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C LA U D I U S C L A U D I A N U S L a t in p o e t ,

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r e i g ns ( A D 3 9 4 5 o n w a r d s ) o f t h e b ro t h ers Honori u s ( E m p ero r in t h e W es t ) a n d Arc ad i u ( in t h e E as t ) A p pa r en t ly a na t i v e o f G ree k Ale x an d ria in Eg y p t h e w a s t o j u dg e b y h is n a me o f R o m an d es c e nt t h o ug h h is firs t w ri t ing s w ere i n G r ee k a n d h is p u r e La t i n m a y h a v e b e e n learne d b y h i m as a fo r eig n lang uag e Ab ou t A D 3 9 5 h e m o v e d t o I t aly ( M ilan a nd R o m e ) a n d t h oug h reall y a p ag a n b e c ame a p ro fessional c our t —p oe t c o m p o s in fo r C h ris t ian r u lers w or k s w h i c h i v e g g u s im p or t an t k n o w le dg e o f H onoriu s t im e .

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A p an eg y ri c on t h e b ro t h ers P r o b in u s a n d O l y b r iu s ( c o nsuls t og e t h er 3 9 5 ) w a s fo l l o w e d d uri ng t e n y ears b y o t h er p oems ( mos t ly e p i c s in h e x a m e t ers ) : in p ra ise o f c onsuls h i s o f H o n o rius ( A D 8 9 9 3 5 3 p ag ains t t h e B yz an t ine m inis t ers R u fi n u s ( 3 9 6 ) a n d E u t r o p iu s i n p raise o f 0 0 f h t h e c onsuls h i o S t il i c o H onorius ( ( 4 ) p u a r d ian eneral a n d m inis t e r ) ; in raise p g g o f S t ili c h o s w i fe S erena ; m i x e d me t r es o n t h e m arria e o f H o n o ri us t o t h eir d a u h g g t er M aria ; on t h e w a r w i t h t h e re b el G il d o in Afri c a on t h e G e t i c or G o t h i c w a r on S t ilic h o s su c c ess ag ai n s t t h e G o t h Alari c o n t h e c o n su l shi p o f M anli u s Th eo d or u s and on t h e w e dd ing o f P a l l a d iu s a n d C elerina L es s .

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I A

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NY PUBLI C L BR RY THE B R NCH L BR R ES

T H E L O E B C L A S S I C AL L I B R ARY F OU N D E D B Y

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CONT E NT S

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CL AU D I U S CL A U D I AN US m ay be called the last poet O f classical Ro m e H e wa s born about the year 3 7 0 A D a n d died withi n a decade O f th e sack O f the city by Alaric i n 4 1 0 The thirty to f orty O d d years which co m prised his li f e were som e O f the most m o m ento u s i n the history of R ome Vale n tinia n and Valens were e m p e r ors respectively O f the West a n d the East whe n he wa s bor n and while the f ormer wa s e n gaged i n co n sta n t warfare with the n orther n tribes O f Ala m a nni Quadi a n d Sar m atians whos e adva n ces the sk i ll O f his general Theodos i us had m anaged to check th e latter wa s bei n g reserved f or u n successfu l battle with an enemy still m ore deadly It is about the y ear 3 7 0 that we begi n to hear O f the H u n s The first people to fall a v i ctim to their eastward aggressio n were the Alans n ext came the Ostrogoths whos e king H e r m a n r ic wa s d riven to suicide ; a n d by 3 7 5 the Visigoths were threatened with a si m ilar fate H e m med i n by the ad v anc i ng flood Of Hu n s a n d th e statio n ary po w er Of Rome this people af ter a vai n atte m pt to ally itself with the latter wa s f orced i n to arms aga i nst her An i n decisive battle with the ge n erals of Vale n s (3 7 7 ) wa s followed by a crushing Ro m an defeat in the 8 at Adria n ople where year August s uc c e edi n 3 7 9 ( ) g .

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INTRO D UCTIO N Vale ns him self but recently returned fro m h is Persian war lost his li fe Gratia n a n d hi s half brother Vale nti nian I I w ho had beco m e A u gusti upo n the death Of their f ather Valenti nia n I i n 3 7 5 wo u ld have had l ittle power O f the m selves to withstand the victorio u s G oths a n d Rome might well have f allen th irty years be f ore s h e d i d had it n ot bee n for the force Of character a n d the mi l itary ski ll Of that sa m e Theodosi u s w hose successes against the Alam a nni have already b ee n m entioned Theodosi u s was s umm o n ed f r o m his retirement i n Spai n a n d made Au g u st u s (Ja nu ary 1 9 D u ring the n ext thre e years he succeeded w ith the help O f th e Fran k ish generals Ba n to and Arbogast in gradually dr iving the Goths n orth w ard and so reli eved the ba rbarian press u re o n the Easter n Empire and its capital In 3 8 1 At h a n a r ic the Gothic ki n g s u ed in pe r son f or peace at Constan t in op l e a n d there did homage to the emperor In the f ollowi n g year the Visigoths became allies Of Ro m e an d f or a ti m e at least the danger was averted M ea nwhile the West wa s f ari n g n ot m u ch better Gratian after an un easy reig n was murdered i n 3 8 3 by the B ritish prete n der M a g n us M axi m us From 3 8 3 to 3 8 7 Maxi mu s was j oint r u le r of the Wes t with Vale n ti ni a n I I who m he had le f t in comma n d O f Italy rather fr om moti v es Of pol ic y than O f cle m e n cy but i n the latter year he t h rew O ff the mask a n d crossing the A lps descended upon his colleag u e whose co u rt wa s at Mila n Valentinia n fled to Thessalonica an d there threw hi m self o n the m ercy O f Theodosius O n c e m ore that ge n eral was t o save the situatio n vi i i ,

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INTRO D U CTION Maximus was de f eated by hi m at Aq u il eia and put to death w hile A rbogast recovered Gaul by m ean s Of an almost bloodless campaign The next sce n e in the drama is the murder at Vien n e on M ay 1 5 3 92 Of the f eeble Valentinia n at the inst i gation of A rbogast Ar b og a s t s t r i u mph was however sho r t —li v ed N o t daring himself a Frank to assume th e purple he in v ested there w ith h is secretary th e Roman E u gen iu s intendi n g to go v er n the West with Eugeni u s as a mere fi g u r e head Once more and n ow f or the last time Theodosi u s saved the ca u se of legitimacy by de f eati n g E u geni u s 1 at the battle O f the F r ig i d u s i n September 3 9 4 Eugeni u s was executed but Ar bogast made good his escape o nly to f all a f e w weeks later by h is own hand Theodosi u s himsel f died on J a nu ary 1 7 3 95 lea v i n g his two sons Ar cadi us and Hono ri us empero r s Of the East a n d West resp ecti v ely A rcadi u s w as but a tool i n the ha n ds O f his praeto r ian pre f ect R u fin u s whose character is drawn with such ve n o m o u s f erocity i n Claudian s t wo poems A lmost equally powerf ul and scarcely less co r rupt seems t o have bee n that other victim Of Cla u dian s splenetic verses the eu n uch chamberlain E u t r op iu s wh o becam e co n sul i n the year 3 99 Both thes e men s u ff ered a viole n t e n d E u t rop iu s in spite Of the pleadings of S Joh n Chrysostom was p u t t o death by G a i nas the com m ander O f the Gothic troops i n the East ; R u fin u s wa s to rn to pieces i n the prese n ce O f Arcad i us 2 hi m self by his Eastern troops The i n stigator of ,

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INTRODUCTIO N this j ust m urder wa s Claudia n s hero Stilicho the Va n dal Stil icho wh o had bee n o n e O f Theodosius ge n erals had bee n p u t in command O f the troops se n t to oppos e Alaric the Visigoth when the latter had broke n away fro m his allegian ce to Ro m e and wa s sprea di ng de v astation thro u ghout Thrace Macedo ni a and Thessaly H e wa s success f ul in his campaign b u t upo n his marching so u th into G reece i n order to rid that co u ntry also of its G othic in v aders he was f orb i dde n by R u fin u s to advance any farther There ca n be little doub t that the m urder O f R u fin u s was Stilicho s answer I n spite Of a subsequent victory over Alaric n ear Eli s i n the year 3 97 Stilicho s success ca n have been but a partial on e f or we fi n d the Visigoth general occupying the post of M aster Of the Soldi ery i n Illyric u m the withhol di ng of which O ffice had be en the m ain caus e of his defectio n Possibly t o o the revolt of Gildo in A f r ica had something t o do with the u n satisf actory terminatio n O f the Visigothic war It is interesti n g to observe the depende n ce of Italy o n Africa n cor n a depe n de n ce of which i n the first ce n t u ry of the Ch r istia n era V espasian and right at the e n d O f the seco n d the prete n der P e s c e nn iu s Niger threatened to make u s e I f we ca n cre d it the details Of Cla u d i an s poe m o n the wa r ( N 0 Ro m e wa s very shortly red u ced to a state Of se m i starvatio n by G il d o s hol di ng up Of the corn fleet and but for Stilicho s prompt action i n sendi n g G il d o s own brother M a s c e z e l t o put down the rebellio n the situatio n might have be come eve n m ore critical The poet it may b e re m arked was i n a n awkward positio n with regard t o the war for ’

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INTROD UCTIO N though the real credi t of victory was clearly d u e t o M a s c e z e l (of xv 3 8 0 et he n evertheless wished to att r ib u te it to his hero Stilicho and as Stilicho 1 had M a s c e z el exec u ted later i n that sa m e year f Gi ldo had bee n de eated at T a b r a c a J uly 3 1 ( he pr u dently di d n ot wr ite or p erhaps suppress ed Boo k I I St il icho wh o had married Serena niece a n d adop tive daughter O f Theodosius still fu rther secured his positio n by givi n g his daughter Maria in m arriage to the yo un g Emperor Honorius in the year 3 98 This f ather in law a n d son in law of an e mp eror as Cla u dia n is n e v er wearied of calli n g him did the co un try of his adoption a s i g n al s ervic e by the defeat at P ol l e n t ia on Easter D ay ( April 402 o f A laric wh o f or reaso n s O f which we really know nothi n g had again proved u nfaithfu l to Ro m e a n d had invaded and laid w aste Italy i n the wi n ter O f 401 —402 The battle O f P ol l e n t ia w as the last importa n t event in Claudian s l i fetime He see m s to ha v e di ed i n 404 fo u r years be f ore th e m u rder Of Stilicho by the j ealous Ho n orius a n d s i x be f ore the sack Of Ro m e 2 — by A laric a di saster which Stilicho alone perhaps might have averted .

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mu ch for the historical backgro u nd Of th e lif e Of the poet Of the deta i ls Of hi s career we are not well inf ormed Something i n deed we can gather from the pages Of the poet h im self though it is n ot mu ch b u t besides this we have to g u ide us o nly H e s y ch ius O f Miletus S hort 1 O r a t l e a s t con n ived a t h is de a th s ee Z o s i m u s v 1 1 5 3 F or a n a dvers e ( a n d pro b a b l y u nfa ir) vi ew Of S ti l ich o s ee J ero m e E p cxxiii 1 7 SO

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INTRODUCTIO N ’

article i n S u id a s lexico n a brief m e n tio n i n the Chro nicle O f 3 95 a n d ( a curious survival) th e in 1 scriptio n u n der the statue w hich as he hi m sel f tells 2 emperor a n d s enate had m ade i n his honour a n d us We are ig n orant e v en s e t up in the For u m of T r aj an of the date of his b i rth and can o n ly conj ect u re that it wa s abo u t the year 3 7 0 Of the place of his b i rth we are equally un i n f ormed by contemporary and credible testimony but there ca n b e l i ttle do u bt 3 that he came fro m Egyp t probably fro m Alexandr ia itsel f We have f or w hat it is worth the wo r d Of N o w in the N a p l e s C I L vi 1 7 1 0 ( = D e s s a u M u s eu m [ CL ] Cl a u d ia n i v c [ Cl a ] udio Cl a udia n o v c tri | [ b u ] n o et n ot a rio i nter c ete r a s I [ de ] ce n te s a rte s p r a e I g ] l or io s is s im o m m am m i t e rn a m a rm i n a icet e ori c m a d s e a r u l o e t | p [p ] a b eod e m I s cript a s u fli c ia n t a d ta m e n I t e s tim on ii g ra ti a o b iu d ic ii s u i I [ f ] ide m dd mm Arca diu s e t H o n oriu s I [ f e ,

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l ic is s im i e t d octis s im i I im p e r a tore s s e n a tu p ete n te I i n f oro divi T ra ia n i I eri g i c ol l oca r iq u e ius s er u n t

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R t H on dd u m = d 0 m in i n o s tri The i n s cription m a y b e tra n s l a ted — To C l a udius C l a udi a nu s v c , s on Of C l a udiu s C l a udi a nu s v c , tri b u n e a n d n ota ry ( i a P erm a n ent S ecret a ry ) , m a s ter of the en n o b l ing a rts b ut a b ove a l l a poet a nd m os t f a m ous o f poet s , thoug h h is o wn poe m s a re e n oug h to e ns ure h is i m m o rt a l ity , th a nkf u l m e m ory o f h is di s cretio n a n d l oy a l t y , their i n t e , y s ere n e a n d l e a rn ed m aj e s tie s , the E m perors Arc a dius a n d H on oriu s h a ve , a t the ins t a nce of the s en a te , b idde n this s t a tue to b e ra is ed a n d s et up in the F oru m of the E m peror Traj a n of b l e s s ed m e m ory

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— o e her ki n s to one wh o h a s co m b in ed R m a nd g A H o m er s m us ic with a V erg il s m in d ’



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INTRODUCTION have won f or himself a position of some importanc e As we s e e fr om the i n scription q u oted above he became vir cl a r is s zmus tr ibuna s et n ota r ia s and as he does n ot conti nu e fur the r along the road Of hono u rs does not for i n stance beco m e a vir s ecta bil is we p ( ) m ust s u ppos e that he s erved i n some c apacity on St i l i cho s p r ivate sta ff No do u bt he became a sort of poet laureate It is probable that the D e r a p t u wa s writte n duri n g the first t wo years o f his soj ou rn at the co ur t The poe m is dedicated or addressed to Of Mila n 1 Flo r enti n us wh o wa s p r a ef ectus ur bi from Au g u st 3 9 5 to the e n d of 3 9 7 w hen he fell into disgrace with Stil i cho It is to this c i rc u mstanc e that w e are to attrib u te the unfi n ished state of Claudian s poem The Empe r or Hono r i u s beca m e cons u l f or the third tim e on J a nu ary 3 3 96 and on this occasion Claudia n read hi s Pa n egyric i n the emp eror s pres 2 e n ce Some five weeks be f o r e this event another of g r eater im portance had occ u rred i n the East Th i s wa s the murder of R u fi n u s the praetoria n pre f ect amid th e circumstances that have been related above The date of the compos i tio n Of Cla u dian s In R u fin u m is certa i nly to be placed t wo poe ms with i n the years 3 95 —3 97 and the m ent i on of a 3 m ak es it probable that Boo k I I t e n u e m moram was writte n considerably later tha n Book I ; the references mo r eo v er i n the Pre f ace t o Boo k I I to a v i ctory of St i licho clearly point to that ge n eral s de f eat o f the G oths n ear Elis i n 3 97 T o the y ear 3 98 belong the Pa n egyric on the P ra ef ii 5 0 .

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INTRODUCTION fourth consulship of Hono riu s and the po ems cele b r a t in g the m ar r iage O f the emperor to Stilicho s da u ghter M aria We have already se en that the G ildo episode and Cla u d i a n s poem o n that s u bj ect are to be att ri b u ted to th i s same year The c o n s u ls f or the year 3 99 w e r e both i n di ffere n t w ays co n s i dered w o r thy of the poet s pen Perhaps the most savage o f all h i s poems w as d i re c ted aga i nst E u t r op iu s the eun uc h c hambe r la i n w hos e cla im to 1 the cons u lsh i p the West neve r recogn i z ed while a Panegyric on Flavi u s M anli u s Theodo r us made ame n ds for an abusive ep i gra m whi ch the u s u ally m ore pol i tic Claudi a n had p r e v io u sly levelled at 2 him At the end of 3 99 or possibly at the beg i nning of 3 400 Cla u d i an ret ur ned to Rome w here probably 1 in Feb r ua r y he re c ited h i s poem on the consulship o f Stilicho ; and w e ha v e no r easo n for s upposing that the poet le f t the capital from th i s time on unt i l h i s depa r t u re f or h i s ill sta r red j o ur ney f o u r yea r s later In the year as has already been men St i licho de f eated A la ri c at P o l l e n t ia and t io n e d Cla u di an recited his poe m on the G oth ic w ar so m e time d ur ing the s u m m er o f the same year T h e scene O f the re c itation seems to have been the 6 B i bli otheca Templi Ap ol l in is It w as i n this year too that the poet reached the summi t o f his great Cf xxii 2 9 1 et s qq Ca rm m in xxi xxiii 2 3 S O B irt P r a ef p x l n n ote 1 I t s houl d perh a p s b e m e n tion ed th a t thi s d a te is d is s ee Cree s C l a u d ia n a s a n H is tor ica l Au tho i ty p u te d pp 1 75 et s qq “ xx v 4 P ythi a do m us ’

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I NTRODUCTI ON n ess i n the dedicat i o n O f the stat u e wh i ch as w e ha v e see n w as a cc o r ded to him by the wishes of the empero r and at th e demand of the s enate The last of Claudian s datable p u bl i c poems is that o n the sixth cons u lsh i p of Honori u s It was composed probably to w ards the end Of 403 and rec i ted in Rome on (or after) the occasion of t h e emperor s t riu mphant entry into the ci ty The emperor had j u st r eturned af ter inflict i ng a de f eat o n the Goths at Verona i n the s u mme r Of 403 It i s reasonable to suppose that th i s t ri u mphant ent r y 1 1 to w hich the poem re e r s in some deta i l f 3 3 1 6 3 9) ( too k place o n the day on which the emperor ass u med the consular O ffi c e viz Jan u a r y 3 404 In the year 404 Cla u d i an s eems to have m arri ed some prot é g é e of Se r ena s Of the two poems a d “ dressed to her the La u s S e r e n a e i s clea r ly the earli e r and w e may take the other the Epistola ad ” S ere n am to b e the last poem Claud i an ever wr ote It is a poem which seems to have been w r i tten on 1 his honeym oon d urin g the cou r s e of w hich he d i ed ,

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It is not easy to a rr i v e at any j u st estim ate of Cla u di an as a write r partly beca u se of an i ne vi table tendency to con f u se relati v e wi th absol u te standards and partly ( and it is say i ng m u ch the same thing in other w o r ds) beca u se it i s s o hard to separate Claudia n the poet f r om Claud i an the ma nip u lator of the Latin lang u age I f w e c ompa r e hi s lati ni ty wi th that Of h i s c ontempo r a ri es ( wi th the possible except i on O f R u t il iu s ) or with that Of such a poet as S i doni u s Apollinaris wh o came n ot m u ch more This s u g g es tio n is V o l l m er s s ee h is a rticl e on Cl a udi a n in P a ul y Wis s owa II I ii p 2 6 5 5 ,

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I NTR O D UCTION than half a century afte r him it i s hard to withhold at least as o u r admiration f r om a writer w ho co u ld f a r as h i s lang u age is c o n ce r ned challenge compa ri so n with poets s uc h as Valerius Fl a c c u s S il i u s Ital i e n s and Stat i us— poets w ho flo u rished about thre e cen 1 I do u bt w hether s u bj ect m atter t u r i e s be f o r e h i m set as i de Cla u dian m i ght not dece i ve the v e r y ele c t i n to thinking him a contempo r ary of Statius wi th whose S il va e his o wn sho r te r poe m s have m uch in common Even as a po et Cla u d i an is n ot al w ays despicable H i s descriptions are O ften cleve r e g the Ap on u s and 2 many passages in the D e r a p t u H i s t r eatment some w hat commonplace and o fte n th r eadbare Of the m es is n ot seldo m success f ul— f or example the poem o n the Phoe ni x and a f o u r line des cri ption o f the horses of the da wn in the Panegyri c on Hono riu s 3 — a n d he has a happy knack f o ur th cons u lsh i p of phrase m ak ing which O f ten reli e v es a ted i o u s page i l l e vel a era t a D a na en in turre l a tente m ,

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he says of the pander E u t r op iu s B u t perhaps Cla u dian s f o r te i s i n ve c tive Th e pa n egyrics ( with the do u btf ul e xc ept i o n of that on S ti l l m ore s triki n g is the co m p a ri s on Of C l a udi a n s l a ti nity w ith th a t of h is co n te m pora ry the a uthores s of the f ra n kl y co l l o q ui a l P er eg r in t io d l oca s n cta ( s ee G ra n d g e nt Ub er die L a tin itat der P a d VOl fll in V u l g a r L ti n p 5 ” in A r ch i v f ii r l a t L ex ik og r a p h ie iv I s a ncta I t is n ot i m po s s i b l e th a t thi s poe m is a tra n s l a tion or G reek ( Al exa n dri n e ) orig ina l a t l e a s t a n a d a pta tio n of a .



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S o F Or s ter , D er R a u b S t u tt g a rt , 1 8 74

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INTRODUCTION M anl iu s w h i ch i s ce r tainly brighter than the others) are u ni f ormly d u ll b u t the poems on R u fi n u s and E u t r op i u s are tho u gh do u btless in the worst Of taste at least i n pa r ts am u sing Cla u d i a n s fa u lts are easy to find H e mistook m emo r y f or insp ir at i on and s o is O ften w ordy and ted i o u s as fo r i nstance i n h i s three poems on Stilic ho s 1 cons u lship Wo r se tha n th i s he is f r eq u ently Ob sc ur e a n d invol v ed— w i tness h i s seven poems on the 2 drop of w ater conta i ned w i th in the ro ck crystal Th e besett i ng s i n t oo o f almost all post V i rg i li an Roman poets I mean a c on c e i ted f ri g i dity i s on e into which he i s pa r t icu la rly l i able to f all E x amples are a l most too n u mero u s to cite b u t the f ollo wing 3 are typi c al n u s u a m t ot ie n s u e s e u l t u s of p q q the body o f R u fin u s to rn limb f rom l i mb by the re in f uri ated soldie r y ; in p u pp e c a ud a m u e q 1 t or q u e n s A d p r or a m i a c e t u sq u e leo o f one o f the animals bro u ght f r om A fri c a f or the games at St i l ic ho s tri u mph ; A d de s a e vu s u e D a m a s t o r q e l l e n d os i a c u l u m cu m hostes G e r man i u a e r e r e t p q ” 5 the g i ant r i g i d u m m i s i t p r o ru pe c ada v e r of Pallas t u rned to stone by the G o rgon s head o n Mine r va s shield Cons i de r too the re m a rkable ,

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o b s ervi”ng th a t n ot i nf re q ue n tl y Cl a udia n is m a ki n g t e n ta m in a or writi ng a l tern a tive l i n es e g C a rm m in corp vii 1 a n d 2 a n d a l m o s t certa i nl y the f our ” l in e s o f id vi v is q uite l ike l y f or s o m e s uch a tria l p a s s a g e a s xv 5 2 3 2

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INTRODUCTI ON statement that Stilicho i n swimming the Add u a sho w ed greater bra v ery tha n Ho r at iu s Cocles b e cause wh i le the latter s w am away f r om La r s Por se n na the f ormer dabat G e t ic is p ectora 1 bellis Tw o of the poems are interesting as to uc hing u pon ” Christian i ty ( Ca r m min co r p xxxii D e sal v atore “ and I In The se c ond of these t w o poems ca n scarcely be held to b e s e r io u s and altho u gh the first i s u n ob j e c t ion a b l e it cannot be sa i d to stamp 2 its a u thor as a s in ce r e Ch ri st i an O r os iu s and 3 S A u g u st i ne both de c la r e h i m to ha v e been a heathen b u t it i s probable that l ike h i s master Stilicho Claudi an rende r ed the new and orthodox religion at least l ip se r vice ,

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It seems li k ely that after the death of Cla u d i a n a n d that f h i s he r o Stil ic ho the pol i ti c al 4 4 0 o ( ) poe m s (with the ex c ept i on of the Paneg y r i c on 1 w hich d i d not concern P r ob in u s and Ol y b r iu s Stili c ho) were colle c ted a n d p u bl i shed sepa r ately ” “ The Ca rmi na minora m ay ha v e been p u bl i shed abo u t the s a me t i me The s u bseq u ent con fl a t ion of thes e t wo po r tions came to be kno wn as Cla u d i an u s ” ” maior the D e r a p t u be ing Cla u di an u s m i nor ,

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The M S S Of Cla u d i an s poems f all into t w o m ai n c lass es 1 f C odices Thos e which Bi r t re e r s to as th e ( ) ’

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P a g a nu s p e rvica c is s im u s “ C w d ei , v 2 6 a C hri s ti nu m in e a l ie n u s This poem do es n ot s ee m to h a ve b een a s s ocia ted wi th others till the 1 2 th cen tury VI I

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INTRODUCTION ma ior es

a n d wh i ch conta i n the b u lk O f the poems but seldom the D e r a p t u Those which Birt calls the C od ices n or es m i 2 ( ) and w h i ch contain ( ge n erally exclus iv ely) the De ” .

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Class ( 1 ) m ay be again di vided into ( a ) M S S p r oper ( b) exce rpts I gi v e Birt s abbreviat i ons The most i mporta n t are a ( ) R = Co d Ve r on e n s is 1 63 9t h ce n t u ry Contains only the Car mi na m i no r a G = Co d Sa n gallens i s S n 4 2 9 9t h cent ur y Conta i ns only the ( Lati n) G ig a n t o ma c h i a R e g in e n s is 1 2 3 G 1 1 t h ce n t u ry Conta i ns only D e Nilo V = Co d Vaticanus 2 8 09 1 2 th c ent u ry 1 2 th or 1 3 th P = Co d P a r is in u s lat cent ury Contains all the Carm i na m a ior a ex ” cept ( as u s u al) the D e r a p t u and Pan Prob e t Ol y b N O mino r a — = 8 n i 1 2 th 1 3 t h C C od B r u x e l l e s s 5 3 0 4 cent u ry H = Co d P a r is in u s lat 8 08 2 1 3 t h century This is H e in s iu s Regi u s The M s o n ce belonged to Petrarch and still bears his name B Cod N e a p ol it a n u s B orb on ic u s 1 1 1 1 E 47 1 3 th cent ury 1 5 th century A = Co d Am b r o s ia n u s S 6 6 Conta in s all the m a ior a except the D e r a p t u and Pa n Prob e t Ol y b J Cod Ca n t a b r ig ie n s is coll Trinitatis 1 3 t h ce n tury .



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INTRO D UCTION C = C od

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c entury D Cod M u sei B ritannici 6 042 1 3 th cent u ry VV= Cod An t ve r p ie n s is iii 5 9 1 2 th or 1 3 t h cent ur y E = cod Flore n tin u s bibl St Cr u cis 1 2 th cent ur y A Codd O x on ie n s e s B o d l e ia n i 1 3 th B centu r y V = Co d An t ve r p i e n s is N 7 1 1 4t h ce n tury 228

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It is to be O bserved that in Birt s edition and i n any other that accepts his s i gla A B C and V stand f or di ff e r ent M ss accord in g to w hether they re f er or do not refer to the D e r a p t u Some M s s co n tain scholia b u t non e of these go back be f ore the 1 2 th or e v en the 1 3 t h cent u ry The chief edit i o n s of Cla u dian are as f ollows 3 ,

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Ed p r inceps C el s a n u s Vice n z a 1 48 2 U g o l e n t u s Parm a 1 5 00 P a r r h a s iu s Milan 1 5 00 Ca m e r s Vienna 1 5 1 0 Ald i ne ed ( As u l a n u s ) 1 5 2 3 I s e n g r in ed ( M i chael B e n t in u s) Cl a ve r i u s Pa r is 1 6 02 .

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C u ia ci a n is q u ibu s es t, M a rb urg , 1 8 8 9 .

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I N TROD UCTI O N Pla nti n ed ( Scaliger) 1 6 03 Elz evir ed ( H e in s iu s) Leyde n 1 6 5 0 Am sterda m 1 665 Barth Ha n au 1 6 1 2 Fra nkfort 1 6 5 0 Delphi n ed ( Pyrrho) Paris 1 6 7 7 B ur m a n n A m sterdam 1 7 6 0 K Onig Gotti n ge n 1 8 08 .

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I n 1 8 92 Birt published what m ust b e cons i dered a s the standard e di tio n o f Claudia n— vol x i n th e Birt was M onumenta G er ma nia e his tor ica s eries the first to p u t the text of Cla u dia n on a fir m footi n g a n d it is his edition that I have followed appe n di n g critical n otes only where I diff er fro m 1 hi m The latest editio n of Claudian is that O f Koch Koch was long asso c iated T e ub n er Leipzig ( with Birt i n his researches i n to textual q uestions co n nected with Claud i an a n d his text is substa n tially the sa m e a s that of Birt .

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s houl d l ike if po s s ib l e to a nticip a te criticis m b y f ra nkl y sta ting th a t the text of this edition m a ke s n o cl a i m s to b eing b a s ed o n s cientific princip l e s I h a ve f o l l o wed B irt n ot b eca u s e I thi n k h im i n va ri a b l y ri g ht b u t b ec a u s e h is Where I di ff er f ro m h im is a t pres ent the s ta n d a rd text n l a ce s ) I do s o n ot b ec a u s e I pre f er thi w p i u t i a f e b a n d s s ( the a uth ority Of a n other M S or b eca us e I a m convi nced of the rig htnes s of a conj ecture b ut b ec a us e B irt s cons e rva tis m co mm its h im ( in m y opinion) to untra ns l a ta b l e rea ding s in which ca s es m y choice of a va ria nt is a r b itra ry Of the princip l e of d ifiici l ior l ectio I pra g ma tica ll y ta ke n o a ccoun t xxi i i 1

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INTRODUCTIO N S O f a r as I kno w , there is n o English pros e t r a n s l a tion of Claud i a n alre a dy in the field , tho u gh v ario u s Of ” his poems , n otably the D e r a p t u , have f o u nd many

ve r s e tra n slato r s and in 1 8 1 7 h i s c omplete w or k s w ere p u t into Engl i sh v ers e by A Ha wki ns A n Ital i an v ers i on w as p u blished by Domen i co Gri llo i n Ve ni c e in 1 7 1 6 a G erman o n e by Wedek i nd in D armstadt in 1 8 6 8 and there ex i st two French p r os e t r a n s l a t i ons on e by M M D e l a t ou r and G e r u z e z ( é d N is a r d Pa ri s 1 8 5 0) and one by M H é g u in de Gue rle ( Ga rni er fr e res Collection P a n ck o u ck e Paris 1 8 65) Of Cla u diana may be mentio n ed Vogt D e Cl a u dia ni ca r min u m q u a e S til icl zonem p r a edica n t fi d e Ney Vin dicta e Cl a ud ia nea e his tor ien T Hodg kin s Cl a udia n the l a s t of the R oma n P oets E Arens Q ua es tiones Cl a udia na e t w o studi es by A Parra v i c ini ( 1 ) S tudio d i r etor ica an d (2) I s ul l e Op er e d i Cl a udio Cl a ud ia n o J H E Crees P a neg ir ici d i Cl a udia no Cl a ud ia n a s a n H is tor ica l Au th or ity ( Cambridge H i s P r of essor P os t g a t e s t or ic a l Essays N O 1 7 article on the e di tio n s o f Bi r t and Koch i n the Cl a s s a n d the sa m e Sc holar s R ev (vo l ix pp 1 6 2 et E m e n datio n s in the Cl a s s Q ua r ter ly o f 1 9 1 0 (pp Re f ere n ce may also b e m ade to Pro 2 5 7 et f e s s or Bury s appe n dix to vol iii of his edit i o n of Gibbo n ( 1 8 97 un der Cla u dian and to Harvard Studies i n Classical Ph i lology vol xxx T h e E n a udia n us C l a udiu s C l article o V ol h er s c omiums f i n Pa u ly Wis s owa s Lexico n is a mi n e of i n formatio n b u t for complete n ess B ir t s i ntrod u ctio n ( ove r 2 00 pp lo n g) stands alo n e The c u rio u s may fi n d an i n terest i ng l i ght throw n x xiv ,

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hi s circle by Suderm a nn Cl a ud ia n (B erli n ,

Clau di a n a n d

L obg es ang e d es ’

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Claudi a n s ge n ui n e works are tra n slated i n the prese n t volu m es with the exception Of the t wo li n e fragme n t D e Lanario (Birt c m c Ii i The app endix vel sp u ria v el suspecta c on t in e n s h a s bee n rej ected both by Birt a n d Koch and I ha v e i n this followed their example The eight Greek poems attr i buted to Cla u dian are at least of doubtful authenticity though Birt certainly makes G igantomachi a ( a fragm e n t o u t a good cas e f o r the O f 7 7 lines The rema in der co n sists of short epi ) gra m s t wo on the w ell worn theme of the w ater e n closed in the crystal a n d two Christia n o n es These last are almost certainly not the work of Claudius Claudian u s b u t O f Cla u dianus M a m e r t u s presbyter of Vie n ne cir c 47 4 A D We kn ow f rom Sido n i u s ( E p i v 3 8 ) that this Cla u di an wa s a writer of sacred poetry both i n Gree k a n d Latin — indeed the f amo u s Pange li n g u a is attrib u ted to hi m -

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I NTROD UCTIO N I wish i n concl u s i o n to express m y tha nks t o m y colleag u es Mr R L A Du Po ntet a n d Mr E H Blakeney : to the first for valuable suggestio n s o n several O bsc u re poi nts a n d to the second f or help i n readi ng the proofs M A U R I CE P L AT N A U E R ,

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WI N CH E S T E R

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B I B L I OG RAP H I C AL AD D E N D U M E

( 1 99 0)

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C l a u d ia nus

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T ( eu b ne r )

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L e ip zig

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Hall : D e R a p tu P r os e r p in a e ( C a m b r id e C l a s s ica l g I T exts a n d C omme n ta r ies C am b r i d g e 1 9 6 9 Harry L L e vy : I n Rufi nu m (t ext and commentary ) D e t ro it 1 9 7 1 .

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S tu d ie s C ameron : C l a u d ia n : P oet r y a n d P r op a g a n d a a t th e C ou r t of H on or iu s Oxford 1 9 7 0 B Hall : P r ol eg ome n a to C l a u d ia n (B I C S S u p p le ment L ondon 1 9 8 5

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C L AU D I I

CAR M I N A

C L A U D I AN I

P AN E G Y R I CU S D I CT U S P R OB I N O

ET

O L Y B R I O CON S U L I B U S

S OL , q ui fl a m m ig eris

m u n dum com plexus h a b e nis volvis in e x h a us t o r e d e un ti a s aecula m otu sparge di e m m el i or e co m a crin e m q u e r e p e xi bla ndi n s elato s ur g a n t te m o n e iug a l e s c fll a n t e s roseum f r e ni s s u m a n t ib u s i n e m p g i a m n ova g e rm a ni s vestigia t or q u e a t a n nus c ons u l i b u s la c ti q ue p e t a n t exor di a m e n ses Scis ge n us Auche niu m n ec te l a t u er e pote nte s Anni a d a e n a m s a ep e soles d u c t ori b u s ill is i n staur are vi as e t c ur s ib u s a d d e r e n o m e n hi s n e q ue p er dubium p e n d e t Fortu n a f a vor e m n ec n ovi t m u t are vices s e d fi x us in o mn es c o n a t os r oc e di t b o n os u e m c um u e requir e g p q q hac de stirp e viru m c e rt u m e s t de c ons ul e n as ci ,

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P r ob inu s a nd Ol y b r ius , th e cons ul s f or 3 9 5 ( they were b rothers ) , b oth b el ong ed to th e An icia n g e ns , of which Auch en ius b e ca m e a n a l tern a tive g entil e na m e , An ic ius b ec o m ing , i n th es e ca s es , the p r aenomen M a n y m e mb ers of this fa m i l y h a d b e e n , a nd were to b e, c o ns ul s : a g An ic ius A uch en ius B as s us in 408 T h e Annia n g en s wa s 1

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P OE M S

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CL A U D I A N P R OB I N U S

P A NE GY R IC O N TH E CO N SULS A N D OL Y B R I U S

S U N , that e ncir cl e s t the world with rei n s of fl a m e a n d r ol l e s t in ceas eless m otion the revolvi n g centuri es ,

tte r thy light with ki n dli er beam s an d let thy cours ers their m anes com bed a n d they breathi n g forth a rosy fl a m e fro m their f oami n g bits cl im b the heave ns m ore j ocu n d in their lof tier drawn chariot N ow let the year be n d its n ew steps for the consul brothers a n d the glad m o nths ta ke their begin ning 1 Thou wottest O f the Au ch eni a n rac e n or are the powerful An ni a d a e u nkn own to the e for thou of t h a st started thy yearly j ourn ey wi th them a s co n suls F a n d has t or ive n their n a m e to thy revolutio n g the m Fortu n e n either hangs on u n certai n f avour n or cha n ges but ho n ours firmly fixed pass t o all their ki n S elect what ma n thou wilt f ro m their family ti s c erta i n he is a co n sul s s on Their a n cestors are sca

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rel a ted b y ( cos

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interm a rri a g e to the An ic ia n 3 3 1 ) wh o m a rr ied the d a u g hter

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3

CL A U D I A N per f asces n u m e r a n t u r a v i s e m p e r q u e renata nob i l i tate virent e t p r ol e m f ata seq uu nt ur continuu m S imili s e r va n t ia lege t e n o r e m nec q u is q u a m proce rum t e m p t a t l icet ae r e vetusto fl or e a t e t cl a r o cin g a t u r Roma se mat u s e i a c t a r e pare m sed pr i ma s ede r e l ict a Au ch e n iis de iu re licet c e r t a r e s ecundo haud sec u s ac t a cit a m Luna regnante per Ar ct on S id e r e a e c e d un t a c i es c um f ratre r e t u s o a e m u l u s a d ve r s is fl a r a ve r it i ni b u s orb i s g g t un c i u b a r Ar c t u r i langu et tu n c f u lva Leo nis ira perit Pla u stro ia m rara in t e r m ic a t A rctos indi gnata tegi iam c a l ig a n t ib u s a r mi s deb i l i s O rion d e x t r a m m i r a t u r inerte m Q u e m p r ius a d g r e d ia r ve t e r is q ui s facta P r ob in i n e s c i a t a u t ni mi as laudes i n or e t Ol b r i 3 0 g y Vivi t a d h uc c om p l e t q u e v ag i s s e r m on ib u s aur es gloria fusa Probi q u am n on ventura s il e b un t l u stra n ec ign ota r a p i e t s u b nub e vet u stas il l u m fa m a v e h it trans a e q u or a t r a n s q u e re m otas T e t h y o s a m b a ges At l a n t e o s q u e recess u s a u d ii t e t gelido S i q u e m M a e o t i a a s ci t p s u b Io v e vel calido s i qui s c o ni un c t u s in axe n a s c e n t e m te Nile bibit vi r t u t ib u s ille F or t un a m d om ui t n u m q u a m q u e l e va n t ib u s alte in t u m u it reb u s s e d me n s c ir c u m fl u a luxu n o ve r a t in t a c t u m vi t io servare r i or e m g hic n o n di vi t ia s n ig r a n t ib u s a b di di t a n t r is n ec t e n e b r is d a m n a vi t opes s e d l a r g ior im b r e ,

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s u e ve r a t

inn u m e r a s h om i num di t a r e

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out 3 3 2 a nd died a b out 3 9 0 wa s ( a m ong m a n y other thin g s ) procons ul of Afr ica pra ef ect us of I l l yricum 1

P ro b us wa s b orn

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4

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He

a nd

P R OB I N U S

PANE G YRIC O N

OL Y B R I U S

AND

cou nted by the f asces (f or each has held them) the sam e rec u rring hono u rs crown the m a n d a like desti n y awaits their childre n in u nbro k en s u ccession N O n oble though he boast Of the b r az e n statues o f his ancestors tho u gh Rome b e thronged with s e n ators n o noble I say dare boast h i msel f their eq u al G ive the fi r st place to the Au ch e n n and let wh o will contest the s econd It is as when the moon q u ee n s it in the cal m norther n sky and her or b gleams with bright n ess eq u al to that of her brother whose light s h e reflects ; f or then the starry hosts give place Arct u r u s beam gro w s di m a n d tawn y Leo loses his angry gl i nt f a r S paced S hine the B ea r s stars in the Wai n wroth at their eclips e O r ion s shaf ts g r ow dark as he looks in f eeble amaze at his strengthless a rm Which shall I sp eak of first Who has not heard of the deeds of P r ob in u s of a nc ient lineage wh o knows n ot the e n dless prais e of Ol y b r iu s 1 f The a r fl un g fam e of Prob u s and his S ire lives yet and fills all ears with widespread di scou r s e the years to come S hall n ot S ile n ce i t no r ti m e o e r cl o u d or put an end to it H i s great na m e ca rr ies hi m beyo n d the seas b eyond Ocea n s distant wi n d in gs and A tlas mo u ntain ca v er n s I f a n y live b eneath the froz en S ky by M a e ot is banks or any n ear n eighbours of the torrid zo n e drink Nile s st r ipling strea m they t oo have heard Fort u ne yi elded to his virt u es but n ever was he p u ff ed up with success that e n genders pride Tho u gh his l if e wa s s ur rounded with luxury he k n ew h ow t o preserve his upright n ess u n corr u pted H e di d n ot hide his wealth i n dark cellars n or co n dem n his riches t o the n ether gloo m but i n S howers m ore abu n da n t tha n rai n would ever e n rich cou n tless n u mbers of ,

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CLAUDIA N vel u t

qui pp e

de n so curr e ntia m u n era nim bo c e m e r e s e m p er erat o ul i s un d a r e pe n ates p p a d s id u os i n t rare i n op es r e m e a r e beatos r a e fl c e s u v i illa m a n us os s u r a b a t H ib e r o s e p p p 1 aurea do n a vom e ns ( S ic vi x tellure r evu l s a s ol l i citis f o d i e ns m ir a t u r c ol l ib u s auru m ) q ua n tu m stag n a Tag i r u di b u s s t il l a n t ia ve ni s e ffl u x e r e decus q ua n to r e t ios a m etalli p H ermi ri pa mi c a t q ua n tas per Lydi a culta d e sp um a t r utilas di ves P a ctolus h a r en as N on mi hi c e n t e ni s p a t e a n t S i vocib us or a m ul t ifi d u s q u e ruat ce n tu m p er p ectora Phoebus a cta Probi n arrare u e a m q uot i n ordi n e ge n tes q r e x e ri t ad s ummi q uotie n s fastigia iur is ve n e ri t I t a l i a e late cu m fre n a t e n e r e t I l l y r ic os q u e si n u s e t quos arat A frica campos s e d n ati vicere a t r e m s ol i u e m e r e n t u r p q vi c t or e s audire Probi n on c on t i i t ill i g talis ho n or prim a cum parte vir es c er e t a e vi n ec co n sul cum fratre fuit vos n ulla f a t ig a t cura diu m a ior a p e t en s n o n a n xia m e n te m spes agit e t lo ng o te n di t praecordi a voto i pri m or a vestra c o e is t is quo fi ni s erat d p vix pa u ci m eru e r e s enes m e t as q u e t en e t is a n te ge n as dulces qua m fl os iuve nil i s in u m b r e t or a u e ride n ti la n ugi n e v e s t i a t aetas q tu p r e c or ig n a r u m d oc e as Parn as ia va t em quis deus a m b ob us ta n ti s it m u n e r is auctor P os t q u a m fulm i n eis im p el l e n s vir ib u s b oste m b el l ig e r Augustus trepidas l a x a ver a t Alp es 1 1158 B ir t s u g g es ts S ic vix ; p os s i b l y ec q u is s i q u is ; P os tg a te ( C Q i v p 2 5 8 ) q u a e vix s hou l d b e r ea d Astur m ir etur ,

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PANEGYRIC ON

P R OB I N U S

A ND

OL Y B R I U S

m e n The thick cloud of his ge n erosity was ever big with gi f ts full and overflowing with clie n ts was his m ansion and t h ereinto there po u red a stream His prodigal O f paup ers to issue f orth again rich m en hand outdid Spain s rivers i n s c attering g i fts of gold scarce s o mu ch precio u s m etal daz z les the gaz e O f ( the mi n er del v ing i n the vexed bo w els of the ear th) exceeding all the gold d u st ca r r i ed do wn by T a g u s water t r ickling f rom unsmelted lodes the glitte r ing ban k s the golden sand o r e that enri c hes H erm u s that rich Pactol u s i n flood deposits O ver the plains O f Ly di a Co u ld my words issue from a h u ndred mo u ths could Phoeb u s mani f old i n sp i ration breathe through a hu n dred breasts even so I co u ld not tell o f P r ob u s deeds O f all the p eople his orde r ed governance ruled O f the many ti m es he rose to the highest hono ur s whe n he held the reins o f broad acred Italy the Illyria n coast a n d Africa s la n ds B u t h i s sons o e rs h a d owe d their sire a n d they alo n e deser v e to be called Probus van q u ishers No such ho n our befell Probus i n his youth he wa s ne v er consul with his brother Yo u ambitio n ever o e r va ul t in g itself pricks n ot ; n o a n xio u s hop es a ffl ict yo u r minds Y ou have o r keep your hearts i n lo n g s u spe n se begun where m ost e n d but f e w s e niors have attai n ed You have fin i shed your ra c e t o your ea rliest o ffice e er the fu ll flowe r of youth has crown ed your gentle cheeks or adolesce n ce clothed yo u r faces with its pleasa n t down D O thou m y M u s e tell their ignora n t poet what god it was gra n ted such a boo n t o the twai n Whe n t h e warlike e mp eror had with the th un der bolt Of his might put his e n emy to flight an d freed .

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7

CLAU DI A N R o m a Probo c up i e n s di g n as p e r s ol ver e grates sedula p r o n atis do mi n um fl e x u r a rogando ire parat f amuli c u r r u m i u n x e r e vol a n t e m I mp etus h orrib il is q u e M et u s q ui se mp er agentes r o el i a cu m f r e mi t u R om a m c omi t a n t u r anhelo p S ive p e t a t P a r t h os s e u c u spide turbet H y d a s p e n 8 0 hic ligat ax e rotas h ie s u b i n ga f errea n ec t it c or ni e d e s r i idi s u e d oc e t servire l up a t is p g q ipsa t riu m p h a t is qua p os s i d e t a e t h e r a r e g n is a d s il it inn u t a e rit u s imitata M in e r va e p n a m neq u e c a e s a r ie m c r inali stri n gere c ul t u colla n ec o m atu patitur m ol l ir e retorto dextru m n uda latus n ive os e x e r t a l a c e r t os a u d a c e m r e t e it m a m ma m l a x u m u e c o e r c e n s q g m ordet ge m ma sin um n od u s qu i s u b l e va t e n s e m albu m pu niceo pectus d i s c r im in a t ostro mi s c e t ur decori virtus p ul ch er q u e s evero ar m at u r terrore pudor g a l e a e q u e m i n aci fl ava cr u e n t a r u m p r a e t e n d it u r um bra iub a r u m e t f o rm i d a t o cl i p e u s T i t a n a l a c e s s it lu mi n e q u em tota va r ia r a t M u l c iber arte hic p a t r iu s M a vor t is a m or f e t u s q u e n ot a n t u r Ro m ulei pi u s a m n is in e s t e t belua n u t r ix electro Tiberis p u er i f or m a n t u r i n auro fi n g un t aera l u p a m M a vor s adamante cor u s c a t I a m S i m ul e m is s is rapido ve l ocior Euro f e rt u r equis stride n t Z e p h y r i cu r s u q u e r ot a r um s a u c i a di vid ui s cl a r e s c u n t n u bila sulcis n ec t r a x e r e m oras s e d l a p s u p r o t in u s un o .

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8

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C LA U D I A N

que m

q ua fi n e s ub i m o a n u s t a n t a d it u m c u r viS a n f r a c t ib u s A lpes g cl a u s t r a u e c o n e s t is s co u l i s du r issima t e n d u n t q p g n on alia r e s e r a n d a man u s e d pervia tan tum A ug u sto g e m in is q u e fi d e m me n tita tyran ni s s e rn ir u t a e t u r r e s a vu l s a u e m o e n i a fu mant q c r e s c u n t in c u m u l u m strages va l l e m u e pro f u n d a m q a e u a v e r e i n gis stag n ant i nm ersa cr u ore q corpora t u r b a n t u r p e r m ix t o f u nere m anes Ha u d p r ocu l exhausto l a e t u s certamine v i c tor c a e s it e r a m in e o c on s e d e r a t arbore f u l t u s p g adel ines u m er os domin u m g a vis a cor on a t terra s uu m s u r g un t q u e toris m a ior ib u s h e r b a e sudor a d h uc p er m embra calet c r e b e r q u e r e c u rr i t halitus e t placidi r a d ia n t in casside vul t u s l u i l l a n s letifera o u a u a e e e o s G t s c d o q p p r o c u b a t horre n d a s G etico G r a d i vu s i n a rvo p exu vias Bello n a l e va t Bello n a t e p e n t e s pul v ere s ol vit e q u os i n m e n s a q u e corn u s i n h a s t a m s c unt , o p

t e t ig e r e

locu m

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p or r i

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d u c e m di s c u s s a s

H eb ru m

Roma per a u ras

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conscia ter s onuit r up e s e t i nh or r u it a t r um mai estate n e m us prior hic o n u m e n a m ic u m d u x ait e t legu m genet r ix l on g e q u e regendo c ir c u m f u s a polo c on s ors ac dicta T o n a n t is dic a g e d u m q uae causa vi ae cur d e s er is arc es A n son i as c a e l u m q u e tu um di c m axi m a re ru m 1 3 0 .

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1

10

M a xi mus

a nd

E ug eniu s

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S ee I ntroduction ,

p

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ix

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PANE G YRI C ON

P R OB I N U S

AN D

OL Y B R I U S

goal : it i s there where i n their further m ost parts t h e Alps n arrow the i r approaches i nto tortuous valleys and exte n d their ada m anti n e bars of p i led up roc k s N O other ha n d c ould u n lock that gate as to their 1 cost thos e t w o tyrants f ound ; to the Emp eror o nly they O ffer a w ay The smoke of towers o e r thrown a n d of r uined f ort r esses ascends to heaven Slaughtered m e n are piled u p on a heap and bring the lowest valley equal with the hills ; corpses welter i n their blood ; th e very shades are c on fou n ded with the i n rush of the slai n Cl os e a t ha n d the victor Theodosius happy that hi s warfare is acco m plished S its upo n the green sward his S houlders leaning agai n st a tree T r iu m pha n t earth crown ed her lord a n d fl o w ers spran g up fro m prouder ba n ks The sweat is still warm u po n hi s body his breath co m es pant i ng but cahn sh i nes h i s cou n te n a n ce be n eath his hel m et Such is M a r s whe n wi th deadly slaughter he has devastated the Gelo ni a n d thereafter rests a d read figure i n the Getic plai n while B ello n a goddess O f w ar li g htens hi m of his ar m our and u nyokes his d u st stai n ed cours ers ; a n outstretched spear a huge cor n el tru nk ar m s his han d an d fl ashes its tre m ulous sple n dour over H e b r u s strea m Whe n R o m e had e n ded her airy j ourn ey and n ow stood b efore her lord thrice thu n dered the co n scious rocks a n d the black wood shuddered i n awe First Goddess a n d fri e n d m other t o sp eak was th e hero : thou whos e e m pire is co ntermi n ous with of laws heave n thou that art called the co n sort of the Th u n derer s a y what hath caused thy comi ng wh y l e a ves t thou the town s of Italy a n d thy n ative cli m e ? Say q uee n of the world Were it thy -

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l l

C LAU DIA N

cesse m t ol er a r e labores S a r m a ti c os ve pati m edi o s ub f rig or e Ca u r o s s i tu Ro m a ve l is pro te q u a s cu m q u e p er or a s ib im u s e t n ulla s u b te m pestate t im e n t e s 1 3 5 s ol s t it i o M e r o en bru m a t e m t a b im u s H is t r u m p n o n m e latet incl i te r e c tor Tum regi n a r e f e r t q uod tua pro L a t io Vi ct r icia castra labo r ant n ec quod servitiu m r u r s u s F u r ia e q u e rebelles e d o m it a e paribus s ub te c e c id e r e t r iu m h is p s ed r e c or hoc do n u m cu m l ibertate recenti p a d i c i a s s i vera m a n et r e ve r e n t i a n ostri su n t mihi p ub e n t e s alto de s e m ine fratres pignora cara Probi f esta q uos luce c r e a t os ipsa m eo fo vi gre mio cu n abula parvis ipsa dedi cu m m atris o n us Luci n a beatu m s ol ve r e t e t m agnos r of e r r e n t sidera partus p his ego n ec D e c io s p ul ch r OS f or t e s ve M e t e l l o s l i r a e t u e r m n o n q ui P n m m u e r e f e r oc e m u e d o o p S cip ia d a s G a l l is q u e gen u s f atale Camillos P i e r n s polle n t s t u d ii s m ul t o q u e redunda n t eloquio n ec d e s idi is d a p ib u s ve p a r a t is i n dulgere iu va t n ec ta n ta l ic e n t ia vitae a d r i it a u t m ores aetas lasciva r e l a x a t p sed g r a vib us cu r is a n im u m sortita senile m ignea l on g a e vo f r e n a t u r corde iuvent u s ill i s q u am p r op r i a m d u c un t ab origine s or t em or a m u s r a e b e r e velis a n nique futu r um p n o n i m proba posco d e vove a s ve n i e n t is iter n o n i n sueta dabis dom u s haec de more r e q uir it a d nue s ic n obis S c t h ic u s f a m u l e t u r Araxes y L ib y cos

ego vel

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12

P A NE G YRIC ON

P R OB I N U S

AND

OL Y B R I U S

wish I would n ot shr i nk f rom to i l i ng neath a Libya n s un n or f r o m the cold winds o f a R u ss i an mi d wi n ter At thy behest I w ill travers e all lands a n d fearing n o s eason of the year w ill haz ard M ero e in s u mmer and the Dan u b e i n winte r The n the Q u een ans w ered : F u ll well kno w I f a r f amed ruler that thy victorio u s arm i es toil f or Italy and that on c e agai n s ervitude and fu rious rebels ha v e gi v en w ay be f o r e thee overthro w n in o n e a n d the same battle Yet I pray th ee add to o u r late wo n li berty t hi s f u r ther boo n if i n v ery t r uth thou still r e ve r e s t m e There are a m ong my citiz e n s t wo young brothers of noble li neage the dearly loved sons of P r obus bor n on a f estal day and reared i n my own bosom Tw as I ga v e the little o n es their cradles whe n the goddess of childbirth freed their mot h er s womb f rom its blessed b u rden a n d heave n bro u ght to light her glorio u s o ffsp ring T o thes e I wo u ld n ot pre f e r the noble D e cii n or the brave M e t e l l i no n o r the Sc i p i os w ho overcam e the warli k e Carthag i ni a n s n or the Camilli that fam i ly fraught with r ui n f or the G a u ls The M u ses have e n do w ed them wi th f u ll meas ur e of their S kill their elo q ue n ce knows n o bo u nds Thei r s not to w anton i n sloth and banq u ets S p r ead ; unbridled pleas ur e te m pts them n ot nor can the l u re of yo u th under mine their cha r acters G ain i ng f rom w eighty c ares an O ld man s m i nd thei r fie r y youth is bridled by a greyb eard s wisdom That f ort un e to w h i ch their birth entitles them I beg thee ass u re the m and appoi n t for the m the path of the co mi n g year T is n o un reaso n able request and will be n o un h ea r d Thei r birth demands i t sho u ld b e s o o f boo n Grant it ; s o m ay S c yth i an A ra x es b e o ur v as s a l .

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13

CLAUDIAN latus M e di s q u e s ub a ct is n ostra S e mi r a m i a e t im e a n t insignia t ur r e s s ic fl u a t a t t o n i t u s Roma n a per oppida Ganges Ductor ad haec optata iub e s ul t r o q u e vol e n t e m diva rogas n on haec p r e cib u s temptanda fu issent 1 66 us q ue a d e on e m eam c o n d u n t Ob l ivi a m entem ut i e a t m e m in is s e Probi q uo v in di ce t o t a m p g vi di mu s H e s p e r ia m f e s s a s q u e res u rgere gentes a n te d a b u n t h i em e s Nilu m p er fl u m in a d a m m a e e r r a b un t l a c i e u e niger d a m n a b it u r Indus g q an te T h y e s t e is iteru m c on t e rr it a m ensis i ntercisa dies r e f ug os ve r t e t u r i n or t u s quam Probus a nostro p os s it di scedere sensu D ix e r a t e t velox ia m nu ntius a d vol a t u r b e m e x t e m l o s t r e u e r e chori c ol l e s u e c a n or i s p p q l a u s ib u s impuls i s e t e n a voce resulta n t p p l a e t a t u r ve n eranda pare n s e t pollice docto ia m pa r at a u r a t a s t r a b e a s cin ct u s q u e m ic a n t e s stamine q u od moll i tondent de stipite S eres f r on d e a l a n ig e r a e c a r p e n t e s vellera silvae e t long um tenues t r act u s r o d u c it i n auru m p fil a q u e conc r eto cog i t s q u a l e r e m etallo u a l is u r ur e a s r a e b e b a t ca n di da vestes q p p p n u m in ib u s Lato n a suis c um sacra red i re n t ad loca n u t r icis ia m n o n erra n tia D eli illa feros salt u s e t desolata r el in q u e ns Maenala l a s s a t o certis ve n a t ib us a r cu Phoebus a d h u c nig ri s r or a n t ia tela ve n e ni s e x t in c t o P t h o n e n ot O S t u nc insula er ens y g

s ic

Rh e n u s

p er

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PANEGYRI C ON

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a n d Rhi n e s either bank ; s o may the M ede be and the to w ers that S e mira mis built o e r t h r own yield to our standards while a m az e d G anges flows b et w ee n Roman cities To this the king : Goddess tho u b id d e s t m e do what I w o u ld f ain do and as k est a boon that I wish to g r ant : thy entreaties were n ot needed f or this Does f orgetf u lness so w holly cloud m y mi n d that I w ill not rem ember Probus beneath whos e leade r ship I have s ee n all Italy a n d her w ar weary p eoples come agai n to prosp erity ? Wi n ter S hall caus e N i le s rising hi n ds shall make rivers their eleme n t dark fl owin g Indus S hall b e ice bound te rr or st r ick en o n c e agai n by the banquet of Thyestes the s u n shall stay his cours e and fly f or re f u ge ba c k into the east all this ere Prob u s can fade f rom my me m ory H e spake an d n ow the speedy m esse n ger hies him to Rome Straight w ay the choirs chan t a n d the s eve n hills r e echo their tu n efu l applause Joy is i n th e heart of that aged m other whose skilled fi n gers now make ready gold e mbroidered vestme n t a n d garm ents aglea m with the thread which the Seres comb o u t fro m their del i cate pla n ts gatheri n g the leafy fl eece of the w ool b eari n g trees These lo n g threads s h e dra w s ou t to an eq u al le n gth with the threads of gold and by inte rtwi ni ng the m mak es as f air Latona ga v e scarlet gar o n e golde n cord ; m ents to her di vi n e O ff sp r ing w hen they retur n ed to the n ow fir m fi x ed S hri n e of D elos their foster island Diana leaving the f orest glades an d bleak M ae n al u s her u n erri n g bow w earied with m uch hunting a n d Phoebus beari n g the sword still drip pi n g with black ve n om from the sla u ghte r ed Pytho n The n their dea r island la v ed the f eet of its a cknow ’

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CL A U DIA N la mbit am ica p edes r id e t q u e Ae g a e u s a l u m ni s le nior e t blando t e s t a t u r gaudia fl u ct u Sic Proba p r a e cip u o n atos e x orn a t a mi ct u q uae d ecor a t m u n du m cuius Ro m a n a potestas c r e d a s ex a e t h e r e l a s a m f e t ib u s a u g e t ur p stare P u dicit ia m vel sacro ture voc a t a m

1 90

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,

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I un on e m I n a ch iis tale m n ulla r ef e r t

t e mp lis

oc u l os a d ve r t e r e

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pagina libris q n ec L a t ia e c e cin er e tubae n ec Graeca vetustas co niuge di g n a Probo n a m ta n tu m c o e t ib u s e x t a t f emi n e is qua n t um s up er e m in e t ille m a r i t os 2 00 ceu S ibi c er t a n t e s sexus q uid p os s it u t e r q u e t a c e a t Nereida n u p t a m h un c legere toru m Pelio n O duplici fecundam c on s ul e m a t r e m f el i c em q u e u t e r u m qui n o m ina p a r t u r it annis U t sceptrum g e s s e r e manu m e m b r is q u e r ig e n t e s a t a ve r e togas sign u m dat sum m us h iu l ca 2 06 p n ub e Pater g r a t a m q u e f a c e m p er inane rota ntes prospera vibrati t on u e r u n t omina nimbi a cc e it s oni t u s c u r vi s Tiberinus in a n t r is p im a valle s e d e n s a d r e c tis a u r ib u s h a e s it u n de r ep e n t in u s popul i fragor il ic e t h e r b is a l l e n t e s t h a l a m o s e t s t r u c t a c u b il i a m usco p d e s e r it ac N y m p h i s u r n a m c omm e n d a t e r il e m illi glauca n itent hi rsuto lumi n a vul t u c a e r u l e is i nf ecta n otis r e d d e n t i a p a t r e m crispo d e n s a n t u r g r amine colla Oc e a n u m vertice l u x u r ia t toto cr in a l is h a r u n d o a n ti

ui s

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A n ic ia F a l ton ia P ro b a

ccordi n g to P rocopius te of R o m e to Al a ric a s g

a

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16

S h e wa s s ti l l ( B el l V a n d i .

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.

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al

ive

2)

in 4 1 0

O pe n ed

a nd

the

CL A U D I A N q uam n e q u e fas Z e p h y r is f rangi n ec sole p e r u s t a m s e d vi v ida f r on d e t a e s t i vo cando r e mori taurina l a e u a e vu m complexa cap u t e va n t u r q corn u a temporib u s r a u cos s u d a n t ia ri vos distillant p er pectus aquae frons hisp i da man a t i n l iq u id os f ontes s e ba rba r ep e c t it im b r ib u s palla graves u m e r os ve l a t qua m n e ve r a t uxor Ilia p e r c u rr e n s vit r e a s s ub g u rgite telas E s t i n Ro mu leo procumbens insula T h y b r i qua medi u s ge mi n as in t e r fl uit al v eus u rbes discretas s u b e un t e freto p a r it e r q u e minantes ardua t ur r ig e r a e s ur g u n t i n culm i na ripa c hic s t e t it e t subitu m p r os p e x it ab aggere votu m : 2 3 0 1 f r atres i un c t o stipante s e n a t u u n a n im os i r e f oru m s t r ic t a s q u e p r oc ul radiare s ecures a t que u n o b iiu g e s tolli de limine f asces Ob s t u u it vis u s u s e n s a q u e gaudia voc e m p p m o x i n c o h a t ore O p r e s s a m t e n u e r e di u p R espice s i tales i a c t a s a l uis s e fl u e n t is E u r o t a Sparta n e tuis quid p r ot ul it a e q uum f a l s u s O lor vali do q u a m vi s d e c e r n er e c a e s t u n o ve r i t e t r a t ib u s s a e va s a r c e r e procellas en no v a L e d a e is s ub ol e s f ul g e n t ior astris ecce m ei cives quorum i a m Signifer op t a t a d ve n t u m s t e l l is u e p arat co n vexa fu tu r is q iam per n o c t iva g o s d om in e t ur Ol y b r iu s axes pro Polluce rub e n s p r o Castore fl a mm a P r o b in i .

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B ir t,

MS S

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una ni m e s ;

K och

u n a n im o s

c ourted L ed a in the f orm of a s wa n b eco m i ng b y her the f a ther of H e l en Cl yte m n e s tra Ca s tor a nd P ol l ux Thes e l a tter t”wo were th e p a trons o f the rin g “ hence d ec ern ere c a es tu ( l a n d of s a i l ors — he nce a rc er e proce l l as (l 1

J upiter

f

ol l owing

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P ANE G YRIC ON

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This the Z ephyr s m ay n ot break n or the su mm er s un scorch to withering ; it li ves a n d burgeo n s arou n d thos e bro w s im m ortal as itself Fro m his te m ples sprout hor n s li k e thos e of a bull ; fro m these pour babbli n g streamlets ; w ater drips upo n his breast showers po u r down hi s hair cro w ned forehead flowi n g rivers from his parted beard There clothes hi s massy shoulders a cloak woven by hi s wife I l ia wh o threaded the crystalline loom be n eath the flood There li es i n R o m a n Tiber s strea m a n island w here the ce n tral flood washes as t w ere two cities parted by the su n de r i n g wate r s with eq u al threate n in g height the tower clad banks ris e i n lo f ty build i n gs H ere stood Tiber and fro m this emi n e n ce b eheld h i s p r ayer O f a sudden f ulfilled s a w the twin souled b r others e n ter the For u m amid the press Of thron g ing s e n ators the bared axes gleam af ar a n d both s ets O f fasces brought forth f rom one threshold H e stood amaz ed at the sight a n d f or a long ti m e i n credulous j oy held his vo i ce i n check Yet soo n he thus bega n B ehold Eurotas river of Sparta boastest thou that thy strea m s have ever n urtured such as these P 1 Did that fals e swan beget a child to ri v al them though tis true his so n s could fight with the heavy glove an d save ships fro m cruel temp es t s ? Behold n ew O ff spri ng outsh in i n g the stars to which Leda gave birth m e n of m y city for whose co mi n g the Z odi ac i s n ow awatch m aking ready his hollow tract of s k y for a co n stellatio n that is to be He n ce forth let Ol y b r iu s rule the nightly s k y sheddi n g h is ruddy li ght where Poll ux o n ce shone a n d where gli n ted Cas tor s fires there let glitter P rob in u s .

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CL A U D IAN ipsi vela rege n t ip s is d on a n t ib u s auras na vi ta t r anq u illo m o d e r a b it u r a e q u or e p in u m n u nc pate r as li ba r e deis n u nc solve r e m u lto n e c t a r e corda libet n ive os ia m p and i te coetus N a i d e s e t totu m vi ol iS p r a e t e x it e f o n tem mella f e r a n t s i lvae i am p r o fl u a t e b ri u s a m mis m u tatis in v in a vad i s iam spo nt e p er agros s u d e n t i n r i u a e s ir a n t i a b alsa m a venae p g c u r r a t qu i s o ci a e roget in co n vivi a m e n sae indigenas F l u vios Itali s q uic u m q u e s u b e rr a n t m on t ib u s Al p in a s q u e b ib u n t de m ore pr u inas Vul t u r n u s q u e r a p a x e t Nar vit i a t u s O doro s ul h u r e t a r d a t u s u e s ui s e rr or ib u s U f e n s p q e t P h a et h on t e a e e r e s s u s damna r u in a e p p Eridan u s fl a va e q u e t e r e n S querceta M a r ica e Liris e t O e b a l ia e qu i t e m p e r a t arva G a l a e s u s semper h on or a t u s n os t r is c e l eb r a b it u r u ndis ” iste di es s emper d a p ib u s r e col e t u r op imi s Sic ait e t Ny m p h a e patris p r a e c e p t a s e c ut a e tecta parant epuli s os t r o q u e in f ecta cor u sco umida g e m m if e r is inl u x it regia me n sis O bene S ig n a t u m f rater n o n omi n e te mpus I O c o n s a n u in e is f elix a u c t or ib u s a n n u s g in cip e q u a d r ifi d u m P l i o e b i t or q u e r e labore m prima ti b i p r oc e d a t hiems non f r ig or e t or p e n s n on canas v estita n i v es no n aspera v e n tis ver i n de s e r e n um s e d tepido ca l e f a c t a Noto r o t in u s e t liqui di c l e m e n t io r aura Fa v oni p pratis te cr oceis pi n gat te m e s s ib u s a e s t a s ,

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flam e Thes e shall direct m e n s sails a n d vouchsaf e those breez es w hereby the s a i lor shall guide his bark o er the calm ocea n Let u s now pour li batio n t o the n ew gods a n d ease our hearts with cop i ous dra u ghts of n ectar Naiads n ow spread yo u r sno w y bands wreath e v ery spring w i th vi olets Let the woods br i ng f o r th ho n ey and the d ru n k e n ri v er roll i ts waters cha n ged to wi n e let the watering stream s that vei n the fi elds give off the scent of balsa m spice Let o n e ru n a n d i n vite to the f east a n d banq u et board all th e ri v ers of our land eve n all that w ander b e n eath the m ou n tai n s of Italy and dri nk as their port i o n the A lp i ne sno w s s w i f t Vu l t u r n u s and Nar i n fected with ill s m elli n g s u lphur U f e n s whos e m eanderi n gs delay his cours e a n d Eridanus into whose waters Pha etho n f ell headlong ; Liris who laves M a r ica s golde n o a k groves and G a l a e s u s w ho temp e r s the fields of Sparta s colony Tare n tu m This day shall always be held i n honour and obser v ed by o u r rivers and its a nniversary ever celeb r ated ” with rich feastings So spak e he and the Ny m phs obeyi n g their sire s behest m ade re ady the roo m s f or the ba n quet a n d the w ate r y palace ablaz e with gleami n g p u rple sho n e with j e w elled tables 0 happy mo n ths to bear these brothers n a m e ! 0 yea r blessed to own such a pair as overlords be g i n tho u to t u rn the laborious wheel of Phoebus f ou r First let thy winter pursue its co ur se f old c i rcle sa n s n umbing cold n ot clothed in whi te s n ow n or tor n by rough blasts b u t w a r med with the south wi nd s breath : n ext be thy spring calm from the outs et a n d let the limpid west Wind s e n tler breez e flood thy m eads with yellow flo w e r s g ’

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GL A U D I A N ind u a t

omni

a u tu

m n us q u e m a d e n ti b us

n o b i l io r

tell u s

h a b u is s e

te

l on g a q u e

22

m b ia t

u vis

.

l u st r o tibi gloria soli ,

c o n t ig i t e x a c t u m n u m q u a m

germanos

a

duces

va r ii s s c r ib e n t

pe rpetui

me m orata p er ae vu m te

in

d uc e n t

c un c t a

fl or ib u s

l oq u e t ur

Horae

in saec u la f asti

.

,

PANE G YRIC ON

P R OB I N U S

AND

OL Y B RI US

M ay s um m er crow n thee with harvest a n d a utu mn A n ho n our that n o s tore thee with l u scious gr ap es age has ever yet known a privilege n e v er yet heard this has bee n thi n e and thi n e o f i n times go n e by alo n e — t o have had brothe r s a s thy co n suls The w hole world shall tell O f thee the Hours S hall inscribe thy n a m e i n various fl owers a n d age -lo n g ann als ha n d thy f ame down throug h the lo n g centuries .

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23

I N RU F I N U M

LIBE R PR I M US

I N C] P I T P R AE FAT I O

P h oeb e o d omi t u s

Pytho n cu m d e c idit a rcu m e m b r a q u e Cirr h a e o f udit a n hela i u g o ui s p ir is t e g e r e t m o n tes h a ur ir e t b iatu q fl u mi n a s a n g ui n e is t a n g e r e t astra i u b is iam liber P a rn a s u s erat n e x u q u e soluto c o e e r a t erecta surgere fro n de n e m us p c on cu s s a e q u e di u s p a t ios is t r a c t ib u s or ni s e c ur as ve n tis e x p l i c u e r e co m as e t qui vip ereo s p u m a vi t s a e p e ve n e n o ,

,

,

C e p h i s os

ni tid i s

ib a t

a

q

uis

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o m nia P h o e b um r ura c a n un t t r ip od a s p l e ni or aura rotat a u d it o q u e p ro e n l M u s a r u m car mi n e d u lci ad T h emi di s co é un t a n tra s evera dei om n i s

io

Paea n

u r ior p

regio

s on a t

,

.

N u n c ali o do mi ni telis P y th on e p er em p t o c on ve ni t ad mostra m sacra caterva l r a m y qui stabilem s e r va n s A ugustis fr a tr ib u s orb e m iustitia pacem vir ib u s arma r e g it ,

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24

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LIBER I

mihi d ub ia m t r a x it s e nte n tia m e n te m c ur a r e n t sup e r i terras a n nullus in e s s e t rector e t i n certo fl u e r e n t m or t a l ia cas u n a m cu m di sp os iti q u a e s is s e m f o e d e r a mun di r a e s c r ip t o s q u e m ari fi n es a n n i s q u e meatus p t u n e om n ia rebar e t l uc is n oc t is q u e vices consil io fir m a t a dei q u i lege m over i sidera q u i f r u ges diverso te mpore nasci q u i var i a m P h o eb e n alieno i u s s e r it ig ni c om p l e r i S ol e m q u e s u o p or r e x e r it u n di s l it or a t e l l u r e m m ed i o l ib r a ve r it axe s e d cu m res h o mi n u m tanta cal igine volvi S a ep e

,

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,

ads

i c e r e m l a e t os q u e di u fl o r e r e p

v e x a r iq u e

pios

,

r ur s u s

l a b efa ct a

n oc e n t e s ca d eb a t

n on spo n te s e u e b a r via m q q alter i us vacuo quae cu rr e r e sem in a motu a d fi r m a t m a g n u m q u e n ovas per in a n e fig ur a s fortuna n o n arte regi quae n u m ina sensu a mbiguo vel n ulla putat vel n escia nostri r el l i

i o g

ca usa e

ue

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1

26

E picure a ni s m

.

B OO K I I I ( I)

My mi n d h a s ofte n wa v ered betwee n two opi ni o n s have the gods a care for the w o rld or is there no ruler therei n a n d do m ortal things dri ft as dubious cha n ce dictates ? For when I i nv estigated the laws a n d the or di n a n ces of heave n and O bs erved the s ea s appoi nted li mits the year s fixed cycle a n d the altern atio n of l ight and darkness the n m etho u ght everyt hi n g wa s ordai n ed accor di ng to the directio n of a God who had bidde n the stars m ove by fixed laws pl ants g row at di ff ere n t s easons the cha n gi n g m oo n fulfil her circle with borro w ed light a n d the wh o spread the shore before s un shi n e by his o wn the w aves a n d bala n ced the w orld i n the ce ntre of the fir m a m e n t But whe n I s a w the i m p e n etrable mi st whi ch surrou n ds hu m a n a ffairs the wi cked happy a n d lo n g prosp erous a n d the good di s com forted the n i n tur n m y b eli ef i n God was weakened a n d f a il e d a n d eve n agai n st mi n e own will I e m braced 1 f the te n ets o that other philosoph y whi ch teaches that ato m s drift i n purposeless motio n a n d that n ew f or m s throughout the vast void are shaped by cha n ce an d n ot desi g n— that p hi losophy whi ch beli eves i n God i n a n a mb ig u ous se n se or holds that there b e At n o g ods or that they are careless o f o u r doi n gs ’



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CLAUDIA N ta n de m R u fini poe n a t um ul t um l a b s ol vi t u e deos ia m n o n ad cu m ina reru m q i nj ustos cr e vis s e q u e r or t ol l u n t ur i n alt um vo s pandi te vati u t l a p s u g r a vi or e rua n t Pierides quo ta n ta lues e r up e r it ortu I n vi di a e quo n da m sti m ulis in c a n d u it a t r ox Al l e c t o placidas late c um c e r n e r e t u rbes r ot inu s in f er n as ad li m ina t a e t r a s or or e s p concili u m def or m e vocat g l om e r a n t ur i n u n u m inn u m e r a e p estes Erebi q u a s c u m q u e sinistro Nox g e n ui t f et u n u t r ix Discordi a belli i m periosa Fam es leto vicina S e n e c t u s imp a t ie n s q u e sui Morb u s L ivor q u e s e c un d is a n x i u s e t scisso m a e r e n s ve l a m in e L u c t u s e t Ti m or e t caceo p r a e c e p s A udacia vul t u e t Lux u s pop u lator o u m quem s emp er a d h a e r e n s p in f e l i x h u mi l i g r e s s u c omi t a t u r Egestas fo e d a q u e Ava r it i a e c om p l e x a e p ectora m atris in s om n e s lo n go ve ni u n t exa mine Cu r a e c o m l e n t u r vario ferrata sed i l i a c o e t u p t or va q u e c ol l e c t is s t ip a t u r cur ia m on s t r is Al l ec t o s t e tit in m ediis vu l g u s q u e tacere iu s s it e t O bstantes i n terg um r e p p u l i t ang u es perque u m e r os errare ded i t t um corde s u b im o in cl u s a m r a b idi s p a t e f e ci t vocib u s ira m Sici n e tran quillo produci saec u la cursu s ic f or t un a t a s a t i e m u r vivere gentes p quae n o v a cor r up it n o s t r os cle m entia m ores q u o rabies i nn ata perit q u id in a nia p r os un t verbera q uid f a cib u s n e q uiq u a m cin g im ur atris P a b s t u l it

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T H E FIRST BOO K AGAI N ST l as t R ufi n us

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fate h a s di sp elled this u n certainty and freed the g ods fro m this i mputatio n NO l o n ger c a n I co m plain that the u n r i ghteous m an reaches the hi g hest pi nn acle of success H e is raised alof t that he may be hurled down i n m ore headlong r ui n Mus es unfold t o yo u r poet whence s pran g this grievous p est Dire Al l e ct o o n ce ki n dled with j ealous wrath on s eei n g widespread p eace among the cities of m en Straightway S h e su mm o n s the h i deous co u ncil of the n ether world Si sters to her f oul palace gates H ell s num b erless m o n sters are gathered together N ight s c hi ldre n of ill o m e n ed birth Discord m other O f war imp erious Hu n ger Age n ear n eighbour to D eath Dis ease whose li fe is a burde n t o hi m self ; E n vy that brooks n ot a n other s prosperity w o e f u l Sorrow with re n t gar m e n ts ; Fear a n d f oolhardy Rash n ess with sightless eyes ; Luxury destroyer of wealth to whos e S ide ever clings unhappy Want with hu m ble tread a n d the lo n g co mpa n y of S leep less Cares ha n ging rou n d the foul n eck of the i r m other Avarice The iro n s eats are filled with all thi s rout a n d the gri m chamb er is thronged with the m o n strous crowd Al l e c t o stood i n their m idst a n d called f or sile n ce thrusti n g behi n d h er ba ck the s n aky hair that swept her f ace and letti n g it play over her shoulders The n with m ad utterance s h e u n locked the a n ger deep hi dde n i n her heart Shall we allow the ce n turi es to roll on i n this What e ve n te n our a n d m a n to li ve thus blessed ? ? r o u n ovel k i n dli n ess has corrupted characters Where is our i n bred fury ? Of what u s e the lash wi th n o n e to su ff er be n eath it ? Why this e l u a rd s S urposeless girdle of s m oky torches ? gg y p .

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29

CL A U DI AN heu ni mis ig n a va e quas I up p it e r a r c e t Ol y m p o Theodosi u s terris e n au r ea n a s cit ur aetas e n proles a n tiqua redi t Co n cordia Virt u s c u m u e Fide Pietas alta cer v ice va a n t u r q g in s ig n e m q u e c a n u n t n os t ra de pleb e t r iu m p h u m pro dolor ipsa mihi l i quidas d el a p s a pe r auras I u stitia in s u l t a t vit iis q u e a sti rp e r e cis is e l icit oppressas te n eb r oso carcere leges at n os in d e cor e s lo n go t orp e b im u s a e vo a n o s c i t e ta n de m omnib u s e iec t a e r e g nis g quid Furias d e c e a t con s u e t a s su mite vi res c on v e n t u u e nefas ta n to d e c e r n it e d i n u m q g iam cupio S t y g iis i nvadere n ubibus ast r a iam flatu violare di em l a x a r e pro f u ndo fre n a m ari fl u vios r up tis in m it t e r e r ip is ” e t reru m v e x a r e fi d e m Sic fata cr u e n t um m ug iit e t totos s e rp e n t u m e r e x i t hiatus n o x i a u e e ff u d it co n c u sso crine ve n e n a q a n ceps m otus erat vulgi pars m axi m a bell um in d icit sup eris pars D it is iura ve r e t u r di s s e n s u q u e a l it u r rumor ceu m ur m ur a t alti im p a c a t a q ui e s p elagi cu m fl a m in e fracto d ur at a d h u c s a e vit q u e tu m or d ub iu m q u e p er a e s t u m lassa r e c e d e n t is fl uit a n t vestigia ve n ti I m proba m o x surgit tristi de s ede M egaera qua m p e n es i n sa ni fre mitus a n imi q u e p r o fa n u s error e t un d a n t e s s p u m is f u ria l ib u s irae n o n nisi q u aesit um cognata c a e d e c r u or e m inl i cit u m ve b i bit p a t r i u s que m f u d e r i t e n sis ,

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T H E FIRST BOO K AGAINST

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who m J ove h a s excluded fro m heave n Theodosi u s L O ! a golde n age begi n s ; l o ! the fro m earth O ld breed o f m e n retur n s Peace a n d Godli ness Lo ve and Honour hold high their heads througho u t the world a n d sing a proud song of trium ph over our co nq uered folk Justice herself ( oh the pity of it I) down gliding through the lim pid air exults over m e a n d n ow that cri m e has bee n cut down to the roots frees l a w fro m the dark priso n wherei n Shall we exp elled fro m every s h e lay oppressed la n d l i e this lo n g age i n sha m e f ul torpor ? Ere it b e too late recogniz e a Fury s duty : resu m e your wo n ted stre n gth a n d decre e a cri m e worthy of thi s august a ss e m bly Fai n would I shroud the stars i n Stygia n darkness s m irch the li ght of day with ou r breath u nbridle the ocea n deeps hurl ri v ers ag ai n st their shattered banks an d break the bo n ds of the u niverse So spake s h e with cruel roar a n d uproused every gapi n g s erp ent m outh as S he shook her s n aky locks and scattered their ba n eful poiso n Of t wo mi n ds The greater n umber wa s the band of her sisters was for declaring war upon h e a ve n y e t so m e resp ected s till t h e ordi n a n ces o f Dis and the uproar gre w by reaso n of their diss ensio n eve n as the sea s cal m is but the deep still thunders n o t at o n c e restored whe n for all the wi n d be dropp ed the swelli ng tide yet flo w s a n d the last weary wi n ds of the departi n g s tor m play o e r the tossing w a v es Thereupo n cruel M egaera rose f ro m her fu n ereal seat mistress s h e of m ad n ess ho wli n gs an d i mpious ill an d wrath bathed i n fury s foa m N o blood her drink but that fl owi n g fro m ki n dred slaughter a n d f orbidden cr i me shed by a father s by a b r other s ,

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3 1

CLAU D IA N q ue m d e d e rin t fratres haec t e r rui t H erculis or a e t de f ensores t e r r a r um l l ui t arcus o p haec At h a m a n t e a e di rexit spicula dextrae haec Ag a m e m n on ios i nter b a cch a t a p e n ates a l t e rn i s l u s it i u u l i s hac a u spice taedae g O e d ip od e n m atri n atae i u n x e r e T h y e s t e n q u ae tu n c h or r is on is e ff a t u r talia dj etis Sig n a quide m s o cia e divos attollere cont r a n ec f a s est n ec poss e r e or s e d l a e d e r e m u nd um S i libet e t p op u l is co m mu n e i n te n dere l e t u m est mihi p r odi g iu m c u n c t is in m a ni u s hydris t ig r id e m ob il iu s f eta vi ol e n t iu s Au s t r i s a c r ib u s E u ripi f ulvis i n c e r t iu s u n di s R u fi nu s q uem p r i m a m eo de m atre c a d e n t e m s u s c e i gre mio par vu s r e t a vi t i n isto p p s a e e si n u t e n e r o u e p er ardua colla vol u t u s p q ubera q u a e sivit fl etu l i n g ui s q u e t r is ul cis molli a l a m b e n t e s fi n x e r un t m e m bra c e r a s t a e meq u e etiam tradente dolos a r t e s q u e n oce n di e di di c it si m ulare fi d e m s e n s u s q u e m in a c es r o t e e r e e t bla n do f raudem r a e t e x e r e r is u p p g ,

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l n e u s a e vit i a e l u c r i u e c u idi n e f e r ve n s s p q p n o n T a r t e s ia cis il l u m s a t ia r e t h a r eni s t e m p e s t a s p r e t ios a Tagi , n on stagna r u b e n t is aurea P a ct ol i t ot u m q u e e x h a u s e r it H e r m u m , a r d e b i t maiore sit i qua m f a l l e r e m e n tes doctus e t u n a nim os o di is turba r e s od a l e s ta le m proge nies h om in u m S i prisca t ul is s e t , P e r it h o u m fu geret These u s , o ff e n s u s Or e s t e m d e s e r e r e t Pylades , o d is s e t Castora Poll u x ipsa qu ide m f a t e or vi n ci r a p id o q u e m a g is t r a m .

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Ath a m as king o f O rc h o menu s L e a rchu s in a fit O f m a dn e s s 1

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S OD

CLA U D IA N m i n ge n io n ec plus s er m o n e or a b o r 1 1 0 ; p solus hab et s c e l e r u m q ui d q uid p os s e di m u s o m nes h u n c ego si ve s t r a e res est acco mm oda t u r b a e regalem ad s u m mi p r od uc a m p r in cip is a ul a m s it licet ipse Num a g r a vi or S it d e n i q u e Mi n os c e d e t e t in s id i is n ostri fl e c t e t u r al u m ni Or a n t e m s equitur c l amor c u n ct a e q u e profanas rr e x e r e ma n us in ve n t a q u e tristia la n da mt o p illa ubi c a e r ul e o vestes c on e x u it angue n o d a vit q u e adamante co m as P h l e g e t h on t a so n or u m 1 2 o s ci t e t a m b u s t o fl a g r a n t is ab aggere ripa c 0 p in g e n t e m pi c eo s u cc e n d i t gu r gite p in u m r a q u e veloces p er Tartara con c u t i t alas i p g Est locus extre m u m pandit qua G alli a litus Ocea ni p r a e t e n t u s a q uis ubi f e r t u r Uli x es san g ui n e li bato populu m m ovis s e s il e n t e m il l i c u m b r a r u m te n ui stridore vol a n t um si m ulacra colo ni fl e b il i s a u di t ur q u e s t u s pall ida d e fun c t a s q u e vide n t migrare fig ur as hi n c dea p r os il ui t P h o e b iq u e egressa s ere n os inf e ci t radios ul ul a t u q u e a e t h e r a rupit s e n tit ferale Brita nnia mu r m ur t e r r i fi co e t S e n on u m q u a t it arva fragor r e vol u t a q u e Tethys s u b s t i t it e t R h e n u s p r oi e ct a t o rp ui t u r n a t u n e i n c a ni t i e m m uta t is spo n te col ub r is l on g a e vu m m e n tita se me m ru g is q u e s e u e r as e r s u l c a t a ge n as e t fi c t o la n guida p assu p inva di t m uros E l u s a e n otissi m a d u d um r a e ve nit

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Their t errit ory l a y s o me s ixt y m il es S E of P a ris chief to wn was Ag ed incu m ( mod S ens ) E l u s a ( the m odern E a uz e in the D ep a rt m ent of wa s the b irthp l a ce of R ufi nu s ( of Zos im iv 5 1 1

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34

I ts

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G ers )

T H E FI R ST BOO K AGA INST

R U FI N U S

hi s

preceptress : i n a word ( that I wast e n ot y our ti m e further) all the w ickedness that is ours i n co m mo n is h is alo n e Him will I i ntroduce if the plan c o m m end its elf t o y ou t o the ki n gly palace O f the e m p eror O f the world Be he wi ser than Nu m a b e he Mi n os sel f n eeds must he yield a n d succu m b t o the treache r y of m y f oster child A shout f ollo w ed her words all stretched forth their impious hands a n d applauded the a wf u l plot Whe n M egaera had gathe r ed together her dress with the black s erpe n t that g i rdled her a n d bo u nd her hair with combs of steel S h e approached the soundi ng stream of Phlegethon and s eizing a tall p i ne tre e fro m the scorched s u m mit of the fla ming ba nk ki n dled it in the pitchy flood then p l ied her swi f t wi n gs o er sluggish Tartar u s There is a place w here Gaul stretches her further most shore spread out be f o r e the waves O f Ocean tis there that Ulysses is sa i d to ha v e called up the sile n t ghosts with a liba t io n of blood There is heard the m ourn ful weep i ng of the spirits of the dead a s they flit by with f a i nt sound of wings a n d the i n habita n ts s e e the pale ghosts pass and the shades of the dead Twas f r om here the goddess leapt forth dim m ed the s u n s fair bea m s a n d clave the s k y with horrid howlings Britain f elt the deadly sou n d the nois e S hook the country 1 Tethys stayed her tide a n d Rhine o f the S eno n es let f all his ur n and shra n k h is stream Thereupo n i n the guis e of a n Ol d man her serp ent locks chan ged at her desire to snowy hair her dread cheeks f u r ro w ed with ma n y a wrinkle a n d f eigni n g weari n ess 2 i n her gait s h e e n ters the walls of Elusa i n search had lo n g kn o wn s o well Lo n g O f the hous e s h e .

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35

CLAU DIA N te c ta

e t e n s , o c ul i s q u e

p e i or e m p

di u l i v e n t ib u s h a e s it

m ir ata vi r um t um tali a f a t ur Ot i a te R u fin e iuva n t fr u s t r a q u e iu ve n t a e cons umis florem p a t r u s in g l or iu s ar v is heu n e s cis quid fata tibi q ui d sidera d e b e n t q u id Fort u na parat toto d om in a b e r e m undo S i parere velis artus n e s p e rn e s en i les n a m u e mihi m a ic a e vires a e vi u e f utu r i q g q r a e s c i u s ardor i n e s t l n o v i q u o T h e s a a cant u s p e r i i a t lu n are i u b a r quid signa s a a ci s p g A eg y pti v a l e a n t q u a gens C haldaea voc a t is im p e r e t arte deis nec m e l a t u e r e fl u e n t e s a r b o r ib u s s uc i f un e s t a r u m u e potestas q h e r b a r u m q ui d q u id letali grami n e pollens 1 Caucasus e t S cy t hi c a e ver n ant in crimi n a r up e s quas legit M edea ferox e t calli da Circe s a e iu s horre n dos m a n es s a c r i s u e li t a vi q p n o c t u r n i s H e c a t e n e t condita f u n e r a t r a x i c a r m i ni b u s vi c t u r a m eis m u l t os u e c a n e n d o q ,

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a m vi s u q

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fil a , p e r e mi

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ire vagas quercus e t fulme n stare co e g i ve r s a q u e n o n pro n o cur v avi fl u m i n a l a p s u i n fo n tes redi tur a suos n e vana l ocu t u m m e for t a s s e putes m u t a t os ce m e p e n ates coe e r e colu m nae d ix e r a t e t n ive a e ( mi r um p ditari s ub it oq u e trabes l u cere m etallo I nl ec e b ri s c a p it ur ni mi u m q u e elatus avaro s ic rex ad pri m a t u m e b a t a s ci t ur a s p e c t u p .

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g r a m ina E toxica , H eins ius 1

36

:

other

carm ina

B ir t conj g ra m in e ’ I ta k e P os tg a te s crim i na

cod d .

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ectu r es

TH E FIRST BOO K A GA INST sh e

R U FI N U S

tood a n d gaz ed w ith j ealous eyes m arvelling a t a m a n wors e tha n herself ; the n spake s h e thus : Does eas e co n te n t thee Rufinu s ? Wa s t e s t thou in vai n the flower Of thy youth i n glorious thus in thy father s fi el ds ? Thou k n o w est n ot what fate and the stars owe thee what f ort u ne m akes r eady S O thou wilt O bey m e thou shalt b e lord of the whole world D espise n ot a n old m a n s feeble l imbs : I have the gif t of m agic an d the fir e of prophecy is wi thi n m e I have lear n ed the i n ca n tatio n s where with Thessalia n witches pull down the bright m oo n I k n ow the m eani n g of the wise E g yptia n s ru n es the art whereby the Chaldea n s i mpos e their wi ll upo n the subj ect go ds the various saps that flow withi n trees a n d the p ower of deadly herbs ; all thos e that grow on Caucasus rich i n poisonous plants or to m an s ba n e clothe the crag s of Scythia ; herbs such as cruel M edea gathered a n d curious Circe O ften i n n octur n al rites have I sought t o propitiate the dr ead ghosts a n d Hecate and recalled the shades of buri ed m e n to li ve agai n by my mag i c m any t oo has m y wiz ardry brought to destructio n though the Fates had yet so m ewhat of their li f e s thread t o spi n I have caused oaks to walk and the thunderbolt to stay his course aye a n d m ade rivers re v ers e their co u rs e a n d fl ow bac k wards to their f ou n t Lest tho u p erchance think thes e b e but idle boasts behold the chan ge of thin e own ” hous e A t thes e words the white pillars to h is a m azeme n t bega n to t u r n into gold a n d the beams of a sudde n t o s h in e with m etal His s e n ses are captured by the bait a n d thrilled beyo n d m eas u re he feasts his greedy eyes on the S ig ht S O Midas ki ng of Lydia swelled at first s

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37

CL A U D I A N M a e on iu s p u l ch r o cu m ,

s ed

u a m ri

ve r t e r e t

o mni a tactu

f i os dap es n u l v m u e r e v c t a p q g q in g l a c i e m vidit latices tu m mu n us a c e r b u m s e n s it e t i n viso vot um d a m n a vi t in a u ro ergo ani mi victus s e q u im ur q u oc u m q u e vo c a b is 1 70 s e u tu vir s e u n um en ait p a t r ia q u e r e l i c t a a s Furiae i us s u t e n d e b a t ad a r ces in s t a b il e s q u e oli m S y m p l e g a d a s e t freta re m is i n clita T h e s s a l i cis celsa qua Bosphor u s urb e s l e n d e t e t Od r s iis A sia m d is c r im in a t oris p y U t longu m p e r m e n s u s iter d u c t u s q u e mal i gno stami n e f a t or u m cl a r a m s ub r e p s it i n a n l a m il ic e t a m b it io n asci di scedere rectu m ve num c un c t a dari pro f ert arca n a cli entes falli t e t a m b it os a princip e ve n di t honores in g e m in a t cri m e n c o m m o t i p ectoris ig n e m n u t r i t e t e x i uu m s t im u l a n d o vulnus a c e r b a t g a c v e l u t i n n u m e r os amnes accedere Nereus mescit e t un d a n t e m q u a m vi s hi n e h a u r ia t H is t r u m h in c bi h at aesti v u m s e p t e n o gurgite Nil u m par s e m p er s im il is q u e man et s ic fl u ct ib u s auri c u ic u m u e mo nile e x l e r i calor ille n e q u i t q p c on t e x t u m e m m i s aut prae di a culta f uiss e n t g R u fi n o p op u l a n d u s erat d o m in o q u e p a r a b a t m e t u e n d a colo ni s e xi ti u m f e c u n d u s ager os t

u is s e

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f e r t il it as 38

l a r ib u s p e l l i t , d e t r u d it

a vi ti s

THE FI R ST BOO K AGAINST

RU FI NUS

with

pride whe n he fo u nd he could transf orm every thi n g he touched to gold : but when he beheld his food grow rigid a n d his dri nk harde n into golde n ice the n he u n derstood that thi s gi f t wa s a ba n e a n d in his loathi n g for the gold cursed his prayer Thus R u fin u s overco m e c r i ed o u t : Whithersoever thou ” Th s u mm on es t m e I follow b e thou m a n or en od g at the F u ry s biddi ng he left his fatherla n d a nd approached the cities O f the East threading the once fl oating Sym plegades a n d the s e as re n own ed f or the voyage of th e Argo sh ip O f Thessaly till he ca m e t o where b e n eath its hi gh w alled town the glea ming Bosporus s eparates Asia fr o m the Th ra cia n coast Whe n h e had co mpleted thi s long j ourn ey an d led by the evil thread of t h e fates had won his way i n to the far fam ed p alace the n did am bitio n straightway co m e t o birth a n d right wa s n o m ore Everythi n g had its pric e H e b etrayed secrets deceived depe n de n ts a n d sold hono u rs that had be e n wh eedled from the emperor H e follo w ed u p a n other heaping fuel o n the in o n e crime with fl a m ed mi n d a n d probi n g and e m bitteri n g the erst while tri vi al wound A n d y et as Ncreus kno w s no additio n fro m the in fini t u d e of ri v ers that fl ow into hi m a n d tho u gh here he drai n s Dan ube s wave a n d there Nile s s umm er fl ood with it s s evenfold mouth yet ever re m ai n s his sam e and co n sta n t s elf s o R u fin u s thirst k n ew n o abate m e n t for all th e str ea m s of gold that fl owed i n upo n hi m Had any a nec klac e st udded with j e w els or a f ertile demesne he was sure prey f or R u fi n u s a rich property assured the r uin of its own possessor f ert i lity w as the husba n dm a n s bane H e dr iv es the m f ro m their ho m es exp els the m fro m the lands their sires had .

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39

C LA U D I A N

fi ni b u s

aut

f

vivis aut occup a t heres c o n e s t a e c u m u l a n t u r O p es or b is u e ruinas g q ac ci pit una dom u s populi s e r vire c o a c t i l u c c u m b un t oppida regno e n a u pri v ato s e p q t e n e a s u t r u m q u e l ic e b i t Q u o ve s a n e r u is Oc e a n u m l a x e t r u t il o s tibi Lydi a f o n tes iu n g a t u r soli u m C r oesi Cy r i q u e tiara u a e s tu n u m u a m di ves eris n u m u a m s a t i a b e r e q q q s emper i n ops q ui cu m q u e cupit con t e n t u s honesto 2 01 Fabricius parvo s p e r n e b a t mu n era regu m s u d a b a t u e gravi consul Serranus aratro q e t cas a p u gnaces Curios a n g u sta t e e b a t g haec mihi p a up e r t a s op ul en t ior haec mihi tecta c ul mi ni b u s m a ior a tui s ibi q u a e r it inan es luxuries n ocit ur a cib os hic do n at in e m p t as te r ra dapes r a p iun t T y r ios ibi v ellera sucos i et c t u r a t a e s a t u r a n t u r m u r ice v estes p hi e ra di ant fl ores e t prati viva voluptas i n ge nio variata s u o f ul g e n t ib u s il l ic a n di t ur herba hic mollis s ur u n t strata toris p g s ol l i c i t um curis n on a b r u p t u r a s op o r e m turba s a l u t a n t um latas ibi p e r s t r ep it aedes hi c avi u m ca n tus l a b e n t is m urmu ra rivi n atur a b e a t is vivi t ur exiguo m elius Omnibus ess e dedit S i quis c og n ove r it uti haec s i n ota fore n t fr u e r e m u r simplice cul t u classica n on g e m e r e n t n on stridula fraxin u s iret n ec ve n t us q u a t e r e t p up p es n ec machi n a m uros a u er t

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40

CLAU D IA N Cr es c e b a t

scelerata s it is p r a e d a e q u e r e c e n tis in c e s t u s fl a g r a b a t amo r n u l l u s q u e p e t e n d i c o e n di ve pudor ri s i n e c tit r e b e r u r i a c g p b l a n di tii s s o ci a t perit u ro f o e d e r e dextras S i se m el e tant i s p os c e n t i quisq u e n e g a s s e t e ff e r a r a e t u mi d o u a t i e b a t corda f u rore p q quae s ic Gaet u li iaculo p e r c u s s a l e a e n a aut H y r c a n a p r e m e n s r a p t or e m b elua partu s i u r a t a d e or u m aut s erp ens calcata f u r it m a i e s t a s t e r it u r n u s u a m r e v e r e n t i a m e n sae q n on c o ni un x n on ipse S imul n on pignora caes a

220

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23 0

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s u ffi ciun t o d iis

n o n e x t in x i s s e

i n u os , p q

ro

p e x s c in d e r e

n o n n otos egisse s a t est cives f un di t u s e t n o m en gentis dele r e l a b o r a t n ec celeri p e r imi t leto c r u d e l i b us a n te su i n cl a t e n e b r a s i l i i s f r u it u r cr u ciatus v c pp dilato mu crone p arat pro s a e vior e n s e pa r c e n d i rabi es c o n c e s s a q u e v ita dolo r i mors a d e on e par um est ca n sis f a l l a cib u s in s t a t a r g u it a t t on i t o s s e i u dice cetera segnis ad f a cin u s v elox p e n it u s regione remotas im p ig e r ire vi as non il l u m Siri u s a r dens b r u m a ve R ip h a e o s t r id e n s A q ui lon e r e t a r d a t e ffe r a t o r u e b a n t a vi d a e praecordia c u r a e q e ff u e r e t n e quis l a di os n e u e r d e r e t ull u m p g g 2 45 Au g u sto m is e r a n t e n e f as non fl e c t it u r annis non a e t a t e labat iu ve n u m r or a n t i a c olla ante p atrum vu l t u s st r icta c e cid e r e securi .

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42

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T H E FI RST BOO K AGAINST

R U FI N U S



Still grew R u fin us wicked greed a n d hi s i mpious passio n f or n ew won wealth blaz ed yet fi e r c e r ; n o feeli n g of sha m e kept hi m f ro m de m a n di ng a n d extorti n g m o n ey H e combines p erj u ry with cease less caj olery ratifying wi th a hand clasp the bo n d he purpos es t o brea k Should any dare to refu s e h is de m and f o r o n e thi n g ou t o f s o many his fierce heart wo u ld b e stirred wi th swell i n g wrath Was ever l ioness wounded with a Gaet u li an s spear or H yrca n tiger purs ui n g th e robber O f her yo un g was ever bruis e d serp e n t s o fi erce H e s w ears by the m aj esty of the gods a n d tra m ples o n hi s oath H e revere n ces not the laws of hospitality To kill a wi f e a n d her husba n d with her and her childre n sates n ot hi s a n ger ; t is n ot e n o u gh to sla u ghter relatio n s a n d d rive fri e n ds into exile he strives to destroy every citiz e n o f R om e and to blot out the very na m e of ou r race N or does he eve n slay with a swi f t death ere that he e nj oys the i n fl i ction the rack the chai n the lightless o f cruel torture ; cell thes e he s ets before the fi n al blow Why th i s re missio n is more savage m ore madly cr u el than the sword— this grant of li f e that agony m ay a c c o m pa n y it ’ I s death n o t e n o u gh for hi m ? With treacherous charges he attacks ; daz ed wretches find him at once acc u s er and j u dge Slow to all else he is s wi ft to c r im e and t i reless to visit the ends of the earth in its p u rsu i t Neither the Dog—star s heat n or the wintry blasts of the Thracian n orth w i nd detai n him Feverish a n xiety torme n ts his cr u el heart lest a n y escap e hi s sword or an emp e r or s pardo n lose hi m an opport u nity f or inj u ry Ne ither age n or youth can move h i s pity : be f ore their f ather s eyes h is bloody axe s evers boys heads ,

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43

CL A U DI A N n ato m or i e n t e s up er s t e s post t r a b e a s exul qui s p r od e r e tanta r e l a t u f u n e r a quis c a e d e s p os s i t d e fl e r e ne f andas q u id tale in m a n e s u m q u a m g e s s is s e f e r u n t u r v el S i n is I s t h mi a c a pinu vel rup e pro f u nda S oiron vel Phalaris tauro vel carce r e S u lla B u s ir id is arae o m i tes D i om e d i s equi c lementes ia m Cin n a pius iam S p a r t a ce segn i s R u fi n o c ol l a t u s eris D e i e c e r a t o mn es occ ul t is o d iis terror t a cit i u e s e u l t os p q ib a t g r a n d a e vus

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,

i rant e m i t u s in d i n a r i u e v e r e n t u r p q g g no n magnani mi virtus S t il i ch on is e od e m

sus

at

fr a c t a

.

solus m edio s e d turbin e rerum contra l e tif e r os rictus con t r a q u e r a p a c e m m ovit tela f e r a m vol u cr is n on p r a ep e t e c u rsu ve c t u s eq u i n o n Pegas eis a d i u t u s h a b e ni s hi c c un c t is optata q n i es hic sola p e r icl i t u r r is erat c l ip e u s q u e t r u c e m porrect u s in b ostem hic p r ofu g is s edes a d ve r s a q u e signa fu rori s e r va n di s hic castra bonis metu

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H u c u s q u e mi n a t u s f uga

inerti q ha u d secus hi bern o tu mi d u s cu m vertice torrens saxa rotat vol vit q u e ne mu s p on t e s q u e r e ve l l it

h a e r eb a t

r etr o

ue

c e d eb a t

,

fr a n g i t u r

O b i e c t u s co

sp u m a t e t

Qu a 44

l i u p

q

ua er e n s q ue

montem cir c u m t on a t unda te laude f e r a m qu i p a e n e r u en t i

in l i s a

d ig n u m

m e a t um .

,

THE F I RST BOO K AGA INST

R U FI N U S

their bod i es ; a n aged man o n ce a co n sul s u rvi ved the mu r der of his s o n b u t to b e d rive n i nto exile Who ca n b r ing h i msel f to tell of s o ma n y murders who ca n adeq u ately m ourn such impious sla u ghter ? Do me n tell that cruel Si ni s of Corinth e er wr ought such wickedness with his pine —tree or S cir on with his precipito u s rock or Phalaris wi th his braz en bull or S u lla wi th his prison O gentle hors es of D iomede ! O piti f u l altars of B u siris ! H ence forth co mpared with R u finu s thou Cin n a shalt be lovi n g a n d thou Spartacus a sl u ggard A ll were a prey t o terror f or me n kn e w not w here n ext his hi dden hatred would break forth they s ob i n sile n ce for the tears they dare n ot shed and fear to show their indi gnation Yet is not the spirit of g reat hearted Stilicho bro k e n by th i s same f ear Alone a mi d the gene r al calamity he took ar m s agai n st th i s monster of greed and his de v ouri n g maw tho u gh not born e on the s wi f t course of any I n hi m wing e d steed n or aided by Pegasus reins all found the q ui et they longed for he w as their o n e de f e n ce i n danger their shield o u t held against the fi erce f o e the exile s sanct u ary standard c o n f ronti n g the m adness of R u fi n u s f ortress f or the protect i o n of the good Thus far R u fi n u s adva n ced his threats a n d stayed then f ell back i n co w a r d flight : eve n as a torrent swolle n with winter rains rolls do wn great stones i n its cour s e overwhel m s woods tears away b r idges yet is broke n by a j utting rock and seeking a way through f oams a n d thu n ders about the c l i ff with shattered wa v es H ow ca n I p r aise thee w orthily tho u wh o s u s f rom

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45

CLAUDIA N u m e r os Ob i e c e r is

orbi te n obis t r ep id a e S idus ceu dulce cari n a e oste n dere dei gemi ni s quae lassa p r oc el l is t u n d it u r e t vieto t r a h it u r ia m caeca m a g is t r o I n a c h i u s Rubro p e r h ib e t ur i n a e q u or e Perseus N e p t u n i d om u is s e p eens s e d t ut ior alis te n on p e n na ve h it rigida cu m Gorgone Perseus tu n o n vip ereo d e f e n s u s crine M ed u sae il l u m vilis amor s us p e n s a e virgi ni s e g it te Ro m ana salus t a c e a t superata vetustas H e r c ul e o s c o n f e r r e tuis iam d e s in a t actus u n a Cl e on a e u m p a s c e b a t S ilva l e on em Ar c a d i a e saltu m va s t a b a t d e n t ib u s u n u m s a e vu s aper t u qu e o co m pressa m atre r e b e l l a n s n on ultra L ib y a e fi n es An t a e e n o c e b a s solaque fulmi n eo r e s on a b a t Creta iu ve n co 290 L e r n a e a m q u e vire n s Ob s e d e r a t hydra palude m hoc mo n stru m n on u n a palus n on u n a t r e m e b a t i n sula sed Latia q ui d q uid di cion e s ub a c t u m vivit e t a pri mis Ga n ges h or r e b a t H ib e r is h o c n eq u e G eryo n triplex n ec t u r b i d u s Orci ia n i t or a e q u a b it n ec s i c on cu rr a t i n un um vi s hydrae S cy l l a e q u e fa m es e t fl am m a Ch im a e r a e Certame n subli m e di u s e d m ori b u s impar iugulare m in a t ur vir t u t u m s cel e r u m q u e fui t tu prohibes di te m s p ol i a t tu r e d d i s egenti i n sta u ras a cc e n di t p r o e l ia vi n cis e r u it

l a p s ur o q u e t u o s

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46

T HE

FI R ST BOO K AGAINST

R U FI NU S

t a in e d s t

wi th thy shoulders the totteri n g world in i ts threate n ed f all ? The gods gave thee t o us a s they S how a welco m e star t o frighte n ed m ariners whose weary bark is bu ff eted wi th stor m s of wi n d a n d wave a n d drifts with bli n d cours e n ow that her steers m a n is beate n Perseus desce n da n t of I n achus is said to have overcome Neptu n e s m o n sters in the Red Sea but he wa s helped by hi s wi n gs ; n o wi ng bore thee aloft : Pers eus wa s ar m ed wi th t h e Gorgons head that turn eth all t o sto n e ; the His s n aky locks o f M edusa protected n ot thee m otive wa s but the love of a chai n ed girl thi n e the The days of ol d are surpassed ; s alvatio n of R o m e l e t the m ke ep sile n ce a n d ceas e t o co mpare H ercules labours with thi n e Twas but on e wood that sheltered the lio n of Cl e on a e the savage boar s tusks laid waste a sin g le Arca di a n vale a n d thou rebel A n taeus holdi ng thy m other earth i n thi n e e mbrace di dst n o hurt b eyo n d th e borders of Africa Crete alo n e r e echoed to the b el l owing s of the fir e breath i n g bull a n d the gr ee n hydra beleaguered n o m ore tha n Lem a s lake But this m o n ster R u fin us terr ified n ot on e lake n or on e island : whatsoever l ives be n eath the Ro m a n rule fro m di sta n t Spai n Neither t o Ga n ges strea m was in fear of hi m triple G eryo n n or Hell s fierce j a nitor ca n vi e with him n or could the co nj oi n ed terrors of powerful Hydra r ave n ous Scylla an d fiery Chi m aera Lo n g h un g the co n test i n susp e n se but the strugg le betwixt vice a n d virtue wa s ill matched i n character R u fin u s threate n s slau g hter thou s t a y e s t his ha n d ; he robs the rich thou givest back to the poor h e o verthrows thou r e s t or e s t ; he s ets wars a f oot thou As a p estile n ce growing fro m day winn e s t the m .

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47

CL A UD IA N

a c ve l u t in f ecto mo rb u s cr u d e s c e r e c a el o i n cipi ens primos p e c u d um d ep a s ci tur artus m o x populos u r b e s q u e r a p it ve n t i sque p e r u s t is corruptos S t y g ia m p e s t e m d e s u d a t in amnes sic a vid u s p r a e d o i am n on p e r s i ng u la s a e vit sed s c e p t r is in f e r r e minas o m n iq u e p e r e m p t o mi lite Ro m an as ardet proste r nere v i r es Getas H is t r u m q u e m ove t S cy th ia m q u e ia m q u e ,

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,

r e ce

at t p

suas h os t il ib u s ar mis m i x t is descendi t S a r m a t a D a c is r e l l i ui a s q e t qui c or n ip e d e s i n p o c u l a vu l n e r a t a u d a x auxilio

t r a d it q u e .

M a s s a g et es

ca e s a m qu e

b ib e n s

M a e ot in Al a n u s

m e m b r a q u e q ui ferro ga u det p in x i ss e G elon u s , v e t a t i lle doma r i R u fi n o c ollecta m anus in n e ct it q u e m oras e t co n gr u a tempora d i ff ert .

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nam tua cu m G e t ic a s s t r a vis s e t dextra c a t e r va s u lta d u cis socii l e t u m p a r s q u e u na m a n e r e t d e b il i or f a cil i s q u e capi tun c i m p i u s ille pro di tor imper i i c on iu r a t u s q u e G e t a r u m d i s t u l it i n stantes eluso pri n c ip e pugnas Hu moru m l a t u r u s op e m q u os a d for e bello n orat e t invis is m ox s e c on iun g e r e c a s t r is Est ge n us extremos S c y t h ia e ve r g e n t is i n or t u s tra n s g e l i d u m T a n a in q u o non f a m os iu s u ll u m Arc tos alit t u rp e s hab i tus Ob s c a e n a q u e v is u co rpora mens d ur o n u m q u a m c e s s u r a l a bo r i f r on t e m u e s e c a r i vitanda Ce r es r a e d a c ib u s q p ,

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throug hout V is ig oth s a s the G et a e Cf I ntrod uctio n p x 1

H ere

a nd

h is

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2

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48

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poe m s

C l a u di a n

re f ers to the

CLAU DIA N ludus e t occisos p ul ch r u m iu r a r e pare n te s n e e pl u s n u b i e n a s duplex natura bifor m e s g c og n a t is a t a vi t equis acerri m a n ullo p ordi n e m ob il i t a s ins p e r a t i q u e r e cur s u s Quos t a m e n im p a vi d us co n tra s p u m a n t is ad Hebri ten di s aquas s ic a n te tub as a ci em q u e p r e c a t u s M a vor s n ubi f ero s e u tu p r o cum b is i n H a e m o s e u te cana gelu Rhodop e s e u r e mi e M edo g s ol l i c it a t u s A thos s e u c a l i a n t i a nigris g il i cib u s Pa n gaea tenent accingere m ecu m e t T h r a ca s de f ende t u os s i l a e t ior adsit ” g loria v estita s p ol iis d on a b e r e q u e r c u Au d ii t illa p ate r s c op u l i s q u e ni va l ib u s Hae mi 3 40 surgit e t h or t a t u r c el e r e s clamore mi nistros fer galca m B ello n a mi hi n e x u s q u e r ot a r u m tende Pa v or fr e n et r a p id os F or mi d o iu g a l es f estinas urgete manus meus ecce p a r a t u r ad bell u m Stilicho q ui m e de m ore t r op a e is d i t a t e t hostiles s u sp endit in arbore c r istas co m munes semp er l i t ui co m mu ni a nobis signa c a n u n t iun ct o q u e s e q u or tentor i a c u r r u s ic f a t u s campo i n s il u i t l a t e u e f u a t a s q g hine S tilicho t u r m as il l i n c G r a di vu s a g e b a t e t cl i e is e t mole pares s is u t r i ue stat c as p q sidereis hir suta iub is l or ic a q u e cursu a e s t u a t e t largo s a t u r a t u r vu lnere cor n us Acrior in t e r e a voto m u l t is q u e M egaera l u x u r ia t a m alis m a e s t a m d e p r e n d it i n arc e .

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50

THE FIRST B OO K A G AINST

R U FI N U S

right e ous act t o swear by the ir m ur de r e d p are n ts Their double n atur e fitted n ot b etter the twi form ed Ce n taur s t o the hors es that were p arts of the m Disorderly but of i n credible swi ft n ess they ofte n retur n t o the fi g ht whe n little exp ected Fearless however agai n st such f orces thou Stil icho a p p r o a ch e s t the waters O f foami n g H eb r u s a n d thus prayest ere the trump ets soun d a n d “ the fight b egi n s : M ars whether thou r e cl i n e s t o n cloud capp ed H ae m us or frost w hite Rhodop e holdeth thee or Athos s evered t o give p assage to the Persian fl eet or P a ng a e u s gloo m y with dark hol m oaks gird thys el f at my side a n d defe n d thi n e own la n d O f Thrace If victory s mile on us ” thy m eed shall b e a n o ak stu mp adorn ed wi th spoils T h e Father heard hi s prayer a n d ros e fro m t h e s n owy p eaks of H ae m us shouting co m man ds t o his sp eedy serva n ts B ellona b r i n g my helmet f aste n m e Pa nic the wheels upo n m y chariot ; har n ess m y swift hors es Fear Haste n : sp eed on your work Se e m y Stilicho m akes hi m ready f or war ; Stilicho whose habit it is to load m e wi th rich trophi es a n d ha n g upo n the o a k the pl u med hel m ets of h i s e n e mi es F or u s together the tr ump ets ever sou n d the call t o battle yo king m y chariot I foll ow where ” soever he pitch hi s ca mp So spake he a n d leapt upon the plai n a n d on t hi s side Stilicho scattered the e n emy ba n ds i n broadcast fli ght a n d on that M ars ; alike t h e tw ai n i n accou t re m e n t a n d stature Th e helm ets O f either tower with bristli n g crests their breastplates fl ash a s they sp eed alo n g a n d the ir s p ears tak e their fill of widely dealt wo un ds M ea n whi le M egaera m ore eager n ow s h e h as i h i way rev lli n i n t s w despread ot h a nd e e r g g .

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51

CLAU D I A N I us t it ia m d ir o q u e

en tibi prisca

prior

s ic or e

l a c es sit

saecula r ur s u s u t r e b a r e vi e n t e n n ostra pote n tia c e s s it g n ec locus e s t u s q u a m F u r n s huc lu mi n a fl ecte a d s ic e b a r b a r icis i a c e a n t quot m o e ni a fl a m m i s 3 6 0 p q u as mihi R u fi n u s strages q u a n t u m q u e cr u or is r a e b e a t et u a n t is e ul e n t u r c a e d ib u s hy dr i p q p linq u e ho mi n es s or t e m q u e m ea m p ete sidera n otis Autu mni te redde p l a g is qua vergit i n A ustrum Signi f er a e s t ivo sedes vici n a Leo n i ia m p r id e m g e l i d a e q u e v acant c on fi n ia Librae atq u e utinam p er m agna s e q ui convexa l ic e r e t D i v a r e fer t non u l t e r iu s b a cc h a b e r e d e m e n s i am poe mas t u ns iste d a b it i am d e b it u s u ltor in m in e t e t ter r as qui n unc ip s u m q u e f a t ig a t a e t h er a non vi l i mor i ens c o n d e t u r harena ia m q u e a d e r it l a e t o p r o m is s u s Honori u s a e vo nec f orti gen i to r e min or ne c f ratre cor u sco qui s ub ig e t M edos q ui c u sp i de p r ot e r e t Indos sub iug a ve n t u r i r eges c a l c a b it u r asper Phasis eq u o p o n t e m q u e pati c og e t ur Ar ax es tuque simul g r a vib u s f erri r el ig a t a c a t e n is e x e l l e r e d i e d e b e l l a t a s u e d r a co n u m q p to n sa c omas imo b a r a t h r i cl a u d e r e re c ess a t u m tell u s c omm u n i s c r it t u m l imite n u llo ui e s r e n o va t a q

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52

THE FIRST BOO K AG AI N ST

R U FI N U S

cal a mity co m es upo n Jus tice s a d at h eart in h er palace and thus provokes her with horrid utterance I s this that O ld reign of peace ; t h is the return of that golde n age thou fo n dly h op e d s t had co m e t o p a ss ? I s our power go n e and n o place n ow left f or the Fur i es ? Turn thi n e eyes this way See how m a n y citi es the barbaria n s fires have laid low how vast a sla u ghter how m uch blood R u fin us hath procur ed for m e a n d on what widespread death m y s erp e n ts gorge the m selves Leave thou the world of m e n that l ot is mine Mou n t t o the stars return t o that well kn own tract of Aut umn sk where the Sta n dard bearer ps towards the d i y south The space n ext to the su mm er co n stella tio n O f the Li o n the n eighbourhood of the winter Balance has long been e mpty An d would I co u ld n ow follow thee thro u gh the dome of heave n The goddess m ade a n swer Thou shalt rage n o f urther m ad that thou art N ow shall thy creature receive h i s due the desti n ed ave n ger han gs over hi m a n d he wh o n ow wearies la n d a n d the very f shall di e though n o ha n d ul of dust shall cover sk y h is cor pse Soo n shall co m e Ho n orius pro mised of O ld to this fortu n ate age brave a s his father Theo d o s iu s brilli ant as hi s brother A rca di u s ; he shall subdue the M edes an d overthrow the I n di a ns wi th Kings shall pass u n der hi s yoke froze n h is sp ear Phasis shall bear hi s horses hooves a n d Araxes The n t oo s ub mi t p erf orce t o b e bridged by h i m s halt thou b e bou n d with heavy chai n s of ir o n and c ast ou t fro m the light O f day a n d im priso n ed i n the n etherm ost pit thy s n aky locks overco m e a n d The n the world shal l be own ed s hor n f rom thy head by a l l i n co mm o n n o field m arked off fr o m a n other ,

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53

CLAUDIA N di sc e r n e t ur

n ec vo m ere sulc u s adunc o fin d e t ur s u b i t is m essor a ud e b i t aristis g r or a b un t q uerceta f a vis s t a g n a n t i a passi m Vin a fl uent O l e i u e l a cu s n ec m u r ice t in c t is q ve l l e r i b u s u a e r e t u r b o n os s e d spo n te r ub e b un t q a tto nito p as tore greges on t u m u e p er om n e m p q ” r id eb un t vir id e s e m m i s n a s c e n t ib u s al a e g g

ager

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T HE

FI R ST BOO K AGAI N ST

R U FI NU S

n r ow c l eft bou n dary fur t o w i h y be n ded plou g hshare ; f or the husba nd m a n s hall rej oice i n cor n that spri n gs u n te n ded Oak g roves shall dr ip with ho n ey strea ms of wi n e wel l up on l akes of O il abou n d N o pric e shall b e e very s id e asked for fl eeces dyed sc arlet but of th e ms elves shall the fl ocks g row red t o the as to ni shm e n t of the a n d i n every s e a the g ree n seaweed wi ll s hepherd ” l au g h wi th fl as hi ng j ewels

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IN

RU FI N U M

LIBER SECU ND U S

I N CI P I T P R AE FAT I O

V I ( )

Pa ndi te d ef e n s um reduces H el i con a s or or e s pa ndi te p er m is s is iam licet ire ch oris n ulla p er Aoni os h os t il is b u ci n a campos carmi n a m ug i t u deteriore ve ta t tu q u oque s e c u r is pulsa f or mi di n e D elphis fl o r ib u s u l t or e m De l i e c i nge tuu m n ull u s Castal i os latices e t p r a e s cia f ati fl umi n a polluto b a r b a r u s or e bibit Alpheus late r u b uit S ic u l u m q u e per aequor s a n ui n e a s b elli r e tt u li t u n da notas g a n o vi t u e n ovos a b s e n s A rethusa t r i u m h o s p g q e t G e t ic a m s e n s it teste cruore n e c e m ,

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I n m e n s is ,

Stilicho s u cc e d a n t otia curis e t n o s t r a e patie n s corda r e mi t t e lyrae nec u d e a t longos i n t e r r up is s e labores p e t t e nu e m M u s is c on s t it ui s s e m ora m f e r t u r e t in d om it us ta n de m post p r o e l ia M a vor s lassa p er Odr y s i a s f u n d e r e m e m bra n ives o b l it u s u e s u i posita cl e m e n t ior hasta q P i e r iis aures p a cific a r e modis 1 A ref ere n ce to S ti l icho s c a m p a ig n a g a ins t Al a ric in P e l opo nn es e in 3 9 7 ( s ee I ntroduction p x ) ,

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th e

LIBER

II

V ( )

I a m po st e d om i t a s Alpes d e f e n s a q u e regn a H e s p e ri a e m erita complexus s ede p a r e n t e m a u c t ior adj ecto f ul e b a t side r e m u n dus g ia m q u e tui s Stilicho Ro m a n a potentia curis e t rer um com mi s s u s ap ex tibi credita fratru m u t r a q u e m a i e s t a s g e mi n a e q u e e x e r c it u s aulae R u fi n u s ( n e q ue e ni m p a t iu n t ur s a e va quiete m c ri mi n a p ol l ut a e q u e n e g a nt a r e s c e r e fauces) in f a n di s iteru m terras acce n dere bellis in c oh a t e t solito pace m v e x a r e t u m u l t u a n a m ratione tue b o r u haec etia m sec um q e e l l e r e fl uct u s s e m vitae fragilem qua tot d p p arte q u e a m ? p r e m or h in c od ii s h i ne mi lite c in g or he u quid aga m n o n arma mi hi non p r in cip is u l l u s 15 m atura p e r icul a s u r g u n t a u x il i a t u r amor u n d i q u e e t i m p os it i radia n t c e r vi cib u s e n s e s q uid r e s t a t nisi cu n eta n ovo c on fun d e r e l uc t u in s on t e s q u e m c ae populos mis c er e r ui n a e s ol a ci a leto e ve rs o i u va t orbe m or i ,

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Theodos ius died in J a nua ry 3 9 5 n ot l ong a fter h is def e a t of E ug e n ius a t the F rig idus R iver ( nea r Aq ui l eia ) S epte m b er 5 6 3 9 4 ( s e e I n trod uctio n p ix ) 1

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BOO K

II

V ( )

A f t er t h e s ubj ugatio n of the Alpi n e tribes a n d the salvatio n of the k ingdo m s of Italy the heave n s 1 welco m ed the E m peror Theodosius to the place of ho n our due t o h is worth a n d s o sho n e the brighter by the ad di tio n of a n other star Then wa s the power in thy han ds o f R o m e e n trusted t o thy care Stilicho wa s placed the gover n a n ce of the world The brothers twi n m aj esty a n d the armies of either royal court were give n i n to thy charge But R u fin us n o t p eace a n d a tainted for cruelty a n d cri m e brook ( m outh will n ot forgo its draughts of blood) R u finu s I s a y b ega n o n ce m ore to in fl a m e the world with wicked wars a n d t o dist u rb peace with accusto m ed H ow shall I assure Thus t o hi m self : s editio n m y sle n der hop es of survival By what m ea n s beat back the rising stor m ? O n all sides are hate a n d the threat of ar m s What a m I t o do ? N o help ca n I fi n d i n soldier s weapo n or e m p eror s favour I n sta n t da n gers ri n g I n e rou n d a n d a glea mi n g sword What is left but to pl u nge h a n gs above m y head the world i nto fresh troubles a n d draw dow n i nn oce nt p eoples i n m y rui n Gladly will I p erish if the world do es t oo ; ge n eral destructio n shall co n sole m e for ,

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CL A U D I A N e x it iu m

commune dah it n ec territus a n te di s c e d a m cu m l uc e si mu l l i n q u e n d a potestas Haec f a t u s ve n tis ve l ut i s i frena r e s ol va t A eolus abr u pto gentes sic obice fu dit l a x a vit q u e v i a m bellis e t n e q u a m a n e r e t inm u nis reg i o cl a d e m d i vi s it in or b e m d i s p os ui t q u e n e f as alii p er terga f e r ocis D a n u vu s ol id a t a r u un t e x p e r t a q u e re m os fr a n g u n t stagna rotis alii p er Ca s p ia claustra Ar m e ni a s q u e n i v es in op in o tra mite d u c t i in va d un t O r i e n t is op es 30 ia m pascua f u m a n t Ca p p a d oc u m vol u c r u m q u e parens Ar g a e u s eq u or u m iam rubet altus H a l y s nec s e d e f e n di t ini quo monte Cilix S y r ia e tractus va s t a n t u r a m o e ni a d s u e t u m u e c h o r i s e t l a e t a plebe c a n or u m q .

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r ot e r i t

p h in c

im b e l l e m

s on i

es

h o s t il is Or on t e m

p G e t ic is

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planct u s As i a e Europa c a t e r vis lu di brio p r a e d a e q u e d a t u r f r on d e n t is ad usq u e D a l m a t ia e fines o m n i s q u ae mobile Pont i aequor e t Ad r ia c a s tell u s in t e r ia c e t undas s u a l e t inops u m l l i s h a b i t a t a colonis e c d u n u q p i ns t ar a n h el a n t is L ib y a e quae torr i da semp er s o l i b u s humano n e s c i t mans u es c e r e c u l t u Thessal u s ardet age r r e t ic e t pasto r e f u gato Pe l ion E m a t h i a s i gnis p op ul a t ur aristas n am plaga P a n n on i a e m is e r a n d a q u e m o e n ia T h r a c u m a r v a u e M s o r u m ia m n ulli fl e b il e damn u m q y sed cur s u s s ol l e m n is e r at c a m p u s q u e f u ror i e x posit u s s e n s u m q u e mali s d e t r a x e r a t usus eheu q u am b r e vi b u s p e r e u n t in g e n t ia f atis ,

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60

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THE SECON D BOO K AGA I N ST mi n e

o wn

R U FI N U S

death n or will I die (for I a m n o coward) till I have acco mplished t hi s I will n ot lay down m y power b efore m y life So sp ake he a n d as if Aeolus u n chai n ed the win ds s o he breaki n g their bo n d s let loose the n ations cleari n g the way for wa r and that n o la n d S hould be fr e e therefro m apportio n ed rui n thro u ghout the world p arcell i n g ou t destructio n Som e pour across the fr oz e n surface of swi ft fl owin g Danub e and break with the chariot wheel what erst while kn ew but the oar others i n vade the wealthy East led thr ough th e Caspia n Gates a n d over the Ar m e nia n sno w s by a n ewly discovered p ass The fields of Cappadocia reek with slaughter ; Ar g a e u s f ather O f s wi f t hors es is laid waste H a l y s deep w aters run red a n d the Cilicia n ca n not defe n d hims el f i n his precipitous m o un tai n s The pleasa n t plains of Syria are devastated and the e n emy s c a v alr y thunders alo n g the banks of Oro n tes ho m e hi therto of the da n ce a n d of a happy p eople s so n g H ence co m es m ourni n g to Asia w hi le E u rop e is left to be the sport a n d prey of Getic hordes eve n to the bo r ders All that tract of la n d lying o f fertile D al m ati a b etwee n the storm y Euxi n e a n d the Adr iatic is laid w aste a n d plu n dered no i nh abita nts dwell there ; tis like torrid Africa w hose s un sco r ched plains ne v er grow ki n dlier thro u gh hu m an tillage Thessaly is a fir e P elio n sile n t his sh epher ds put to fl i ght ; fl am es bring destructio n o n M acedo ni a s c r ops For P a nn oni a s plai n the Thracia n s helpless cities the fields of Mysia were r uined b u t n ow non e w ept ; year by year cam e the i nv ader unshelte r ed was the countryside fro m ha v oc a n d c u stom had robbed su ff e r ing of its st i ng A las in h o w s wi f t r ui n p e r l s h ,

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61

CLAU DIA N im pe r iu m

tanto quaesitum sa n gui n e ta n t o s e r va t u m quod mill e d u c u m p epere t e labores q uod ta n tis Ro m a n a m a n us con t e x ui t a nnis proditor u n us in e rs a n gusto te m pore ve r ti t Urbs e ti am m ag n ae q uae d ucit ur a e m u l a Ro m ae e t Ca l ch e d oni as c o n t ra d e s e c t a t h a r e n a s p i am n on fi ni tim o M arti s te r rore m ove t ur sed r o iu s lucere fac es e t rauca sonare p p co r n ua vi b r a ti s u e p e t i fa sti ia telis q g a d s icit i h i v ili m u os n e tueri i r s t a t o p g hi i u ncti s p r op e ra n t portus m u ni re c a r inis Ob s e s s a ta m e m ille fe r us l a e t a t u r in urbe e x ul t a t u e m alis s umm a e u e ex culmine t ur ris q q im p i a vici ni ce r mit sp e c t a c ul a ca m pi vi ne tas ire n u r us n u n c i n vada proxi m a m erg i 65 s e m in ec e m h un c subito e r c u s s um vul n ere l a b i p dum fug it hu n e a nim am porti s e ffl a r e s u b ip s is n ec ca n os p r od es s e s e ni p u er iq u e cruore m atern os u n da t e si n us i nm e ns a voluptas e t r is us a fli c it u n us dolor l r um u e subit e p q q uod f er ia t n on ips e m a n u videt o mni a late e x ce tis i n ce n s a suis e t cr i m i n e t a n tO p l u x ur ia t c a r um q u e S ibi n on a b n uit b oste m iac t a b a t q u e ul tr o q uod soli cas tra p a t e r e n t s e r m on um u e for e t vicib us r m is s a po t estas e q p e r e u quoti e ns e x is s e t fo ede r is aucto r g g s t i a t ur soe n s c ir c u m u e a r m ata c l i e n t um p q 1 Co ns ta n t inop l e ,

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62

THE SE CO ND

B OO K

AGAIN S T

RU FI N U S

ve n t h e g reat es t thi ng s An e mpir e won a nd k e p t a t the exp e n s e of so m uch bl oo dshed born f ro m the toils of co u n tless leade r s kni t tog ether through s o m a n y years by Ro m a n ha n ds on e coward traitor overthrew i n the twi nkli n g of a n eye 1 That city t oo called of m e n the ri va l of g reat Ro m e that looks ac ross t o Chalcedo n s s t ra n d is stricke n n ow with te r ror at n o n eighbouri n g war ; n earer ho m e it observes the fl a sh of torches the t ru m p et s call a n d i t s own roofs the ta rget f or a n e n e m y s artillery So m e guard the wall s with watchful outposts others haste n to f orti fy the harbour wi th a chai n of shi ps But fierce R u fin u s i s fu ll of j oy i n the leaguered city a n d exults in i ts misfortu n es g a zi n g at the awful sp ectacle of the surrou n di ng country from the su mm it of a lofty tower H e watches the processio n of wo m e n i n chai n s se es on e poor half dead wretch dr own ed i n the water hard by anoth e r stric k e n a s he fl ed si nk down b eneath the s u dde n wound a n other breathe o ut his li f e at the tower s very gates ; he rej oic e s that n o resp ect is shown to grey hairs and that m other s breasts are drenched with their childr e n s blood Great is his pleasure thereat from ti m e t o ti m e h e laughs a n d knows but on e regret— that it is n ot his o wn hand that s t rikes H e sees the whole cou n tryside ( except fo r his o wn lands) ablaz e and has j oy of his g r eat wi ck edness making no secret It is O f the f a c t that the c i ty s f oes are h i s f riends his boast m oreover that to him alo n e the ene m y ca mp op e n ed its gates a n d that there wa s allowed right of parley b et w een the m Whene er he issued forth t o arra n ge so m e wondrous truce his co mpani ons thro n ge d hi m round a n d a n ar m ed ba n d of depe n e

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63

CLAU D I A N a

m i n a r iva t is ib a n t f a m u l a n t ia g p

si

g

ni s

q ua de parte r e l in q u a t b a rb a r i e m r e voc a t f ul va s i n p ectora p elles f r e n a q u e e t i mma n es p h a r e t ra s a r c u s q u e sono r os 80 a d s im u l a t m e n t e m u e pala m r o c l a m a t a m ic t u p q n ec p u d e t Au s o ni os c u r r u s e t iu r a r e g e n t e m Su mere deform es ritus ve s t e m q u e G e t a r u m in s ig n e m q u e h a b i t u m L a t ii m utare c o a c t a e 85 m a e r e n t c a p t iva e p el l i t o iudi ce leges Quis populi tu m vul t us erat quae murm u ra f u r t im m na m i s r is n e fl e r e q u ide m aut lenire d ol o r e m e ( col l o u iis impun e l icet u n a m u sq u e f e r e m u s o q ) q e x it i a l e i n g u m d u rae q uis terminus u m q u a m sortis c r it q uis n os fu n esto turbine r e r u rn aut ta n tis s ol ve t l a cr imis q uos b a r b a r us il l in c h in c R u fi n u s agit quib u s arva f r e t u m q u e n e g a t u r m ag n a q ui dem per r u ra lu es sed maior oberrat intra tecta ti m or tandem s u ccu rr e r u e n t i heu patri ae Stilicho dilecta hic pig n ora c erte 9 5 h ic do m us hic t h a l a mi s primu m g e n i a l ib us o m e n hic tibi felices e r e x it regia t a e d a s vel solus sp erate v e n i te p r o e l ia v iso lan guesce n t a vid iq u e cadet dementia m on s t ri T a l i b u s u r g e t u r di s c or s Aurora p r oc e l l is at Stilicho Z e p h y r i s cu m pri m u m bru m a r e mi t ti e t i n ga d iff u s is n udari c o e t a r u in is p p partibus I t a l ia e tuta s u b pace r el ic t is ut r a u e castra m ovens P h o e b i p r o e r a b a t ad o r t u s q p

ipse inter medi os

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C LAU DIA N

Gal li ca dis cr e tis a q u e r ob or a tur mis nu m u a m t a n t a e di c io n e s ub u n a a m plexus q con ve n e r e m a n us n ec to t discri m i n a voc um il l i n c Ar m e ni a e vib r a t is c ri ni b us alae h e rb id a c ol l e c ta e faci l i vela mi n a n odo i n de tru ces fl a vo c omi t a n t u r vertice Galli q uos R hodanus v elox Ar a ris quos t a r di or a m bit e t quos n asce n tes e x p l or a t r ite u R h e n u s g g u o s q u e rig a t re t ro p e m i cior u n da G a r un n a e q Ocea ni ple n o q uo tie ns im p e l l it ur a e s t u m e ns eade m c u nc t is a ni mi q u e r e c e n tia p o nun t 1 15 vul nera no n o di t vic t us vi c t or ve s up e rb it et u a m vis praes e ns tu m or e t civil i a n u e r q p c la s sic a b el l a t ri x q u e e t i a m n un c ira ca l e r e t in ducis e ximi i eo n s p ir a ve r e f a vor e m haud aliter X e rx en t o to s i m ul orbe s e c ut us n a rr a t ur r a p u is s e va g os e x e r ci t u s am n es e t telis um b r as s e di e m cu m c l a s s ib u s iret e r s cop ul os t e c t um q u e p edes con t e m n e r e t a e q uor p Vix Alp e s e g r es s us e r a t n ee ia m a m p l i us e r r a t b a rb a rus a d ve n t um q u e t im e ns s e c o g it in un a m 125 y l ro a ni ti e m t u to q u e i n cl u d it pas cu a g p tu m dupl ici fo ssa n o n e x up e r a b il e vallu m a s p e ra t a l t e r nis s u di b u s m u riq u e loc a t a .

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130

T H E SECO N D BOO K AGAI N ST

R U FI N US

the s o di ff ere n t s q uadro n s of Gaul a n d of the East N ever before di d there m e et together under on e c om m a n d such n u m erous ba n ds n ever i n on e ar m y such a babel of to n gues H ere were curly haired Arm e nia n cavalry their gre e n cloaks faste n ed with a loose kn ot fi erc e Gauls with golde n locks acco m pa nied the m so m e fro m th e ba n ks of the swift fl owin g R ho n e or the m ore sluggish S a On e so m e whose i n fa n t bodi es Rhi n e s fl ood had la v ed or wh o had bee n washed by the w a ve s O f the Garo nn e that fl ow m ore rapidly towards tha n fro m their source whe n ever they are drive n back by Ocea n s full tide O n e co mm on p urpos e i n spires the m all grudges lately harboured are laid aside ; the van quished feels n o hate th e victor shows n o pride A n d despite O f prese n t u n rest of the tru m p et s late challe n ge t o civil strife a n d o f warlike rage still aglow yet were all at on e i n their support O f their g reat leader So it is said that the ar m y that follo w ed Xerxes gathered i n to on e f ro m all q uarters of the world drank up w hole rivers i n their courses obscured the s un with the rai n of their arro w s passed thro u gh mo u ntai n s on board ship a n d w alked the bridged s e a with conte mptuous f oot Scarce had Stilicho crossed the Alps whe n the barbaria n hordes bega n to restrict their forays a n d for f ear of his app r oach gathered together i n the plai n a n d e n closed their pasture lands within a defe n sive ring They the n built an i mpreg n able fortificatio n wi th a do u ble m oat pla n ted stakes two deep at i n tervals along its su mm it a n d s et wago n s rigged with o x hide all rou n d l ike a wall Pa n ic fear s eized upo n R u finu s as he s a w this fro m H e stood with ice a far a n d his cheeks grew pale c Ol d f ace n ot k n owi n g whether t o fl y t o own hi m se l f .

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67

CL A U DI A N a n fi d os ses e t r a n s f e r r e t i n hostes q uid n u n c di vit ia e quid fulvi vasta metalli congeries q uid pu rpureis e fful t a c ol u m n is atria p r ol a t a e ve i u va n t ad sidera moles audit iter n u m e r a t q u e di es s p a t ioq u e via r um m e t i t u r vita m t or q u e t u r pace f u t u ra nec r e cip it somnos e t s a e p e c u b il ib u s amens e x cu t it u r n a m u e lu i t f or m id in e o en a e oe p p q s e d redi t i n r a b i e m s c e l e r u m u e i n m a n e r e s u m i t q ingenium s a cr a s q u e fores p r a e di vi t is a u lae in t r a t e t Ar c a di u m mixto terro r e p r e c a t u r Per fr a t r is r egale iu b a r p e r facta p arentis a e t h e r ii fl o r e m u e tui t e d e r e co r a e vi q p c rip e m e l a d iis l i a t S t il ic h on i s i n i u a s c e g q evitare mi n as i n n os t r a m Gallia c a e d e m c o n i u r a t a ve n it i r i a t ulti m a Tethy s u u i d d q q g extre m os u ltra vol i t a t gens s i q u a B rit a n n os m ota m ihi ta n tis ca p i e n d i c r e di m u r armis tot s ig n is unu m p etitur caput ? unde cr u or is ista s it is e m in u m caeli S ibi vin di c a t a x e m g e t null um vult ess e parem s uc c u m b e r e o s c it p cu n eta sibi r eg it I t a l ia m L ib y a m q u e co e r c e t H is p a ni s G a l l i s q u e i u b e t n on orbita solis n o n il l um n atura capit q u a s c um q u e p a r a vit hi c Augustus op es e t quas post b ella r e c e p it s olus habet poss essa se m el n ec r e d d e r e curat s cili cet ille q uide m t ra n q ui lla pace fr u a t u r n os p r e m a t Ob s id i o ? q uid parte m i n vadere t e m p t a t ? d e s e r a t I ll y ri cos fines 16 1 r e m it t a t a r et o s c e p

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CL A U D IAN m i n a g

fratern as ex aeq u o d ivid a t h a s t a s n ec s c ep t r i ta ntu m f u e r is s e d mi l i t is heres u od s i di ssimulas n os t r a e s u ccu rr e r e m orti q n ec p r oh ib er e paras Manes e t sidera testor haec cervix n on sola cadet I ni s c e b it u r alter sangui s n ec S t y g ia s f e r a r in c om it a t u s ad u ndas n ec m ea s e cu r u s r id e b it f un e r a v ictor H aec ubi di ct a t ur f a cin u s m is s u s q u e r ep ente q ui f e r a t e x t or t a s in v ito pri n cip e voces I n t er e a Stilicho iam l a e t ior hoste p r opinquo n ec mu lto s p a t ii d is t a n t ib u s a e q u or e v allis u n p g a n di c u p id a s a cc e n d i t voce cohortes Arm e niis frons laeva d a t ur per cornua Gallos d e x t er ior a l oc a t S u mi s i n e s c e r e fre n a p g u l l l i l u e vi d e r e s v e r i e x o n i m bos a t e s t p q surgere purpureis u n d a n t e s a n g ui b u s b astas s e r e n t u m u e vago caelu m s a e vir e vol a t u p q im p l e t T h e ss a l i a m ferri nit or a n t r a q u e d oc t i a

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Ac h il li

n e m us Oe t a e u m r a d ia t cla m ore nivalis Ossa to n at p ul s oq u e fragor g e mi n a t u r Ol y m p o in t um ui t virtus e t lucis prodi gus arsit i m petu s haud il l os r up e s haud alta ve t a r e n t r a e cip it i s t ra vi s s e n t o mn ia c u rsu fl u m in a p Si tu n c his a ni mis a cies collata f uis s e t r o di ta n on ta n tas vid i s s e t G r a e ci a c a e d e s , p O ppida s em ot o P el op eia Marte vig e r e n t et

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70

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R U FI N U S

THE SECOND B OO K A GA INST

hosts f airly bet w ee n the two brothers and do thou n ot be heir to the scept r e only b u t to thy forces B u t if thou n eglect to come to mine aid and mak e not ready to pre v ent my death this head of mine S hall n ot f all alone — b y the dead and the sta r s I s w ear it The blood o f another shall b e m i ngled with m i ne I wi ll not go unaccomp an i ed to the w aters of Styx nor S hall the victor be f r e e to ex u lt in m y death So s aying he dictates a treasonable letter and sends there w ith an emissa ry to bea r the m essage extorted from the e m p e r or s u n wi lli n g lips M ea nwhile Stili c ho exulting in the tho u ght of advanc i ng u po n the f o e and of the n arro w st r et c h of co u ntry that sep a r ated h im f rom the fortifications in fl a m e s with his w o r ds the hearts of his troops al r eady thi r sting for b a ttle On the left wing are posted th e Ar m e ni ans f a r ther to the r ight the Ga u ls A b eholder might ha v e s een bits co v e r ed with war m foam clouds of d u st up r isi n g a n d on all sides w aving banners b earing the device o f a sca rlet d r agon ; the v ery air s eemed to teem w ith these fie rc e fl yi n g monsters The glint of steel fills all Thessaly an d the cave of the wise Centa u r ; the river w hos e ban k s s u ppo r ted A c hi lles baby footsteps and the f o r ests o f O eta a r e agleam with a r ms sno w y Ossa r e echoes to the so un d and Olymp u s s mitten the r e wi th s ends it ba c k t w of old Hearts b eat h i gh w ith a co u rage that is la v ish o f l i f e Neither precip i c e n o r deep river co u ld chec k their adva n ce : their head long sp eed w o u ld ha v e overth r o w n all barriers I f the t w o a r mi es had then j oined battle i n this tempe r r u ined G reec e wo u ld n o t have witnessed s u ch d i s a ste r as s h e did the c it i es of the Pelopo nnes e wo u ld still have been flo uri shi n g u nto uc hed by th e hand ,

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71

CL A U D I A N Ar c a d ia e

a r ces n o n ma r e f u m a s s e t e m in u m fl a r a n t e C o ri ntho 1 0 9 g g n ec f e r a Ce cr op ia e t r a x is s e n t vi nc u la mat r es illa d i es p ot u it n o s t r is i mponere fi n e m cl a d ib u s e t s c e l e r i s c a u sas a u f e r r e f u tu r i in v ida p r o quant um r a p uit Fo r t u na t r iu m p h u m i n ter e q u os in t e r q u e t u bas mandata f e r u n t u r regia e t a r mati v e ni un t d u c t or is ad a ur es Ob s t u p u i t S i m ul ira vi r u m si m ul o b r u it in e n s g m a e r or e t ignavo tantu m l icu is s e noce n ti m ir a t u r d u bios a n ceps sententia vol vit e v entus p e r a g a t p u gnas an f ort i a c o ep t a d e s er a t I l l y r ic is ardet s u c c u r r e r e d a m n is r a e c e t is O bsta r e timet r e ve r e n t i a f r a n i t p g p virtutis s t im ul os h in c p u blica c orn m o d a s u a d e n t h in c m etus i n vi d ia e ta n de m in d ig n a t u s ad ast r a e x t ol l it pal m as e t ab i m o p e c tore f a t u r N u mina Ro m a n is n e c d u m s a t i a t a r u ini s s i i u va t imperiu m e n it u s de stirp e revelli p uno S i p l a c u it deleri saec u la l a p s u si i e t h u mani ge n eris p r o r u m p a t i n arv a p g Iibertas e ff r e n a maris vel lim i te i u s t o d e vi u s errantes Phaethon c o n f u n d a t h a b e n a s r o c u m b e r e mu n du m cu r per R u fi n u m g e r it ur p hoc a u c t or e p u d e t med i is r e vo c a m u r ab a rmis p r o dolor e t s t r ic t os d e p o n e r e c og im u r e n s e s ( V OS a r s u r a e u rbes p e r i t u r a q u e m o e n i a testor cedo e q uid e m e t m is e r u m p e r m itt o c a s ib u s or b e m r e d e a t ia m miles E ou s fl e ct it e s i gna duces s ta r e n t

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s ta rent

L a c e d a e m on is

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72

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CL A U D I AN t est e a n t l i tui r o h ib e t e s a g i t tas a c p p ” a r c i t e c ont i g u o — R u fi n u s r a e c i i t l — hosti p p p H i s di c t is omn es u na f r e m u e r e m a ni p l i q u antum non I ta lo p e r c u s s a Cera u n ia fl u c t u quant u m non m a d id is el i sa ton i tr u a Ca uris a ren

d um

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a nt ere

q g in s ig n e m q u e d u c e m

a ue r o e li a t u n os c t, p q p p

pop u l u d e f e n d it u t e r q u e e t S ibi q ui sq u e t r a hi t magno c e r t a t u r amore O a l t e r n a m u e fi d e m non i n l a u d a t a l a c e s s i t q s e di ti o taliq u e S i mul clamo r e u e run t ur q Qui s m ihi n u d a t o s e n s e s qui s tela l a c e r t is e x c u t i t e t sol v i c u r v a t os im p e r a t a r c u S u i s n a m a u det st ric to leges i mpone r e f e rr o q in fl a m m a t a semel n e s c it m i t e s c e r e v i r t u s iam mi hi b a r b a r ico s s it i e n t ia p i la cr u ores sponte v olant ul t r oq u e man u s m u c r one f u re nti d u c it u r e t s ic c u m g l a d iu m v a g i na r e c u s a t n on patiar s e m p e r n e G e t is d i s c o r di a nostra a go en ite ru m belli ci vi lis im r o d e r it p qui d c o n s a n g uin e a s aci es qui d di vi d i s o l i m n on di ssociab i le c o r p u s concordes aq ui las te q u a l i bet ir e s e q u e m u r c o ni u n c t u m q u e s u m u s te vel H y p e r b or e o d a m n a t a m s i de r e T h y l e n te v el ad i ncensas L ib y a e c o m i t a b or h a r e n a s I n d o r u m si s t a gna p et a s R u briq u e r ecess u s I i t o r is a u r if e r u m v eni a m p o t u r u s H y d a s p e n si calca r e Not u m s e cr e t a q u e n os c e r e N i li 2 4 n a s c e n t is i u b e a s mund u m post terga r e l i n u a m 5 q s

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74

THE SE C ON D BOO K AGA INST

R U FI N U S

Sile n ce ye clario n s ; me n forbear to shoot T h e f o e is at ha n d spare hi m tis R u fi nu s com m and At thes e words an u n ani m o u s roar went u p f ro m all the co mp ani es With less din are the cl i ff s of Ceraunia b u ffeted by the Italian s e a or the th u nders e v oked fro m the w estern w inds we t stor m clouds They will n ot separ a te and demand the battle of w h i ch they have be en de frauded East and west clai m the leade r ship of that ill u strious chi ef It is a contest O f a ff ection ; ins u bordination that n o n e can blame threatens to s a p the loyalty Of both ar mi es wh o thus “ utter their commo n complai n t : Who is it robs u s Who stri k es the la n ce fr om o ur o f o u r drawn swo r ds ha n d a n d bids us unstring the be n t b o w ? Wh o dares dictate to an army under arms Valour o n ce roused k n ows no abate m ent Spears thirsti n g f or barbaria n blood cast the m selves fro m o u t o u r hands o u r headlong blades forc e o u r venge f u l arms to f ollow the m ; our very scabba r ds re f us e to sheath an unblooded sword I will not bear it Shall the Getae ever profit by o u r dissension B ehold once more the shado w of ci v il wa r Why dost thou s eek to separate ar mi es whose blood is one standards of im m emorial allia n ce We are a body on e and indi v is i ble The e will we follow W hithe r soe v er tho u goest ; thee will w e acco m pany eve n as f a r as Thule lying i c ebound beneath the pole star or to the b u r ni n g sands of Libya Should thy p ath b e by the waters of I n d 1 the bays of the Red Sea I wo u ld go drink or Shouldst thou bid m e H y d a s p e s golden stre a m fa r e south a n d search o u t the hidde n sources of the stripling Nile I would leave behi n d me the world B y the m a r e r u br u m the a ncient s m e a nt th e I n dia n The H y d a s p es is the m odern J h y l u m Oce a n ,

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75

CL A U D I A N et

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D u x inde ve t a t desistite q u a e s o atque a vi d a m di ff e r t e man u m c a d a t iste m in a c is in vi d i a e c um u lus non e s t V i c toria tanti u t vi d e a r vi ci s s e mi hi vos fi d a i uv ent u s ” ite m ei q u ondam soc u n e c p l ur a l oc u t u s fl e x it iter v ac u o q u a l is di s c e di t b i at u impatie n s r e m e a r e leo q u em pl uri ma c u spis e t pastorales e u l e r u n t igne c a t e r va e p p in cl in a t q u e iu b a s d e m i s s a q u e l umina v e l a t e t trep i das m a e s t o r im a t u r mu r m u re sil v as U t s es e l e g io vi d i t d is i u n c t a reli nq ui ,

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in g e n t e m t ol l i t g e m i t u m g a l e as q u e s ol u t is u m e c t a t l a c r imi s r e s s a m u e m o r a n t i a voc e m p q t h or a c u m

validos p u lsant s u s p ir i a n ex u s t r a di m u r heu t a n t u m q u e s e q ui ,

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a m or e m

S e r ni s n e t u as dux optime dextras excla m ant p quas tibi victrices t ot i e n s Bellona p r ob a vit n os adeo viles adeo f e l ici or axis H esperi u s mer uit q ui te r e c t o r e teneri q u id nobis p a t r ia m q u id cara r e vi s e r e tande m p i g n ora d il e c t o s ve iu va t c ol u is s e p enates te s i ne d u lce nih i l iam f or mi d a t a tyranni t e m p e s t a s s u b e u n d a m i h i q u i f orte ne f andas 2 70 ia m pa r at insid i a s q ui n o s a u t t u r p ib u s H u n is a u t im p a c a t is f a m u l os p r a e b e b it A lani s q ua m qua m non adeo robur d e f e c e r it om n e t a n t a ve g e s t a n d i f u erit p en u r i a ferri tu li cet occ i d u o m aneas sub cardi n e each ,

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CL A U DI A N tu mihi dux se m per Stilicho n os t r a m q u e vel a b s e n s d a b it u r tib i debita p r id e m e x p e r ie r e fi d e m ” l r o m i s s i s longe a c a b e r e s a c r is vic t im a p p T r is t i o r H a e m on ii s mi les d ig r e s s u s ab oris t a n g e b a t M a c e t u m fines m u r o s q u e s u b ib a t Thessalon i ca t u o s sens u dolor h a e r e t in alto 28 0 a b di t u s e t tacitas v i n d ic t a e r a e s t r u i t iras p s e c t a t u r u e f a v e n s o d iis locus a t a u e leto q p q p tempora n ec q u is q u a m tanta de p u be r e p e r t us r o d e r e t i n c a u t is q u i co r da m i n a n t i a v erb i s p 285 qu ae n on p os t e r it a s q u ae non m ir a b it u r aetas tanti consili u m v u lg i p o t u is s e t a c e r i aut f a cin u s ta m grande tegi m e n t is q u e c a l or e m n o n sermon e vi ae non inter p oc ul a r u mpi aeq u al is tanta m ten u it c onstantia t ur bam e r c u r r i t u r Haem u s 2 e t f u it arcan um pop u lo 90 p d e s e r i t u r Rhodop e T h r a c u m q u e p e r a r d u a t e n d u n t donec ad H e r c ul e i p e r ve n t u m nom ini s u r b e m U t c e s s is s e d u c e m p r op i u s venisse c ohortes cog nita R u fi n o m a gna ce rv ic e t r iu m p h a t omni a tuta rat u s s c e p t r u m q u e c a p e s s e r e f ervet 2 9 5 e t c o n iu r a t os h or t a t u r v oce cli entes vi cim u s e x p u l i m u s f a c il is iam cop i a regni nu llus ab hoste t i mor q ui s enim q u em p o s c e r e sol um h or r u i t h u n c tanto mu n i t um milite vin c a t qu i s f e r a t armat u m q u em n on sup e r avit in e r m e m i n unc e x i tiu m n obis med i tare r e m o t u s ,

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78

P ro b a b l y H era c l e a ,

at

the we s t

en

d

of

the P ropontis

.

THE SECOND BOO K AGA INST

R U FI N U S

ever our general a n d though we b e n ot together thou shalt still know o u r loyalty Lo n g has a victi m been o w ed thee ; he shall be sa c rifi c ed a n d thou placated by an im molat i on p r om i sed of O ld Sad at heart the army le f t Thessaly reached the borders of Macedo n a n d arrived be f ore the walls Thessalon i ca Indi gnation deep hid in the i r of hea r ts prepares th e silent w rath o f r e v enge They loo k f or a place where they m ay wr ea k the i r ve n gea n ce and a m oment propit i ous f or the blow and of all that vast a r my not o n e is f ound to di vu lge wi th inca u tio u s sp eech his heart s intent What s uc ceedi n g age and time b u t w ill marvel that a plot so widespread co u ld b e k ept hid a deed of s u ch va s t import concealed ; that the ardour of their m i nds was n ot re n de r ed of no avail by the chance wo r d of a sold ier on the ma rc h o r a d runkard s babbli ng ? B u t d i scret i on r uled all alike a n d the p eople s s ecret wa s kept The ar m y cross ed the H e b r u s le f t Rhodop e behi n d and str u ck across the u plands of Thrace until it ca m e to the city called 1 a f te r Hercules When R u fi nu s learned that Stilicho had retired a n d that his troops we r e approaching he held hi s head high i n tr iu mph belie v ing eve rything saf e and anxio u s to s e i z e the po w er i nflam ed his traito r o u s “ m i ni o n s with this sp ee c h : We have conq u ered ; ha v e drive n O ff o u r enemy ; empi r e is within my grasp n or have w e anyth i ng to f ear f ro m the fo e Will one w ho da r ed not approach m e whe n I stood alo n e defeat me no w that I a m strengthened by W h o co u ld stand the add i tion o f so great a f orce aga i nst hi m a rm ed w hom u narmed he co u ld not conq u er ? Plot my des truc t i on in e xi le f ri end ,

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CL A U D I AN in c a s s u m ,

St i licho d um n o s long i s s im a tell u s d ivi d a t e t medi is Nere u s i n t e r s t r e p a t u nd i s A lpi n as t r ansi r e t i b i me s o s p i t e r u p e s haud d a b it u r i a c ul is il l in c m e fi g e r e t e m p t a q u aere ferox e n s e m q u i nostr a ad m o e n ia t end i os s i t ab Italia n o n te do cu menta r i or u m p p n on exempla vet a n t u i s n a m conatus ad ir e q has i a c t a t vitasse man u s d e t r u s im u s o rb e te med i o t a n t is q u e s i m u l s p oli a vim u s armis nu nc ep u lis temp u s soci i n u nc la r ga parare mun era d o n a n d u m q u e n ov i s l e g io nib u s a urum oppo r tu n a m eis or i t u r l u x cr a s t in a vot is q u od n ol it rex ips e vel it i u b e a t q u e c o a c t u s in parte m mi hi regna da ri con ti ngat i n un o privati fu giss e mod um cr im e n q u e ty r anni T a l ib u s a d cl a m a t d i c t is in f ame n oc e n t u m con c ili u m q ui p e r p e t u is cr e ve r e rap i n i s e t q u os u na facit R u fi n o ca u sa s o d a l e s f u nesta tacere in l ic i t um d u x is s e ni h i l n ex u s a m icitia e ia mi a m c on u b i a laeti despondent al iena S i b i fr u s t r a q u e vicis s im r o m i tt un t quae q ui s que e t a t q u as d e vor e t urbes p p Co e p e r a t h um anos alto sop ir e l a bores n ox gremi o n ig r a s q u e sopo r d iff u d e r a t alas ille di u c u r is a ni m u m s t im u l a n t ib u s a e g r e toto vi x corde q ui e r a t I a b it ur in somnos ecce v idet di r as a d l u d e r e p r o t in u s u mb r as ,

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qu as dedit ips e n e ci q u a r u m quae cl a r ior u na visa l o q ui pro surge toro q ui d pl u r i ma vol vis 3 3 0 a n x iu s haec re qui e m rebus fi n e m q u e labori a d l a t u r a di es o mni ia m plebe r e d ib is a l t ior e t laeti m a n ib u s o r t a b e r e v u lgi p has c a n it ambages occ u lto f a l l it ur ille o mi n e n ec capitis s e n tit p r a e s a g ia fi x i Iam su mm u m radiis s t r in g e b a t Luci f er H a e m u m f e s tin a m q u e rota m solito p r op e r a n t ior u rg e t tande m R u fin i vis ur u s f u mera Tita n d e s il uit stratis d e n s a e q u e c a p a ci a t u rb a e atri a r e g i fico i us s it splendere p a r a t u e x c e t u ra dap es e t qu od post vota d a r e t u r p in s c ul p i propriis auru m fatale fi g u r is ipse s a l u t a t u m reduces post p r o el ia turmas ia m regale t u m e n s e t principe c e l s ior ib a t c o l l a u e fe m i n eo s ol v e b a t mol l ia estu q g imperi i c e r t u s t e g e r e t ceu p u rp ur a d u d u m co rpus e t arde n tes a m b ir e n t tempora gemmae Urbis ab ang u sto t r a c t u q u a vergit in a u str u m l a n it i e s vicina patet n am cetera pontus p ci rcu it exiguo di ri mi s e limite passus hic ultrix aci es or n a t u l u cida M a r tis e x l i c ui t e n n e o s in parte S inistra e d i t e s p p c o n s is t un t e q uites il l i n c p os c e n t ia cu r s u m o ra r e l u c t a n t u r r e s s is s edare l u a t i s p p h in c alii s a e vu m cristato v ertice n uta n t e t t r e m u l o s u m e r i s gaude n t v ib r a r e col ores qu os op e r it f or m a t q u e c h a l y b s c on iu n c t a per artem .

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THE SECOND BOO K AGA INST

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had killed Of the m on e m ore disti n ct tha n the rest s ee m ed thus t o address him : Up f ro m thy cou c h wh y sche m es thine a n xio u s mind f u rther ? This co ming day shall br i ng thee rest and end thy to i ls H i gh above the p eople shalt tho u b e rais ed and happy ” c r o w ds shall carry thee i n their arms S u ch w as the ambiguous prophecy of the ghost b u t R u fi n u s O bser v ed n ot the hi dde n o m e n and s a w n ot it f ore told the elevatio n Of h i s s evered head upon a sp ear Now Lucifer to u ched th e p eak of Haemus wi th his rays a n d Tita n urged hi s haste ni ng wheel q ui cker tha n his wo n t s o soon to s e e at last the death of R u fin u s R u fi n u s hi m self leapt fro m his bed and bade m ake ready the capacious palace with regal sple n dour i n preparatio n f or the f east the g old to b e give n i n la r gess e h e ordered to b e stamped wi th his o wn fate f u l image Hims e lf w ent to w el c ome the troops retur n ing f rom the battle i n kingly p r ide and arrogance above a pri n ce s Sur e n ow O f e mp ir e he wore a w o m a n s rai m e n t about hi s n eck ; as though the purple already clothed his li m bs a n d the j ewelled crown blaz ed upo n hi s brow Hard by a c r o w ded quarter of the city of Con to w ards the south there lies a plain s t a n t in op l e The rest is surrou n ded by the s e a which here allo w s its elf t o b e parted by a n arrow way Here the ave ng i ng ar m y bright with the pa n oply of the wa r god dispos es i ts squadr o n s O n the le f t sta n ds the i nfa ntry Over agai ns t the m the cavalr y s eek t o res t rai n their eager steeds by holdin g tight t h e H ere n od the savage wavi n g pl um es whos e r ei n s weare rs rej oice t o shake the fl as hi n g colours of their shoulder ar m our ; for steel clothes the m the limbs wi thi n on a n d gives the m their shape ; .

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83

CLAU D IA N fl e x il is i n d u c t is

lamina membris h o r r ib il e s vi s u c r e d a s s i m u lacra m o ve r i f e rr ea c o g n a t o q u e vir os sp ir a r e m eta l l o par v e s t i t u s eq ui s f e rr ata f r onte m in a n t u r f e r r a t o s q u e le v a nt s e cur i v u l n e r is a r m o s d iviso stat q ui sq u e loco m e t u e n d a vol u ptas ce r nent i p u l c h e r q u e timo r s p ir is q u e r e m is s is m a n s u e s c u n t va r ii v ento c es s a nte d r a c ones Au g u st u s v enera n da p ri o r v ex i ll a s a l u t a t R u fi nu s s eq u it u r q u o f a l l e r e c u n c t a s o l e b a t c a l l id u s a d f a t u d e vo t a u e bra c h i a la u dat q n omine q u e m q u e vocat n atos p a t r e s q u e r e v e r s is n u n t i a t i n c ol u m e s illi d u m plu r ima fi c t o c e r t a t im s e r mone e t un t e x t e n d e r e longos p a te r go fl e x u s in s p e r a t o q u e s u prema c ir c u it u s o c i a r e parant de cr escere camp u s inc i pit e t c l ip e is i n s e r e d e un t ia i u n ct is c u rvo p a u l a t im s in u a n t ur co r n u a d u e t u s ic l i gat i n mensa vir id e s in dag i ne salt u s venator s i c a tt on it o s ad l it o r a p i sces a e u or e u s pop u lator agit r a r o s u e l a a r um q q p g c o n t r a hi t a n fr a c t u s e t h i a n t e s c ol l i it o r as g e x cl u d u n t alios 3 80 cingi se f e r vid u s ille n e s c it a d h u c r a vi t e r u e a d r e n s a v este m or a n t e m g q p in cr ep a t Au g u s t u m : s c a n d a t s u bl i me tr i b u nal particip em s c e p t r i s ociu m d e c l a r e t honoris c u m s u b i to s t r in g u n t g l a d ios vo x d e s up e r in g en s 3 85 nob i s et i am d e t e r r im e nobis in f r e m u it a n im a t u r

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C l a u di a n

b a nn ers 84

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re f ers to the devic e s e m b l a z o n ed upon the

CLAU DIA N per a sti f a m ul a s i m po n ere posse cate n as u n de redi n e s c is a t ia r n e audire satelles p q ui leges a l n s l ib e r t a t e m q u e r e d u x i bis d o m it u m ci v ile ne f as bis r u p im u s Alpes t o t n o s bell a doce n t n u ll i ser v ire ty r anno D e r ig ui t spes nu lla f ugae s e g e s u n di q u e f erri

S

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cir c u

mf u s a m i c a t

h a e s it

dextra

l a e va q u e

r e vin c t u s

m u crone coronae p u t f era q uae n u e r montes a m is i t a vi t o s p a l t o r u m u e exul n e m or u m damnatur h a r e n a e q m u n e rib u s c om m ot a r u it vir murm u re co n tra e t e n s if e r a e s t u

u it

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3 95

,

h or t a t u r

tend i t q illa p a ve t st r ep i t u s c u n e os q u e erecta t h e a tr i r e s ic it e t tanti m i r a t u r sibila vu lgi p U n us p er m edios a u d e n di p r o n ior ense r os il i t e x e r t o d i c t i s u e e t vu lnere t o r vu s p q im p e t it : hac St i licho q u em i a c t a s p e l l e r e dextra te f e r it h oc a b s e n s in va d it v iscera f e r ro s ic f a t ur m e r i t o u e lat u s t r a n s ve r b e r a t ic t u q 405 Fe l ix illa m a nu s tale m q u ae prima c r u or e m n ix u s

ue

gen u

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h a u s e r it

o rbis m ox om n es l a ni a n t h a s t is a r t u s q u e t r ementes d il a c e r a n t u n o tot corpore tela t e p e s c u n t e t n on infecto u d uit m u crone reverti p et

f ess i

poe n a m

l ib a v e r it

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86

THE

SECON D B O O K AGA INST

R U FI N U S

thou hop e t o cast upon us the yoke of sla v ery ? Knowest thou n ot whence I return ? Shall I allow m ysel f to be called another s s ervant I who gave la w s to others and restored the reign of l i be r ty ? T w o civil wars have I quenched t wi ce f o r ced the ba rr ier of the Alps These m a n y battles have taught m e t o s er v e no ty r ant R u fi n u s stood rooted to earth There is n o hope of escape f or a f orest o f fl ashing spears he m s h im in Sh u t in o n the ri ght hand and on the le f t he stood and gaz ed in wonder o n the d r awn blades as a beast w ho has lately le f t o f the a r med throng his nati v e hills d riven in exile f r om the w ooded mounta i ns and condemned to the gladiatorial sho w s rushes i n to the are n a while over agai n st him the glad i ator heartened by the crowd s appla u se kn eels and holds o u t his spear The beast ala r me d at the nois e ga z es with head ere c t u pon the rows o f s eats i n the amphitheatre and hears with a m az e m ent the m u r m u r ing of the crowd The n one m ore da ring than the rest drew h i s sword and leapt f orward fro m the crowd a n d with fi erce wo r ds and flashi ng eye r u shed upo n R u fi n u s crying : It is the hand o f Sti l ic ho w ho m thou va u n t e s t that thou d i dst expel that s mi tes the e ; his sword w hich tho u tho u ghtest f a r away that pierces thy hea r t S O spa k e he a n d tra n sfixed R u fin u s S i de with a well deserved thrust Happy the hand that first spilt such vile blood a n d poured o u t ve n geance for a wo rld m ade w eary Straightway all pie r ce him wi th their spea r s and tear quivering li m b fro m li mb ; o n e single body war m s all thes e w eapons wi th its blood ; sham e t o h im whose s w ord ret u rns u n stained therewi th ’



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C LAU DIA N

hi

vu l t us a

vid os

e t a d h uc s p ir a n t ia ve l l un t

alii ra p u er e l a c e r t os a m u t a t ille p edes u m e r u m q u a t i t ille s ol u t is p hic f racti r e s e r a t c u r va m in a dorsi n e x ib u s h ie i e cur hic cord i s fi b r a s hic pa n dit anhelas pulmo nis l a t e b ra s S patiu m no n i n ve nit ira n ec locus e s t od iis con s u m p t o f un ere vix tu m d es e r it ur s p a r s u m q u e p erit per tela cada v er s ic mo n s Aon i us r u b u it c um Pe n thea ferre n t M aenades aut subito m u t a t u m Ac t a e o n a corn u t r a d e r e t in s a n is Latonia v isa M ol o s s is cr im in ib u s n e tuis c r e d is Fortu n a m ederi e t male d o n a t u m ce r tas acquare f a vo r e m u n a l i t o t mi lia m orte rependis ? cu s su pp e ve r s is a g e d u m R u fi n u m d iv ide terris da caput Od r y s iis t r un cu m m e r e a n t u r A chi vi q uid r el iq uis d a b it ur ? n ec singula m e m bra p e r e m p t is lu mi n a

tr u n c a t os

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s u ffici un t

o

p p

ul i s

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Vacuo plebs u n d iq u e m u r o iam secura fluit s e n ib u s n o n ob s t it it aetas vid u a e q ui b u s ille m a r i t o s vi r g in ib u s ve pudor a b s t u l it o r b a t a e q u e r u u n t ad ga u di a mat r es laceros iuva t ire p er art u s in s ul t a n t q u e a l a cr e s r e s s a u e calcato vestigia sang ui ne ting u i q p n ec m i nus a d s id u is fl ag r ant el i dere sax i s r o d i ia l e cap u t quod iam de cusp i de s umm a g p ,

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C LA U D I A N

di gna r e d i e n s ad m o e ni a pompa d e x t e r a q ui n etiam l u do concessa vagatur aera p e t e n s p o e n a s q u e animi p e r s ol vit avari terribili l uc ro vivos q u e imitata r e t e n t u s c o it u r a d d u c t is d i it os i n fl e c t e r e nervis g g D e s in a t e l a t is q u is q u a m c on fi d e r e rebus in s t a b il e s q u e deos ac lub r ica num i na d i s ca t illa manus q u ae s c e p t r a sib i g e s t a n d a p a r a b a t cuius s e t ot ie n s s u m m is it ad os c ula s up p l e x n ob il i t a s in h u m a t a d iu m is e r o u e r e vul s a q corpore f e r a l e m q u a e s t u m post f ata r ep os cit a d s ic i a t q u isq u is ni m i u m s u b l a t a s e c un d is p colla gerit t r iv ns c a l c a n d u s S p a r g it ur ecce q ui S ibi pyra midas qui no n c e d e n t ia t e m p l is ornatura suos e x t r u x it cul mina ma n es e t qui Sidonio velari c r e di d i t ostro nudus p a s cit aves ia c e t e n qui p os s id e t or b e m e x i u a e t e l l u r is i n ops e t p u l v ere m m g per partes t e g it u r n u s q u a m t o t i e n s q u e s e p u l t u s S e n s e r un t convexa n e c e m t e l l u s q u e n e f a n d u m 45 5 a m ol i t u r o n us iam r e s p ir a n t ib u s astris i nf ernos gravat umbra l a c u s pater Aeacus horret in t r a n t e m q u e etiam l a t ra t u Cerber u s u r g e t t u nc a ni m a e q u as ille fero s ub iure p e r e mi t circumsta n t n ig r i q u e t r a h u n t ad i u di cis u rn a m i nfesto fr em i t u vel u t i p as toris i n or a c o m m ot a e g l om e r a n t ur ap es qui dulcia r a p t u m ella ve h it p e n n a s q u e ci e n t e t spicula t e n d unt e t tenuis saxi per p r op u n a cu l a c i n c t a e g nuta b a t

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THE SECOND BOO K A G A I NST

RU FI N U S

was carried back i n m erited sple n dour to the city N ay hi s ha n d t o o m ade o v er to their mo ck e r y goes a beggi n g for al m s and wi th its a w f u l ga i ns pays th e p enalty f or his greedy soul w h i le f orced in mi m icry of its li vin g clutch to d r a w up the fingers by their s in ews Put n ot n ow your t ru st in p r ospe ri ty learn that the gods are in c onstant and hea v en u ntr u st w o r thy That hand which so u ght to wi eld a sceptre whi c h a h u mbled nob i lity stoop ed s o o fte n to kiss no w torn f rom i ts wretched t ru n k and le f t long u nbu ri ed begs af ter death a bane f u l alms Let hi m gaz e o n th i s whoso carri es his head high in p r ide o f p r os e r it s e e trodden under f oot at the c ross —r oads p y hi m who built pyra mi ds f or h i mself and a tomb la r ge as a temple to the glo r y of his own ghost H e w ho trusted to be clothed in Tyrian p u rple i s n ow a n ak ed corps e and f ood f or b i rds See h e wh o o w ns the w orld l i es deni ed si x f oot o f e a r th half co v ered w ith a sp r inkling o f d u st given no grave yet gi v en so many Hea v e n k n ew of his death and earth is f reed o f her hated bu r den no w that the sta r s ca n b r eathe again His shade opp r ess es the rivers of Hell Old A eacus sh u dde r s and Cerbe r us bays to stop i n this cas e the en try of a ghost T h en those S hades wh i ch he had sent t o death b eneath his c r uel la w s flock round him and hale him a w ay with ho rr id shoutings to the t r ib u nal of the gloomy j u dge e v en as b ees w hom a S hephe r d has di st u rbed s w a r m ro u nd h i s head w hen he wo u ld rob them o f the ir s w eet honey and flutter their wi ngs a n d p u t f o rth the i r stings maki ng them r eady f o r battle in the f ast nesses O f t h e ir l i ttle r o ck and see k to de f end the

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91

CLAU D I A N m i l e ct a u e u c is ant r a d i q p p d e f e n d u n t p r on o q u e f avos exa mine v e l a n t

rim os a m

a t r ia m

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Est lo cu s

in u num inamo en u s u t e r q u e Co cy t os P h l e g e t h on q u e va di s alve u s hic vol vit l a cr im a s hic ign e r e d u n d a t t u r r is p er g e m i n o s fl a m m is vic in ior amnes 4 o r r i it u r s ol i d o u e r i e n s adamante s i n i st ru m 7 0 p g q g r ol ui t ig n e latus dextro C oc t ia fi n di t p y a e u or a t r iste e m e n s e t fl et u concita plangit q g huc post e m e r it a m m or t a l ia saec u la vitam ibi n u lla manent discrimina f ati d e v e n i un t nullus h o n os va n o q u e e x u t u m no mi n e rege m u a e s i t or in a lto r o t u r b a t pleb e iu s egens q p conspicu u s solio p e r t e m p t a t cr im i na M i nos quos nolle f a t e r i e t i u s t i s di r imi t s on t e s vid e r i t ad r i gidi t r a n s m i t t i t ve r bera f r a t r is cum gesta s u p e rni n a m i u x t a Rhadamanthys agit c ur ri c uli t o t o s q u e diu p e r s p e x e r it act u s e x a e u a t damnu m m e r i t is e t m u ta f e r a r u m q cogit vin cl a pati tr uc ule n tos in g e r it u r sis f a l l a c e s vu l ib u s addit r a e d o n e s u e l u pis q p p at q u i des i dia semp er vin o q u e g r a v a t u s in d u l g e n s Ve n eri vol u it t or p e s c e r e l u x u h u n c suis i n m u n d i pingues d e t r u di t in a r t u s q u i i n sto pl u s esse l oq u a x a r c a n a q u e s u e vi t i rod er e s c o s a s f e r t u r vi c t u r u s in und a s p p u t ni mi a m p ens ent a e t e r n a s il e n t i a vo c e m quos u bi p er v ar i as a n nis ter mille fig u r a s e i t L e t h a e o p u r a t o s fl u mine t a ndem g g r u r s u s ad h u m a n a e r e voc a t p r imo rd i a f o r m ae in f a u s t is q u o

c o n c il i a n t u r

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92

CLAU DIAN Tu m q uoque dum lites S t y g iiq u e n e g otia s ol vit 49 5 dura fori ve t e r e s q u e reos ex ordi ne q u a e r it R u fi n u m p r ocu l ecc e n ot a t vi s u q u e severo l u s t r a t e t ex imo co n cussa s ede p r of a t u r Huc s u p e r u m lab es huc in s a t i a b il is auri r ol u vi e s r e t io u e n ihil non a u se parato p p q q uod q u e mihi su m mum s c e l u s est huc improb e leg u m venditor Ar c t oi stimulator p e r fi d e M artis c u ius ob in n u m e r a s strages angustus Av er n i ia m sin u s e t plena l a s s a t ur portitor alno q uid d e m e n s m ani f esta negas e n p ect u s in u s t a e d e for m a n t m ac u lae vit iis q u e i n ol e vi t i m ago n ec s ese com m issa t e g u n t ge n us o m n e d ol or um i n te ferr e libet dubio tibi p en d u la r up e s in m in e a t l a p s u vol u c e r te t o r q u e a t axis te refugi f a l l a n t latices atque o r e n atanti ,

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in tua m a n su r us m ig r e t praecordia v ult u r q u a mq ua m o mn es alii quos haec tor m e n ta fatigant pars quota su n t R u fi n e t u i quid tale ve l a ud a x fulmi n e S a l m on e u s vel li n g u a Tantalus e g it aut inconsulto T it y os d e l iq uit amore c u n ct or u m S i facta si m ul i un a n t u r in u num g r a e c e d e s nu m ero i cui ta n ta piacula u s u a m p q q s u pplicio c on f e r r e valet quid d e n iq u e d ig n um o m nibus in ve n ia m vin c a n t cu m singula p o e n a s t o l l it e de m e di is a n im a r u m d e d e c u s u m bris a d s e x is s e sat e s t o c ul is iam a r ci t e n o s t r i s p p e t D it is purgate do m os ag i tate fl a g e l l is .

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94

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THE SECOND BOO K AGAI NST So

R U FI N U S

the n w hile he settles thes e s uits dr ead busi n ess of that in f er n al court w hi le he exa mi n es i n due order the cri m i n als o f ol d he m arks afar Ru finu s sca ns hi m wi th a stern scruti n y a n d sp eaks shaki ng h is thro n e to its foun datio n Hither R u fin u s sco u rge O f the world bottomless si n k of gold who wouldst dare aught for m o n ey ; hither co n scie n celess seller o f j u stice that cr im e faithless caus e of cri m es f o ( ) that n orthern w ar whose tho u sand slaughtered victi m s n o w t h ro n g Hell s n arrow entry a n d weigh down Charo n s cro w ded barque Madman wh y deny what all kno w ? The f o u l stains of wicked n ess are bra n ded upo n thy heart thy cri m es ha v e m ade their i m press on thy sp i rit a n d thy sins can n ot be hid Right glad I a m to s ente n ce the e to every k i n d of pu ni sh m e n t O er thee shall han g th e threatening rock the m ome n t of whose fall thou kn o w est not The circl i ng wheel shall r ack thee Thy li ps the strea m s waves shall flee t hi rst shall a r ch t h e e to w hos e chin its el u sive w aters m ount p The vu lture shall lea v e his f orme r prey and f east for e v er o n thy hea r t A nd yet all t h ese R u fi n u s who m the l i ke p u nishments torment ho w paltry their wick edness compared with thine ! D id bold S a l m on e u s thunde r bolt or Tantalus tongue ever do l ike wr ong or T i t y o s so o ff end with his m ad lo v e ? Jo i n all their c ri mes together yet wilt tho u s u rpass the m What s u ffi c ient atonement can be What to match thy f ou n d for s uc h wickedness ? crimes whos e s i ngle misdeeds outmatch s um of all p u nishme n t ? Shades remove f r om this our ghostly company that pres e n ce that di sg r aces it To have s een once is eno u gh Ha v e m ercy n ow Drive o n o u r eyes and cleans e t h e real m of D is ,

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95

CLAU D IAN tra n s S t y g a tra n s E r e b u m vacuo man date b a r a th r o i nfra T it a n um t e n e b r a s in fr a q u e recessus 1 T a r t a r e os ip s u m q u e Chaos qua n octis op a c a e 5 25 f u ndamenta latent r a e c e s ibi m e r s u s a n h e l e t p p ” d u m rotat astra pol u s f e r iun t d um l it or a ve n ti ,

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1

11 5 8

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DE BELLO

G I L D O N I CO

LIBER I V X ( ) R e d d i t u s im p e m s

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alterius convexa poli r e c t or e s u b u no c on s p ir a t ge mi n us f r e n is c o m m u n ib u s orbis concor di a fratru m iu n x im u s Europ e u L ib y a e ple n a redit p a t r iis sol um quod d e f uit arm is terti u s o c c ub uit n ati vi r tute tyrannus ho r ret a d h u c a nimus m a n if e s t a q u e gaudi a di ff ert d u m s t up e t e t tanto c un c t a t u r credere voto n e c d u m Cin y p h ia s e x e r c it u s a tt ig it oras iam d om i t u s Gildo n u l l is v ictoria modis h a es it n on spatio terrae n o n obice po n ti c o n g r e s s u m p r o f u g u m c a p t u m vo x n u n t ia t u n a r u m or e m u e s ui p r a e ve n i t laurea belli q qu o p r e c or haec e ff e c t a deo rob u sta ve t us q u e tempore ta m parvo p o t uit de m entia v i n ci q uem ve n i e n s in d i x it hiems ver p e r c u l i t h os t e m .

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THE WAR A GAI NST G I LDO 1 BOO K I X V ( )

kingdo m of th e so u th i s resto r ed t o our e mpire the s k y of that ot h e r hem i sphere is on c e mo r e b r o u ght into subj ect i on East a n d West l iv e i n am i ty and concord be n eath the s w ay of o n e r u le r W e have j oined E u rop e again to A frica a n d u m s w ervi n g s i ngleness of p ur pose un i tes the b r other emp erors The w ould b e third part ic ipant of empire h a s f allen be f o r e the pro w ess of Honori u s the s on —that one v icto r y th a t f a i led to grace the arms of Theodosi u s the f ather S ti ll is my mi nd troubled a n d admi ts not the u n iv e r sal j oy f o r v ery amaz ement nor c an bel i e v e the f u lfilment of its hea r tf elt prayers 3 Not yet h ad the a r my landed u pon Af rica s c oasts wh en G ildo yi elded to de f eat No difficulties delayed o ur vic to ri o u s a r ms ne i ther length of ma rc h nor inte r vening ocean One and the same w o r d b ri ngs n e w s o f the c onfl ic t t he fl i ght t he c apt u re of Gi ldo The n e w s of vi ctory o u tst ri pped t h e ne w s of the w ar that oc c a s i oned it What g o d wr o u ght th i s f or us ? Co u ld madness s o strong s o deep seated b e o v e rc ome s o soon ? The enemy wh om ea r ly winter b r o u ght u pon u s sp ri ng des tr oyed Th e

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ad rapidi li m e n t e n d e b a t Ol y m p i n on solito vul t u nec q u a l is iura B r it a n n i s d ivi d i t aut t r e p id os s u m m i t t i t f a s c ib u s Indos vo x te n uis t a r d iq u e grad u s o c u l iq u e i a c e n t e s i n terius f u ge r e genae i e iu n a l a c e r t os u m e r i s v i x s u s t in e t a e g r i s e x e d i t macies l r o d it a x a t a casside s u a l e n t e m cl ip e u m p q c a n it i e m p l e n a m q u e trahit r u b ig ini s b asta m e n ib u s u e T o n a n t is a tt i it u t tande m c ael um g q g r oc ub u it tales o r d i t u r maesta querellas p Si m ea m a n s u r is m e r u e r u n t m o e n ia n asci I up p i t e r a u g u r iis S i stant inmota S i byllae ca r mi n a T a r p e ia s S i n e c d u m r e sp u is arces a d ve n i o s up p l e x n o n u t p r oc u l c e t Ar a x e n co n sul ova n s n os t r a e ve p r e m a n t p h a r e t r a t a secures S u sa nec ut R ub r is aqu i las fi g a m u s b are nis n unc p a b u l a tant um h aec nobis h aec ante dabas Roma p r e c or mi serere t u ae pater opt i me ge n tis 3 5 extre m a m de f e n de f a m e m s a t ia vim u s ira m S i q ua fuit lugenda G e t is e t fl enda S u e b is h a u s im u s ipsa m eos h or r e r e t Parthia casus q uid r e f e r a m m or b ive lue m t u m ul os ve repletos s t r a ib u s e t c r e b r a s co rr upto sidere mortes g aut fl uviu m p er tecta va g u m s u m m is q u e m in a t u m inge n tes ve x i s u m m e r s a cari n as c ol l i b u s r e m or u m q u e sonos e t P y rr h a e saecula s ensi E i mihi q uo L a t i a e vires u r b is q u e potesta s

fr ug ib u s

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1 00

CL A U D I A N d e c id i t

in q u a l e m p a u l a t i m fl u x im u s u m b r a m ar m ato q u ondam pop u lo p a t r u m q u e vig e b a m c o n c il iis dom u i terras u rb e s q u e r e vin x i l e g ib u s ad solem vi ctrix u t r u m q u e c u c u r r i o s t u a m i u ra f erox i n s e c ommun i a Caes a r p q t r a n s t u l i t e t laps i mores d e s u e t a u e p r is c is q a r t ib u s in grem iu m pa c is s ervile recess i tot mihi p r o m e r it is L ib y a m N il u m q u e dede r e u t do m inam l e b e m b e l l a t or e m q u e s e n a t u m p .

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c l a s s ib u s a e s t ivi s a l e r e n t

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litore diversi stabat certa sal u s

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M emph i s s i f orte n e g a s s e t e n s a b a m P h a r i u m G aet u l i s m e s s ib u s ann u m p fr u g if e r a s c e r t a r e rates l a t e q u e vi d e b a m P u nica N il ia cis c on c u r r e r e c a r b a s a v el i s cu m s u b iit par Roma m i hi d ivis a q u e s u m p s it a e u a l e s Aur o r a togas Ae i t a rur a q gyp in pa r tem c e s s e r e no v ae S p es u n ic a nob i s r e s t a b a t L i b a e q u a e vi x a e r e u e f o v e b a t g q y solo d u eta Noto n u m q u a m se cu ra f u t uri semp er inops v e n t iq u e fi d e m p os c e b a t e t anni han c q u oq u e n u n c Gi ld o r a p u it s u b fin e c a d e n t is a u tumni pa v ido m e t im u r c a e r u l a v oto p u ppis S i q u a v enit si q ui d f o r t a s s e potenti vel p u dor e x t or s it dom i no v el p r a e d o r e l iq u it a s c im u r arbit r io M a ur i nec deb i ta r eddi p ,

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C l a udi a n m e a n s t h a t the Af r ic a n corn - s u pp l y wa s n ot a l wa y s to b e re l ied u po n b ec a u s e ( 1 ) there m i g ht b e a b a d s e a s o n , ( 2 ) there m i g h t b e u n f a vour a b l e w i n d s 1

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1 02

THE WAR A G A I N ST G ILD O I ,

and the might o f Ro m e To w hat a shadow of o u r f ormer glory are w e by g r ad u al de c l ine arr iv ed ! Time w as w hen my m en bore a r ms and my grey bea r ds met in co u ncil mi stress of the w o r ld w as I an d la wgi v er t o man k ind F r om ris i ng to s etting s u n I sp ed i n t ri u mph W he n p r o u d Caesar h a d t r ans f erred my p eople s po w e r to h i mself w hen manners becam e c orr u pt and f o r get fu l of w ar s ol d di s ci pl i ne I decl i ned i nto the s er vi le lap of peace the emp e r o r s re w a r ded m e wi th Af rica and Egypt t h at they might no ur ish the so v ereign p eople and the S enate a r b iter of p eace and w ar by m eans of s u mmer sp ed fl eets and that the winds blo wing alte r nately f r om eithe r S ho r e sho u ld fill o u r granar ies with corn O u r p r ovisioning wa s secu r e Sho u ld M emph i s p erchance have den i ed us f ood I w o u ld mak e up f or the f a i l u re of Egypt s har v est by th e A f ri can s upply I s a w compet i ti on b et w een g r a i n bea r ing vessels and wh ere er I loo k ed I beheld the fl eet of Carthage stri v e in rivalry with that of t h e Nile Whe n a s econd Ro m e aros e and the Easter n Empire assu m ed the toga of the West Egypt f ell beneath that n e w s w ay A f rica remained o u r o n ly hop e and scarcely d i d s h e s u ffi c e to f eed u s w hos e c orn ships none but th e so u th w ind w af ted ac r oss H e r promise for the f u t u re w as i nsec u re as e v e r h elpless s h e demanded the loyalty of the wi nd 1 and o f the season This p r o v ince too Gildo seized to w a r ds the close of a u t u mn A n xi o u sly and praye r f u lly w e scan the bl u e sea to glance a c om i ng sa i l in t h e f ond hop e that per c han c e a sens e o f sham e has extorted some w hat f r om the po w erf u l tyra n t or the conq u e r o r le f t some co r ne r u n c o n quered We a r e f e d at the pleas u re of the Moor .

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1 03

CL A U D I A N s ed

sua con c edi

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R om u l e a s

v end i t s e g e t e s e t p os s i d e t ar v a v u l n e r i b u s q u aesita m e i s ideone tot a n n os fl e b il e cu m t u m i da bell u m Ca r t h a g in e gess i id c ir c o vol u i t co n t e m p t a l u ce r e v erti Reg u l u s h o c d a m n is gen i to r Ca nn e n s ib u s emi i n c a s s u m t o t i e n s l it u is n a va l i b u s arsit H is p a n u m S ic u l u m q u e f r e tu m v a s t a t a q u e tell u s t o t q u e du c es c a e s i r u p t a q u e e m is s u s ab A lpe P o e n u s e t a t t o n it a e i am p r o x im u s Hann i bal u rbi sc i l i cet u t d om it is f r u e r e t u r b a r b a r u s Afr is m u ro s u s t in u i M a r t e m n o c t e s q u e cru entas Coll i na p r o tu rr e t u l i G il d on i s ad u su m Ca r thago ter vieta r u it ho c mille g e m e n t is I t a l ia e c lades im p e n s a q u e saec u la bell i s h o c Fabi u s f or t is q u e m ih i M a rc ell u s a g e b a n t h a u r ir e v e n e n a u t Gi ldo c u m u l a r e t op es h a c e m f r a c t u m u e M etello c o m u l im u s d i r u m S q p yp t r a x i m u s i n m a n e m M a r i i s u b v i n cl a I u g u r t h a m e t N u m i dae G il d o n is c ru nt r o f u me r a t a nta p p r o l a bo r i n Bo cc hi r egn u m s u d a vit u t e r q u e S ci p i o Romano vic is t is sang ui n e M a ur i ille di u m i les pop u l u s q ui p r a e f u it o r b i q ui t r a b e a s e t s c e p t r a dabat q u em s emp e r in a rmis h o r r ib il e m gentes p l a c id u m s e n s e r e s u b a c t a e .

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B occ h u s , properl y a ki ng o f typic a l l y f o r a n y n a tive m o n a rch 1

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1 04

M a urit a n i a

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CL A U DIA N nu nc

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egens p e r f e r t mis erabile p a cis su l i p p c i u m n u l l oq u e palam c irc u m d a t u s hoste ob s e s s i di s c r i m e n habet per sing ula l e t u m im p e n d e t momenta mihi d ub it a n d a q u e pa uc i r a e s c r ib un t al i menta d i es f h prosp e r a ata u e p q ui d mih i s e p t e n os montes t u rb a m q u e d e d is t is q u ae p ar v o n o n p o s s it a l i f e l icior e s s e m a n u s t i s o ib u s l m allem t o e r a r e Sabinos g p e t Veios b r e vior d u xi s e c u r i u s ae vu m ipsa n o c e t moles u t i nam r e m e a r e l ic e r e t ad ve t e r e s fi n es e t m o e n i a pauperis A nci s u ffi c e r e n t Etr u s c a m i hi C a m a n a u e c u lta p q .

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r u st i cus in f e r r e t p r o p r ia s d ic tator aristas N u nc q ui d agam ? L ib y a m Gildo tenet altera N i lum a s t ego quae te r ras u m e r i s on t u m q u e s u b e g p d e s e r or em e r itae i am p r a e m ia n u lla s e n e c t a e 1 1 5 d i q ui b u s ir a t is c r e vi s u c c u r r it e tandem e x o r a te p a t r e rn t u q u e 0 S i sponte pe r altu m v e c t a P a l a t in is m u tasti c ol l ib u s Idam ra el a t o u e la va s P h r i o s Al m o n e leones p q yg m a t e r n is p r e cib u s mat u m iam fl ecte Cybeb e s in p r oh i bent P a rc ae f a l s is u e el u sa vet u stas q a u s i c iis r os t e r n i t e cas u al i o saltem p p et r e d uca t Porsenna o e n a e m u tate gen u s p T a r q u in i o s r e n o ve t f erales A ll i a p u gnas me pot i n s s a e vi m a n ib u s p e r m it t it e P y r r h i D ou b t l es s a re f ere n ce to C i n ci nn a tus the E a s tern E m pire a l ter a Cl a udi a n m e a n s b y .

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THE WA R AGAI NST GI LDO I ,

bee n subdued d i shonoured no w and po v erty-stricke n be n ds be n eath the cr u el lash o f p eace a n d tho u gh not ope n ly b eleag u ered by a n y f o e yet has all the hazard of a s i ege D est r u c tio n threatens m e hourly a f e w days will set a l imi t t o m y u ncertai n f ood —s u pply O u t upon thee prosperity ! Wh y hast thou gi v en me seven h i lls and such a pop u latio n as a s m all s u pply cannot nourish ? Happier I had my po w er be en less B etter to have p u t up with the Sabines and V eii ; i n narrower bonds I passed sec u rer days My very m agn itude u ndoes m e wo u ld that I could retur n to m y f ormer boundar i es and the w alls of poor An cu s Enough for m e t he n wo u ld be the ploughlands of Etr u ria a n d Campania the far m s o f Cincin n atus and Cu riu s a n d at his co un try s prayer the rustic d i ctator 1 would bring his ho m e g r o w n wheat ? What a m I t o do n ow Gildo holds Libya 2 another Egyp t whi le I wh o subdued la n d a n d sea w ith m y s t ro n g ar m am le f t t o p erish Vetera n of s o ma n y wars can I clai m n o reward i n mi n e old age Ye gods i n whos e despite it seems I i n creased n ow aid m e at the last ; pray Jove f or m e A nd thou Cybele if ever of thi n e o wn fr e e will thou w ert carried over the s ea and i n exchange for M o un t Ida tookest the hi lls of Ro m e a n d di dst bathe thy Phrygian li o n s i n Al m o s m ore f avoured st r ea m m o v e n ow thy 3 so n with a mother s e n treaties B u t if the f ates f orbid a n d o u r first fou n der wa s misled by augury u n tr u e an d o e r wh e l m m e at least i n some di ff ere n t rui n change the n ature of m y pu nishm e n t Let Po r sen n a bring back the Tarq u i n s let Allia re n ew her bloody battle Let m e f all rather i n to the hands of cruel a l e J upiter ,

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1 07

C LAU D IA N

m e S e n on u m f ur iis B r e n ni m e reddite fl a m m is ” cu n eta fame l e vi or a mi hi Sic fata r e f u sis ob t ic u i t l a cr imi s m ater Cytherea p a r e n s q u e fl et M a vor s s a n c t a e q u e m e m or Tritonia Ve s t a e ne c Cybele s ic c o nec stabat l u mi n e I u n o m a e r e n t in d ig e t e s e t s i quos Roma r e c e p it a u t de di t ipsa deos g e nito r iam corde r e m it t i o e p e r a t e t sacrum dext r a seda r e t u m u l t u m c u m p r oc u l in s a n is q u a t i e n s u l ul a t ib u s a x e m e t c ont u sa genas medi is a d a r e t in ast r is p A f r ica r e s c is s a e vestes e t s p ic e a p assi m se r ta ia c e n t lacero ori n ales vertice de n tes e t fr a c t u m e n d e b a t ebur tali q u e s u e r b a s p p in r u p it clamore f ores Quid magne m or a r is I u p p it e r av u lso n exu p e l a g iq u e s o l u t is

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l e g ib u s ir a t u m p op u l is in mi tt e r e f r a t r e m m e r gi prima p eto ve ni a n t p r a e r u p t a P a c h y n o a e u or a , l a x a t is s u b s i d a n t S r t ib u s u rbes q y s i mihi G il d o n e m n e u e u n t a b d u c e r e f ata , q me r ap e G il d o ni f e l ic ior illa p e r u s t a e pars L ib y a e , n i mi o q u ae s e mu n i ta c alore d e f e n d it t a n t i q u e va c a t s ec u ra tyrann i c r e s c a t zona r u be n s medi u s fl a g r a n t is Ol y m p i m e q u oq u e limes agat mel iu s dese r ta i a c e b o v omeris impati ens p u l s is d o m in e n t u r ar i st i s d i psades e t s it i e n s a t t ol l a t g l a e b a c e r a s t a s q ui d m e t e m p e r i e s iuvi t qu i d mi t i or aether G il d o n i f ecunda f u i iam solis h a b e n a e .

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CLAUDIAN bis se n as t or q u e n t h ie m e s c e r vi cib us ex q u o h a e r e t triste i n g u m n os t r is ia m l u ct ib u s ille c on s e n u i t r e g nu m q u e sibi tot vi n d i c a t a n n os atq u e u ti n am regn um p rivato i u re t e n e m u r quod Nilus e x i u i sp eci e f u ndi e t A tlas g d is s id e t oc cid u is quod G a di b u s arida Barce quodque P a r a e t on io s e c e d it litore Ti n gi hoc sibi t r a n s cr ip s it proprium pars tertia m undi un ius p r a e d oni s ager D is t a n t ib u s ide m i nter s e vit iis cin ct u s q u o d c u m q u e pro f u nda t r a x it avaritia luxu p e ior e r e f un d i t in s t a t t e rr ib il i s vivis m or i e n t ib u s heres vir i ni b u s raptor t h a l a m i s o b s ca e n u s adulter g nulla q ui e s oritur p r a e d a c essante libido di vi t ib u s q u e di es e t n o x m e t u e n d a m a r it is qui sq ui s vel l oc u p l e s p ul chra vel co ni u ge notus cri mine p ul s a t u r falso s i cri mi n a d e s u n t mors n u lla r e fu g it a cc it u s co n viva p erit varios s u cos s p u m a s q u e r e q uirit a r t ifi c e m s e r p e n t u m vi r i d e s e t a d h u c ign ota n o v e r c is Si u is u a m vul t u praes e n tia d a m n e t ra mi n a q q g l ib e r i u s ve g e m a t d a p ib u s c r u d e l i s in ip s is e mi c a t ad mu t u m st ri cto mucrone min i ster fi x u s quis q ue toro ta c ita f or mi di n e l ibat ,

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THE WA R AGAINST GILD O I ,

Gildo Tw elve courses has the s un s chariot ru n s i nce first I w o r e th i s sorry yo k e H e has now grown old a mi d our m ise ri es and these m a ny years have s e t their s eal upon his rule Rule— wo u ld it w ere r u le a pri v ate own er possesses me as i t h a d been so m e pelt i ng f ar m From Nile to A tlas m o u nt f r om scorched Barce to weste rn G ades f rom Tingi 1 to Egyp t s coast G ildo has app r opriated the land as his own A third of the w o r ld belo n gs to o n e robb er chief H e is a p r ey to the m ost di v erse vices whatsoe er his botto m less g r eed has stolen a yet m ore insat i able r ofl i a c sq u anders H e i s the terror the l ivi ng f o p g y the heir of th e dead the v iolato r of the unwed and the foul corr u pter of the ma rr iage bed H e is ne v er q u iet ; when greed is sated l u st is rampant ; day is a misery to the rich night to the m arri ed Is any wealthy or k nown to possess a bea u ti f ul wi f e he is over w helmed by some t ru mped up cha r ge If no charge b e brought aga i nst him he is asked to a ban q u et and there m u rdered No f o r m of death but is k n o wn to this a r tist i n crime H e in v estigates the p r operti es of di ff e r ent po i sons and s erp ents livid v enom and k no w s of deadly herbs u n k nown e v en to step m othe r s I f any co n demns wh at h e sees by a look o r s i ghs wi th t o o m u ch f r eedom at the very f estal board o u t darts some hench man with dra wn s w o r d at a nod f rom h i s master Ea c h gl u ed to his s eat tastes in silent f ear of the deadly banq u et drains pale of f a c e the treachero u s c u p and loo k s arou n d at the w eapons that threate n his li f e The deadly boar d is decked in in f er n al sple n dour wet with slaughter dread ful with f ear Whe n win e has o f s w ord a n d susp ected poison ’

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111

CL A U D I A N vino c a l e f a c t a Ven u s t u m s a e vior a r det l u x ur i es mi x t is redolent u ng u e n ta coro nis c r in i t os inter f a m u l os u b e m u e c a n or a m p q or b a t a s i u b e t ire mu rus n u e r u e e r e m t is p q p p a d r id e r e vi r is P h a l a r im t or m e n t a q u e fl a m m a e r of ui t e t Siculi m u i t u s ferre i u v e n c i p g q ua m tales audi re choros n ec dam n a p u d or is t u rp i a s u ffic iu n t M au r is c l a r is s im a q u a e q u e fastid i ta d a t u r m edi a Ca r t h a g in e d u c t a e barbara S id onia e s u b e u n t c on u b ia m atres Ae t h iop em n obis g e n e r u m N a s a m on a m a r it u m e x t e r r e t cu n ab u la discolor in f ans in g e r it h i s f r e t u s s ocn s ipso ia m principe maior in c e d i t r a e c u r r un t a m i n a longe e di t u m p p g c ir c u m d a n t e ui t u m t u r m a e r e e s q u e cl i entes q g quos n os tr is di t a t s p ol iis p r o t u r b a t a vi ta v e t e r e s d e t r u d it r u r e colonos u e m u e do m o q q n u m q u a m n e re v e r ti e x il ii s di sp ersa f e r or fas e r it e r r a n t e s q u e sol o iam r e d d e r e c ives Iret a d h u c in verba dolo r mi I u p p i t e r alto c o e p is s e t solio ( voces ad a mante n o t a b a t Atropos e t Laches i s iun g e b a t stam i na d ic t is) n ec te Roma d iu n ec te p a t i e m u r in u l t a m A fr i ca c om m u n e m p r o s t e r n e t Hono riu s h o s t e m vis n u lla t e n o r e m vest ru m e r it e s e c u r a e p g ” s eparat e t soli f a m u l a b i t u r A f ri ca Romae D i xi t e t a d fl a vit R om a m m el ior e iu ve n t a cont i n u o red i t ille vi go r s e n iiq u e colorem s o l i d a t a m cri sta r e s u r e n s m u t a ve r e comae g ut

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112

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2 05

CLAU DIA N e r e x it et

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i am n octis e q u o s L e t h a e a q u e Som n us fre n a rege n s tacito vol ve b a t sidera curr u ia m d u o di vor u m proceres m a ior q u e m in or q u e 2 1 5 T h e od o s ii pace m l a t ur i ge n t i bus ib a n t qui I ovis arca n os m on it u s m a n d a t a q u e ferrent fr a t r ib u s e t gemi n is s a n cir e n t f o e d e r a r e g n is s ic cu m r a e c i it e s artem vicere r oc e l l a e p p p a d s id u o u e e m e n s u n d a r u m v e r b e r e n utat q g d e s c e n s u r a rat i s caeca sub n octe vocati n a u f raga L e d a e i sustenta n t vela L a c o n es circulus u t p a t ui t Lu n ae s e c u e r e meatus diversos Italas se ni or t e n d eb a t in oras at pater in t r a n t e m P o n t u m q u a Bosp h or us a r t a t .

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Ar c a d ii t h a l a mi s

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q u e m s im u l a c vi di t n at u s ( nam clara n it e b a t Cynthia) p e rm i x t o t r e m u e r un t ga u d i a fl et u c o m l e x u u e f o v e n s q u os n o n s e r a v e r a t a r t u s p p q d ixi t 2 3 1) O mihi post A lp es nun c pr i mum red d ite u n de t ui s op t a t u s ades da tangere d e x t r a m q u a ge n tes c e cid e r e ferae q u is tale r e m o vit p r aes i di um terris u t te m or t a l i a p r id e m i mplorant l o n g e q u e pi um f or t e m q u e r e q uir u n t Cui pater in tales r u pit s u s p ir ia v oces hoc erat i n f ratres medio d i sco r dia M a u ro n a s c it u r e t m u ndus e r m a n a u e d i s s i d e t a u la g q Theodo s ius the youn g er is of cours e Theodo s iu s I the E m peror ( s ee I ntroduction p vii) Theodo s iu s the e l der wa s h is f a ther H e wa s a n a b l e a n d trus ted g en era l of V a l en t in i a n I wh o re s tored q uiet in B rita i n ( 3 6 8 def ea ted the Al a m a nni a nd crus hed the revo l t of P irm u s G il d o s b rother ( s e e l in e 3 3 3 of thi s poe m ) in Af ric a 3 72 H is de a th wa s b ro u g ht a b o u t b y M ero b a n d es G r a t ia n s m i n i s ter ( of viii 2 6 ,

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THE WAR AGAI NST G I L D O I ,

up r ight stood the pl u mes the ro un d shield sho n e on c e mo r e a n d gone w as every t r ace o f ru st f r o m her wi n g e d gleaming sp ear Sleep was no w dr i v i ng the dew drenched steeds of n i g h t g ui di n g them with the reins of Lethe and car ry i ng ro u nd the sta r s in he r silent c o ur se when 1 the elder and the yo u nger Theodos iu s chie f a mong the heroes d iv ine came to b ri ng p ea c e to men They bore Jove s secret message and mandate to the two brothers and ratified the treaty betwee n the t w o emp ir es So w hen at dead of n i g h t the dr i ving tempest has b r ought the helmsman s s ki ll to no u ght a n d the s i n ki ng sh i p g r oans and sh u dders at the w aves ceaseless shoc k Leda s Spartan born sons s u stain the f o u ndering bark in a n swer to the sailo r s p r aye r s At the ri se of the f u ll moon the t w ain parted The elder di r ected his steps to w ards the coasts of Italy the you n ge r visited the c o u ch o f A rcadi u s gl i ding do wn to that Easte r n city w he r e Bospor u s n arro w s the entrance to the Euxine A s soon as the s on sa w h i s f athe r (f or the moon w as sh i ning b r ightly) he wept yet t r embled f or j oy and e m bracing that f orm he had little hoped e v e r to embrace again said : O tho u restored no w to me f or the first time since thy t r iumphs in th e A lps w hence c omest tho u to thy lo vi ng so n ? Let me to uc h that hand that has conq u ered so m any bar bar i an races ! Wh o hath r obbed the w o rld of s u ch a defe n der ? How long a w h i le has ma nki n d prayed thi n e aid a n d mi ssed thy goodness and thy might ! Sighi n g the father made a n s w er : Was it f or this Is a Moor beco m e a ca u s e of discord betwee n Does the emp ir e an d co u rt of the t wo brothers ? ,

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115

C LA U D I A N

G il d o n is n e

sal u s tanti s it palma f u r or is sc i l ic et e g r e g iu s mor u m m a g n oq u e t u e n d u s e t cu i u s m e r i t is p i et a s in f r atre r e c e d a t 1 in v ito ge n itore v ide ci vi le c a l e b a t d is c id iu m d u bio s t a b a n t Romana s u b ic t u q u is p r oc ul Ar m e n iu s vel q u is M a e ot id e r ip a rex ignotus agit q u i me n on i u vit e u n t e m a u xilio fove r e G etae ve n ere Geloni sol u s at hic n on p u pp e data non milite m i sso s u b s e d it fl u i t a n t e fi d e si signa p e t is s e t ob v ia detecto s u m m is s iu s hoste d ol e r e m x r e s t i t it i n s e c u l is f ati t u r b a u e r e d u c t u s p q l ib r a vit gem in as e v e n t u i u d ic e v ires ad rerum mome n ta cl i e n s s e s e q u e d a t u r u s f o r tuna sim u l cum mente p e p e n d it vic t o r i 0 S i no n c u id is e s s e m r a e r e t u s ab a st r is p p p exemplum s e q u e r e r T ulli l a n ia n d a q u e d u mis im p ia d ive r s is a p t a r e m memb r a q u a d r ig is germa n i n unc usque t u i responsa c ol e b a t en iteru m c a l c a t t a li te credere monstro post p a t r e m fr a t r e m q u e paras sed mag n a repe n dit in q u e t u am s or t e m n u me r osas t r a n s t u l it urbes e r go fas p r e t io c e d e t me r cede p l a c e b it t r o di t io a c e o l a e s i q u od t r ans f u ga f r a t r is p quod le v is ingenio q u a m vis d i sc r imine summo p r odi tor a d p or t e t susp ensa morte s a l u t e m d a m n a m u s l u ce rep erta n u m q u a m gratus e r it ,

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hoc gen u s e m p t or i ci v es c um m o e n ib u s o fl e r t l h oc v end i t p a t r i a m e r i u e i n temp u s a b u si p q ten u it s ic G ra i a Ph i l i pp u s m o x ode r e t a m e n O pp i da P e l l a e o l i bertas c o n c id it auro Roman i s c e l e r u m se m per s p r e v e r e m inistros mo xi a p ol l ic it u m do mino m is c e r e ve n e n a F a b r ic iu s regi n u data f r a u de r e mi s it in f esto q u em Ma r te p et i t b e l l u m q u e n e g a vit per f amul i p a t r a r e ne f as d uc t o s q u e Ca millus t r ans m ur um p u e r o s o b s e s s a e r e d d id it u rb i T r a d u n t u r poenis a l ii cu m p r o e l i a t ol l u n t hic manet u t m o ve a t q u od r e s p u it alte r i n b oste m long i p r o d e d e c u s a e vi s u s c ip is i n f r a t r e m c u i pla c et a u st r ales Gi ldo c on d on a t h a b e n a s t a n t a q u e m u t a t o s seq ui t ur pro v in ci a mo r es u a s l ib e t ad partes an i m u s n u t a ve r i t anceps q t r a n s f u n d i t s e cum L ib y a m r e fl u u m q u e m a l ig n u s M a uri f u it A f ri ca m u n u s c om m o d a t imper iu m t ol l it e M a s s y l a s f r a u des r e m o ve t e biling u es insid i as e t verba sol i s p ir a n t ia vir u s n e c on s a n g u i n e is c e r t e t u r c o m m i n u s ar m is hae c t r u cib u s T h e b is haec d i gna M y c e n is ; n e p r e c or in Ma u ros hoc cri m e n eat Qu i d n oster in i q u u m quando non i lle i u b e n t i m ol it u r Stil icho a n u is u a m nob i s d e vi n c t io r e x t a t 2 9 a r u it 0 q q p ’

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l 18

THE W A R AGA INST G I L D O I ,

we co n demn the trea c hery no r b r ook to entrust o u rselves to s u ch p r otect i on T i s this sort that o ffers f or p u r c has e c iti es and the i r i n h a b i t a nts that sells its f atherland Most ma k e u s e o f s uc h f or the moment b u t soon lea r n to hate them T w as th u s that Philip held the ci t i es of Gr eece ; l i be r ty f ell be f ore t h e attac k of M acedon i an gold Ro m e has ever desp i s ed t h e m i n i ste r s of g ui lt Fab ri c iu s d i scove r ing the plot sent bac k to King Py rr h u s the sla v e w ho had pro mised to m i ngle deadly po i son f o r h i s lord ; fie r ce w ar r aged bet w een them b u t Fab r ici u s re f u s ed to end it by means o f the t r ea c h ery of a sla v e Camill u s t o o ga v e bac k to the b ele a g u e r ed city the boys bro u ght to his c a m p f rom o u t the w alls Thes e w ere cons i gned to p u n i s h ment f or s ee ki ng to p u t an end to wars Is Gi ldo to l iv e t h at he may kindle them ? Takest tho u s uc h measures against thy brot h e r as anothe r w o u ld d i sd a i n to ta k e aga i nst an enemy ? O shame f or u nen d i ng ages ! Gi ldo ent ru sts the governance of the so u th t o w hom he w ill ; t h e g r eat p r ovin c e of A f r i c a ob eys a tyrant s w h i m T o w h i che v er side h i s fickle mi n d i n cl i n es he c arries Libya over with h i m and m alig n antly s u bj ects it to a rule shi fting as the tide Af r i c a w as t h e g i f t of the Moor Aw ay t h th e tr ic ke r y of the M a s s y l i thei r t r eachero u s wiles and thei r w ords t h at breathe f ort h the poison Let n o t b r other w age wa r on brothe r o f thei r land I pray That w ere worthy of cr u el Thebes and Myce n a e ; let that ac cu sation be levelled against the Moors W hat wrong is St i li c ho devising ? when di d he fail i n h is obedi ence ? tha n hi m what more loyal ’

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1 19

CLAU D I AN v a rios me cu m q u os g e sse ri t act u s q u ae vidi post f a ta l o q u a r c u m di vus abire m res in c o m p o s it a s (f a t e or) t u m id a s q u e r e l iq u i

u t s il e a m

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v ix hae c amentia n o s t r is e x c u b iis med um p u e r o r e c t o r e u ie s s e t q he u q u ant u m tim ui v ob i s q ui d libe r a tanti m il it is a u d e r e t moles c u m patre remoto d i s sens u s a c e r b u s f e r ve r e t i am lacta no v is r a vio r consens u s e r at t u nc i ps e pate r na et g s u cc e s s i t pi etate mihi t e n e r u m u e r u d e m u e q q f o vit e t in v e r os e d u x it p r in c ip is a n n os R u fi n u m q u e t i b i q u em t u t r e m u is s e f a t e r is d e p u l it h u n c sol u m memorem s o l u m q u e fi d e l e m 3 05 m v ol u i si q u id d u m vi ta e x e r io r a n er e t p aut visus vol uis s e ger i t venerab i l i s i lli ce u p r aesens n u m e n q u e voc or si t a nta r e cu sas at s oc e r i r e ve r e r e f aces at r e s p i ce fr a t r is con ub iu m p ig n u s q u e m e a e r egale S e r ena c d e b u e r a s et i am fr a t e r n is ob viu s i re q uae gens qu i s Rh e n u s e t H i ster h o s t ib u s i lle t u is vos op ib us iun c t o s c on s p ir a n t e s q u e t ul is s e t s e d tant u m p e r m i tt e c a d a t ni l os c im u s u ltra p ille l icet ses e p r a e t e n t is S y r t ib u s armet o p p o s i t o u e A tlante t e a t licet ar v a r e f e r t a q g a n g u ib u s e t sol i s med i os o b i e c e r i t aestus

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l 90

CLAU D IA N ovi consi l iu m n o v i S t ili ch on is i n om n e s a e u a l e m casus a n im u m r a b i t h a r e n as e n e t q p ” in ve n i e t virtute v ia m S ic d iv us e t inde s ic n at u s iu s s is genitor p a r e b i t u r u l t r o a m l e c t or i r a e c e t a l ib e n s ne c c a r r alter o p p p cognato S t il ich on e mih i commissa p r o f an a s ” ille l u at r e d e a t i am t u t ior A f ric a fr a t r i Tal i a dum longo secum se r mone r e t e x u n t H e s p e r ia m p e r ve n it a vu s c a s t um q u e c u b il e i n g r e d it u r T y r io quo f usus Honorius ostro c a r e b a t teneros Maria c u m coni u ge so m nos p a d s is t it capiti tunc s ic p er s om n ia f a t u r Tantane d e vict o s ten u it fi d ucia Mauros care nepos ite ru m post me c on iu r a t in a r m a p r ogen i es ve s a n a Inbae b e l l u m q u e r e s u mi t vic t o r is cu m st i rp e s u i F ir m u m n e i a c e n t e m obliti L ib y a m nostro s u dore receptam r ur s us h a b e n t a u s u s L a t io contendere Gi ldo germani n ec f ata ti m et nu n c i re p r of e c t o nunc ve l l e m n ot os q u e sene x ostendere vu l t u s n onne meam f u g i e t Ma uru s c u m vid e r it u m b r a m quid d ub it a s exs ur ge toris in v a de r e b e l l e m c a t ivu m m i h i redde me u m desiste m ora r i p ho c generi f atale t u o d u m sang u is in orbe n oster e r it semp er p a l l e b i t reg i a Boc c hi iu n g a n t u r s p ol i is Firmi G il d oni s opima n

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during the reig n V a l entin i a n ris en a g a ins t the oppres s ive g overn m en t R o m a nus count of Af ric a a nd h a d b ee n de f e a ted Theodo s ius the e l der 1

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1 22

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of of

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THE WA R AG A I NST GILDO I ,



su n s mid day heat yet well I k n ow Sti l icho s in e n u i t — that mind o f hi s equal to any eme r ge n cy g y He will f orce h i s w ay through the des ert h i s own greatness wi ll lead h i m Thus spak e the dead emp ero r whereon thus the s on ans w ered : R i ght wi ll i ngly f ather will I fulfil thy co mm ands eve r ready am I to w elcome thy behests Non e is dea r er to me than my kinsman Stilicho Let the imp i o u s Gi ldo atone f or h is wrongs and A f r ica be restored to my brother st i ll sa f er than be f ore Wh i le f ather a n d s on thus debated in lo n g co nvers e Theodosi u s the grandf athe r made his wa y to Italy a n d entered the chaste bedchamber w here o n h i s co u ch of Tyria n purple Hono r i u s lay i n s w e et sleep by the side of his wi f e M a ri a A t h i s head he stood “ What rash and th u s sp ake to him i n a d r ea m co n fidence is this dear g r andson that fills the co n quered M oors ? Does the mad ra c e descended f rom J uba the p eople w hom I s u bd u ed once more conspire to oppose Rome s po w er a n d reco m mence the w ar with i ts conq u e r or s grandson Have they 1 D o they think to forgotte n the de f eat of Fir m u s ? f reposs ess L i bya w on ba ck by the s w eat o bat t le D ares Gildo st riv e wi th Rome ? Does he not f ear his brother s f ate Fain w o u ld I g o myself ol d tho u gh I b e and sho w hi m the f ace he k no w s b u t too well Will not the Moo r fl ee my v ery shade sho u ld he b ehold it Wh y d e l a y e s t tho u Up f r o m thy bed ; attack the r ebel ; give me bac k my prisoner ; waste n o mo r e ti me T i s Fate s g i f t to thy f am i ly W h i le y et the r a c e of Theodos iu s treads the earth the palace o f B oc c h u s shall g o i n f e a r Let the spo i ls of Gi ldo be added to t h ose of Fir m u s ; ’

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1 23

CLAU DIAN ge mi mos M a u r u sia la u r ea c u r r u s u n a do m us t ot ie n s una de gente t r iu m p h e t di be n e q uod tantis in t e r l a b e n t ib u s an ni s ” servati Firm u s q u e mihi fr a t e r q u e n ep ot i dix i t e t a d fl a t u s vicino sole r e f ug it At i uve n e m sti m u lis inm a n ib u s a e m ul a virt u s ia m p u pp e vehi ia m st a gna s ecare e x a c uit fervet e t abs e n tes i n vadere c u spide M au r os t u m inh et a ccir i s oc er um d e x t r a m q u e v ocato a e r it c o n s e r it e t q uae s it p ot ior s e n te n tia u q Per so mn os mihi s a n c t e pater iam s a e p e fu t u ra e x or n e t

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i n ga r im ari c a n ib u s G a e t u l a vid e b a r m a e r e b a t regio s a e vi va s t a t a leo nis e c u d u m strages a s s im u e i uve n ci in c u r s u p p q s e mi n e c e s e t a d h u c i n fecta m a p a l ia tabo s a r s a u e s a n ui n e is a s t o r u m f u n e r a ca m pis p g p q et

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s on u e r e cate n ae collo g n unc etia m paribus secum c er t a r e t r op a e is hortator m e cogit a v us q u on a m usq u e re m oti d e c u it p ri d e m c om p l e r e b i re m es c un c t a m ur t r a n s mi t t e r e p rimus e t p elagi sup erare moras ipse paro q u a e cu m q u e m e o ge n s barbara n u t u Germ a nia cu n eta f e r a t ur s t r in g it u r adve n iat

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1 24

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3 74 pall i da t r a n s l a t u m an patia r tot p r ob r a s e d e n s iu ve n is q u e r el in q u a m q u ae ten ui r e x iq u e p u er bis noster a d A lpes alte riu s gen i to r d e f e n s u m regna c u c u r r it n os p r a e d a e f a ci les in s u l t a n d iq u e i a c e m u s F in i e r a t Stil ic ho contra cui tal ia r e d d it 3 80 a d v e r s in e tubam p r inceps d i n a b e r e M a ur i g a u f e r e t i n a vu s c la r i s ol a c i a le t i g te bell a nte mo r i d e c e r n e t Honor iu s inde hin o Gi ldo pri u s ast r a Chaos m is c e b it Av erno vin d ic t a m mandass e s a t est pl u s nominis h o rr or q u am t u u s ensis aget m i n u it praesentia f a m a m 3 8 5 qui s t e t it a e q u a t u r c a mpo c ol l a t a q u e mes c it m a i e s t a t e m acies sed q u od magis u t i le f a c t u atq u e host i g r a viu s ( sens u s ad v e r te) d o c e b o est ill i p a t r ib u s s e d n on e t m o r ib u s is d e m M a s c e z e l f u g i e n s q u i di r a p i ac u la f r a t r is s e s u e s u as vi t a m u e t u o c o m m is it a s l o p q y q h un c u b i t e m p t a t is f ru st r a m a c t a r e n e q u ivit in s id i i s pat r ias in p i gno r a c o n t u l it iras e t quos ipse sinu pa r vos e s t a ve r a t u na g o c c id it i u v e n e s in h u m a t a u e co r po r a vu l go q d is p u l it e t tumulo c o g n a t a s a r c u i t u mbras n a t u r a m q u e s i mul f r a t r e m q u e h o m in e m q u e c ru ent u s .

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1 26

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re f u go d a m n a vit sole M y c e n a s d i em s c ele r i sed r e d d id it A treu s

THE W A R AG A INST G IL D O I ,

the S y g a m b r i co m e with allied fle et Let tre m bling A f rica now have exp erie n ce of the dwellers on R h i ne s banks Or shall I s it here and sub mit to such di sgrace ? Shall I relinq uish n ow that I am a man w hat I ruled and go v erned as a boy ? Twi c e my f ather hurried t o the A lps to de f end a n other s ” real m Am I to b e an easy p r ey a n obj ect of scorn ? He ended and Stili cho thus made answer Wilt thou a n e m p e r or deign to challe n ge a Moor to fight ? Is that co w a r d to have the consolat i on of death i n battle at thy ha n d ? Shall Honorius fight on ou r side and Gi ldo on the other Ere that chaos shall plunge the stars i nto Hell Tis enough t o co mm and h i s p u n i shment Thy nam e shall str i ke greater terror into him than thy s w ord Presence will mi nish awe : he w ho stan ds i n the lists adm its eq u ality and str u ggli n g hosts regard n ot m aj esty Listen and I w ill tell thee so m ething at once m ore profitable f or thysel f and of more e ff ect agai n st the enemy G ildo h a s a b r other of like descent b u t unl ik e in c hara c ter M a s c e z e l w ho a v oidi ng the e vi l co u rses o f his brother has entr u sted his hop es and h i s li f e to thy keep i ng When Gi ldo after many v ain attempts fou n d no m eans to kill M a s c e z e l he t u rned h i s anger from the f at h er to the children a n d sle w thos e w ho m himself had nurs ed as i n f ants i n hi s arms ; then c ast as i de thei r u nb u ried bod i es and re f u sed sep u l c h r e to the shades of those that had been h i s kin The bloody tyra n t stifl ed all n at u ral f eel ings f orgot he w as a brothe r f orgot he wa s a man and begr u dged the slain a ha n df u l of dust Twas a li k e deed bro u ght its ill rep u te upo n My c enae that p u t the s u n to ro u t and t u rned ba c k the day B u t w hile A treus paid bac k crime f or cri m e and had exc u se .



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1 27

CLA UD I A N crime n e t i nf andas exc u sat co niuge m e nsas hic odiu m non poen a f u it te perdi ta iu r a te pate r u l t o r e m te nudi pulvere manes te p i et a s poll u ta r ogat s i fl e n t ib u s a r am e t p rop r i um m is e r is n u men s t a t u is t is A thenae 405 s i P a n d io n i a s l a n c t u t r a x e r e phalanges p I n a c h id e s b e l l o q u e r ogos m e r u e r e m a r i t is si m a e s t o s q u a l or e comae l a cr im is q u e s e n a t u m in N u m i das pulsus sol i o c om m ovit Ad h e r b a l h u n c q u oq u e n unc Gi ldo tanto q u e m f u ne r e m e r s it 41 1 h u n c d ol e a t v enisse d u c e m s e s e q u e m i no r em l i f su c ib u s se i at ess e t ui s q u em s ede u a vit pp g h u n c p r a e c e p s f u g i a t f reg i t q u em c lade t r e m is c a t a n o s c a t q u e s uu m t r a h it u r dum vi c t im a f r a t r e m g Haec u bi s eder u nt ge n ero notissima M arti r ob or a r a e c i u o s electa p u be m a n i l os p p p d is p o n it p o r t u q u e r ates i n s t a u r a t Etrusco H e r c ul e a m s uu s A lcides I ovi a m q u e c oh or t e m rex d u c it s u p e r u m p r e m i t u r ne c S igni f e r ullo pondere f est i nant adeo v e x illa m o ve r i Ner v ins in s e q u it u r m e r it u s q u e vo c a b u l a Fel i x d ic t a q u e ab A ug u sto l e g io n om e n q u e probantes in vic t i cl ip e o q u e animos i teste Leones D ic t is ante t a m e n p r in c eps c o n fi r m a t i t u r os .

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A re f erence to the s upport g ive n b y The s e u s K i ng of Athen s to Adra s tu s K i n g of Arg o s whe n the The b a n s h a d ref us ed to a l l o w the b uria l of the Arg ive s s l a in a t The b e s ; 1

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y s M a s ce el o nl y h a d 5 000 m n The l e g ion m a y h a ve b een l eg viii Au g us ta The other n a m e s a r e tho s e o f va riou s n u m er z ( the u n it of the po s t I ) ioc l et ia n ic a rm y ) 2

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CL A U D I A N aggere co n spicuus stat c ir c u m fu s a iu v e n tus nixa b astis p r on a s q u e f erox a c com m odat a ur es G il d on e m d o m i t u r a m anus p r o m is s a m i n a s q u e temp u s agi s i q ui d p r o m e d ol uis t is i n a r m i s ostentate mihi i nsto m a g n o q u e t riu mpho ci vi les abolete notas s c ia t o r b i s B o u s s it u e pala m G allos ca u sa non r obore v inci q n ec vo s b a r b a r i e m q u a m vis c ol l e g e r it om n e m t er r e a t an M a ur i fr e m it u m r a u c o s q u e r e p u l s u s u m b on u m e t ve s t r o s pass u r i c o m m in u s e n s e s n on co n t r a cl ip eis tectos g l a d iis q u e m ic a n t e s in sol i s lo n ge fi d u ci a tel i s ib i t is e x a r m a t u s e r i t c u m miss i le t o r s e r i t hostis dextra m ove t i a c u l u m p r a e t e n t a t pall i a lae v a cetera n udus eques s on ip e s ig n a r u s h a b e n a e virga r e g it non ulla fi d e s n on a g m in is ordo ar m a o n eri f uga p r a e s idi o c o n u b ia mille n on illis gene r is n ex u s n o n pignora c u r a e hae c c op i a vulgi s e d numero lang u et p i etas u m b r a t u s dux ipse ros i s e t m a r c i d u s i b i t u n u e n t is c r u d u s q u e cibo t it u b a n s q u e L y a e o g c o n f e c t u s senio m o r b is s t u p r is q u e sol u tus e x c i t e t in c estos t u r m a l is buc i na somnos im p l or e t c i tharas c a n t a t r ic e s q u e choreas o ff e n s u s st ri dore tubae d is c a t q u e c o a c t u s q u as vig il a t Vener i c a s t r is imp endere n oc t e s ,

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f o r its 13 0

ppe a l s to the G a l l ic e l e m ent of the a rm y to a ton e previous s u pport o f M a xi m us a nd E u g e n ius a

.

THE WAR AG A INST GIL D O I ,

leani n g u pon their sp ears the soldi ers thr ong a r o u nd h im and att u ne the i r ready ears to hi s i nsp iri ng v o ic e My men so soon to b ri ng de f eat upon Gi ldo n o w i s the M e t o f ulfil yo u r p r omi s es a n d m ak e good yo u r threats I f yo u f elt in di gna ti on o n my b ehal f no w tak e up arms and pro v e i t W a sh ou t t h e sta i n of civil wa r by m eans of a great and dese rv ed tri um ph Let the emp i re of the East kn o w let it be plain to all the w o r ld that G aul can only o w e de f ea t to the badness of a cause n ot t o 1 her e n emi es st r ength Let not Gi ldo a ffr ight y o u though he ha v e a l l ba rba ry at hi s b a c k S h all M o o r s stand u p aga i nst the sho ck of yo u r cl a s hing sh i elds and the nea r t hr eat of yo u r s w o r d s Y o u s h all n o t oppos e m en a r med wit h s h i elds or sh i ni ng b l a des Thes e sa v ages p u t t heir t ru st i n j aveli ns h ur led fr om af ar On c e he h a s di scharged h is mi ss i le t h e enemy wi ll be d i sa r med Wi th hi s ri ght hand he h ur ls h i s spear wi th hi s le f t he hold s hi s cloa k be f o r e hi m no other armo ur has t h e h o r seman H i s steed kn o w s not the r e i n a whi p c ont r ols it Ob edi e n ce and di s ci pl i ne a r e u n k no wn in the ir ra nks The i r arm s a r e a b ur den to them t h e ir sal v a t i on l i es i n fl i g h t Tho u gh e a c h h as m any wi v es t i es of f a m i ly b i nd them n o t n or ha v e they any lo v e f or the i r c hi ldr en wh ose v e r y n u mber c a u s es a ff e c t i on t o f a i l S uc h are the t r oops T h e ch i e f wi ll co m e t o b a t tle cro wned wit h r oses d r enched wi th scen t s hi s last f e a st st i ll u nd i gested ; d ru n k en wi t h wi ne f o r ed o ne wi th eld ene rv ated wi th di seas e and v ene r y Let the w a r t ru mp et r o u s e hi m f r om a b ed of i n c est let hi m b eg a i d of l u tes and cho ir s f or he lik es n o t the cla rion s note and let hi m le a r n ( all u n wi l l i ng) to sp end in w ar n ights that he n ow dedicates to lo v e ,

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13 1

CL A U D I A N Nonne mo r i s a t iu s vi tae q u a m f e rr e p u d or e m n am q u ae i am r eg i o r e s t a t si ded i ta Ma uri s r e ib u s I l l r i c is a c c e s s e r i t A f ric a d a m n i s g y i u s Lat iu m q u od t u n c M e r o e R u b r o q u e s ol e b a t O c e a no ci ng i Ty rr hena c l a u d it u r u nda e t cu i non N i l u s non i n t u l i t In di a metas Rom a n i i am fi n is e r it Tr inac r ia r egn i ite r e c e p t u r i p r a e d o q u em s u s t ul it a x e m e r e t u m u e Not u m cap u t ins u p e r ab i le re ru m p q a ut m e t in ve s t r is a u t s t a b it Roma l a c e r tis t o t m i hi d e b e t is pop u los t o t ru ra tot u rbes u no L i b y a m d e f e n di t e bello a m is s a s ve s t r o s impe riu m remos e t v estra s e u a t u r q d e s p e c t a s t r ans a e q u or a d u c i t e leges ca rb a s a te r t i a i am sol i to c er v ix m u c r one r o t e t u r tandem f un e r e is fi n e m pos i t ur a tyrann i s O mi n a c on ve n iu n t d ic to f u l vu s q u e T o n a n t is a r mige r a l i q ui da c u n c t is s p e c t a n t ib u s aethra c or r e p t u m p edib u s c u r vis i n n e x u i t h d r u m y d u m q u e r e l u c t a n t e m m or s u pa rti t u r o b u n c o h a e s it in ung u e c ap u t t r u n c a t u s d e ci di t ang u is il ic e t a u g u r ii s a l a c r e s p e r s a xa cit at i t orr e n t e s q u e r u u nt n e c mons a u t s i lva r e t a r d a t pend u la ceu pa rvi s m o t u r a e bella colonis ingent i clango r e g ru es a e s t iva r e l i n q u u n t T hr a c ia cum tep i do p e r m u t a nt S t ry m o n a Nilo o r d i n ib u s va r iis p e r n u b i la t e x i t u r a les l i tte r a p e n n a r u m q u e not i s c o n s cr ib i t u r a er U t fl u c t u s t e t ig e r e ma r is tunc a c r ior a r sit The other t wo b ei n g M a xi m u s a n d E u g e n iu s L e the G reek A ,

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132

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CLAU DIA N im petus

rude n te s e x e d i un t e t v ela l e u n t e t corn ua s u m m i s p g a d s oc i a n t m alis u a t it u r Tyr rhe n a t u m u l t u q or a n ec Al h e a e c a iu n t n a va l i a P i s a e p p sic Ag a m e m n on ia m v index c um G r a e cia cl a s s e m s ol ve r e t in n u m e r is f e r v e b a t voc ib u s Au lis non il l o s strepitus im e n d e n t is u e r oc e l l a e q p p sign a nec a d ve n t u s d u bii d e t e r r uit Austri ve l l i t e proclam ant socii iam v e l l it e fu me m per v ada G il d on e m q u a m vis ad v ersa p e t a m u s ad b ellum nos t r u d a t hie m s p er devia ponti u a s s a t is cup i o t e l l u r e m fi e r e r o s t r is q g heu n im iu m s e g n e s ca u t a q u i mente n ot a t is s i re v olant mergi r a d it u r s i l i tore cornix g o r a licet maculi s a d s e r s e r i t o c c id u u s sol p l u n a q u e c on c e p t is l ive s c a t t ur g i da Ca uri s e t co n tusa v agos i a c u l e n t u r sidera cr i nes im b r ib u s u m e s c a n t Haedi n im b os a q u e T a u r u m d u cat Hyas t o t u s q u e fretis d e s c e n d a t O r io n certa fi d e s caeli s e d ma i or Honori u s a uc tor illi n s a u s p ic iis i nm e n sa per a e q u or a miles no n P l a u s t ris Ar c t ove rego r c on t e m n e Boote n n a vi t a t u r b i n ib u s m ed ii s e r m i t t e ca r inas p s i mi hi t e m e s t a s L ib a m v e n t i u e n e a b u n t p q g y ” A ug u sti Fo r tu n a d a b it Ia m classis i n alt u m r ove h i t u r dextra Lig u res Et r u r ia laeva p l in q ui t u r e t c a e cis vit a t u r Corsica sax i s h u m a n a e specie plantae s e magna fi g u r a t insula ( S a r di n i a m ve t e r e s di x e r e c olon i) d iv es ager f r u g u m P o e n os I t a l os ve p e t e n ti a d ri

i un t p

naves

ip s iq u e

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134

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THE WAR AG A INST GILDO I ,

their e n th u sias m They seize upon the ships and the m selves m ake ready the ha w s e r s f url the sails a n d fix the ya r ds to the m asts E t r ur ia s shore is shaken with their uproar a n d A rcad i an founded Pisa cannot conta in s o great a number of sh i ps So Aulis rang with co u ntless vo i ces what time ave n ging G reece loosed the cables o f A gamem n on s fl eet N o stor m blast deterred them nor threat of co m ing te mp est n or the prese n ce o f the treacherous south wind Seiz e the rop e f ello w sold i ers they cry seiz e the rop e let us sail against G ildo tho u gh the very s eas b e against us Let the stor m d riv e us to battle by h o w crooked s o e v er a co ur se Fa i n would I seize upon that shore tho u gh my ships beak s be shattered Cowards ye wh o ca u tiously observe whether or n o the s e a g u lls fly back or the c r ow pace the beach Wh at if clouds fleck the f ace of the s etting s u n or a stormy m oo n wear the halo that betoke n s hurrica n e ? What if co m ets w a v e their spread i ng tails o r the constellatio n of the Kids threate n s rai n or the clo u dy Hyades lead f orth the B u ll and all Orio n sink neath the waves Put your tr u st i n the s k y but p u t m ore i n Hon orius Be n eath his auspices 1 his soldier ran ge the bound less seas n or look t o the Plough or the B ear t o g ui de m e Make n o accou n t o f Bootes sailor ; lau n ch yo u r ba rk i n mid te mp est If wi nds a n d storms de n y m e ” Libya m y e m pero r s fort u ne will grant it The fl eet is launched They pass L i g u ri a on their r ight hand Etr u ria o n their left avoi di ng the s u n k en reefs of Corsi c a The r e li es an isla n d fo rm ed l ik e a h um an f oot ( Sa r di n ia its former i nhabitants called it) an island r i ch in the prod uce of its fields and c onveniently sit u ated f o r the m wh o sail eithe r to .



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13 5

CL A U D IA N opportu n a situ q uae pars plana solo r a t ib u s cle m e n s

vic in i or

quae

,

in mi tis , fl a t ib u s

l u os a , p

Afr is , r es

5 10

i c it p

Ar ct on ,

so n ora p i n sa n os in f a m a t n a vit a m o n tes 1 hic h omin um p e cu d u m q u e lues sic pestifer aer s a e vi t e t e x cl u s is reg n a n t Aq uil oni b u s Austr i Quos ubi l uct a t is p r ocul e ff ug e r e c a r ini s per diversa r u un t sin u os a e l it or a terr ae pars adit a n ti q ua duetos Ca r t h a g in e Sulco s parte m l it or e o c om p l e ct it ur Olbia m uro urbs L ib y a m co n tra T y r io fu n data pote n ti t e n di t u r i n longu m Ca r a l is t e n u e m q u e p er undas obvia d imitt it fr a c t u r um fl ami n a colle m e ffic it u r portus m ediu m m are t u t a u e ve n tis q o mnibus i n ge n ti m a n s u e s c un t stagn a r e c es s u ha n c o mni p e t ie r e m a n u p r or is q u e r e d u ct is s usp e n sa Z e p h r os exp ecta n t class e f a ve n t e s y 1 B ir t f ol l owi ng th e MS S s i Ol d er ed i ti on s hui c h uic I p r in t s ic s co

r oc a x s u b it is

u e q

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Thi s po e m tion p xi 1

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136

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was

n ever p rop erl y fi n is h ed ;

s ee

I ntrod uc

IN

E U T ROP I U M

LIBER I XVI I I ) ( S e m if e ro s

part u s m e t u e n d a q u e pignora m atri m o e n ib u s e t m ed ii s a u d it u m nocte l u p or u m murmur e t atton i to p e c u d e s pastore l o c ut a s e t lapidu m duras h i e m e s ni m b o u e mi n a c e m q sa n g u i n eo r u b u is s e I ove m p u t e o s q u e cr u ore m u t a t os vis a s q u e polo c on c u r r e r e lunas e t ge mi mos soles mirari d e s in a t orbis o m nia c e s s e r u n t e u n u ch o c on s u l e m o n stra heu terrae c a e l iq u e p u dor trabeata p er u rbes o s t e n t a t u r a nu s t i t ul u m u e e ff e m in a t a nni q pandite p on t i fic e s Cu m a n a e carmina v atis f ul m i n e os solle r s Etr u ria cons u lat ign es in m e rs u m q u e n e f as fi b r is e x p l or e t harusp ex q u ae n ova p or t e n d a n t s u p eri N il u s n e m e a t u d e vi u s e t nostri t e m p t a t iam trans f u ga m u n di s e R u bro m is c e r e mari ru t on e N i h a t e p p r ur s u m b a r b a r ic is Or i e n s va s t a b it u r ar mi s an m orbi v ent u ra lues an n ulla colono responsura s e g e s q u ae ta n tas e x p ie t iras q u o diras iu g ulo p l a c a b im u s aras vic t im a 1 F o r the co ns ul s hip o f E u tr op iu s s ee I ntrod uction p A m ou n ta in in Arm enia .

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11

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13 8

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xv .

AGAI NST

E U T R OP I U S

BO O K I XVI I I ( ) Let the world cease to w onder at the births of creat u res half hu m an hal f bestial at m o n strous bab es that a ffright their ow n m others at the b owl i n g of wolves heard by ni ght i n the cities at b easts that speak to their asto ni ed herds at stones falling li k e rai n at the blood red threate ning stor m clouds at wells of water changed to gore at m oo n s that clash in mid heave n a n d at twi n su n s All portents pale before our eu n uch co n sul O sha m e t o hea v en a n d earth Our cities be h old a n ol d wo m a n decked i n a co n sul s robe wh o gives a wo m a n s n am e t o the 1 year Ope n the pages of the Cu m aea n Sibyl ye let wise Etr u ria n s eers co n sult the light on t if s ; p n in s fl ash and the soothsayer s earch o u t the awful g porte n t hi dde n i n the entrails What n ew dread war ni n g is this the g ods give ? Does Nile desert h is b ed a n d leavi n g Roma n soil seek to m ix h is waters with those of the Red S ea ? Does cle f t 2 N ip h a t e s o n ce more let through a host of eastern barbarians to ravage our la n ds Does a p estile n ce threate n us Or shall n o harvest repay the farmer ? What victi m ca n expiate di v i n e an ger such a s this ? What o ff eri n g appease the cr u el altars The co n sul s ,

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13

9

C LAU DIA N c on s u l e

l u s t r a n di

fasces

ip s o q u e li t a n d um

n t hoc o m ine fata para q 1 E u t r op iu s cervice luat s ic o mnia n obis Hoc regni Fort u n a te n es u a e n a m ista i oc a n d i q 25 s a e vi t i a h um a ni s qu a n tu m b a c ch a b e r e rebus s i tibi ser vi li l a c u it f o e d a r e curules p c ri mi n e p r o c e d a t l a x a t a c om e d e co n sul p rupta Q ui ri n a l e s s um a n t e rg a s t ul a cin c t u s da salte m q u e m c u m q u e virum discri mi n a q u ae d a m su n t fa m ul i s s p l en d or q u e suus m a c ul a m q u e mino r em c on di ci on is hab et do mi n o q ui vi x e ri t u n o s i p elagi fl u c t u s L ib a e s i diseis h a r e n a s y E u tr op ii n u m e r a b is eros q uot iura q uot ille m u t a vi t tabulas vel q ua n ta voc a b ul a ve rti t 35 nu d a t us q uotie n s m e d ic u m du m c on s ul it e m ptor n e q ua p er o cc ul t um l a t e a t i a ct ur a d ol or e m o mn es p a e nit ui t p r e t ii v e nu m q u e r e di b a t dum ve n di p ot ui t p os t q u am deform e cadave r m a n s it e t in rugas t ot u s d e fl u xit a ni les iam sp ecie do ni c e rt a tim l im i n e p e l l un t e t fo e d um i n a r is p r o e r a n t o b t r u d e r e m unus p g t o t tra n slata i u g is s u mm is it colla ve t u s t um s ervitiu m s e m e r u e n ovu m n ec d e s t iti t u m u a m p q q

prodi gio

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l i c n s pp

Cu n abula pr im a c r u e n ti s r a it ur cas t ra n d u s ab ipso p

B ir t beg ins th e n ew p a r a g r a p h a t s ic , p r in ting a comm a ’ a t n ob i s A l ter na t i vel y , r ead vo l vis f or nob is ( s o Cu ia c iu s 1

.

C LAU DIA N

m atris post viscer a po on a c a d vol a t Ar m e n iu s certo m ucro n e r e cis os e d oct us m ol l ir e m ares d a m n o q u e n e f a n d u m 1 n f e c u u m d corporis im b r e m a u c t ur us pretiu m s e d ib u s e x h a u r it ge mi nis un o q u e s ub i c t u e rip it o fli ciu m patris n om e n q u e m ariti a mbiguus vitae i a cuit p e ni t u s q u e supre m um in cerebru m s e cti t ra x e r u n t f r ig or a n ervi L a u d e m u s n e m a n um quae vires a b s t u l it hosti an p o t iu s fato causa m tribuiss e q u e r a m ur f el ici or e x t a t r of u e r a t m a n s is s e vi r u m p O pprobrio s er vir et a d h uc s i fortior ess et I n de p er As s y r ia e tr a h it u r co mm ercia rip a e ; hi n c fora v e n a l i s Galata d u c t or e fr e q u e n t a t uis n o m i n a q os s it 6 er m u t a t q u e do m os varias 0 p p tan ta s e q ui m iles stabuli P t ol om a e u s i n illis hi c lo n go l a s s a t u s p a e l i cis us u n o t ior do n at Arin t h a e o n e q ue e ni m ia m di g nu s haberi n ec m aturus e mi cu m f a s t id it us a b ir e t q uam g em ui t q uanto p l a n x it d i vor t ia l u ct u 65 haec erat heu P t ol om a e e fi d e s h oc p r ofuit aetas i n gre mio c on s um p t a tuo l e ct us q u e iug a l is e t d uc ti t ot i e n s i n ter p r a e s a e p i a so mn i libertas p r omi s s a p erit vi d uu m n e r e l in ui s q u

bere

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E ut r op iu m t a n t a s q u e p r e m un t Ob l ivi a n oc t e s , ge n eris p r o sors durissi m a n ostri c r u d e l is fe mi n a , cum se n nit , r e tin e t c on ub ia p a rt u , 1

cod d

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P os tg a te im b rem

ta ke P tol e m y to h a ve b een a s ta tion a r iu s i e a s erva n t in a pub l ic pos t-hous e b u t there is po s s ib l y s o m e covert a l l us ion to s ta bu l u m i n the s ens e of p r os ti b u l u m a b rothe l 1

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1 42

E U T R OP I U S ,

AGAINST

I

than he becomes a p r ey t o s u ff ering Up haste n s the Armen i an skilled by ope r at i ng wi th u n erring knife to make males womani sh and to increas e the i r loathly value by such loss H e d r ains the body s life —giving fl uid f r o m its do u ble so urce and with on e blow deprives his victim of a father s f unct i on a n d the n am e of husband E ut r op iu s lay do u btf u l o f li f e and the severed si n e w s drew a n u mbness deep down i n to hi s fu rthest brain Ar e we to pra i s e the h a nd that robbed a n enemy Or shall we rather bla m e the f ates o f his strength It w ould ha v e b een b etter had h e re m ained a m a n his very disg r ace has proved a blessi ng to hi m Had he had h is f u ll m a nly vigour he would still have bee n a slave After t hi s he is dragged f ro m on e A ssyria n mart to a n other ; n ext i n the trai n of a Galatian slave m ercha n t he stands for sale i n m a n y a m arket and k n ows m a n y di vers e houses Who could tell the n a m es of all hi s buyers ? A m o ng these P tole m y 1 s erva n t of the post house wa s on e of the better known The n Ptole m y tired of E u t r op ius lo n g s ervice t o hi s lusts gi ves h im to Arin t h a e us — gives for he is n o lo n ger worth keepi n g n or ol d e n ough to b e bought How the scorn ed rni ni on wept at hi s departure with what gri ef di d he lam e nt that Wa s thi s thy fi delity Ptole m y ? I s di v orce this m y r eward for a youth li ved i n t hi n e arms for the bed of m arriage a n d thos e m a n y nights sp e n t Must I lose m y promised t ogether i n the i nn ? lib erty ? L e a v s t thou E ut r op iu s a wi dow cruel wr etch f org etful of such wo n derful ni g hts of love H ow hard is the l ot of m y ki n d ! Whe n a woma n row s ol d her childr e n ce m e n t t h e m arr iag e tie a n d g .

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1 43

CLAU DI A N decus m atris r e ve r e n t ia p e ns a t n os Luci n a fugit n ec pig n ore n it im ur ullo cu m for m a d il a p s u s a m or d e fl or ui t oris u t a b im ur arte ratia q ua m iseri scapulas t g q ua p l a c e a m ratio n e se n ex Sic f a t u s acutu m a d r e d i t u r l e n oni s opus n ec se g ni s ad arte m g m e n s erat officii q u e cap ax om n e s q u e p u d oris custodi a n ulla t u e n d o h a u s e r a t i n sidias n ulli p ot er a n t e x cl u d er e ve ct e s x fid a toro ille v el aerata Da n ae n i n turre late n te m fl e t u s do mi ni fi n g e b a t a m a n ti s e l ic e r e t in d omi t a s q u e m ora p r e t io l e nib a t avaras n o n b l a n d ior u l l u s e un t is l a s civa s q u e iocis a n cillae t e t ig is s e latus l e vi t e r q u e r e d u ct is ve s t ib u s occulto cri m e n m a n dass e sus u rro n ec f u r t is q u a e s is s e locu m n ec fraude rep erta c a u t ior elusi fre m itus vit a r e m ariti haud ali te r iu ve n u m fl a m mi s E p h y r e ia Lais e ge m ino di tata mari cu m serta r ef ud it can i ties iam tu r ba p r o ca x n oc t is q u e r e c e d it ambitus e t ra r o p ul s a t u r ia n u a tactu s eq u e r e for mi d a t sp eculo d a m n a n t e s e n e c t u s stat tame m at q ue ali as s u cc in g it lena mi nistras di l e c t u m q u e diu q u a m vis l on g a e va l u panar c i rcuit e t r e tin e n t m ores q uod p e r d id it aetas u x or is q u e

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1 44

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CLAU DIA N H inc

ho n or Eutropio

cum q u e

;

o mnibus u nica

s et i n e u n u chis t h a l a m os se rvare pudicos so lus a d u l t e r u s c r e vit n ec verbera tergo c e s s a ve r e t a m e n quoti e n s d e c e t a libido p irati c a l uis s e t eri fr us t r a q u e r og a n t em ia c t a n t e m q u e suos t ot ia m p er l u stra labor e s d ot a l e m ge n ero n u t r it or e m q u e p u el l a e t r a di d it B ous rector c on s u l q u e f u t u r u s e c t e b a t domi n ae cri n es e t s a e e lava n ti p p n udus i n arge n to l y m p h a m g e s t a b a t alu mn a e e t cu m s e rapido f e ss a m r oi e c e r a t a e s t u p a t r iciu s r o s e is a von u m ve n t il a t alis p p I a m q u e a e vo l a x a t a cutis s u l c is q u e g e n a r u m c orr u e r a t passa facies r u o s ior uva g fl ava mi n us presso fin d un t ur vo m ere rura n ec ve n to s ic vela t r em un t miserabile t u rp e s e x e d e r e caput ti n e a e des erta p a t e b a n t intervalla co m ae q u a l i s s iti e n t ib u s arvis arida i e iu n a e s e g e s in t e rl uc e t aristae vel q u a l is g e l id is pl um a labente p r uinis a r b or is in m or it u r trunco b r u m a l is h iru n do scili cet u t t r a b eis ini uria c r e s c e r e t olim has i n fro n te n otas h oc d e d e c u s a d d id i t oris cu m palli da n udis l u x u r ia e Fortun a s u a e r a eb e r e t i m a o o s s ib u s h orror e m do mi n is p g decolor e t m acies o cc ur s u l a e d e r e t om n es es

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E U T R OP I

AGAINST

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He n ce spra n g E u t rop iu s fa m e ; for though a eu n uch s on e virtue be to guard the chastity of the m arriage cha m ber here wa s on e ( and o n e o nly) wh o g rew great through adulteri es But the lash fell as before on his back whe n ever his m aster s cri mi n al passio n was through hi m frustrated Then it wa s i n vai n that he prayed for forgive n ess and re minded hi s lord of all thos e years of f aith f ul service ; he would fin d hi m self han ded over to a Thus he s on in law as pa r t of the bride s do w ry would beco m e a lady s m aid a n d s o the f uture co n sul a n d gover n or of the East would co mb h is mistress locks or sta n d n aked holding a sil v er vess el of water wherei n his charg e could wash herself A n d whe n overco m e by the heat s h e threw herself u po n her co u ch there w ould stand thi s pat r icia n f a nning her wi th bright p eacock feathers A nd n ow his ski n had grown loose with age his face more wrinkled tha n a raisi n had falle n in by reaso n of the l ines i n his cheeks Less deep the fur rows cloven in the corn fi eld by the plough the folds wrought i n the sails by the wi n d Lo athso m e h i rubs ate away s head a n d bare patches app ea r ed g a mid h is hair It wa s as though clumps of dry barre n corn dotted a s un parched field or a s if a swallow were dyin g i n wi nter sitti n g on a bran ch m oulti n g i n the frosty weather Truly that the outrage to the co n sul s o ffice mi ght on e day be the greater Fortu n e added t o her gift of wealth thi s bra n d upo n h is brow thi s deformi ty of f ace Whe n his pall or a n d fl e s h l e s s bo n es had roused feeli ngs revulsio n i n his m asters hearts a n d his foul of co mplexio n a n d lea n body o ffended all wh o ca m e ,



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1 47

CLAU DIA N aut pueris l a t ur a m etus aut t a e di a m e n sis a u t cri m e n f a m ul i s aut p r oc e d e n t ib us o m e n e t nihi l exhausto c a e r e n t i n stipite lucri p r n ere q uipp e toros vel c a e d e r e lig n a c ul in a e ste ( m e m bra n e g a n t auru m vestes arca n a tueri m e n s in fi d a ve t a t q u is e ni m comm it t e r e vellet le n o ni t h a l a m u m tan de m ceu f un u s a c e r b u m 1 3 0 in f a us t a m q u e suis t r u s e r e p e n a t ib u s u m b r a m c on t e m t u ia m liber erat i c p astor ob e s u m s p lacte c a n e m f e rr oq u e l igat p a s cit q u e r e vin c t u m du m validus s ervare g r eg em vig il i q u e rapaces l a t r a t u t e r r e r e l up os cum t a r di or ide m iam s ca b ie laceras d e i e cit s or di d u s aures s ol vi t e t e x u t o l u c r a t u r vi n cula collo E s t ubi d e s p e c t u s nim iu s iu va t u n d iq u e p u lso p er c un c t a s li c uit fraudes im pu n e vagari e t fatis a e r ir e vi a m l m i pro q uisquis O y p p sum m a te n es ta n to l ib uit m or t al ia r is u vertere q ui servi n on e s t a d mi s s u s i n usu m s u s c i it ur r e ni s e t que m pri v ata m in i s t r u m p g d e d ig n a t a do m us m o d e r a n t e m s u s t i n e t aula u t p r im u m ve t ul a m t e x e r e p alatia vu l p e m q uis n on in g e m uit q uis n o n in r e p e r e s a cr is o b s e un s d ol uit t o t i e n s ve n ale cadaver q ipsi qui n etiam tali co n sorte fr e m e b a n t regales famuli quibus est inl u s t rior ordo s e r vit ii s oc ium q u e di u s p r e ve r e sup erbi ,

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1 48

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CL A UDI AN Ce r nite quem Latus p os c a n t :d n e c t e r e f a s t is s e d vil ior a n te cui u s e t e u n u ch o s p u d u it o b s c u r a e l a t u i t pars i n o t is s im a t u r b a e g donec A bundanti f u r iis — q u i reb u s Eois r o d u x i t — a b i mis r im u m u e s i b i e x i t iu m p q p e ve c t u s t h a l a m i s s u m m o s i n va s i t honores quam bene di s p os it um ter ri s u t di g n u s ini qui fructus cons i lii p r imis a u c t or ib u s in s t e t s ic m u l t o s fl u vi o v ates are n te p er a n n o s h o s p it e qui c a e s o m o n u it pla c are T on a n t e m in ventas prim u s B u s ir id is im b u it aras e t c e c id it s a e vi q u od d i x e r a t host i a sacri s ic opi f ex ta u ri t o r m e n t or u m q u e r e p e r t or qui f u nesta no v o f a b r ic a ve r a t ae r a dolori primus in e x p e r t um Sic u lo cogente tyra nn o s e n s i t op u s d oc u it q u e s uu m m u g ir e i u ve n c u m nu lli u s E u t r op i u s qua m q u i s e p r o t u l i t ante di r e p t a s p os s e d it opes n u l l u m q u e p r ior e m e r c u l i t e x il i o s ol u m q u e h oc r ite p e r e it p g a u c t or e m d a m n a r e su u m r

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P os t q u a m

ob s it u s a e vo

s e m i vi r e x c e l s a m

rerum s u b l a t u s i n a r c e m quod n ec v ota pati n ec fi n g e r e s omni a p os s un t vi dit s ub p edib u s leges s u b i e c t a q u e colla n ob il iu m t a n t u m q u e sib i r m i t t e r e fata e p n ihil u i o t a s s e t pl u s libertate m e r e r i q p

1 70

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B y b irth a S cyt hi a n E n tered the R o m a n a rm y u n der G ra tia n a n d re a ched the po s ition of m a g is ter u tr iu s qu e m i l i tia e u n der Theodo s iu s C on s u l in 3 9 3 ( Z os im v 1 0 5 ) 1

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150

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E U T R OP I U S ,

AGAINST

I

See what m anner o f ma n they s eek to connect with the an n als of Ro m e the very eunuchs were ashamed of hi m At first of n o acco u nt he lay hid the m ost un known unit of an unregarded throng till than k s 1 to the m ad folly of Ab un d a n t iu s ( who brought ruin on the e mpire of the East and ere that upon himself) he wa s ad v anced fro m the m ost m enial o ffice to the highest ho n ou r s What a happy dis e n s a t i on of pro vidence it is that in this world the p res u lts of ill co u nsel f all first u po n its i n stigators ' Th u s the seer who ad vised B u siris to placate the Th u nderer s wr ath what ti m e Nile s fl ood had long run dry with a stra n ger s blood hims el f first stai n ed that tyrant s altar with his own and fell a vi ctim of the ho rr id sacrifi c e he had advised Thus he wh o m ade the brazen b u ll and de v ised that n e w for m of tort u re casting the deadly bro nz e as a n i nstrume n t o f to r me n t was at the bidding o f the Si c i l ian tyrant ( ) the first to m ake trial of the u n h a n s e l l e d i m age and to teach his own b u ll to roar So wi th E u t r op iu s o n no m a n s goods di d he soo n er s eiz e than o n those power ; o f hi m by who m h e had bee n rais ed to n one di d he drive soo n er i n to exile a n d th u s by the conde mn atio n of hi s patro n was t o thank f or on e righteous actio n Whe n thi s half ma n w or n ou t with age had been rais ed t o that pin n acle of glory f or w hich he n ever would have dared to pray of w hich n ever to dr ea m whe n he had s ee n law at his feet the heads of the n obility i n cli n ed befo r e him and f ortu n e heap i n g such gifts upo n on e whos e only hop e and prayer had b ee n t o gai n his f re edom he straightway f orgot th anks to the a n d b a n i s hed three yea rs l a ter t o P ity u s m a china ti ons of E utro p iu s .

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151

CLAUDI A N do minos a l t e q u e t u m e s c u n t procerum s q u a l or e r ep l e t u s s er viles a ni mi carcer e t e x ul ib u s M ero e c a m p iq u e g e m e s cu n t Ae t h iop u m poe ni s h om in u m plaga p e r s on a t arde n s M a r m a r ic u s cl ar i s viol a t u r c a e d ib u s Hammon As p e r iu s n i hi l est h u m il i c um surg i t in alt um c un c t a f e r it du m c un c t a ti m et d e s a e vi t in om n es u t s e posse p u t e n t n ec belua t a e t r i or ulla q uam servi rab i es in libera terga f ur e n t is 1 8 5 a n os c it e m i t u s e t p o e n a e p arcere n e s c it g g quam s ub iit dominiq u e m e m o r que m ve r b er a t o d it adde quod e u n u c h u s nulla pietate m o ve t u r n ec ge n eri n a t is ve cavet clementia c u n c t is in simi les a nim os q u e l i g a n t co n sortia damn i iste n ec e u n uch is p l a cid u s S ed p eius i n aurum 1 9 0 hoc u n o fr uitu r succisa libido a estua t quid n er v os s e cuis s e iu va t vis nu lla cr u e n t a m castrat a va r it ia m parvis ex ercita f u r t is quae va s t a r e p e n u m n e g l e c t a q u e s u e ve r a t arcae cl austra r e m ol ir i n u nc u b e r ior e rapi n a u i d s e Tigris ab H a e m o u i d e cc a t i n orbe m a n us q q p d ivi d it h oc ce r ta p r op onit m erc e l o c a n d um i n stitor im p erii caupo f a m o s u s h o n oru m hic Asiam villa p a ct u s r e g it ille r e d em it dolet ille pater n a c o ni u i s orn a t u Syr ia m g s ub fi x a pate n ti B it h y n os mu tasse do m o vestibulo p r e t iis d is t in g u it reg u la gentes

i a mi a m di s s im ul a t .

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152

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CLAUDIAN Galatae tot Po n tus eat tot Ly di a numm is s i L c ia m t e n u is s e v elis tot m il l ia ponas y si P h r a s adde par um prop r iae s ol a ci a so r t i 2 05 yg com mu nes vult esse n otas e t ve n di t u s ipse v endere c u n ct a c u pit c e r t a n t u m s a ep e d u oru m c u m ponde r e i u dex d i ve r s u m s u spen di t o n us ve rgit e t i n ge mi n as n u tat provi n c i a lances No n p u d e t he u s u p er i populos ve nire s u b hasta ve n d e n t is certe u d e a t q u od iure s e u l t u m 2 1 1 p p m an c ipi u m tot regn a te n et t ot d is t r a h it urbes o l l e n t e m solio Cr o e s u m v ictori a C r i p y f r egit u t e un u ch o fl u e r e t Pactolus e t Her m us A ttal u s h e r e d e m vol uit te Roma reli n q u i r e s t it it An tiochus r a e s cr i t o margine Tauri p p t ot

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in d omi t os

c u rr u

S e r vil iu s

e

i I t s a u r os g

Pharos Au gusto i a c uit vel Creta M etello n e non E u tropio q u a e s t u s n u m e r os i or esset i n m e r c e m ve n iu n t Cilices I u d a e a Sophene R o m a n u s q u e labor P om p ei a n i q u e t r iu m p h i Q u o str u is hos a u ri c u m u l os quae pignora tanti s s u ccedent op ib u s n ubas d u c a s ve l ic e b it nu m qu a m m ater eris nu m q u a m pater hoc tibi f erru m hoc nat u ra megat te g r a n d ib u s I n di a g em m is 2 2 5 te f ol iis A r ab es d it e n t te vellere S eres nu ll u s inops adeo n ullu m s ic u r g e t egestas u t ve l it E u t r op ii fo r t un a m e t membra a c is c i p I a m q u e oblita s u i n ec sobria d ivit iis m e n s et

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Atta l us K ing of P erg a m u m l e f t h is kin g do m b y wil l t o The term s R ome 1 3 3 B C I t b eca m e the province of A s i a m e n tion ed here were i m po s ed on A n tiochu s K ing of S yri a in 1 8 9 P S ervil iu s cro s s e d the T a uru s a n d s u b dued the I s a u r i 7 8 Crete wa s con q uered b y Q M ete l l us b et wee n 6 8 a n d 66 1

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154

E U T R OP I U S ,

AGAI N ST

I

prices : s o m uch for Galatia for Po n tus s o m uch Would y ou govern s o m uch wi ll buy on e Lydia Lycia ? The n lay dow n s o m a n y thousa n ds Phrygia ? A l ittle m ore H e wishes everythi n g t o be m arked wi th it s price t o co n sole hi m f or hi s own fortu n e a n d him s elf s o ofte n sold he wa n ts to sell everything Whe n t wo are rivals he suspe n ds i n the bala n ce their opposed payment ; alo n g with the weight the j udge i n clines a n d a provi n ce ha n gs wa v ering i n a pair of scales Ye gods are ye n ot asham ed that whole peoples are sold be n eath the hamm er At least let it sha m e y ou of the s eller w hen a sla v e a chattel the law cou n ts dead possesses s o m any kingdo m s and retails s o m a ny citi es Did Cyrus victory oust m ighty Cro esus f rom his throne that Pactolus a n d Her m us should roll their waves for a eu nu ch ? Did Attalus m ake you Ro m e his heir wa s A n tiochus co n fi n ed withi n the appoi n ted bo u nds of Taur u s did S e r vil i u s e nj oy a triu m ph over the hitherto u n conquered Isaurian s di d Egypt fall before Augustus a n d Crete be f ore M etellus to e n sure 1 ? Cilicia J ud a e a E u t r op iu s a s u fli ci e n t i n co m e Sophene all R o m e s labours a n d Po m p ey s triumphs are there t o sell Why heap up these riches ? Hast thou childre n M arry or be married thou t o succe ed to the m ? canst n e v er be a m other or a father the f o r mer n ature hath de nied thee the latter the s u rgeo n s kni f e I n dia m ay enrich thee with enorm ous j e w els A rabi a w ith her spices Chi n a with her silks n o n e s o n eedy n o n e s o poverty stricke n a s to wish t o have E u t r op iu s fortu n e and there w ith E u t r op iu s body A n d n o w h is m ind forg etful of its true n ature a n d ,

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155

CL A U DIAN in miseras leges h om inum q u e n e g ot ia l u di t quid iam de con s ul e m ir or iu d i ca t e un u c h u s q u ae pag i na lites r o di ium , u o d c u m q u e gerit p q g s ic actas m e m ini t q uibus um q u a m saec u la terris .

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eunuchi vi d e r e foru m s e d n e q u a va c a r e t pars ig n o mi ni a n eu quid r e s t a r e t in a u s um arma etia m violare parat p o r t e n t a q u e m on s t r is e t u l a n s amentia c e r t a t e r a t e t secu m a p gg e r ub ui t M a vor s a ve r s a q u e r i s it E n yo d e d e c u s E ou m q uotie n s inte n ta s a g itt is e t p h a r e t r a fulgens an u s e x e r c e t ur Am azo n arbiter aut q uotie n s belli p a cis q u e r e cu rr it gaudet cum vi d e r it hosti s a d l o u i t u r u e G etas q q e t sentit iam d e e s s e vi r os ince n di a fu ma n t m u r is n ulla fi d e s s q u a l e n t p op ul a t ib u s agri trans Phasi n a g u n t u r 2 45 e t medio sp es sola m ari Ca p p a d oc u m m atres s t a b u li s q u e a b d u ct a p a t e r nis Ca u casias captiva b ib u n t arm e nta pr u i n as e t S c t h icis m utant Ar g a e i pa h ula sil v is y extra Cimme r ias T a u r or u m cla u stra pal u des s ol ii s n ec s u ffi c i t a t r o x fl os S y r ia e servit p i n c a e d e m ve r t u n t f astidia p r a e d a e b a rb a r us Ille t a m e n ( quid e ni m s e r vum m ol l e m q u e p u d e b it aut q uid i n h oc p ot e r it vul tu fl a g r a r e r u b or is pro vict or e re di t p e d it um vexilla se q uuntur e t t u rm a e si m iles e unu c h or u m q u e m a n i l i p ,

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H el l e s p on t i a c is l e g io d ig n is s im a s ig ni s ob viu s ire cl i e n s d e f e n s o r e m u e r e ve r s u m q l a x a s u e l a b or a t com l e c t i placet ips e sibi q p .

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in Ca pp a docia The ref ere nce Cl a udi a n is s c a rce l y f a ir to E u trop iu s here is to the c a m p a ig n of 3 9 8 in which E u tr op iu s s u cceeded in driving the H uns b a ck b ehi n d the Ca uca sus 1

A

m oun ta i n

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1 56

CL A U DIAN distendisse genas fi c t u m q u e in fl a t u s a n h e l a t pulvere r e s p e r s u s tineas e t s ol ib u s ora

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l or a b il e q u i d d a m q p n e ui t i a m f r a c t is e t r o el i a marrat q p

a l l i di o r , ve r b is p

u e s on a t

ultra per q ue sua m tremula t e s t a t ur voc e s or or e m d e f e cis s e vagas ad publica com m o d a v ires cedere li vori n ec s u s t e n t a r e proc ellas in vid ia e m e r g iq u e fretis s p u m a n tib u s orat e x or e t u e uti n a m du m talia f a t u r in eptas q d e t e rg e t l a cr im a s a t q u e in t e r si n gula dicta fl e b il e s u s p ir a t u a l i s venit arida s oc r u s q l on g in q u a m visura muru m vix lassa r e s e di t e t ia m vi n a p etit Quid te t u r p is s im e bellis in seris aut s a e vi p er t e m p t a s F allada ca m pi tu potes alterius s t u dii s h a er e r e M in e r va e e t telas n on tela pati tu stamina n osse tu s ogn es op er u m sollers urgere p u e l l a s e t ni ve a m do mi n ae pe n sis i n volvere lana m vel si sacra place n t habeas pro Marte Cy b eb e n rauca Cel a e n a e os ad ty m pa n a di s c e fu rores c m b a l a ferre licet i n l i d e r e pi n u u e e c t s u y p q ,

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158

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AGAINST

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I

swell out hi s p e n dulous cheeks a n d feig n s a heavy pa n ti n g h is lousy head dus t sprin kled a n d h is face bleached whiter by the s un he sobs out so m e piti f ul complai n t wi th voice m ore e ff emi n ate than e ff e mi n acy s self a n d tells of battles I n tremulous to n es he call s hi s sister t o wi t n ess that he h a s spent hi s stre n gth for hi s country s n eed ; that he y ields t o e n vy a n d ca nn ot stand up against the storm s of j ealousy a n d prays t o be drown ed in the foam ing seas Would G od h is prayer had been g ra n ted ! Thus sp eaki n g he wipes away the silly tears sighi n g a n d sobbi n g b etwe e n each word ; l ike a wi thered ol d dame travelled far t o visit her so n s daughter — scarce seated aweary a n d already s h e a sks f or wi n e Why busy thy foul self with wars Why atte mpt battle on the bloody field Tis to the arts of that other Mi n erva thou S houldst apply thys elf The di sta ff n ot the dart should b e thine ; thi n e to spi n the thread a n d c unning craf ts m a n that thou art t o urge on the spin n ing maids whe n lazy ; thi n e t o wi n d the s n owy wool f or thy m istress weaving Or wouldst thou b e a devotee let Cybele n ot M ars be the obj ect of thy worship Lear n to i mitate t h e m adn ess of the Coryba n tes t o the acco m pa n i m ent Tho u m ayest carry cymbals of rolli n g d ru m s pierce thy breast with the sacred pine a n d with Phrygia n kni f e destroy w hat y et is lef t of thy virility Leave arm s to m e n Why seek t o divide the t wo e mpires a n d e m broil lovi n g brothers i n st rife ? M adman re m e m ber thy for m er trade ; twere m ore fitti n g thou S houldst e n deavour t o reco n cile them It is f or deeds like this that E u t r op ius dema n ds to

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CLAU D I A N fl a g i t e t E u t r op i u s ,

q u id non p o l l u a t un u s dux acies i u de x p r aetoria tempo r a consul Nil adeo f o e d um q uod no n exacta v et u stas e d id e r it l o n i u e labor c o m mi s e r i t a e vi g q O e d ip o d e s m a t r e m n ata m d u x is s e Thyeste s c a n t a t ur e e r it f ratres I o c a s t a m ar i to p p e t Pelopea sibi T h e b a s ac f u n e r a T r oia e tristis E r e c h t h e i d e p l or a t scae n a t h e a t ri i n vol u c r e m Tere u s Cad m us s e ve r t it i n a n g u e m Scylla n ovos mirata canes h u n c arbore fig it 29 5 e l e va t h un c pl u ma s u a m is h u n c fabula v e s t it q h un c s ol vi t fl u vio nu m q u a m spado co n sul in o r b e nec i u dex d u c t or ve fuit u o d c u m u e vi r or u m q q e s t decus eu n uc hi s c e l us es t exe m pla cr e a n t u r q uae socci s up e r e n t risus l u ct u s q u e coth Qua m pulcher co n spectus erat c u m t e n d e r e t art u s 3 01 e x a n u e s onera n te toga c in c t u u e gra v atus g q in d u t o q u e s e n ex ob s c a e n ior iret i n a u ro h um ani q u a l is simulator si m ius oris q u e m puer a d rid e n s p r e t ios o sta mine Seru m ve l a vi t n u d a s u e n ates ac terga r e l i u i t q q l u d ib r iu m m ensis erecto p ectore di ves a m b u l a t e t claro ses e d e f or m a t a m ic t u can dida p ol l u t os comit a t u r c u ria fasces f or s it a n e t do m i n us r a e b e t m iracula lictor p ne

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1 60

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CL A U DI A N c o n s ul e n ob il i or

l i b e r t a t e m q u e d a t ur u s ,

qua m n e cd u m merui t s c a n d it subli m e tribunal atq u e i n ter p r op r ia s la u des Ae g y p t ia ia c t a t s o m ni a p r os t r a t o s q u e c a n i t s e v ate t y r a n n o s scil icet i n d u b io vindex B ellona p e p e n d it d um spado Tiresias e n e r va t u s q u e M elamp u s r e t a t ab ext r emo r e f e r e n s o r acula Nilo p Ob s t r ep u e r e avi um voces e x h or r u it an n us n ome n e t in s a n u m ge mi n o p r ocl a m a t ab ore e un u c h u m q u e v e t a t f a s t i s accedere Ia nu s s u m e r e t i n l i c i t os e t e ni m s i f emina f asces ess et turp e min u s M edis l e vi b u s q u e S a b a e is im p e r a t hic se xu s r e g in a r u m q u e sub armis gens nu lla p r ob a t u r b a r b a r ia e pars m ag n a ia ce t e unu chi quae s c e p t r a f e r a t Trito nia Phoebe Te r ra Ceres Cybele I n no Lato n a c ol un t u r eu nu chi quae te mpla dei q uas v idi m us aras i n de sacerdotes haec in t r a t pectora Phoeb u s inde c a n u nt D elphi T r oia n a m sola M in e r va m virginitas Ve s t a l i s adi t fl a m m a s q u e t u e t u r hi nullas m eriti v ittas s e m p e r q u e pro f ani n a s c it u r ad fr u c t u m mu l ier p r ol e m q u e f u tura m hoc ge nu s in ve n t um e s t u t s e r via t H erc u l is areu Danai f ugere b ip e n n e m c on c idi t Hippolyte Penthesilea t u am claras Ca r t h a g ini s ar c es 335 c r e di t u r e t ce n tum portis B a b y l on a s up e r b a m q ui d n obile g e s s it f e m in e u s s t r u x is s e labor .

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I n 3 9 4 Arca diu s h a d s e nt E u trop iu s to the The b a id to cons ul t a certa i n C hri s ti a n prophet J oh n upon the res ul t of E ug enius revo l t ( S oz o m vii 2 2 7 1

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1 62

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E U T R OP I U S ,

AGAINST

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co n sul a n d a man abo u t to g r a n t t o others a liberty which he has n ot yet himself won H e mo u nts the lof ty plat fo rm and a mid a torre n t of sel f la u dation boasts of a prophetic dream he had i n Egypt 1 a n d of the de f eat of tyrants wh i ch he foretold No do u bt t h e goddess of war stayed her avenging hand and waited till that e m asc ulate Tiresias that un m a n ned M elampus could crawl back wi th oracles culled from f arthest Nile Loud sang the p r ophetic birds in w ar ni n g The year shuddered at the tho u ght of b earing E u t r op iu s n ame and Ja nus procla i med the madness of the choice f ro m his t w o m o u ths f orb i dding a eunuch to have access t o h i s annals Had a w o m an ass u med the f asces though this were illegal it were n e ve r t h e less less disgrace f u l Women b ear sway am ong the M edes and swift Sabaeans ; half barbary is govern ed by m artial q u eens W e kno w of no p eople who end u re a eunuch s rule W orship is paid to Pallas Phoebe Vesta Ce r es Cyb ele J un o a n d Latona ; ha v e we e v er se en a temple b ui lt or altars raised to a eu nu ch god From among w o m en are priestess es chosen Phoeb u s e n ters i nto thei r hearts through their v oices the D elphian o r acle speaks ; n one but the Vestal Virgi n s app r oach the sh r ine o f Troj a n Mi n erva and te n d he r flame : eu nuc hs have n e v er deserved the fillet a n d are al w ays u nholy A woman is born that s h e m ay bear children and perp et u ate the hu m an race the tribe of eun u chs wa s made for servitude Hippolyte f ell b u t by the arrow o f Hercules ; the G reeks fled before Pe n thesilea s axe ; Carthage far f a m ed citadel pro u d Babylon wi th her hu n dred gates are both said to have bee n built by a wo m a n s hand What n oble deed did ,

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163

CLAU DIAN quae bella tulit q uas c on d idi t u r bes illas p r a e t er e a rerum n atura cr e a vi t s e u pri m a Se mira mis a s t u h os f e c e r e m a n us As s y rn s m e n tita vi rum me voeis a c u t a e m ollities l e ve s ve ge n ae s e p r o d e r e p os s e n t hos sibi coni u n x it si miles s e u P a r t h ic a ferro lux u ri es ve t uit n asci l a n ug ini s u m b r a m s e r va t o q u e diu puerili flore co e g i t arte r e t a r d a t a m Ve n eri servire i u ve n t a m Fa m a prius falso sim i lis va n o q u e vid e ri l e vi or volitare p er oppida r um or fi c t a ioco ve l u t i n ig r a n t ib u s alis r id e r i u e n efas q a u d i r e t u r olor corvo c e r t a n t e l i g u s t r is s i t a l ib u s in u it a tque a l iq uis g r a vi or m orum 5 3 0 q c r e d i t u r e t n im iis t u rge n t me n dacia m on s t r is iam testudo vol a t profert ia m cor n ua vultur pro n a p e t un t retro fl uvii iug a G a di b us or t u m ia m fr ug ib u s a p t um Garm ani t e x e r e die m a equor e t a d s u e t u m sil v is d elphi n a vid e b o iam coch l e is ho mines iu n c t o s e t q uid q ui d i n a n e n u t ri t I u d a icis quae p i n g it u r I n di a velis S ub icit e t mi x t is s a l i b u s l a s civior alter m ir a r is nihil e s t q uod n o n i n p ectore m agn u m se m p er nova g r a n d ia semper c o n cip it E u tr op iu s d il ig it e t celeri d eg u s t a t sing u la sensu nil ti m et a tergo vig il a nt ib u s u n d iq u e curis n octe dieque patet le n is f a c il is q u e m ove r i s u p p l i c ib u s m e di a u e t a m e n m ol l is s im u s ira q nil n eg a t e t s es e vel non p os c e n t ib u s o ff ert e un u c h u s

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1 64

CLAUD IA N q uod libet i n ge nio s ub ig i t t r a d i t q u e fr u e n d u m i u u i d amas da h it illa m an u s d c om m u ni t e r omni q q f un g it u r o fficio g a u d e t q u e potentia fl e c t i ho c q u o q ue c on cil iis p e p er it m e rit o q u e l a b or u m ” accipit e t t r a b e a s a r g u t a e p r a e mi a dextrae P os t q u a m vera fi d e s f a cin u s vul g a vi t E o u m ge n tibus e t Ro m ae ia m c e r t iu s im p u l i t a u res E u t r op iu m n e etiam nostra di g n a b im u r i ra hic quo q u e Ro m ani m eruit p ars ess e doloris ? s ic e ff a t a r a i t caeli p er i n a n i a c u r s u m p di v a p ot e n s un oq u e Padum t r a n s l a p s a vol a t u castra s ui r e c t or is a di t tum forte decorus cum S t il i ch on e ge n er pacem im p l or a n t ib u s u l t r o G e r m a ni s respo n sa dabat l e g e s q u e Ca u ci s a r d uu s e t flavis s i n a b a t iura S u e b i s g his t r ib uit reges his obside f o e d e r a s a n cit in d i c t o b e l l or u m al i os t r a n s cr ib it in usus ,

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1 66

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AG A I NST

E U T R OP I U S ,

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those that solicit him n ot Whatever the s e n ses desire he cultivates a n d o ff ers for a n other s e nj oy m e nt That ha n d will give whatever thou wouldest have H e perform s the fu n ctio n s of a l l ali ke hi s dig n ity loves 1 H is m eeti n gs a n d h is deservi ng labours t o u n be n d 2 have won h im this reward a n d he receives the co n sul s ” robe i n reco mpe n se for the work of hi s skilfu l ha n d Whe n the ru m our co n cer n i n g this di sgrace of the eastern empire was k n o wn to be true a n d had impressed b eli ef on Ro m a n ears Ro m e s goddess thus S pake : Is E ut r op iu s worthy of mi n e ire ? I s such a n o n e fit cause for Ro m a n grief ? So sayi n g the mighty goddess wi n ged her wa y through the heave n s a n d with o n e stroke of her pinio n s passed b eyo n d the P o a n d approached the cam p of her e m peror It happe n ed that eve n the n the august Ho n orius assisted by his father in law Stilicho wa s m aki n g a n s w er to the Ger m a n s wh o had co m e of their own accord to s u e for p eace Fro m h i s lofty thro n e he wa s dictati n g laws t o the Ca uci an d givi ng to the fl ax e n haired Suebi Over a co n stitutio n thes e he sets a ki ng with those he sig n s a treaty n ow that hostages have bee n de m a n ded ; others h e enters on the list as serviceable allies i n wa r s o that i n fu ture the S y g a m b r ia n s will cut off their fl owi ng l ocks a n d serve be n eath our banners J oy a n d love s o fill the goddess heart that s h e well nigh weeps s o g reat So is her happy pride i n her illustrious foster child whe n a bullock fights in defe n ce of th e herd h is m other lifts her own hor n s m ore proudly ; s o the Africa n l io n ess gazes with a dm i ratio n on her cub as h e g rows to b e the terror of th e farm steads a n d th e f u ture ki n g of beasts R o m e lays aside her veil of cloud a n d towers above the youth f ul warrior the n thus begi n s .



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1 67

CL A U D I A N Q u antu m te p r incip e p o s s im n on lo ng i n qu a docent domito q u od Saxone Tethys mi tior a u t fracto s ec ur a B ri tannia P i eto a n te p edes h u m il i Franco t r is t iq u e S u e b o e r f r u or e t nost r u m video G e r m a n ic e R h e n u m 3 9 5 p s e d q u id a gam d is c or s Or i e n s f e l ic ib u s a c t i s in vid e t atq u e alio P h o e b i de card i ne s u r g u n t cri m ina me toto c o n s p ir e t corpore regn u m G il d o n is t a c e o m agna cu m la u de r eceptam e r fi di a m e t f r e t o s B o o robore M a ur os p q u ae s u s c e p t a f ames q u ant u m di s c r im in is u rbi n i tua vel s oc e r i n u m u a m no n pro vida vi r tus q a u s t r a l e m Ar c t oi s e n s a s s e t f r u ib u s ann u m p g in v e c t a e Rh o d a n i Tiberina p er ostia classes Cin y p h iis q u e f e r a x Ar a r is s u cc e s s it a r istis T e u t on ic u s vo m er P y r e n a e iq u e iu ve n c i s u d a ve r e m ihi s e e t e s m i ra n t u r H ib e r a s g h orr e a n ec L ib y a e s e n s e r un t dam na r e b e l l is iam tra n salpina contenti mess e Q u i r ites ille quidem s ol vi t m e rit a s ( scit T a b r a c a ) p o e n a s 4 1 0 u t p ereat q ui c u m q u e t ui s c o n fl i x e ri t arm is E cce rep ens is d e m clades a pa r tib u s e x it t e rr o ri s q u e mi nu s s e d plus h a b it u r a p u d o r is r id e m t ol e r a r e f a t e m u r E u t r op ius co n sul p hoc ge n us Ar s a cio p o s t q u a m s e regia fa s t u s u s t u l it e t n os t r os corr u it Parthia mores p ,

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CLAU D IA N mi l itia eunu c h i n u m q u a m progressa cu b il i n o n vita s p o n d e n t e fi d e m s e d i n ertia t u t u m m entis pig n us erat secreta m o n ili a serve n t ornatus cure n t T y r ios a fronte r e c e d a n t imp eri i te n ero t r a c t a r i p ectore n e s cit publica m a i e s t a s n u m q u a m vel i n a e q u or e p up p im 42 5 vi di m us eu n uchi cla v o pa r ere m a g is t r i n os adeo sp ermi f aciles or b is q u e cari n a vil i or aur ora m sa n e quae tali a ferre ga u det e t a d s u e t a s s c e p t ri s m ul i eb r ib u s urbe s os s i d e a n t q u id b el l if e r a m c om m u nib us u r un t p I t a l i a m m aculis n o cit u r a q u e p r ob r a s e ve r is a m mi s c e n t peregrina piac u la forti o ul i s p p e l l a n t u r lo n ge L a t i o nec transeat Alp es p d e d ecu s i n solis q uibus e x t it it h a e r e a t a rvis s c r ib a t H a l s s c r ib a t f a m a e c on t e m t or Orontes p y per te p er q ue t u os ob t e s t or Ro m a t r iu m p h os n e s c i a t h oc T h b r is n u m u a m o s c e n t ib u s oli m q p y qui dare D e n t a t is a nn os F a b n s q u e s ol e b a t M artius eu n uchi r e p e t e t s u fl r a g ia campus Ae m il io s i n ter s e r va t or e s q u e Ca m i l los E u t r op iu s P ia m Ch r y s og on is tua Br u te potest a s 440 N a r c is s is q u e d a t u r n atos hoc dedere p o e n a e r of u it e t mi sero c ive m r a e on e r e patri p p p hoc mi hi I a n ic u l o p o s i tis Etruria c a s t r is u a es iit e t ta n tu m fl u vi o Pors en n a r e m o t u s q hoc m eruit vel po n te Cocles vel M u ciu s ig n e vi sceribus fr ustra c a s t um Lucreti a f erru m ,

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AGAI N ST

I

cham ber di d the eunuch s service pass n ot their lives gave guaran tee of loyalty but their dull wits were a sure pledge Let the m guard hi dde n store o f p earls a n d Tyria n dyed vest m ents ; they m ust q ui t high ofli c e s of state The m aj esty of Ro m e ca nn ot devol v e u po n a n e fl e min a t e Never have we s ee n s o mu ch a s a ship at s e a obey the helm i n the ha n ds of a eu n uch captai n Ar e we the n s o despicable ? Is the whole world of less account tha n a ship ? Let eun u chs gover n the East by all m ea n s for the East rej oices i n such rulers let the m lord it over cities accustomed t o a woman s sway why di s fi g ur e warl ike Italy with the ge n eral bra n d a n d defile her austere p eoples with their deadly r ofl i a c ? Drive this foreign poll u t i o n fro m out p g y the bo un daries of m anly Latiu m ; su ff er n ot this th i n g of sha m e t o cross the Alps ; let it re m ai n fi xed i n the cou n try of it s birth Let the river H a l y s or Oro n tes careless of it s rep u tatio n add such a n a m e to its annals : I R o m e beg thee by thy life a n d triu mphs let n ot Tiber s u ffer this disgrace— Tiber w hose way wa s to give the co n sul ship t o such m e n a s D e ntatus a n d Fabius though they asked n ot for it Shall the Field of Mars wit n ess the ca n vassi n g of a n eunuch Is E u t r op iu s to sta n d with Ae mi l i i a n d Camilli savio u rs of the i r cou ntry Is thy ofli c e Brutus n ow to be give n to a Chryso 1 f or givi n g this the reward n u I o s or a Narcissus s g up thy so n s t o pu nish m e n t a n d setti n g the cit i ze n s duty be f ore the father s grie f Was it for this that the Tusca n s m ade their camp on the J a n ic u l u m and Porse nn a was but the river s sp a n f ro m o u r gates ? For this that Horatius k ept the bridge and Muci n s braved the fl am es ? Was it all to n o purpos e t h at ’

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1 71

CLA U D IA N m e r s it

e t a tt o n it u

Eutropio f as c es T a r q u in iis

l a x a to

q

a

m t r a n a vi t

Cloelia

d s e r va b a n t u r

u e m cu m

q

ue

a

T h y b r im P

d emp ti

mea e

ve x e r e

cu r u les

A verno im p e n s i s a c r is D e c ii p r or u m p it e b u st i s T or q u a t i q u e truces a ni m os a q u e pa u peris u mbra Fab r i ci i tuqu e 0 S i f o r te i n f erna p ior u m iu g e r a e t E l y s i a s s c in d is S e rr a n e n o v ales P o e n o S cip ia d a e P o e n o p r a e cl a r e Lutati 1 S ic a ni a Ma r celle f e r ox gens Cla u dia s u r g a s e t Cu r n ve t e r e s ; e t q u i s u b iure n egasti vivere C a e s a r e o par v o procede s epulc r o E u t r op i um pass u re Cato r e m e a t e t e n e b r is ve n i a t s oc i u m a v e r s a t u s

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a

i m n a B r u t or u m C o r vi n o r um u e q g

c a t e r va e .

e un uchi ve s t r os habit u s i nsign i a s u m un t ambigui R omana mares r a p u e r e tremendas fl a b e l l a p e r os i H a n nib a l i P y r r h oq u e togas iam n o n u m bra cu la gestant a d s ir a n t t r a b e i s p vir ini b u s Latias a u si vib r are sec u res g L in q u it e f e m in e a s in f e l ix t ur ba l a t e b r a s alter qu os p e p u l it s ex u s nec s u s cip it alte r e x e c t i Ve n e r is s t im u l os e t v u lne r e casti u erum u e s en em u e m ixta d u plex aetas i n ter p q q ( f alsi co m plete s ed i lia patres ; n il me di um) ite n ovi proceres in f e c u n d o q u e s e n a t u celebrate tribu n al E u t r op iu m st i p ate d u c e m p r o t h a l a m is v e r so i am discite m ore curules n o n mat rum p il e n t a s e q u i ,

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1

1 72

MS S

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h a ve

s u rg a t

CLAU D IA N N e prisca revolva m n eu n u m ere m q u a n t is ini ur i a mille p er a n u os s i t retro d u c ib u s q ua n ti f o e d a b it u r a e vi ca nities u n a m s ub e a n t quot saecula culpa m x i n ter Arin t h a ei fastos e t n o m e n e ril e servus erit d omi n oq u e suos ae q ualis ho n ores in s e r e t heu s e mp er P t ol om a ei moxia m u n do m a n cipia e n alio l a e d or g r a vi or e P ot hi n o ille cr u or e m e t p a t ior m aius P h a r io s c e l u s c on s ul is u nius P e l l a e i s e n s ib u s h a u s i t in q ui n a t hi c o mn es Si nil privata m ove b un t at tu p rincip ib u s ve s t r a e tu prospice causae h un c accipit u n u m r e a l e s u e a ver t e n otas q g aula m a g is t ra t um vobis p a t r ib u s q u e r e c urr it i n cri m e n e un t ib u s a nnis hi c alte m us b o n os parce q uater co n sul co n ta g ia f a s cib us oro defe n das ig n ava t uis n eu tra di ta l ibris 490 o m i n a ve s t it u s q u e m eos q uibus o mn e q uod a m bit ocea n us domui ta n ta cali gi n e m ergi n a m quae ia m bella g era m us c a l c a r i q u e si n as quae ia m con ub ia p r ol em m ol l ib u s a u s p iciis vel fr u g e m l a t ur a s eg e s quid fertile terris quid ple n u m sterili p o s s it s u b co n s ul e n asci eunuchi s i iura d a b un t l eg e s q u e t e n e b un t d u c a n t p e n sa viri m u t a t o q u e ordi n e reru m vivat Am a z on io confusa l i c e n t ia ritu ,

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Ar inth a e u s h a d he l d H e died in 3 79 p ed i tu m 1

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P othinus , ins trum en ta l in 2

1 74

the hig h po s itio n

of

m a g is ter

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the crea ture of P to l e m y ki l l ing P o m pey in E g ypt in

D ion y s ius ,

48

B .C .

wa s

AGAI N ST

E U T ROP I U S , I

I

would n ot c it e e xam ples fro m re m ote a n ti i u n r cou n t t o the cou n tless m agistrates p ast f o q y history who m h e thus outrages B u t thi nk h ow the revere n ce due t o all past ages will b e i mpa ired o n h ow m a n y ce n turies on e m a n s sha m e will s e t it s m ark A mid the a nn als that record the n am e of 1 h is m aster wi ll be f ou n d the slave Ar in t h a e u s a n d he will e n ter his own ho n ours a s e q ual t o those o f h is ow n er The slaves of Egypt s ki ng s have ever bee n a curse t o the world ; behold I su ffer fro m a worse tha n Pothi n us a n d bear a wro n g m ore flagra n t tha n that of which Egyp t wa s o n ce the scene Pothi n us sword at Alexa ndr ia spilled the blood of a 2 E u t r op ius bri n gs di sho n our on all si ng le co ns ul If the fate of subj ects ca nn ot m ove thee yet have thou re g ard for pri n ces f or your co mm o n cause a n d re m ove this stai n on royalty The co n sul ship is the sole o ffice the e mperor deign s to accept ; alter n ately the ho n our passes t o Co ur t a n d Se n ate Thou who hast thys el f bee n four tim es co n sul spare s u ccee di n g co n suls this i n fa m y I pray thee protect the fasces s o ofte n thi n e fr o m the pollutio n of a eu n uch s ha n d ; let n ot the o m e n s ha n ded down i n o ur sacred books let n ot those robes of mi n e where with I have subdued everythi n g withi n Ocea n s strea m be plu n ged i n s o great darkn ess a n d trodde n u n der foot What ki n d of wars ca n we wage n ow that a eu n uch takes the auspices What m arriage what harvest will be fr uitful What fertili ty what abu n dan ce is possible be n eath a cons ul stricke n with sterility ? If eu n uch s shall give j udg e m e n t a n d deter mi n e laws the n let m e n card wool a n d live like the A m azons co n fusio n a n d l ice n ce di spossessing the order of n ature .

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1 75

CLA U D I AN Quid t ra h or u l t e riu s

Sti l icho q uid vi n cere di ff ers n e s cis q uod t u rp ior hostis 5 01 d um c e r t a r e p u d e t laetitia m aiore ca di t piratica Magnu m e r ig i t i n l u s t r a t s e r vil i s laurea Cr a s s u m ad u nis a g n os co fr e mi t um q uo p a l l uit Eurus q uo Ma u ri G il d o q u e ruit q uid M artia s i g n a 5 05 n o n est ia c ul is h a s t is ve p e t e n d us s ollicitas co n scia succum be n t a n di to ve r b e r e te r ga u t S c y t h a post m u l t os r e di e ns e x e r c it u s an u os cum sibi s ervil is pro fi nib us obvi a pubes iret e t a r c e r e t do mi n os tellur e reversos ,

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a r m a t a m o s t e n s is a cie m

fu d er e fl a g el l i s

n ot u s ab in c e p t is ign ob i le r e p p ul i t horror vulgus e t a d d ic t u s s ub ve r b e r e t orp u it ensis

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IN

E U T R OP I U M

LIBE R SECU N DUS

.

P RAE F AT I O

Q ui m odo subli m es rer um fl e ct e b a t h a b en a s p a t r iciu s r ur s u m verbera nota ti m et e t s ol i t os t a r d a e a s s u r u s c o m e di s orbes p p i n do mi n os va n as lu g et abisse mi n as culmi n e d e ie ct u m vitae Fortuna priori r e d di di t i n sa n o ia m s a t i a t a ioco scindere nu n c ali a m e di t a t ur lig n a sec u ri f a s cib u s e t ta n de m va p u l a t ips e suis i l le citas co n sul p o en a s se con s ul e s ol vit annus qui t r a b e a s hic dedit e x il i u m in f a u s t u m p op ul i s i n s e q u oq u e ve r t it u r omen s a e vi t in a u c t o r e m r o d i ios u s b onos p g a b l ut o e n i u s respira n t n omine fasti t p m a t u r a m q u e luem s a ni o r a u la v omit dissimula n t socii c on iur a t iq u e r e c e d u n t r oc u m b it pariter cum duce tota c o h or s p n o n acie vieti n o n s e d it ion e co a c t i nec p er e u n t ritu quo p e r ie r e vi r i c o n c id it e x i u a e dementia vul n ere cha r tae g c o n f e c it s a e vu m l i ttera Ma r tis op u s ,

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AGAINST BOO K I I

E U T R OP I U S .

PREF A CE

The n obly bor n E u t r op iu s who but lately wielded the rei n s of supre m e power o n ce more f ears the fami li ar blows a n d soo n t o feel the w o n ted shackles about hi s halti n g feet he lam e n ts that his threats agai n st hi s m asters have idly va nished Fortune havi n g had e n ough of her mad freak has thrust hi m forth fro m h is high o fli c e and resto r ed hi m to his He n ow prepares t o he w w ood with ol d way of life axe other than the co n s u lar a n d is at last scourged with the rods he o n ce proudly carried To the punish m e n t s e t i n m otio n by him whe n co n sul he hi m self as co n sul succu m bed ; the year that brought him his robe of ofli c e brought hi m his exile That o m e n of evil augury for the p eople tur n s agai n st itself the portent of that co n sulship brings rui n to the co n sul That n am e erased ou r a nn als breathe o n ce m ore a n d better health is restored t o the palace now that it h a s at last vomi ted forth its poiso n H i s frie n ds de n y him hi s accomplices aba n do n hi m i n h is fall is i nvolved all the eu n uch ban d overcome not i n battle subdued n ot by st rif e— they may n o t A m ere stroke of the pe n has di e a m a n s death wrought their undoi n g a s im ple letter has fulfilled M ars s avage work ,

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1 79

C L A U D IAN

Mollis f e mi n e a d e t r ud it u r arce tyrannu s e t thalamo p u ls u s e r di d it i m p eriu m p s i c i uv e n is mu tante fi d e v e t e r i u e r e d u c t a q a e l i c e d e fl e t a m l in u it am i ca d om u m p q c a n i t i e m r a r a m la r go iam p u l v ere t u r a t p e t l a c r im is r u gas i m l e t anile e m en s p g su l i c i t e r u e p i as h u mil i s prostrat u s ad aras pp q mi t ig a t ir a t a s voce tremente n u r u s inn u meri g l om e r a n t u r e ri s i b i quisque p e t e n t e s mancipi um solis u tile s up p l iciis u a m vis f o e d u s e nim m e n t e m u e ob s c a e n ior o r e q q ira d a b it preti um poena m e r e t ur emi .

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Q u as spado n u n c terras aut quem t r a n s ib is in a x e m c in e r is h in c o d iis i n de r e c e s s i t amor g u t r a q u e te ge m ino sub s i dere reg i a damnat Hesp eri u s n u m q u a m iam n ec B o u s eris m ir or c u r a l iis q u i pandere fata s ol e b a s ad p r op r ia m cl a d e m caeca Sibylla taces iam t i bi n u lla v idet f allax insom ni a Nilus e r vi il a n t v ates iam mi serande t u i p g qu i d soror a u d e b it tecum c on s c e n d e r e p u p p im e t v e n i e t long u m p er mare fi d a comes an f or t a s s e to r os e u nuchi paup eris o di t e t te n u nc i n o p e m di v es amare megat e u n uc h i iu g u l u m p ri m u s s e c uis s e f a t e r is s e d t a m e n e x emplo n o n f e r i e r e tuo vi v e p u do r f atis en q u em t r e m u e r e t ot urbes en c uiu s pop u l i s u s t in u e r e iu g u m ,

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C l a udi a n c a l l s E u tr o p iu s the S i b y l b ec a u s e b oth w ere ’ ” H e is ref erri n g to E u t r op iu s co n s u l t a tio n o l d wo m e n I n E n tr op i 3 1 2 a n d n ote o f the E g ypti a n ora c l e of 1

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180

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CLAUDIA N di r ep t a s

quid p l a n g is opes q uas n atus habc h it n on al iter p ot e r a s p r in cip is ess e pater improbe quid pulsas m ul ie b r ib u s astra q u e r e l l is quod tibi s ub Cyp r i li tore parta q uie s om ni a barbarico p er te co n cussa t u m u l t u crede mi hi terra t u t iu s aequor e r it ,

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I am n on Arm e n ios i a culi s t e r r eb is e t a r cu per cam pos vol u cr e m n on a g it a b is e q uu m ; d ilecto ca r uit B y z a n t iu s ore s e n atus curia con s il iis a e s t u a t orba t u is e m e r it a m susp ende togam susp ende h a r e tr a m p ad Ve n eris partes in g e ni u m q u e redi n o n be n e Gradi vo l e n oni a d e x t er a ser v it s u s c i i e t f a m u l u m te Cytherea l ib e n s p i nsula l a e t a c h or is b l a n d or u m mater Am or u m nulla p u di citia e cura placere potest prospecta n t P a p h ia e celsa de rup e p u e l l a e s o l l i ci t a e salva m d u m f e r a t u n da rate m s e d v e r e or t e n e a n t n e te Trito n es i n alto lascivas d oc t u m f a l l e r e Nereidas a u t ide m c u i a n t p elago te mergere ve n ti p G il d on is n u p e r qui t e n u e r e f u g a m inclita captivo m e m or a t ur T a b r a ca M a u ro na u f r agio Cyprus s i t memoranda tuo ve c t u r u m m orie n s fr u stra delphi n a vo c a b is ad t err a m solos d e ve h it ille vir os q u isqu i s a d h u c similes e unu ch u s te n di t i n act u s r e s ic i e n s C r u m d e s in a t esse f e r o x p yp ,

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E u tr o p iu s h a d b ee n ra i s ed b y Arc a diu s to the a l l ra n k s , th a t o f P a trici a n The s e p a tr icii were f a thers H e nce E utro p iu s , a of the E m peror 1

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18 2

hig he s t o f c a l l ed the p a trici a n ,

A GAINST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

:

P REFACE

w ealth thy s on shall inherit I n n o other wa y 1 couldst thou have b ee n father t o a n e mperor Why i n sat i ably weary heave n with a wo m a n s plai n ts ? A haven of refu ge is prepared for thee on the shores of Cyprus Thou hast plu n ged the world i n wa r with barbary ; th e s e a b elieve me is safer tha n the la n d N 0 lo n ger wilt thou strike terror into the Arm e ni a n s wi th j avelin and b ow n o m ore scour the plai n on thy fl eet charger The s e n ate of Byza ntiu m has bee n deprived of thy loved voice ; u n certai n ty holds the a u g u st ass embly that is no w dep r ived of thy counsels Hang up thy toga retired co n sul hang up thy q ui v er vetera n soldier ; ret u rn to V e n us service that is thy true calling The pander s hand knows n ot to serve M ars f eatly ; Cytherea will right gladly take ba ck her slave Da n ci n g fills the island of Cyprus ho m e there purity co m ma n ds n o of the happy loves respect Paphia n m aide n s gaz e f orth fro m the high cli ffs anxious till the wave h a s brought thy bark saf e to la n d Yet fear I lest the Trito n s detai n thee i n the deep to teach the m how they m ay sed u ce the sport i ve Nereids or that those sa m e wi n ds which hindered G il d o s fl ight m ay s eek t o drown thee i n the T a b r a c a owes its fame to the overthrow of the s ea Moor may Cypr u s wi n prestige fro m thy shipwreck I n vai n will thy last b r eath be sp e n t i n calli n g on the dolphi n to carry thee to shore his back bears o nly 2 m en H ereafter should a n y eu n uch atte mpt to em u late thine actio n s let hi m tur n h is eye to w ards Cyprus and abate his pride .



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l ef t ( i to h is 3

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e.

f orf eited ) h is

property on

Arc a dius A ref erence to the re scue s on

h is b a n i s h m e nt

to C yprus

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of

Arion

by

the do l phin

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1 83

IN

E U T R OP I U M

LIBER I I

M y g d onn

.

q uid r e s t a t E oi q uod pereat regni certe n on a u g u re f also r o d i ii a t u e r e mi n ae f r u s t r a u e e r a t c o q p p g p v u lnere m on s t r if e r i p r a e s a g ia discitis a nni c a u t i or a n te t a m e n vi ol e n t u m n a vit a C a u r u m r os ic it e t t u m id a e s u b d u ci t v ela r oc e l l a e p p p qui d iu va t e r r or e m mersa ia m p u pp e f a t e r i quid la c ri m ae de l icta leva n t stant omina ve s t r i c o n s ul i s inm o t is h a e s e r e piacula f atis tu n c d e c u it s entire n efas t u nc i r e rece n tes d e t e r s u m m aculas ve t e r i post ob r u t a m orbo co r pora Paeo nias n e q uiq u a m a d m ove r is herbas ulcera p os s e s s is alte s u ffu sa m e d ul l is n on l e vior e m a n u f erro s a n a n t ur e t i gni n e n o c e a t f r u stra m o x e r up t ur a c i catrix ad vivum p enetra n t fl a m m a e q u o f u n d it us u m or d e fl u a t e t va c uis corr u pto sang u ine ve n is c in e r e s e t s i

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184

CLAU D IA N a re sca t

ut

fo n s ipse m ali

l ic e a t

r el i

artus degere m e mbris

t r un c a t u r

i s s e c ur u m u q

et

, .

at vos egregie p u r g a t a m cr e di tis a ul a m E u t r op iu m s i Cyp ru s habet ? vin d ic t a q u e m u n di q ui vos lustrare va l e b it s e m 1 v1 r exul e r it ? ocea n us tantu m f a cin u s quae d il u e t aetas m ug it u s ab ax e I nd u er a t n e cd um t r a b e a s r e d d i t u s i n fer n o rabies arca n a cave r n as vib r a t e t alte r no c o n fl ig u n t cu l mi n a l a p s u b a cc h a t u s p er op e r t a tre m or Ca l ch e d on a m o vit r on u s e t i n ge m inas n u t a vi t Bosphorus urbes p con c ur r e r e fr e t i f a u ces radice r e vul s a vit a n t i n stabile m r u r s u m S y m p l eg a d a n a u t a e scilicet haec S t y g ia e p r a e mi tt un t sig n a s or or e s e t sibi ia m trad i populos h oc c on s ul e gaudent h in c M ulciber ig n es m ox oritur diversa lues S p a r s e r a t hi n c vi c t a p r or up e r a t obice N e r e u s haec fl agra n t haec tecta n ata n t q uam num ina poenam s er va t is sceleri c u ius t o t cl a d ib us o m e n i n cum bas u ti n a m N eptu n e tride n ti c on s t it it ol l u t u m q u e solu m toto cu m cri m ine m e r g a s p u n am pro m u n do Fu r iis con c e di m u s ur b e m u e s emel p a t ui t m o n s t r is iter o mn ia te m p u s t n acta suu m p r op e r a n t n asci tu m decolor im ber in f a n t u m q u e n ovi vu l t us e t disso n a p a r t u s e mi n a tu m lapidu m fl e t u s a rm e n t a q u e vul o g ausa l oq ui m e di is q u e ferae s e credere m uris tu m vates si n e m ore rapi l y mp h a t a q u e passi m ,

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AGAI N ST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

f ou n tai n-head of the evil may be dr ied up N ay , e ve n l im bs ar e am putated t o assure the healthy lif e of the r est of the body Thi nk y ou the Court fi t l y cleans ed by E ut r op iu s exile i n Cypr u s ? The world ave ng ed by the ba nish m e n t of a eu n uch ? Ca n .

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a ny ocea n wash away that stai n ? a ny age bri ng forgetfuln ess of s o g reat a crim e E r e y et he had do nn ed the co n sul s robe ther e cam e a ru m bli n g fr o m the bowel s of the earth ; a hidde n m ad n ess shook the subterranea n cavern s a n d b uil di ngs crashed on e on a n other Chalcedo n shake n t o the fou n dations tottered like a d r un k e n m a n a n d Bosporus straying fro m his course fl ooded the cities on hi s either bank The shores of the strait ca m e together a n d the sa i lors o n ce m ore had t o avoid the Cl a shi n g Rocks torn fro m their fou n datio n a n d erra n t Surely such presa g es were se n t by t h e sister deiti es of Styx rej oici n g that u n der t hi s co n sul at last all peoples were delivered i n to their hands Soo n arose divers for m s of rui n : here the fir e g o d spread hi s fl am es ; there Nereus god of the s e a brake his bounds Here m e n s homes were bur n ed there flooded Ye gods what pu nishm e n t d o y e hold i n store f or the scou n drel whose rise t o power was m arked by such porte nts ? O e rc om e us Neptu n e with thy tride n t a n d over whel m our d e fil e d soil alo n g with all the gui lt O n e city we yield t o the F uries a scap egoat for the si n s of the world O n ce the way wa s open f or porte nts pro di gies of every sort hasted to di sclose themselves R ai n of blood fell childre n of weird for m were born a n d o ffspri n g di scorda n t wi th their breed Stat u es wept n o t s eldo m the herds dared to speak and wild beasts braved a n e ntra n ce i nto the city The n seers raved ’

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187

CL A U DI A N pectora t e r r i fic i stim ul i s ig n e s c e r e P h o eb i f a c n u llos c e cini s s e deos a d e o n e r e t us i u is u a m cordi s e r it d ub it e t q u i partibus illi s q q a d f o r e fatale m castrati c o n s u l i s annum s e d qua m caec u s i n e s t vi t ii s amo r o m ne f u turum d e s p ic it u r s u a d e n t q u e b r e ve m p r aesentia fr u c t u m e t ruit in v etitu m da mni s ec u ra li b i do d um mora s up p l i cii l u cro s e r um q u e q u od in s t a t cr e d it ur ha u d e q ui d e m contra tot signa Cam illo d e t ul e r im f asces n e d um ( pro s ex u s i n erti mancipio cui cuneta li cet responsa iu b e r e n t h o r t a n t e s q u e licet s p on d er e n t prosp era d ivi t u rp e f uit c e s s is s e viros E x q ui r it e retr o c r imi na conti n ui l e ct is a n n a l ib u s a e vi p r isca r e c e n s it is e vol vi t e saec u la f a s t is q ui d s en i s in fa n di Ca p r e a e quid scaena N e r oni s tale f e r u n t spado Rom u leo s u cc in c t u s a m ict u sed i t in A ug u stis l a r ib u s v u lgata p a t e b a t aula s a l u t a n t um s t u dii s huc plebe senat u s e r mi x t a t r e idi u e duces om n i s u e potestas p p q q .

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c o n fl u it

a d vo l vi

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ambitus

g e t votum d e f o r mi b u s

fig e r e

praesid i um leg um

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g

d e x tr a m

osc u la rug i s

e n it o r

q

u e voc a t u r

f a m u l u m di n a t u r regia a tr em p p g os t e r it a s , a d m i tt e fi d e m m on u menta e t u n t ur p p d e d e c or is m u l t is q u e g e m un t in c u d ib u s aera form atura n e f as haec i u d ic is , illa togati , r in c i

i s p

et

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eto n ius d a ws a l urid ( a n d pro b a b l y ex a g g era ted ) picture of the de b a ucherie s of Tib erius o l d a g e a t C pri The s a m e a uthor de s crib e s the s ca e n a N e ro n is The curious m a y fi n d the a ccoun t in S uet N er o xxix 1

S

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188

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CLAU D I A N ar m ati species n u m e r os u s u b i que f ul g e t eques r a e f e r t eu n uchi curia vu l t u s p a c ve l u t i c a ve a n t n e q uo co n sistere virtus o s s it pura loco c un etas h o c or e labora n t p i n cestare vias m a n e a n t i nm ota p r e c a m u r c e r t a u e p erpet u i sint a r g um e n ta or i s u d q p s u b t e r adula n tes tituli n im i a e u e l e u n t u r g q vel m a r ib u s laudes claro quod n obilis ortu l i a cu m viva n t do m ini quod maxi m a solus r e o ( p im p l e a t ( e t patitur m iles q uod terti u s u rb i s c on d i t or hoc Byzas Con s t a n t in u s u e vid e b a n t ( q i n ter quae tumid u s le n o producere ce n as i n l u c e m fo e t e r e m ero disp ergere p l a u s u m e m t u r a s i n vulgus op es t o t os u e t h e a t r i s p q i n dulgere di es alie ni prodigus auri at soror e t s i q uid p or t e n t is cr e d i t ur u xor m ul c eb a t m atres epulis e t m ore p u d ic a e c on i u is eu n uchi c e l e b r a b a t vota m ariti g ha n c a m at han c su mm a de re vel pace vel armis c on s u l i t huic curas e t clausa palatia m a n dat ceu s t a b ul um va cu a m q u e d om u m sic magna t u e r i regna ni hil p a t ie n s q u e iu g i d e l u d it u r o rb i s 95 Mitior a l t e r n u m Z ep h y r i ia m bruma t e p or e m s e n s e r a t e t pri m i l a x a b a n t germi n a flores ia m q u e iter i n gre m io pacis s ol l e m n e p a r a b a n t ad m uros Ancyr a t u os a u c t or e r e p e r t um Eutropio pelagi n e t a e di a longa subire nt haec

n it e t

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o ta n ti n op l e ) s a id to h a ve b ee n co n te m pora n eou s with the Arg o n a u t ( B iod iv 49 l ) i e to pre v en t h is b eing b ored with the vie w of the B o s poru s 1

M yt hic a l f oun der

of

B y z a ntiu m

= ( C ns

s

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2

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1 90

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AGAI N ST

E U T R OP I U S , 1 1

there a s a co n sul there as a warrior O n every sid e on e sees that fi ure of h i s m ou n ted on hi s hors e ; g before the very doors of the s e n ate -house behold a eunuch s cou n te n a n ce As though to r ob virt u e o f any place where s h e might soj ourn u n d e fil e d m en labour t o befoul every street with this vile i m age May they rest for ever u ndi sturbed i n disputable proofs of ou r eter n al sha m e ; such is m y prayer B e n eath the statues on e reads fl attering titles a n d praises t oo great eve n for men Do they tell of h is n oble race a n d li n eage whi le h is own ers ar e still ali ve ? What soldier brooks to read that single ha n ded he E u trop iu s won g reat battles ? A re 1 Byzas a n d Co n stan ti n e to be told that he is the third fou n der of Ro m e ? M ea n wh i le the arrogant pander prolo n gs his revels till the dawn stinki n g of wi n e and scatteri n g m o n ey a mid the crowd to buy their applause H e sp e n ds w hole days of a m use m e n t i n the theatres prodigal of a n other s m o n ey But his sister and spo u se (if such a prodigy ca n be co n ceived) wins the f avour of Ro m e s m atro n s by e n tertai n ments and l i ke a chaste wife si n gs the prais es of her eunuch h u sba n d Tis her he loves her he consults on all m atters of importance b e it of p eace or war to her care he e n trusts the keys of the palac e as on e wo u ld of a stable or empty ho u s e I s Is the guardianship of a mighty e mpire th u s n aught it thus he m akes a moc k ery of a world s obedi ence Winter passi n g i n to spring had n ow felt the retur ni n g warmth of Z ephyrus breezes and the earli est flowe r s had oped their buds whe n i n the lap of p eace they were preparing the ann u al j our n ey Tw as E u t rop iu s device that t o thy w alls A n cyra 2 weariness of the s e a mi ght n ot come u po n hi m ,

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191

CLA U D I A N vaga l a s c ivis fl u er e t d is c ur s ib u s a e s t a s unde t a m e n tanta sub l im es m ole r e d ib a n t ceu vin c t os t r a h e r e n t M edos I n d u m q u e b ib is s e n t ecce a u tem fl a vis G r a di vu s ab usq u e G e l o nis ar v a cr u entato r e p e t e b a t Thracia c u r r u s u b s id u n t Pa n gaea rotis a l t a e u e so n oro q s t r id u n t ax e n ives u t vertice c on s t i t it H a emi f e m in e a s q u e togas p r e s s i s c on s p e x it h a b e n is s ub r is i t cr u dele pater cr is t is u e m i c a n t e m q u a s s a vi t l a e a m t u nc implacabile n umen q g B e l l on a m a d l o q ui t u r quae sa n g u i n e sordida vestem I ll y r ic is p i ngues p e c t eb a t s t r a g ib us hyd r os N e c d u m m ol l i t i a e n e c d um germa n a m ederi possumus a e n u m q u a m corr u pta rigesce n t saec u la Ca p p a d oc u m t e p id is Ar g a e u s a c e r vis a e s t ua t in f e l i x e t ia m n u m pallet Orontes d um p e r e un t m e m in e r e mali si corda p a r u m p e r respirare sinas n u llo tot f un e r a sens u r a e t e r e un t a n tiqua le v is i a c t u r a c r u o r is p q uid cr in ib u s or a Ad s p icis ob s c a e n u m f a c in u s r o t e is i ff en l s es e d u d i t i n actus u a e s p g q parva q uie s q u a n t um n oc u e r un t otia f erri ! q u i c a r uit bellis e u n u ch o tradit u r annus a c t u m de t r a b e is esset s i pa r tibus una mens f oret Hesp er u s r u e r e t de r isa vetustas n u l l a u e calcati s t a r e n t vest i g i a iu r is q ui m e m o r i m perii Stilicho m o r u m q u e p r i or u m t u rp e r e l e g a s s e t de f enso T h y b r id e n omen

s ed

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192

CLAU DIA N inta ct a m q u e

crim i n e R om am ille dedit p ort um q uo s e pulsata r e f e rr e t m ai e s t a s L a tii d ef orm a t a e q u e s ecures ille dedit fas tos ad quos Ori e n te r el ict o c on f u er e t s p a r s u m m aculi s s ervil i b u s aevu m g Qua m si mi les haec aula viros ad m oe ni a visus dirige n u m sal te m tacita f or m idi n e m ussa n t n u m da mn a n t a nim o p l a u d en t e m cern e s e n a t um 1 3 5 e t B y z a n t in o s proceres G ra ios q u e Quirites o p a t ri b u s p l ebes o dig ui con s ul e patres q uid quod e t ar m ati cessa n t e t n ulla vi rilis i n ter t ot g l a di os s e x um r e mi nis cit ur ira n ovo

s e r vas s e t

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,

h ucin e s ic

n os t r or u m c in c t u s a b i e r e n ep o t u m

d e s p e ct u s b o n os P

Bruti

I g n os c e

pare n ti Rom ul e q uod ser us t e m er a t is f a s c ib u s ultor ia m ia m l a r g is haec gaudi a faxo a d ve n io co m p e n se n t l a cr imi s q uid d u d um in fl a r e m o r a r is T a r t a r e a m B ello n a tubam q uid stri n gere f a l c e m 1 45 m ol i r e tu m ultus qua populos a stirp e m etis exen te delicias T h r a cu m M a c e t u m q u e r uin a e t a e d e t e t i n ge n tes iteru m s a e vi r e s epultas damn a mi n us co n sueta m ove ; tran s a e q u or a s a e va s verte faces a l ii s exordi a sume rapinis n o n tibi R ip h a e is hostis q u a e r e n d u s ab oris n on p er Caucasias a c cit o turbi n e valles Os t r og o t h is c ol it u r mi x t is q u e G r u t h ung is e s t opus h os par v ae p o t e r un t impellere ca u sae P h ry x ager ,

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1 94

AG A INST

E U T ROP I U S ,

II

this shameful na m e and kept Ro m e unsullied by a n un heard of cri m e He has give n u s a harbour to wh i ch the exiled maj esty of Latiu m and the di s graced fasces might retire he has given u s annals wherei n abando n ing the East a n age poll u ted with servile stains might find a re f u ge H ow like to its lord the inhabitants of the palace Tur n your eyes to the city walls S u rely they at least m utter disapp r obation tho u gh f ear forbids the m sp eak out ? Do they n ot conde mn hi m i n their hearts ? No : list the pla u dits of the senate o f the Grecian c i tiz ens of the lords of Byz antium O p eople w orthy of such a se n ate senate of Rome worthy of s u ch a co n sul ! To thi nk that all these bear arms and us e them n ot that manly i nd i gnat i on re minds not of the i r s e x those m any whose thighs bear a sword ! Has m y descenda n ts robe of o ffice sunk s o l ow ? Is Brutus re n o wn thus brought to scor n Ro m ulus forgive thy sire f or co mi n g s o ta r dy an ave n ger of thos e outraged f asces Right soon will I m ake the m pay for this j oy with liberal tears Why d el a y e s t thou Bello n a t o sound the tru mpet of hell and t o ar m thyself w i th the scythe where with thou m owe s t the people t o the gro u nd ? Foment discord ban ish pleasures I am aweary of the devastation of Thrace a n d Macedo n of ve n geance twice wre a k ed on races alr eady bu r ied A ro u se less destruction ; spread fire a n d swo r d a ccustomed beyo n d the s eas make a begi nning of n ew devasta tio n Seek n ot n o w thy f o e on Rip h a e u s heights what boots it t o rouse the stor m of wa r amid Cau Ostrogoths and G r u t h u n g i together c asia s rav in es i nhabit t he la n d of Phryg i a twill n eed but a to u ch .

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1 95

CL A U D I A N ad m ores f a c il is nat u ra re v e r ti in nostro q u a n do ia m milite r obur s ic eat t orp u it e t molli d idi cit parere m a g is t r o vi n d ic e t Arctous vio l a t as advena leges ; ba r bara R omano s u c cu rr a n t a r ma p u dori Sic f a t u s cl i peo q u ant u m vi x ipse d e or u m arb i te r in f esto c u m p e r c u t it a e g i d a nimbo r e s o n s a t A thos H a e m u s u e r e m u it i n t o n u it p q g i n g e m i n a t r a u c u m Rhodop e conc u ssa f r a g or e m co r n u a ca n a gel u m ir a n t ib u s e x t ul it u ndis H e b r u s e t e x a n g u e m g l a c i e t i mor a d l ig a t H is t r u m 1 6 5 t un c adamante g r a v em n o d is q u e r ig e n t ib u s h a s t a m t e l u m in g e n s n u l l i q u e deo i a c u l a b il e t o r s it fit late r up t is via n ubib u s illa p er auras t o t fr eta tot montes un o contenta vol a t u t r a n s il it e t P h r y g ia e med u s a d fi g it u r arvi s e m uit N s a e o pal mi te f eli x s e n s it h u m u s g y He r mus e t a ur ata Pactol u s in h or r u it ur na t o t a q u e s u m m i s s is fl e ve r u n t D in d y m a sil vi s N e c dea p r a e m is s a e s t r id or e m seg ui n s h a s t a e 1 75 co n s e q u i t u r c e n t u m q u e v ias med i tata nocend i tandem T a r b ig il u m ( G e t ica e du x im p r ob u s alae 1 h ic erat) a d g r e di t u r v i so t u m f o rte r e d ib a t E u tropio va c uu s donis f e r it a s q u e dolore c r e ve r a t e t t e n e r is etiam q u ae c r imina s u a d e t a l a e R u ben u s ; 1 1 3 3 (f ol l owed by B ir t) h a ve a u l a e in

s c e l us

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Al l u di n g to the R o m a n c u s to m o f c a s tin g of Ovid F s t i s i g n o f the dec l a ra tio n o f wa r 1

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a

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a

s

vi

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H in c s ol et h a s ta m a n u b el l i p ra en u n t ia m i t t i I n reg e m e t g e n t es c u m p l a ce t a r m a ca p i .

pea r 207

as a

CL A U D IAN in g e n iis , S c y t h ic u m p ect u s fl a m m a b a t egestas huic s es e vul t u s im ul a t a e c on iu g is o ffert

m e n t i t oq u e

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ferox in c e d it barbara g r es s u c a r b a s e os i n duta si n us post terg a r e d u ct as u b e r ib u s r o ior m o r d e b a t fibula vestes p p in q u e or b e m t e r e t i m itra retinente c a p il l u m s t r in x e r a t e t viri d e s fl a ve s c e r e iu s s e r a t a n g u es a d vol a t ac u ive is r e d uc em c om p l e c t it u r u l ni s inf un di t q u e a ni m o f u ria l e p er oscula virus pri n cip e qua m larg o veni a t q uas i n de r e p or t e t ,

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di vit ia s ,

a s t u r a b ie

m m ot u r a

re

q

u ir i t

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ille iter in g r a t um vanos d e fl e r e labores q uos sup er eu n uchi f astus q uae p r ob r a t ul i s s e t c o n ti n uo s e ca t u n gue ge n as e t te m pore pa n dit ,

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a d r ep to

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e m it u s

I n u n c d e vot u s a r a t ri s sci n de solu m p os it oq u e t u o s m ucro n e s o d a l e s be n e rur a G r u t h u n g u s a d rastros sudare doce e x col e t e t certo di spo n et sidere vites felices a l ia e q uas debellata m a riti s O ppida q uas m a g n is q u a e s it a e vir ib us orn an t exuviae q uibus Ar g iva e p ul ch r a e q u e mi nistrant 200 T h e s s a l i d e s f a m ul a s e t q uae m e r u e r e L a c a e n as m e nimium timi do nimiu m iun x er e re mi sso fata viro totum q ui dege n er e x u it H is tr u m q ui r e fug it patriae ritus q ue m deti n et ae q ui 2 05 gloria con c e s s o q u e cupit vix is s e colo n us q ua m do mi n u s rapto q uid pulchra voca b ul a p ig ris ,

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1 98

A G AINST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

the ge n tlest heart t o c ri me inflamed h is s avage breast Taking upon her the sim i litude of h is wi f e she co m es to m eet him pro u dly s h e steps forth like the ba r barian q u ee n c lothed i n lin en raiment Close to her breast a brooch f aste n ed her dress that t r ailed behi n d her ; s h e had bo un d her loc k s into a coil that a polished ci r clet confined a n d b i dden her gree n snakes tur n to gold She hastens to greet hi m o n his retur n and thro w s he r snowy arms about his n ec k instilling the poison of the f u ries i n to h i s soul by her kisses Gu ile f u lly to stir his rage s h e as k s if the great m an has bee n genero u s to h i m ; if he brings ba c k ri c h pres ents With tears he recou n ts his p r o fi t l e s s j ou r ney his useless toil the p r ide a n d i n sults moreover which he had to b ear at the e u nuch s hands At once she se i z ed the f avourable mome n t and tearing her chee k wi th her n ails discloses her co m plaints G o then busy thys elf w ith the plo u gh cleave the soil bid thy f ollo w ers lay aside the ir s w ords and sweat o er the harro w The G r u t h u n g i wi ll m ake good f ar m ers a n d w ill plant their vi n es i n d u e season Happy those othe r wo m e n whose glory is s een i n the town s their husbands ha v e conquered they w hos e ador n ment is the spoils so hardly wo n f r o m a n e n emy whose ser v a n ts are f air capt iv es Argos or Thessaly and w ho ha v e w on them of sla v es f rom Sparta Fate has m ated me w ith too ti mid too i n dole n t a h u sband a degenerate wh o has fo r gotte n the v alo u r o f I s t e r s tribes who deserts h is country s w ays whom a vai n reputatio n for j ustice att r acts while he longs to live as a h u s bandma n by f a v o u r rather than as a p r ince by pl u nde r Why give f a i r names to shame f u l w eak ,

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1 99

CLAUD I A N p

r a e t e n t a s vit iis

?

p

b it a t is

ro

iu s t it ia e f orm i d o

i n ertia n o m e n

,

subit t ol e r a b is ini q u a m a u e r ie m cu m tela eras e t fl e b i s in u l t u s p p g 210 c u m p a t e a n t t a n t a e n u l l i s c u s t o d i b u s urbes Quipp e m etus p o e n a e p r id e m m os ille vig eb a t u t m e r i t o s c ol e r e n t im p a c a t is u e reb elles q at n u n c q ui f o e d e r a ru m pit u r g e r e n t o diis di t a t u r qui s ervat eget va s t a t or Ach iva e entis et E i ru m n u er o u l a t u s inu l t a m g p p p p r a e s id e t I l l r ico ia m quos e d i t a mi c os o b s p y in g r e di t u r m uros illis responsa d a t u r u s q uoru m c oniu g ib u s p o t it ur n a t os q u e p e r e mi t s ic hostes pu nire solent haec r a e mi a s ol vu n t p .

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2 20

m a n u m ? tu ru m pe q ui etem ; g q bella d a b un t socios n ec te ta m pro n a m on er e m s i co n tra n u n c alter i n ar m is a t e r e r e viros p s exus e t e un uch is s e d e f e n s or ib u s orbis cr e di di t ; hos aqu i lae R o m a n a q u e sig n a s e q uu n tur 22 6 in cip e b a rb a r ic a e tande m te r e d d e r e vitae te q uoque ia m t im e a n t a dm i r e n t u r q u e n o c en t e m q ue m s p r e ve r e piu m sp ol ii s p r a e d a q u e r ep l e t u s ” cum l ib e a t Ro m a n us eris Sic fata repe n te i n dira m s e ve r t it a ve m r os t r oq u e rec u rvo turpis e t inf e rn is t e n e b r is ob s c ur ior alas a u s ic iu m ve t e r i sedit ferale sepulcro p I l l e p a vor p os t q u a m resoluto corde q ui e vit r es

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CL A U D IA N sede r e comae non d is t ul it a t r o x i u ssa deae s ocn s q u ae vid e r a t ordine pand i t 2 3 5 in r it a t q u e s e q u i Co n iu r a t ba r bara p u bes n acta d u c e m L a t u s q u e pala m d e s civit ab arm i s Pars P h r y g ia e S c y t h icis q u a e c u m q u e T r io n ib u s i ae d g

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solem q u ae cond i t Io n as G alatas u t r im q u e propinqui fi n ib u s ob l i q u is L y d i P is id a e q u e f e r oces contin u ant a u strale lat u s gens u na f u ere t o t q u ondam pop u li p r is c u m cognomen e t unum app ellata P h r y g e s s e d ( quid non longa va l eb it permuta r e dies di c t i post M a e on a rege m M a e on e s A e g a e o s in s e d it G r a e c ia port u s T h y n i Thraces arant q u ae n u nc Bithyn i a f e r t u r nup e r ab Oceano G a l l or u m e x e r c i t u s i n e n s g illis a n te vag u s tandem r e g ion ib u s h a e s it a e s a u e d e os u i t G r a io iam m i t i s a m ic t u q p g pro Rhe n o p ot u r u s H a l y n dat cuneta v etust a s pri n cipi um P h r y g ib u s nec rex Ae g y p t iu s ult r a r e s t i t it h u man i o s t q u a m p u er uber i s e x p e r s p in P h r y g ia m primum l a x a vit m u rm u ra voc e m Hic c e cid it L ib y c is i a c t a t a p a l u d ib u s ol i m tib i a f o e d a t a m cum r e d d id it u mbra M in e r va m hi c e t Apollinea v ictus test u din e p astor s u sp ensa memores in l u s tr a t p elle C el a e n a s ,

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2 40

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The re f ere n ce is to H erodotu s ii 2 P s a m m e t ic h u s K i n g of E g ypt wi s hin g to fi n d out w hich wa s the m o s t a n cie n t n a tio n h a d t wo chi l dre n re a red i n co m p l ete s i l e n ce ” B eco s the P hry g i a n A s the firs t w ord they uttered wa s P hry g i a wa s a ccorded the ho n o u r b re a d word f or M in erva is s a id to h a ve thro wn her pipe i n to the river 1

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2 02

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A GA I NST

II

E U T R OP I U S ,

heart a n d his sti ff ened hair sa n k down agai n he made all haste to carr y out th e co m mands of t h e goddess H e told his f ollo w e r s all that he had s een and urged the m to f ollow h im Rebellio u s Barba r y had f ou n d a champion a n d op enly threw o ff the Lati n yo k e That part of Phrygia which lies towards the n orth b e n eath the cold constellatio n o f the Wain borders on Bithy nia ; that towards the suns et on Io ni a and that towards the su n r i s e on G alatia O n t wo sides r u ns th e tra n svers e bo un dary of Ly di a while the fierce P is id ia n s he m it i n to the south A ll thes e p eoples once f ormed one n ation and had on e n am e : they were o f ol d called the Phrygians but (what changes does time n ot bring about ? ) after the reig n of a king M aeon were kn own as M a e on e s The n th e Greeks settled on the shores of the Aegea n a n d the Thy mi f ro m Thrace culti v ated the region now called Bithy nia Not long s i nce a vast ar m y of Gauls n omad hitherto cam e at last to rest i n the di strict ; thes e laid by their sp ears clothed the m in the civilized rob e of G reece a n d d r a n k n o lo n ger fro m R hi n e s but fro m H a l y s waters All a n ti qui ty gives priority t o the Phrygian eve n Egypt s king had p er f orce t o recogniz e it whe n the bab e n ourished at n o human breast first 1 op en ed his lips to lisp th e Phryg i a n tongue H ere f ell the pip e once h u rled into the m arshes what tim e th e strea m re fl ected Minerva s of Libya 2 disfig u red cou n te n a n ce H ere too there p erished conq u ered by Apollo s lyr e th e shepherd Ma r syas w hose flayed ski n brought re n ow n to th e city of ,

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when s h e ob s erved in the refl ection the f a ci a l contortions t i v i 9 vid a s F 6 9 o O a pp a re nt l y n ece s s a ry to p l a y it ; f .

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203

CLAU DIA N q

u a t t u or

h in c m a g ni s p r oc e d un t f on t ib u s a mn e s n ec m i ror aquas radi are m etallo ,

auriferi quae t ot ie n s lavere Mida n diversus ad A u stru m curs u s e t Arc t o u m fl uviis m are D in d y m a f un d un t S a ng a r iu m vitrei p u ro qui gurgite Galli a u c t u s Am a z o nii d e f e r t u r ad ostia Po n ti .

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I c a r i u m p e l a g u s M y c a l a e a q u e l it o r a i u n c t i M a r s y a M a e a n d e r q u e p e t un t s e d M a r s y a

velox

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carens ia m fl u mi n e mi x t u s m ol l it ur M a e a n d r e tuo ; contraria passus q uam Rh o d a n o s t im ul a t u s A rar q uos inter aprica l a n it i e s C e r e r i u e f a ve t d e n s is u e ligatur p q q vit ib u s e t l a u c a e fructus a t t ol l i t olivae g dives eq uis feli x pecori p r e t ios a q u e pieto marmore p u r pureis c a e di t q u od S y n n a d a ve nis Talem tu m P h ry g ia m G e ticis p op u l a t ib u s u r i s e c u r a s b a r b a r u s urb es e r m i s e r e dei p in r up it f a cil e s q u e capi spes n ulla s a l u t is nu lla f u gae p u tr ib u s ia m p rop ug n a c ul a saxis longo c or r u e r a n t a e vo p a cis q u e s e n e c t a I n t e r e a g e l id a e s e cr e t is r u p ib u s Idae dum s e d e t e t thiasos s p e c t a t de more Cybebe Cu r e t u m q u e a l a cr e s ad tympana s u s c it a t e n s e s a u rea s a n c t a r u m dec u s in m or t a l e comar um d e fl u x it capiti t u rr is s u m m o q u e vol u t u s vertice c r in a l is viol a t u r pulvere m u ru s o b s t i u e r e truces ome n Corybantes e t u n o p fi x a m etu tacitas p r e s s e r u n t orgia b u xos in d ol ui t ge n etrix tu m s ic com m o t a p r of a t ur : d um suus est

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2 04

CLAU DIA N mihi ia m p r id e m Lachesis g r a n d a e va c a n e b a t r i P h a e casus ve ni sse s u pre m os a u u r i um yg g heu sa n gui n e q u a l i s d e l a p s u s t e s t a t u r ap ex ibit S a ng a rius q u a n t a s q u e c a d a ve r a le nti M a e a n d ri p assura moras inm ob il is h a e r e t ter minus haec d u d um nato p l a cu e r e To n a nti par e t fi n it im is l u ct u s fr u s t r a q u e L y a e i n o n d e f e n s ur o s im p l or a t Lydi a thyrsos ia m q u e vale P h r y g i a e tell u s p e r it u r a q u e fl a m m is m o e n ia conspicuas q uae n u n c a t t ol l it is arces di lecta valete m o x campi n u d u m q u e solu m n on v e s t r is ultra b a c c h a b or in a n t r is fl umi n a ” n ec i n ga s ul c a b it n oster B e r e cy n t h ia c u rr u s d ixit e t ad tristes co n vertit tympa n a pla n ctus l a b e n t e m p a t r ia m s a c r is u l u l a t ib u s A ttis e r s o n a t e t torvi l a cr imi s m a d u e r e leones p H oc

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clades e t t r ep id u s vu l g a ve rit o mnia ru m or ignorare t a m e n fin g it r e g ni q u e r u inas a r va m l a t r o n u m errare c a t e r va m di s s im u l a t p ad s o n t e s tor m enta mag i s qua m tela parari n ec duce f r a n g e n d a s i a c t a t s e d iudice vires vasta ve l u t L ib y a e ve n a n t um vocib u s ales cu m p r e m it u r calidas cu r su t r a n s m ittit h a r e n a s in q u e modu m veli s in u a t is fl a m i n e p enn i s p u l v er u lenta vol a t s i ia m vestig i a retro clara s on e n t oblita fugae stat lu mine cl a u s o r id e n d u m re v ol u ta cap u t cr e d it u e late r e q ( q u e m n on ipsa videt f ur t im t a m e n ardua m itt it ,

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2 06

E UT R OP I U S ,

AGAI N ST

II

This is th e porte n t that ag e d Lachesis foretold lo n g years ago My falle n crown assures m e that P hrygia s fi n al crisis is upo n her Alas f or the blood that shall redde n S a ng a r iu s waves ; for all the corpses that shall retard M eander s slow stream The ho u r is fixed irrevocably ; such lon g si n ce wa s m y son s the Thunderer s will A like disaster awaits th e neighbouring p eoples ; i n vai n does Lydia i n voke the thyrsus of Bacchus i n her defe n ce N o w fare thee well la n d of Phryg i a f arewell walls doo m ed to the fla m es walls that n ow rear alo f t proud towers but will soo n be levelled with the grou n d and the bare earth Farewell dear rivers n ever m ore shall I hold m y i n spired revels i n your grottoes ; n o m ore shall m y chariot leave the traces ” heights So spake of i t s wheels on B e r e cy n t h u s she a n d turned her drums to stra i ns of mou rni ng A ttis fille d h is devoted country wit h holy la m e n ta tions and Cyb ele s tawn y lions burst i n to tears E u t r op iu s although this terrible revolt could n ot be hid a n d although ru m our had spread every where the dread n ews n o n e the less affects to ignore it a n d shuts his eyes to the e mpire s peril Twas som e poor troop of wa n deri n g briga n ds ; such wretches — call for pu nishm e n t n ot war ; a j u dge s o he b r ags —not a ge n eral sho u ld crush their stre n gth Even s o the great Libya n bird hard press ed by the cries ru n s o e r the bur n ing sa n ds a n d o f its pursuers flies through the dust c u rvi n g its wi ngs l ike sails t o catch the breez e ; but whe n it clearly hears the footsteps clos e behi n d it it f orgets it s flight sta n di ng with closed eyes a n d hi di n g its head beli evi n g poor fool it ca nn ot be see n by thos e who m its elf ca nn ot s e e N o n e the less E u t r op iu s .



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2 07

CLAUD IA N c um

do nis

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n ovis si orte f r o a t us p g d e s in a t ille s emel nota d ul c e di n e p r a e d a e s e fa mu lo ser vi re n e a t n ec g r ata t im e n t u m g munera mi l it ia m n u l l a m nec pri m a sup erbus cing u la dig mari nam quis non c o n s ul e tali vilis b o n os ro

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P o s t q u a m p r e cib u s m i t e s c e r e n o n au r o c e s s is s e vi det c r e b e r q u e r e c urr it n unt iu s i n c a s s u m ne c spes i am f oederis e x t a t

n ul l i s ,

x

tandem cons i l ium bell i c on f e s s u s a g e n d i ad s u a tecta vocat i uve n e s venere protervi l a s civiq u e s enes q ui b us est ins i g n is e d e n d i gloria cor r up t a s q u e dap es variass e deco ru m qui ventrem i n vitant p r e t io t r a d u n t q u e pal ato s id e r e a s I u n on is aves e t si qua l o u e n di q gu ara c ol o r a t is virid i s d e f e r t u r ab Indis u a e s it os trans regna cib os u r u m u e profu n da m o q q q in g l u vi e m no n Ae g a e u s non alta Propontis n o n freta l on g in q u is M a e o tia p is c ib u s e x p l e n t vestis o d or a t a e st u di u m ; laus maxi m a r i s um per v anos m ovis s e sales m ini m e q u e viriles m u n di t ia e c o m p t i vu l t u s o n e r iq u e vel ipsa ser i ca s i Ch u n u s f e r ia t s i S a r m a t a portas .

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s ol l ic i t i s c a e n a e

R om a m

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3 40 mir a r i q u e s u as , quas Bosphorus ob r u a t ! aedes ; s a l t a n d i do ci les a u r ig a r u m q u e periti Pars h u m il i de plebe d u ces pars c om p e d e suras .

a s o l dier s b e l t ) C l a udi a n u s e s the word c ing u l u m m i l ita ry s ervice — a n ot unco m m o n l a te u s e of S e r v A en 72 4 a n d ( f re q uent l y ) cin g i = to s erve , i n the D i g e sts ’

1 as

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viii

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2 08

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CLAUD I A N n igro l i v n t i a f erro e g iura r e g un t f acies q u a m vis in s cr ip t a r e p u g n e t s e q u e s u o p r od a t titulo s e d pri m a potestas E ut r op iu m p r a e f e r t Hosio s u b ni x a secundo d ul cior hic sane c un c t is p r u d e n s q u e m o ve n d i iuris e t a d m ot o q ui t e m p e r e t om nia fumo f e r vid u s a c c e n s a m sed qui bene d e c o q u a t ira m co n s i d u n t apices ge mi ni d ici o n is a e hic coc u s hic le n o d e fos s i ve rb e r e terga servitio n o n arte pares hic s a e p iu s e m p t u s alter ad Hisp anos n u t r it u s ver n a p enates Ergo ubi collecti proce r es qui rebus in a r tis c on s u l e r e n t t a n t is u e dare n t s ol a ci a m o r b is q obliti subito P h r y g i a e b el l is q u e r e l ict is ad s ol i t os co ep e r e ioc o s e t i u r g ia circi tendere n e q ui q u a m m ag n a c on fl ig it u r ira q uis m e l ius vibrata puer vertigi n e molli m embra r o t e t verrat q uis marmora crine s u pino 3 60 1 q u is magis e n o d e s l a t e r u m d e t or q u e a t arcus quis voci di g it os o c ul o s q u is m or ib u s a p t e t hi t r a g icos m e m in e r e modos his f abula Tere u s his n e c d u m co m missa choro c a n t a t u r A gave I n c r e p a t E u t r op i u s no n haec s p e ct a c ul a temp u s os c e r e 6 3 n u n c alias m i n u m e r e curas 6 b a r r u m c o p s e satis Armenio f e s s u m pro l i mite ci n gi B ir t a rtu s ; I r etu r n to th e vu l g a reu s cr ur a

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H os iu s , b y b irth a S p a n i a rd , h a d b een a s l a ve a n d a cook— when ce the s e va riou s dou b l e m e a n in g s H e ro s e to b e m a g is ter ofi cior u m a t the cou rt of Arc a di u s ( ci r ca 1

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3 96

210

AGA I NST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

a nkles are still s c arred and liv i d wit h their w earing o f the f etters of s er v it u de and tho u gh their branded f oreheads deny the ir o wn ers r i ght to o ffi c e and disclose the i r true t i tle A mong the m E u t r op iu s holds the first plac e ; H os iu s on w h o m he r el ies co m es n ext H e of a truth is m ore pop u lar a c u nning a r t ifi c e r of j u stice who k n ows well how to steam h i s cas es ; at t i mes boiling with ange r y et well able to re n de r dow n that an ger when aroused 1 Thes e sit e n th r oned j oint rule r s of the easter n emp i re the on e a coo k the other a pander The ba ck s of both are scarred with the whip each wa s a slave though of a di fferent kind The on e had been bo u ght a n d sold a hund r ed times the other bro u ght u p a dep endant in a Spanish ho u sehold W h e n there f ore the chief m e n w ere gathered together f o r consultation i n this st r ait and to co m f ort the sickness of the state f o r th w ith they forget Ph ry gia and s etting aside the q u estion of wa r start their acc u stomed f ooling and engage in disputes about the Circus With heat as fi e r ce as it is point less they wrangle what boy ca n best w h i rl q u ive rin g li m bs i n an easy so m ersault or sweep the ma r ble fl oor with hi s droopi n g locks ; wh o can most t wist his fla nks i nto a boneless arch ; wh o ca n best s u it h is gest u res to h is words a n d his eyes to his character Some r ecite speeches fro m tragedy others c h a n t the play of Tereus others agai n that of Agave n ever before staged E u t r op iu s chides the m ; the prese n t moment says he de m ands other sp ectacles than these ; it is wa r which n ow sho u ld claim all their care F or his part (for he is a n old ma n and a weary) it is e n ough to defe n d the f rontiers of Ar m e nia ; s in gle ’

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21 ]

CLAU D I A N n ec tantis u nu m s u b s is t e r e posse p e r icl i s ig n os c a n t s e nio i u ve n e s ad p r o e l i a mi t t a n t u a l is p a up e r ib u s n u t r i x in v isa u el li s q p a d s id e t e t tela c o m m un e m u a e r e r e vic t u m q ra u ca monet f e s t is il l a e l u s is s e di eb u s ora n t e t p os it is a e q u a e va s v isere pensis ir a t a e q u e operi ia m lasso pollice fi l a t u rba n t e t te n eros detergent stamine fl e t u s ,

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E m ica t

e x t em

l o p

c un c t is

t r e p id a n t ib u s

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au

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crassa mole Leo que m vix Cyclopia solu m a e u a t u r a fa m es q u em no n i e i un a Celaeno q vi n c e r e t hi n e no m en f e r t ur m e r u is s e Leonis acer i n abse n tes l i ng u ae i a c t a t or a b u n d a n s corporis e x ig uu s q u e ani mi d oc t is s im u s artis quo n dam l a n ific a e m oderator p e c t ini s unci n o n alius la n a m p u r g a t is s o r d ib u s a e q u e ra e b u e r i t c a l a t h is s imi lis nec i n u ia i u s u am p p g q q vellera per tenues ferri prod u cere rimas tu n c Ai a x erat E u t r op n l a t e q u e fr e m eb a t n o n septem vasto q u a t ie n s u m bon e iu ve n cos sed quam p e rp e t u is d a p ib u s p ig r oq u e sedi li inter anus in t e r q u e colos on e r a ve r a t a l vu m 3 9 0 a d s u r it tandem vo c e m u e e x r o m i t a n h e l a m g q p Q uis no v us hic torpor socii usque uona m q ,

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s e d e m us

f e mi n e is cla u si t h a l a m is p a t im u r q u e p e r icl u m l i r a vior u m turba m a l o r um s c e r e desidi a g g t e x i t u r , ig n a vis t r a h im u s d um te m pora vot is m e petit hic sudor num q u a m m ea d e x t e r a se g nis 3 96 ad f err u m f a ve a t ta n tum Tr itonia c o e p t is , .

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L e o were s ent b y E u trop iu s to put do wn the revo l t o f T a rb ig il us G a ina s , ho wever n ever l ef t the H e l l es po n t a n d L eo , a dva n ci n g into P a m phy l ia there m e t, We a n d wa s de f e a ted b y , T a r b ig il u s ( Z os im v 16 g a ther f rom Cl a udi a n th a t he h a d once b een a wea ver 1

G a ina s

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212

CL A U D IAN in c e p t u m p e r a g e t u r op u s iam c u neta furore m q ui gra v at , e ffi ci a m l e vior e m ponde r e lanae .

T a r b ig il um t um i d u m , d e s e r t or e s q u e G r u t h u n g o s

mis eras p op u l a b or oves e t pac e relata pristina restit u a m Phrygias ad stamina m atres His di c t is iterum sed i t ; fit p l a u s u s e t in g e n s c on cil ii clamor q u a l is r e s on a n t ib u s oli m e x or it u r caveis q u otiens c r i n i t u s epheb u s aut r ig id a m N iob e n aut fl e n t e m Troada fi n g it r o t in u s e x c i t is iter inre m eabile s i n i s p g a d r i it in f a u s t o u e i u b e t bubo n e m ov e r i p q

ut

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a

405

m i na M d o n i a s m o x im l e t u r a vol u cr e s p yg g P u lcher e t ur b a n a e cu p ie n s e x er cit u s u m brae , .

sple n dere l a va cr is n ec soles im b r e s ve pati m ul t u m q u e priori di spar sub clip eo T h r a cu m qui ferre pruinas d u m Stili cho r e g e r e t n u d o q u e hi e m a r e s u b axe s u e ve r a t e t duris h a u r ir e b i e n ni b u s H e b r u m p cu m duce m u t a t a e vires B y z a n t ia robur fregit luxuries An cy r a ni q u e t r iu m p h i n o n p e di t e m p r a e c e d it eques n o n c o m m od a c a s t ris vi c ib u s custo di a n ul l i s e l i it u r re g io g n on e x l o r a n t u r e un d a e a d vig il a t vallo p n ullo s e cor n ua fl e ct un t vit a n d a e q u e vi ae ordi n e confusi passi m p er opaca va g a n t u r lustra p er ig n otas ang u sto trami te valles a d s id uu s

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is ironic a l C l a udia n refers to E utro p ius pl e as ure j ourn ey to Ancyra ; of l 9 8 of this po em 1

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2 14

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AGAI NST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

mi n e atte m pts a n d th e w ork begu n will be th e w ork co m pleted No w will I r e n der proud T a r b ig il us whos e m adn ess has caus ed all this t u rm oil of less w eight than a ball of w ool th e f aithless G r u t h u n g i I w ill drive b e f ore m e like a fl ock of wretched sheep ; and w hen I ha v e restored peace I w ill set the wo m e n ” of Phrygia o n ce m ore beside their ancie n t spi nning So s ay i ng he s a t down aga in G reat clam our a n d applaus e filled the cou n cil chamb er applaus e s u ch as rises fro m the rows of sp ectators in the theatre whe n so m e curled youth im personates Niob e tur n ed to stone o r Hecuba i n tears Straight w ay Leo un f olds his banners and starts on the j o u rney w hence there is to b e no ret ur n To the a cc om p a ni ment o f the screech owl s ill o m ened cry he bids march the host destined s o soon to feed the vultures .

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Tis a army e n am oured of the city s shade ever present at the ga m es a nxi ous to sh i ne in the bat h s not to bear s u n sco r ch and rai n and oh how d i ff ere n t to that f o r mer a r my wh o n eath the leaders hi p of Stilicho e n du r ed u nder ar m s the f r osts o f Thrace and w e r e w ont to winter in the op e n a i r a n d brea k with the i r axes the frozen wate r s of H e b r u s f o r a dra u ght Changed is the leader and changed the i r char acter Byzant i u m s l u x u ry 1 and An cy r a s pomp ha v e dest r oyed their vigour No longer does the ca v al r y r ide ahead of the f oot ; s u itable g r o u nd i s n ot c hosen f or camps n o consta n t change of sentries sa f eg u a r ds the ramparts n o sco u ts are se n t for w a r d to dis c over which roads to ta k e or which to a v oid their evolutions are perf ormed wi thout d r ill or d i scipl i ne in co nfusion they stray h i ther a n d thither amid dark forests al o ng narrow ’

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CLAU DIA N vacui r e c t or is equi s ic orba m a g is t r o f e rt u r i n a b r up t u m casu n on sidere puppis s ic r u it i n t u pes a mi s s o pisce sodali belua s ul ca n d a s q ui p r a e viu s e d oc e t u n das inm e n s u m q u e p e cu s parvae m odera mine caudae t e m p e r a t e t ta n to c on iun g i t f o e d e r a m onstro illa n atat r a t ion is inops e t caeca profundi iam b r e vib us d ep r e n s a va di s ignara reverti a l it a t e t va n os s c op ul is i nl i d i t hiatus p p T a r b ig il u s si m ulare f ug a m fl a t u s q u e Leo nis s e n utrire leves im p r ovis u s q u e repe n te p du m g r a vib u s m a rc e n t epuli s h os t iq u e cate n as inter vina c r e p a n t largo sopita L y a e o castra s u bit p e r e u n t al ii du m m embra cu b il i tarda leva n t alii leto iun x e r e s op o r e m ast ali os vici n a palus si n e m ore r u e n t e s e x c ip i t e t c u m u l is inm a n ib u s a g g e r a t u n das 440 ipse Leo dam m a c e r voq u e f u g a cior ib a t sudant i t r e m e b un d u s equo qui pondere p os t q u a m d e cid i t im p l icit u s limo c u n ct a n t ia p r on u s per vada r ep t a b a t c a e n o s ub nix a te n aci m e r g it ur e t pi n gui s u s p ir a t corpore m oles m ore suis d a p ib u s q uae ia m devota futuris turp e g e mi t q uotie n s H os ius m ucro n e corus co arm atur cin g it q u e si n us s e c um q u e vol u t a t quas fi g a t ve r u b u s partes quae frusta c a l en ti s ic

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or wh a l e According to a ncient na tura l is ts the ba l aen a entered into a n a ll ia nce wi th the mus cu l us or which in P l in y s word s va d a p ra ena ta ns s ea m ous e d e m ons tra t oc u l oru m q u e vice f u ng it ur ( P l i n y H N ix 1

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CLAU D I A N m a n det aquae q u a n t o q u e cute m d is t e nd a t echi n o 1 45 0 fl a g r a t opus crebro p ul s a t us p e r s t r ep it ic t u ; c o n t e x it va r iu s p enetra n s C a l c h e d o n a ni dor Ecce levis frondes a tergo c on c u t it a u ra cre di t tela Leo va l u it pro vulne r e te r ror im p l e vit q u e vic e m iac u li vi t a m q u e n oc e n t e m i n tege r e t sola f or mi d in e s a u ciu s e ffi a t quis tibi t r a c t a n d os pro pecti n e dege n er e ns e s quis sol i o c a m p u m p r a ep o n e r e s u a s it avito qua m be n e t e x e n t u m l a u d a b a s car mi n a tutus e t m a t u t in is e l l e b a s f r i o r a m ensis p g hic misera n de i a c e s hi c du m t u a vellera vitas 46 0 tandem fil a tibi n e ve r un t u ltima Parcae I am v aga p a l l e n t e m d e n s is t e r r or ib u s a ul a m f ama q u a t it stratas acies deleta c a n e b a t M a m in a a e oni os f o e d a r i c a e di b u s agros g P a m p h y l os P is id a s q u e rapi m e t u e n d u s ab om ni 46 5 T a r b ig il us regione tonat ; m odo te n dere c u r s um in G alatas m odo B it h y n is in cu m b e r e f e r t ur s un t q ui p er Cil ica s r up t o d e s c e n d e r e Tauro s u nt q ui c orr ep t is r a t ib u s terraq u e m a r iq u e a d ve n t a r e f e r a n t e mi n a n t u r vera a vo ris p g i n ge ni o lo n ge s p e c t a r i p up p ib u s urbes a cc e n s a s lucere fr etu m ve n to q ue c it a t a s o mni bus i n p elago ve l is h a e r e r e fa v illas H os i n ter strepitus f u n e s t ior a d vol a t alte r .

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B i r t s tex t ; bu t un l es s p u l s a tu s b e ta k en a s a L a t M in v p 1 2 0 s ug g es ti on , of P s u bs ta n ti ve ( B a eh r en s l 1 6 9 ) i t i s u n tr a n s l a ta b l e E m en d a ti on s p r op os ed a r e p u l s u ie ta B a r th iu s ; p ul s a tu s a per s trepit B u ech el er C os cul tri s u s or p u l p a e iu s B ir t T h e s en s e d ema n d s , h owever , s om e s u ch wor d a s B o s poru s t o m a k e a p a r a l l el i s m wi th P os s i b l y th e l i n e en d ed p u l s a tu r B o s poru s C a l c h e d on a ict u , p er s trep it bein g a g l os s on p u l s a t ur a n d even tu a l l y ou s t ing B o s poru s 1

I p

r in t



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218

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A G AINST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

s t uflin g

will b e n eeded t o fill the e mpty ski n The work of preparatio n goes on apace Bosporus echoes t o m a n y a blow a n d the savoury smell e n velop s Chalcedo n Sudde n ly a gentle breez e stirs the fo l iage b ehi n d Leo s bac k H e thinks it a n arrow and terror taki n g a mi ssile s place does duty for a wou n d U n touched a n d str icke n only by f ear he breathes D ege n erate R oman by whose advice di dst h is last thou excha n ge the co m b f or the sword thi n e a n cestral calli ng for the field of battle ? H ow m uch b etter to prais e i n saf ety the work of the weavers at their loo m s a n d keep ou t t h e cold by m ea n s of m or ni n g f easts Here thou hast su ff ered a wr etched death ; h ere while tho u s ou g h t e s t t o S hirk thy spi nn i n g the Fate s have at last spun for the e the fi n al thread N ow spreadi n g rumour shakes the palace pale with ter r or upo n terror It told how that the army wa s destroyed the troops b u tchered the plain of Maco mia red with sla u ghter Pamphylia and Pi s i d i a o e rr u n by the enemy On all s i des ri ngs the d r ead n am e of T a r b ig il u s H e is no w sa i d to be h e a r in g dow n upo n Galatia n ow to b e m e di tating a n attack on Bithy n ia Som e s a y he h a s crossed the Tau r us a n d i s desce n d i ng upon Cilicia others that he has possessed himself of a fleet a n d is advancing both by land and s e a Truth is do u bled by pani c s fancy ; they say that f r om the sh i ps far cities are seen ablaz e that the straits a r e aglow a n d that ashes drive n by the wind catch in the sails o f eve r y ship at sea A mi d all this con f usio n co m es a yet m ore ter r ible .

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CLAU D IA N nun tius a r m a t a m r ur s u s B a b y l on a minari rege n ovo resides P a r t h o s ignava p e r o s os otia R om a n a e fi n e m ia m q u a e r e r e paci u n a q u e c un c t o r a r u s apud M edos reg um cr u or poena manet generi q u a m vis cr u d e l i b u s acque s e d q ui d no n a u d e a t an n us a r e t u r do mi n is p s oc i u m nob i s fi d u m u e S a o r e m E u t r op ii q p e r c u l it e t Persas i n regia vu lnera m ovit p r up t u r a s q u e fi d e m leto pars n e qu a va c a r e t E u m e ni d u m t a e d a s trans fl u mi n a T ig r id is e g it 48 5 T um vero c e c id e r e a n i mi t a n t is q u e p r o c e l l is saepti l a t r a n t ib u s u n d iq u e bellis d e fi c iu n t in f e n s o s tande m s u p e ros e t c on s u l is omen a n o ve r e s u i nec ia m revo c abile damn u m g e ve n t u stolido ser u m di d ic e r e m a g is t r o 49 0 n a m q u e f e r u n t g e m in o s u no de s emine fratres I a p e t ion id a s generis primor di a n ostri di ssi mili fin x is s e m a n u q u os c u m q u e Prometheus e x c ol ui t m u l t u m u e inn e x u it a e t h e r a l i m o q h i lo n ge vent u ra n otant d ub iis q u e parati c a s ib u s oc c u r r u n t fabro m e l i o r e politi deteriore luto p r a vu s q u os e d i d i t a u ctor q u em merito G rai p e r h ib e n t E p im e t h e a vates e t n ihil a e t h e r ii s p a r s it p er m embra vig or is hi p e c ud um ritu n on im p e n d e n ti a vit a n t n ec res a n te vident ; accepta clade q u e r u n t ur e t s eri t r a n s a c t a g e m un t .

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V a r a n e s I V , wh o, l ike h is three predeces s ors , Arta xerxe s , S a por I I I , a nd Va r a ne s I I I , h a d ob s erved a truce with R o m e , died in ’3 99 a nd wa s s ucceeded b y I s d ig er d es F or a l l Cl a udi a n s rea l or s i m u l a ted a nxiety this m ona rch wa s a s pea c ea b l y di s po s ed a s the previou s on e s ( s ee O ro s vii C l a udia n s ee m s to h a ve m a de a n error in ca l l i n g h im S a por (1 1

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CL A U D I A N Iam sola r e n id e t in S t il ich on e sal u s e t cuius s emp er a ce r b u m in g r a t u m q u e sibi f a ct or u m c on s ciu s horror c r e di di t a d ve n t u m q ue m s i procedere tantu m Al p ib u s a u d is s e n t m orte m p o e n a s q u e t r e m e b a n t ia m c un ct i ve niss e vol un t s c e l e r u m q u e p r ior u m 5 06 a e ni t e t l h c ta n tis b e l o or u m sidus i n undis p s e r a n t h oc pariter i n sti s on t e s u e r e c a n t ur p p q ceu p u er i quibus alta p ater tra n s a e q u or a merces d e ve h it i n te n ti ludo s t u d iis q u e sol u ti lati n s amoto passim custode va g a n t ur ; s i gravis auxilio vacuas i n va s e r i t aedes vic in u s l a r ib u s u e sui s r o t u r b e t in u l t os q p tu m d e m u m p a t r e m i mplora n t e t n omen ina m 5 15 voce cie n t f r us t r a q u e ocu l os ad l it or a t e n d u n t O mn es suppli cio d ig n os l e t o q u e f a t e n t u r q u i s e t r a d id e r in t f a m u l is S t il i c h on e r e l ict o m utati s t up u e r e diu s e n s u q u e reducto a u l a t im n m i r a n t u r m onstra f u r or is r r o p p p a ve r t u n t u e o cul os r oi e c t is f a s c ib u s horret p q lictor e t i n fames l a b u n t ur sponte secures u a l e s Aonio T h e b a s de m o n te r e ve r s a e q M ae n ades in f e c t is P e n t h e o sanguine t h y r s is cu m p a t u it ve n a t u s a t r o x m a t r iq u e r ot a t u m r e s s u s caligine fi u n t c on s e x e r e caput p g g qui n p r ot in u s ipsa e t r a b i e m d e s is s e dole n t te n dit ad I t a l ia m s up p l e x Au rora pote n tem ,

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E U T R OP I U S ,

A GA I NST

II

There n o w sho n e f orth but on e hope of salvation —Stil ic ho Him the expectat i on o f whos e vi s i ts the co n sc i o u sness of de eds ill don e had e v e r r endered bitter and unpleas a nt hi m w hos e a pp r oach e v en as f a r as th e A lps a fflicted th e By z a nt i nes w i th f ea r o f death a n d p u nishment all now wi sh t o co m e r e e n t a n t o f thei r f o r mer wr o n gdoing T o him they p loo k as to a star amid this un i ve r sal ship wreck of w a r to him innoce n t and g ui lty al ik e address their prayers So children w hos e s i re carries merchand i s e ac r oss the s e a w rapt u p i n thei r am u se m e n ts and heedless o f t h e m st u d i es wander afield more j oy f u lly no w that their g u a r dian is absent yet sho u ld a dangero u s n eighbour invade their de f e n celess home a n d s eek to dri v e them f orth unprotected as they a r e f rom their fi r es i de th en they beg the i r f ather s help call upon his name with useless c r ies and all to n o p u rpos e d ir ect their gaz e towards the shore A ll admit that they dese rv e p unish m e n t a n d death for dese r t i ng St i li c ho and entr u sting them s el v es to the go v e rn ance of sla v es Lo ng they stood dazed w ith altered tho u ghts and a s their senses slowly ret ur n they marvel at the res u lts of their o w n madness and t urn a w ay thei r eyes ; flinging down h i s r ods the l ic to r sh u dders and the dis honou r ed axes f all o f thei r own a cc o r d Eve n s o the M aenads r et ur ning to Thebes f r om the A o nian mo u nt the i r t h y r ses d r ipp i ng w i th Pentheus blood lea r n i ng the tr u e cha r acter of their d r ead f ul hunt i ng and see i ng the head c ast by the mother herself h i de them in the dark ness and lament the e n d of the i r madness The r e u pon s u ppl i ant A u r ora tur n ed her fl i ght t o w a r ds po w e r f u l Italy her hair no .

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CLAU DI A N n o n radiis re di mita co m am n o n fl a mm e a vu l t u n e c croceu m v estita diem stat li v ida l u etu u a l is erat P h r i e e r e t c um M e m n o n a b u sto o t q yg g 53 1 q uam s im ul a g n ovit Stilicho n ec ca u sa l a t eb a t r e s t it i t illa m a n u m vic t r ic e m a m p l e x a morat u r a l t a u e vi x l a cr im a n s inter s u s ir i a f a t u r q p Tantane te n ostri c e p e r u n t t a e di a mundi ? s ic m e l u d ib r i u m f a m u l is r is u m u e r e l in u is q q d u x quo n da m r e c t or q u e meus s ol a m q u e t u e r is H e s p e r ia m do m iti nec te post bella tyra n ni cernere ia m li c ui t s ic te victoria nobis e r i u it G a l l i s u e dedi t R u fi n u s origo p q pri m a m ali ge m inas inter discordi a partes hoc a u c t or e f u it s e d iam m a ior a m o v e n ti occurrit i u s t a r e d ie n s e x e r cit u s ira fortis a d h u c f er r iq u e m e m or brevis i n de r el u x it fa l s a q u e li bertas r u r s u m S t il ic h on i s h a b e n is f s e r a b a m m e poss e regi pro caeca u turi p gaudi a frater n o c on iun g i c o e p e r a t orbis impe r io ( quis e ni m tanto terrore r e c e n t is exempli paribus ses e c om m itt e r e t a u s is cum subito (m on s t r os a mihi t ur p is q u e r el a t u fabula) R u fini c a s t r a t u s p r os il it heres e t si m iles iter um l u c t u s Fortu n a r e d u x it u t sol u m do m ini s e x u m m utass e vi d e r e r Hic primum thalami cl a u s t r is delicta t e g e b a t cla m t im id e q u e iub e n s erat i n vidiosa potestas s e d tame m e u n u chi n e c d u m sibi p u blica iura ,

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CLAU DI A N um ere n ec t ot a s a u d e b a t vertere leges at p os t q u a m p u l s is q u e bo nis et f a e c e rete n ta e ior e s legit socios d i n u s u e satelles g p q h in c H os i u s s t e t it i n de Leo fi d u cia cr e vit r e n a n di u e pala m fl a r a vit ap erta libido q g g a t r ic iu s cons u l m a c ul a t quos ven di t honores p plus m a c ul a t q u os ipse gerit iam signa t u b a e q u e m ol l e s c un t ipsos ignavi a fl u x it in e n s e s exultant m erito ge n tes f a cil is q u e volenti i B s t on iis H a e m o u e nivali ia m r a e d a s um us 5 65 p q s

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va s t io r e x p u l s i s

Or i e n s

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u a l e s c it a r a t r i s q

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mihi quas urb es e t q u a n to tempore Martis ignaras uno r a p u e r u n t p r o e l i a c u rsu n u p e r ab extre m o ve n i e n s e q u i t a t u s Arax c t e rr u it An t i och i m uros ip s u m q u e d e c or a e pae me caput S y r ia e fl a m mi s h os t il ib u s arsit u t q u e gravis s p ol i is n u l l o q u e obsta n te pro f unda l a e t u s c a e d e re di t s equit u r mucrone sec un do n ec ia m mihi Caucasus hostes o n t in u u m vu ln u s n ec m itt it g e l i d us Phasis n a s c un t u r i n ipso bella sin u l e g io p r id e m Ro m ana G r u t h un g i iura q ui bus victis ded im us quib u s arva d om u s q u e L r a e b u im u s d os As i a e u e uberri m a va s t a n t y q p ig n ib u s e t si q ui d t e m p e s t a s pri m a r el iq uit nec v i nec n u m ero fr e t i s e d inertia n u t r it r o d it i o u e d u c u m quo r u m per crimina m iles q p ei

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AGAINST

E U T R OP I U S ,

II

gover ning the state or of t r amp l ing 0 11 the laws B u t w he n he had ban ished the good a n d retaining the dregs o f the people had chose n there fro m ad visers of no worth ; w hen his creat ur e H os iu s stood on hi s on e side an d Leo on the other then indeed his self c on fi d e n c e w axed and hi s l u st for po w er b r oke f o r th into op en flam e Patricia n and consul he bro u ght d e fil e m e n t o n the ho n ours he sold ; eve n greater d e fil e m e n t o n those he carried himsel f The v ery sta n dards and trump ets of war g r ew f eeble ; a palsy s eized upon our swords What w onder the nat i ons rej oiced and we beca m e the easy prey of a n y w ho wo u ld s u bd u e us G on e a r e plo u ghs and plo u gh m en ; the East is mo r e a dese r t t h an Th r ace and s n owy Haem u s A las how many c iti es ho w long u n u sed to w ar s alar m s have perished N o t long s i nce a m o u n ted band i n a si n gle i nv asio n coming fro m A raxes farthest banks threatened the w alls of A ntioch and all b u t s et fire to the c hi ef city Lade n with spoil a n d o f the f a i r pro v ince of Syria rej oicing i n the vast c arn age it had wr ought the band returned with no n e to bar its passage ; n ow it purs u es its v ictorious ca r eer inflict in g on m e w ou n d upon wo u nd Tis not no w Ca u cas u s n or cold Phasis that s end f orces aga i nst m e ; w a r s a r is e in the ve r y centre of my empire T i me w as w hen the G r u t h un g i for m ed a Roman leg i on ; conq u ered we gave the m law s ; fi elds and d w ell i ng pl a ces we apportioned them Now they lay w aste with fire Ly di a and the richest cities of A sia a y a n d everything that es c aped the earlier sto rm Tis neither on the i r it is our own valo u r o r n u mbers that they rely ; cowar di c e u rges them o n co w a r d ic e and the treaso n th r ough whose guilt o u r soldiers n ow o f gene r als

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CL A U DIA N dat terga suis quos teste s ub e g it D a n u vio p a r t e m q u e ti m et qui r ep p ul it o mnes A u la ch or is e p ul is q u e va c a t n ec perdi ta c u rat d um s u p e r e s t al iquid me q uid tame m o rbe rec i so 586 ve n ditor a m i tt a t provincia q u a e q u e s up e r s t e s d ivid it u r g e m in u m q u e duplex pass u ra tribunal c o i t u r alteri u s pret iu m s a r c ir e p e r e m p t a e g hac arte repe r ta s i c mi hi r e s t it u u n t pop u los 5 e r e u n t ib u s a u e n t 9 0 r e c t o r u m n u m e r u m ter r is p g In te iam spes un a mihi pro f ronde M in e r va e has tibi protendo l a c r im a s s u cc u r r e r u e n t i e r i e m e tandem s e r vil ib u s e r i e r e n is p p g n eve adeo c u n c t os p a u c or u m crimi n e da m nes n ec n ova tot m e r itis o ff e n sa p r ior ib u s obstet s u prema p e r ic u l a semp er i a m i a m fl e c t e a n im u m dant venia m c u lpae q u a m vis ir a t u s e t e xu l p r o patriae fl a m mi s n o n d i s t u l it arma Cam i ll u s n ec te s u b t r a h im u s L a t io de f ensor u t r i q u e a r m or u m l ic e a t splendore t u o r u m s u ffi c is i n commune f r u i cl ip e u s nos p r ot e g a t i de m u n a q u e p r o gemi n o d es u d e t cardi n e virt us c a p t ivis

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228

CLAU D IA N quis vero a c er b is h or r id ior S cy th is quis b e l u a r um corde f u r e n tior q u i cu m m ic a n t e m te prop e vid e r it n on op t e t ul t r o servitium pati q u i non catenas a d rip ia t l ib e n s colloque p os c a t v incula libero t u si ni v alis p er i nga C a u c a s i s a e va s i pulcher A m azo n as e t s s e s p peltata p u g n as d e s e r e r e t c oh or s s e x u recepto p atris e t in m e m or i n ter fr e m e n t e s Hippolyte t u bas s tr ic t a m s e c u r im languida n er e t o p e t seminudo pectore ci n gulu m forti n egatu m s ol ve r e t H e r cu l i b el l u m q u e solus c on fi c e r e t decor B eata quae te m o x f a ci e t viru m r im is u e s ese iun e t a m o r ib u s q p g ,

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II

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( XI I ) .

Age cu n eta n up t ia l i r edimita vere tellus cele b ra toros cr i les om n e n emus c u m fl u viis omne canat prof u nd um Lig u res f a ve t e cam pi Veneti f a ve t e mo n tes ,

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,

s u b i t is

ve s t i a t

u e s e r o s e t is q

A lpi n us ap ex

e t r ub e a n t

At h e s is

s tr e

at

p

r uin a e

choreis

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p c a l a m i s u e fl e x u os u s q leve M in ciu s s us u r r e t

23 2

,

FESCENNI N E VERSES

I —I I

,

tho u gh he be m ore unci vilized than th e wild Scythians and m ore cru el eve n than the b easts b u t will w hen he has s een near at ha n d thy tra n sce n de n t l ove l i n ess o ff er thee a ready s ervit u de ? Who w ill not wi ll in gly seiz e the chains of sla v ery and demand the yoke f or a n eck as yet free ? Hadst thou o er the heights of s n o wy Caucasus go n e agai n st the cr u el A m azo n s i n all thy beauty that w arrior ba n d h ad fl ed the fight a n d called to mind agai n their prop er s ex ; Hippolyte a mi d the trumpets di n forget f ul o f her si r e had w eakly laid asi de her d r awn battle axe a n d with hal f bared breast loosed the girdle all Hercules strength availed n ot to loose Thy beauty alone would have e n ded the war Bless ed is she who will soo n call the e husba n d a n d u nite hersel f to thee with the bo n ds of fir st love ,

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x i i ( )

II

Co m e earth wreathed about with n uptial sp ring do hono u r to thy m aster s marriage feast S i ng w oods and rivers all si n g d eep of ocea n Give yo u r bless i ng t oo Liguria n plai n s and yours V e n etian h ills Let A lpine heights on a sudde n clothe the m selves with rose b u shes and the fields of ice g row red Let the A dige r e echo the so u nd of choric lays a n d m ean deri n g M in ciu s whisper ge ntly through his ,

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23 3

CLAUD IAN et

Padus

e l e c t ri f e r is

m o d u l e t ur

al mi s e u l is q u e iam repleto p r e s o n e t Q uirite T h b r is y do mi niq u e l a e t a vot is aurea s ep t e m g e mi n a s R oma coro n et arces ad

.

p

l a u di a n t H ib e r i , fl u it u n de s e m en aulae , ubi ple n a l a ur e a r u m

r oc u

im perio

feta do m us

vix n u m e r a t t r iu m p h os habet h in c p a t r e m m a r it u s habet h in c p u e l l a m a t r e m e m in a u e parte d u c t u m g q .

,

Ca e s a r e u m fl u mi n e o

ste m ma d e cor e n t

r e c u r r it

vir e ct a

Tagus

o r tu

.

B a e t im ,

in t um e s c a t

auro e n e r is u e procreator g q s u b vi t r e is Ocea n us l u x u ri e t u r

Or i e n s q u e

a n t r is

.

reg n a fratru m

si m ul Oc cid e ns q u e p l a u d a t placide ioc e n t ur u rbes u a e q u e n ovo q u a e q u e n ite n t q ,

d e ficie n t e P h o eb o Aq uil oni a e p r oc e l l a e ,

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rabidi tacete Cauri t a c e a t s o n or u s A uster s olus o va n t e m Z ephyrus r d o m in e t ur a nn u m e p ,

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23 4

.

CLAUDIAN x m (

) Solitas galea fulgere co m as S tili cho m olli n e ct e coro n a cesse n t litui s a evum q u e p r oc ul M a r t em felix taeda r e l e g e t tractus ab aula r urs u s i n a u l a m patris ofli ciis r e d e a t s a n guis iu n g e potenti pignora dextra gener A ug u sti p r id e m fu eras n u nc r u r s u s eris s o c e r Augusti quae ia m rabies li vor is e r it vel q u is d a b it u r color in vid i a e Stili cho s ocer est pater est Stilicho III

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1 x v ( ) .

Attolle n s t h a l a m is I d a l iu m iub a r d il e ct u s Ve n eri n a s c it u r H esp erus iam n up t a e t r ep id a t s ol l icit u s pudor iam p r o d un t l a cr im a s fl a m m e a simpl ic es n e cessa i u ve n is c om m i n u s a d r e d i g im p a ca t a licet s a e vi a t u n g u ib u s n on q uis q u a m fr uit ur veris o d or ib u s H y b l a e os l a t e b r is n ec s p ol ia t f avos s i f ro n ti caveat s i t im e a t r u b o s a r m a t spina rosas m ella t e u n t apes g c r e s c u n t di ffi c il i gaudia iu r io g a cc e n d it u e magis quae r e f u it Ven u s g q quod fl e n t i t u l e r is plus sapit osc u l u m d i ces o q u ot i ens hoc mih i d ul ciu s qua m fl a vos d e c ie n s v incere S a r m a t a s .

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VERSES I I I — I V

FE S CE N N INE

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III

( XII I)

Twi n e with a soft garland Stilicho the locks whereo n a hel m et is wo n t to shine Let the tr u mp ets of wa r ceas e a n d the propitious torch of m arriage ba nish savage M ars af ar Let regal blood u nite o n ce m ore with regal blood Perfor m a father s o ffice a n d u nite these childre n wi th thi n e illustrio u s ha n d Thou di dst m arry an emperor s daughter n ow i n turn thy da u ghter shall m arry an e mperor What roo m is here f or the madness of j ealousy ? What excuse for e n v y ? Stil i cho is f ather both of bride a n d bridegroo m ,

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X I V ( )

IV

H esperu s loved of V e n us rises and shin es for the 1 m arriag e with hi s Idalia n rays Maide n sham e n o w overco m es the a n xious bride ; her veil n ow shows traces of i nn oce n t tears H esitate n ot to be clos e i n t hi n e attacks you n g lover e e n though s h e oppos e thee s avagely with cruel fi ng e r n ail N o n e ca n e nj oy the sce n ts of spri n g n or steal the ho n ey of H ybla fro m its fast n esses if he f ears that thorns m ay scratch h is face Thorn s arm the rose and bees fi n d a defe n ce f or their ho n ey The re f usal s the desire f or of coy n ess do but i n crease the j oy ; that whi ch fl ies u s is the m ore i n fla m ed sweeter is the kiss s n atched through tears H ow oft wilt thou s a y B etter t hi s tha n te n victories over the yellow haired S a r m a t a e ,

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d a l ia n : f ro m V en u s

1

to

I

I d a l iu m ,

a

m oun ta in in C yp rus ,

sa

cred

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23 7

CLAUDIA N Ads p ir a t e

n ova m

p

fid em s e ns ib u s

e ct orib u s

m a ns ur a m q u e f a c e m tra di te ta m i un ctis m a nib u s n e c t it e vincula , f r o n d e n s hedera s t r in it u r aesculus , ua m g q q ua m le n to p r e m it ur palmite populus , .

m ur m ur q uer u la bla n di ns alite l in g uis a d s id u o reddi te m u t ui s et

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l a b r is a ni m um c oncil ia n t ib us a l t e r n u m rapiat som n us a n h el i t um a m l e x u c a l e a t purp ura regio p e t vestes T r io sa n gui n e f ul g id a s y alter virg in e u s n ob il i t e t cruor t um victor m a di do p r os il ia s toro n oc t u rni r e f e r e n s vul n era p r o e l ii D u c a n t p e r vig i l e s carmi n a tibiae r m is s is u e i oc i s turba l i c e n t ior e p q ex u ltet t e t ricis libera l e g ib us passi m cu m d ucib us l ud it e milites , pas si m cum pueris l ndi te vir g in e s haec vox a e t h e riis ins on e t a x ib u s , et

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haec vox per populos per m are tra n seat ” f orm osus M ariam d ucit H o n orius ,

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23 8

EPITH A L A M I U M DE N U P T I I S H O N O R I I A U G USTI P R A E F AT I O

I x (

S ur g e r e t

in

)

d u e to c um Pel i on a r c u n e c c a e r e t t a ntos hosp i t a t e rr a d e o s p cu m s oc e r a e q u o r e u s n u m e r o s a q u e t u rb a s or or u m c e r t a r e n t ep u l i s contin u a r e d i es r a e b e r e t u e Io vi comm uni a u l a C h ir on oc p p q mollite r obl i q u a pa r te r e f u s u s eq ui Pene u s g e l id o s m u t a r e t n e c t a r e f ontes O e t a e is fl u c r e n t s p u mea vi n a i ngis Te rp s ic ho r e f a c il e m l a sc ivo p o llice m ovit ba rbiton e t m olles d u x i t i n a ntra c h or os c a rmi na n e e sup e ri s n e e d is p l ic u e r e T o n a nti cum t e n e r is n os s e n t c o n gr u a v ota m o d i s Cent a u r i F a u n i q u e n e g a n t q u a e fl e c t c r e l i h o e t o n qu a e ri g i d u m p o t e r a n t ple c t r a mo v e r e P h ol u m th a l a m u m

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Septim a l ux a de r a t c a e l o t o ti e n s q u e r e n a to vid e r a t ex a c t o s I I C S C I U S i n e c h o r o s P g t um P h o eb u s q u o s a x a d o m a t q u o p e r t r a h i t o rn us pe ct ine t e m p t a vit n o b il io r c l y r a m ‘

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i u s ia m S fi b d o n d c t Ac h i l l c m p q i a m P h ry g i as c a e d e s i a m S i m o é n t a c a n i t f r ondoso s t r e p u it f e l ix Hymen a eus Ol y m p o ; r e in a m r e s o n a nt O th r y s c t O s s a T h e t i m g ve n t ur u m

u e s a c r is

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240



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EPITH A L A M I U M O F HO NORI US AN D MARI A P R E FA CE

I X ( )

W h en Pel i o n rea r ed h i s height to fo r m a b ri d al cham b e r w it h long d r a wn a r ches and h i s hos p i t a b le land c o uld n o t c on t a i n s o many gods w hen Ne r e u s s ir e o f the b ride and a l l the t h r ong o f he r s i ste r s st r ove to li n k d a y to day wi th f eas t ings when Ch iron lying at ease wi th h is ho r se fl a nk s curled u nde r h i m — f f o e r ed the lo v ing c u p to J o v e w hen Pene u s t ur ned h is c old wat e r s to n e cta r and f r oth i ng wi ne fl o w ed do w n f r om O cta s s u mmit Te r ps i cho r e s truck he r r e a dy ly r e w i th f estive hand and led t h e g irl i sh bands i nto the c aves The gods t he T h u nde r e r himself di sda in ed n o t these s ongs fo r they k ne w that lo v e r s vo w s e v e r ha rmonized with tender st r a i ns Centa ur s and Fa u ns wo u ld ha ve none o f it : w hat ly r e could to uc h Rhoetus o r mo v e in h u m a n P h o l u s The seventh day h a d flamed in hea v e n s e v en times h a d Hespe ru s rel u med h i s la m p and seen the dances completed ; then Phoeb u s to u ched his ly r e with that noble r q u ill w herewith he leads capt i ve roc k s and mountain as hes and sang to h is sac r e d st r ings n o w the p r o m ised bi r th of A c hil l es now t h e sl a ughte r o f the Tr oj an s and the r i v e r Simo i s The — happy ma rr iage cry re e c hoed o e r leafy Olympus and O t h ry s and Ossa g a ve ba c k their mi s t r ess Thetis n ame -

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241

EPITH A LA M I U M

H a u s e r a t in s ol i t os p r om is s a e vi rginis ign es Augustus p r im o q u e rudi s fl a g r a ve r a t a e s t u

n ec n ovus u n de calor n ec quid s u s p ir ia ve l l e n t n o ve r a t incipiens e t a d h u c i n a r u s ama n di g n on illi venator e q uus n o n spicula c u r a e n o n i a c u l u m t or q u e r e l ib et m ens om nis a b e r r a t in vul n us q u od fi x it A m or qua m s a ep e m e d ul l is e r u it m i e t u quotie n s i n a n u i ore s c d t p g c o n f e s s u s s ecreta r u bor n om e n u e beatum q in iu s s a e s cr ip s e r e m an u s iam m unera n up t a e ra e ara t et l M ariae sed luce m i n ores u c h r s o p p p e l i i t orn atus u id u id venerabilis olim g q q Li v ia d ivor u m q u e murus g e s s e r e s up e r b a e i n c u s a t spes a e g r a m oras l on g iq u e vid e n t u r stare dies s e g n e m q u e rotam n o n fl e ct e r e Phoeb e S oyria s ic t e n e r u m Virgo fl a m m a b a t Ach il l e m ,

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10

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f r a u di s

a

d h uc

d u c e r e fil a

ex

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15

b e l l a t r ic e s q u e d o c e b a t

m a n us e t m o x quos h or r ui t Ide T h e s s a l ic o s ros eo n e c t e b a t poll i ce crines u on a m H aec etia m q u e r it ur s ecu m us q u e q ,

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ve r e n d u s

2 42

20

CLAU DI AN c un c t a t ur

m ea vota

quid iun g e r e di ffert preces im p l e r e r e c u s a t

s oc e r

q u am p ep ig it c a s t a s q u e n o n ego l ux urie m reg u m m or e m u e s e c u t u s q 1 u a e s ivi vu l t u m t a bulis n un t i a f ormae u t q len a p er in n um e r os iret p ic t ur a p e n ates 2 n ec va r iis d u bium t h a l am is l e ct ur u s a m or em ac a rdua co mmi si f a l s a e c on u b i a ce r n on rapio p r a e c ep s a l ie n a e f oe d er a taedae s e d quae sponsa mihi ri d e m a t r i s u e r el i c t a p q p m a n d a t is uno m ater n i sa n gui n is ort u fasti di a s up p l e x comm un e m partitur a y u m de li mi n e sacro d e p o s u i g e s s i q u e p r o c um or a t u m mi si proceres qui proxi m a n obis iura te n e n t fa t e or Stilicho n on parva p op os c i s e d certe m e r e or pri n ceps h oc pri n cip e n atus q ui sibi te g e n e r um f ratern a prole r e vin x it fae n us mihi solve p a t e r n um c ui Maria m debes redde suos aulae m ater f or t a s s e r og a r i m ol li or o p a t r ui ger m e n cui n o m i nis heres successi subl i me decus t orr e n t is H ib e r i s tirp e soror pietate pare n s tibi c r e di t u s in fa ns in q u e tuo c r e vi gremio p a r t u q u e re m oto tu p ot iu s Fl a c cil l a mihi qui d di vidis erg o ,

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1

a u is

t b l 2

vu l g

B ir t

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r ea d s

B ir t

l a t u rus

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ectu

d a ug hter of H on orius the el der th e b roth er of Theodo s ius the G re a t Theod os ius a dopted S erena s o th a t b y a do ption H on oriu s a n d S eren a were b rother a nd s i s ter 1

S erena ,

t h a l a m i s wi th th e b etter MS S wi th P oth er M S S l r ns

r ea d s

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2 44

EPITHALAM I U M w ill ho n oured Stilicho forb ear t o gra n t m y pray ers Why postpo n es he the u nion of thos e whos e love h e has approved ? Why should he re f us e to fulfil m y chaste desires I follow not the example of luxurious pri n ces in s eeki n g the beauties of a pictured c ou n t e n a n ce whereby the pa n der ca n vass m ay pass fro m house t o hous e t o m ake kn own the char m s de m a n d e d ; n or yet have I sought to choose the u n certai n obj ect of m y love fro m this hous e or fro m that a n d thus e n trusted t o deceptive wax the di ffi cult selectio n of a bride I sever n ot i n vi ole n ce the bo n ds that u nite a wedded woma n to her lord her I seek wh o hath long bee n betrothed t o m e who by a father s orders wa s le f t m y a ffi a n c e d bride a n d wh o through her m other shares with m e a co mm o n gra nds ire A s uppli a n t I have laid aside m y rank a n d acted the suitor Pri n ces seco n d o nly to m yself i n ra nk have I se n t fro m m y imperial palace t o prese n t m y petitio n T i s n o small thi n g I a s k Stilicho that I admit yet surely to m e an e mperor by givi ng thee his s o n of that other e m peror wh o brother s adopted daughter to wi f e made the e h is — law to m e thou dost owe Mari a Pay i n n so back t o the s on the i n terest due t o his sire restor e to the palace thos e wh o are it s own Mayhap 1 her m other wi ll b e less i n exorable Daughter o f mi n e u n cle H o n orius whence I derive m y n a m e chief glory of the la n d of swift fl owin g Ebro cousi n by birth by m other s love a m other to thy care wa s m i n e i nf a n cy e n trusted i n thi n e ar m s I g rew t o boy hood ; s av e for m y birth thou rather tha n P lacilla art m y m other Wh y dost thou separat e thy two S erena wa s pro b a b l y b orn in 3 76 b y b irth cou s ins H on ori us not ti l l S ept 9 3 8 4 ,

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5

CLAU D I A N pign ora p t a t us n e

o

n ox

um

quid iuveni n ata m n on r e d d is alu mn o dies a d e r it d a b it u r n e i u g a l i s

am u q

s ol a t u r

vul n era q u e s t u r is it A m or p l a cid a e q u e vol a t t r a n s a e q u or a m atri nu n tius e t t o t a s ia c t a n t ior e x p li c a t alas Mo n s latus Io ni um Cy p r i p r a e r up t u s ob um b r a t in vius hu m a n o g r e s s u P h a r iu m q u e c ub il e P r ot e os e t s epte m d e s p e c t a t cornua Nili h un c n eque candentes a u d e n t vestire p r ui n a e hu n e ve n ti pulsare t im e n t h un c l a e d er e nimbi pars a crior a nni l u x ur i a e Ve n e r iq u e va c a t e x u l a t ; a e t e rni patet i n d ul g e n t i a veris h u n c aurea s a ep e s in c a m p u m s e f u n d it ap ex circuit e t fulvo d e f e n d it prata m etallo Mulciber ut p er h ib e n t his oscula c oni ug is e mi t m o e ni b u s e t tales u x or iu s ob t ul it arces i ntus rura m ica n t m a ni b u s quae s ub di t a mullis perp et u u m fl or e n t Z ep h y r o co n tenta colo n o um b r os u m q u e n e m us q uo n o n a d m i tt it ur ales ni p r ob e t a n te suos diva sub iudi ce ca n tus q uae p l a cuit fr ui t u r ramis q u ae vieta r e c e d it vivu n t i n Ve n ere m f ro n des o m ni s q u e vicis s im felix arbor amat n utant ad m utua palm ae fo e d e r a populeo s u s p ir a t populus ict u e t plata ni p l a t a n is a l n o q u e a d s ib il a t al n us L a b u n t ur ge mi ni fo n tes hi e dulcis a m arus a lter e t i n f us is corr um un t m ell a ve n e n is p Tali

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2 46

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60

CLAUDIA N unde Cup idi n e a s ar m ari fa m a s agittas mille p h a r e t r a t i l u d un t in margi n e fratres o r e pares a e vo s i m i les ge n s molli s Am o r u m hos N y m p h a e p a r iun t il l um Ven u s aurea solu m e d idi t ille deos c a e l u m q u e e t sidera co r n u t e m p e r a t e t s u m m os di g n a t u r fi g e r e reges hi p l e b e m f e r iu n t n ec cetera numina d e s un t hic habitat n ullo constricta L ic e n t i a nodo e t fl e c t i f aciles Irae vin o q u e m a d e n t e s E x c u b i a e L a c r im a e q u e r u des e t gratus a m a n t u m Pallor e t in p ri m i s t i t ub a n s Au dacia f ur t is iu cu n d i q u e M etus e t no n s ec u ra Vol u ptas e t lasciva v olant l e vib u s P e r iu r i a ventis quos i n ter p e t u l a n s alta cervice I u ve n t a s e x cl u di t S en ium l u co P r oe nl atria di va e per mu ta n t radios s il va q u e obstante vir e s c u n t L e m ni u s haec etia m g e m mi s e x t r u x it e t auro a d mi s c e n s arte m p r e t i o t r a b ib u s q u e s m a r a di g su os u it c a e s a s hyacinthi r u p e col u mnas pp b e r y l l o par i es e t iaspide lub r ica s u r g un t li mina d e s p e ct u s q u e solo c a l ca t ur achates in m edio g l a e b is r e d ol e n t ib u s area di ves r a e b e t o d o r a t a s m esses ; hic m itis a m om i p hic c a s ia e m atura s e g e s P a n ch a e a q u e tu r ge n t n ec s ic co f ro n d e s c u n t vi mina costo c in n a m a t a r d a q u e sudanti p r or e p u n t balsa m a rivo Q u o p os t q u a m d e l a p s u s A mor l on g a s q u e p e r e g it p enna v ias a l a c e r p a s s u q u e s u p e r b i or in t r a t c a e s a r i e m tunc f orte Venus s u b ni x a cor u sco dextra l a e va q u e s or or e s fi n g e b a t solio largos h aec nectaris im b r e s s t a b a nt I d al ia e .

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2 48

i

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the

G ra ce s

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EPIT H ALA M I U M that Cupid dips h is arrows A thousa n d brother Loves with q uivers play all arou n d upon the ba n ks a te n der company l ike to Cupid hi m self i n face a n d eq u al a g e The n ymphs are their mothers ; of C u pid is the only ch i ld of golden Venus H e wi th his bo w subdues the sta r s and the gods and heave n a n d disdai n s n ot to wo un d mighty k ings ; of the others the co m mo n people is the prey Other deities t o o are here Lice n c e bo u nd by 11 0 fetters easily moved A n ger Wakes d rippi n g with win e ine x pe r ienced Tears Pallor that lo v ers ever priz e Boldness tre m bling at his first the f ts happy Fears u n stable Pleas u re a n d love r s Oaths the sport of e v ery li ghtest breez e A mid them all w a n to n Youth w ith haughty n eck shuts o ut Age from the gro v e A f ar sh in es a n d glitters the goddess m any —coloured palace gree n gleaming by reaso n of the e n circli n g grove Vulca n built this too of precious sto n es a n d gold weddi n g their costli n ess to art Colu mn s cut f ro m roc k of hyaci n th support e m erald bea m s the w alls are of beryl the h i gh builded thresholds the floo r of agate trodden a s o f polished j aspa r dirt be n eath the f oot I n the midst is a courtyard rich with f ragrant t u rf that yields a harvest of perfu me ; there grows sweet spike n ard a n d rip e cassia P a n ch a e a n cinna m on fl owe r s a n d sprays o f oozy bal m w hile balsa m creeps f orth slowly i n an exudi ng stream Hither Lo v e glided dow n wi n ging h is way o er the long j o u r n ey Joy f u lly a n d with pro u der gait tha n e er his wont he enters Ve n us was seated o n her glitteri n g throne tir in g her hair O n her right 1 han d and on her le f t stood the Idalia n sisters Of thes e o n e pours a ric h strea m of n ectar over V e n us .

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2 49

CLAU D IA N inrig a t , haec m or s u n u m erosi de n tis eburn o m ul t ifi d um di s c r im en arat s e d tertia retro

dat v arios n exus e t iu s t o di vi di t orbes ordi n e n e g l e ct a m parte m studiosa r el in q u en s plus error d e c uit speculi n ec vul t u s e g e b a t iudi cio si mili s tecto m ons t r a t ur i n o m ni 1 e t c a it u r u oc u m u e videt du m singula c e r nit p q q se q ue probat nati ve ni e n t is c on s p icit u m b r a m a m b r os io u e si n u r um co m plexa f e r oce m u e 1 1 0 q p quid ta n tu m g a vis us ait ; q uae p r o el ia sudas i mprobe q uis ia c uit telis it e r u m n e T o n a n t e m i n ter Sido nias c og is m ug ir e iu ve n ca s an T it a n a domas an p a s t o r a l i a L u n a m r u r s u s in a n tra vocas ? duru m m a g n u m q u e vid e r is ” debellasse de um 1 16 S u s p e n s u s i n oscula m atris ille r e f e r t Laetare pare n s inm a n e t r op a e u m r e tt ul i m u s n ostru m ia m s e n s it H o n orius aroum scis M aria m p a t r e m q u e d u ce m qui cuspide Gallos 1 20 I t a l i a m q u e f o ve t n ec te p r a e cl a r a S e r e n a e fa m a latet p r op e r a r e g a l i b u s a d n u e vot is i n nge toros Gre mi o n a t um Cytherea r e m ovit e t cri n es festi n a li at p e p l u m q u e fl u e n t e m g a d l e va t e t bla n do s p ir a n t e m n u mi n e cesto n cin g it u r impulsos p l uvn s q u o mi t ig a t a mn es q uo m are q uo ve n tos ir a t a q u e fu l m i n a s ol vit u t s t e tit ad litus parvos a d f a t u r alu mn os H e n s quis c rit p u e ri vi t r e a s q ui lapsus i n u n das huc r a p id um Tr ito n a voc et q uo vect a p er altu m ,

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B ir t, f ol l owing th e MS S , r a p itu r ; by Con i ng ton , comp a ri ng V ir g A en 250 1

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wa s

ca p itur

viii

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3 11

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s ug g es ted

CLAU DI A N haud u m q u a m tanto mihi ve n e r it usu 1 3 0 sacri quos p e t im u s thalami p e r ni c iu s om n es u a e r it e s e u co n cha L ib y c u m c ir c u m s o n a t aequor q i u c u m q u e r e er t um Ae g a e a s s e u fr a n g it aquas q p ” d u x e r it aurata d on a b it u r ille p h a r e t r a D i x e r a t e t sparsa di versi pleb e f e r u n t ur p elagi s u b fl u c t ib u s ib a t e x p l or a t o r e s C a rp a t hi is Triton o b l u c t a n t e m q u e p e t e b a t ti m et illa feru m s e s e q u e s e q u e n t i Cy m ot h o e n s u b r ip it e t duris e l a b i t u r uda l a c e r t is heus in q ui t s p e c ul a t u s Am or n on vestra s u b imis furta tegi p o t u e r e vadis accingere n os t r a m 141 preti um n o n vile l a b or is ve c t u r u s do mina m Cy m o t h o en f a cil e m q uae n u n c d e t r e c t a t h a b e b is ” hac mercede ve ni P r or up it gurgite t or vu s s e m i f e r ; u n d o s i ve r r e b a n t bra c h i a crines hispida t e n d e b a n t b ifi d o vest i gia cor nu qua pistrix co m missa viro ter p ectora m ovit iam q u arto P a p h ia s t r a c t u s ul c a b a t h a r e n a s u m b r a t u r a d e a m retro s in u a t u r in a r c u m belua tum vi v o s q u a l e n t ia m urice te r ga 1 2 p u rpureis m ol l i t a toris hoc n a vig a t antro f u l t a Ve n us ; ni ve a e d e l ib a n t a e q u or a plantae p r osequitur vol u ce r late comitat u s Am or u m serta per t r a n q uil l u m q u e c h o r is q u a t it u r m are

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om n e m

di sp ersa d om u m Ca d m eia l u di t Leucotho e fr e n a t q u e rosis delphi n a Palaemo n alter n as viol i s Nereus in t e r s e r it algas

N e p t un i

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,

1

toris A f ol l owed 2 ,

252

by B ir t 1 a n tro P

bu t ro s i s VP i s vu l g o s tro .

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a

ttr a cti ve

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EPITHAL A M I U M '

q uickly o e r the deep ? Never will he have come t o do us better service Sacred is the marriage that I s eek M ake all speed i n your sea r ch ; m ay be the Libya n s ea rings t o his conch may be he cleaves the Aegea n mai n Whoso shall fi n d and bring hi m hither shall have a golde n q ui ver a s a ” re w ard She spake a n d dividi n g i n to various bands the scouts s et o u t Trito n wa s s wi mmi ng be n eath the waves of the Carpathia n s e a pursui n g relucta n t Cy m ot h o é She f eared her ro u gh lover a n d eluded his purs u it her wet f orm gliding through the em braces of his strong ar m s One of the Loves espied h im a n d cried Stay ! the deeps ca nn ot hide your amo u rs M ake ready to carry our m istress ; as a re w ard for thy s ervices ( a n d tis n o m eagre on e ) thou shalt have Cy m ot h o e a complaisa n t mistress shall she be though s h e fl out thee n ow Com e a n d wi n thy reco m pe n s e The dread m o n ster upros e fro m the abyss ; his billo wing hair swept his shoulde r s ; hoo fs o f clove n horn grown rou n d with bristles sprang fro m where his fishy tail j oi n ed his ma n s body H e swa m three strokes a n d at the f ourth stra n ded upo n the shore of Cyprus To shade the goddess th e monster arched back h is tail ; the n his back rough with li vi n g purple wa s bedded with scarlet coverlets ; resti n g i n such a retreat does V e n us voyage her s n owy f eet j ust dippi n g i n the s e a A great co mpa ny o f wing e d Lo ves fly after her troub l ing the calm sur f ace of Ocea n N eptune s palace i s all adorned with flowers Leucotho e daughter of Cadmus sports on the water a n d Palae m o n d r ives his dolphi n with a bridl e of roses Nereus s ets violets here .

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CLAU DIA N c a ni t i e

m

i n m o r t a l i b u s h e r b is e t va r iis v e c t a e N e r e id e s ib a n t

Glaucus ligat

.

n ec n o n a u d i t o ru m ore feris ha n c pisce voluto ( s ub l e va t Ocea ni monstr um T a r t e s i a tigris ha n c ti m or Ae g a ei r up t ur u s f ro n te car i nas t r u x aries haec c a e r ul e a e suspe n sa l e a e n a e inn a t a t haec vi r id e m t r a h it u r co mplexa iu ve n cu m ) 1 6 5 c e r t a t im u e n ovis o n e r a n t c o n u b i a donis q cingula Cy m o t h o e r a r u m G alatea mon i le et r a vib u s Psa m athe ba c is di adema f e r e b a t g in t e x t u m R u b r o quas l e g e r a t ipsa pro f u ndo m e r g it s e s u bito ve l l it q u e c or a l l i a Doto vime n erat du m stagna s u bit p r oc e s s e r a t undis 1 70 ge m ma f uit N u dae Venerem cin x e r e c a t e r va e l a u d e n t e s u e s imu l tali c u m v oce s equu n t u r p q h o s Mariae c u ltus haec m u n era n ost r a p r e c a m u r reg in ae regina f eras dic talia n u m q u a m r o m e r u is s e T h e t im n ec cum soror A mphitrite p n ostro n u p t a Iov i d e vot u m s e n t ia t aeq u or a n os c a t f a m ul u m vi r go S t ili c h on i a n tum o g p vi ctrices n os s a ep e rates cl a s s e m q u e p a t e r n a m ” ve x im u s a t t r i t is c um t e n d e r e t u ltor Ac h ivi s I a m L ig u r um terris s p u m a n t ia p ectora Trito n 1 8 0 a d ul e r a t l a s s os u e fr etis e x t e n d e r a t orbes p q conti n uo sub lim e vola n s ad m o e ni a Gallis condita lanigeri suis os t e n t a n t ia p el l e m e r ve n it a r e c e d un t V e n eris pulsata d v e n u t p n ubila cl a r e s cun t puris Aq u il on ib u s A lpes .

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N eptun e

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I s id Or ig xv l voca tu m M ed iol a n u m a b eo, q u od i b i s u s i n med io l a n ea p er h i betu r i n ven ta ; S idon Apo l vii 1 7 et qu a e l a n ig er o d e s u e n omen ha ben t 1

M il a n

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f

c

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254

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CLAU D IA N l a e t it i a e

causas

dicere miles M a vor t i a signa r ub e s c un t

ig n or a t

l a e t a t ur q u e t a m e n fl or ib u s

fr on d ib u s h a s t a e

e t s u b it is a ni m a n t u r

illa s u um

d ic t i s

a d fa t u r

t a l ib u s

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agmen

nostri co m ites a r c e t e p a r u m p e r 1 9 0 u t soli va c e t a u la mihi r o c u l i n e u s horror p g t h or a c u m g l a di os q u e t e g a t vagi n a m i n a c e s stent b e l l a t r ic e s aq u ilae s a e viq u e dr aco n es fas sit castra m eis hodi e s u cc u m b e r e s ig nis : tibia pro l it u is e t pro clangore t ub a r um m olle lyrae f e s t u m q u e canant e p ul e n t u r ad ip s a s e x c u b ia s m ediis s p ir e n t c r a t e r e s i n ar mi s l a x e t t e r r ib il es m a ie s t a s regia f ast u s e t s o ci a m l e b e m n o n indignata potestas p c o n f un d a t t u r b a e proceres s ol va n t u r h a b e ni s 2 00 ga u di a n ec leges p u d e a t ridere s everas Tu festas H y m e n a e e f aces t u Gratia fl or es elige tu gemi n as Concor di a n e c t e coronas vo s p en n ata c oh o r s u o c u m u e vo c a v e r i t usus q q di v isa p r op e r a t e man u n eu m a r c e a t ulla s e n it i e s : al ii f un a l ib u s ordine d u c t is g pl urima ve n t u r a e s u s p e n d i t e l umina mo oti hi nostra n it id os postes ob d u c e r e my r to pars n e c t a r e is a d s p e r g it e tecta c on t e n d a n t f o n t ib u s e t flamma l u c os a d ol e t e S a b a e os pars infecta croco velam i na lutea S er um pa n di te S id oni a s q u e solo p r os t e rn it e v estes ast alii t h a l a m um docto c om p on it e t e x t u stam i ne gemmato p ic t u r a t is q u e c o l u m n is G r a di vu m ,

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EPITH A L A M I U M n eath the clear North wi n d The soldi er rej oices tho u gh he can n ot tell why The standards of war b u rgeo n with red fl owers a n d the spears on a sudden sp r o u t with li ving leaves The n Venus thus address es her atte n dant th r ong Co mrades m i n e keep a w ay f or a while the g o d of war that the palace may be mi n e a n d m i n e alo n e Ba ni sh af ar the terror of the fl ashi n g breastplate let i t s scabbard sheath the threatening sword A dva n ce n ot the sta n dards of wa r the eagles and savage dr agons Thi s d a y the cam p shall yield t o m y sta n dards ; th e flute shall so un d i n stead o f the bugle the sof t strai n s of the happy lyre take the plac e of the tr u mp ets blare Let the soldie r s f east e v e n w he n o n g u ard and the beakers foam in the mi dst o f arms Let regal m aj esty lay by its awf ul pride and power disdaining n ot to associate with the people m ake on e the n ob l es with the crowd Let j oy be u n restrai n ed a n d sober Law hers elf b e n ot asham ed to laugh Hym en choos e thou the festal torches a n d ye Graces gather flo w ers for th e f east Thou Co n cord w eave t w o garlands You winged ba n d di vi de and haste n W hithersoe v er y o u can b e o f u s e let none b e sloth f u l or lazy Y ou others ha n g n u m berless lamp s in o r der fro m their brack ets aga in st the co m ing of n i ght Let thes e haste to entwine the gleaming door posts with m y sac r ed myrtle Do yo u sprinkle the palace w ith drops of nectar a n d kin dle a whole g r ove of Sabaea n ince n s e Let others u nf old y ellow dyed silks f rom Chi n a a n d spread tapestries of Sido n Do you e m ploy all your arts i n o n the ground decorating the m arriage b ed Wove n with j ewels a n d upbor n e o n car v ed colum n s be its canopy such .

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CL A U DI A N apex q u a l e m n on Lydia di v es e r e x it Pelop i nec que m s t r u x e r e L y a e o I n d or u m s p ol iis e t opaco pal mite Bacchae ill i o ex u vi as om n es c u mulate p a r e n t um u id u id avus s e nior M auro vel Saxo n e victis q q u id u id ab in n u m e r is socio S t il i c h o n e t r e m e n d u s q q u a e s ivit ge n itor bellis q u o d c u m q u e G elo nu s q q ua n t u m crinita s a g it t is Ar m e n iu s ve ded i t a t t u l it e x tremo M ero e c ir c u m fl u a Nilo misit Ach a e m e n io q uid q u id de T ig r id e M edus cum s up p l e x e m e r e t R om a n a m Parthia pace m

a e di fic e t u r

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220

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n ob il ib u s

g

a z is op ib u s q u e c u b il i a s u r

g

2 25

ant

omnes thala m o c o n f e r t e t riu m p h o s Sic ait e t s p on s a e p etit impro v isa p e n ates illa aute m s ecura tori t a e d a s q u e parari n escia d ivin a e fr uit ur sermone pare ntis m a t e r n o s q u e bibit m ores e x e m p l a q u e d i s cit prisca p u di cit ia e L a t ios n ec vol v ere libros d e s in it aut G r a ios ipsa g e n e t ric e m a g is t r a M a e on iu s q u a e c um q u e senex aut T h r a ciu s Orpheus a u t M y t il e n a e o m o d ul a t ur p ecti n e Sappho s ic T r ivi a m Lato n a mo n et i m itis i n antro s c ( Mne m osy n e docili t r a di t p r a e c ep t a T h a l ia e ) c um p r oc ul augeri ni t or e t iu c un di or a é r a t t on i t a m l u strare d o m u m f un d i u e co m aru m q g r atus odor m o x vera fi d e s n u m e n q u e r e ful s it 2 40 c u n c t a t u r s t u e f a c t a Venus ; n unc o ra uel l a e p p b a r b a r icis

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25 8

CL A UD IAN n unc fl a va m ni v eo m ir a t u r v ert i ce m a t r e m haec modo c r escenti p l e n a e par altera l u nae a d s u r it ceu forte m i n or s u b matre virenti g la u rus e t i n ge n tes ram os ol im q u e futu r as r o mi t t it ia m p arva co m as ; v e l flore sub uno p ce u ge mi n ae P a e s t a n a r o s a e p er iug e r a regnant haec largo m atura d i e s a t u r a t a q u e ver nis r or ib u s in d u l e t spatio latet altera nodo g n ec t e n e r is audet f ol i is a d m itt e r e soles Ad s t it it e t blande M ariam Cytherea s a l u t a t sal v e s id e r e a e proles aug u sta S e r e n a e m a g n or u m s ub ol e s regum p a r it ur a q u e reges te propter P a p h ia s s edes Cy p r u m q u e r e l iq ui te propter l ib uit tantos e x p l e r e labo r es e t ta n t um t r a n s n a r e maris n e vil i or ultra r iva t o s a t r e r e lares n eu tempore lo n go e p p d il a t os iu v e n is n u t r ir e t Honori u s i gnes a cc i e f o r t un a m ge n eris diadema resume p quod t r ib u a s n atis e t i n haec p e n etral i a r ur s u s unde pare n s progressa redi fac n ulla s u b e s s e v incula c og n a t a e q u a m vis aliena f u isses r in c i i b u s m r er i regn u m hoc ore e r a e o t s p p p q u ae p r op ior s c ep tr is f a c ies q u i d ig ni or a u la v u l t u s e r it n on labra r o s a e n on colla p r uin a e n o n c ri nes a e u a n t vio l a e non lumina fl a m m a e q q u a m iu n c t i le vi ter ses e discrimi n e c on f e r t m is c e t qua m i n sta p u d or e m umbra s u pe r cilii t e m p e r i e s n i m i o nec sa n g ui ne candor a b u n d a t .

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2 60

v i ol a

wa s

pro b a b l y

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p a n s y or

wa l l fl ower ,

Gk

EPITH A L A M I U M loveli n ess now the s n owy n eck and golde n hair of the mother The o n e i s li k e unto the crescent m oon the other to the f ull So grows a you n g laurel be n eath the shadow of its pare n t tree and s m all as it n ow is gi v es promis e of great bra n ches and thick f oliage to co m e Or as twere t w o roses of Paestu m o n o n e stalk ; the o n e day s f ulness has bro u ght to maturity ; steep ed in the de w s of spri n g it spreads abroad its p etals ; the other yet n estles in its bud n or dares receive the sun s w ar m th withi n its te n der heart Venus stood and addressed M aria with these ge n tle words All ha i l revered da u ghter of divi n e Serena scion of great k ing s and desti n ed to b e the moth er of kings For thy s ake have I left m y ho m e in Paphos isle and Cypr u s ; for thy s ake was I pleas ed to f ace s o m a n y labours and cross so m a n y s eas lest thou S houldst co n tinue to live a private life little befitti n g thy true w orth a n d lest you n g Ho n orius should still feed i n his heart the fl am e of u n requi ted love Take the ra nk thy birth de m a n ds resume the crow n to b equeath it to thy childre n an d r e e n ter the p alace whe n ce thy mother sprang E e n though n o ties of blood united thee to the royal house though tho u w ert in no way related thereto yet w o u ld thy beauty re n der thee w orthy of a ki ng do m What f ace co u ld rather win a sceptre What co u ntenance b ette r ador n a palace ? Redder tha n roses thy lips whiter tha n the hoar frost thy n e c k 1 co w slips are n ot mo r e yellow tha n thi n e hair fire not m ore bright than thi n e eyes With h ow fi n e a n i n terspace do the delicate eyebro w s m eet upo n thy forehead H ow j ust the ble n d that m akes thy blush thy fairn ess n ot o erm a n tl e d with t o o m uch ,

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CLAU D IA N Aurorae vi n cis di g i t os um er os q u e Dian ae s i Bacchus a m a t or ip s a m i a m sup eras m a t r e m dotal i p ot uit caelum s ig n a r e coro n a cur n ul l is Virgo r e di mi t ur p ul ch r ior astris ? ia m tibi m ol it u r s t e l l a n t ia serta Bootes in q u e decus M ariae ia m sidera p a r t ur it aether i di g n o n e ct en d a vi ro t a n t i q u e p er orb e m ia m te ve n e r a b it u r H ister c on s or s imp erm n o m e n a d or a b un t populi ia m Rh e n u s e t Albis a m b r os s e r vi e t ; i n m edios ibis regi n a S yg q ui d n u m ere m ge n tes At l a n t e os q u e recessus ” Oceani toto pariter d on a b e r e m u n do Dixit e t orn atus d e d e r a n t quos n up er ovantes Nereides collo m em b r is q u e m ic a n t ib u s aptat ipsa caput di s ting uit acu s ub s t r in g it ami ctus ; fl a m m e a virg in e is acco mm odat ipsa c a p il l is ante fores ia m po m pa s on a t p il e n t a q u e sacra r a e ra d i a n t d u c t u r a muru m calet obvi n s ire p ia m pri n ceps t a r d um q u e cupit di scedere sole m n obilis ha u d aliter s onip e s q ue m prim us a m ori s s ol l i cit a vit odor tu midus u a t i e n s u e decoras q q curvata cervice iub as P hars al i a ru ra e rv ol a t e t n otos hi n ni t u fl a i t a t a mn es p g n a r ib u s a c c e ns i s m ul c e t fecu n da m a g is tr os Sp es g r e g is e t p ul ch r o gaude n t arm e n ta m arito Ca n di dus in t e r e a p o s it is e x e rcit u s armi s e x u l t a t s oc e ru m cir ca n ec signi fer ul l us .

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The p a rt ing of the h a ir with rria g e b y ca p ture ( cf Ca tul l us .

CLAU D IA N Aurora e vi n cis di g it os um eros q u e Dian ae s i Bacchus a m a t or ip s a m ia m superas m a t r e m dotali p ot uit caelu m s ig n a r e coro n a cur n ul l is virgo r e d im it u r p ul ch r ior astris ? ia m tibi m ol i t ur s t e l l a n t ia s erta Bootes in q u e decus M ariae ia m sidera p a r t ur it aether i di g n o n e c t e n d a vi ro t a n t iq u e per orb e m ia m te ve n er a b it u r H ister c on s or s i m p er ii n o m e n a d or a b un t populi ia m Rh e n u s e t Albis s e r vi e t ; i n m edios ibis regi n a S a m b r os yg q u id n u m ere m ge n tes At l a n t e o s q u e recessus ” Ocea ni toto pariter d on a b e r e m u n do Dixit e t orn atus d e d e r a n t q uos n up e r ova n tes N ereides collo m em b r is q u e m ica n t ib u s aptat ips a caput d is t in g uit acu s ub s t r in g it a mictus ; fl a mm e a virg in eis acco mm odat ipsa c a p il li s ante fores ia m po m pa s on a t p il e n t a q u e sacra r a e r a d ia n t d u c t ur a n ur u m calet ob viu s ire p ia m pri n ceps t a r d um q u e cupit discedere sole m n obi l is haud aliter s onip e s q ue m pri m us a m or is s ol l ic it a vit odor tu m idus u a t ie n s u e decoras q q curvata ce r vice iub as P harsali a rura er vol a t e t n otos h in n it u fl a it a t a mn e s p g m ul c e t fecu n da m a g is t r os n a r ib u s a c c e n s is s p es u l c h r o gaude n t arm e n ta m arito r e is e t g g p Ca n di dus in t e r e a p os it is e x e r cit u s armis e x ul t a t s oc e r um circa n ec si g ni fer ul l us .

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h a ir with Ca tu l l us

EPITHALAM I U M ’

red ! Pinker thy fi n gers tha n A urora s firm e r thy sho u lde r s than Dia n a s e v en thy mother dost thou s u rpass I f Bacchus Ariadne s lover could tra n s f orm his mi stress garland into a co n stellat i o n how comes it that a m ore beauteous maid has n o crown E v e n n ow Bo otes is weavi n g f or thee a of stars ? starry crown eve n n ow heave n brings n ew stars t o birth to do thee hono u r G o m ate with o n e who is w orthy of thee and sha r e with hi m a n e mpire with the w o rld Ister n ow shall do c o extensive thee homage ; all n atio n s shall adore thy n am e Now R hi ne and Elbe shall be thy slaves thou shalt be quee n amo n g the S y g a m b ri Why should I n umber the peoples a n d the Atlan tic s dista n t ” shores The whole world alike shall be thy dowry She spake a n d fitted to M aria s neck and shini n g li mbs the rich gear which the happy Nereids had j u st give n her She parted her ha i r wi th the spear s poi n t gi r ded up her dress and wi th her o wn hands 1 the veil over the maide n s hair The pro s et cessio n is halted singi n g at the door ; brightly gleam s the holy chariot i n which the n ew bride is to fare The pri n ce b u r n s to ru n a n d m eet her and lo n gs for the s u n s tardy setti n g Eve n s o the n oble steed w he n first the smell that stirs his pas sio n s s mites upo n him proudly shakes hi s thi ck di sordered m ane a n d cours es over Pharsalia s plains His n ostrils are a fl a m e a n d with a n eighi n g he g reets the strea m s that s a w h is birth His m asters s m ile a n d the m ares a t the hop e of their stud s i n creas e ta ke pleasure i n their ha n ds o m e m ate M ea nwhi le the army h as laid as ide its s words the soldi ers are dressed i n white a n d thro ng arou n d Stilicho the bride s father N o s ta n da rd -bear e r n or ,





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CLAU DIA N form os us q u e ri gor

vul t u s

u e a u c t ur a ve r e n d os q

ca n ities festi n a ve nit cum sorte remota con tingat senio gravitas vir e s q u e iu ve n t a e ut r a u e te c in it propri i s in s i n ib u s aetas q g g o r n a t u r Fo r tu n a vi ro n on ulla n oce n di tela n ec in f e c t i iug ul is c ivil i b u s e n s e s n on o di u m terrore moves n ec frena r e s ol vi t gratia ; di l i g im u s pariter p a rit e r q u e t im e m u s ips e m etus te n oster amat iu s t is s im e legu m arbiter e g r e g i a e pacis fi di s s im e custos optime d u c t or u m fortunatissi m e p atru m pl u s ia m plus do mino c un ct i deb ere f a t e m ur q u od ge n er e s t in vict e t u n s vin c ir e co r o n a insere te n os tri s con t e m p t o i u re choreis s ic puer E u c h e r iu s s u e r e t v irtute a r e n t em ; p p a u rea sic vi d e a t si miles T h e rm a n t ia t a e d a s s ic uterus c r e s c a t M ariae ; s ic natus i n ostro ” parvus H on oria d e s g e nib u s con s id a t a vit is .

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o u t 3 8 8 ) wa s the s on a n d Ther m a nti a the young er d a u g hter of S ti l icho a n d S erena Af t er th e d ea th of M aria s h e b eca me H onoriu s s econ d wif e 1

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P AN E G Y RI CU S

DE TERTI O CONS U LATU

H ON O R I I

AUGUSTI

P R AE FAT I O

v 1 ( )

Parvos n o n a q ui l i s fas est e d u c e r e f etus a n te fi d e m soli s iu di ciu m q u e poli nam p ater e x c u s s o s a l u it cu m tegmine proles o v aque m a t e r n u s ru p i t h iul c a tepor r ot in u s impl u mes con v e r t i t ad a e t h e r a nidos p e t recto fl a m m a s im e r a t ore p ati p c on s u l it ardentes radios e t l u c e m a i s t r a g n a t o r u m vires in e n i u m u e p r obat g q degenere m refu go t or s it qui lu mine v is u m u n uib u s h un c s a e vi s ira pate r na f e r i t g e x l o r a t o r e s o c u l is ui r t u l i t i gnes e p q p s u s t in u i t u e acie n ob il io r e d i em q n u t r i t u r vol u c r u m u e o t e n s e t f u l m in i s heres p q es t u r u s s u m m o tela t r is u lca Io v i g m e q u oque P i e r i i s t e m p t a t u m s a e p iu s a n t r is audet m agn a s u o mi ttere Ro m a deo ia m do minas aures ia m reg i a tecta m e r e m u r e t chelys Aug u sto i u dice n ostra s o n a t .

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2 68

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P ANE G YRIC

ON T H E

or T H E E M P E R O R

TH IR D CONSULSH IP H ONOR I US (i n 3 96) .

P R E FA C E

V I ( ) ’

Eagles may n ot rea r the i r yo u ng without the su n s p ermi ssio n and the good w ill of hea v en So soon as the chi c ks ha v e shattered their shells and iss u ed f orth a f te r th a t the w armth of the i r mother s body has c r ack ed the open i ng egg the f ather bird m akes haste to c a rr y the u n fl e d g e d nestl i ngs alo f t a n d bids the m gaz e at the s u n s fires w ith u nb l i nking eye H e takes co un sel of those b right beams and u nder light s schooling m ak es t r ial of the st r ength and temp er of his sons The ang r y f ather st rik es with p i t i less talo n s the degene r ate w ho t u rns a w ay his glance b u t he w hose eye can b ear the search i ng flame w ho wi th bolder sight can outstare the noonday s un is bro u ght u p a king of bi r ds heir to the th u nderbolt destined to carry Jove s three forked w eapon So mighty Rom e f ears not to s end me of t tested e er no w in the Muses ca v erns to f ace th e emp eror her god No w ha v e I won an emp eror s ear the entrance to a n emp eror s p alace and the emp eror hi mself as j udge o f my lyre s song .



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P ANE G Y R I CU S

Tertia R o m ulei s um a n t exordi a fasces terque tuas ducat bellatri x pompa curules f e s t ior a n n u s eat cin c t u s q u e i mitata G a b in os di ves H y d a sp eis a u g e s c a t purpu r a g em mi s s u cc e d a n t ar mis trabeae te n toria l ictor a m b i a t e t L a t ia e r e d e a n t ad signa s ec u res tuque o qui p a t r ium curis a e q u a l i b u s or b em B oo cu m f ratre regis procede s e c u n d is a l it ib u s P h o e b iq u e n ovos ordire meatus S p es vot u m q u e poli q ue m pri m o a limine v itae n u t r i x aula f o ve t s t r ic t is que m f u lg i da te l is in ter l a ur ig e r os a l u e r un t castra t r iu m p h os ardua p r iva t os n e s cit Fortu n a p e n ates cog n ata potestas e t reg n u m cu m luce de di t e x c e p i t T y r io ve n erabile pignus i n ostro ,

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l us t r a vit q u e t u os

a

u il is vic t r i cib u s o r t u s q

miles e t i n mediis cunab u la p r a e b uit b astis te nasce nte ferox toto G ermania Rhe n o

.

The cin cl us Ga binus wa s on e of the ins ig ni a of the cons ul I t cons i s ted i n g irding the tog a ti g ht roun d the s hip l oo s e e n d s ) S ervius b ody b y m e a ns o f on e of its l a cin ia e A en vii 6 1 2 ) h a s a s tory th a t G a b ii wa s inva ded ir n V o g ( during the perf orm a nce of a s a crifice a n d th a t the p a rti c ip a nts re pu l s ed the e n e m y in their ci n ctu s 1

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2 70

P ANE GY R I CU S V I L ( )

Tertia R o m ulei s um a n t exor di a fasces ter q ue tuas ducat bellatrix pompa curules f e s ti or ann u s eat cin c t u s q u e i mitata G a b in os di ves H y d a s p e is a u g e s c a t p u rpura g e m mi s s u c c e d a n t ar mis trabeae tento r ia lictor a m b i a t e t L a t ia e r e d e a n t ad signa sec u res tuque o q ui p a t r ium curis a e q u a l i b u s o r b em B oo cu m f ratre regis procede s e c u n di s a l i t ib u s P h o e b i q u e n ovos ordi re m eatus sp es vo t um q u e poli q ue m p r imo a limine vitae n u t r i x aula f o ve t s t r ic t is que m fu lg i da telis in ter l a ur ig e r os a l u e r un t castra t r ium p h o s ardua p r iva t os n e s cit Fortuna p e n ates cognata potestas e t regn um cu m luce dedi t e x c e p i t T y r io ve n erabile pig nu s in ostro ,

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l u s t r a vi t q u e t u o s

a

u il i s vic t r ic ib u s or t u s q

miles e t i n m ed i is cu nab u la p r a e b u it b astis te nasce n te ferox toto G e r ma n i a Rheno

.

The cin cl us Ga b inus wa s on e of the ins ig nia of the consul s hip I t cons is ted in g irding the to g a tig ht roun d the S erviu s b ody b y m ea ns of on e of its l a cin ia e ( = l oo s e e n d s ) v ii 1 2 h a s a s tory th a t G a b ii wa s inva ded V ir e n 6 A n o ) g ( during the perf orm a nce of a sa crifice a nd th a t th e p a rti c ip a nts repu l s e d th e en e m y i n their cin cl u s 1

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2 70

PANEGYRI C I I V ( )

Let the cons u lar fas c es o f Romulus op e n a third year and for the third time let the wa rli k e processio n a c company thy c u r u le litter More f estal i n array be th e comi n g year and let purple f olded in G a b in e 1 g u ise b e pro u dly enrich ed with gems of H y d a s p e s let the cloak of p eac e succeed the arms of war ; let the lictor g u ard the cons u l s tent a n d the Lati n 2 axes retur n t o the sta n dards A n d do thou H onorius wh o with thy brother lord of the East o ve r n e s t w ith eq u al care a world that was onc e thy g s i re s g o thy way w ith f a v o u rabl e omens and order the s un s n ew cou r s e thyself hea v en s hop e and desire palace nu rtured eve n fro m life s threshold to who m the ca m p gleami n g with dr aw n s w ords gave schooling among the la u rels of v i ctory Thy towering f ortu n e has n ever kn own the conditio n of a private citiz e n ; whe n thou w ast bor n thou wast bor n a king Po w er w hich wa s thi n e by birth received thee a precio u s pledge amid the purple sol di ers beari n g victorious standards i n augurated thy birth a n d s e t thy cradle i n the midst of ar m s Whe n thou wast bor n fierc e G er m a n y tre m bled alo n g Cl a udia n su g g e s ts the uniting of civil a nd m il ita ry power in the h a n ds of H onorius ,

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CL A UD IAN in t r e m u it m ovit q u e

suas f or m id in e silvas C a u cas u s e t p os i t is n um en con f essa p h a r e t r is ig n a va s M e r o é t r a x it de c r ine sag i ttas r e t a s t i p e r sc u ta p u er r e u m u e recentes p g q ex uv iae t i b i l u d u s e r a n t p r im u s q u e s ol e b a s aspera c om p l e c t i t or vu m post p r o e l ia p a t r e m signa t r i u m p h a t o q u ot i ens fl e x is s e t ab H is t r o Ar c t o a de strage c a lens e t p os c e r e p arte m de s p ol iis S cy t h ic o s ar cu s a u t r apta G e l on is cing u la v el i a c u l u m Daci vel frena S u ebi ille c or u s c a n t i cl i peo te s a e p e vol e n t e m s u s t u l it a d r id e n s e t p ecto r e r e s s it anhelo p in t r e p id u m f e rr i galeae n ec tr i ste t im e n t e m f ulg ur e t ad summas t e n d e n t e m brach i a crist a s tum si c l a et us ai t rex o s t el l a n t is Ol y m p i tal i s p e r d om it o r e d e a t mihi fil iu s hoste H y r c a n a s p op ul a t u s opes aut c a e d e s u pe r bus A ssy r ia si c ense r u b e n s si c fl a m in e creb r o t u r b id u s e t g r ato r e s p e r s u s p u l v e r e belli ” a rm a u e a vi s o re f e r at capti v a parent i q g M o x ub i fi r m a s t i recto v est i g i a g r ess a non t i bi d e s i d ia s molles nec mar ci da l ux u otia nec so m nos gen i tor p e r m is it ine r tes sed nova p er duros in s t r u x it membra labores e t c ru da t e n e r a s e x e r c u it i ndole vi r es f r ig o r a s a e va pati g r a vib u s n on cede r e n im b is aest ivu m t ol e r a r e iu b a r t r a n s n a r e sonoras t or r e n t u m f u r i as a s c e n s u v ince r e montes .

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CL A U D IA N cursu valles e t conca v a salt u ne c non i n cl i p eo v ig i les p r od u cere n o c t e s in galea pota r e n iv es n u nc spic u la c orn u te n dere nunc glandes Balea r i spa r ge r e f u nda 50 q u oq u e mag i s n im iu m p u g n a e in fl a m m a r e t a m or e m f a c ta tui n u m e r a b a t a vi q u em l i tus a d u s t a e h or r e s c it L ib y a e r a t ib u s q u e i mper v ia Th u le ille le v es Ma u ros ne c f also n om i ne P ic t os e d o m u it S c o tt u m u e v ago muc r one s e c u t u s q f regit H y p e r b or e a s remis a u d a cib u s undas e t gemin i s f u lgens u t r o u e s u b ax e t r o a e is q p l a n itie m p

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h a r en a s hos tibi vir t u t u m s t im ul os , haec s emin a l a u d u m , haec ex empla dabat n on o ciu s h a u s it A ch i lles 6 0 s e m if e r i r a e c e t a s e n is , s e u c u spi di s artes p p si v e lyrae cant u s m edicas se u d is c e r e t herbas I n t e r e a t ur bata fi d e s c ivil i a r u r s u s bella tona n t d ub iu m q u e q u a t it discordi a m u nd um p r o crimen s u p e r um , lo n gi p r o d e d e cu s a e v1 b a r b a r u s Hesp e r ias exul p os s e d e r a t ur bes s c e t r a u e d e i e c t o d e d e r a t Romana c lienti p q iam princeps m ol i t u r iter g e n t e s q u e remotas c ol l i i t A u r o r ae , tu mi d u s 6 9 e rerra t u u m u e a s c g p q q E u ph r ates , q u as l u s t r a t H a l y s , q u as d it a t Orontes t u r if e r o s Ar abes salt u s , v ada C a s i a M edi , p Ar m e n ii Phas i n , P a r t h i l i q u e r e N ip h a t e n Q u ae t i bi t um M artis rabies q u a n t u s q u e s e q u e n d i ardor erat q u a n to fl a g r a b a n t p ectora voto .

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T H E THIRD CO N S ULSHIP OF HONORI US ’

cl imb mountains to r un o e r the plai n to leap ravi n es a n d hollo w s to sp end sleepless ni ghts o f w atching un de r arms to d r ink melted snow fro m thy casq u e to shoot the a rr ow f ro m the bow or hurl the acorn missiles with a Balear ic sling A nd the more to infla m e thy heart wi th lo v e of battle he wo u ld reco un t to the e the deeds of thy g r ands ir e obj ect o f dread to Libya s s un scor c hed sho r es and Thule w hither n o ship can sail H e conq u ered the fl eet 1 Moors a n d th e well named Pi c ts his roa mi n g sword p u rs u ed the flying Scot ; h i s advent ur ous oars broke the sur f ace of the no r thern s eas Crown ed with the spoils of t riumphs wo n b e n eath th e northern and the so u ther n s k y he trod the w a v e s w ept st r and o f eithe r Ocean Th u s d i d he sp u r thy co ur a ge th u s so w the s e eds of fam e thes e w e r e the examples he gave Not m ore avi d ly d i d A chilles h i mself drink in the Centaur s precepts w he n he lea r nt o f him ho w to wi eld the sp ear or play th e lyre or discer n healing plants M ean w hile th e world fo r got its loy a lty the th u nder of civil war sounded a fresh and di sco r d shoo k the totte r ing ea r th O y e g ui lty gods ! O shame 2 e x ile had poss ess ed hi m — e v e rlasting a barba r ian s el f of th e cities of Italy a n d had entr u sted the governme n t of Rom e to som e l ow born dep endent B u t Theodosius w as already af oot rallying to his standa r d th e distant nations o f the E ast the d w ellers o n th e ban k s of flood i ng E u phrates c lear H a l y s and ri c h Orontes The Arabs le f t their spi c y gro v es th e M edes th e w aters of th e Caspian S ea the Ar menia n s the river Phasis th e Parthians th e N ip h a t e s Wh at l u st o f battle th e n filled thy heart what lo n g i ng to accompany thy f ather What would n ot ,

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CL A U DI A N a u dire t u bas c a m p iq u e crue n ta temp estate f rui t r un cis q u e i mme r gere plan tas u t leo q u em f u l va e matris spelunca t e g e b a t u b e r ib u s s o l i t u m pas ci cum crescere s e n s i t u n g u e p edes e t terga i u b is e t d e n t ib u s ora i am n e g a t im b e l l e s e p ul a s e t r u p e r e l ic t a G a e t ul o c omes i r e p atri s t a b u l is q u e minari a e s t u a t e t c e l s i tabo s o r d e r e i u v e n c i ille v e t a t r e r u m q u e tibi c o m m e n d a t h a b e n a s e t sac r o m e r i t o s ornat diademate c r ines t a n t a q u e s e r u d ib u s pietas o s t e n d it i n annis u e r e r e n t u r u t omnes s ic aetas ani m o c e s s i t q imp eri u m tibi s ero dat um Victo r ia velo x P n a s t is u t e r u e a u s i c iis e ff e c t a t u is u p q g tu f atis g e n it o r q u e man u t e p r opter e t A lp es invadi f ac i les ca u to n ec p r of u it hosti sp es in r ita vall i m uni t is h a e s is s e locis c o n c idi t e t s c o u l is p a t u e r u n t claustra r e vu l s is p te propter g el id is A quilo de m onte p r o c e l l is ob r ui t ad v ersas acies r e vo l u t a u e tela q ve r t it in a u ctores e t t u rbine r e p u l i t b astas p o n im i u m di l e c t e deo cui f u n d i t ab a n t r is A eol u s a r matas h i e m e s c ui m il it a t aether e t coni u r a t i v e n iu n t ad classica ve n ti Al p in a e r ub u e r e n i ves e t Frig i d u s am mi s o

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CLAUDI A N f um a vi t a q u i s t u r b a q u e c a d e n t u m s t a r e t , ni r a i d u s iu vis s e t fl u m in a san g u is p At fer u s in v entor s c e l e r u m t r a ie c e r a t altu m n o n un o m ucro n e lat u s , d up l e x q u e t e p eb a t ensis , e t u l t ric e s i n s e c on ve r t e r a t iras tande m i n sta m an u s ia m l i bertate r e d u c t a , u a m vis e m e r it u m e t e r e t n at u ra reve r ti q p n ume n e t a ur a t a s a s t r or u m p a n d e r e t arces

m utatis

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ve n turi c on s c i u s A t las q d is t u l i t A u gust u s cupido s e credere c a e l o d um tibi p a c a t u m praes enti t r a d e r e t o r b e m nec m ora B is t on iis a l a c e r c on s u r g is ab oris inter b a rb a r ic a s a u s u s transire cohortes impavido vul t u l in q u is Rh o d op e ia saxa Orp h e is a n imata modis iu g a d e s e r is O e t e s Herc u leo d a m n a t a rogo post Pelion in t r a s N e r e is in l u s t r e toris te pulcher E n ip e u s c e l s a u e Dodo n e s t u u it r u r s u s u e l o c u t a e q p q i n te Ch a onia e m ove r un t car mina q u erc u s I l l y r ic i l e g it u r plaga l it or is ar v a t e r un t u r D a l m a t ia e P h r y g ii n u m e r a n t u r stagna T im a vi 1 20 gaudent I t a l i a e s u b l i m ib u s oppida mu ris a d ve n t u sacrata t u o s u m m i s s u s a d o r a t E r ida n us b l a n d os q u e iub e t m it e s c e r e fl u c t u s e t P h a e t h on t e a s s ol it a e d e fl e r e ruinas 1 25 roscida fr on d os a e r e voc a n t electra s or or e s Q u anti t um iuve n e s q u a n t a e s p r e ve r e p u d or e m s e c t a n di st u d i o matres u e r is u e s e v e r i p p q This is o b s cure Z o s i m u s ( iv 5 8 6 ) a n d S ocra te s ( v 2 5 ) m ere l y m en tio n s uicide b u t f ro m C l a u di a n s a ccoun t it l ook s a s thou h l ike N ero A r b o a s t s co u ra a nd e i ed i m a f a l h d h g g g a n a tte n d a n t h a d h a d to he l p h im to h is de a th The F ons T im a vi (n e a r A q u il ei a a n d the river F rig idus ) is c a l l ed Troj a n f ro m the s tory of the co l on i a tio n of V en etia b y the Troj a n Anten or ( L ivy i 1 u e o n e r is

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T H E TH IRD CONSU LSH IP OF HONORI US have b e e n choked with the heaps of corpses had n ot their own fast fl owin g gore helped o n its co u rse M eanwhile A rbogast the ca u s e of this wi cked wa r had pierced h i s side d eep n ot with a s i ngle 1 blade : t w o swords re eked with his blood a n d his lea r n i ng j u stice at last had t u rned its o wn hand savage fu ry aga i nst hims elf Thus w as li berty restored ; b u t tho u gh Nat u re de m anded the ret u rn to heaven of di vi ne Theodosi u s w hos e work w as n ow accomplished tho u gh th e sky thre w ope n the golden palaces o f its sta r ry v ault and Atlas staggered k nowing the b u rden he w as to b ear yet d i d the emp eror forbear to ent ru st him to e x pectant Olymp u s until he could i n th y pres ence hand o v er to thee a St r ai ght w ay d i dst tho u Hono r i u s wo rld at p eace lea v e the c oasts o f Th r a c e a n d b r aving the dange r s of the j o u rney pass without a tremor thro u gh the hordes T h o u l e a ve s t the r oc k s of Rhodop e o f barba ri ans tho u q uitt e s t the t o which O r phe u s lyre ga v e l i f e — f f o heights o O eta s c ene Her cu les I ll omened f u neral py r e ; n ext tho u cl im b e s t Pel i on f amed f or the ma r riage of Pele u s and Thetis Fa ir E n ip e u s and lo f ty D odona loo k u pon thee in amaz e and the oak s o f Ch a on i a findi n g tong u es once mo r e u tter oracles in thine hono u r T h o u s k ir t e s t the extrem e coasts of Illyria and p ass i ng o v er Dalmatia s fi elds dost cross in t ur n the n i ne so u r c es of Tr oj an T im a vu s 2 The high w alled citi es of It a ly rej oice i n the bless ings of thy presence E r idan u s bo w s h i s head and w orsh i ps bidd i n g h is w a v es flo w gently to the s e a ; and P h a ethon s leafy siste r s that e v er w eep their brothe r s death che ck the flo w of thei r de wy amber H o w many youths how m a ny matro n s s e t mo d esty ! Auste r e grey as ide i n ea g erness t o behold the e -

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2 79

CL A U D I A N senes cum t u g e n it or is am ic o e x c e p t u s gremio med i am v e h e r e r e per u r b e m ve l a r e t q u e pios c omm u nis la u rea c u r r u s q ui s no n L u c if e r u m roseo c u m Sole vid e r i c r e d id it a u t i u n c t u m B r om i o rad i a r e T o n a n t e m fl or e t c r is t a t is e x e r c it u s u n d iq u e t u rmis q ui sq u e s u a te vo c e c anens p r a e s t r in g it ae n a l u x o c ul os n u d iq u e s e g e s M a vor t ia f erri pars nob i l i s a r cu in g e m in a t splendore d i em par s longe i a c u l is pa r s c om m in u s ho rr ida contis h i vol u cr e s t ol l u n t aq ui las h i p i cta d r a con u m colla levant m u l t u s q u e t u m e t per n u b i la se rpens ir a t u s stim u lante Noto vivit q u e r e c e p t is fl a t ib u s e t v ar i o m e n t it u r sibila t r a c t u U t ve n t u m ad sedes c u n c t o s d i scedere t e c t is d u x i u b e t e t g e n e r u m c o m p e l l a t t a l ib u s u l t r o b el l ip ot e n s St i l ic ho c uiu s m i h i rob ur in a r m i s pace p r obata fi d e s q ui d eni m p er p r o el ia gess i te s i ne q u em mer ui te non s u dante t r iu m p h u m Od r y s iu m pa r iter G et i co f o e d a vim u s H e b r u m sangu i ne S a r m a t ic a s pa riter p r os t r a vim u s al a s R ip h a e a q u e s i m u l f e s s o s p or r e x im u s a r tus in g l a cie s t a n t e m q u e rota s ul ca vim u s H is t r u m : e rgo age m e q u on i a m c a e l e s t is reg i a p os c it t u c u ris succede meis tu pignora sol u s nost r a fove g e mi n os dextra tu p r otege f ratres

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CLAU D I A N

pe r c on s a n g u in e o s t h a l a m os n oc t e m q u e b e a t a m pe r t a e d a s q u a s i psa t u o r eg i na l e va vit c on iu g i o s o cia q u e n u r u m p r o d u x it ab a u la i nd u e mente p a t r e m cr es c entes d i lige f et u s Iamiam s e c u r u s ad astra u t d uci s u t s o c e r i te cu stode f e r a r ru pt a s i mole Typhoe u s vi n c l is T i t o s si memb r a r e s ol va t r o s il i a t y p s i f ur o r E n c e l a d i p r oi e c t a m u g ia t A etna ” oppos i to S t il ic h o n e c adent ,

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THE T H I R D CONSULSHIP OF HO N ORI US that m arriage that m akes thee kin with me by the night that s a w its co n su mm at i on by the to rc h w h i ch at thy weddi ng f east the quee n car r ied in h er o wn hand w hen s h e led thy b r ide elect f r o m o ut the imperial palace ta k e o n the e a father s spi rit g u ard the years of their childhood Was not their s ir e thy master and thy wi f e s f ather N o w no w I shall mo u nt u ntro u bled to th e stars f o r thou w i lt watch o v er th em E v en should Typho e u s rend away the rocks and leap forth should Tity u s f re e his capt iv e limbs sho u ld Enc elad u s h u rling Et n a from him roar i n ” rage— each and all w ill fall before St i l ic ho s attack H e spake n o more b u t still in h u man f or m clo v e a fu rrow o f light thro u gh the clo u ds ; he passes to Luna s globe leaves M ercury s threshold and hastens t o the ge n tle airs of Ven u s H ence he tra vers es Phoebus path M ars bale f u l fires and J upiter s qui et q u arters a n d stands upon the very crown of the s k y cold Sat u rn s froz e n zone H ea v e n s f ab ri c op ens unbidden the shi ning doo r s s wing back Bo otes prepares a place i n the vault o f the northe rn sk s w o r d girt Orio n unbars the po r tals of the south y they o ffer welco m e to the n e w star u n certa in each i n tur n t o what regio n he w ill b etake himself w hat co n stellation he will grace with his pres e n ce or i n w hat q u arter he will elect to shine alone 0 glory of hea v e n a s once thou w e r t of earth the ocean that laves the shores of the la n d of thy birth receives thee wearied with thy nightly cours e Spa in bathes thee i n thy n atal waves Happy f ather whe n first thou risest above the horiz on thou lookest u pon Arcadius w he n thou d ip p e s t to thy setting the sight Through of Ho n orius delays thy westering fires whichever he misphere thou takest thy wa n dering ,

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saec u la q u i r u r s u s l u get Ava r it i e s S t y g iis in n e x a c a t e nis c u m q u e s u o d e m e n s e x p e l l it u r Ambitus a u ro n on d om in a n t u r op es n ec c or r u m p e n t i a s ens u s d ona valent e m i t u r sola vi r t u te potestas Unan imi f r atres q u orum mare te r raq u e f atis d e b e t u r q u o d c u m q u e man u s e v a s i t a vit a s q u od s u p er e s t p at ri v obis ia m Mulciber arma r a e a r a t e t Sic u la Cyclops inc u de l a b or a t p p B r o n tes inn u m e r is e x a s p e r a t a e g id a s ig ni s alt um fulminea cr is p a r e in cass i de c on u m f e s t in a t Sterop es n e c t i t t h o r a c a P y r a g m on ig n i fl u i s q u e g e m i t L ip a r e f u mosa c a v e r n is v obis Ion i a vir id e s N e p t u n u s in alga n u t r it e q u os q u i s u mma f r e t i p er c a e r u l a p os s in t f erre v iam s e g e t e m q u e le vi p e r c u r r e r e m ot u 2 00 n e s c i a t u t s p u m a s ne c p r o t e r a t u ng u la c u l m os iam video B a b y l on a r api P a r t h u m q u e c o a c t u m n on fi c t a t r epidare f u ga iam Ba c tra teneri l e g ib u s e t f a m u l is G angen p a l l e s c e r e r ip is e m m a t o s q u e h u m il e m d i sp e r gere Pers i da cu lt u s g ite p er extrem u m T a n a im p ig r o s q u e Tr iones ite p er a r d e n t e m L ib y a m s u pe r ate v apores sol i s e t arcanos Nili d e p r e n d it e f ontes H e r c u l e u m fi n e m Bac c h i t r a n s c u r r it e metas v e s t r i i u ris e r it u i d u id c o m l e c t i t u r axis q p q vob i s R u bra d a b u n t p r e t io s a s a e q u or a con c has 2 1 0 Ind u s ebu r ramos Pan c ha i a v elle r a S eres .

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i te ru m s es e r e g a l ib u s an n us ind ui t e t nota fr u it u r i a c t a n t ior a u la l i m i na n ec passi ci r c u m p r i v ata mo r a r i e xu ltant red uc es Au g u sto c on s u l e f as c es ce r n i s u t a r m or u m p r oce r es l e g u m q u e potentes 1 pat ri c i os s u m a n t h ab i t u s ? e t mo r e G ab i no d i s c olo r in c e d it l e g io p os it is q u e p a r u m p e r b e l l or u m s ig n is s eq ui t ur ve xi lla Q ui r in i l ic t or i c e d u n t aq ui lae r id e t q u e t o g a t u s miles e t in med ii s e ffu l g e t c ur ia c a s t r is ipsa Palatino c i rcu m v allata s e n a t u iam t r a b e a m B ellona ge r it p a r m a m q u e r e m ovit e t galcam s a c r as u m e r is v e c t u r a c uru les ne c te l a u r ig e r a s p u d e a t G r a d ive se cu res pa c ata g e s t a r e man u L a t ia q u e m ic a n t e m l or ic a m m ut a r e toga d u m f e r r e u s h a e r e t c u r r u s e t E ri dani l u d u n t p er prata i u a l e s g Haud ind i gna c ol i nec n u p e r cogn i ta Ma r ti Ulp i a p r ogen i es e t q u ae di ademata m u ndo s a r s i t H ib e r a dom u s n e c tantam l i r u nda v i o p ,

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O n c e m ore th e y ear op e n s u n der royal auspices and e nj oys i n fuller pride its fa m ous pri n ce ; n ot brooki n g to linger a r o un d private thresholds the ret u r ni n g fasces rej oic e i n Caesar s co n s u lship S eest thou ho w th e arm ed chiefs a n d mighty j udges do n the rai m ent of s e n ators ? a n d the soldi ers 1 step f orth i n garb of p eace f ul hue wor n G a b in e w ise a n d laying aside for a s eason th e sta n dards o f war follow th e b an n er o f Qui r inus The eagles gi v e wa y to th e lictors th e smiling soldi er wears the toga of p eac e a n d th e s enate hous e casts its brillia n ce in the midst of the camp B ellona herself surro u nded by a n oble ba n d of s enators puts on the consul s gown and lays by her shi eld a n d hel m et in order to ha rn ess the sacred curule chair to her sho u lders Thi nk it no sham e G r a di vu s to bear the laurel crown ed axes i n a han d of p eace a n d t o exchange thy shi ning breastplate f or the Latin toga while thi n e iro n chariot remains unused a n d thy steeds disport the m i n the pastures of Erida nu s N o t u nw orthy of re v erence n or but n ewly acq u ainted wi th w ar is the family of Traj a n and that Spa n ish hous e which has sho w ered di adems upon the world No common st r eam was held worthy ’

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CL A U DI AN f gentis serie m cu nabula o vi t p Oceanus te r rae do m inos p el a g iq u e f u turos inmenso d e c uit rer u m de pri n cip e nasc i h in c p r oc e s s it avus c ui post Ar c t o a f rementi class i ca M a s s y l a s a d n e x u it A f r ica la u r u s ille C a l e d on iis p os u it q u i c astra p r u in is q ui med i os L ib y a e s u b casside p e r t u l i t aestus t e r r ib il is Ma ur o d e b e l l a t or q u e Britanni l it or is ac pa r iter B or e a e va s t a t or e t A u stri q u id rigor a e t e r n u s caeli q u id f r ig or a p r os un t m a d u e r u n t Saxone f u so ig n ot u m q u e fret um Oreades in c a l uit P ic t or um sang u i n e Thyle S c ott or u m c u m ul os fl e vit glacialis Hive r ne quid calor ob s is t it f o r ti p er vasta c u c u r r it Ae t h iop u m cin x it q u e novis Atla n ta m a n ip l is vir in e u m T r itona bibit s a r s o s u e v e n e n is g p q G or g on e os v i di t t h a l a m os e t vile vir e n t e s H e s p e r id u m r is it q u os d it a t f ab u la ra m os a r x i n cen sa I u b a e rabies M a u r u s ia fe r ro c e s s it e t ant i q u i p enetralia di r u ta Bocchi Sed la u des genito r longe t r a n s g r e s s u s a vit a s s u b d idi t Oc e a n u m s c e t r is e t ma r gine caeli p c l a u s it opes qu a nt u m distant a T i r i d e Gades g inter s e T a n a is q ua n t u m N il u s q u e r e l in q u u n t haec t a m e n in n um e r is per s e q u aesita t rop a e is r o m e r u it

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CLAUD IA N n on ge n eris do n o n on a m b it ion e p ot it u s di g n a legi virt u s u l t r o s e purpura s up p l e x ob t u l it e t sol u s mer u it reg n are r og a t u s n am c um ba rba r ies p e n it u s c o m m ot a g e m en t em in r u e r e t R h o d op e n e t mixto t urbine gentes iam deserta s u as i n n os t r a n s f un d e r e t Ar ctos D a n u vn totae vom e r e n t c u m p r o e l i a ripac cum G e t icis ing e n s p r e m e r e t ur Mysia p l a u s t r is fl a va q u e B is t on ios op e r ir e n t a g m i n a cam pos om ni bus a d fl ic t is e t vel l a b e n t ib u s ict u vel prop e c a s u r is unus tot f u n e r a co n tra r e s t it it e x t in x it q u e f aces a g r is q u e colo n os r e d di d it e t leti r a p u it de f a u cib u s urbes nu lla r e l ic t a f oret Roma ni n ominis umbra ni pater ille t u u s i a m i a m r u it u r a s u b is s e t pondera t ur b a t a m q u e ratem c e r t a q u e l e va ss e t v e l u t or di ne r u t o n a u fr a g iu m co mm un e ma n u p c u m p r ocul in s a n a e t r a h e r e n t P h a et h on t a q u ad rigae s a e vi r e t q u e dies t e r r a m q u e e t stagna propinqui h a u r ir e n t radii solito c um mu r m ure t or vis qui p os t q u a m r ur s u s criles s o l occ u rrit eq u is a n ove r e so n os r e d ii t m e l i or e m a is t r o g g m achina c on c e n t u s q u e poli c ur r u s q u e r e c e p it im perium fl a m m a e q u e m odu m Sic t r a d it u s ille s e r va t u s q u e Or i e ns at n o n pars altera reru m tr adi ta bis possessa manu bis parta p er icl is per va r iu m ge mi ni s c e l u s e r up e r e tyranni t r a c t ib u s o cc id uis h un c s a e va B r ita n nia f udi t ; .

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H E FOURT H CONSULSHIP OF HONORI US

birth or from l u st of po w er It w as h is own m erit s ec u red h i s election Unso u ght the p u rple begged h i s a cc eptance of itsel f he alone w hen as k ed to r u le was w o r thy to do so For when u nrest at home dro v e ba r ba r ia n hordes over u nhappy Rhodop e a n d the n ow des er t ed n orth had pou r ed it s tribes in wi ld confu sion across o u r borders when all the ba n ks of D an u b e poured f o r th battles and broad Mysia ra n g beneath the c hariots o f the G etae w hen — flax e n ha i red hordes covered the plai n s o f Th r ace and am i d th i s uni v ersal r u i n all w as e i ther p r ost r ate o r tottering to its f all o n e man alone w ithstood the tide quenched the flam es restored to th e o f d i saster h u sbandme n thei r fields and snatched the c i t i es No shado w of f r om the very j a w s of destruct i on Rome s name had surv i v ed had not thy si r e borne up the tottering mass s u ccoured the storm tossed bark and w ith s u re hand a v erted u ni v e r sal ship wrec k As w hen the maddened co u rse r s broke f ro m their p ath and carried Phaethon f a r ast r ay w hen day s heat grew fierc e and the s u n s rays bro u ght n ear to ea r th d r ied up both land a n d sea Phoeb u s che ck ed his fi erc e hors es with his wo n ted v o i ce ; fo r they kn ew o n c e m ore their master s to n es and with a happier g u ide h ea v e n s ha r mo nio u s order wa s restored f or now th e cha ri ot aga i n acc epted gover n me n t a n d its fires control Thus w as the East ent r usted to hi m a n d t h u s wa s it s salvatio n ass u red ; b u t the other hal f of the world wa s not s o entrusted : twic e was the West gain ed by valour t w ice w o n by dangers I n thos e l ands of the s un s et by m a nifold c rime there aros e wild Britain prod u ced t o power tyrants t w ain M axi m us th e other E u ge n ius a s chosen on e w ( ( ) ) of

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CL A U DI A N hu n e sibi G e r m a n u s f a m ul u m d el e g e r a t ex u l an s u s u t e r q u e nefas domini r e s p e r s u s u t e r q u e I n s o n t is iu g u lo n o vit a s a u d e r e priori s u a d e b a t c a u t u m u e d a b a n t exe m pla s e q u e n t e m q h ic no v a m o l ir i p r a e c e p s hic q u a e r e r e t u ta r o vid u s h i c f u s is c ol l e c t i s vir ib u s ille p h ie v ag u s e x c u r r e n s hic int r a c la u st r a r e d u c t u s d i ss i miles s ed morte pares evadere neut r i d e d e c u s a u t m i x t is l ic u it p r o c u m b e r e telis a m i s s a spe c ie r a pt i s i n s i n ib u s a mbo g in vul t u s r e d ie r e s u os m a n ib u s q u e r e vin c t is obl a ti g l a d iis s u m m it t u n t c olla p a r a t is u d or is pro da mn a e t v itam v e n ia m u e r o a n t p q g q u i modo ta m densas n u t u mo v ere cohortes in q u os iam d u b iu s sese l ib r a ve r a t orbis non hostes vic t or e c a d un t s ed i u d ic e so u tes damnat voce r eos p e t n t q u os M arte t y r a nn o s a m b or u m e r i e r e d u ces hic sponte ca r i n a p d e c id it in fl u ct us il l u m s uu s a b s t u l it ensis h u ne A lp es h u n c pont u s habet s ol a c ia c a e s is fr a t r ib u s hae c ultor t r ib u i t n e c is auctor u t e r q u e l a b it ur Au g u stas pa r vic t im a m it ig a t u mb r as has dedit in f e r ias t u m u l is i u ve n u m q u e d u or u m u r u r e o s mer i to l a vit sang u ine ma n es a c p p p I lli i u s t it ia m c on fi r m a ve r e t r iu m p h i ,

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ductio n 2 92

re s po n s ib l e f o r the m urder of the E m peror E u g e n iu s f or th a t of V a l entin ia n I I S e e I ntro p viii

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CL A U D IA N h i n c saec u la disca n t deos p in d om it u m n i h i l esse pio t u t u m ve n ocenti n u n tiu s ipse s ui longas in cog n it u s e g it r a e v e n t o rumo r e vi as i n o in u s u t r u m u e q p p e r c u l i t e t c l a u s o s montes u t plana r e l i q u i t p r a e s e n t es

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v astas op p on it e silvas G a r g a n u m A lpinis Ap p e n n in u m q u e n iva l e m e r m i x t is sociate ingis e t r u ib u s H a e m u m p p addite Ca u c a s iis i n vol vit e Pel i on Os s a e non dabitis m u ru m s c ele r i qui vin d ic e t i b i t omn i a s u bsident m e l ior i p ervia ca u sae N e c t a m e n ob l it u s c ive m c e d e n t ib u s a t r o x partibus in fr e m u it non ins u ltare ia c e n t i m a l e b a t : m i t i s p r e c ib u s p i e t a t is a b u n d a n s o en a e a r c u s e r at pa c i non i n t u l it ir am p p post a ci es o d iis ide m q u i termin u s a r mis r o f u it ho c vi ncente cap i m l u e u b a c t os u t o s s p q 1 p r ospe r a l a t u r a e c o m m e n d a ve r e c a tenae m a g n a r u m l a r g it o r op u m l a r g it or hono rum r o n u s e t in mel iu s ga u dens c o n ve r t e r e f at a p h in c amo r hi ne val i d u m devoto mil i te rob u r h i ne natis m ansu r a fi d e s Hoc nob i lis ort u n a s c e r i s a e u a e va c u m maiestate c r e a t u s q n ul l a u e r i va t a e p a ss u s c ontag i a so r tis q p omn i b u s a c c e p t is u l t r o te r eg i a sol u m r o t u l i t e t pat ri o f elix a d ol e s c is in ostro p B i r t wi th th e MS S a s pera ; I r etu r n t o th e pro s pera cin

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THE FOURTH CO N S ULSHIP OF HONO R I US a n d taught that heave n gives help Fro m the m let th e ages lear n that righteous n ess n e ed fear n o foe a n d guilt exp ect n o s afety Hi m s elf h is own m ess e n ger outstrippi n g th e ru m our of h is approach Theodosius traversed those long j our n eys u n detected by his e n emies Sudde nly he fell on both p assi n g o v er e ntrenched m ou n tains a s if they were a plai n B u ild up m o n stro u s rocks rais e towers surrou n d yourselves with rivers s et li m itless f orests t o protect o u p u t G a r g a n u s a n d the s n owy A penni n es upo n y the su mm its of the Alps that all for m o n e vast moun tai n barrier pla n t H ae m us on the cra g s of Caucasus roll Pelio n on Ossa y et will ye n ot g ai n s ecurity f or guilt The ave n ger w ill co m e ; f or the better cause all thi n gs shall si nk t o m ake a path Yet n ever did Theodosius forget that h e a n d the va n q u ish e d were fellow-citiz ens n or was h is an ger i m placable agai n st thos e wh o yielded N ot his the choice t o exult o v er the f alle n His ears were ope n to prayers his cl e m e n cy unbou n ded h i s ve n geance restrained H is a n ger di d n ot survive the war t o darken the days of p eace the day that s et a n e n d to the co m bat s e t a n e n d to his wrath Capture by such a victor wa s a gai n ; a n d m a n y a co nq uered f o e did their chai n s co mm e n d t o fut u re 1 fortu n e As l iberal of m o n ey a s of ho n ours he wa s ever b e n t t o r edress the i nj uri es of fate H e n c e the love the fortitude the devotio n of his troops he n c e their abi d i ng loyalty t o h is so ns Child of s o n oble a sire thy ki n gly stat e wa s c o é va l with thy birth n or ever k n ewest tho u the soilure of a private l ot T o the e all t hi n g s c a m e 2 unsought the e o nly di d a palac e rear thy happy growth wa s in a n cestral purple a n d thy li m bs n e ver .

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2 95

CLAU DI A N m e m b ra q u e

v e s t it u n u m q u a m

violata profa n o in sacros c e cid e r e si n us Hispa nia p a t r e m a u r if e r is e d u x it a u is te ga u det al u mno q Bosphor u s Hesperio de limine s urg i t origo s e d n u t r i x A ur o r a tibi pro pignore tanto c e r t a t u r ge m i nu s c ive m te vin di c a t a x is Herc u l i s e t B r o m ii s u s t e n t a t glor i a T h e b a s h a e s it A poll i neo D elos Lato ni a p a r t u Cr e t a q u e s e i a c t a t tene r o r e p t a t a To n a n ti s e d mel i or D elo D ic t a e i s c l a r i o r oris q u ae de di t hoc n u men re g io n on l it or a n ostro s u ffi c e r e n t ang u sta deo n ec in h o s p it a Cy n t h i saxa t u os art u s d u ro l a e s e r e c u b il i a d cl ini s genetrix a u ro c ir c u m fl u a e m mis g in T y r io s e ni x a toros ul u lata ve r e n d is a ula p u e r p e r n s q u ae tunc doc u menta fu t u ri ? q u ae voces a vi um quanti p er inane vol a t u s q ui va t u m d i s cu rs u s erat t i bi c or n ig e r Hammo n e t d u d u m ta c iti r u e r e s il e n t ia D elphi p te Pe r sae c e c in e r e magi te s e n s i t E t r u s c u s a u g u r e t in s p e c t is B a b y l on iu s h or r u it ast ris C h aldae i s t up u e r e senes Cu m a n a q u e r u r s u s in t o n u it r u p e s r a b id a e del u b r a S i byllae n ec te p r og e n it u m Cy b el e iu s ae r e sonoro l u s t r a vit Co r y b a s 1 5 e x e r c i t u s u n di u e fu lgens 0 q a d s t i t it a m b i t u r s i n is a u u s t ior in f ans g g sent i t ado r antes galeas r e d d i t q u e f e r oc e m va it u m lit uu s g Vita m tibi c on t ul it ide m .

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CLAU D IA N im p er ium q u e dies ro ve h e r is , signas p

i nter cu n abula co n sul posito m odo n omi n e fastos d on a t ur q u e tibi q ui te p r o d u x e r a t a nn us ipsa Q uirin a l i parvu m te cin x it a m ict u m ater e t ad pr im as d ocu it r e p t a r e curules u b e r ib u s sa n ctis i n m or t a l i q u e d e a r u m c r e s c is a d o r a t u s g r e mio : tibi s a e e Diana p M a e n a l ios arc u s ve n a t r ic e s q u e p h a r e t r a s s u spendi t pue rile dec u s tu s a e p e M in e r va e l u s i s t i clipeo f u l va m q u e impu n e p e r e r r a n s a e id a t r a c t a s t i blandos in t e r r it u s angues g s a e e tuas etia m ia m t um gaudente m arito p ve l a vit regi n a co m as f e s t in a q u e voti ra e s u m t u m diadema dedit tu m l e n ib u s u l ni s p p s u s t ul it e t m agno p o r r e x it ad oscula p atri n ec d il a t u s b onos m u t a t ur princip e Caesar ,

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TH E FOU RT H CONSULSH IP OF HONORI US i n thy cradle thou wast raised t o the co n sulship With the n a m e s o recently bestowed upon th ee tho u d owe r e s t the fasti a n d the year wherei n thou wert born is co n secrated to thee Thy mother herself wrapp ed thy s m all for m i n the co n sular robe a n d di rected thy first steps to the curule chair N ourished at a goddess breasts ho n oured with the e m braces of im m ortal ar m s tho u g r e we s t to m aturity Oft to grace thy boyish form D iana hu n g upo n thy shoulders her M a e n a l ia n bow and hu n tress q u iver ; of t thou didst sport with Mi n erva s shi eld a n d crawl ing unhar m ed over her glittering aegis didst caress its frie n dly s erpe n ts with fearless ha n d Ofte n eve n i n thos e early days thy m other b e n eath thy sire s happy ga z e cro wn ed thy te n der locks a n d a nticipati n g the a n swer t o her prayers gave the e the diade m that wa s t o b e thi n e hereafter the n raisi n g the e in her ge n tle ar m s s h e held the e up to receive thy m ighty father s kiss Nor was that ho n our lo n g in co m ing thou then Caesar didst b eco m e emp eror a n d 2 wert straightway m ade equal with thy brother Never wa s the e n courage m e n t of th e gods m ore sure n ever di d heave n atte n d wi th more favo u ri n g o m e n s Black te m p est had shrouded the light i n dark n ess a n d th e south wi n d gathered thick rai n clouds whe n of a sudde n s o soon as the soldiers had bor n e the e aloft with customary shout Phoebus scattered the clouds a n d at th e sa m e m ome n t was given to the e the sc eptre to the world light Bos porus freed fro m clouds p er mits a sight of Chalcedo n on the farther shore ; n or i s it o n ly the vici nity of Byz antiu m that is bathed i n bright n ess the clouds are drive n back a n d all Thrace is cleared ; P a n g a e u s shows afar a n d lake M a e o t is makes quiver the rays he 1

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CL A U D I A N Boreas n i mbos a u t s ol a r d e n t ior e g it z imper m lux illa f ui t p r a e s a g u s ob ib a t c u neta mitor r is it q u e tuo natu r a sere n o visa etiam medio p op ul is m ir a n t ib u s a u d a x stella di e d u b it a n d a nihil n e e crine r e t u s o lang u ida sed q u a n t u s n u m e r a t u r nocte Bootes e m ic u i t u e l a is alieni t e m p or is h o s p e s q p g ignis e t a g n o s ci p o t uit cum l u na l a t e r e t s iv e parens Au g u sta f uit s e u fo r te r el u x it di v i sid u s a v i se u te p r op er a n t ib u s astris ce r ne r e s ol patiens cael u m comm u ne r e m is it a d a r e t quid signa f e r a n t ve n t ur a potestas p cl a r u i t Ascanio subita c um l u c e coma ru m inn o c u u s fl a g r a r e t ap ex P h r y g io q u e vol u t u s vertice f a t a l is r e d imi r e t tempo r a candor at tua c a e l e s t e s in l u s t r a n t omi n a fl a m m a e tal i s ab I d a e is p r im a e vu s I u p p it e r a n t r is possessi s t e t it a r ce poli f a m ul o s q u e r e c e p it n at u ra tradente deos lan u g i ne n on d u m v e r n a b a n t v u l t u s nec a d h u c p er colla fl u e b a n t m o t u r a e con v exa comae t um scindere n u b es d is c e b a t f u l m e n q u e r u di t or q u e r e lacerto L a e t ior a u g ur io gen i tor n a t is q u e s u p e r b u s iam parib u s d u plici f u l t u s c onsorte r e d ib a t S l e n d e b a t u e p i o comple xu s pignora c u r r u p q h a u d alite r s u mmo gem i ni c u m patre L a c o n es p r ogen i es L e d a e a sedent : in u t r o q u e r e l uc e t f r ater u t r o q u e so r or ; s i m i li c hlamys e fll u i t a u ro nec

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3 00

V irg il m e n tions

the portent ( A en

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11

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CLAU DIA N stellat i pa r iter crines iu va t ipse T on a n t em e r ror e t a m b ig u a e placet ignorantia matri E ur otas proprios discernere n e s cit alum n os U t do mu s e x c ep it red u ces ibi talia tecu m pro rer um stabili f e r t ur di cion e l oc u t u s Si tibi P a r t h or u m solium Fortu n a d e d is s e t care p u er t e r r is q u e p r ocul ve n e r a n d u s Eo i s b a r b a r u s Ar s a ci o c on s u r g e r e t or e tiaras s u ffi c e r e t s u b l i m e gen u s l u x u q u e fl u e n t e m d e s id e n ob il it a s posset te sola tueri altera R om a n a e longe r e c t or ib u s a u lae virtute d e c e t no n sang uine niti c on d ic i o maior e t u t ili or fato c on iu n c t a potenti v ile late n s virtus q u id e ni m ? sub m ersa t e n e b r is r o d e r it obscuro ve l u t i si n e r e m i e p u ppis g p vel lyra quae r e t ic e t vel q ui n on t e n d it u r arc u s Hanc t a m e n haud q uis q u a m q u i n on a g n ove r it 225 ante se m et e t i n certos ani m i p l a c a ve r it aestus longis il l u c a m b a g ib u s it u r in v e n i e t d is c e orbi q u od q u isque sibi cu m c on d e r e t a r t u s n o s t r o s a e t h e r iis m i s c e n s terre n a Pro m etheus s in c e r a m pat r i me n te m f ur a t u s Ol m o y p .

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al iter p o s s e n t m or t a l ia fi n g i a d i u n x it ge m i n as il l a e cu m corpore l a p s a e in t e r e un t haec sola ma n et b u s t o q u e s u p e r s t e s e vol a t ha n c alta capitis f u n d a vit i n arce m a n d a t r ic e m op e r u m p r os p e c t u r a m q u e labori ; cu m

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here f o l l ows the P l a ton ic p s ychol o g y which divid es the s ou l i nto 0 é m fi vun m b o d vp aé the two ” b as er e l e m ent s a n d 0 A y w m é ( the h a ec g e mina s 1

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3 02

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THE FOURTH CONSULSHIP OF H ONO R I U S loc ks of both The Thu n derer rej oices in h is very uncertai n ty a n d t o their hesitati n g m other h er ignora n ce bri n gs delight ; Eurotas ca nn ot m ake di stinctio n b etwee n his own n ursli n gs Whe n all had retur n ed to th e palace Theodosius anxious f or the w orld s j ust go v er n anc e is said to have address ed the e i n thes e ter m s H ad fortune my dear s on give n the e the thro n e of Parthia hadst thou b ee n a desce n da n t of the Arsacid hous e a n d did th e tiara adored by Eastern lands afar tower upo n thy forehead thy lo n g li n eage would be e n ough a n d thy birth alo n e wo u ld protect th ee though wantoning in idle luxury V ery Tis m erit di ff ere n t is the state o f Rome s emp eror Virtue hidde n hath n ot blood mu st b e his support n o val u e united with power tis both more e ff ective and m ore useful Nay o e r wh e l m e d i n dark n ess it will n o m ore adva n tage its obsc u re possessor tha n a vess el with n o oars a sile n t lyre a n unstrung bow “ Yet virtu e no n e shall fi n d that has n ot first lear n ed to know hims elf a n d stilled th e u n certai n w aves of passion within hi m Long a n d windi n g is the p ath that leads thereto What each m an learns i n his interests lea rn thou i n the i n terests of the o wn world Whe n Prometheus mix ed earthly a n d heavenly eleme n ts and s o formed h um a n kind h e stole ma n s spirit pure fr o m his own h eave nly home held it imp ri so n ed and bou n d despite it s outcries a n d since h u manity could be f ormed i n n o other way 1 he added t w o m ore souls These f ail and p erish with th e body ; th e first alo n e remai n s survives the pyre a n d fl ies away This soul h e stationed i n the lofty fast n ess of th e brain to control a n d over The other s e e th e work a n d labo u rs of the body .

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3 03

CL A U D I A N illas inferius collo p r a e c e p t a q ue su mm ae a s s u r a s dom i nae d i gna s t a t io n e l oc a vit p quipp e op i f ex ve r it u s c on fun d e r e sacra p r of a n is d is t ri b u it partes a ni m a e s e d e s q u e r e m o vit i r a m sang uin e i r egio s ub p ectore co r d i s r o t e it i m b u t a m fl a m m i s a vid a m u e n oce n di p q g r a e c i it e m u e s u i rabie s u c c e n s a t u m e s c it p p q c on t r a hi t u r t e e f a c t a metu c u m u e om ni a s ecum q p d u ce r e t e t req ui e m me m b r is ve s a n a n e g a r e t inven i t pulmonis op e m m a di d u m q u e f u re n ti r a e b ui t u t t u mi d a e r u e r e n t in mollia fi b r a e p at s i bi cuneta p e t e n s nil c on l a t u r a c u pido in i e c u r e t tract u s imos comp u lsa r e c e s s it q u ae ve l u t inm a ni s r e s e r a t du m belua rict u s e x l e ri a s c i u e n e ui t : n unc ve r b e r e curas p p q q t or q u e t a va r it ia e sti m ulis n un c fl a g r a t a m or u m nunc gaudet n unc maesta dolet s a t ia t a q u e r u r s u s e x or it u r c a e s a u e redit ol l e n t i u s hydra q p Hos igit u r p ot u it s i q u is s edare tu m ultus inconcussa d a b it purae sacraria menti t u li cet ext r emos late d omi n e r e p er Indos te M ed u s te m ol l is Ar abs te S eres ado r ent s i m e t u is s i pra v a c u pis si d u c e r is ira s e r vit ii p a t i e r e i n g um ; t ol e r a b is ini u a s q interi u s leges t u nc o mni a iure t e n e b is cum p ot e r is rex esse t ui p r ocl ivior u s u s in p e ior a d a t ur s u a d e t q u e l ic e n ti a l u x u m in l e c eb r is q u e e ff r e n a f a ve t tu m vivere caste .

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3 04

CL A U DI AN cum p r om p t a Ve n us tu m d u rius irae 26 5 cum poena patet s e d compri m e m otus c on s u l i t u r n ec tibi q u id l ic e a t s e d quid f e cis s e d e c e b it o c c u rr a t m e n t e m u e do m et r e s e c t u s h on e s t i q p Hoc te p r a e t e r e a crebro s erm o n e m onebo u t te t o t iu s m edi o t e l l u r is i n or e vivere co n o s c a s c u n c t is t u a gentibus ess e g facta pal a m n ec poss e dari r e g a l i b u s u s qu a m secretum vi t i i s ; n a m lux altissi m a fati o cc ul t u m nihil ess e sinit l a t e b r a s u e per o m nes q in t r a t e t abstrusos e x p l or a t f ama recessus Sis pi u s in primis n am cu m vin ca m u r i n om ni m u n e r e sola deos a e q u a t cle m e n tia n obis n eu dubi e s u s p e ct u s agas n eu f a l s u s a micis r um or u m ve a vid u s : qui tali a curat i n anes h or r e b it strepit u s n ulla n o n a u xins hora non s ic e x c ub ia e n on cir c u m s t a n t ia p i la q u am t ut a t ur amor n on e x t or q u e b is a m ari ; hoc alterna fi d e s hoc s i mplex gratia donat n o n ne vides op e r um q u od s e p u l ch e rr im u s ipse 28 5 mu ndus a m ore liget n ec vi con exa p er aevu m conspirent e l e m e n t a sibi quod limite Phoebus c o n t e n t u s m edio c on t e n t u s litore pontus e t q ui perp et u o terras a m b i t u e ve h it u e q q n ec p r e m a t in c u m b e n s o n eri n ec c e s s e r it aer ? ui terret pl u s ips e timet ; sors ista tyra nnis q c on ve ni t ; in vid e a n t claris fort esque trucide n t as

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THE FOURTH CONSULSHIP OF HONORI US lif e harder whe n love is at call the n is it a ster n er task to govern anger whe n vengea n c e is t o ha n d Yet master th in e e m otions a n d ponder n ot what thou mightest d o but what thou o u ghtest to do a n d let regard f or duty co n trol thy mind Of th i s too I can n ot war n the e too o f te n : re m e m ber that thou livest in the sight of the whole world t o all p eoples are thy deeds know n ; the vices of mo n a r chs ca n not a n y w here remai n hid The sple n dour of their lofty station allo w s n o u ght t o b e con ceal ed ; f ame p enetrates e v ery hiding — place a n d discovers the inmost s ecrets of the heart Above all f ail n ot i n lo v ing ki n dness for though w e b e surpassed in every v i r tue yet mercy al one m akes us equal with the gods Let thine actions be ope n and give no grounds for s u spicio n be loyal to thy f riends nor lend a n ear to ru m o u rs H e who attends to such will quake at e v ery idle w hisper and kno w no moment s p eace Neithe r w atch n o r guard n o r yet a hedge o f spears ca n se cur e the e sa f ety ; o n ly thy p eople s love can do that Lo v e tho u c anst not exto r t ; it is th e g i ft o f m u t u al f a i th and honest good wi ll Se est tho u n ot ho w the f air f ra m e o f the very un iv ers e b in ds itsel f together by love and h ow the ele m ents n ot united by v iole n ce are f or e v er at harmo n y a m o n g the m s elves ? Dost thou not mar k how that Phoebus is content n ot to o u tstep the limits of h i s path nor the s e a thos e of his k ingdo m and how the air w hich in its eter n al e mb r ace enci r cles and upholds the w o rld p r esses not upon us with t oo heavy a weight no r yet y i elds to the burden w h i ch itself s u stai n s Whoso causes ter r or is himself mo r e f ea rf u l ; s u ch doom b efits ty r a n ts Let the m be j ealo u s of a n other s f ame mu r der the .

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3 07

CLAU D I AN m u niti

vi v ant s a e p t iq u e v e n e ni s a n c i i t e s h a b e a n t arces t r e p id i q u e mi n e n t u r p t u c ive m p a t r e m q u e geras tu c on s ul e c u n ct is 29 5 n o n tibi nec t u a te m ove a n t s e d p u blica v ota In c om m un e iub e s s i qu i d c e n s e s q u e te n e n dum primus i u ssa s u bi t u nc ob s e r va n t ior aequi fit pop u l u s n ec f erre megat cum vid e r it ipsu m c o m o n i t u r orbis a u c t or e m parere sibi p regis ad exempl u m n ec sic in fl e ct e r e s ens u s h u manos e d ic t a valent q u a m vita r e g e n t is m obile m u t a t u r semper c um princip e v ulg u s H i s tame m e ffe c t is n eu f astidire minores n e u p ete p r a e s cr ip t o s h omi n i tra n sce n dere fi n es in q u in a t egregios a d iun ct a sup erbia mo r es n on tibi t r a d id im u s dociles servire S a b a e os Arm e n i a e domi num n o n te p r a e f e cim u s o r ae n ec dam u s As s y r ia m tenuit q u a m f emina g e n t e m Romani q u i cuneta di u r e x e r e r e g e n d i q u i nec T a r q u in ii fast u s n e e iura t u l e r e annales ve t e r u m del icta l o q u u n t ur C a e s a r is q u i s non p er sae cu la dam nat h a e r e b u n t mac u lae que m di ra N e r o n is Ca e s a r e a e p or t e n t a domus fume r a quem r up e s Ca p r e a r u m t a e t r a l a t e b it v ic t u r a f e r e t u r incesto possessa se ni glo r ia T r a ia ni n o n ta m q u od T ig r id e vieto nost r a t r ium p h a t i f u e r in t pro v incia P a r t h i a lta q u od i n ve c t u s f r a c t is Ca it ol i a D a c i s p l a d i is g

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3 08

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Tib erius

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CL A U D I A N q u am pat r iae q uod m itis erat me des i ne tales n ate s e q ui Si bella cana n t prius a g mi n a duris 3 21 exerce s t u di is e t s a e vo p r a e s t r u e M arti no n b r u m a e r e q u ie s n o n hibernac u la s e g n e s e n e r ve n t torpore m anus n e n d a sal u bri o p castra loco p r a e b e n d a v igil c u stod i a vallo d is c e ubi d e n s e r i c u n e o s ubi cor n ua tendi a e u i u s a u t iter um fl e c t i ; quae m o n t ib u s a t a e q p quae campis acies quae f ra u d i c om m od a v all i s q u ae via di ffi cil i s fi di t si m o e n ib u s hostis tu m tibi murali l ib r e t u r m ac hi n a p ul s u saxa rota ; p r a e c ep s ari es p r ot e c t a q u e portas 330 testudo f e r ia t ruat e m e r s u r a i u vent u s e ff o s s i per o e r t a soli s i lo n ga m o r e t u r p ob s idi o tu m vota cave secura r e mi tt a s in cl u s u m ve putes ; m ultis damnosa fu ere gau di a ; di spersi p e r e un t s om n ove sol u ti s a e iu s in c a u t a e n oc u i t v icto r ia t ur b a e p n eu t i bi r e g ifi c is tento r ia la r ga r e d u n d e n t d e l ic iis neve im b e l l e s ad s i gna ministros l u x u ries ar m ata t r a h a t n e u fl a n t ib u s Au s t r is neu p l u viis cedas n e u d e f e n s u r a ca l or e m aurea s u mm ove a n t r a p id os umbracula soles in ve n t is u t e r e c i bis s ol a b e r e partes aeq u al i s u do r e t u as s i c oll i s i n iq u u s .

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A we l l —kn o wn R o m a n m ethod of a tt a ck b y which th e troop s a dva nced to the point of a tt a ck in c l o s e f orm a tion e a ch m a n ho l ding h is s hie l d a b ove h is he a d The protection thus a ff orded to the a s s a ul ting b a n d was l iken ed to t h e s he l l o f the tortois e ( tes tu d o ) 1

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3 10

THE FOURTH CONS ULSHIP OF HONORI US h e wa s k indly to h i s co u ntry Fa i l n ot t o make such as h e thi n e example my s on Sho u ld wa r threate n s e e first that thy sol di ers are exerci sed in t h e practices of w ar and prepare them f or the rigo u rs o f s er vi ce The eas e of wi nter mo n ths sp e n t i n winter q u a r te r s mu st n ot weaken n or un nerve their hands Establish thy camps in healthy places and s e e that watch f u l s entries guard the ramparts Learn how to know when to mass yo u r troops and w hen i t is better to extend the m or f ace them ro u nd ; st u dy the f o r matio n s suitable for mo u nta i n war f are and t h ose for fi ght i ng on the plain Lear n to re c ogniz e what valleys may conceal an ambush and what ro u tes wi ll pro v e d ifli c ul t If t hine enemy tr u sts i n his w alls to de f end h i m then let thy catap u lts hurl stones at his battlements ; fling rocks thereat and let the s winging ra m and 1 sh i eld p r otected test u do shak e h i s gates Your t r oops sho uld underm i ne the w alls and issuing from this tu nn el should ru sh into th e town Sho u ld a long siege delay the e then ta k e ca r e tho u unbe n d not thy p urpos e in se curi ty or c o u nt th i n e enemy thy prisoner M any e r e this ha v e f ound premat u re tri u mph th eir u n do i ng scattered or asleep they have b e en c u t to p i ec es ; indeed vi ctory i ts el f has not s eldom be en th e r ui n of c areless troops N o t f o r the e let sp ac i o u s tents o e r fl ow wi th pr i ncely del i ghts nor l u xury do n arms a n d d r ag to the standa r ds he r u n warl ik e tra i n Though th e storm w inds blo w a n d the r a i n desce n ds y i eld not to them and u s e not cloth o f gold to guard thee f rom th e s u n s fie r c e rays Eat s u ch f ood as thou canst find It wi ll b e a solace to thy sold i ers that thy toil is as hea vy as the i rs be the first to mo u nt the a r d u o u s h i ll a n d sho ul d .

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CLAU D IAN pri m us i ni

silvam

s i c a e d er e

usus p s u m t a n e p u d e a t q u e r c u m s t r a vis s e bipenni p c a l c a t u r si p i g r a pal u s t uu s ante pro f u ndu m fl u vi os t u r o t e r e c u rsu e r t e m p t e t s o n ip e s p p h a e r e n t e s g l a c i e l iq uid o s t u sc i nde n a t a t u nu nc eq u es in medias e q uit u m te c o n s e r e tu r mas nu nc pedes a d s is t a s p ed i ti t u m p r om p t ius ib un t t e so ci o t um consp i c uu s g r a t u s q u e g e r e t u r 351 ” s u b te teste labor r o vo c a t

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D ic t u r u m p l u r a p a r e n t e m e u id e m , f a ve a n t modo nu mi na c o e t is , q p dabo , ne c me f r a t r iq u e t ib iq u e

vo c e s u bis : haec e ffe ct a d i ss imi lem pop u li c om mi s s a q u e regna vid e b u n t 3 5 5 s e d cur n o n p o t i u s verb i s quae d is s e r i s u s u e l i d a s certe n unc tendis in A lpes e x e r i or g p duc tecum c omi t e m ; fi g a n t sine n ost r a t y r a n n u m S p i cula p a l l e s c a t nostro sine b a r b a r u s a r c u I t a l i a m n e f e r a m f u r ii s p r a e d o n is acerbi patiar R om a m ser vir e cli enti ? s ub i e c t a m ? u sq u e a d e on e puer ? nec me poll u ta potestas nec p i a cognati tanget vi ndi cta c r u or is per strages e q uit a r e libet da p r o t in u s ar m a u n a e c u r a r u o r impar c ur an u os ob ic is p g g aequali s mih i Pyrrh u s erat c um Pe r gama sol u s 3 65 v e r t e r e t e t patr i n on d e g e n e r a r e t Ac h il li d e n iq u e si pr i n c eps c a s t r is h a e r e r e n e q uib o ” vel mi les veniam D e l i b a t d u lcia n ati l a u d a n d a p e t is t i osc u la m i r a t u s q u e r e f e r t ve ni e t r ob u s t io r aetas s e d f e s t in u s amor n e c d u m dec i mas e m e n s u s aristas ne ro er a p p vestigia m ag n ae a d r e d e r is m e t u e n d a vi ris g .

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3 12

CL A UDI AN i n d o l is

a

g

n os c o

f e r t u r P e l l a e u s , B ou m

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Po rum cu m prosp era s a ep e Phil i ppi 3 7 5 a u d ir e t l a e t o s inter fl e vis s e s o d a l e s n i l s i bi vin c e n d u m patris virtute rel i nqui hos video m ot u s f a s s it p r o m itt e r e patri tantus e r is nostro n e e debes regna f avori q u ae t i bi iam n atura dedit s ic m ol l ib u s ol im 3 80 st r id u la d u c t u r u m prat i s e x am i na rege m n a s c e n t e m v e n e r a n t u r ap es e t p u bl i ca mel l is i u ra p e t u n t t r a d u n t q u e f avos s i c pasc u a parvu s

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iam r e g it a r m e n t u m vit ul u s s e d p r o e l ia di ffer in iu v e n e m p a t i e n s q u e meum c u m f rat r e t u e r e me bellante locum vos im p a c a t u s A ra x es v os celer Euphrates t im e a t sit Nil u s ubique vester e t e m is s o q u id q u id sol im b u it ort u si p a t e a n t A lp es h a b e a t si causa s e c u n d os i u s t ior e v ent u s ade ri s p a r t e s q u e receptas s u s ci ie s an i mosa t u as u t G all i a leges p .

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THE FOURTH CONSULS H IP OF HONO R I U S might fear : I m ark the toke n s of a n oble n ature It is said that A lexa n der conq u eror of easter n Porus w ept at the co n stant n ews of Philip s fortune telli n g his companions wh o rej oiced thereat that h i s sire s valo u r le f t him n o u ght to conq u er I n the e I s e e like spirit M ay a father be allowed this prophecy thou shalt be a s great I t is n ot to m y goodwill thou owest the kingdo m f or n ature has already made it thine S o even f rom his birth 1 bees reverence the king wh o is to lead their b u zzi n g swar m s thro u gh the sof t meadows ask h i s publ i c laws for the gathe r ing of the ho n ey and e n tr u st to hi m their co m bs So the spirited you n g b u ll calf claim s sovereig n ty over the grazing gro un d and though as y et his horns are n ot grow n stro n g lords it over the herd Nay : postpone thy cam a i n s till thou art a man a n d w hile I do battle p g pat i ently help thy brother to fulfil m y o ffice B e o u two th e terror o f u nta m ed A rax es and o f s w i f t y Euphrates ; m ay Nile thro u ghout all his le n gth belo n g to y ou and all th e lands upo n which the mor ni n g s un lets fall his b ea m Should I force a passage over the Alps should success crown th e j uster ca u s e thou shalt co m e a n d gover n th e r e covered provi n c es whereby fierc e Gaul shall obey thy laws a n d m y n ative Spai n b e guided by thy j u st rule The n careless of doom and rej oici n g i n m y labours I shall quit this m ortal life while y ou my so n s r u le either h emisphere M eanwhile cultivat e th e Mus es whilst thou art yet you n g ; read of deeds thou soo n mayest ri v al ; n ever m ay Greec e s story n ever m ay Rom e s c eas e Study th e lives of th e heroes t o sp eak with the e of ol d t o accusto m the e f or wars that are t o b e

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CL A U DI A N Latium retro te c on f er i n ae v u m lib ertas q u aesita placet m ir a b e r e Br u t um M etti s a t i a b e r e poenis e r fi di a m damnas ? p t r iste rigor nim iu s T o r q u a t i d e s p ic e m ores mors im p e n s a bon um ? D e c ios ve n e r are r u e n t e s 405 vel sol u s q u id f o r t i s agat te ponte sol u to M u ci te flamma d oc e b it o os it u s Cocles pp q uid mora p e r fr in g a t Fabius quid reb u s in artis d u x ge r at o s t e n d e t G a l l or u m strage Cam i ll u s d is c it u r h in c n u llos m e r it is ob s is t e r e c as u s r o r o a t aeternam f e r i t a s t i bi Pu n ica f a m a m p g Reg u le s u c c e s s u s s up e r a n t adversa Ca t on is di s c i t u r h in c q u antum p a u p e r t a s sob r ia p o s s i t pa uper e r at Cu r iu s reges c u m vin c e r e t a rmi s pa up er Fab r i c ius P y r r h i c u m s p e r n e r e t aurum sord i da d i ctato r fl e x it S e rr an u s a r a t r a m i l i t ia e ,

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sulcata di u trabeato r u ra colo n o Haec gen i tor p r a e c e p t a dabat ve l u t i lle carinae 420 l on g a e vu s rector v a r iis q u e m s a e p e p r oc e l l is e x p l o r a vit hiems ponto iam f ess u s e t an ni s a e u o r e a s alni nato c om m e n d a t h a b e n a s q q u o de x t r a r e g a t u r e t cas u s a r t e s q u e d oc e t s i dere q u o fl u c t u s p os s it mode r am i n e f alli q u ae nota n im b or u m q u ae f r a u s in fi d a sereni 425 et

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The s tory of the p u n is h m e nt of M ett iu s F uf etiu s the Al b a n dicta tor b y the R o m a n ki n g Tu l l us H os til ius f or h is tre a chery in the wa r a g a i n s t F id ena e is to l d b y L ivy ( i 2 8 1 0) a n d re f erred to b y C l a udi a n ( x v F o r M uci n s ( S c a evo l a ) ho l di ng h is a rm in the fl a m e to s ho w L a rs P ors e n na h ow l itt l e he a R o m a n m in ded b odi l y p a in s e e L ivy ii 1 2 1

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3 16

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CLAU D I AN quid s ol o ccid u u s p r o d a t ; quo s a u cia ve n to decolor ir atos a tt ol l a t Cy n thia vu l t u s a d s ic e n u n c a c u m u e mi cas s e u circulus A u stri u q q p magne pare n s gelidi seu te m e r u e r e Tr iones a d a e q u a t 43 0 iam n atus a d s ic e m l e t u r votu m c o p p te m e r it is e t q u od magis e s t op t a b il e v i n cit s u b n i x u s S t il ic h on e tuo que m f r a t r ib u s ipse .

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n on i n certa m aris L ib y a e s q u a l e n t is h a r e n a s a u d e b it superare p edes m a d id a u e cadente q Pleiade G a e t ul a s in t r a b it ma v ita Syr t es H un c t a m e n i n pri mis populos lenire feroces e t R h en u m pacare i u b e s vol a t ille c i t a t is ve c t u s eq u is n u l l a u e latus stipante caterva q aspera n u b if e r a s q u a Raetia p or r ig it Alp es e r it e t hostiles u c ia tanta est fi ripas d p g ) ( in c om it a t u s ad i t tot um p r op e r a r e p er a m n e m a t t on i t o s reges h u m il i cer vice vi d e r e s ante d u c e m nostr u m fl a va m s p a r s e r e S y g a m b r i c a e s a r ie m a vid o u e o r antes m urmure Fra n ci p q r oc u b u e r e solo i r a t u r Ho n orius a b s e n s u p im p l or a t q u e tu u m s up p l e x Alamannia n o m e n B a s t a r n a e ve n ere truces venit accola silvae B r u c t e r u s H e r cy n ia e l a t is q u e p a l u di b u s exit C i mb er e t ingentes Al b im l iq u e r e Cherusci ,

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3 18

THE FOU RTH CONSULSH IP OF HONORIU S s etti n g su n what stor m wi n d frets the M oo n s o that discoloured s h e up l ifts a n a n gry fac e B ehold n o w great father i n whatsoever part of heave n tho u s h in e s t b e it the southern arch or the cold co n stellation of the Plough that has won the ho n our of thy presence s e e thy prayer has bee n a n swered ; thy so n no w equals thee i n m erit n ay a con s u m m a tio n still more to b e desired he s urp a s s et h thee tha nks to the support of thy dear Sti l icho whom thou thys elf at thy death didst leave to guard a n d defe n d the brothers twai n For us there is nought that Stilicho is n ot ready to su ffer n o dan ger t o hi m self he is n ot will ing to fac e n either hardships of th e la n d n or haz ards of th e s e a H is co u rage will carry hi m on foot across the deserts of Libya at the s etti n g of the rainy Pleiads h is ship will p e n e trate the Gaetulian Syrtes T o hi m ho w ever thy first comma n d is t o cal m fi erc e n atio n s and bring p eace to the R hine On — wi n d swift steed n o escort clingi n g to his side he cross es the cloud capped s um mits of the Raetia n Alps and s o great is his tr u st i n hi m s el f approaches th e river u n atte n ded The n m ightest thou ha v e s ee n fro m source to m outh co m e haste ni n g u p Rhine s princes bend in g their heads i n f earful submiss i o n B e f ore our ge n eral the S y g a m b r i abased their flax e n locks a n d the Fra nks cast the m s elves upon the ground a n d sued with trembling voice for pardo n Germany swears a l l eg i a n ce to the abse n t Ho n o r ius and ad d ress es her s up pliant prayers to him Fierce B a s t a r n a e were there and the Bructeri who dwell i n the Hercy ni a n forest The Cim b r ia n s left their broad ma r sh lands the tall Cherusci came f ro m the river Elbe Stilicho listens -

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CLAU D IA N ccipit ille preces varias t a r d e q u e r og a t u s a d n u i t e t magn o pace m p r o m un e r e do n at nob il i t a n t ve t e r e s Germa nica f o e d e r a Drusos Marte s e d ancipiti s e d multis cl a di b u s e m p t a quis vic t u m m e mi nit sola f orm id in e R h e nu m quod longis alii bell is p o t u e r e m e r e ri h oc ti bi dat S t il ic h on is iter Post oti a Galli l imi t is h or t a ri s G r a ia s f ul c ir e ruinas Ioni u m t e g it ur v e l is v e n t iq u e labora n t t ot c u rva r e s i n u s s e r va t u r a s q u e Cori n t h u m prosequitur f acili N e p t u n u s gu r gite classes e t p u er I s t h m i a ci ia m r i d e m l i t o r is exul p sec u ra r e p e t it po r tus cum m atre Palaemo n l a u s t r a cruo r e natant l i m i u r e l t a iuve n t u s e t t p p pars mo rbo pa r s ense p e r it non l u st r a L y c a e i non E r y m a n t h e a e iam copia s u fli c it um brae in n u m e r is e x u s t a r og is n u d a t a q u e f erro sic fl a g r a s s e suas l a e t a n t u r M aenala silvas e x c u t ia t c in e r e s E h re S a r t a n u s e t A r cas p y p t u t io r e x a n u is p edib u s r oc u l c e t acervos g p f e s s a q u e p e n s a t is r e s p ir e t G r a e c ia poenis gens qua non S c y t h ic os di ff u s ior ulla Tr iones in c ol u it cui par v us A thos a n g u s t a q u e T hr ace c u m t r a n s ir e t erat per te vi r e s q u e t u or u m fr a c t a d u c u m l u g e t q u e s i bi ia m rara s u p e r s t e s e t q u or um t u r b a e spat i um v i x r a e b u it o r bis p uno colle latent s it ie n s i n cl u s a q u e v allo a

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C orinth

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CLA UDIAN aquas q u as h os tib u s a n t e contiguas alio Stili c ho d e fl e x e r a t actu m ir a n t e m q u e n o v as ignota per a v ia v alles iu s s e r a t a ve r s o fl uviu m mi grare m e a t u Ob via quid m ir u m v inci c um b a rb a r us u l t r o iam c up ia t s er v ire t i bi t u a S a r m a t a d is c or s 48 5 sac r amenta p etit p r oie c t a p elle Gelonus i n L a t ios rit u s t r a n s is t is A lan i m il it a t u t f ortes i n M arte v iros a n im is q u e p a r a t o s s ic i u s t o s i n pace legis l on g u m q u e t u e r is electos cr eb r is n ec s u cc e d e n t ib u s urges iu d icib u s notis r e g i m ur f r uim u r q u e q u i e tis m il it i a e q u e bonis ceu b e l l a t or e Q u irino ceu placido moderante N u m a n on in m in e t ensis n on cri mina vulgo n u l l a e n ob il i u m c a e d e s patria m a e s t u s non t r u d it u r ex ul t e x un t u r im p ia cont i nui cessant augmenta t r ibuti non in f el i ces tab u lae n o n hasta r e fi x a s vendit opes a v ida sector n o n voce c it a t ur n ec t u a p r iva t is cr e s c un t aeraria d a m ni s m u n i fic u s largi s e d n o n e t prodi g u s auri e r d u r a t n on e m t a fi d e s n ec p ectora m er c es p p a dl i a t ipsa suo pro pig n ore castra laborant g te miles n u tr it or amat Q u ae d e n iq u e Ro m ae e r ep t a s

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3 22

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THE FO URTH CO N SULS H IP OF HONORI U S ought i n vain f or th e stole n waters that o n ce w ithi n our f o e m en s reach Stilicho had tur n ed aside i n another cours e a n d co mm a n ded th e strea m that mar v elled at its strange cha nn el a mid u nk n own ways to shift its altered track What wonder that the n atio n s barri n g thy path should fall before the e si n ce the barbaria n of his The S a r m a t a e o wn choice n ow s eeks t o serve the e ever a prey to i n ter n al stri f e beg to swear allegia n ce to thee the Gelo ni cast off their cloaks of h i de and fight f or th e e ; you O Alans ha v e adopted the custo m s of Latium As thou choosest f or war m e n that are brave a n d eager for the fray s o thou choos est f or the o ffi c es of p eace m e n that are j ust a n d once chose n keep est the m lo n g i n their charge n ot ousti ng the m by ever n ew successors W e k n ow th e m a g istrates wh o gover n us a n d we e nj oy th e blessi n gs of peace while we reap the adva n tages as though we lived at one a n d the s a m e of wa r ti m e i n the reign of warlike Romulus a n d p eac e lovi n g N uma A sword is n o longer hu n g over there are n o m assacres of the great ; o u r h eads ; go n e is the m ob of fals e accusers ; n o m ela n choly exiles are drive n fro m their fatherland U nholy i n creas e of p erpetual taxes is at a n e n d ; there are 1 n o accursed lists n o auctio n s of pl u ndered wealth the voic e of greed sum m ons n ot the sales m a n n or is thy treasury i n creas ed by private losses Thou art liberal with thy m o n ey y et n ot wasteful of it The loyalty of thy soldiers is a lasti n g loyalty for it is n ot bought n or is it gifts that wi n their love the arm y is a n xious for the success of it s own child a n d loves the e who wast it s n ursl i n g A n d how deep i s thy devotio n t o R o m e herself ! s

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3 23

CLAU D IA N qua m fi x a m a n et r e ve r e nti a patru m fir m a t u r s eniu m i ur is p r is c a m q u e r e s u m u n t c a ni t i e m leges e m e n d a n t u r q u e ve t u s t a e talem s e n s e r e S ol o n e m a c c e d u n t u e novae q res P a n d io ni a e s ic a r m ip o t e n s La c edaemo n d e s p e x it m u ros rig i do m unita L y c u r g o q u ae s ub te vel ca u sa bre v is vel i ud ic is error d ub iis q u is l i t ib u s a d d e r e fi n e m n e g l e g it u r i u s t i or e t m e r s u m l a t e b r is e d u c e r e v erum q u ae p i etas q u a n t u s q u e r i gor t r a n q uil l a q u e magni vi s an i mi n u l l o q u e lev i s te rr o r e m o v e r i n e c no v a mi r a r i f a cil is quam docta f acultas inge nii l i n g u a e q u e mod u s responsa ve r e n t u r legat i g r a vib u s q u e latet s ub m or ib u s aetas Q u a n t u s i n ore pater r a d ia t q u a m torva vol u ptas frontis e t a u g u sti m a i e s t a s g r ata p u d or is ia m pat r ias i m p l e s galeas iam cornus avi ta r o m i t t it u r i n e n s t e m p t a t u r vib r a n d a tibi p g dext r a r u d im e n t is R om a n a q u e vota morat u r quis decor in c e di s q u otiens cl ip e a t u s e t auro s u a m e u s e t r u til u s crist i s e t c ass i de maior q s ic c u m T h r e i c i a p r imum s u d a r e t in hasta c

ura tibi

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fl u mi n a l a ve r un t p u e r u m R h o d op e ia M a r t e m q u ae v i r es ia c ul i s v el , cu m G or t y ni a tendis

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spic ula quam f elix arcus c e r t iq u e p etitor vu l n e r is e t i u s s u m m e n ti r i n e s c i u s i c t u m scis q u o mo r e Cydon qua di r iga t arte sagittas ,

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3 24

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C LA U D I A N

Ar m e niu s ,

refugo q u ae s i t fi d uc ia P a r t h o sic Am p h ion ia e pulcher sudore palaestrae A lcides p h a r e t r a s D ir c a e a q u e tela s ol eb a t r a e t e m t a r e f eris olim d om it u r a Gigantes p p e t pace m l a t u r a polo s e m e r u e c ru ent u s p q ib a t e t Al cm e n a e p r a e d a m r e f e r eb a t o v ant i caer u leus tali prostratus A polline Pytho n i m p l ic u it f r a c t is moritura volu m ina sil v is C um ve c t a r is equo s im ul a cr a q u e M artia l u d is quis m ollis si n n are fu gas q u is te n dere c on t u m a c r ior a u t s u b it os melior fl e x is s e r e c u r s u s n on te M a s s a e t a e non gens exercita ca m po g T h e s s a l a n on ipsi p ot e r u n t a e q u a r e b im e m b r e s vix co mites alae vix te susp ensa s eq uun t u r a mi n a f e r ve n t e s u e t u m e n t post terga dracones g q u t u e t u is pri m um s o n i e s c a l c a r ib u s arsit q p ig n e s c un t p a t ul a e n ares no n s entit h a r e n a s ungula d is c u s s a e q u e i u b a e s p a r g un t u r i n a r m os t ur b a n t ur phalerae s p u m os i s m or s ib u s a u r um fu m a t anhelantes e x un d a n t sang u i n e gemmae ipse labor p ul vis q u e d e c e t c on f u s a q u e m otu c a e s a r ie s vestis rad i ato murice sole m c om b ib it i n gesto c r is a t u r purpura vento p si domin u s l e g e r e t u r equis tua p os c e r e t u l tr o verbera N e r e id u m s t a b ul is n u t r it u s Arion s e r vir e t u e t u is c o n t e m t o Castore fre mis q p ,

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T HE

FO U RTH CO N SULS H I P OF H O N O R I US

with what skill the Ar m e n ia n directs hi s a r rows ; i n what th e retreati n g Parthia n puts his trust Thus was Alcides graced with the s w eat of th e wrestli ng gr ou n d at Thebes wont t o try h is b o w and Boeotia n arrows on the beasts of the forest ere he tur n ed the m against the Gia n ts and s o secured p eace f or heave n Stains of blood were ever upo n hi m a n d proud was his mother Alc m e n a of the spoil s he bro u ght back home Such w as A pollo whe n he slew the livid s e r pent that en f olded a n d brake dow n forests i n his dy i ng co i ls Wh e n m ounted on thy horse thou p l a y e s t t h e m imicry of wa r wh o is quick er s m oothly t o wheel in fl ight who t o hurl the sp ear or m ore skilled t o sweep ro un d i n swif t retur n There the M a s s a g e t a e are n o t thy peers n or the trib es of Thessaly well vers ed though they b e i n ridi n g n o n or the very Ce n ta u rs the m sel v es Scarce ca n the s q uadro n s a n d flyi n g bands that accompa n y the e keep pace while the wi n d behind thee belli es the fierce drago n s on the fl ag s So soo n a s the to u ch of thy spur has fired thy steed fl am es start fro m his swelli n g n ostrils ; h is hoof scarce touches the grou n d a n d his m a n e is outspread over hi s shoulders His harn ess rattles a n d t h e golde n bit grows war m i n h is foa m fl e ck e d m outh The j ewels that stud h is q uiveri n g bridle are red with blood Th e sig n s of toil the dust stai n s the disorder of thy hair all do but i n creas e thy beauty Thy brilli a n t scarlet cloak dri nks i n the su n light a s the wi n d blows its gay surface i n to folds Co uld horses choos e their riders the n surely would Ario n full fed i n the stables of the Nereids have p rayed f or the very wh ip of such a m aster Cy l l a r us would hav e h a d n o n e of C as tor but would h a ve l ook e d ,

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3 27

CL A UDI AN fl a vu m Xanthus s p r e vis s e t Ach il l e m ipse tibi f a m ul a s p r a e b e r e t Pegas u s alas o r t a r e t u e l i b e n s m e l i or a u e pondera pass u s p q q Cy l l a ru s

et

B el l e r op h o n t e a s in d ig n a r e t u r h a b e n a s

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q u i n et i am velox Aur orae n u nt iu s A ethon q ui f u g a t h in n it u stellas r os e o q u e d om a t u r L uci f ero quotie n s e q u it e m te c e r n it ab ast ri s invid e t i n q u e tuis m a vul t sp um are l u p a t is Nunc q u oque q u os habit u s q u a n t a e mirac ula ,

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m o p

p

5 65

ae

vidimus Au son i o c um iam s u ccin c t u s a m i c t u per L ig u r u m pop u los solito c on s p e c t ior ires atq u e i nte r ni v eas alte ve h e r e r e c oho r tes ob n i x is u e simul p u bes electa l a c e r t is q s id e r e u m 5 70 s ic numina M emphis e s t a r e t on u s g in v ulgus p r of e r r e solet p e n e t r a l ib u s exit e ffi i e s bre v is illa q u idem l r im u s i n f ra e u s d g p l in ig e r im p os it o s u s p ir a t v e c t e sace r dos t e s t a t u s s u dore de u m N i lotica s is t r is ripa so mat P h a r ios q u e modos Ae g y p t ia d u cit t i b i a s u mmi s s is a d m u g it c or n ib u s A pi om n i s n o b il it a s om ni s t u a sac r a f r e u e n t a t q T h y b r id is e t L a t ii s u b ol e s c o n ve ni t i n u n um u id u id i n orbe f uit p r ocer u m q uibus a u ctor hono r is q q ve l tu vel genitor 580 n umeroso c on s ul e consul c in e r is e t socios gaudes a d m it t e r e patres g in l us t r i te prole Tag u s te Galli a d o ct is civi b u s e t toto s t i a vi t Ro m a s e n a t u p r t a t u r i u ve n u m c e r vic ib u s aurea s edes o p om a t u u e novo r a vi or deus a s e r a t I n dus q p g velame n ta lapis p r e t ios a q u e fil a s m a r a g d is ,

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3 28

CLAU DIA N d u eta vire n t

a m eth

y

s t us

in e s t

et

fulgor

H ib e r us

hyacinthi c a e r ul a fl a m m is n ec rudis i n tali s u ff e cit gratia t e x t u auget acus m eritu m p ict ur a t um q u e m e t a l l is 1 n m ulta r e m or a t ur iaspide cu ltus vivit opus e t va r ii s s ir a t N e r e ia baca fi u r is g p quae tantu m p ot uit d ig it is m ol l ir e r ig or e m a m b it io s a col u s vel cuius p e c t in is arte t r a x e r un t s ol id a e g e m m a r u m stamina telae inv i a q u is calidi s cr ut a t u s stagna profu nd i T e t h y os in va s it gre m i um q ui s d ivit is algae germi n a fl a g r a n t e s inter q u a e s ivit h a r e n a s q u is iun x it lapides ostro quis m is c u it ignes S id onii Rubriq u e maris t r ib u e r e colorem P h oen ic e s Seres s u b t e g m in a po n d u s H y d a s p e s hoc si M a e on ia s c in c t u g r a d e r e r e p er u r bes in te p a m p in e os t r a n s f e r r e t Ly di a thyrsos i n te Nysa choros d ub it a s s en t orgia Bacchi cui f ur e r e n t ir e n t b l a n d a e s u b vinc u la tig r es tal i s E ry t h r a eis in t e x t u s n eb r id a g e m m is Liber agit cur r u s e t Ca s p ia fl e c t it e b u r n is col la iu g is Satyri ci r c u m cr in e m q u e s ol u t a e Mae n ades a d s t r in g u n t h e d e r is vic t r icib u s Indos eb r iu s h os t il i v e l a t ur palmite Ganges A uspice m ox laetu m s on u it clamore trib un al te f astos i n eunte q u ater s ol l e m n i a l u d it o mi n a libertas d e d u ct u m Vi n dice m ore m lex c el eb r a t f a m ul u s q u e i n go l a x a t u s e r il i 1 B ir t vu l tus cod A mbr os ia nu s cu l tus t em p er a t

a r c a n is

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6 05

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the na m e of the s l a ve wh o wa s g ra nted h is l i b erty b y B rutus f or g ivi n g inf or m a tion of the roy a l is t p l ot in which B rutus own s ons were im p l ica ted F or the s tory ( pro b a b l y a n a etio l o g ic a l m yth to exp l a in vin d i cta a n other word f o r es tu ca s ee L ivy ii 5 f ) 1

V in dex ( or V in d ic iu s ) wa s



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THE FO URT H CO N SULSH IP OF H O N O R I US the seams ; there gleams th e amethyst and the gli n t of Spanish gold makes the dar k bl u e s apphire show duller with its hidden fires Nor i n the weavi n g of such a rob e was unadorned bea u ty e n o u h ; th e g work of th e n eedle increases its v alue thread of gold and silver glows therefrom ; m any a n agate a d or n s th e embroidered robes a n d p earls of Ocea n breathe in v a ried patter n What bold ha n d w hat distaff had s kill eno u gh to m ake thus supple ele m ents What loo m so c unning as to we ave j ewels s o hard into close textured cl oth ? Who s earchi n g o u t the uncharted pools o f hot Easte r n seas despoiled th e boso m of Tethys ? Who dared s e ek o e r b u rning sands rich growth of coral ? Who could broider precious stones on sca r let and s o mingle the shining glori es of the R ed Sea a n d of Phoenicia s waters ? Tyre le n t her dyes China her silks H y d a s p e s his j ewels Shouldst tho u tra v ers e M aeo n ian c i ti es in such a garb to the e wo u ld Lydia hand o v er her v i ne wr eathed thyrsus to the e Nysa her dances ; the revels of B a c ch u s wo u ld have do u bted w henc e ca m e their m adness ; tigers wo u ld pass fawn ing — beneath thy yo k e Eve n such his faw n skin e n wove n with orie n t ge m s doth the Win e god dri v e his car g u iding th e n ecks of H yrca n ian tigers w ith ivory yoke aro un d hi m satyrs a n d wild haired M ae n ads fetter Indians with tri umpha n t ivy w hile dru nke n Ganges t w ines his hair with the v ine tend r il Already shouts of j oy and of good ome n reso un d about the consul s throne to welco m e this thy fourth op ening of Rome s year Liberty enacts her wonted cere m o nies ; La w observes the custom dati n g back 1 to Vi n dex whereby a slave freed fro m his m aster s service is i ntroduced i n to thy pres ence and thence -

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33 1

CL A U D I A N grato r e m e a t s e c ur ior ic t u tristis con di cio p u lsata fro n te r e c e di t in cive m r ub u e r e genae t e r g o q u e r e m o vit verbera p e r m is s i f el i x in iu r ia voti Prospera R om ul e is s p e r a n t u r tempora rebus in n ome n v e n tura t uum p r a e mi s s a f u t uri s dant exempla fi d e m q u otiens te c u r s ib u s a e vi r a e f e c i t t o t i e n s access i t la u rea patri p ausi D a n uvi um q uondam t r a n s n a r e G r u t h u n g i in l in t r e s f r e g e r e n em u s ter mille r u e b a n t per fl uviu m p l e n a e c un e is in m a n ib u s al ni d u x Od ot h a e u s erat t a n t a e c on a m in a c lassis incipie n s aetas e t pri mu s c on t u d it ann u s s u mm e r s a e sedere rates fl u it a n t i a n u m q u a m l a r g iu s Ar ct o os pa v ere c a d a ve r a pisces c or or ib u s r e m i t u r P e u c e ; p er q ui nque re cu rrens p p 63 1 ost i a b a r b a r icos vix e g e r it u nda cr u ores c o n f e s s u s q u e pare n s Od o t h a e i r eg i s opima r e t t u l it e x u vi a s u e t i b i ci v ile u n d is s e c q c o n fi cis a u s ic n s b ellum tibi e b e a t o rb i s d p 63 5 fata G r u t h un g or u m d e b e l l a t u m q u e t y r a n n u m Hister s a n g uin eos e g it te c on s ul e fl uc t u s ; A lpi n os genitor rup i t te c on s u l e m ontes Sed p a t r iis olim f u eras s u c c e s s ib u s a uc tor n unc er i s ips e t ui s semp er venere t r iu m p h i cu m t r a b e is s e q u it u r q u e t u os victo r ia f asces d uc i t u r

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A re f ere nce to the R o m a n m ethod of m a nu m itti n g a s l a ve a l a et f es tu ca i e b y g ivi n g h im a s l i g ht b l o w p ( a l ap a ) with a r od ( f es tu c ) S e e G a in s o n vin d ic ti o ( iv 1 6 ) a n d o n the who l e q ue s tio n R G N i s b et in J ou r n l of R oma n S tu d ies viii P t 1 The c a m p a ig n of T h eo d os iu s a g a i n s t O d oth a eu s K i ng of the G r u th u n i g ( Z o s i m u s iv 3 5 c a l l s h im 0000 ) is th u s 1

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332

6 09

CLAUDIA N M a r ii u e r el in u a s co n sul q p q e t s e n is Augusti n u m e r um q uae gau di a m u n do per tua la n ugo cu m serp ere c o ep e r it ora cu m tibi p r ot ul e r it festas n ox p r onuba t a e d a s q uae tali devota toro q u ae mu r ice f u lge n s ibit i n amplexus ta n ti regi n a mariti u a e n a m tot d i vis ve n i e t n ur u s o mnib u s arvis q e t toto d on a n d a m ari u a n t u s ou e f e r e t u r q ide m per Z ep h y r i m etas Hy m e n ae u s e t Eu r i o mihi s i l i c e a t t h a l a mi s inte n dere carme n c on ub ia l e tuis s i te ia m di cere p a t r e m temp u s crit c um tu tr a n s B he ni cor n ua victor Arcadi u s c a p t a e s p ol iis B a b y l oni s on u s t u s c om m un e m m aiore toga s i n a b it is annum g cr in it u s u e tuo s u d a b it fasce S u e b u s q ultim a fraternas h orr e b un t Bactra s e c ures r e cor , a d s id u u s

s is ,

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334

M a rius wa s

cons ul s even Au g us tus thirteen tim es .

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TH E FOU R TH CONSULSHIP OF H O N O R IU S H eave n gr ant thou m ayest b e our p er p etual co n sul 1 a n d o u t nu mber M arius a n d ol d Augustus Happy u nivers e that shall s e e th e first do wn creep over thy ch eeks and the weddi n g ni ght that shall lead forth for the e the festal torches Who shall b e co n secrated t o such a couch ; wh o glo r io u s i n purple shall pass a quee n t o th e embr aces of s uch a husband ? Wh at bride shall come to be the da u ghter of s o m a n y gods do w ered wi th every la n d a n d the whole s ea ? Ho w gloriously shall the n u ptial so n g be bor n e at o n ce to farthest E ast and West ! 0 m ay it b e m i n e to sing thy marr iage hy mn m ine pre s e n tl to hail thee fath er ! Th e time w ill come y whe n thou victorious b eyon d th e m o u ths o f the R hi n e a n d thy brother A r cadi us lade n wi th the spoil of captured Babylo n ye shall e n dow th e year wi th yet more glorious m aj es t y ; wh e n the long haired S u eb ia n shall b ear the ar ms of Ro m e a n d the dista n t B actria n tre mble be n eath the r ule of thys elf a n d thy brother .

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335

P AN E G Y R I CU S

D I CT U S

M A NL I O T H EODORO

C ON S U L I

P R A E FAT I O

XVI ( Au d e b is n e , p r e c or , t a n t a e

s u b i e c t a c a t e r va e ,

i nter t o t proce r es nost r a T h a l i a l o q u i n ec te f ama v e t a t v ero q u a m c el s i us a u c t a m vel se rv asse labor v el m in u is s e p u d o r an t i b i c o n t in u is c r e vit fi d u cia c a s t r is t o t a q u e i a m v at i s p e c to r a m i les habet c ulm i na Roman i m a i e s t a t e m q u e senat u s e t q ui b u s e x u l t a t G a ll i a c e r ne vir os omn i b u s a u d im u r te rr is m u n d iq u e p e r a ur es a h n im iu s c on s u l is u r g e t amo r ib im u s I up p it e r u t p e r h i b e n t spa t iu m cu m d is c e r e vellet nat ur ae r egn i n e s c iu s i ps e s ui a r m i ge r os u t r im q u e d u os a e q u a l ib u s alis m i s i t ab Eois Oc cid u is q u e p l a g is ,

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P a r n a s u s g e m i n o s f e r t u r i u n x i s s e vo l a t u s c o n t u l it alte r nas Pyt hiu s a x i s a v es P ri n c eps n on a q uil is te r r as c o g nos c ere cu rat c e r t i u s in v obis a e s t im a t i m pe riu m h oc ego c oncil i o c ol l e c t u m m e t ior or b e m h oc v ideo c o e t u q u i d q u i d u b i q u e m ic a t .

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xv J u d g i n g f ro m thi s poe m S ee I n trod u ctio n p M a n l i u s s t a rted b y b ei ng a n a d voca tu s in the pra etori a n pref ect s co u rt wa s the n p r a es es o f s o m e dis trict in Africa , the n g overn or ( con s u l a r is ) of M a cedo n i a n ext reca l l ed to R o m e a s G r a tia n s m a g is ter ep is tu l a r u m , then com es 1

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33

6

P ANE G Y R I CU S

XVI I ( ) Ipsa q uide m Virt u s pretiu m sibi sola q ue lat e For t un a e secura n it e t n ec f a s cib u s ull is e r i it u r l a u s u ve p etit c l a r e s c e r e v u lgi g p nil op i s e x tern ae c up ie n s nil indiga l a u d is d ivit ii s a nimosa suis in m o t a q u e c u n c t is c a s ib u s ex alta m o r t a l i a d e s p icit arce a t t a m e n i n vita m blande ve s t i a t e t u l t r o g am bit ho n or d oc u it t ot ie n s a r u r e p r of e c t u s lictor e t in m e dii s consul q u a e s it u s a r a t r is te q u oq u e nat u rae s a cr is m u n di q u e va c a n t e m ,

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e m e r it u m

p

ri

d e m d e s u d a t is q u e

eade m

r e m ot u

m

m

complexa potestas e ve h it e t r e d u c e m n otis im o ni t h a b e ni s p nil iam Theodore r el ic t u m a c c e d u n t trabeae 1 q uo vi rt u s animo c r e s ca t vel sple n dor ho n ori culmen u t r um q u e te n es : tale m te p r o t in u s ann i f or m a ve r e rudes e t d i g n um vita curuli tr a x it iter p r im a e q u e senes c e s s e r e i u ve n t a e ia m tu m ca nities ani mi ia m dulce l oq u e n di 1 hon ori conj ect B ir t ; hon ore cod d iu d icii s

r ur s u

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338

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P A N EGYRI C

Virtue is it s own reward alo n e with it s f a r fl u n g sple n dour it m ocks at Fortu n e ; n o ho n our s rais e it hi gher n or does it s eek glory from the m ob s applaus e Exter n al wealth ca n not arouse it s des ires it as k s n o praise b u t makes its bo ast of self co n tai n ed riches a n d unmoved by all cha n ces it looks do wn upo n th e w orld fro m a lofty citadel Yet i n it s o wn despite import un ate ho n ours p ur su e it a n d o ff er the m selves unsought ; that the lictor co ming fro m the farm hath oftti m es proved and a consul sought for eve n at the plough Thou too wh o wert at leisure t o study th e mysteries o f nat u re a n d the heave n s tho u wh o hadst s erved thy time and retired from th e l a w courts w here thou hadst toiled s o long art o n ce more e nf olded by a li k e di g ni ty which raising the e alo f t s ets i n thy ret u r n ing hands the fami li ar rei n Th e co n s u lsh i p n ow i s thine Theodorus n or is there now a u ght le f t to add to thy virt u es or to the glory of thy na m e Thou art n o w at the s u mmit o f both ; f rom thi n e earl i est years thy cha r acter w as thus f or m ed the whole cours e of thy l i f e was worthy of th e curule chair ; thy earliest youth o u tri v alled age E v e n the n thy m i n d was hoar thy pleasa n t talk weighty thy -



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339

CL A U D I A N pond u s

se r mo qui d u c e r e t a u res m o x u n d a r e f o r o v ict r ix op ul e n t i a l i ng u ae t u t a r iq u e reos ipsa haec ampl i ss i ma sedes o r a n t e m s t u u i t bis l a u d a t u r a r e g e n t e m p hin e te pars L ib y a e m od e r a n t e m i ur a p r ob a vit q u ae n un c tota p r obat longi sed pign u s a m or is o u l u m u e cl i e n t e m e x i ua e e e r e r e morae q p p g p p p ubl i ca m a n s u r is t e s t a n t u r vo c ib u s ae r a in de tibi M a c e t u m tell u s e t c r edita P e l l a e m o e ni a q u ae f am u l u s q u onda m d i t a vit H y d a sp e s t a n t a q u e c om m is s a e re v o c ast i ga u d i a genti m it ib u s a r b it r iis q u ant u m bellante P h il i p p o fl or ui t a u t nig ri c e c idi t c u m r egia Pori Sed n on u l t e r iu s te p r a e b u it u rb ib u s aula m a l ui t ess e s u u m ter ris e d ic t a d a t u r u s su l i c ib u s responsa ve n is orac u la reg i s pp eloq u io c r e ve r e t u o nec d ig n iu s u m q u a m m a i e s t a s m e m i n it s es e Romana l oc u t a m h ine saerae m a n d a n t u r op es o r b is q u e tribut a possessi q uid q u id fl u vii s e vol vi t u r au r i u i d u id l u ce r oc u l venas ri m ata s eq u aces q q p abdi ta p a l l e n t is fo di t s ol l e r t ia Bessi 1 A c v e l u t e x p e r t u s l e n t a n d is ma vi ta t on s is r or a e r a e fi c it u r late r i cu stos h i nc ardu a p p t e m p e r a t e t fl u c t u s t e m p e s t a t e s q u e f u t ur as e d oce t a d s id u o c um D or i d a vi c e r it u s u ia m c l a vu m t o t a m q u e s u bit t or q u e r e c a r in a m e t a tt o n i t a s

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3 40

ex p er tu s

B a r th iu s

B ir t k eep s M S S

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exertu s

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25

CL AU D I AN

cu m clara di u m e n tis docu m e nta d e di s s e s n o n te parte s ui s e d i n o mni corpore s u m p s it im peri um c un ct a q u e dedit tell u re r e g e n d os rectores Hispana tibi G er m a n a q u e Tethys a r u i t e t n ostro di d u c t a Brita nni a m undo p d ive r s o q u e tuas c ol u er un t g u rgite voces l e n t u s A rar Rh od a n u s q u e f erox e t di ves H ib e r us o quotiens d ol ui t Rh e n u s qua b a r b a r u s i h at quod te n on ge minis fr u e r e t u r iudice r ip is u ni us fit cur a viri q u od cu m q u e r ub e s cit u o d c u m q u e di es d e ve x ior a m bit o cc as u q Ta m celer a d s id u os e x p l e vit curs u s ho n ores u n a potestatu m s p a t iis in t e r f uit aetas t ot q u e gradus fati i u ve n il i b u s in t ul i t a n nis 60 P os t q u a m parta q ui e s e t su mm u m n acta cacu m e n iam secura p etit privatu m gloria p or t u m ingen ii r e d e un t fructus a l ii q u e labores e t vitae pars n ulla perit u o d c u m u e r e c e di t q q l i tib u s i n cu m bit s t u d ii s a ni m u s q u e vicis sim aut curam im p oni t p op u li s aut otia M u s is om ni a Ce cr op ia e r e l e g is s ecreta s e n e c t a e d is c u t i e n s q ui d quisque nov um m a n d a ve r it a e vo s ic

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d ive r s a e p r o d u c a n t a g mi n a s e c t a e N a m q u e a l iis pri n ceps reru m d is p on it u r a er hic c o n fi d it a q u is ; hic p r ocr e a t om ni a fl a m m is anta ue u q q

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C l a udia n re f ers to the e a rl y I on i a n phi l os ophers Ana xim en es b el ieved th a t a ir wa s the firs t princip l e of a ll thin g s , Th a l es s a id wa ter, H era c l itus fire I 72 ref ers to E m pedoc l es wh o po s tu l a ted the f our e l e m e nts a n d two principl es , l ove a n d h a te , which res pective l y m a de ”a nd “ unm a de the un ivers e out of the e l e m ents The h ie of l 75 m a y b e D e m oc ritus or it m a y re f er to the S ceptic , ” “ P yrrho The h ie of l 76 is Ana xa g oras , the frien d of “ I lle P eric l es ( 7 9 ) m a y b e ta ke n to ref er to L eucipp us , the firs t of t he a to m ic phil os ophers ; he pos tul a ted in fin it e 1

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3 42

THE CONSULSHIP OF MANLIUS direction of the entire ship ; s o whe n thou hadst long give n illustrious proo f s of thy character t h e e m pire of R o m e summoned thee to gover n not a pa r t b u t the whole of its elf a n d s e t thee as ruler o v er all the r u lers of the w o rld The seas of Spain the Germ an ocea n obeyed thee a n d Britain s o f a r removed from o u r co n tinent Rivers of all lands obs erved th y statutes slo w fl owing Sa one s wi f t Rhone and Ebro rich in gold How often di d the Rhine in thos e di st r icts where the barba r ians d w ell la m ent that the blessings of thy rule extended not to both ba nks ! A ll the lands the setting su n bathes i n its rays all that its last brilli ance illumines are e n trusted to the cha r ge o f o n e m an So s w i f tly did thy career fill o ffi c e after o ffic e ; a single p eriod of li f e wa s e n o u gh for the ro u nd of di gn i ties a n d ga v e to thy yo u th f u l years every step o n f ort un e s ladder Whe n repos e wa s earned a n d n o w after reachi n g the h i ghest place glo r y laying care aside s eeks re f uge i n a p r ivate life geni u s again wins reward No part of li f e i s lost all that i s f r om other tas k s w ithdrawn fr om th e law co u rts is de v oted to the study and thy m i n d in t u rn either b estows i ts e fforts Onc e o n the State or its leis u re o n the M uses more thou readest th e s ecrets of a n cient Athe n s examining the disco v e r ies with which each sag e h a s e n riched posterity a n d n oting w hat hosts o f di sciples the varying schools prod u ce 1 is the first begi nn i n g of F o r some hold that air all thi n gs others that w ater is others agai n derive the s u m of th i ngs f rom fire A nother destined to a nd Hi D e m ocritus E picurus oth er s p a ce (82) A l ii ( 8 3 ) a re the P l a ton is ts a to m is ts ,

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3 43

CL A U DI A N Ae t n a e a s

spo nte f a villas d is p e r g it r e voc a t q u e de u m r u r s u s q u e r e c e p t is n e c t i t a m i c it iis q u i d q u i d d i s c o r d i a s ol vit co rpo ri s hi c damnat s ens u s ve r u m q u e vid e r i l a s u r a e pondera terrae h i c sempe r er n e a t p g p c o n a t u r r apido c ael i f u l c i r e r o t a t u a c c e n d it q u e d i em p r a e r u p t i t ur b i ne saxi ille f e r ox u n o q u e tegi n on pass u s Ol y m p o in m e n s u m p e r inane vol a t fi n e m q u e p e r os u s a r t u r i t in n u m e r o s ang u sto p ectore m u ndos p h i v aga c ol l id u n t c a e c is p r imo r dia p l a g is num i na c on s t it u u n t al ii c a s u s q u e r e l e g a n t G r a i or u m obsc ur as Roman i s fl o r ib u s a r tes in r a d ia s vic ib u s g r at i s f o r mare l o q u e n t e s s u e t u s e t alterno verum c o n t e x e r e nodo u i d q u i d Socratico m a n a vi t ab o r dine q u i d q u id q docta Cl e a n t h e a e s on u e r un t at r ia t u rb a e in v e n t u m q u o d c u m q u e t u o Ch r y s ip p e r e c e s s u u i d q u i d D emocrit u s r i s i t di x i t q u e tacendo q Pythago r as uno se pecto r e c u neta v et u stas c o n d i d it e t maior c o l l e c t is vir ib u s e x i t alter in

c a s ur u s

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o r n a n t u r v e t e r e s e t n ob

in Lati u m s p r e t is u t tandem p r o p i u s d i s c a t q u o fine beat um d ir ig it u r q u ae norma boni q ui limes ho mesti u a e n a m memb r a s u i vir t u s di v isa d o m a n d is q quae p a r s in iu s t a r e c id a t o b i e c t e t vit iis q u ae vin c a t r at i one m et u s quae frenet amores a u t q u ot i ens clementa do c es s e m p e r q u e fl u e n t is ,

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yi n g th a t M a n l iu s tra n s l a tes G reek phil os ophy i n to c l e a r a n d e l e g a n t L a tin thro wing h is tra n s l a tion into the f orm of a dia l o g ue 1

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3 44

CL A U DIA N causas quae vis a n im a ve r it astra q u o vivat machi n a m otu im p u l e r it q u e choros sidera cu r septe m retro n it a n t ur in or t u s va r ii s n e m e a t ib u s ide m ob l u c t a t a polo arbiter an ge minae c on ve r t a n t a e t h e r a m entes s i tne colo r propri u s rerum l u cis n e r ep ul s u t u m id os q u ae l u na r e c u r s u s el u d a n t a ci e m q uo fr a c t a to nitrua vento n u t r i a t Ocea n i q ui s t r a h a t im b r if e r a s nu bes q u o saxa c r e e n t ur ni vib u s u n de rigor quae fl a mm a ra n d i ni s g auras e x c u t i a t r u t il os tract u s a u t f ul mi n a velox t or q u e a t aut triste m fi g a t cri n ita comete m Ia m tibi c om p os it a m f u n d a ve r a t a n cora p up p im f ecunda p l a c e b a n t t e l l u r is iam c e r t u s eras otia n ascentes ib a n t in saecula l i br 1 c u m s u bito li quida c e s s a n t e m vidi t ab aethra Iustitia e t tan to vid u a t a s iu di ce leges continuo fr on t e m li m bo velata p u d ic a m d e s e r it A utu mni portas q ua vergit i n Austru m Signi f er e t n octis r e p a r a n t di sp endia Chelae 1 20 pax a vib u s q u a c u m q u e vol a t r a b i e m q u e fr e m e n t e s l a e t a t u r terra reverso d e p o s u e r e f erae nu mine q u od p r is c i post te m pora p e r di d it auri illa p er o cc u l t u m L ig u r u m s e m o e n ib u s inf e r t e t castos l e vib u s pla n tis ingressa p enates in v e nit a e t h e r io s s ig n a n t e m pulvere c ursus qu os pia sollicito d ep r e n di t poll ic e M e mphis m a t e r ia e

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3 46

THE CONSULSHIP OF M A NLI US the ele m e nts a n d the causes of m atter s c ease less cha n ge ; what in flu e n c e has give n life to the stars movi n g the m i n their cours es ; what q uickens with m ove m e n t the u niversal fra m e Thou tellest wh y the s eve n pla n ets strive backward towards the E ast doi n g battle with the fir m a m e n t w hether there is on e lawgiver to di ff ere n t m ove m e n ts or two m i n ds gover n heave n s revolutio n whether colour is a prop erty of m atter or whether obj ects deceive ou r sight and owe their colo u rs to refl ected light how the m oo n caus es the ebb and flow of the t i de w hich wi n d bri n gs abo u t the thu n de r s crash which collects the rain clo u ds and by w hich the hail stones are for m ed w hat caus es the cold n ess of s n ow and what is that fl a m e that ploughs it s shi ni n g f urro w through the sky hurls the swi f t thunderbolt or s ets in heave n s dome the tail of the baleful co m et Already had the a n chor stayed thy restfu l bark already thou wert minded t o g o ashore ; fr u itfu l leis u re char m ed a n d books were being bor n for im mortality whe n of a sudde n J u stic e looked dow n fro m the shi ni n g hea v e n and s a w thee at thi n e ease She s a w Law too deprived of her great i n terpreter stayed n ot but wreathi n g her chaste forehead with a band le ft the gates of A utu mn where the Sta n dard bearer dips towards the south a n d the Scorpio n m akes good the losses of the ni ght Where er s h e fl ies a p eace f ell upo n the b ir d s a n d howli n g beasts laid aside their ra g e E arth rej oic es i n the retur n of a deity lost t o her si n ce the wa ni n g of the age of gold S ecretly Justice e n ters the walls of M i la n Liguria s city and p e n etrati ng with li ght step the holy palace fi n ds Theodorus marki n g i n the sa n d thos e heave n ly m ove m e n ts whi ch revere n t M e m phis discovered by of



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3 47

C L A UD IAN

q uae m ove a n t momenta p ol u m qua m c e r t u s i n ast ris error q ui s t e n e b r a s solis c a u s is q u e m e a n t e m de f ect u m in di c a t n u mer u s quae li nea P h o e b e n 1 3 0 d a m n e t e t e x cl u s o p a l l e n t e m f rat r e r e l in q u a t r o c u l a d s e x it f u l e n t i a Vi r ginis o r a ut p p g ,



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m a t eb u n t 1 6 aut q ua n do e r i t is m a i or a 0 p p r a emi a ui i u n er e se n sus q is u e m e ns adeo d p q g s im il e m quae r o t u l i t aetas cum S t il i ch on e meget p cons i lio vel M art e vir u m n u n c Bru tus a m aret vi v ere s ub regn o tali s u ccu m b e r e t aulae Fabricius cu p er e n t ipsi servire Ca t on e s n on n e vi des u t n ostra soror Cle m e n tia tr istes ob t un d a t l a d ios fr a t r es u e a m l e x a sere n os g q p a d s u r a t Pi etas fr a c t is u t l u e a t ar m is g g P e r fi di a e t l a c e r is m or i e n t e s cr inib u s hydri l a m b a n t in v a l ido F u r i a r u m vi n cl a vene n o P e x u l t a t cu m Pace Fides ia m s i dera c un ct a e l i q uim u s e t placidas inter d i s cu rr im us ur bes n ob is cu m Theodore re di Subit ille l o q u e n t e m t a l ib us a r e st em d u d um m e va r evert i d i g c o is e t i n f ectu m longi r u bigin e r u ris g ad tua signa vocas na m quae mihi cura tot an ni s altera quam d u ras sulcis m ol l ir e n o v ales n osse soli vi res n e m or i quae c om m od a r up e s quis f eli x ol e a e tr actus quae g l a eb a f a ve r e t fr u g i b u s e t q u a l e s t e g e r e t vi n d e mi a colles t e r r ib il e s r u r s u m l i t u o s v e t e r a n u s adibo e t des u eta vetus t e m t a b o c a e r ul a vector p r es

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3 50

TH E CONSULSH IP OF MANLI U S hi s



bid di n g fellow citiz e n s t o put a coward s tr ust i n walls he s e t L a c e d e m on to fac e wars m ore s ecurely i n h er n aked n ess ; but all the teaching of P y t h agoras a n d hi s years of sile n c e n ever cr u shed the i nfa m o u s lice n tiousn ess of Sp arta s colo n y Tare ntum “ B esides b e n eath such a n e mp eror wh o could refus e o ffice ? Was ever merit m ore richly r e warded ? Who is s o insensate as n ot to wish to m eet Stili cho i n co un cil Has ever a n y age produced his e qual i n prude n ce or in bravery ? Now would Brutus love to live u n der a ki n g ; to s u ch a court Fabricius would yield th e Catos the m s elves long to give s e r vice S eest thou n ot how m y sister M ercy bl un ts the cr u el s w ord of war ; how Piety ris es to e mbrace the two n oble brothers ; how Treaso n lame n ts h er broke n weapo n s and the snakes wr ithing in death u pon th e F u ries w ounded heads lic k their chains with en f e ebled v enom ? P eace and loyalty ar e triumpha n t All the host of heaven le aves the stars a n d w a n ders from p eace f ul city to p eace f ul city R et u r n thou with us Theodor u s The n Theodorus made answer From m y long acc u sto m ed fields goddess thou u r g e s t m e to ret u r n sum moning to thy sta n dard o n e gro wn r u sty i n th e dista n t c ou n tryside What els e h as b ee n m y car e all thes e y ears b u t to break up th e st u bbor n fallow land into f urro w s to k n o w the n atur e of the soil th e roc k y la n d s u itable to th e gro w th of trees th e country where the o l ive will flourish the fields that w ill yield r i ch harvests of grain or th e hi lls w h ich my vi n eyards m ay cloth e ? I have s er v ed m y ti m e a m I to hea rke n o n c e more to th e d readf ul trump et ? Is th e ol d h el m sma n agai n to brave th e s eas whos e lore h e h a s forgotte n -

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CLAU D I AN d iu e t ce r t i s u t c u m q u e l oc a t a m s e di b u s in d u bi um patia r d e o n e r e f a m a m p nec m e q u id va l e a t nat ur a f o r tio r u s u s r a e t e r it a u t q u ant u m n e l e c t a e d e fl u a t arti g p d e s id is a uri g a e non a u dit v e r bera c u r r u s n e c man u s a g n o s cit q u em n o n e x e rc u it a r c u m esse sed in iu s t u m f a t e or q u o d c u m q u e n e g a t u r t u p r ima hom i nem s il ve s t r ib u s a n t r is 1 9 0 i u s t it i a e e l ic is e t f o e d o dete r ges s a ec u la vi c t u te p r opter c ol im u s leges a n im o s q u e f e r a r u m e x u im u s n it id is q u isq ui s te s e n s ib u s h a u s it in r u e t in t r e p i d u s fl a m m is hibe rn a s e c a b it a e u or a c on f e r t os hostes s u e r a b it ine r mis q p ille v el Ae t h iop u m p l u viis s ol a b it u r aest u s il l u m t r ans S c y t h ia m v ern u s c o m i t a b i t u r a er Sic f a t u s t r adente dea s u s c e p it h a b e n a s u a t t u or ingenti i ur is temon e re f u sas q p r ima Pad um T h y b r im q u e l i g a t c r e b r is q u e m ic a n t e m 1 u r b ib u s I t a l i a m N u m i d a s P o e n os q u e sec u nda 2 01 te m p e r a t I l l y r ico s e te r t i a p or r ig it o rbi u lt i ma S a r d in ia m Cy r n u m t r i fi d a m q u e r e t e n t a t S ic a n i a m e t q u id q u id Ty rr hena t u n di t u r und a vel g e m it Ionia nec te tot l u mina r er u m aut tant um t u r b a vit on u s sed u t alt u s Ol y m p i vertex q u i spatio ventos h i e m e s q u e r e l i n q uit perp et uum nulla t e m e r a t u s nu be s e r e n u m c ol l e c t a m q u e

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3 54

THE CONSULS H IP OF M AN LI US ’

be n eath its fe et w hile it treads upo n t h e thu n der s roar ; s o thy p atie n t mi n d u nfettered by cares s o m a nifold rises high abo v e the m ; thou art ever the sa m e n o hatred can co m p el thee n o a ff ectio n i n d u c e the e to s w erve f ro m the path o f j ust i ce For wh y sho u ld any sp eak of riches scor n ed a n d a heart unall u red by gain ? Thes e might p erhaps b e virt u es i n others : abse n ce of vice i s n o pra i s e to bestow on thee Th e calm of a god ba ni shes anger fro m thy voic e ; th e spirit of moderatio n shi n es fro m thi n e eyes ; passion n ever in fl a m e s that glanc e or fills with blood the a n g r y ve i ns ; n ever is a te mp est heralded o n thy changed coun Nay thou p u n is h e s t the very c riminals t en a nce without show of a n ger and ch e ck e s t their evil d oing with u n r u fll e d cal m N ever dost tho u g n ash with thy teeth upo n the m n or shout orders for the m to b e chastised H e is a sa v age wh o delights i n punish m e n t a n d s ee m s to m ake the v engeanc e of the la w s h is o wn ; when his heart is inflamed with the poiso n of w r ath he is go aded by fury and rushes o n knowi n g n othing B u t he of the caus e a n d eager o n ly t o do hurt who m reason n o t a n ger ani m ates i s a p eer of the gods h e wh o weighing the g u ilt can with delibera tio n bala n c e the p u n i sh m e n t Let others boast the m of their bloody s w ords and wish to b e feared for their ferocity while they fill their t r easuries with the goods of the conde mn ed Ge ntly flows the Nile yet is it m ore b e n e fic e n t tha n all rivers for all that n o sou n d reveals its power More swiftly the broad Da n ube glides between it s q uiet banks Huge Gan ges fl ows down t o its m ouths with gently m oving Let torre n ts roar horribly threate n weary c ur re n t ,

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3 55

CL A U DIA N v ol v a n t sp u moso v ertice sil v as p pa x m a ior a d e c e t p e r a g it t r anq ui lla potestas q u od vi olenta n e q uit m a n d a t a q u e f or t iu s u r g e t ui e s i mp e r i osa q Idem p r a e d u r u s in iq u a s a c c e is s e p r eces r u r s u s quae digna e t it u p p ne c q u ae c om it a t u r hono r es l a r g ior e t f a c il is a u sa t u am leviter t e m t a r e sup e r bia mentem p fr ons pri v ata manet n ec s e m e r u is s e f a t e t u r q u a e c r e vis s e p u tat r i g i d i s ed plena p u d or is e l u c e t g r a vi tas f a s t u i u c u n d a remoto q u ae non s e d it io q u ae n o n i nsan i a v ulgi te vi so lenita c a d a t quae di s s ona r i t u ba rba r ies med i i q u am n on r e ve r e n t i a fr a n g a t vel quis non s iti e n s s e r m on is mella po l it i d es e r a t Or p h e o s blanda testudine cant u s u a l e m te l e g im u s te n eri p r imordi a m u ndi q s c r ib e n t e m aut partes a n im a e p er sing u la tale m c e r n im u s e t s i miles a g n os c i t pagina mores Nec d i lata tuis Au g u sto i u di ce merces q u o iu n g it u r a u lae o ffi ciis il l u m q u e h a b it u m c uri a q u i soc i o proceres cum princ i p e n e c t it q u em q u ater i ps e gerit p er f e c to d e t ul it anno d e p o s u it q u e s u as te s u ccedente c ur ules cr e s c a n t vir t u t e s f e c un d a q u e fl or e a t aetas in g e n iis p a t ui t camp u s c e r t u s q u e me r enti stat f a v or o r n a t u r p r opri i s ind u stria do ni s a r tes s u r it e s op it a e quas ob r u i t a m bitus g n il licet invidi a e Stil i cho d um p r o sp icit o r bi o n t ib u s e t

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3 56

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CLAUD IA N hic v iolata cu r uli s t u rp i a n on L a t i o s in c e s t a n t n o min a f astos f or t ib u s haec concessa vir is s ol i s q u e gerenda a t r ib u s e t Romae n u m q u a m l a t u r a p u d o r e m p N u nt i a vo t or u m celer i ia m Fama vol a t u s id er e u s q u e

gener

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m ov e r a t Aon ios a u d i t o con s ul e l u cos c on c i n uit f el i x H e l icon fl u x i t q u e A g a n i pp e l a r g io r e t d o ct i r is e r u n t fl or ib u s amnes Ura ni e re di mita comas , q u a s a e p e m a g is t r a M anl iu s ig nif er os radio d e s cr ip s e r a t ax es , s ic ali as h or t a t a deas a t im u r n e , s o r o r e s , p optato p r oc ul ess e di e n e c limi n a n ost r i c on s u l is e t semper d i lectas vis im u s aedes 1 n o t i o r est H e l ic o n e do m us g e s t a r e c uru les mi r ac u la pleb i e t f asces s u b iis s e l i bet .

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clar i s n ome n celebrate t h e a t r is Tu Io vi s a e q u or e i s u m m e r s a m fl u ct ib u s a nl a m o r a t u m vol u cr e s Erato ia m perge q u adrigas a q ui b u s ha u d u m q u a m palmam r a p t u r u s Ario n in l u s t r e t circ um s on ip e s q ui c u m q u e s u p e r bo e r s t r e it h inn it u B a e t in q u i splendi da potat p p stagna Tagi m a d id o q u e iu b a s a d s p er g it u r a u ro Call i ope l i quidas Al cid e n p os c e palaestras cu n eta P a l a e m on iis manus e x p l or a t a coro nis adsit e t Eleo p u bes l a u d a t a Tonant i T u i ug a T a y g e t i fr on d os a q u e Mae n ala Clio i T r ivi a e s u p p l e x n o n a s p e r n a t a r og a n t e m a m h it h e a t r a l i f a v e a t Latonia m ae o p p p

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3 58

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TH E CONS ULSH IP OF M ANLI US la w di rect th e state H ere is n o pollutio n o f th e cons u l s o ffice n o shame f u l n ames di sgrace t h e Lat in fasti ; here the cons u lship is a n honour rese r ved f or the b r a v e g iv en only to s e n ators 1 n e v er a so u rc e o f scandal to Rome s ci ty No w had Fame anno u nc i ng o u r good f ortu n e wi nged he r w ay to A onia wh ose gro v es she stirred wi th the tid i ngs of the n ew cons u l H el i co n raised a hymn of p r ais e A gan i pp e flo w ed with waters m o r e ab u ndant the streams of song la u ghed with fl owe r s The n Urania her hair w reath crown ed U r ania w hose hand had of t di rected M anlius com pass i n m ark ing out th e starry spheres th u s addressed the other M u ses : Sisters ca n we b ea r to b e absent th i s longed for day ? Shall we not visit our cons u l s door and th e hous e we ha v e al w ays lo v ed ? B etter kno wn to u s is it than H elicon ; gladly we draw the c u r u le cha i r a n d bear the f asces B rin g m ar v els f or the p eople s del i ght a n d m ak e kn o wn his n a m e in th e f amed theatres Do thou Erato go v i sit the palace of Neptu n e b eneath the sea and beg for fo u r swi f t c o u rsers such that eve n A r i on could not snatch the priz e f ro m the m Let the Ci r cus b e g r aced by every steed to w hose proud n eighing B a e t is r e echoes wh o drin k s of Tagus shining pools a n d spri nkles his mane w ith its li q uid gold “ Calliope ask tho u of Alcides the oil of the wrestl i ng gro u nd Let all the company proved i n the games at El i s follow the e and the athletes who have won f a m e with Olympian Jove Fly Clio to T a y g e t u s heights a n d leaf y M ae n alus a n d b eg Dian a n ot to spu r n thy p etitio n but help the amphitheatre s po m p Let the goddess hers elf s on - i n -

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CL A U D I A N audaces legat ipsa v i r os q u i c olla f e r a r um ar te l ig e n t c e r t o q u e p r e m a n t ve n a b u l a nis u ipsa tr u ces f etus c a p t iva q u e d u cat ab a n t r is ,

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ur s i m a gna q u os m ole r u e n t e s to rv a L y c a on iis Hel ic e m ir e t u r ab ast ris e r f o s s i u e r u d a n t pop u lo pallente leones p q ual es M d o n i o c u r r u f r ena r e Cybeb e q yg o t e t e t H e r c ul e i m a l l e n t f r e is s e la c erti p g ob via f ulminei p r op e r e n t ad vu l n era pardi sem i ne p e r m ix t o geniti cum forte l e a e n a e n ob il io r e m u t e r u m vi r idis c or r u it ad u lter p hi mac u lis pat r es r e f e r un t e t robore matres i u i d u m n i f r is n u t r it G a e t u l i a c ampis e d o s t r q q A lpina q uid q u id t e g it u r nive G all ic a s iq u id s i l v a tenet i a c e a t la r go d it e s c a t h a r ena san g u ine consumant totos s p e c t a c u l a mo n tes N e c m olles e g e a n t nostra d ul c e d in e l u di qui l a e t is risu m s a l i b u s m ovis s e f a c e t u s q u i n utu m a n ib u s q u e l oq u a x c u i tibia fl a t u cui p l e c t r o p u l s a n d a chelys q u i p ul p it a socco e r s on a t a u t alte r a d it u r maio r e c o t h u r n o p g e t q u i magna le v i d e t r u d e n s m u rm u ra tact u in n u m e r a s v oces s e e t is moderat u s aenae g in t o n e t erranti d i g i to e n it u s u e t r a b a l i p q ve c t e laborantes i n ca r m i na c o n c i t e t undas vel q ui mo r e a vi um ses e i a c u l e n t u r in au r as c o n ve n ia n t

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H e l ic e t h e G re a t B e a r s o doe s the phra s e L yc a on s ” s t a rs , f o r L yc a o n wa s the f a ther o f C a l l i s to wh o wa s tra n s f orm ed b y the j e a l o u s J un o i n to a b e a r a n d a s s uch tra n s l a ted b y J u piter to the s k y C l a udi a n m e a n s th a t he wa n t s the G re a t B e a r to o b s erve this a s s e m b l a g e of e a rth l y b e a rs 2 The h y d r a u l u s or wa ter org a n wa s kn o wn in Cicero s d a y I t is i l l u s tra ted b y a piece of s c u l pture in the ( T u s e iii 1 8 M us eu m a t Arl e s ( s e e G rove , D i et of M u s ic, u n der O rg a n 1



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3 60

CLAU D IAN orpora q ue a e di fic e n t c eleri cresce n tia nexu q u o rum c om p os it a m puer a m e n t a t u s i n a r c e m e mi c e t e t vin c t u plantae v el c r u r ib u s h a e r e n s pend u la librato fi g a t v est i gia saltu m ob i le p on d e r ib u s d e s c e n d a t p eg m a r e d u c t is in q u e cho r i s p e c i e m s p a r g e n t e s a r d u a fl a m m a s scaena r o t e t varios e t fi n g a t M u lciber orbis per tab u las imp u ne v ag u s p ict a e q u e citato l u d a n t igne trabes e t no n p e r m i s s a m orari fi d a p er in n ocu a s er r ent incendi a t u r r e s las c i v i subito c o n fl ig a n t a e q u or e le mbi c

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3 25

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Co n sul per pop u los i d e m q u e g r a vi s s im u s auctor e l o u ii d u plici vita s u b n i x u s i n aev u m q r oc e d a t pariter lib r is f a s t is u e l e e n d u s p q g a cc i ia t pat r is exempl u m t r ib u a t u e n e o t i p q p fil iu s e t c o e p t is n e d e s it f a s c ib u s heres d e c u r r a t trab eata do m us t r a d a t q u e s ec u res mu t u a p os t e r it a s s e r va t o q u e o r dine f ati M an l ia co n ti nu o n u m e r e t u r c on s ul e proles ,

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3 62

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Cl a udi a n procon s ul of of



hope s co m i n g true This Af rica ( Aug us tin e C on tr a

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THE CONSULSH IP OF M A NLIU S pyram ids that g r o w with swi ft ent wining of their bodi es to the su m m i t of which py r am i d r u shes a boy f astened by a thong a boy who atta c hed the r e by t he f oot or leg exec u tes a step dance susp ended in the a i r Let the c ounter we ights be remo v ed and the mo b i le crane descend lo w ering on to the lo f ty stage m en who w heel i ng c hor u s wise scatte r flames ; let V u lcan f orge balls of fi r e to roll in n oc u ously ac r oss t h e boa r ds let the flames appear to play abo u t th e sham beams of the scenery and a tame c on fl a g r a t ion never allo w ed to rest w ande r among the unto uc hed to w ers Let ships meet in m i mic wa r f are on an imp r ovised o c ean and the flooded w aters b e lashed to f oam by s i ng i ng oarsmen A s cons u l at once a n d statel i est m aster u pbor n e by a t w o f old fame let M anli u s go forth among th e peoples read in h i s own books and i n o u r cale n d a rs 1 M ay the s i re s example b e f ollowed by the so n a n d handed on to a g r andson n or th es e first fasces e v er lack s u ccess i o n M ay his race pass on pu r ple clad may the generations each to each hand on the ax es and obe di ent to the o r di n ance of f ate M a nli us ” a f ter Ma n li u s add o n e m ore co n s u l to the tale ,

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3 63

DE

CON S U L AT U S T I L I CH ON I S

LIBER I

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Conti nu a n t s u p eri ple n o Ro m a n a f avore gaudia s u c c e s s u s q u e n ovis s u cc e s s ib u s a u g e n t conubii n e c d u m f esti v os r egia can t u s s o i e r a t c e c in i t fu so G ildo n e t r i u m h os p p e t c a l idi s thala mi s u cc e s s i t laurea sertis s u m e r e t u t pariter pri n ceps n om e n u e mariti q vic t or i s u e decus r o el i a c r ime n i a e post L b q p y c o n c id i t B ou m r u r s u s u e Orie n te s u b a c t o q c o n s u l e d e f e n s a e s u r un t S t il i c h on e sec u res g o r di ne vota m eant e q ui d e m si carme n in un u m t a n t a r u m s p e r e m c u m u l o s a d vol ve r e rer u m r om t i u s i m o n a m glaciali Pe l io n Os s a e p p p s i partem t a c u is s e v elim u od c u m u e r e li n q u a m q q mai u s e r it ve t e r e s act u s p r im a m q u e i n ventam r os e u a r u c un t d ad s es e mentem praes entia p q narrem i u s t it ia m r e s l e n d e t gloria M artis p arm at i r e f e r a m vires pl u s e g it inermis quod fl or e t Lat iu m L a t io quod reddita s ervit A frica vicinu m quod n e s c it H ib e r ia M a u r um ,

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3 64

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CL A U D IAN t uta

aut

quod

i m b e l l e m mi r a t u r

el id a m

g H e b ro

Gallia

T h r a c e n d e c e r t a t os q u e

R h e n um ,

labores

teste c a n a m magn um mihi p a n d it ur aequor ip s a q u e P i e r ios lassa n t p r o cl ivi a c u r r u s l a u di b u s in n u m e r is

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E t e n im m or t a l ib u s

ex quo tellus co e p t a coli n u m q u a m si n cera bo n oru m sors u lli concessa viro q u e m vu l t u s h on e s t a t anim u s quem p u l c h r ior or n at d e d e c or a n t mores corpus d e s t it uit bellis in s ig ni or ille hic publica f elix s e d pacem f o e d a t vi t iis a r t it u m sing u la u e m s e d privata m i nu s u e 3 0 p q q h u n c f orma d e c e n s h u n c rob u r in armis n ob ili t a n t h un c rigor h u n c pietas il l u m s ol l e r t ia iuris S p a r u n t ur i n o mn es h u n c s ub ol e s c a s t iq u e tori g i n te mixta fl uu n t e t q u ae di v isa beatos e fli ciu n t collecta tenes Ne f acta revolva m mil i t ia m q u e patris cuius producere f a m a m s i n ihil e is s e t c l a r u m n ec fi d a Vale n ti g d e x t e r a d u x is s e t r u tila n tes c r in ib u s alas m e n s ardua semper s u fli c e r e t n atus Sti l icho a puero t e n e r is q u e etia m f ul e b a t i n an nis g erectus e t acer f or t un a e m a ior is b onos nil breve m ol i r i n ul l i s h a er e r e p ot e n t u m l i mi n ib u s f a t is q u e l o q ui ia m di g n a futuris ia m t u rn co n spicuus ia m tu m ve n erabilis ibas s on d e b a t q u e d u c e m c e l s i n i t or i n e u s oris p g ,

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3 66

f a m il y wa s Oro s vii 3 8 .

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a

S ti l icho s p a ren ta g e s a ve Va n d a l one : Va n d a l or u m g en er e of



O N STILICH O S CO N SU LS H IP I ’

,

the Moor as her n eighbour how Gaul h a s n ow n ought to fear fro m a di sarm ed Ger m a n y ? Or shall I sing of wintry Thrace and thos e fierce struggles w hereof H e b r u s was w it n ess ? Li mi tless is the expa n se that ope n s be f ore m e a n d eve n the slopes of He l ico n this weight of prais e on retards my mus e s chariot For truly si n ce man i nhabited this gl ob e n ever has o n e m ortal bee n g r anted all earth s blessings Thi s m an s face is f air but hi s char wi tho u t alloy acter is evil ; a n other has a beauteous soul but an u gly body One is reno wn ed i n wa r but m akes p eace h i deous with his vices This m a n is happy i n his public b u t u nhappy in his pri v ate li f e Each takes a part ; each o w es his f ame to some on e gift to bod i ly beauty to martial pro w ess to stre ng th to up ri ghtness of li f e to kn o wledge of law to his o ff sp ring and a virt u ous wife To all m e n els e blessings come scattered to thee they fl ow co m mingled and gi f ts that separately make happy are all together thine 1 I wi ll not u n f old the tale of thy sire s warlike deeds Had he do n e n othing of n ote had he i n loyalty to Vale n s n e v er led to battle thos e yellow haired co m pani es yet to b e the father of Stil icho wo u ld ha v e sp r ead abroad his fame Ever f ro m thy cradle did thy so u l asp i re and in the te n der years of childhood sho n e fo r th the signs o f lo f tier estate Lof ty in spirit and eager n oth in g paltr y di dst thou essay ; n ever di dst thou haunt any rich m an s doorstep thy speech wa s such as to b e fit thy f u ture dignities A mark w ert thou eve n the n f or all eyes even then a n obj ect of re v ere n ce ; the fiery br i ght n ess of thy n oble countenan ce the very m ould ,



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3 67

CL A U DI A N m e m b r or u m q u e mod u s , q u a l e m n ec car min a fi n g u n t u a c u m u e alte r a d e r e r is i n u r be , s e mi d e is q q g cede n tes s p a t iis a d s ur g e n t e s q u e vid e b a s taciti s u ffr a i a vu l gi u a m vis m iles a d h u c g q iam tibi d e t ul e r a n t , q u id q ui d m o x d e b u it a ula Vix p r im a e vu s eras , p ac i s c um mi tt e r is a u ctor As s y r i a e tanta f o e d u s c u m ge n te f e rir e co mm iss um iu ve ni T ig r im t r a n s g r e s s u s e t alt u m E u p h r a t e n B a b y l on a p etis s t u u e r e severi p P a r t h or u m proce r es , e t plebs p h a r e t r a t a vid e n di 55 fl a g r a vi t st u di o , d e fi x a e q u e h os p it e p u l ch r o Persides arca num s u s p ir a ve r e c a l or e m t u ris o d or a t a e c u m u l is e t m esse S a b a e a pace m con c iliant arae p e n e t r a l ib u s ig n e m s a c r a t u m r a u e r e a d t is r i t u u e i u ve n cos p y q Ch a l d a e o stravere m agi re x ips e mi c a n t e m in cl in a t dextra p a t e r a m s e cr e t a q u e B eli e t vaga t e s t a t u r vol ve n t e m side r a M i t h r a m s i quando sociis tecu m v e n a t ib u s ib a n t , qui s S t il i ch on e prior f erro p e n etra r e leones c om m i n u s a u t longe vi r a t a s fi e r e tigres g g fl e c t e n t i f a ci les c e s s it t i b i M ed u s h a b e n a s t or q u e b a s r e f u g u m P a r t h is m i r a n t ib u s ar ou m N u b il is i n t e r e a m a t u r a e virginis aetas .

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patrias s u sp enso princip e curas que m s i m ul im p e r io q u e d u c e m n a t a e q u e m a r i tu m r os i c e r e t r e b a t ab ax e d u bi u s toto u a e p p q d ig n u m co niugio g e n e r u m t h a l a m is q u e S e r e n a e ur

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As s yria Cl a udia n m ea ns P ers ia H e ref ers to the dis p a tch of S til icho in 3 8 7 a s a m b a s s a dor to the court of — a rra ng e a b out the p a rtitio n of to 3 8 8 3 8 3 S a por I I I ) ( Arm e n ia 1

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3 68

CL A UD I A N i nd iciu m virtutis erat p er castra p er urbe s per populos ani mi cun c t a n t is libra c ucur r it tu l e g e r is t a n t os q u e viros quos ob t ul it orbis intra consili um vi n cis s e n s um q u e l eg e n t is e t gener Au g u stis olim s o c e r ips e f u t u r u s a cc e d is radii s auri T y r ia q u e s u perh it m a i estate tor u s c om it a t a p a r e n t ib u s e x it p u rp u reis V irgo stabat pater inde t r op a e is i n c l it u s i nde pi u m m atr i s reg i na g e r e b a t obse q ui um g r a vib u s s ub n e c t e n s fl a m m e a g e m m is t u nc e t Solis e q u os t u nc e x ultass e choreis astra f e r u n t m e l l is q u e l a c u s e t fl u m in a lactis e r u is s e solo c um fl or ib u s a e u o r a v er nis p q Bosphor u s in d u e r e t r os e is q u e e vin c t a coro nis c e r t a n t e s As ia e t a e d a s E u ropa l e va r e t Felix a r b itr n princeps q u i co n g ru a m u n do i u d ic a t e t p r imus c e n s e t qu od c e r n im u s omnes tale m q uippe viru m natis a di un x it e t aulae cui n eq u e l u x u ries bello nec blanda p e r icl i s oti a n ec l u cis f ruct u s p r e t io s ior u m q u a m la u de f uit q ui s enim Visos in p l a u s t ra feroces re l i t s u t s t e n e aut a e v a P r o m o t i a e d e u m c pp B a s t a r n a s u na p o t u it delere rui na P a l l a n t is i u g u l u m T u rno m or i e n t e p i a vit A eneas t r a c t u s q u e rotis u l t r icib u s Hector irato vindicta f uit v el q u a e s t u s Ac h il li tu neque ve s a n o r aptas ve n a l ia c u r r u f un e r a nec vanam co r p u s m e d it a r is in unum s a e vit ia m t u rmas e q uit u m p e d it u m q u e c a t e r va s ,

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re s cued Theodo s ius f ro m a n a m b us h in h is wa r a g a i n s t the V is ig oth s in 3 9 0 l o s t h is l ife in the sa m e wa r the ye a r a f ter S ti l icho s ucceeded to h is co mm a n d 1

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3 70

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O N STILIC H O S CO N SULS H IP I ,

Sere n a M erit al on e had t o decide ; through camps through cities through n atio ns roamed his poised a n d hesitati n g thoughts B u t thou wast chose n thus in the opi ni o n an d j udge m e n t o f hi m wh o selected thee surpassing all the ca n didates of the whole world and beco mi n g a s on in law i n the im perial family where thou wast shortly to b eco m e a father in law The m arriage bed wa s ablaz e with flashing gold a n d regal p u rple The m a i de n steps forth accompa nied by her pare n ts clad i n scarlet O n on e side stood her sire fa m ed for his tri u mphs on the other was the quee n fu lfill ing a mother s lo v ing o ffice and ordering the bridal v eil be n eath a weight of j e w els The n s o men s a y the horses of the s u n and the stars of heave n danced for j oy pools of ho n ey a n d rivers of mi lk w elled f o r th f ro m the earth Bospor u s decked his ban k s with vernal flo w ers and Eu r op e entwined w ith rosy ga r lands upli f ted the torches i n ri v alry with A sia Happy ou r e mperor i n his choice ; he j udges a n d the w orld agrees he is the fi r st to val u e w hat we all s e e Ay for he has allied to his childre n a n d to his palace on e wh o n ever pre f e r red ease to wa r n or the pleasures of peace to danger n or yet his li f e to his ho n o u r Who but he could have dri v en bac k the savage Visigoths to the i r wagons or over w helm ed i n on e h u ge slaughter the B a s t a r n a e 1 ? ff pu ed up with the slaying of P r om ot u s Aeneas a venged the sla u ghte r of Pallas with th e death of T u r n us Hector dragged behind the chariot wheels was to wr athf u l Ach i lles either re v e n ge or gai n ; thou dost n ot ca rry off i n mad chariot dead bodi es f or ra n so m n or plot idle sa v age r y agai n st a single corps e ; thou s l a y e s t at thy frie n d s to mb whole to

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3 71

CL A U D I A N h os t il e s q u e

globos tum u lo p r os t e r ni s amici inf e r ii s gens tota d a t u r nec M u lciber auctor m e n d a c is clip ei f a b r i c a t a q u e va t ib u s a r ma co n at u s iu ve r e t u o s tot barbara sol u s l i a ia m p r id e m mi se r am v a s t a n t i a T h r a c en fi n ib u s e x ig u a e vallis concl u sa t e n e b a s n ec te t e r r is on u s st r idor ve n i e n t is A lani n ec vaga Ch u n or u m f e r it a s no n f al c e G elonus 1 10 n on a r cu p e p u l e r e Getae n o n S a r m a t a conto e x t in c t i u e f orent p e n i t u s n i mo r e maligno q fa l l e r e t Au g u stas oc c u l t u s proditor a u res ob s t r u e r e t u e moras s t r ic t u m u e r e c on d e r e t e n s e m q q .

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aderat r a r is s im u s urbi s i q u a n do trepida pri n ceps pietate voc a r e t vi x u e s a l u t a t is L a r ib u s v ix co ni uge visa q dete r so n e c d u m r e p e t e b a t sang u i n e c a m p u m nec s t e t it E u ch e r ii dum c a r p e r e t oscula salte m pe r g a l e a m patr i s s t im ul os ig n is q u e ma r it i vic it cura d u cis quotiens s u b p el l ib u s e g it E d on a s h i e m e s e t tardi flabra B oo t a e s u b di v o R i h a e a t u lit c u m u e ign e propinq u o p q f r ig or a v i x f errent ali i t u nc iste r ig e n t e m D a n u viu m c a l c a b a t eques n ivib u s q u e p r o f u nd u m s c a n d e b a t c ristatus A tho m l a t e u e c orusco q c ur v a t a s l a c i e sil v as u mbone r u e b a t g nunc prop e Cim m e r ii t e n d e b a t l i t or a Ponti c a s t r is

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3 72

1 20

CL A U D I AN n u n c dabat h ib e r n u m Rhodop e ni m bosa e n h ile 1 3 0 e l i d a e v alles q u as s a e e c r u e n t is vo s Haemi p g s t r a ib u s a e u a vit Stili c ho vos Th r acia testo r g q fl u m in a quae la r go m u t a s t is sang u in e fl u c t u s d icit e Bis a l ta e vel q u i Pangaea i u ve n cis a n t a e s u b vomere utr es s c in d it is o ff enso u p q d is s il ia n t g l a e b is galeae ve l q u al i a r a s t r is ossa p e r e m p t or u m r e s on e n t in m a n ia r eg um Si n g u la c o m p l e c t i c u p e r e m sed d e n s ior in s t a t e s t o r u m s er ies l a u d u m u e s e u e n t ib u s u ndi s q q g genitor c a e s i post bella ty r ann i o b r u im u r iam t i bi c om m is s is c o n s c e n d e r a t a e t h e r a te r ris a n c i i t e s re ru m r u i t u r o c u lmine lapsus p aeq u ali cer v ice sub i s s ic He r c u le q u onda m sustentante p ol u m mel iu s li brata p e p e n d it machi n a nec d u b iis t it ub a vi t Signi f er astris e r e t u a u e s enex s u b d u ct u s mole a r um er p p q p p Ob s t u ui t proprii spectato r n d e r is A tlas o p p Nulli b a r b a r ia e motus nil tu rbida r up t o ordine t e m p t a vit n o vit a s t a n t o q u e remoto p r incip e m u t a t a s orb i s non s e n s it h a b e n a s nil inter ge mi n as ac i es ceu libera fr e n is a u sa man u s certe n e c tantis dissona l in g u is t ur ba n ec a r m or u m c u l t u di ve r s ior u m q u a m c on fl u x i t pop u l u s t o t a m pater u n d i q u e s ec um m ove r a t Au rora m m i x t is hic C ol c h u s H ib e r is 15 5 hic mitra vel a t u s A rabs h ic c r i ne decorus hi c picta S a c e s f u c a t a q u e M edus Ar m e ni u s .

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3 74

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E u g en iu s o f E as t a n d Wes t i

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ON STI LICHO S CONS ULSH IP I ,



misty Rhodop e a fforded him a w i nter s bed I call you to wi t n ess cold v alleys of Haem u s that Stil i cho has o ften fil led wi th bloody slau ghter ; a n d you ri v ers o f Thrace yo u r wate r s t ur ned to blood u gh P a n a e u s ye Bisaltae or yo u w hose o x en plo sa g y slopes ho w m any a rotting helm has not yo ur share shatte r ed nea t h the so i l how of t ha v e not yo u r mattoc k s r ung against the giant bo n es of sla u ghtered k ings Fain wo u ld I embrace ea c h separate o n e ; but th i ne e x ploits p r ess on in too close ar r ay and I am o v e rw helmed by the p ur s ui ng flood of glor i o u s deeds When Theodos iu s had w arred aga i nst and 1 sla in the tyrant he ascended into hea v en leav i ng the governance of the w orld to thee With a st r e n gth eq u al to his tho u dost bea r u p the tottering st ru ct ur e of the empire that threatens each moment to c ollapse Th u s when once He r cules u pheld th e world the u ni v e r sal f r ame h u ng more s u rely po i sed the Standa r d bearer did n ot reel with tottering stars and old A tlas rel i eved f or a mome n t of the eter n al load w as c on f o u nded as he gazed u pon h i s o wn b u rden Barba r y wa s q u iet n o re v ol u t i o n tro u bled the empi r e s peace and though s o g r eat a p rince w as dead the w o r ld k new not that the re i ns had pass ed i nto 2 another s hands No company i n the t w o arm i es dared a u ght as tho u gh s et loos e f r o m control Yet su r ely never had s u ch d iv ers i ti es o f lang u age and arms met together t o f o r m one un i ted p eople Theodosius had u nified the w hole East beneath his rule H ere were m i ngled Colchian a n d Iber i an m i t r ed A rab bea u t i fully c oif ed A rmenian here the Sacia n had pitched h i s pai n ted tent the M ede h i s .

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3 75

CL A U D I A N h i c ge m mata niger tento ri a fi x e r a t Ind u s h i c R h o d a ni p r oce r a c oh or s hic mi les al um nus Oceani d u cto r St i l i cho tot gent i b u s u n u s q u ot vel p r o g r e d i e n s vel c o n s p icit occ id u u s s ol i n q u o tam v a ri o voc u m g e n e r u m q u e t u m u l t u tanta q u i e s i ur is q u e met u s s e r va t or h o n e s t i te mode r ante f ui t n u l l is u t vi nea f u r t is vel s e g e s e r e p t a f r a u d a r e t m ess e c ol on u m u t ni hil a u t s a e vu m rab i es a u t t u rp e lib i do plac i di s e r virent l e g ib u s e n s e s s ua d er et sc i l i cet in vu lg u s manant e x empla r e g e n t u m u t q u e d u c u m li t u o s s ic mo r es c astra sequ u nt u r 1 70 D e ni q u e f eli ces aq u ilas q u oc u m q u e mo v eres a r e b a n t tantis e p o t i m il ib u s amnes Illyr i c u m p e t e r e s camp i m on t e s q u e l a t e b a n t vexill u m na v ale dares s ub p u p p ib u s ib a t 1 n u llas s u ccin c t a Ceraunia n im b is I on iu m nec iu g a L e u c a t a e f e r i e n s s p u m a n t ia fl u c t u t u s i gl a ciale i ub e r e s d e t e r r e b a t hiems ve s t i g a r e f r e t u m s ec u ro mil i te d u c t i st a gna r e l u c t a n t e s q u a t e r e n t Sat ur nia r e m1 s i dese r ta Noti f onte m si q u a e r e r e N i l i Ae t h i op u m med i os p e n e t r a s s e n t v ela v apo r es Te m e m or E ur otas te r u st i ca M u s a L y c a e i te pastorali m o d u l a n t u r M aenala cantu P a r t h e n i u m q u e nemus q u od te p u gnante r e s u r g e n s a e r a cap u t me di i s e r e x i t G r a e c i a fl a m m i s g 185 pl ur ima P a r r h a s i u s tunc inter corpora Ladon 1 B ut A 17 nu l l u m ; oth er M S S n u l l is wh ich B ir t p r in ts ,

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3 76

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amores p M ir a m u r r a p id is b ostem s u c c u m b e r e bellis cu m solo te r rore ru ant n o n classi c a Francis non M arte S u e b os 1 90 in t u l im u s ia c u e r e t a m en quis credere p o s s it c o n t u di m u s q u is i u ra da m us ante t u bam n obis a u d a x Germa n ia servit c e d a n t D ru se tui c e d a n t Traiane labores vestra man u s d u bio q u id q uid d i s c r i mine g e s s i t t r a n s c u rr e n s e g it Stilicho t o t id e m q u e d i e b u s e d om u i t Rh e n u m quot vos o t u is t is i n an n is p quem f e rr o a d l o q u iis quem vos c u m m i lite solus im p ig e r a pr im o descendens fl u m in is ortu ad b ifi d os tract u s e t iu n c t a p a l u di b u s or a f ul m in e u m p e r s t r in x i t iter d u cis impetus u n das 2 00 vin c e b a t c e l e r e s e t p ax a f o n te p r of e c t a c um R h e n i cr e s c eb a t a q uis in g e n t ia q u onda m nomi n a c r in ig e r o fl a ve n t e s vert i ce reges q u i nec p r in c ip ib u s donis p r e cib u s q u e v ocati r o e r a n t s e n i u e ve r e n t u r i u ssi a ruera nt p p p g q o ff e n d is s e m ora ; t r a n s ve c t i l in t r ib u s a m n e m o cc u r s a n t u b i c u m u e ve l it ne c f ama f e f el l i t q iu s t it ia e : vid e r e pium vid e r e fi d e l e m qu em ve ni e n s t im u it r e d ie n s G e r m a n u s a m a vi t ill i t e r r ib il e s q u ib u s otia v endere s emp er mos erat e t f o e d a req ui em m ercede p a c is ci nat i s ob s id ib u s pa c e m tam s upplice vu l t u 1 i e Arethus a

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ON STILICHO S CONSU LSHIP I ,

a n d Alphaeus choked with heaps of slau g htered G etae won his way more slowly to his Sicilia n love 1 Do we w o n der that th e foe s o swi f tly yields in battle whe n they f all be f ore the sole terror of h i s name ? We di d n ot declare w ar on the Fran k s ; yet they w ere overthrown We di d not crush in battle the Suebi on whom we n ow im pos e ou r la w s Wh o could beli eve it ? Fierce G er m any w as ou r slave or e v er the tru mp ets rang out Where are n ow thy wars Dr u sus or thine Traj an ? A ll that your hands wrought af ter doubt f u l confl i ct that Stili cho di d as he passed along and o e r c a m e th e Rhine i n as many days as yo u could do in years ; yo u co n quered with the s w ord he w ith a word yo u with a n army he single handed D esce n di ng fr o m the river s so u rce to w here it splits in twain a n d to the m arshes that con n ect its mo u ths he flashed his The sp eed of the general outstripp ed l ight ni n g way the ri v er s s wift cours e a n d Peace sta r ting with hi m f r om Rhine s so u rce gre w as gre w Rhine s w aters Chi e ftains w hos e n ames w ere once s o well k n o wn fl a x e n haired warrio r kings whom neither gi f ts n or praye r s co u ld win over to ob edi ence to Rome s emp e r ors hasten at his co mm a n d a n d fear to o ff e n d by dull delay Crossing the ri v er i n boats they m eet him W heresoever he will The fame of h i s j u stice di d n ot play them f alse : they f ou n d hi m m erciful they f o un d hi m tr u st w orthy Him w hom at hi s co m ing the Germ a n f eared at his depart u re he loved Thos e dread tribes wh os e w o n t it w as ever to s et their price on p eace a n d let us p u rchas e repos e by shame f u l trib u te o ffered their children a s hostages and begged for peace with such s u p plia n t looks that on e wo u ld have thought them ,

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3 79

CLAU D IA N ca

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T a rp e i a s p r e s s is s u b e a n t omne , q u od Oc e a n u m fon t e s q u e in t e r i a c e t H is t r i , 2 1 5 .

u n iu s in c u r s u t r e m u it s i ne c a e d e s ub a ct u s se rv itio Boreas e x a r m a t iq u e Trio n es Tempore tam parvo tot p r o el ia sanguine n ullo e r fi c is e t luna n u p e r nascente p r o f e c t u s p ante re di s q u am tota f uit Rh e n u m q u e mi n a c e m 22 0 c o r ni b u s i n fr a c t is adeo m i t e s c e r e c og is ut S a l i u s i am r u ra c olat fl e x os q u e S y g a m b r u s in f a l c e m curvet g l a d io s g e m in a s q u e v iator cu m vid e a t ripas q u ae s it Romana r e q uir a t u t i am trans fl u vi u m n on indig n ante Cha u co e c u s m e di u m u e i n gressa p er Al b im a s c a t Belga p p q G al l ica F r a n c or u m m ontes arme n ta p e r e r r e n t u t p r oc u l H e r c y n i a e per v asta s il e n t i a silvae ve n a r i tuto l ic e a t l u c os u e vetusta q religione truces e t robur n u mi n is instar barbarici n os t r a e f e r ia n t impune b ip e n n e s U l t r o q u in etiam devota mente t u e n t u r vic t o r iq u e f a ve n t quotie n s s ocia r e c a t e r va s o ra vit i un i u e t u is A la m an n ia s i n is g q g nec d ol ui t co n t e m p t a t a m e n s p r e t oq u e r e c e s s it 2 3 5 a uxi l io l a u d a t a fi d e s p r o v incia m is s os e x e l l e t c it i u s f asces quam Francia reges p q u os d e d e r is acie ne c i a m pulsare rebelles s e d vi n c l i s p u n ir e l ic et s u b i u di ce nost r o reg i a Ro m an u s d i s q u ir it crim i na car c er .

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3 80

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CL A UD I A N u r u s c m E t q u o ru m alter e t o c d M a r c om e r e s S ; e r t u l i t e x il i u m ; c u m s e p r om i tt e r e t alter p e x u l is u l t or e m , i a c u it m u crone s u o r u m :

un n o q u e

r es avi d i c o n c ir e no v as o d io q u e f ur e n t e s pa ci s e t ingen i o s c e l e r u m q u e c u p i d in e f r atres Post d om it a s A rctos al i o p r or u p it ab ax e t e m p e s t a s e t n e q u a t ui s int a cta t r o p a e is pars f o r et Au st r al i s s on u it t u ba m ov e r a t omnes Ma ur o ru m Gi ldo pop u los q u ib u s in m in e t A tlas e t q u os i nte ri o r n i m i o plaga sole r e l e g a t q u os v ag u s u m e c t a t Cin y p s e t p r o x im u s h or t is H e s p e r id u m Tri ton e t Gir n ot is s im u s a m n is Ae t h iop u m sim i li m e n t it u s g ur g i te Nil u m ; v e n e r a t e t par v is r e d im it u s N u ba s a it t is g e t v e lox G a r amas nec u a m vis t r is t ib u s Ham m on 25 5 q r e s o n s is a l a c r e m i N a s a m on a mora r i t u t o p p s t i a n t u r N u midae campi stant p u l v ere Syrtes p G a e t u l a e P o e n u s i a c u l is o b t e x it u r a er h i v i r ga m od e r a n t u r e q u os his fu l v a leo n es velamenta d a b a n t ig n ot a r u m q u e f e r a r u m ex uvi ae v astis M ero e q u as n u t r it b are n i s ; s e r e n t um a t u l o s gestant p r o casside rict u s ; p p pendent vip e r e a e sq u amosa pelle p h a r e t r a e n o n sic in t r e m u i t S i mo i s cu m m o n t ib u s Idae n i g r a c olo r at u s r o d u c e r e t a m in a M emnon g p n o n G anges cu m tela r o c u l vib r a n t ib u s Ind i s p in m a n is med iu m v e c t a r e t bel u a Po ru m .

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S u mmo , b rother chie f s of the R ip u a ri a n ’ F ra nk s , h a d in co nn exio n with M a xi m u s revo l t ) i nva ded R o m a n territory n e a r C o l o g n e in 3 8 8 a n d b een def e a ted b y ’ Arb o g a s t S ti l icho s s u cce s s ful ca m p a ig n a g a ins t the m , of which we re a d here , is to b e d a ted 3 9 5 M a rch ) 1

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3 82

ON STIL I CHO S CONSULSHIP I ’

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the crim es of kings M a r c o m e r e s and S u nn o g i ve proof t h e on e u nder w e n t exile i n Etr u r i a the other proclaiming himself the ex i le s ave n ger f ell beneath the swords of h is own soldiers Both were — eage r to arouse rebellio n both hated peace t ru e brothe r s i n character and in a commo n love of c r ime A f ter the co n q u est of the north arose a f resh storm in another q u a r ter T h e} t ru mpets of war rang o u t in the south that there might b e no part of the world u nto u ched by thy victo r ies G ildo stirred up all the Moo r ish t ri bes li v i n g beneath mo u nt A tlas and thos e w hom the excess iv e h eat of the s u n cu ts o ff f rom us in the inte r ior of A f rica those too w hom Cin y p s wande ri n g st r eam waters and Triton n eighbour of the ga r den of the Hespe r ides ; thos e wh o dwell beside the waters of Gi r most f a m o u s of the rivers of Ethiopia that o v erflows his banks as it had b ee n anothe r Nile There came at his s u m m o n s the — N u b i an with his head dress of short ar r o w s the fl eet the N a s a m on ia n whos e imp et u ous G a r a m a n t ia n ardo u r not even the s i niste r p r ed i ct i ons of A mmon co u ld restrain The plain of N u m i di a was over r un their d u st co v e r ed the G aet u lian Syrtes ; th e sky Some of Carthage was darkened with their arrows m ou n ted g u ide the i r horses with sti ck s othe r s are clad i n tawny lion s k ins and p elts o f the nameless animals that range the vast dese r ts of M ero e Seve r ed heads of se r pe n ts with gaping j a w s serve them f or helmets the b r ight scaly s kin of the viper f ash i ons their quivers S i mois trembled not so v iolently when s w art M emnon led his d u s k y troops o e r Ida s s u mmit Not so f ear f u l wa s G anges when Por u s approached m ou n ted on his to w ering elephan t a n d surrounded with his far shooting I n dia n soldi ery 1

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CLAU D IAN Por u s A le x and r o M em n on prostratus Ach il l i Gi ldo nemp e tib i Nec sol u m f e r vid u s Austr u m sed pa r tes et i am M a vor s a g it a b a t a s u a m vis o b s t r e e r e t p i etas his i lle r e g e n d a e p q t r a n s t u l e r a t nomen L i b y a e s c e l e r iq u e p r o f ano f a llax legit i mam regn i p r a e t e n d e r a t u m b r a m s ur eb a t e m in u m v a r ia f o r m idi n e bell u m g g h oe armi s h oe tr i ste d ol i s hoc Af rica s a e vis ,

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2 75

h o c c on iu r a t u s a l e b a t in s idi is Or i e n s il l in c e d ic t a m e a b a n t h i ne fr u g ib u s at r a n e g a t is c or r up t u r a d uc es ur g e b a t t r e id a m u e f ames Ob s e d e r a t u r b e m p q e x it i a l e palam L i b c u m ci v ile u d o r is p y ob t e n t u t a c i t u m Tal es u t r im q u e p r oc e l l a e cu m fr e m e r e n t l a c e r u m q u e a l t e r n is i c t ib u s anceps i mpe ri u m p u l s a r e t h i ems , nil f essa r e m is it o ffi c ii v i r t u s c o n t r a u e m i n a n t i a f ata q e r vi il e v e n t u s u e s i bi l a t u r a s e c u n d os p g q ma i o r i n a d ve r s is m ic u it ve l u t arbite r al ni , n u b il u s Ae a e o quam t u rbine v e x a t O r ion , g e xi g u o c lavi fl e x u d e cl in a t a q u a r u m

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v e rbe r a n u nc r ecta n u n c obl i q u ante ca r i n a c a l l id u s e t pelagi c a e l i u e ob n it i t u r irae 2 90 q Q ui d p r im u m S til ic h o m ir e r ? q u od c a u t u s ad o m nes r e s t it e r is f ra u des u t te n ec n o x i a f u rto l it t e r a ne c p r e t io man u s in fl a m m a t a l a t e r e t q u od n ih il i n tanto c ir c u m terrore l o c u t u s in d ig n u m L a t io responsa q u od a r d u a semper 2 9 5 Eo i s d e d e r is q u ae m o x e ff e ct a p r ob a s t i ,

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publica p r iva t a e c e s s e r u n t c omm od a causae di v idis inge ntes curas tequ e om nib u s unum ob ic is in v e n ie n s a n im o quae m e n te gere n da e ffi c i e n s r a n d a ma n u d ic t a r e paratus a t p q u ae s cr ip t is p e r a g e n d a forent q u ae brachi a ce n tu m q ui s B r iare u s a l ii s nu m ero cresce n te l a c e r t is t o t s imu l ob i e ct is poss et con fl ig e r e rebus e vi tare dolos ve t e r e s fi r m a r e cohortes e x l or a r e no v as l u i c e s dispo n ere classes d p p quae f ru ges a u t b ella f e r a n t a ul a e q u e t u m ul t u m e t Romae le n ire f a m e m quot nub e s op or is i mm u nes oculi p er tot di s c u rr e r e pa r tes t o t loca s uffi c e r e n t e t tam lo n gi n q u a tueri Ar g u m f a m a c a ni t ce n teno l umi n e c in c t u m co rpo ri s e x c ub n s u na m ser v ass e iu ve n c a m Unde tot a d l a t a e s e g e t e s q u ae silva cari n as t e x ui t u nde r u dis tanto tiro n e i uv entus e m i c ui t s e n i o u e iteru m vernante r e s u m s it q p G a ll i a b i s fr a c t a s A lp i no vul n ere vires n o n ego d il e c t u T r ii sed v omere Cadmi y tam s u b it a s acies con cepto dente dr aco ni s e x il u is s e r e or D ir c a e is q u a l is in arvis m e s s is c um p r oprio m o x b e l l a t u r a colo n o c o n a t os s t ri n x it l a d io s cu m s e mi ne i a ct o g g t e r r ig e n a e g a lea m a t r e m nascente f e r ir e n t .

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O N STI LIC H O S CO N SULSHIP I ,

d ood They held thy oods thy la n s thy houses g g y et wast tho u u nm oved This thou did st accou n t a tri fl i n g loss n or e v er preferred pri v ate to pub l ic i nterest Thy m ighty task thou dost parcel out yet dost tho u f ac e it all alo n e debating the problems that m ust n eeds be thought ou t acti n g W here deeds are called for e v er ready to dictate where a u ght is to be accomplished by wr iti n g What hu n dred ha n ded m o n ster w hat Briareus whos e arms e v er grew m ore n umerous as they were lopp ed o ff could cop e wi th all th es e t h i n gs at once ? To avoid the snares of treach ery to stre n gthe n existi n g regim e n ts and enrol l n ew o n es to equip two fl eets to q u ell th e on e o f corn ships o n e o f m e n of war tum ult of th e court an d alleviate the hu n ger of th e Roma n populace— what e y es n ever visited by t h e veil of sleep have had the stre n gth t o tu r n their gaz e in s o ma n y di rections an d over so m any lan ds or to pierce s o far ? Fam e tells how A r g u s girt with a hu ndr ed eyes could guard but on e hei f er with h is body s watch Whe n ce comes this m ass of cor n ? What forest fashio n ed all thos e vessels ? Whe n c e has spru n g this un tutored army with all its young recr uits ? Whe n ce has Gaul its age o n ce m ore at the sprin g won back the s t re n gth that Alpine blows twice 1 shattered M ethi n ks tis n o levy but th e plough share of the P hoe n icia n Cadm us that h as rais ed up thus sudde nly a host spru n g fro m the so wi n g of th e drago n s teeth ; t is like the crop th at i n the fields of Theb es drew the sword of k i n i n threate n ed battle with its own sower whe n the seed o n ce sown the earth b orn gia n ts clave the ear th their m other s wom b with their sprin ging hel m s a n d a harvest of ,

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3 87

CLAU DIAN viridi fl or e r e t mi lite sulc us h o e quoque no n par v a f a s e s t cu m laude reli nq ui q u od n on a n te f retis e x e rc it u s a ds t it it ultor o r di ne q u am prisco c e n s e r e t bella senatus neglectum Stili c ho p er t ot ia m saec u la more m r e tt u li t u t d u c ib u s m a n d a r e n t p r o e l i a patres d e cr e t oq u e togae feli x l e g ioni b u s iret tessera R om ul e a s leges r e d ii s s e f a t e m ur c um procer um i u s s i s f a m u l a n t ia c e r n im u s ar m a Tyrrhe n u m p ot e r a s cun c t is t r a n s mi t t e r e s ig n is e t r a t ib u s Syrtes L ib y a m com p l e r e m a nip l is consil io s t e t it ira minor n e territus ille te duce s u s p e ct o M artis g r a vior e p a r a t u aut i n h a r e n os os aestus z on a m q u e r ub e n t e m t e n d e r e t aut soli s f u g i e n s t r a n s ir e t i n or t u s m is s u r u s ve s i bi c e r t a e s ol a c ia mortis opp i da di r u e r e t fl a m m is res m i ra r e l a t u n e t im e a r e t i mes e t q u e m vi n di c ta m a n e b a t desperare vetas q u a n t um fi d u cia nobis h os t il i s s a l va e C a r t h a in is arces r o f ui t p g in l a e s is Tyr u ga u dent c u l t or ib u s agri q u os p ot ui t va s t a r e f u ga s p e captus inani nec se s ub r ip u it p o e n a e n os t r is q u e p e p e r c it d e m e n s q u i numero tantu m n o n robore m e n s u s Romanos r a p id is i h at ceu p r ot in u s o m nes c a l c a t u r u s eq ui s e t q u od i a c t a r e s ol e b a t s ol ib u s e ff e t o s m e r s u r u s pulvere Gallos ar

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388

CLAU DIA N s ed

d i d icit

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pilis s t e r n it u r i n a vu s N a s a m on n ec spicula s u l ex g pp iam t or q u e t G aramas r e p e t un t deserta f ugaces 3 5 5 Au t ol ol e s p a vid us p r oie c it m issile M a z a x cor n ip e d e m M aurus n e q u i u a m h or t a t ur a n h e l u m q r a e d on e m le m bo r of u um ve n tis q u e r e u l s u m p p g p s u s c e it m erito f a t a l is T a b r a c a portu p e x p e r t u m q uod n ulla tuis e l e m e n t a p a t e r e n t n on e

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l a e t a e p a s s u r u m i u r g ia p l e b i s fr a c t u r u m q u e reos h u m il i s u b iudi ce vul t u s h os t ib u s ,

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Nil tr ib u a t Fortu n a sibi s it prospera se m per illa q uide m s e d n on u n i c e r t a m in a p ug n a e cr e d i di m u s totis n e e c on s t it it alea c a s t r is n u t a t u r a s e m el s i q u id l ic u is s e t in i q ui s c a s ib u s in s t a b a n t alia c post terga bire m es ve n t u r u s dux m aior erat Victoria n ulla cl a r ior aut h om in u m vot is o t a t ior u m q u a m p a n c on t i it u is u a m T i r a n e n a r m a u e Po n ti 3 7 0 g q q g q vel P y r r h u m An tioch iq u e f ug a m vel vin cl a I ug ur th a e c on f e r a t aut Persen d e b e l l a t u m u e P h il i um q pp hi propaga n di r u e r a n t p r o limite re g ni hi c stabat Ro m ana sal u s ibi te m pora tuto t r a x e r un t di lata m oras hic vi n cere tarde vi n ci p a e n e f u it discrimine Roma s u pre m o i n ter s up p l i ciu m populi de f or m e p e p e n di t e t tantu m L ib a m f r u c t u maiore r e c e it p y qua m p e p e r it quant um g r a vior e m a m is s a d ol or e m quam n e c d u m quaesita move n t q uis Pu nica gesta .

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O N STILICHO S CONSULSHIP I ,

m ade m ore deadly by the poiso n ed arrow of Ethiopia n or thick hail of j a v el in s nor clo u ds of horse m e n ca n w ithsta n d Lati n spears Th e cowardly Nasa m onian troops are scattered the G a r a m a n t ia n h u rls n ot his spea r s b u t begs f or m ercy the s wift f ooted Au t ol ol e s fly to the desert the terror stricken M a z a cia n fl in g s away his arms i n va i n the Moor urges on his flagging steed The brigand fl ees i n a small boat and drive n back by the w inds met w ith his j ust f ate i n the harbour of T a b r a c a dis coveri n g that n o element o ff ered re f uge Stil ic ho to thine enem i es The r e h e was destined to u ndergo the ins u lts of the overj oyed pop u lace and to bow his guilty h ead before a lowly j u dgement seat Let n ot Fortun e claim a u ght for hersel f Let her b e ever f a v o ur able b u t w e tr u sted not th e issue to a single fight nor w as the hazard s e t w ith all o u r f orc e to b e lost at a si n gle throw Had hard cha n ce at all pre v ailed a second fleet pressed on behi nd a greater leader w as yet to co m e Never wa s a mo r e f amous v ictory n or o n e that wa s th e obj ect of mo r e heart f elt prayers Will anyo n e compare w ith this the defeat of Tigra n es o f the king o f Pont u s the flight of Pyrrh u s or Antiochus the capt u re o f J u g u rtha the ove r throw of Pers es or Phil i p ? Their f all mea nt but the enlargem ent of the e m pire s bou n ds ; on G il d o s depended the very existence o f Ro m e In thos e cases delay entailed no ill i n this a late —won victory was all b u t a de f eat O n this supreme issue while leanness racked her people hung the f ate of Ro m e and to win back Libya wa s a greater gain than its first co n quest even as to l ose a possess i on stirs a heavier pai n tha n n ever to have had it Wh o wo u ld .

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C LAU D IA N

q ui s vos S c ip ia d a e q u is te ia m Reg u le n o s s e t q uis le n tu m c a n e r e t F a b iu m s i iure p e r e m p t o in s u l t a r e t a t r ox famula Ca r t h a g in e M a u rus haec o m nes ve t e r u m r e voc a vi t adorea la ur os re s t it uit S tili ch o c u n c t os tibi R om a tr iu mp h os ,

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C LA U D I U S C L A U D I A N U S L a t in p o e t , o a ffai rs f g rea t , fl ouris h e d d u ring t h e oin t j — r e i g ns ( A D 3 9 4 5...

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