sewage disposal, $9,000.
one of the
complete plant under one roof for small institutions housing tuberculous patients, and the following buildings illustrated in this section are of the same type, but with some improvements.
Colorado Springs Association Sanatorium, Colorado Springs, Colo.
These plans were designed for a small temporary reception hospital to house all classes of patients under one roof. The building is to be frame construction on a stone foundation, covered externally with shingles, and should make an artistic and attractive structure. The building consists of a central section 25 feet wide by 80 tration
having a basement and two
the sides 86 feet long
with wings or porches extending from
The basement contains rooms for the heating plant, storage of coal and supplies. consists of a sitting room 25 feet wide by 30 feet deep, a dining room 25 feet wide by 16 feet deep, a kitchen 16 feet wide by 22 feet deep, a pantry 8 feet wide by 12 The second floor is feet deep, store-rooms, and an office 11 feet wide by 12 feet deep.
of four rooms, all 14 feet
wide by 14
closets for the use of the nursing staff.
have the same general arrangement as the Cuenca Sanatorium, with the exception that all the patients are to have separate dressing rooms at the back of the porches; this will make the wings more commodious and is an improve-
No. 43.— District Tuberculosis Hospital, Lima, Ohio. McLaughlin and Hulskin, Architects. \ IKW OF [ KONT ANIJ RkaK I-;i.E\ATIO.\.S A\U FloOK Pi.AXS. PRESENT CAPACITY, 28 PATIENTS. WiNGS Tu BE KxTEXDED AS Shown IN Floor Plans WITH A CAPACITY FOR loo Patients. (For plan of basement see illustration No. 20.) Estimated Cost, Sioo,ooo. 86
Administration Buildings and Patients' Quarters Combined The bathrooms and
be made more convenient
toilets are situated
next to the main building, but would
placed in the rear of the wings.
twenty-four patients at an estimated cost of $25,000.
Ohio (Illustration 43) This building wooded grove two and one-half miles from
District Tuberculosis Hospital, Lima, is
situated on a site of fifty-five acres in a well
Lima, Ohio, on the Western and Interurban Electric Road.
constructed of brick, on
stone foundations, with brick porches facing the south at the rear, and three sections:
the centre for administration purposes, and two wings for the patients'
front of the administrative section faces the north,
the servants' dining
14 feet wide
bakery 14 feet wide by 20
basement contains wide by 24
feet long, the kitchen 22 feet
feet long, pantry, vegetable
laundry, heating and powxr plant, cold storage rooms, toilets and trunk (See Illustration No. 20.)
long, a pantry,
20 feet wide
room and a
contains a general dining
21 feet long, with lockers,
for patients, 27 feet
8 feet wide,
wide by 29 feet
two dressing rooms
18 feet long
wide by 14 feet long, reception room 14 feet wide by wide by 14 feet long, private office 11 feet wdde by 14
feet wide, store-room 12 feet
19 feet long, general ofl&ce 10 feet
room 5 feet wide by 14 feet long, drug room 12 feet long by 7 feet wide, by 6 feet wide and matron's room 11 feet wide by 14 feet long. The second floor contains sixteen rooms all about 10 feet wide by 13 feet deep, and baths and toilet for the staff, nurses and servants; also two large dressing rooms with lockers and toilets arranged in the same manner as on the floor below, for the patients feet long, x-ray
library 12 feet long
in the pavilions.
sections of the building used as patients' quarters are divided into single
wide by 12
which face the south and open in front on to a porch toilet and dining rooms. One of the institution's most interesting details is the arrangement of the patients' lockers or closets 3 feet wide by 2 feet deep between the windows in the corridor at the rear
wide and in the rear on a corridor leading to the dressing,
of the rooms.
building was planned to have a capacity of one hundred patients housed in
separate rooms in the pavilions extending from the administration section and ending at
the far end in a sun parlor or sitting
wide by 35 feet long, but as the funds
to complete the original plans as illustrated were not appropriated these pavilions are
there are only rooms for twenty-eight beds, the ends of the wings
with a number of rooms and the sitting rooms not having been
completed as more room
This includes a water tower one hundred and from an artificial lake constructed for the hospital, the power the basement, plumbing and administration facilities for one hundred patients.
present building cost $80,000.
twenty-six feet high plant in
Plan for a Small Village or
design for a small tuberculosis hospital or sanatorium to house an entire plant under one roof.
has a capacity for fourteen patients, but the dormitory wings can be built two
and the number increased
an interesting and com-
pact design for a small village or town institution housing incipient cases, and the floor
No. 44.— A Design for a Small Village or Town Hospital or Sanatorium. Front Elevatiox axd Floor Plan. Capacity. 14 Patients. Estimated Cost. 815,000.
plans can be adapted for advanced cases without greatly adding to the expense of construction, by increasing the length of the dormitory wings eight feet, and placing partitions
between the beds.
should be built of brick or reinforced concrete on a stone
foundation with a basement under the entire structure:
the second floor walls of stucco
on metal lath finished in colors or with dashed pebbles, and the roof of stained shingles. The building will be one hundred feet along the front by twenty-four feet deep through The dormitories 14 feet wide by 25 feet long, and the porches 7 feet wide by the wings. front walls dividing the dormitories from the porches are constructed windows between, which can be pushed up out of the way, leaving the space entirely clear. There are also windows in the rear and side walls giving good crossventilation. At the end of the dormitories next to the central section of the building The lockers are 3 feet wide by 3 feet are bathrooms, toilet and lockers for the patients.
32 feet long.
of pillars with
order to give a small private space to each person.
is divided into a reading room 1 2 feet long by room 17 feet long by 12 feet wide, a kitchen 13 feet long by 14 feet wide and a pantry. The second floor contains two small wards for two patients each and a nurses' apartment divided into a sitting room, bedroom and bath. The entire building is to be heated by a steam plant in the cellar and should be The estimated situated so it can be connected with the city sewers and lighting service.
central section of the first floor
12 feet wide, a dining
SECTION Hospitals for
Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
SECTION IV Hospitals for Advanced Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
three types of buildings grouped together in this section for description, are
intended for patients
comfort, good nursing, and the housing supplied
by a same general purposes, that is, for the care of cases too sick to look after themselves, and at many institutions one building serves the purpose for which all are constructed and therefore it is hardly possible to separate them all
are used for the
for purposes of description.
Hospitals for Advanced Cases
These buildings patients
house and care of
open cottages. They are usually built on the lines of a general hospital, either the entire plant under one roof (as described in Section III) or on the pavilion plan. Also sometimes as a separate pavilion in connection with a general hospital or sanatorium in the open country. An advanced case hospital does not mean a home for incurables, for there can be no hard and fast line of demarcation drawn between curable and incurable cases. It has been found that many patients sent to institutions where they may be isolated until their to live in lean-tos or
death, improve under good hygienic surroundings and recover for It
the opinion of
authorities that the
advanced case does better on a porch
than in an enclosed room and can stand with benefit a comparatively large amount
It is therefore necessary that buildings for this purpose, besides
being heated, and supplied with the comforts and conveniences of a general hospital, must also
have large verandas connected with the wards and rooms by windows, cut down to
the floor, and doors through which beds can be rolled, in order to provide the for the
treatment necessary for incipient cases.
same facilities Such porches should be used in the disease, as there is hope for
by patients, even when far advanced in when they are not in a dying condition. Where very ill patients are to be cared for, it will give them comfort and save much labor if the rooms and porches are connected by some arrangement such as the Indiana pleasant weather all,
Convertible Sleeper, installed at the Indiana State Hospital (Illustration 46), which consists of a space three feet six inches wide across the entire front
between the porch and
room, enclosed on the outside by a glass and sash window that can be raised or lowered, and on the inside by glass doors that can be opened or shut. In this clear space between the doors and windows
doors and windows are both open, the front of the It is
is cut off from the room when the window is lowered. If room is entirely clear to the porch.
placed the bed, three feet wide, which
the doors are closed, and cut off from the porch
claimed for this arrangement that patients can be exposed to the Q[
on the porch,
Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind. Brubaker & Steex. Architects. " Cox^'erteble Sleeper," Showing ARRAXCEiiEXT for Coxxectixg Rooms -mTH Opex Porches, ix Order to Expose the Patiexts to the Outer Air or Place Them ix Heated Rooms \\TTHorT ]Mo^'IXG the Beds. (See illustrations 7. 26 and 51 for further description of this institution.;
essential point to
planning buildings for advanced cases
that tuberculous patients in the last stages of the disease are A-ery annoying to each other,
and should therefore be housed in separate rooms instead of wards. They are easily affected by disturbances, and any excitement, such as grief, anger or worn,-, is usually followed by a fit of coughing and depression. Coughing is not only bad for the individual, but when patients are housed in wards, it may disturb ten or fifteen others, and is also a strong suggestion which often causes an epidemic of coughing among them. The mistake and cruelty of placing in one room a number of persons suffering from a serious chronic disease is only just beginning to be appreciated: and there is no doubt that many patients
satisfactory progress against disease
improve when removed to the quiet and privacy
in wards, rapidly
The single room more expensive to construct than the ward buildings, but they have advantages and it is easier to manage patients housed in them. The psychological tendency of a private room is to make patients more contented, and also to increase their self-respect. Advanced case hospitals are built not only in order to care for the patient, but also to prevent the spread of pulmonary tuberculosis, which is due in a great measure to the cases of consumption which remain and die in their homes infecting other members of their families. If all advanced cases could be cared for in hospitals, the disease would more rapidly disappear. Public opinion at present will not allow the passage of laws compeUing persons in the advanced stages of this disease to enter institutions for their segregation; of a separate
pavilions are slightly
therefore, hospitals should be
made comfortable and home-like
order to attract the
patients and hold them.
There are now in use for advanced cases at open air sanatoria pavilions constructed on the lean-to plan with the porches divided into single rooms and finished with plaster on the interior.
are closed in front with glass 92
and sash windows and make very
Hospitals for factory quarters
It is a simple
viding plenty of porch space and
Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
of housing, has the
lean-to for sixteen patients finished for
can be built for from $5,000 to Sio,ooo, and when near an administration
bui.ding, administered as easily as a
Infirmaries In large tion with
where a hospital for the care of advanced cases has a working connecsanatorium in the country for the cure of incipient consumption, it
has been found that there
or less interchange of cases between the
Patients taken into the hospital for advanced cases, to be cared for until they die, often im-
prove under nursing, good food and hygienic surroundings, and are then sent to the country, while others fail
to the sanatorium for the cure seemingly only incipient cases, gradually
in strength or develop acute
remain there until they
symptoms and have
to be sent to the city hospital
This peculiarity of the disease has created a need for buildings on sanatorium grounds, where patients who have come to be cured, but develop symptoms of advanced disease, can be housed and cared for until they improve or are discharged. There is also a need in all large sanatoria for a building
where patients taking the open
they develop some other acute disease which requires nursing.
treatment can be placed
Buildings used for these
purposes are called infirmaries, and combine the structural details of both the general hospital
and the large open
air buildings of the
are often constructed as a
complete unit and administered separately from the other sanatorium buildings.
them have a dining room, kitchen and quarters for nurses and servants, who do not have any relationship except an official of
one, with other parts of the institution.
In some instances the infirmary building
houses the medical department and
be designated the medical building, as illustrated in this section,
dack Cottage and
by the Adiron-
These buildings should be heated and constructed of good material, fire-proof if possible, and with all the sanitary precautions taken to
a general hospital
comfortable and convenient, and the material
used in them from becoming infected.
pro^•ide a place for the
cases arriving at institutions for the treat-
pulmonary tuberculosis and where
No. 47.— Isolation Hospital, Paterson, N. J. Charles E. White. Architect. \'ie\v of THE CORXER OF OXE OF THE PoRCHES SHOWING Method of Heating for Advanced Cases by
be under observa-
tion in order that the physicians can classify
the stage of their disease and learn the idiosyncrasies of
(See illustration 52 for further STE.4M Pipes. description of this institution.)
treatment before placing them in open shacks and cottages. Reception hospitals are same purposes as infirmaries and should be constructed in the same
also used for the
manner and with
good material as
used for advanced case buildings.
EXAMPLES OF HOSPITALS FOR ADVANCED CASES Riverside Hospital,
The Concrete Pavilion
building is constructed of reinforced concrete, iii feet long
18 feet wide through
and was designed on the lines of a lean-to four stories high a sitting room between two open-air pavilions with dressing, toilet and bath rooms in a rear extension. It is used for advanced cases and arranged so that the front can be thrown entirely open converting the wards on each story into open-air porches. This building was designed to be used interchangeably for the care of cases of tuberculosis and the contagious disthe wards,
eases (measles, scarlet fever, etc.), according to the needs of the service.
The wings on the first floor are 36 feet long by 16 feet wide, with an apartment between them 29 feet long by 15 feet wide used as a dining room. The wards on the second and third floors are 41 feet long by 16 feet deep, with a sitting room 18 feet wide by 21 feet deep in the centre. The fourth story or roof garden is divided into two open wards and one open-air sitting room of the same dimensions as those below. The Riverside Hospital for advanced tuberculous patients is on North Brother Island at the upper end of the East River near Long Island Sound. The institution is The air is pure and so far as climatic conditions are concerned in an isolated position. open air building. The authorities feel that the advanced sheltered is an ideal site for a in a manner that will give them every chance of a housed patients sent there should be and these concrete pavilions are being built as an experiment with the hope that some the cases will respond to the treatment and that all the patients housed in these structures
do better than they did in the old block type of hospital. This building has a capacity of seventy-eight patients and the estimated cost
Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Reisterstown, Md., Advanced Case Pavilion ^Illustrations 49 and 50). The building is 153 feet long including the side porches, and 57 feet deep through the wings; located on the southern slope of a hill, with a basement above ground on the south side. The material used for the foundations and walls of the basement is native stone, for the first story pressed brick, and the second The interior walls and ceilings are of hard plaster with story rough stucco on metal lath. round corners, covered with non-absorbent washable paint, and finished in plain wood surfaces; the floors are of hard wood dressed with oil. The basement contains the dining room 51 feet wide by 30 feet deep, kitchen 23 feet wide by 28 feet deep, serving room, pantry, fuel storage, laundry, sterilizing and drying rooms. There are sixteen single rooms in the building 10 feet wide by 12 feet deep and 10 feet high, and two wards of four beds, each patient being allotted twelve hundred cubic The sleeping porches in the centre of the building are 8^ feet long by 1 feet of air space. feet wide, protected at each end by the extension of the building, twelve feet to the south. The reception room, 21 feet wide by 23 feet long, and the superintendent's quarters, which 94
Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
£ Tv/AD flooE Pzyif/
No. 48.— Riverside Hospital, New York City. Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. Westervelt & Austin, Architects. Concrete Pavilion for Advanced Cases. Front Elevation and Floor Plans. Capacity, 78 Patients. Estimated Cost, $40,000. 95
Section consist of office, sleeping room,
The main entrance to
are on the
the east wing.
and leads by a stairway
wall of the corridor
ends of the building are
and contain the
service stairways, lockers, diet kitchens, patients' toilets
first floor in
in the centre of the building,
deep from the
and baths, and baths, drug and supply rooms. nurses' rooms, toilets
centres of both the upper floors are used for housing the patients.
Their sitting rooms,
porches and sleeping apartments face the south and are protected from the north winds
by a heated corridor extending the entire length of the building. All the rooms are heated by direct steam radiators, lighted by electricity, provided with electric bed ^l-armers, have electric connections with the nurses' apartments and are screened against insects. The doors open on to a porch in front and into a corridor at the rear six feet wide, and over them are movable transoms giving cross-ventilation above the beds. The doorways are wide and have no sills, so that the beds can be rolled through either end and moved from one floor to another on the elevator. The building was erected for advanced cases with the idea of obtaining unobstructed cross-ventilation from every direction without mechanical means, and of giving most of the patients an individual room with porch space equal to its floor area. The building has a capacity of twenty-four beds and cost S30.000.
— Jewish OK \'ir:\v
Hospital for Consumptives, Reisterstown, Md. i'A\ iliux i-ur Advanced Cases. Front and Rear Elevations. Capacity, 24 Patients. Cost, $30,000. 96
Hospitals for Advanced Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
Hospital for Consumptives, Reisterstown, Floor Plans. Capacity, 24 Patients.
Paviliox for Advanced Cases.
Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind., Ward Building (Illustration 51). one of two similar buildings connected \\ith the administration building illustrated in Section II. It is 295 feet long, 59 feet deep through the centre and 25 feet deep through the wings, two stories without a basement, and of frame construction on a concrete foundation. On each side of the central section the w'ngs are divided into a row of single rooms This
by 10 feet deep, with a sleeping porch 10 feet wide and 100 feet long in the and a corridor five feet wide in the rear. In the centre is a sun parlor 30 feet wide by 33 feet deep, a nurses' room 14 feet wide by 20 feet deep, a diet kitchen 13 feet wide by 13 At the outer ends are the patients' toilets, baths and feet deep and a serving room. 10 feet wide
corridor in the rear of the
passageway with a
rooms on both
connected by an enclosed
hall in the administration building, in order that the patients
Under these passageways are tunnels connecting the pavilions, administration building and power house, and carrying the service pipes, lighting wires and heating mains. The rooms on the first floor are protected on the front by double glass doors opening out on to the sleeping porches, through which the beds can be run when desired. Those
bad weather while going
51. Indiana State Hospital, Rockville, Ind. Waed Building. Brubaker & Stern, Architects. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan; Both Floors Alike. Capacity, 40 Patients. Estimated Cost, $30,000. (See illustrations 7, 26 and 46 for further description of this institution.)
on the second
equipped with an arrangement called the "Indiana Convertible
Sleeper," described on pages 91
building has a capacity for forty patients,
housed in single rooms, at an
cost of $30,000.
Isolation Hospital, Paterson, N. J., Tuberculosis Pavilion (Illustration 52). a two story building constructed of reinforced concrete, with concrete floors, and is
throughout with the exception of the window frames and the framework
Paterson Isolation Hospital, from which
a pavilion to house advanced tuberculous patients in connection with the it is
building, not including the porch,
56 feet deep
27 feet wide.
plans of both stories are alike, divided into a ward 24 feet wide by 25 feet deep, two private
wide and 12 feet long, a linen room 6 feet wide by 10 feet long, a diet kitchen
sitting room 8 feet wide by 10 feet long, containing and stationary wash-stand, and a lavatory 10 feet by 10 feet, containing bath, wash-basins and toilet for the patients. The porches extend on both stories along the entire front, 12 feet wide by 38 feet long, and on the south side of the building 11 feet wide by 42 feet long, floored with con7 feet
wide by 10 feet long, and a nurses'
Hospitals for Crete, enclosed
with swinging glass and sash windows and heated by steam pipes which
extend along their outer edges.
The include tion,
Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
(See illustration No. 41.)
and cost Si 2,096, but this does not proportion of the expense of the power house or the enclosed corridor construcpavilion has a capacity of twenty-four beds
with the administration building.
walls of frame with brick veneer externally.
FIRST AND SECOND
shingled and the interior walls
Hospital, Paterson, N. J. Charles E. White, Architect. Pavilion for View of Front and Side Elevation. Floor Plan; Both Floors are Capacity, 24 Patients. Cost, $12,096. (See illustration 47 for further description of this
Advaxced Cases. Alike.
Fort Bayard, N. M., Officers'
a single story building with a stone foundation and
The building is 147 feet long by 34 feet wide, heated by a hot water system and lighted by electricity. It is divided down the centre by a corridor six feet six inches wide, and has eighteen rooms for patients, twelve on the south side and six on the north side, all of the same dimensions, 11 feet wide by 13 feet deep. These rooms open upon covered sleeping porches about ten feet wide, with doorways made wide enough so that There is also an office 11 feet wide by 13 feet long, the beds can be rolled through them. an attendants' room, baths and toilets. The capacity is eighteen patients and the building plastered.
United States Army General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. M., Enlisted Men's 2 (Illustrations 54 and 55). Ward Two is a single story structure, constructed of concrete with "pebble-dash" finish and built around a central court or "patio" 59 feet wide by 79 feet long. The building including the court covers ground space 100 feet wide by
130 feet long.
Platforms or porches ten feet wide extend around the interior of the building
on the sides of the court where the beds and sun by canvas curtains on rollers.
of the patients are placed
At the corners
and protected from rooms 23
of the building are
No. 53.— United States Army General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. M. Officers' Quarters. View OF Front and Side Elen'atkjn and Floor Plan. Capacity, 18 Patients. Cost, $18,534.
Hospitals for Advanced Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
No. 54.— United States Army General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. M. Designed by Major George E. Bushnell. Enlisted Men's Ward No. 2. View of Front and Side Elevation AND Floor Plan. Capacity, 32 Patients. Estimated Cost, $25,000.
Hospital, Fort Bayard, N.
\"iew or Inxer
Showing Sleeping Porches.
wide by 23 feet deep, used for offices, lavatories, storage and attendants. These rooms are connected by long narrow apartments 14 feet wide by 68 feet long, on two sides of the building,
wide by 50
on the others, intended as dressing rooms rather
than sleeping rooms, but used for the latter purpose in stormy weather. Numerous French windows open from the dressing rooms on to the porches facing the court and also
upon porches constructed on the outside of the building. This arrangement permits the beds and reclining chairs to be moved freely on to a platform having any exposure desired and gives the patients an opportunity to seek or avoid the sun at pleasure. It is reported to be very satisfactory and that two other buildings of the same design will be constructed. This type of building is especially good for dry, tropical countries, but can be used for It patients' quarters in any climate if the porches are protected by permanent roofs. has a capacity for forty patients and the estimated cost is $15,000. Lakeville
Case P.wiliox up
Mass., The Advanced a group It
forty-eight feet long, of frame construction, placed on a stone foundation, piers.
It consists of a central section 36 feet
two twenty-bed wards 64
two hundred and
wide by 62 feet deep (including the rear
and two twelve-bed open
air pavilions built in the form of a right angle, extending forty feet from the outer ends of
the wards. floor is a
central section of the building has
sun parlor, three small wards, a diet kitchen, treatment room,
Hospitals for The second cellar is of
Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
36 feet wide by 50 feet deep and
about the same
used for lockers,
divided into nine rooms.
rooms and storage purposes.
wards are an objection to using the plan for this building, but they could be and it is easy to administer. It would also be improved by dividing the locker rooms, bath rooms, and toilets on the main floor into two sections, providing a nurses' office, one or two more pri\'ate rooms, a larger sun room, and larger wards, gi\dng more large
space to each patient.
building has a capacity for seventy patients, and cost $17,600.
Boston Consumptives Hospital, Boston, Mass., Cottage tor Advanced Cases
foundation and concrete first
a frame building with a shingle roof, placed
interior walls are plastered
an assembly room 22
on a concrete floors are of
144 feet long and 25 feet through the wards, including
the porches, with a rear extension 45 feet deep and 28 feet is
front in the centre
wide by 24 feet deep and in the rear extension an emergency
No. 56.— Lakeville Tuberculosis Hospital, Middleboro, Mass. Johx A. Fox. Architect. Pavilion FOR Advanced Cases. \'ie\v of Front and Side Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 70 Beds.
Cost, $17,600. 103
D, Toilet-room. E, Nurses' Office. F,
Consumptives Hospital, Mattapan, Mass. Maginnis, Walsh & Sullh'an, Cottage Waed for Ad\'anced Cases. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 24 Patients. Cost, $14,000.
feet wide by 11 feet deep, two dressing rooms by 21 feet deep, each containing twelve lockers 3 feet wide and 2^ feet deep, and two toilet rooms 27 feet wide by 13 feet deep, furnished with six lavatories, four toilets, two baths and two showers. The wards face the south, are 14 feet wide by 16 feet long, and each contains a single row of twelve beds, with a veranda in their front 10 feet wide by 60 feet long, separated from the wards by a glass partition made up of triple hung windows
two beds and a nurses' room, both 10
14 feet wide
extending from the roof to the
Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
Along the north
side of the
a row of windows
which give cross-ventilation. It has front, as
hung windows on the advanced heated by steam, lighted by electricity,
been suggested that doors be substituted
they are rather heavy and hard to move. is
very satisfactory for the purpose.
for the triple
has a capacity for twenty-six patients, and cost, including equipment, $15,000.
EXAMPLES OF INFIRMARIES AND RECEPTION HOSPITALS Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me., The Infirmary This
a frame structure, on a stone foundation.
Under the left wing the ground
falls off to
No. 58.—Maine State Sanatorium, Hebron, Me. T. C. Stevens and J. H. Stevens, Architects. Infirmary. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 30 Patients. Estimated (See illustrations 11 and 23 for further description of this institution.) Cost, $30,000. _
such an extent that an open ward was constructed in the basement, providing an arrange-
on the floor above. The building consists of a centre section, two two wings and a rear extension. The front of the building is in the form of an acute angle and has a porch running its entire length, eleven feet wide. The wings are 32 feet wide by 61 feet long, divided into nine single rooms each 7 feet \\dde by 11 feet deep, ^^'ith a closet 3 feet wide by 2 feet deep, and a passageway or corridor four feet wide in their rear. It should be noted that the rooms are ventilated by transoms opening above the roof of the porch through which sunlight is obtained and that the arrangement of Behind the corridor in each wing closets in connection with the sleeping rooms is unusual. containing lavatories, toilet and baths. an extension long feet deep, is by 7 27 feet the rear extension, section building, including is 30 feet wide The central of the
similar to that
Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. J. D. Burt, Architect. \\'omen's Infirmary. \'iews of Front and Rear Elevations. Capacity, 24 Patients. Estimated Cost S5.000. fSee illustrations 14, 28, 85, 94 and loi for further descriptions
No. 59.— Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y.
of this institution.;
and Reception Hospitals
—Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y.
Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. J. D. Burt, Floor Plans. Capacity, 24 Patients. Estimated Cost, $5,000.
by 82 angles
feet deep, divided
through the centre by a hall four feet wide, which
corridor leading to the wings.
private patients, 11 feet wide
other one private room, a dining
wide by 13 feet deep.
13 feet deep,
cut at right
one side of the hall are two rooms, for
an operating and preparation room; on the by iS feet deep, and a kitchen 16 feet
16 feet wide
of the extension are only approximate, as the rear
and sides of the building are broken and project in order to give space for the dining room and kitchen. This building is connected by a tunnel with the administration building and is heated from the central plant. The capacity is for thirty patients at an estimated cost of $20,000.
Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y., Women's Infirmary (Illustrations This building is a two story frame structure which rests on a stone foundation and stone piers, with a basement under the central section 25 feet wide by 29 feet deep. The exterior of the building is covered with shingles, stained green, with cream colored trimmings and the roof is also of shingles stained a Tuscan red. It is 88 feet long by 16 feet wide through the wards, and 28 feet through the centre, and consists of a centre section and two wings. The first floor is divided into two open wards for six patients each, 16 feet wide by 27 feet long, a sitting room 24 feet wide by 14 feet deep, a locker and dressing 59 and 6oj.
UBS i' ^l^kijkW*
Infirmary Sanatorium, Towson, Md. Archer & Allex, Architects. the Front .and Rear Elevations. Floor Plans. Capacity, 30 Patients. Estimated Cost, $30,000. (See illustrations 22 and 83 for further description of thus institution.) 6i.
II feet wide
13 feet deep, baths, toilets
and attendant's room
wide by 14
two small open wards iS feet wide by 16 feet deep, two by 14 feet deep, a small hall four feet wide, two dressing rooms with lockers 10 feet wide by 12 feet deep, diet kitchen, 9 feet wide by 9 feet deep, and an enclosed infirmary ward 24 feet wide by 14 feet deep, situated over the sitting room in the sitting
12 feet wide
centre of the building with a capacity of four patients.
building has good
modern plumbing throughout and 108
heated through direct
Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
by a steam heating plant
basement which also contains a water tank for is no stairway connecting the two iioors, the upper story being reached by a platform running from a steep side hill in the rear of The front windows are all arranged so that both sashes can slide into pockets, the building. radiators
supplying hot water for
By this means the infirmary can be changed when The capacity is twenty-four beds, and the cost of construction
leaving the openings entirely free. desirable into
an open ward.
Eudowood Sanatorium, Towson, Md., Infirmary Building This
a frame structure, covered externally with shingles, resting on a stone foundation
It is 192 feet long by 25 feet wide, through the wards, and consists of a two wings and three rear extensions. The centre of the building is two stories with a cellar and is designed after the Colonial style of southern architecture, 36 feet wide by 46 feet deep including the porch, but not the rear extension, which is 17 feet
wide by 35 feet deep. On the front is a sitting room 35 feet wide by 16 feet deep and behind it a hall four feet wide uniting the two wings, an examining room, a linen closet and a storage
15 feet wide
and and a kitchen 15 The cellar contains rooms for the heating plant and feet wide by 14 feet deep behind it. storage and the second story four bedrooms, closets, baths, toilets and a sleeping porch II feet wide by 34 feet long for the use of the nurses. The wings including the private rooms and porches at the ends are 98 feet long by 25 feet wide, and are divided into two wards for six patients each, 31 feet long by 13 feet deep, with a porch in their front 10 feet wide by 78 feet long, three private rooms at the outer ends each 8 feet wide by 10 feet deep, a private porch 24 feet wide by 8 feet deep, and in the rear an extension 16 feet wide by 21 feet deep, containing lockers, toilets and baths, and a dressing room. This building is considered a model for a good infirmary at a large sanatorium, well provided with other buildings. Twenty-four patients are housed in small wards; six in private rooms, and all having private alcoves in the dressing is
21 feet deep, partly in the central section
partly in the rear extension, with a pantry 15 feet wide
vided for the nurses and attendants, a dining room, kitchen, and other necessary apartments.
plans are worth careful study, and the private rooms at the ends of the
wings, with a private porch which cannot be overlooked from the
Edward Sanatorium, (Illustration 62).
and roofed with
unfinished attic lighted
Infirmary and Medical Building
a two story frame structure, on a stone foundation, painted white It
70 feet long by 34 feet wide and has a basement and an
by dormer windows.
contains a disinfecting
wide by 14 feet long, a disinfecting plant for sputum cups, coal storage 24 feet long by 14 feet wide, a carpenter shop 9 feet wide by 16 feet long, a mortuary 6 feet wide by 7 feet long, a dressing room 10 feet wide by 12 feet long, with two shower baths, and an engine II feet
16 feet wide
and hot water tank. by a hall and contains a reception room wide by 12 feet long, a dressing room 6 feet wide by 11 feet long, a diet kitchen 7 feet wide
17 feet long for the. heating plant,
first floor is
and superintendent's office, both 11 feet wide by 10 feet long, a drug room 10 feet by II feet long, and two dressing rooms and lockers.
for the infirmary patients, with toilets, baths
No. 62. Edward Sanatorium, Naperville, 111. Designed by Dr. Theodore B. Sachs. W. A. Otis AND Edward H. Clark, Architects. Infirmary and Medical Building. View of Front and Side Elevations antd Floor Plans. Capacity, 12 Patients. Cost, $21,435. (See illustrations 82 and 88 for further description of this institution.)
The second story is also divided by a hall running through the centre of the building and arranged with rooms for the superintendent, physician and nurses, and two dressing rooms with toilets, baths and lockers. The infirmary is housed on two large porches 31 feet wide by 18 feet deep, one on the first and the other on the second floor, facing the south and protected on the west by windows, on the north by the wall of the building and on the south and east by canvas curtains. Each porch accommodates six patients, the lower for men and the upper for women. The building was carefully designed and
Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
simply finished with round corners, smooth surfaces, walls.
heated by steam, well ventilated and cost $21,435.
Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y., Infirmary and Medical Building (Illustration 63). This building consists of a basement and two stories with walls of the foundation and
story constructed of native stone two feet thick.
frame with a shingled
exterior, extra insulation against cold having been obtained by using two layers of paper and siding between the shingles and interior
Its peculiar right-angle
due to the position
of the site, as there
room enough on the land to place a straight structure. The width of the front is twentytwo feet at the angle, and the length of each side on the front is fifty-three feet and on the rear forty-six feet. The basement contains the heating plant, and a store room used in connection
On to a
with the laboratory. first floor
are eight patients'
porch 10 feet wide by 60 feet long, with a corridor
wide by 13 feet deep, opening on wide in the rear; a nurses'
No. 63. Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y. Scopes & Feustmann, Architects. Infirmary and AIedical Building. View of Front and Side Elevations and Floor Plans. Capacity, 10 Patients. Cost, $26,000. (See frontispiece and illustrations 13, 98, 104 and 109 for further description of this institution.)
9 feet wide
13 feet deep, a sitting
13 feet wide
nurses' ofi&ce in the angle 10 feet wide at the widest point
windows are mirrors
of this office next to the
in the centre of the lockers, baths
13 feet deep
In the corners
so arranged that the nurse sitting at a desk
able to overlook both porches.
toilets, a hall,
In the rear
of the corridor are
stairway and the main entrance.
The second floor is divided into a laboratory 27 feet long by 16 feet wide, a treatment room 10 feet wide by 13 feet deep, an examination room 13 feet wide by 17 feet deep, a throat room S feet wide by 9 feet deep, a patients' waiting room 11 feet wide by iS feet deep, a drug room 10 feet wide by 13 feet deep, an .v-ray room 9 feet wide by 13 feet deep, a doctor's office 14 feet wide by 15 feet deep, a statistician's office 12 feet wide by 15 feet deep and two porches 11 feet wide by 20 feet deep, on which the medical staff work on pleasant days.
In order to economize on the cost of construction, this structure was made to combine the purposes of an infirmary, reception hospital and medical building. first
arriving at the sanitarium are cared for on the
for the is
of the medical
while the second floor
interesting feature of the building
the arrangement of the transoms in the patients' rooms over the roof of the porch.
This overcomes the disad^'antage a continuous porch,
out the sunlight when rooms are flanked by
can only be planned for when patients are housed on one
building has a capacity for ten patients and cost $26,000.
Maryland (Illustration 64 j.
frame construction, placed on a stone foundation, and
No. 64. Maryland State Sanatoriiun, Sabillasville, Md. Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. Infirmary Building. View of Front Elevation, and Floor Plan. Capacity, 20 Patients. Estimated Cost, Si8,ooo. (See illustrations 3 and 75 for further description of this institution.)
Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
No. 65. Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga. Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter W. Judell, Associated Architects. Infirmary Building. View of Front Elevation, and Floor Plan. Capacity, 24 Patients. Cost, $18,000. (See illustrations 4 and 78 for further description of this institution.)
stone piers, and covered on the exterior with shingles.
designed on the same lines
as the lean-tos for housing the incipient patients at this institution. It consists of a central section,
195 feet long
two wings and three small rear extensions, and
length of the building and in
containing a nurses' room 9 feet wide
The central section is 28 feet wide by 32 feet deep, containing a wide by 18 feet deep and two small linen closets. The corridor runs
rear are three extensions, the one in the centre 9 feet long, a diet kitchen 9 feet wide
wide by 9 feet long.
deep by 31 feet wide and contain the
Those in the rear of the wings are 36 and baths. The capacity is twenty
patients at an estimated cost of $15,000.
Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga., The Infirmary Building 65).
a one story building with a basement, of frame construction, placed on a
foundation of local stone 18 inches thick.
It is covered
with shingles on the outside,
having one thickness of siding and building paper over the studs and plastered on the inside over wood lath. It is 150 feet long by 25 feet through the ends, and 37 feet
wide through the centre which 8
divided by a large lounging hall 12 feet wide by 35 feet 113
cut at a right-angle
wide and 92 feet long, uniting
the two wards, which are both 24 feet wide by 29 feet deep and have a capacity of eight There are sleeping porches 10 feet wide by 34 feet long, for six patients patients each. each, at the ends of the building, a porch 12 feet wide
the south, and two porches both 10 feet wide
on two patients each, on the
feet long for eight patients
feet long, for
No. 66.— Danvers State Hospital, Hawthorne, Mass. Designed by Dr. F. Page. Pavilion; View OF Front and Side Ele\ation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 16 Patients. Estimated Cost, S6,ooo. 114
Hospitals for Advanced Cases, Infirmaries and Reception Hospitals
67. Ohio State Sanatorium, Mount Vernon, Ohio. I-". L. Packard, Architect. Reception Hospital. View of Froxt Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 24 P.atients. Estimated Cost, $30,000. (See illustration 77 for further description of this institution.)
In addition to the wards there are
conveniently placed locker rooms,
baths, linen closets
wide by 13
was planned so that it could be used as a temporary administration building, The architect easily and economically turned into a well laid-out infirmary. designed the infirmary first and then worked out the arrangement for administrative purstructure
The ward on the east end was converted into a beyond enclosed for a kitchen and pantry, and the north porch enclosed for a staff dining room. The ward on the west end was cut down to a capacity for six patients and the remaining space converted into sleeping rooms for two nurses. The balance of the building as constructed will not be changed. When converted into an infirmary it will have a capacity of twenty-four patients. The cost of construction was $iS,ooo. poses for which dining
room and the
Danvers State Hospital, Hawthorne, Mass., Tuberculosis Pavilion tration 66).
This pkvilion was erected to house insane tuberculous patients, but
arranged for use as a reception cottage feet
wide by 32
small observation wards are desired.
a large, well screened porch 11 feet wide
wide by 20
feet deep, opening into a dining
room is an The arrangement of
rear of the dining
attendants' room, pantry, toilet and bath. it is
and the glass in the at an estimated cost
structurally a part of the building
with two small wards 20 feet wide by 20 feet deep, for eight
patients each, on either side.
It is 60
with a rear extension 35 feet wide by 18 feet deep and
frame construction, covered with shingles and heated with steam. feet
extension containing the
the porch is
an unusual feature.
Ohio State Sanatorium, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Reception Hospital
on a concrete foundation, with This building is two 67). through the wings. Both trimmings, and tile roof, feet long and feet white stone a 147 37 central section, two wings and a same general floor plan, consisting of a stories have the stories high, constructed of brick,
In the centre
loggia on the front 31 feet wide
31 feet wide
13 feet deep.
rooms 8 feet wide by 10 feet deep, with a corridor
15 feet deep, with a porch or
The wings are divided into five feet
wide at their rear and a porch
by 55 feet long on the front. The rear extension is 32 feet wide by 59 feet deep, divided by a corridor in the centre six feet wide, with rooms on either side used for toilets, baths, storage and attendants. The building has a number of good features. It is well constructed and the patients The arrangement of the passageways, corridors and the are housed in separate rooms. It has a capacity of twenty-four patients' closets are convenient and should be noted. or loggia 12 feet wide
patients at an estimated cost of $20,000.
SECTION V Patients' Quarters
— Lean-to Type
SECTION V Patients' Quarters
is a study of the growth and changes made in the lean-to t}^e of building was first adopted for housing incipient tuberculous patients. The many modificahave tended to increase the capacity rather than to change the form. In some
instances the expansion has been upwards, while in others the porches have been lengthened.
building of this design can be cheaply constructed and has proven to be comfortable
and serviceable both when put up in a rough way structed and finished on the interior for advanced
for incipient cases,
Origin of the Lean-to
idea of housing tuberculous patients in lean-tos
King, of Loomis Sanatorium.
lean-to camp, which
suggested by Dr.
took as his model the old-time Adirondack
usually built of a framework of poles covered with bark, and de-
scribes his first building as a shed with
constructed to be opened or closed as occasion demands.
with the ends
In the back wall were three
openings in which were placed stationary slat blinds, intended to increase the circulation of air, floor
but which produced too direct a draught for use in winter.
space 12 feet wide
feet long, giving
building had a
for eight 30-inch beds,
and was con-
structed of plain lumber neither painted nor stained on the interior and covered externally
In order to make
it serviceable for the winter it was necessary to proroom near at hand. This was obtained by an addition placed directly behind the lean-to and fitted with toilets and wash basins and heated by a stove surrounded by a water coil which provided hot water for toilet purposes. Later the design for this simple structure was modified, and a larger and more This consists of two lean-tos placed end to end, somewhat elaborate building constructed. wider than the original, and connected by a sitting room for use in bad weather, with a double locker and dressing room directly back of it in an extension. The advantage obtained by this impro\'ement over the first building was ample space for reclining chairs at the foot of the beds, protected from the weather, a warm sitting room and a larger dressing
with cedar shingles.
vide a heated dressing
apartment. In designing and constructing lean-tos for housing incipient patients the following points should be considered.
Material Shall the lean-to be constructed with material that will make a fairly permanent and comfortable structure? It would seem as if the funds available must settle this question, for good results are obtained from the open-air treatment in cheap buildings, although some of them are only shacks without plumbing or heating arrangements, where the patients use the old style wash-bowl and pitcher, or go to a small central building 119
tuberculosis, patients usually
During the early stages
stand the exposure to cold weather on the porches very
they have a heated apartment near at hand to which they can go for 'dressing and
order to get warm.
they are not substantial, permanent buildings, and cost more to maintain in good order
On the other hand, it is contended that they can be torn on the same lines a number of times for less monej' than it costs to erect a permanent structure which may become out-of-date. There is no doubt that a happy than the more costly structures.
between the extremes
of a shed
of comforts, costing
$50.00 to $75.00 per patient, and some of the elaborate buildings classed as lean-tos which
from $400.00 to^Soo.oo per patient. Lean-tos are usually built of frame construction, consisting of a frame made from timbers to which sheathing is nailed and in turn covered externally with cost
shingles or one of the patent board sidings.
well seasoned hard pine timbers are
used for the columns and beams of the porch frame, and planks such as are specified in mill construction placed in the floor and roof, the result
a fairly substantial and perma-
usually covered with shingles, but tin, slate,
or one of the
patent roofing materials will give good service.
Floors In the sitting room the material for the floors should be hard wood or well laid and
The latter gives good satisfaction and rugs can be used over it. In the extension and dressing rooms, a flooring should be used which will not be affected by water, such as one of the composition materials in which cement is the predominating element, ordinary cement flooring, tile, terrazzo, or a carefully
seasoned ordinary floor boards, covered with linoleum.
No. 69. Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va. Designed by Dr. Enxiox G. Williams. View of AX Oi'Ex Porch Illistratixg a Method of Construction without Interior Finish, and A Manner of Protecting Porches by Canvas Curtains under the Edge of the Roof Projection. (See illustrations 1 7, 30 and 80 for further description of this institution.)
North Reading State Sanatorium, North Reading, Mass. John A. Fox, Architect. View OF AN Open Porch, Illustrating a Method of Protecting Porches by Canvas Curtains in
(See illustration 87 for further description of this institution.)
covered with battle-ship linoleum or modern cork matting, glued down and
turned up at the base
last are durable, noiseless
narrow boards or metal lath.
can be finished either by sealing the walls and
varnished, or the plaster covered with
when used should be
In the rear extension or dressing rooms hard, smooth plaster over metal lath
one or more thicknesses of building paper or by plaster over wood
and this should be painted and covered with coach varnish, and the walls for feet up from the floor protected by tile, or imitation tile made of metal covered
by enamel. The
finish for the interior of the
The timbers may be
sealed with boards
porches depends upon individual taste and need for
exposed in the rough, planed, painted, stained, or
Excavation Basements and cellars do not afford the most sanitary means of obtaining storage and extra room in hospital buildings, and excavations can be eliminated by raising lean-tos If there is reason to fear off the ground one to three feet on stone, brick or concrete piers. dampness a layer of concrete about three inches thick should be spread upon the ground under the building.
placing of the building in
relation to the points of the
Usually the exposure of the porches should be south-east rather than due south in tern-
perate climates, for since the lean-to has become popular
has been found that the
the porches with direct southern exposure often gets exceedingly hot, and sometimes un-
summer months, causIn hot countries and where the summer temperature hours at a time, lean-tos should have two porches for each group of pa-
bearable during the middle of the day and the early afternoon, in the ing the patients great discomfort.
remains high for
one having a southern and the other a northern exposure.
plan or designing a new lean-to, care should be taken to have the enough to give space for a storage room, a linen closet, a warming closet in which blankets can be quickly dried and warmed, and large indi\ddual lockers 3 In many of the earlier constructed lean-tos the lockers are feet wide by 3 to 5 feet deep. often not more than 12 inches wide by 12 inches deep, too small to allow any privacy to the indi\ddual. It should now be definitely understood that no building for the housing of incipient patients is complete unless it provides adequate facilities to each person for privacy. The latest lean-to constructed at the Loomis Sanatorium is a good illustration of one method
In selecting a
rear extensions large
need with a large locker or a small private dressing room.
The arrangement of patients
of the porches
divide the patients into small units. 8 feet
also being modified in order to reduce the
Large porches should have partitions erected in order to
Two patients in
a small cubicle about 10 feet wide
deep seems to be the most satisfactory arrangement.
rear walls in
tilate a lean-to built in this
cases are too low.
a mistake, as
hard to ven-
manner, and causes the patients discomfort when moving
least eight feet in the clear should
The width of
of the floor space
and roof projection should be ample,
lean-to provides the living quarters of
as the porch
No. 71.—Virginia State Farm, Richmond, Va. View of Open Porch Illustrating Manner of Pkotectixg Porches by Canvas Curtains Placed between Pillars, a Few Feet Back from the Line of the Roof Projection.
—Lean-to Type of Building
Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y. View of Chapman Cottage. Sleeping Porch; Illustrating AIethod of Construction and Interior Finish, Using Narrow Floor Boards for Sealing. (See illustrations i, 73, 91 and 108 for further descriptions of this institution.)
freely at the foot of their beds
clear space for a reclining chair are necessary.
one of the best protections against storms and high
winds, and should be three times the length of the bed, eighteen feet or more from the rear wall to the front line.
front of the porch
nese matting, glass and sash window^s which can be raised and lowered, or glass doors which
The rear and end openings are generally protected by sliding windows known as the "barn-door" shutter, ordinary glass and sash windows hung either at the side or from the top, or a frame covered with canvas hung on hinges or on a pivot. can be opened and closed.
one of the most important questions to be considered when planning
air in a room with an open front as it room enclosed by four walls. When cross-ventilation is not obtained the air becomes very bad at the back of the porches. This can be prevented if special care is taken to secure cross currents of air, by windows cut in the side and rear walls, or by openings above the porch roof which remove the foul air close to the ceiling.
lean-tos, for is
about as hard to obtain a current of
Fixtures and Plumbing
substantial sanitary fixtures should be used in the dressing rooms, allowing one
and one wash-basin to every Plumbing should not be installed toilet
and one shower or bath tub
to every eight patients.
in cheap lean-tos in northern climates unless 123
Herbert Maxox King. Cost, $1,830.
Original Improved Lean-to. Designed by Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 108 for further description of this i, 72, 91 and
protected, or frozen pipes will give visable to
trouble during the winter months.
for heating porches to be used
incipient patients, as
has been found that expensive heating plants provided for this purpose are rarely used.
A comparison of the various floor plans of lean-tos described in
in illustration 68.
EXAMPLES OF LEAN-TOS 73).
Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y., The Improved King Le.\n-to (Illustration is 100 feet long by 25 feet deep, of frame construction, placed on stone
and covered externally with cedar shingles
ture used as the model for the lean-to type of building.
the original struc-
in the centre is
and the dressing room directly back of it is 20 feet wide by 14 feet deep, both being heated by a large stove which also supplies hot water for the baths and hand basins. The interior finish of the centre apartment is hard pine, filled and var20 feet wide
25 feet deep,
—Lean-to Type of Building
forty feet, the extent of the roof projection twenty feet,
a great help in keeping out a driving storm.
They are simply and cheaply x 4 timbers supporting the walls and roof are left uncovered, and the smooth surfaces are painted with the exception of the floor, which is laid in the ordinary way except where ex-posed to the rain. In these places it is made of three inch material is
with one-half inch spacing between each plank, the edges being slightly rounded, to prevent curling. The building faces the south and during storms the porches are enclosed by
canvas curtains on of sixteen
which can be raised or lowered.
building has a capacity
beds and cost $1,830.
Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Mich., Lean-to
(Illustration 74). This placed on stone piers, of frame construction, with a shingled roof, 102 feet long by 25 feet wide through the wards. The rear extension is 25 feet wide by 19 feet deep and the entire floor plan is simflar to the improved King lean-to, but with a different arrange-
of the lockers, toilets
substantially constructed, having glass terrace in front
and sash windows
and more commodious dressing rooms.
also better finished
to enclose the wards, a large
the cost of construction w^as 84,500.
No. 74.—Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Mich. Malcomson, Higixbqtham and Clement, Architects. Leax-to. View of Front Elevation .\nt) Floor Plan. C.vPACiTY, 16 Patients.
Floob Plan of Shacks.
Maryland State Sanatorium, Sabillasville, Md. Wyatt & Nolting, Aechitects. Lean-to. 75. View of Front Elevation, Floor Plan and Cross-section. Capacity, 20 Patients.
Estimated Cost, $7,000.
(See illustrations 3
for further description of this institution.)
Maryland State Sanatorium, Sabillasville, Md., Lean-to for Incipient Patients (Illustration 75). This building is of frame construction, placed on brick piers, both the roof and exterior walls being covered with shingles and stained. The trimmings around the windows are painted white and the interior sealed with narrow boards and varnished. The structure is 123 feet long by 26 feet deep through the wings, which are divided into a ward for ten patients, 16 feet wide
wide on the
by 50 feet long, with porches ten feet by 30 feet deep and is divided into wide by 22 feet long, arranged to give each
32 feet wide
three apartments, two dressing rooms, 14 feet patient a private dressing alcove containing a set of drawers, and space for hanging clothes,
wide by 10 feet deep, containing ample bathing 126
facilities as well
—Lean-to Type of Building
The sitting room between the wards is 22 feet wide by 18 feet same manner as the other parts of the interior. There are ten of these buildings grouped about an administration building, which is described in Section II of this book. They all face the south, every room having light and air from opposite sides, and are alike with the exception of the finish. The wards have a number of windows in the rear and side walls, and are protected in front by large sliding glass and sash frames placed between the columns which can be pushed up and out of the way allowing the wards to become part of the porches. These lean-tos were built to house incipient tuberculous cases, but they are so well planned and constructed that they could be used for advanced cases. Institutions such as small town or county hospitals that need an isolated ward for advanced cases could use this building as a model, and by as toilets
deep, finished in the
ran MhN I
ARCmTECTS. J. &M. Kennedy, View of Front Ele\-ation and Floor Plan. Capacity,
No. 76.—Delaware State Sanatorium, Wilmington, Del. Society Lean-to.
Estimated Cost, $1,000. 127
dividing the wings into single rooms and using the pa\'ilion for a
comparatively small outlay.
interior finish, obtain a substantial
twenty patients and the cost
Delaware State Sanatorium, Wilmington, Del., Hebrew Society's Lean-to This is a frame building, on stone piers, covered externally with clapboards and roofed with shingles. 61 feet long by iq feet deep, having a rear extension 14 feet wide by 15 feet deep. This Httle building was erected to house a few patients of both (Illustration 76).
divided into a central sitting
wide by 18 feet deep, two small
Ohio State Sanatorium, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. F. L. Packard, Architect. Lean-to. View 77. OF Front Elevation- and Floor Plan. Capacity, 20 Patients. Estimated Cost, $6,500. (See illustration 67 for further description of this institution.) 128
" D ~
78. Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga. Scopes & Feustmann, and Walter W. Judell, Associated Architects. Design for a Leax-to. Floor Plan. Capacity, 16 Patients. Estimated Cost, $2,500. (See illustrations 4 and 65 for further description of this institution.)
feet wide by 23 feet long, for four patients each, one for men and the other for women; with a porch in front S feet wide by 23 feet long, and windows for ventilating the ward above the roof. The rear extension is divided by a solid partition into two dressing rooms, each containing four lockers, a toilet and a bath for the use of the patients. The building has a capacity for eight patients and the estimated cost is $1,000.
Georgia State Sanatorium, Alto, Ga., Lean-to, Floor Plan (lUustration
This plan was suggested for the lean-tos to be constructed at the Georgia State Sanatorium,
and was designed
of his bed.
on stone wide by
to give each patient a small private dressing
building to be 103 feet long
directly in the rear
25 feet deep, constructed of frame placed
divided into two open wards 16 feet wide by 51 feet long, a corridor 4 feet
and sixteen private dressing rooms each 5 feet wide by 3 feet deep. by 17 feet deep and containing This building was planned to have a capacity for sixteen baths, toilets and lavatories. patients, without a central sitting room, and to cost about $2,000.
51 feet long,
extension at the rear of the centre to be 23 feet wide
Ohio State Sanatorium, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Lean-to for Incipient Patients (Illustration 77 j.
constructed of frame, placed on concrete piers, with
the exterior covered with shingles, having white trimmings.
long and 24 feet through the wings and consists of a central section, two porches
and a rear extension. It was designed after the lean-to type of structure, but has certain deviations from the usual plans which are worth considering, for it supplies all patients with individual dressing alcoves which add greatly to their comfort and are much appreciated.
central section contains a living
25 feet wide
connecting the two wings or sleeping porches, which are 60 feet long by
The rear extension has a floor plan designed in the shape of a cross (this 24 feet deep. being the unicjue feature of the building) 56 feet deep by 27 feet wide; except through the 9
^ X )(
— New Haven County State Sanatori-om, Meriden, Conn. Foote & Townsexd, Architects. Front Ele\"atiox axd Floor Plaxs. Note. — There are Two of these Buildixgs,
EACH Two Stories High, but with Slightly Differext Floor Plaxs. Estimated Cost, $5,000.
Capacity, 40 Patiexts.
is 52 feet wide by 22 feet deep, situated in the centre and extending making a break in the walls which increases the space used for windows. There are also more rooms in the rear extension than are usually planned for in lean-to structures, such as a linen closet, diet kitchen and nurses' room. The building has a capacity for tw-enty patients and the estimated cost is $6,500.
dressing room, which
out on each
—Lean-to Type of Building
New Haven County State Sanatorium, Meriden, Conn., Lean-to (Illustration There are two buildings of this design, one at Huntington, known as Building No. 79). 3, and the other at Meriden. They are of frame construction, on stone piers, covered externally and roofed with shingles, two stories high and both having a front elevation practically of the same general appearance, with slight variations in the floor plans. The first and second floors of both buildings are alike and consist of a central section, two wings and a rear extension, one being 98 feet long feet deep; the other 129 feet long
by 16 feet deep with a by 15 feet deep with a
rear extension 17 feet wide
rear extension 23 feet wide
by 24 by 15
room in the central section of one is 20 feet deep by 16 feet wide, wide by 15 feet deep. The wings of both consist of a single ward wath a capacity often patients, housed in separate cubicles 8 feet wide by 9 feet deep, for two patients, or for three, 16 feet wide by 9 feet deep. The front of the porches or feet deep.
in the other 19 feet
by canvas curtains and the rear walls pierced by windows to give The rear extensions are used as dressing rooms and contain individual
lockers, wash-bowls, toilets
of dividing the porches in order to
for forty patients at
an estimated cost
illustrate well the latest
in small units.
Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va., Lean-to
one story frame building, covered with siding and roofed with shingles, on a concrete foundation, 121 feet long by 20 feet deep, through the wings.
or porches are
80. Catawba Sanatorium, Catawba, Va. Designed by Dr. Ennion G. Williams. Lean-to. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 16 Patients. Estimated Cost,
(See illustrations 17, 30
for further description of this institution.)
No. 8i.—Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada. Designed by Dr. D. A. Stewart. Leax-to. \'ie\v of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Cap.^city, 32 Patients. Estimated Cost, $8,000.
(See illustration 25 for further description of this institution.)
by 46 feet long, and the rear extension is 52 feet long by 12 feet deep. There is a sitting room 28 feet wide and 15 feet deep in the centre, with a trunk room 28 feet wide by 8 feet deep back of it. There are two dressing rooms 19 feet wide by 12 feet deep, and a small single bed ward 11 feet wide by 12 feet deep in the rear extension which is very con\'eniently arranged. The building has a capacity of sixteen patients and cost approxi20 feet wide
Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Manitoba, Canada, Lean-to This building
placed on a cement foundation and stone piers, two stories high, of frame
construction, externally covered with shingles
94 feet long by 24 feet through the wings.
and trimmed with wood
20 feet wide
—Lean-to Type of Building
Patients' Quarters^ and contains a
room furnished with a large fireplace, and a toilet room fitted The wings of the building are 36 feet long by 24 feet deep, divided into open wards 36 feet long by 15 feet deep, with a corridor and three dressing rooms in their rear. Each floor is an independent unit for twelve patients and the building was constructed two stories in height in order to economize in heating, as the winters in Manitoba are very cold. There are two pavilions of the same t^^pe at this institution; the one housing women is shown in the illustration. The other, for men, has a slightly different floor plan, with only one large dressing room in the rear of the sleeping porch. The advantage claimed for this building is that the dressing rooms are closer to the patients and give them more privacy than in the usual lean-to type of structure. The cost of the building including its porportion of the heating plant, installation of plumbing, water supply and sewer connection was $8,000. long,
with lavatories and baths.
82. Edward Sanatorium, Naperville, 111. W. A. Otis and Edward H. Clark, Architects. Lean-to. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. C.-upacity. 10 Patients. Estimated Cost, $1,800. (See illustrations 62 and 88 for further description of this institution.)
OF Front Ele\'ation and Floor Plans. (See illu.strations 22
Edward Sanatorium, is
Estimated Cost, 84,000.
for further description of this institution.)
frame construction, on brick
Archer & Allen. Architects.
Capacity, 8 Patients.
on the exterior and roofed with
64^2 feet long by 16 feet wide, with a rear extension iSVo feet long by 11 feet wide. The front section consists of one ward and the building is illustrated to show the method of protecting its southern exposure and the means used to ventilate through the roof. It is
ward are pierced by eight windows and a door leading into the used as a dressing room and contains lavatories, toilets and lockers
walls of the
for each patient.
It has a capacity of ten patients
The Eudowood Sanatorium, Towson, Md., Garrett Pavilion or Leax-to (Illustration 83).
a frame structure raised on brick piers, covered externally wdth
stained shingles and trimmed with white paint. to receive the light
an attractive building, arranged
through open spaces, between the columns support-
by canvas curtains stretched on frames and hung on pivots attached to the posts. The front is 56 feet long by 20 feet deep and consists This opens into a rear of one large room used both for sleeping and living purposes. extension 19 feet wide by 24 feet deep, pro\dded "with eight lockers (large enough to be small private dressing rooms 3 feet wide by 5 feet deep), two toilets, two baths and four washThe building has a basins, the whole making a comfortable and convenient apartment. capacity of eight patients and cost 84,000. ing the roof, protected in stormy weather
Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, is
frame construction, covered externally with
with shingles, and placed
on a stone foundation. In type it belongs to the lean-to group of buildings and was intended but the wings are divided into enclosed rooms with sleeping porches in
for incipient cases,
-^^.^.^..^>l+. No. 84.— Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la. H. F. Liebbe. Architect. Leax-to, 240 Feet Long. View of Front and Side Elevation ant) Floor Plan. Capacity, 40 Patients. Estimated Cost, S8,ooo.
(See illustrations 24, 29
and 103 135
for further description of this institution.)
Section \ front.
240 feet long by 24 feet deep.
twelve feet wide, enclosed with
and mosquitoes. It is claimed that this building has been a success, but that it should have a larger central section and a rear extension so as to give better facilities for toilets, baths and locker rooms. It has a capacity for forty patients and the cost of construction was S8,ooo. wire netting for protection against
The Municipal Sanatorium, This
N. Y., The Lean-to
a frame building on stone piers, 105 feet long by 18 feet wide, covered with shingles,
stained artistically and trimmed with white.
open porch or ward
dj^vided into three sections
two dressing rooms each 18
entrances from the porch.
front of the building consists of a long half partitions,
the view of the entire porch from either end. feet deep, containing
which do not obstruct is 42 feet wide by 10
wide by 10 feet deep, with separate
a small cellar excavated under the centre for a furnace
which heats the dressing rooms. The building has no sitting room and should be placed near an amusement pavilion or some other structure having an apartment for this purpose. Its peculiar feature
a break in the roof projection at the front in
placed to ventilate the wards or porches.
which A^dndows are
has a capacity of eighteen patients at an
estimated cost of S4400.
No. 85. Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y. Designed by Dr. Heriiaxn M. Biggs. John B. \'ax Pelt, Architect. Lean-to. \'iew of Front Elev.^tion, and Floor Plan. Capacity, 18 Patients. Estimated Cost, 84,400. (See illustrations 14, 28, 59, 60, 94 and loi for further description of this institution.)
Association Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky. D. X. ^Iurphy & Brothee, Architects. Lean-to. \'iew of Front Elex'atiox and Floor Plan. Capacity, 12 P.a.tients. Estim.a.ted Cost, S2.750. (See illustration 99 for further description of this institution.)
Association Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky., Le.\x-to for 86).
on oak posts, and stands on a steep hillside. room 16 feet wide by 16 feet deep, with a dressing room in
struction, placed sitting
12 feet deep, containing bath feet
wide by 16 feet deep.
of its porches.
56 feet long by 36 feet wide including the porches,
It consists of a central its
rear 16 feet wide
each side of this section
a dormitory 19
one running along the entire front of the building, 9 feet wide by 56 feet long, and on the north are two each 9 feet wide by 19 feet long, one on either side of the dressing rooms. This plan supplies porches with a southern exposure for winter use,
and a northern exposure when the weather is too warm for comfort is twelve patients and it cost 82,750.
capacity of the building
North Reading State Sanatorium, North Reading, Mass., The Lean-to :ration 87). exterior
and roofed with
frame construction, placed on stone
one hundred and thirty-six
covered on the
feet along the front,
designed so that both the porches can be overlooked from the sitting room,
rhe length of the wings is fifty-eight feet on the front and sixty-seven feet on The central section :he rear and the width nineteen feet including the veranda. s
and the porches are
mgles made where the wings join the centre apartment. The sitting room is 24 feet wide Dy 18 feet deep and ^e two dressing rooms are both 10 feet wide by 18 feet deep, and :ontain shower baths, toilets
roof of the porch has a break on the
Tont for ventilation purposes, somewhat like that in the roof of the lean-to at Otisville The veranda in front of the sleeping porches also extends in front of the illustration 85). dtting room, and is a feature to be noted, as it adds materially to the floor space which :an be used in good weather.
There are four
vith other buildings for one of the :husetts.
by the State Commission
are very satisfactory except for the rear walls of
be rather low.
up in connection in Massathe porches which are
of these lean-tos, all alike, put
twenty patients and they cost $3,500 each.
No. 87.— North Reading State Sanatorium, North Reading, Mass. Johx A. Fox, Architect. Lean-to. View of Front Elevation, Floor Plan antd Cross-section. Capacity, 20 Patients. 138
— Edward Sanatorium, Naperville,
AND Edward H. Clark, Architects. C.AP.ACiTY; 6
Designed by Dr. Theodore B. Sachs. W. A. Otis View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan.
(See illustrations 62
for further description of this
Edward Sanatorium, is
frame construction, placed on cedar posts, covered externally and roofed with cedar
It is 52 feet long
wide and consists
deep and dressing room 15 feet wide by 12 feet deep, at one end, from which extends out at a right angle a porch or open ward 36 feet wide by 71 feet deep. The
wide by 10
room is plastered and has three large windows breaking up the south wall and two windows and a door leading to the porch. The dressing room is finished in the same manner and contains lockers for each patient, toilets, baths and lavatories. The porch is unfinished, faces the south, has an open front protected in bad weather by canvas curtains, a large door occupying one-half of the east wall, and two large ventilators in the It is illustrated to show the means used to ventilate the porch; the rear and side roof. walls, with the continuous row of windows and the ventilators in the roof, should be noted. The building has a capacity for six beds and cost $1,287. sitting
State Hospital, Mt. Pleasant, la. H. F. Liebbe, Architect. Lean-to. AND Floor Plan. Capacity, 12 Patients. Estimated Cost, $3,000.
Iowa State Hospital, Mount Pleasant, building
planned on the
lines of a lean-to,
section which projects to the rear.
It is a
with two wards on either side of a central
one story building
and finished in oil. The exterior is covered with cedar shingles stained dark brown and trimmed with an ivory color. In the centre of the building is a room 15 feet wide by 19 feet deep, used both as a sitting and dining room, and extending out from each side of it is a porch or open ward
interior walls are sealed with yellow pine
From the wards, on the sides of the central 37 feet long by 14 feet wid* for six patients. room, are passageways 4 feet 6 inches wide by 13 feet long, running back to the dressing room, which is 10 feet wide by 19 feet long, and contains a bath tub, three wash-bowls, a toilet
entire front of the building
the inner sides of both halls are lockers for each patient. is
open, but fitted between the pillars with sliding sash and glass
windows and frames for screens. The rear walls of the wards also have windows between each bed in order to produce cross-ventilation. The rear extension is 20 feet deep by 30 feet wide, well lighted by windows at every available point, with a cellar excavated under it, containing a hot water heating plant. In the central room is a brick fire-place and an electric oven for reheating the food sent in from the service building, before it is served to the patients. It also has windows on the front above the porch giving sunlight to the 140
—Lean-to Type of Building
ventilation near the ceiling.
cost of the building complete, constructed
was $3,000, but the capacity can be enlarged at small expense if desired, by adding rooms at the end of each ward. Attention should be called to the situation of the combination sitting and dining room, the placing of the lockers in halls on its sides and the porch space in front of the central room, used as a vestibule to the to house twelve patients,
of a floor plan for the lean-to type of building.
Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Pa., Lean-to
a frame building of very cheap construction, placed on concrete piers, and covered
by a composition
two stories high, 53 feet long by 12 feet deep, with a small wide by 18 feet long, enclosed for a dressing room and containing lockers, lavatories and toilets. The balance of the ground floor is used by patients for a lounging and sitting room. The second floor is an open ward housing the beds. The front of the building on both stories is boarded up from the floor four feet, and cross- ventilation is obtained by windows in the rear wall. This structure is practically a portion of the
two story shed facing the south and patients.
one of the cheapest methods of housing tuberculous an estimated cost of
It has a capacity of seven beds at
TT C ONTT'
Beookie No. 90.— Rush Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Pa. Lean-to. View of Front Elevation ant) Floor Plans. Capacity, Cost, $400.
Hastings, Architects. Patients. Estimated
(See illustration 97 for further description of this institution.)
OHLN WA KTE ROOF PROJECTION
Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y. Designed by De. Herbert Maxon King. Lean-to. OF Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity,. 8 Patients. Estimated Cost, Si.ooo. (See illustrations i, 72, 73 and 108 for further description of tliis institution.)
covered externally with
and has a shingled roof. It is Dr. King's latest modification of a lean-to buildand is 70 feet long by 20 feet wide, divided into an open porch 20 feet wide by 48 feet long at one end, and an enclosed apartment 20 feet wide by 21 feet long at the other. There are lockers or small private dressing rooms 3 feet wide by 5 feet deep, for each patient, toilets, baths, and a central dressing hall between the rows of lockers. The enclosed apartment is heated by a large coal stove with boiler attachment to supply hot water for toilet purposes. It has a capacity for eight patients at an estimated cost of $2,000. siding
Michigan State Sanatorium, Howell, Mich., Lean-to, Floor Plan 92).
This was a design made for a lean-to at the jMichigan State Sanatorium, but has not
building was to have been of frame, 100 feet long
25 feet deep,
with sitting room 15 feet wide by 25 feet deep in the centre, the porches to be 42 feet long by 24 feet deep, divided into an open ward with four dressing rooms in its rear; these rooms to be for
two patients each,
wide by 10 feet deep, 142
with lockers, showers,
—Lean-to Type of Building
FOR A Lean-to.
Scopes & Feustmann, Architects. Capacity, 16 Patients. Estimated Cost, $3,500. (See
Sanatorium, Howell, Mich.
tration 74 for further description of this insitution.)
central plant. The design is worth studying and would make a convenient building for a site on a side hill as there is no rear extension in the plan. The capacity is sixteen patients at an estimated cost of $3,500.
and wash-basins and heated from a
New York 93).
State Hospital, Raybrook, N. Y., Lean-to for
be constructed either of brick or frame and
wings and a rear extension.
This floor plan was designed for a lean-to at Raybrook, but has not yet been erected. will consist of a central section,
In order to make the dressing rooms in the rear extension
accessible for the patients in the wards, the wings are designed to
form an acute
The wards are on the front, forty-six feet long on the rear and thirteen feet wide opening on to a veranda nine feet wide which extends along the entire front of the building. The central sitting room is 27 feet wide by 11 feet deep and has a large, open fire-place. Behind it is a rear extension 28 feet wide by 18 feet deep, divided into a linen room, toilet room, bathroom, dressing and locker room. The plan should be noted for the arrangements made in the wards to protect the head of the beds, by a half partition which extends about three feet in the wards. The building has a capacity for sixteen patients and will cost about $3,500. angle in the rear of the building, at their junction with the central section.
fifty-four feet long
No. 93.— New York State Hospital, Raybrook, N. Y. Franklin B. Ware, Architect. Design for a Lean-to. Floor Plan. Capacity, 16 Patients. Estimated Cost, $3,500. 143
No. 94. Municipal Sanatorium, Otisville, N. Y. Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. James D. Burt, Architect. Lean-to, No. 103. View or Front Elevation and Floor Plans. The Special Feature of this Building is an Arrangement that Forms the Patients into Groups or Units by Sl^pplying a Separate Living Room and Toilet Apartment in Connection with Each Porch. Capacity, 32 Patients. Cost, $9,000. (See Illustrations 14, 28, 59, 60, 85 and loi for further description of this institution.)
Municipal Sanatorium, This
Lean-to, No. 103.
a two story building, with foundations of native stone, eighteen inches thick.
walls are of frame construction, covered on the outside with shingles, stained a dark
green and trimmed white.
with matched and
also of shingles stained red.
floors are of
plan of the building follows the general lines of the lean-to, but
an arrangement that forms the patients into groups or units by supplying a separate living
in connection with
All the patients
private dressing rooms built with low partitions, and provided with lock doors.
basement contains the heating apparatus, toilets, baths, blanket store rooms, and a recreation room which is almost above the ground. Over the centre is an attic divided into rooms which can be locked and are fitted with open shelves where trunks, dress-suit cases
and other belongings escape in the rear. for protection in
of the patients
can be stored.
front faces the south,
Each wing is provided with a fire and is furnished with roll curtains
This building has a capacity of thirty-two patients, in
four groups of eight persons to each porch
cost about $9,000.
TTE5n=ID012 DOEimTOEY BUlLDinG
Farmingdale, N. J. Designed by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs. Judell, Associated Architects. Lean-to. Front ElevaEstimated Cost, $7^00. tion ANT5 Floor Plans. Capacity, 28 Children and Two Attendants. institution.) (See illustrations 12, 19 and 27 for further description of this 0=;.
k Feustmann, and Walter W.
the shack for children at Municipal (Illustration 95). constructed of holSanatorium at Otisville. The exterior walls of these pavilions are concrete foundation and low tile, covered with cement stucco, and are placed on a of edge-grain yellow concrete piers. The interiors are of frame construction, with floors buildings, all alike, the roofs are covered with shingles. There are four of these
Modified from the design
contain bathing facihties, except the second floors of the central sections. The basements eight feet high, and and the wings are arranged as sleeping wards, with open fronts, ceilings TO
in the rear walls.
dressing rooms in the centre sections are furnished around
the walls with benches divided into individual lockers, used to store the toys and personal
belongings of the children. Over these benches, at a height of five and one-half feet, are two shelves where the blankets used during the rest hour are placed. On the rear walls are racks to hold toilet articles and in the centre is a stone wash-trough with hot and cold water faucets. Behind the dressing rooms are store rooms fitted with large pigeon-holes used instead of lockers, and the toilets arranged to be entered from the rear direct from the grounds and playrooms without tracking mud through the dressing rooms or wards. In two pavilions the second stories consist of one large play and school room, which can be entirely opened on three sides, and accommodates fifty-six children. In the other buildings the second stories are used as infirmaries, divided into two wards for four children each, with a porch on the south to which the beds can be wheeled, a nurses' room, a bath, a diet kitchen and a linen room. The pavilions have a capacity for twenty-eight patients each, and cost $7,700.
SECTION VI Patients'
Quarters— Cottage Type
Origin of the Cottage In most of the large private sanatoria ing
not satisfactory for housing patients
Well-to-do patients usually desire
private and cannot be overlooked
been found that the lean-to type
good nursing and separate apartments, and often demand a are willing to
by other inmates of the institution.
section will be found descriptions of cottages which have proven satisfactory, arranged to
house from one to eight patients, with a private room, separate porch, and toilet facilities for
each; also cottages designed to be used as a separate unit to
date families where one or more members are tuberculous, and having rooms for a private
Cottages planned for the use of one person only, usually have but two
nurse and servants.
rooms, one for dressing and living porch.
purposes and the other practically an open sleeping and
This type of cottage
and can be
It is reported that in
generally a modification of the original structure
built for a reasonable figure.
instances patients at large public institutions are
contented and improve faster when given a separate room or a share in a small building with one or more congenial associates, and as some of the cottages described are very inexpensive a more careful study of the results obtained by the different methods of housing incipient patients,
in the future cause the construction of a larger proportion of the
cottage type of sanatorium in the place of ward buildings, for state and county tuberculosis hospitals.
Planning Cottage In designing and constructing cottages the following points should be considered. First: Each patient should have a private room and a porch which, when desired, can be screened in a way to prevent Second:
it being overlooked. Cottages should be designed when possible to conform to the desires and
of the people
comfortable at Fourth:
buildings should be constructed of such material as will
seasons of the year in the climate for which they are intended.
interior should be finished in the
most simple manner and with smooth
surfaces in order to eliminate places likely to collect dust. Fifth:
or ventilated in
an open porch as possible, a manner that can be regulated by an attendant, but will prevent the
sleeping apartment should be as
patient from shutting off the current of
EXAMPLES OF COTTAGES Millet Sanatorium, East Bridgewater, Mass., Cottage (Illustration 96). a frame building su[)ported on cedar posts, boarded and covered with shingles.
Sanatorium, East Bridgewater, Mass. Design by Dr. C. View of Front Elevation, Floor Plan, Side and End Elevation.
wide by 12
laid at "quarter pitch"
12 feet wide
Estimated Cost, $200.
floor is laid
no plastering or
double with the upper layer of narrow, hard pine.
18 feet long, divided
partition into a
open on all sides, and a dressing room 6 feet wide by 12 feet long, lighted by two windows, heated by a stove and furnished with a stationary wash-stand, running water, a toilet and a wardrobe. The rear wall is six and one-half feet high, and feet long,
faces the north
and can be opened or closed by wooden
one person and cost about $200.00. 149
Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Pa. Brookie & Hastings, Architects. View of Front ant) Side Elevations, antj Floor Plan. ^ Capacity, 2 Patients. Estimated Cost,
Hospital, Country Branch, Malvern, Pa., Cottage (Illustration 97).
a small frame building placed on 4 x 4 timber posts and roofed with patent roofing
and has a porch eight feet wide at one end. The by 15 feet long, and a dressing room 16 feet wide by 7 feet deep. The bedrooms can be thrown into one large room by removing the portable partition between them. The arrangement of the windows for throwing open the interior should be noted. This little building is well designed for cheap and simple housing. The capacity is two patients and estimated cost of construction $300.00. 18 feet wide
divided into two bedrooms, each 8 feet wide
—Cottage Type of Building
/ 7'X 16'
Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y. Cottage. View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 4 Patients. Estimated Cost, $400.
Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y. (Illustration 98). This is placed on stone piers and is of frame construction, j^i feet wide by 19 feet deep.
It was built of second-hand lumber and other material obtained from older buildings which had been torn down and was one of the first experiments in shack construction at this Sanitarium. As the patients at this institution are given as much privacy as possible, the porch is divided into small cubicles, and the partitions between the patients' beds
are erected to a height of six feet.
heated by a stove, but the
It has a capacity of four patients at
toilet facilities are
an estimated cost
No. 99. Association Sanatorimn, Louisville, Ky. D. X. Murphy & Brother, Architects. Cottage. View of Front and Side Elevation and Floor Plan. Capacity, 12 Patients. Estimated Cost, $2,250.
Association Sanatorium, Louisville, Ky., Men's Cottage (Illustration 99). a frame cottage on concrete piers, covered with a patent roofing, 36 feet wide 22 feet deep, without the porch or the extension. It consists of a central sitting
room 10 and two
wide by 15 feet long, and four private rooms, two 10 feet wide by 12
by 14 feet deep. The toilets and lavatories are in the rear extension, which is 13 feet wide by 7 feet deep, and the building is surrounded on three sides by a porch twelve feet wide. The floor plan of this building is very much like the cottages at the Iowa State Sanatorium, and for some purposes is an improvement over them because of the private rooms. It has a capacity for twelve patients and cost $2,250. 12 feet wide
— Cottage Type of Building
Sanatoritim, "White Haven, Pa. Cottage. View of Front and Side Capacity, 8 Patients. Estimated Cost, $800.
Elevation and Floor Plan.
The White Haven Sanatorium, White Haven, Pa., Cottage (Illustration 100). This building, placed on wooden posts, is of a cheap frame construction, covered externally with siding and roofed with composition roofing. There are two open air rooms 15 feet wide by 16
feet long, protected by glass and sash windows in winter and canvas curtains summer, both hung from the top. The two pavilions house eight patients and are connected by a dressing room 7 feet wide by 10 feet long, which is heated by a small stove and used in common by all. This plan for a cottage may be constructed to house only one or two patients in each pavilion, when all the dimensions except the size of the dressing room should be cut down. The estimated cost is $800.00.
Otisville, N. Y. Designed by Dr. Hermaxx of Front ELE^•ATIO^- and Floor Plan. Capacity, 8 Patiexts. Estimated Cost, Si ,500.
The Municipal Sanatorium, This
frame building on brick
N. Y., Cottage
covered with shingles artistically stained and
trimmed and has a very attractive appearance. It is 58 feet long by 19 feet wide with a room in the centre 15 feet wide by 19 feet deep, which contains the patients' lockers and a fireplace. The porches, 20 feet wide by 19 feet deep, are divided by a partition eight feet high, into two rooms 10 feet wide by 1 2 feet deep, for two patients each. The verandas in front of the porch rooms are six feet wide. There are no toilets, baths or dressing sitting
room, as this cottage toilet
used in connection with another building containing a central it is a cheaply constructed bmlding with a floor plan easy
who wish to add a pavilion The estimated cost is $1200.00.
be used by small communities
hospital for housing tuberculous patients.
to their local
General Hospital, Plainfield, N. J. A. L. C. Marsh, Architect. Cottage View of Front and Side Elevation, Floor Plan. Capacity, Estimated Cost, $3,000. Note. This is a Modified Plan of the Municipal
Ward for Tuberculous Patients. 8 Patients.
Plainfield General Hospital, Plainfield, N. J., Cottage Ward for Tuberculous Patients (Illustration 102). This building is a design modified from the plans of the Otisville Cottage.
sixty-eight feet long, of frame construction, covered with shingles
and placed on stone piers. There is a solid partition running directly through the centre dividing the two sides of the building into two separate sections, making two sitting rooms 13 feet wide by 19 feet long on the front, and two dressing rooms 8 feet wide by 12 feet long in the rear. The elevation has a slightly different arrangement for the windows in the centre of the building and is supported by large round columns which gives it a very attractive appearance.
eight patients at an estimated cost of $3,000. 15s
O O 7)>v A'.s.s i^j^T /-:nrT^
No. 103.— Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, la. Design by Dr. H. E. Kirschner. H. F. Liebbe, .\rchitect. Cottage. View of Front and Side Elevation ant) Floor Plan. Capacity, Estimated Cost, .$1,500. CSee illustrations 24, 29 and 84 for further description of this 8 Patients. institution.)
Iowa State Sanatorium, Oakdale, on brick
large central sitting
15 feet deep, about
17 feet wide
which receives plenty
built a twelve foot
9 feet it is
not enclosed by the
more comfortable when only
It is claimed for this structure that part of the
tered from storms and will receive sunlight from
It consists of a
of sunlight as
building was planned for ten patients but
frame construction with a shingle
17 feet wide
In the rear
wide porch. lockers
piers, is of
always be shel-
some direction during the
Those who have used the design speak very highly of the arrangement, as there is room for all the beds on the sheltered side, and it is not necessary to enclose a portion of the porch as is done where there is only one exposure. Larger lockers should be placed in the dressing room and better toilet facilities At the Iowa State Sanatorium this provided, such as a shower bath and extra toilets. cottage has been very satisfactory and ten of a like design have been erected at a cost of about $1,400 each.
Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y., Wheeler Cottage (Illustration 104). This cottage
foundation of native stone and
frame construction, covered wnth a inch
leaving an air space
inch wide be-
tween the brick and the sheathing. This method of construction
in order to
dry building, and to save repairs and
paint on the exterior.
ceilings are finished in plaster
lath with hard
and coved bases with
this building has
direct sunlight in the sleeping
rooms, which are small, but contain
a closet, ventilators and are connected
with a private porch for each patient.
cottage consists of only one story,
but has a
under the entire build-
ing which contains a hot water heating
104.— Adirondack Cottage Saranac Lake, N. Y. Scopes Architects.
Front Elevation and Floor Plan.
It has a capacity for four
patients and cost .$4,000.
View of Capacity,
Estimated Cost, $4,000.
illustrations 63, 98 and 109 for further description of this institution.)
Farm, Wallingford, Conn. Brow & von Berex, z\rchitects. Connected View of Front and Side Elevations and Floor Plans. Capacity of EACH Cottage, 8 Patients.
Gaylord Farm, Wallingford, Conn., Connected Cottages (Illustration 105). These cottages, of frame construction, are placed on stone foundations and stone piers with cellars under the centres, and covered externally with shingles. They are artistically and conveniently designed, 35 feet wide by 26 feet deep, with a porch across the entire front and back, ten feet wide. The front porch of
connected with the rear porch of the next
by an open corridor 40 feet long by 13 feet wide, which is used as a sleeping porch for patients. In the illustration this corridor is
has been broad-
feet in order to give better protection against
There is a sitting room in the centre, 13 feet wide by 14 feet deep, four patients' rooms on the sides 10 feet wide by 12 feet deep, and a room in the rear 9 feet wide by 6 feet deep, containing a toilet and bath. The capacity is
for eight patients at
an estimated cost of $4,000. 158
Quarters— Cottage Type
No. io6.— Barlow Sanatorium, Los Angeles, Cal. Designed by Dr. W. Jarvis Barlow. Cottage. View of Front and Side Elevations and Floor Plan. Capacity, 2 Patients. Estimated Cost, $500.
Barlow Sanatorium, Los Angeles, ing
supported on stone piers and
wide by 12 feet deep.
Cal., Cottage (Illustration 106). This buildframe construction, with a shingle roof, 20 feet foot open porch along the north side and both ends; of
the outside of the cottage and the porch are painted a seal 159
brown and the
shingles of the
No. 107. Portland Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, Ore. Whidden & Lewis, Architects Cottage. \'ie\v of Front axd Side Elevation and Interior. Capacity, 2 Patients. Estimated Cost, $1,000. (See illustrations 8 and 16 for further description of this institution.) 160
but not tition
— Cottage Type of Building
interior is finished in surface
lumber dressed with
divided into two rooms each lo feet wide
runs transversely from the floor to the roof and
12 feet deep.
but pierced by a door which boarded up but can be opened
The north side of the cottage is Each end and the south side are boarded to a height of three feet from the floor, the space above this to the plate being protected by copper wire screening, and provided with awnings which can be let down in wet weather. The doors, the space between the rafters and three inches under the eaves on each side, left open for ventilation, by
the roof over the partition
an iron ventilator sixteen inches
room is placed in a small separate building at the rear and divided and toilet rooms, well screened and ventilated. This is a good plan
into bath, dressing
where earth closets are used, as they can be emptied without disturbing the patients. Warm water is supplied for toilet purposes by a contrivance operated very successfully in southern California, all the year round by direct sunlight, which is called a "solar heater" and is placed on the roof. The capacity of the cottages is two patients and it cost, including toilet, S700.00.
The Open Air Sanatorium, Portland, building
placed on stone piers and
Ore., Cottage (Illustration 107).
frame construction, externally covered with
It is 16 feet wide by 21 feet deep and has a above the ground to produce an air space, which is enThe interior is divided into an open room 16 feet wide by 13 closed with lattice work. feet deep, a bath room 4 feet wide by 8 feet long, a little hall and two closets both 4 feet wide by 3 feet deep. It is nicely finished in hard wood and sealed with narrow, selected
stained shingles and trimmed with white. floor raised
two and a
space between the ceiling and the roof, in order to prevent the
direct rays of the sun heating the interior during the middle of the day.
space under the floor and that above the ceiling should be noted, as they are a necessary part of cottage construction in
or hot countries.
of these cot-
more was about $1,000. Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y.,The Orchard Cottage (Illustration 108). This building is placed on a stone foundation, one story high and of frame construction covered externally and roofed with shingles. The interior is finished in plaster on wooden tages have been built
said to be very comfortable, being classed with the
substantial type of open air buildings, as the cost of construction
It is heated by direct radiation in the lath, with hard wood floors and cypress trimmings. rooms, from a hot water boiler placed in the cellar which has been excavated under the
are about 9 feet wide
on the porches. The plan is of interest and will There is a commodious please those who believe in utilizing corners and other small places. attic which can be divided into several rooms, a smaU combined living and drawing room 12 feet wide by 18 feet long, which has a large fireplace, a kitchen 10 feet wide by 11 feet The cottage is more like a pleasant country house than long, a bath and a maid's room. tionally to encourage the patients to live
and has a capacity
for four patients or a small family
about $3,500. Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y.,
and can be
built at a cost of
The Nathan Cottage
frame construction, covered externally with yellow The cottage is about 42 feet terra-cotta brick veneer placed on native stone foundation. wide by 30 feet deep, with a veranda having a southern exposure, and protected by glass (Illustration 109).
and sash frames on the north, east and west, arranged so that its roof does not prevent The sitting room, 14 feet wide by 20 feet deep, is sunlight from entering the rooms. TI
—Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, N. Y.
& Feustmann, Architects.
Froxt axd Side Elevations and Floor Plan.
Capacity, 4 Patients.
Orchard Cottage. Estimated Cost.
for further description of this institution.)
— Cottage Type of Building
—Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, Saranac Lake, N. Y.
View of Front Elevation and Floor Plan.
Estimated Cost, $5,000.
Cap.acity, 4 Patient (See illustrations 63, 98 and 104 for further description of this institi
placed in the rear of the building and reached by a hall from the front door; there are tw
12 feet wide
deep on either side of the hall and two 14 feet wide b
window opening. Th by transoms and all windows and doors are brought flush with th ceiling. Each bedroom is heated and has a large closet. The cottage will accommodat four persons, and cost, including furnishing, $5,000. 10 feet deep at the sides of the sitting room, a combination door and
rfl^-3TrL00J2 PL AM No.
Pines Sanatorium, Stevens Point, Wis. Designed by Dr. H. E. Dearholt. Cottage. View of Front and Side Elevations and Floor Plan. Capacity, 8 Patients. Cost, $4,000.
River Pines Cottage Sanatorium, Stevens Point, Wis. (Illustration no). roof is 64 feet wide by 30 feet deep, of frame construction, with a shingle and is placed on a brick foundation. It has two floors, both planned alike, and the arrangement of the rooms and porches is interesting. Each patient is supplied with a private room about twelve feet square, a closet and a sleeping porch about nine feet square, having two exposures, one south and the other either east or west, the porches being arranged so that some portion of them cannot be overlooked from other parts of the building. The bathroom, toilet, lavatory and main entrances are placed on the north and con-
all the rooms by a small hall. cottage has a capacity for eight patients and the estimated cost
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