union members-2016 - Bureau of Labor Statistics

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For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 19, 2018

USDL-18-0080

Technical information: (202) 691-6378 • [email protected] • www.bls.gov/cps Media contact: (202) 691-5902 • [email protected]

UNION MEMBERS — 2017 The union membership rate—the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of unions— was unchanged at 10.7 percent in 2017, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers belonging to unions, at 14.8 million in 2017, edged up by 262,000 from 2016. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent and there were 17.7 million union workers. The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households that obtains information on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note in this news release. Highlights from the 2017 data: •

The union membership rate of public-sector workers (34.4 percent) continued to be more than five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.5 percent). (See table 3.)



Workers in protective service occupations and in education, training, and library occupations had the highest unionization rates (34.7 percent and 33.5 percent, respectively). (See table 3.)



Men continued to have a higher union membership rate (11.4 percent) than women (10.0 percent). (See table 1.)



Black workers remained more likely to be union members than White, Asian, or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)



Nonunion workers had median weekly earnings that were 80 percent of earnings for workers who were union members ($829 versus $1,041). (The comparisons of earnings in this release are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences.) (See table 2.)



Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership rate (23.8 percent), while South Carolina continued to have the lowest (2.6 percent). (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members In 2017, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared with 7.6 million workers in the private sector. Although the union membership rate for private-sector workers edged up by 0.1 percentage point in 2017, their unionization rate continued to be substantially lower than that for public-sector workers (6.5 percent versus 34.4 percent). Within the public sector, the union membership rate was highest in local government (40.1 percent), which employs many workers in heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Private-sector industries with high unionization rates included utilities (23.0 percent), transportation and warehousing (17.3 percent), telecommunications (16.1 percent), and construction (14.0 percent). Low unionization rates occurred in finance (1.1 percent), food services and drinking places (1.4 percent), and professional and technical services (1.7 percent). (See table 3.) Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2017 were in protective service occupations (34.7 percent) and in education, training, and library occupations (33.5 percent). The rate for workers in education, training, and library occupations continued to decline in 2017. Unionization rates were lowest in sales and related occupations (3.2 percent); farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (3.4 percent); food preparation and serving related occupations (3.8 percent); and in computer and mathematical occupations (3.9 percent). Selected Characteristics of Union Members In 2017, the union membership rate continued to be higher for men (11.4 percent) than for women (10.0 percent); over the year, the rate for men edged up, and the rate for women edged down. (See table 1.) However, the gap between their rates has narrowed considerably since 1983 (the earliest year for which comparable data are available), when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively. Among major race and ethnicity groups, Black workers continued to have a higher union membership rate in 2017 (12.6 percent) than workers who were White (10.6 percent), Asian (8.9 percent), or Hispanic (9.3 percent). By age, union membership rates continued to be highest among workers ages 45 to 64. In 2017, 13.2 percent of workers ages 45 to 54 and 13.5 percent of those ages 55 to 64 were union members. In 2017, the union membership rate for full-time workers was about twice the rate for part-time workers (11.8 percent versus 5.7 percent). Union Representation In 2017, 16.4 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group includes both union members (14.8 million) and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See table 1.) Earnings Among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly earnings of $1,041 in 2017, while those who were not union members had median weekly earnings of $829. In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, this earnings difference reflects a variety of -2-

influences, including variations in the distributions of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, age, firm size, or geographic region. (See tables 2 and 4.) Union Membership by State In 2017, 27 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that of the U.S. average, 10.7 percent, while 22 states had rates above it and 1 state had the same rate. All states in both the East South Central and West South Central divisions had union membership rates below the national average, while all states in the New England, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific divisions had rates above it. Union membership rates increased over the year in 25 states and the District, decreased in 21 states, and were unchanged in 4 states. (See table 5 and the map.) Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2017, with South Carolina having the lowest rate (2.6 percent). The next lowest rates were in North Carolina (3.4 percent) and Utah (3.9 percent). Two states had union membership rates over 20.0 percent in 2017: New York (23.8 percent) and Hawaii (21.3 percent). The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million) and New York (2.0 million). Over half of the 14.8 million union members in the U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 million; Michigan and Pennsylvania, 0.7 million each; and New Jersey and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.

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Technical Note The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households. The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded. Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 6915200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release preserves the longtime practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance. The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data. Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard errors is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes” to being union members, are classified as represented by a union. If the response is “no” to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as

nonunion.

Definitions The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below. Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who are union members. Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job. Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into $50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies. Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job. Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or principal job. Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] 2016

Characteristic

Total employed

Members of unions1

2017 Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

Total employed

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

AGE AND SEX Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136,101 18,556 117,545 31,750 28,515 28,807 21,778 6,696

14,555 816 13,739 2,924 3,423 3,846 2,903 643

10.7 4.4 11.7 9.2 12.0 13.3 13.3 9.6

16,271 988 15,283 3,296 3,782 4,269 3,209 726

12.0 5.3 13.0 10.4 13.3 14.8 14.7 10.8

137,890 18,757 119,133 32,407 28,729 28,655 22,382 6,960

14,817 877 13,940 3,061 3,421 3,771 3,032 655

10.7 4.7 11.7 9.4 11.9 13.2 13.5 9.4

16,444 1,014 15,430 3,426 3,806 4,145 3,329 723

11.9 5.4 13.0 10.6 13.2 14.5 14.9 10.4

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70,589 9,412 61,177 16,930 15,102 14,775 10,957 3,412

7,888 484 7,404 1,640 1,881 2,048 1,511 323

11.2 5.1 12.1 9.7 12.5 13.9 13.8 9.5

8,704 568 8,136 1,833 2,051 2,253 1,633 365

12.3 6.0 13.3 10.8 13.6 15.3 14.9 10.7

71,469 9,486 61,983 17,199 15,220 14,693 11,318 3,554

8,166 529 7,637 1,755 1,900 2,040 1,617 324

11.4 5.6 12.3 10.2 12.5 13.9 14.3 9.1

8,930 609 8,321 1,940 2,088 2,189 1,745 359

12.5 6.4 13.4 11.3 13.7 14.9 15.4 10.1

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65,512 9,143 56,368 14,820 13,412 14,032 10,820 3,283

6,667 332 6,335 1,284 1,542 1,797 1,392 320

10.2 3.6 11.2 8.7 11.5 12.8 12.9 9.8

7,567 420 7,147 1,463 1,731 2,016 1,576 361

11.6 4.6 12.7 9.9 12.9 14.4 14.6 11.0

66,421 9,271 57,150 15,208 13,509 13,962 11,065 3,406

6,651 348 6,303 1,306 1,521 1,731 1,415 330

10.0 3.8 11.0 8.6 11.3 12.4 12.8 9.7

7,514 405 7,109 1,486 1,718 1,956 1,584 364

11.3 4.4 12.4 9.8 12.7 14.0 14.3 10.7

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX White, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106,160 56,007 50,153

11,120 6,153 4,967

10.5 11.0 9.9

12,436 6,769 5,667

11.7 12.1 11.3

107,121 56,545 50,576

11,358 6,432 4,926

10.6 11.4 9.7

12,589 7,025 5,564

11.8 12.4 11.0

Black or African American, 16 years and over. . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17,014 7,852 9,163

2,209 1,104 1,105

13.0 14.1 12.1

2,475 1,229 1,245

14.5 15.7 13.6

17,498 8,042 9,456

2,210 1,101 1,109

12.6 13.7 11.7

2,459 1,205 1,254

14.1 15.0 13.3

Asian, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,340 4,368 3,972

752 355 397

9.0 8.1 10.0

839 404 435

10.1 9.3 10.9

8,561 4,457 4,105

763 365 398

8.9 8.2 9.7

843 402 441

9.8 9.0 10.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over. . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23,085 13,125 9,960

2,032 1,209 823

8.8 9.2 8.3

2,308 1,348 960

10.0 10.3 9.6

23,656 13,342 10,315

2,201 1,261 940

9.3 9.5 9.1

2,476 1,410 1,067

10.5 10.6 10.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS3 Full-time workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part-time workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111,091 24,832

13,119 1,415

11.8 5.7

14,593 1,655

13.1 6.7

113,272 24,433

13,396 1,403

11.8 5.7

14,812 1,611

13.1 6.6

1

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 3 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. 2

Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2016-17 annual averages 2016

2017

Total

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Total

Members of unions1

Nonunion3

Represented by unions2

Nonunion3

AGE AND SEX Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$832 501 885 751 934 955 952 866

$1,004 600 1,022 893 1,071 1,084 1,072 984

$995 599 1,014 890 1,059 1,069 1,069 988

$802 497 858 734 908 930 930 846

$860 519 907 773 964 977 974 909

$1,041 663 1,065 921 1,122 1,113 1,112 1,058

$1,028 652 1,054 909 1,111 1,103 1,106 1,054

$829 514 883 756 935 953 947 888

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

915 512 969 794 1,007 1,075 1,102 992

1,050 582 1,080 915 1,123 1,146 1,136 1,022

1,042 581 1,074 915 1,120 1,140 1,140 1,029

890 509 950 775 990 1,057 1,090 988

941 547 996 821 1,062 1,103 1,098 1,016

1,102 701 1,128 964 1,195 1,184 1,160 1,140

1,094 683 1,124 953 1,183 1,180 1,166 1,132

914 533 976 803 1,038 1,080 1,073 1,004

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

749 486 784 705 839 836 812 749

955 628 972 865 1,015 1,006 999 942

942 624 960 860 1,004 988 992 964

723 481 757 685 804 800 778 723

770 499 810 724 860 855 856 782

970 606 988 864 1,037 1,018 1,025 991

954 600 974 854 1,026 1,002 1,011 986

746 496 784 705 831 827 831 751

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX White, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

862 942 766

1,050 1,111 989

1,034 1,099 975

827 915 738

890 971 795

1,089 1,141 1,014

1,076 1,135 997

860 942 766

Black or African American, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

678 718 641

808 818 799

807 826 790

646 690 616

682 710 657

823 869 784

813 856 773

659 687 636

Asian, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,021 1,151 902

1,020 1,061 985

1,017 1,076 975

1,022 1,160 892

1,043 1,207 903

1,112 1,169 1,007

1,126 1,176 1,023

1,034 1,212 887

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

624 663 586

886 908 844

876 901 829

608 637 565

655 690 603

897 952 810

880 929 801

629 669 583

Characteristic

1

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 3 Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job. NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. 2

Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] 2016

Occupation and industry

OCCUPATION Management, professional, and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management, business, and financial operations occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business and financial operations occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and mathematical occupations. . . . . . Architecture and engineering occupations. . . . . Life, physical, and social science occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Community and social service occupations. . . . Legal occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education, training, and library occupations. . . Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Healthcare support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food preparation and serving related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal care and service occupations. . . . . . . . . . Sales and office occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office and administrative support occupations. . . Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. . . . . . . Construction and extraction occupations. . . . . . . . . Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production, transportation, and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDUSTRY Private sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and related industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagricultural industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.. . Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publishing, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures and sound recording industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

Total employed

Members of unions1

2017 Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

52,108

6,064

11.6

6,916

13.3

20,289 13,563

927 605

4.6 4.5

1,129 736

6,726 31,818 4,301 2,941

322 5,138 166 187

4.8 16.1 3.9 6.4

1,276 2,506 1,412 8,765

112 372 79 3,031

2,158

Total employed

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

53,442

6,155

11.5

6,972

13.0

5.6 5.4

20,617 13,894

902 596

4.4 4.3

1,097 727

5.3 5.2

393 5,787 222 219

5.8 18.2 5.2 7.4

6,723 32,824 4,544 3,053

307 5,253 178 220

4.6 16.0 3.9 7.2

370 5,876 225 250

5.5 17.9 4.9 8.2

8.8 14.8 5.6 34.6

138 408 95 3,344

10.8 16.3 6.8 38.2

1,360 2,555 1,500 8,949

138 392 119 2,996

10.2 15.3 7.9 33.5

154 426 134 3,327

11.3 16.7 8.9 37.2

141

6.5

162

7.5

2,314

157

6.8

173

7.5

8,459 24,271 3,373 3,093

1,051 2,337 233 1,069

12.4 9.6 6.9 34.5

1,199 2,596 275 1,133

14.2 10.7 8.1 36.6

8,548 24,207 3,412 3,119

1,054 2,392 286 1,082

12.3 9.9 8.4 34.7

1,186 2,623 314 1,152

13.9 10.8 9.2 37.0

8,466

333

3.9

394

4.6

8,220

314

3.8

359

4.4

4,897 4,441 31,051 13,671 17,380

430 272 2,051 421 1,631

8.8 6.1 6.6 3.1 9.4

491 304 2,314 483 1,831

10.0 6.8 7.5 3.5 10.5

4,864 4,592 31,018 13,682 17,337

441 268 1,944 432 1,511

9.1 5.8 6.3 3.2 8.7

492 305 2,207 513 1,694

10.1 6.6 7.1 3.7 9.8

11,812 988 6,387

1,788 22 1,177

15.1 2.2 18.4

1,920 31 1,240

16.3 3.2 19.4

12,238 1,090 6,529

2,015 37 1,262

16.5 3.4 19.3

2,129 42 1,318

17.4 3.8 20.2

4,438

589

13.3

649

14.6

4,619

716

15.5

770

16.7

16,859 8,150

2,315 959

13.7 11.8

2,524 1,049

15.0 12.9

16,985 8,143

2,311 1,006

13.6 12.4

2,514 1,092

14.8 13.4

8,708

1,355

15.6

1,475

16.9

8,842

1,304

14.8

1,422

16.1

115,417 1,315 114,102 765 7,488 14,783 9,247 5,536 18,515 3,288 15,227 6,048 5,073 975 2,473 455

7,435 17 7,419 43 1,039 1,295 827 468 780 120 660 1,145 935 210 222 22

6.4 1.3 6.5 5.6 13.9 8.8 8.9 8.4 4.2 3.7 4.3 18.9 18.4 21.5 9.0 4.9

8,437 28 8,409 48 1,095 1,422 906 515 887 137 750 1,239 1,014 225 250 24

7.3 2.1 7.4 6.3 14.6 9.6 9.8 9.3 4.8 4.2 4.9 20.5 20.0 23.0 10.1 5.2

116,935 1,337 115,598 735 7,844 14,670 9,194 5,477 18,778 3,291 15,487 6,232 5,205 1,028 2,464 458

7,601 28 7,573 32 1,102 1,328 836 492 839 147 692 1,139 903 237 242 17

6.5 2.1 6.6 4.4 14.0 9.1 9.1 9.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 18.3 17.3 23.0 9.8 3.6

8,494 30 8,463 35 1,156 1,461 913 548 940 160 780 1,225 978 247 264 19

7.3 2.3 7.3 4.8 14.7 10.0 9.9 10.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 19.7 18.8 24.1 10.7 4.1

349

38

11.0

43

12.3

379

43

11.4

45

11.8

Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2016-17 annual averages — Continued [Numbers in thousands] 2016

Occupation and industry

Total employed

Members of unions1 Total

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming. . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance and insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . . . . . . Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and technical services. . . . . . . . . Management, administrative, and waste services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food services and drinking places. . . . . . . . Other services3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other services, except private households.. . Public sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Percent of employed

2017 Represented by unions2 Total

Percent of employed

Total employed

Members of unions1 Total

Percent of employed

Represented by unions2 Total

534 821 8,963 6,616 4,142 2,473 2,347 14,257 8,728

32 119 205 91 49 42 114 346 141

5.9 14.6 2.3 1.4 1.2 1.7 4.9 2.4 1.6

43 129 274 138 81 57 136 464 211

8.0 15.8 3.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 5.8 3.3 2.4

544 814 9,067 6,720 4,156 2,563 2,348 14,739 9,328

42 131 217 101 46 55 117 335 162

7.8 16.1 2.4 1.5 1.1 2.1 5.0 2.3 1.7

47 138 278 142 67 76 135 407 210

8.7 17.0 3.1 2.1 1.6 2.9 5.8 2.8 2.2

5,529 22,152 4,557 17,595 12,687 2,329 10,358 1,506 8,852 5,973 5,258 20,684 3,674 6,965 10,045

205 1,808 561 1,247 381 126 255 114 141 155 152 7,120 1,006 2,064 4,050

3.7 8.2 12.3 7.1 3.0 5.4 2.5 7.6 1.6 2.6 2.9 34.4 27.4 29.6 40.3

253 2,107 652 1,454 438 139 299 123 176 186 179 7,834 1,144 2,282 4,409

4.6 9.5 14.3 8.3 3.5 6.0 2.9 8.2 2.0 3.1 3.4 37.9 31.1 32.8 43.9

5,412 22,324 4,600 17,724 12,748 2,424 10,324 1,454 8,870 5,994 5,390 20,956 3,652 7,103 10,201

173 1,798 526 1,272 374 144 230 106 124 167 164 7,216 972 2,153 4,091

3.2 8.1 11.4 7.2 2.9 5.9 2.2 7.3 1.4 2.8 3.0 34.4 26.6 30.3 40.1

198 2,077 621 1,456 428 157 271 114 158 192 186 7,951 1,131 2,371 4,449

3.7 9.3 13.5 8.2 3.4 6.5 2.6 7.8 1.8 3.2 3.5 37.9 31.0 33.4 43.6

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 3 Includes other industries, not shown separately. NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. 2

Percent of employed

Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2016-17 annual averages 2016 Occupation and industry

OCCUPATION Management, professional, and related occupations. . . . . . . . . Management, business, and financial operations occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business and financial operations occupations. . . . . . . . . . Professional and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and mathematical occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architecture and engineering occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Life, physical, and social science occupations. . . . . . . . . . . Community and social service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education, training, and library occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations. . . . . . Service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Healthcare support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food preparation and serving related occupations. . . . . . . . . Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal care and service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and office occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office and administrative support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction and extraction occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. . . . . . . . . Production, transportation, and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . INDUSTRY Private sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agriculture and related industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonagricultural industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publishing, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion pictures and sound recording industries. . . . . . . Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance and insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and technical services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

2017

Total

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Total

Members of unions1

Nonunion3

Represented by unions2

Nonunion3

$1,188

$1,166

$1,159

$1,197

$1,224

$1,215

$1,206

$1,227

1,284 1,370 1,161 1,141 1,443 1,482 1,209 919 1,431 984

1,263 1,389 1,146 1,156 1,372 1,424 1,288 1,095 1,615 1,130

1,266 1,408 1,141 1,146 1,332 1,411 1,278 1,076 1,621 1,114

1,285 1,368 1,164 1,140 1,458 1,490 1,195 872 1,419 887

1,327 1,392 1,174 1,160 1,465 1,478 1,286 900 1,443 1,002

1,276 1,349 1,188 1,199 1,375 1,479 1,297 1,035 1,550 1,157

1,276 1,361 1,163 1,187 1,371 1,473 1,338 1,035 1,577 1,144

1,329 1,395 1,174 1,154 1,473 1,479 1,276 866 1,428 900

1,040 1,104 523 525 809 465

1,252 1,191 771 602 1,088 597

1,224 1,175 753 602 1,074 581

1,028 1,087 505 520 694 459

1,066 1,124 544 542 852 484

1,354 1,244 792 577 1,163 594

1,334 1,239 774 573 1,146 583

1,041 1,103 518 539 713 479

510 505 698 744 679

664 559 810 717 826

647 546 804 724 818

498 503 686 745 661

522 520 718 763 701

638 624 829 806 834

629 609 814 813 815

511 516 710 761 688

786 520 784 861

1,127 – 1,153 1,076

1,111 – 1,142 1,069

735 518 719 822

801 539 796 878

1,146 – 1,136 1,187

1,132 – 1,124 1,176

750 533 734 822

665 668 662

881 841 913

876 837 904

631 641 622

692 701 681

922 895 949

902 878 926

662 678 640

801 572 806 1,197 822 857 893 793 676 871 623 860 795 1,264 1,143 1,094 1,085

937 – 937 – 1,168 885 907 839 701 921 645 1,033 972 1,408 1,238 – –

932 – 933 – 1,146 884 910 827 700 905 645 1,023 969 1,388 1,257 – –

789 571 793 1,190 780 852 890 789 675 868 622 808 757 1,242 1,133 1,102 1,030

829 599 833 1,257 840 884 910 837 705 903 656 888 815 1,325 1,154 1,171 1,189

984 – 986 – 1,163 943 968 892 758 979 721 1,147 1,053 1,432 1,344 – –

971 – 974 – 1,155 927 955 871 753 986 714 1,121 1,016 1,432 1,330 – –

816 599 820 1,263 797 878 904 830 702 899 653 828 781 1,254 1,142 1,167 1,134

1,017 1,182 977 1,039 1,089 977 827 992 1,273

– 1,273 896 818 – – 977 887 1,309

– 1,306 916 853 813 907 970 935 1,277

1,020 1,153 981 1,047 1,101 980 817 995 1,273

973 1,197 1,009 1,076 1,125 1,027 839 1,037 1,347

– 1,195 943 980 – – 918 1,005 1,231

– 1,201 945 964 1,010 931 931 1,016 1,252

959 1,195 1,012 1,081 1,126 1,032 833 1,038 1,349

Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2016-17 annual averages — Continued 2016 Occupation and industry

Management, administrative, and waste services. . . . . Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food services and drinking places. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other services4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other services, except private households. . . . . . . . . . . . Public sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2017

Total

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Nonunion3

$613 817 936 785 528 678 504 582 491 686 708 967 1,149 931 940

$687 944 967 929 670 720 642 698 567 959 965 1,070 1,093 1,022 1,089

$682 937 965 921 667 720 637 703 575 869 893 1,055 1,099 1,011 1,071

$610 799 931 771 522 673 501 564 490 681 703 900 1,188 883 817

Total

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Nonunion3

$629 843 957 810 547 716 513 598 501 705 722 986 1,176 955 949

$873 978 1,026 928 676 750 636 685 586 913 924 1,104 1,138 1,061 1,121

$842 964 1,018 914 669 766 620 678 564 874 890 1,096 1,146 1,050 1,106

$622 831 942 800 538 710 510 588 500 699 717 917 1,213 907 832

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. 3 Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job. 4 Includes other industries, not shown separately. - Data not shown where base is less than 50,000. NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. 2

Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] 2016

State

Total employed

Members of unions1

2017 Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

Total employed

Members of unions1

Represented by unions2

Total

Percent of employed

Total

Percent of employed

Alabama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,895 297 2,727 1,186 16,001 2,438 1,568 419 343 8,113

153 55 122 47 2,551 238 275 48 32 456

8.1 18.5 4.5 3.9 15.9 9.8 17.5 11.4 9.5 5.6

170 59 151 59 2,796 263 288 56 37 574

9.0 19.9 5.5 5.0 17.5 10.8 18.4 13.3 10.7 7.1

1,869 304 2,805 1,209 16,064 2,494 1,645 425 347 8,573

138 55 111 62 2,491 238 278 45 34 480

7.4 18.1 4.0 5.1 15.5 9.6 16.9 10.7 9.8 5.6

152 59 145 74 2,708 273 295 48 40 570

8.1 19.4 5.2 6.1 16.9 11.0 17.9 11.2 11.5 6.6

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kentucky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,249 597 689 5,587 2,927 1,454 1,274 1,710 1,799 567

165 119 42 812 304 129 109 190 76 65

3.9 19.9 6.1 14.5 10.4 8.9 8.6 11.1 4.2 11.4

210 125 47 856 335 153 132 228 88 77

4.9 20.9 6.8 15.3 11.4 10.5 10.3 13.4 4.9 13.5

4,342 605 723 5,516 2,987 1,475 1,296 1,810 1,780 576

173 129 35 827 266 104 101 174 78 66

4.0 21.3 4.8 15.0 8.9 7.0 7.8 9.6 4.4 11.4

217 139 42 872 289 127 131 232 96 81

5.0 22.9 5.8 15.8 9.7 8.6 10.1 12.8 5.4 14.0

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michigan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minnesota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nevada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,815 3,158 4,196 2,563 1,108 2,711 418 876 1,211 669

310 381 606 365 73 262 50 64 146 63

11.0 12.1 14.4 14.2 6.6 9.7 11.9 7.4 12.1 9.4

347 407 651 388 90 290 58 74 182 74

12.3 12.9 15.5 15.2 8.1 10.7 13.9 8.5 15.0 11.0

2,772 3,231 4,230 2,693 1,106 2,613 419 858 1,290 642

299 401 658 411 59 226 50 70 164 72

10.8 12.4 15.6 15.2 5.3 8.7 11.9 8.2 12.7 11.3

326 431 711 428 77 265 57 78 189 83

11.8 13.3 16.8 15.9 7.0 10.1 13.6 9.1 14.6 13.0

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,007 784 8,227 4,225 363 4,970 1,482 1,691 5,686 481

644 49 1,942 129 20 617 80 228 685 74

16.1 6.3 23.6 3.0 5.5 12.4 5.4 13.5 12.1 15.5

666 64 2,075 174 25 702 97 267 724 81

16.6 8.2 25.2 4.1 7.0 14.1 6.6 15.8 12.7 16.9

3,898 769 8,472 4,305 356 5,062 1,536 1,763 5,543 486

630 52 2,017 145 18 635 84 262 665 78

16.2 6.7 23.8 3.4 5.1 12.5 5.5 14.9 12.0 16.1

665 63 2,148 171 24 688 108 277 723 84

17.1 8.3 25.3 4.0 6.8 13.6 7.1 15.7 13.0 17.2

South Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,981 379 2,746 11,457 1,318 290 3,748 3,090 669 2,696 248

32 20 158 462 62 33 160 539 79 219 16

1.6 5.2 5.7 4.0 4.7 11.5 4.3 17.4 11.8 8.1 6.3

52 26 174 606 79 37 226 577 88 244 18

2.6 7.0 6.4 5.3 6.0 12.9 6.0 18.7 13.2 9.0 7.3

1,986 380 2,728 11,626 1,375 288 3,801 3,112 683 2,778 243

52 20 155 543 54 32 176 584 75 230 15

2.6 5.4 5.7 4.7 3.9 11.0 4.6 18.8 11.0 8.3 6.0

78 25 176 669 74 35 222 630 82 250 16

3.9 6.7 6.4 5.8 5.4 12.1 5.8 20.2 11.9 9.0 6.7

1

Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract. NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. 2

Chart1.1.Union Union membership rates by state, annual av Chart membership rates by state, 20172017 annual averages (U.S. rate rate == 10.7 10.7 percent) (U.S. Mountain

West North Central East North Central

WASH.

MONT.

N.D.

MAINE

Middle Atlantic

MINN.

ORE.

New England

VT. N.H. MASS. N.Y.

IDAHO

WIS.

S.D.

CONN. R.I.

MICH. WYO. PA.

IOWA

N.J.

NEB. OHIO NEV. CALIF.

ILL.

IND. MD.

UTAH COLO.

KAN.

DEL.

MO. W.VA. KY.

VA.

TENN. ARIZ.

N.C. N.M.

D.C.

OKLA. ARK.

Pacific

MISS.

S.C.

ALA. GA.

TEXAS

South Atlantic

LA.

West South Central

East South Central

FLA.

20.0% or more 15.0% to 19.9% 10.0% to 14.9%

HAWAII

5.0% to 9.9%

ALASKA

4.9% or less

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union members-2016 - Bureau of Labor Statistics

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 19, 2018 USDL-18-0080 Technical information: (202) 691-6378 • [email protected] • www.bls.gov/cps Media c...

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