Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 1–2, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
First record of Stagnicola fuscus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Czech Republic Luboš BERAN Koko!ínsko Protected Landscape Area Administration, "eská 149, CZ–276 01 M#lník, Czech Republic; e-mail: [email protected]
Received January 15, 2001; accepted October 16, 2001 Published April 3, 2002 Abstract. Additionally to the three previously known species of the genus Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 (S. turricula (Held, 1836), S. occultus (Jackiewicz, 1959), S. corvus (Gmelin, 1791) from the Czech Republic, S. fuscus (C. Pfeiffer, 1821) is recorded from this territory for the first time. Distribution, Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stagnicola, Stagnicola fuscus, Palaearctic region
Species Stagnicola fuscus (C. Pfeiffer, 1821), syn. Lymnaea vulnerata Küster, 1862 sensu Jackiewicz (1993) is one of five European Stagnicola palustris (O. F. Müller, 1774) species complex (Jackiewicz 1993). Other four species are S. turricula (Held, 1836), S. occultus (Jackiewicz, 1959), S. corvus (Gmelin, 1791) and S. palustris. The prostate with two folds seems to an important diagnostic character separating S. fuscus from the related species above (Fig. 2).
Figs 1–2. 1 – Part of male copulatory system of Stagnicola fuscus (C. Pfeiffer), mrp – penis retractor muscle, prp – preaputium, psh – penis sheat. Scale = 1 mm. Orig. L. Beran. 2 – Cross section of prostate of S. fuscus. Scale = 1 mm. Orig. L. Beran.
Fig. 3. Known distribution of Stagnicola fuscus (C. Pfeiffer) in the Czech Republic.
Only three species of Stagnicola palustris (O. F. Müller, 1774) species comlex were recorded from the Czech Republic until now: S. occultus, S. turricula and S. corvus. Species S. occultus has been known from the Czech Republic only from one (Hudec & Brabenec 1966), recently probably not existing locality (Beran 1998). Both other species are relatively widespread and common in the Czech Republic (Beran 1998). The author have dissected hundreds specimens from more than 100 localities until 2001, but all specimens belong to S. turricula and S. corvus, except the record described below. First specimens of S. fuscus were identified by the author in the sample from the oxbow of the Oh!e River at north-western border of the Kynšperk nad Oh!í (Western Bohemia, code of mapping square 5841 [see Buchar 1982, for details], July 6, 2000, lgt. L. Beran) and from the oxbow of the Oh!e River near railway between Kynšperk nad Oh!í and Chlum Svaté Má!í (Western Bohemia, 5841, July 6, 2000, lgt. L. Beran). Conchs of these specimens remind conchs of S. turricula, but dissection showed pertinence to S. fuscus. This finding is first documented occurrence of S. fuscus in the Czech Republic. REFERENCES B ERAN L. 1998: Vodní m!kkýši "R. Metodika "eského svazu ochránc# p$írody %. 17 [Aquatic molluscs of the Czech Republic. Methodics of the Czech Union for Nature Conservation No. 17]. Vlašim: ZO "SOP Vlašim, 113 pp (in Czech). BUCHAR J. 1982: Publication of faunistic data from Czechoslovakia. V!st. "s. Spole%. Zool. 46: 317–318. HUDEC V. & BRABENEC J. 1966: Neue Erkenntnisse die Schnecken der Gesamtart Galba palustris (Müll., 1774) aus der Tschechoslovakei. Fol. Parasitol. 13: 132–143. JACKIEWICZ M. 1993: Phylogeny and Relationships within the European Species of the Family Lymnaeidae. Fol. Malacol. 5: 61–95.
Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 3–11, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
Distribution and habitat of Talavera aperta, T. milleri and T. thorelli in the Czech Republic (Araneae: Salticidae) Iveta CHVÁTALOVÁ1) & Jan BUCHAR2) 1)
Lidická 5a, CZ–787 01 Šumperk, Czech Republic; e-mail: [email protected]
Department of Zoology, Charles University, Vini$ná 7, CZ–128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic Received March 13, 2001; accepted October 16, 2001 Published April 3, 2002
Abstract. This paper deals with four species of the genus Talavera Peckham et Peckham, 1909: T. aperta (Miller, 1971), T. milleri (Brignoli, 1983), T. monticola (Kulczy%ski, 1884) and T. thorelli (Kulczy%ski, 1891) of theirs determination hasn’t been quite clear so far. The relations of the species, for which very different assessments have been published, are discussed. Their distribution in the Czech Republic is documented except for T. monticola which past occurrence has not been confirmed. Distribution, habitat, morphology, Araneae, Talavera, Palaearctic region
Until quite recently ten species of genus Euophrys C. L. Koch, 1834 were known in the Czech Republic. Six from these species were gradually transferred to the genus Talavera in the nineties of the twentieth century (Logunov 1992, &abka & Prószy%ski 1998). Six species of the genus Talavera Peckham et Peckham, 1909 have been observed in the Czech Republic so far. Three of them – T. aequipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871), T. petrensis (C. L. Koch, 1837) and T. westringi (Simon, 1868) – are easy to identify but the remaining three species, T. aperta, T. milleri and T. thorelli, are more difficult. This is also true of T. monticola, whose past occurrence in the Czech Republic, has not been confirmed. The difficulties encountered with the above species arise mainly from their sporadic occurrence and very small size. Two of the species – T. monticola and T. thorelli – were first described in the late 19th century, the remaining two species, nearly a century later. Prior to 1971 T. monticola was only recorded from the West Carpathians at altitudes above 1100 m (locus typicus Babia Góra). All the remaining localities for this species were in the High Tatras (Prószy%ski & Starega 1971, Miller 1971). Later – due to confusion over T. aperta – the species was also reported in the Czech Republic, but only from very low altitudes (Majkus (1988), found it on an unshaded spoil heap in Ostrava). Talavera thorelli, on the other hand, was recorded from south-eastern Slovakia (Kulczy%ski 1891). The next record (a female) of this species in Europe was that by Tullgren (1944) from Sweden. Charitonov (1936) recorded it from central Asia but Marusik (1990) concluded that this material was Chalcoscirtus (Bertkau, 1880), not Evophrys C. L. Koch, 1834. The male was first described by Thaler (1981) who found it at Innsbruck and in the Austrian Tyrol. The first findings of this species in the Czech Republic (Velká Kotlina, 1994 leg. Chvátalová), as important for the study of the relationships between the species of the genus Talavera about which differences in opinion existed in the scientific community.
The third species, T. aperta, which Miller (1971) described very briefly, based on a male specimen, was never found again during Miller’s life (1902–1983). The first individuals found in the Czech Republic were attributed incorrectly to the species T. thorelli (sic!), primarily due to a failure to take into account the differences in the shape of the anterior ridge of the atrium (e. g., Pekár 1999). A variability of this sign could not be understood without comparison with the corresponding structures of true females of T. thorelli. Only when this manuscript was being finalized, was an unidentified male of the genus Talavera, which was found in Bohemia in 1962, finally determined. The fact that this spider was an individual of the species T. milleri was confirmed by finding another male, along with a female, on the 'íp hill (2000, leg. M. 'ezá$). The structure of the male copulatory organ is still undescribed, although information regarding its occurrence in Germany was published several years ago (Bauchhenss 1994). The text which follows gives a brief account of the characteristics of all the four species including T. milleri, based on the material we have studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS ABBREVIATIONS. F – female, M – male. Specimens studies are deposited in the National Museum in Prague (NMP), or they are kept in the author’s reference collection (CB, CCh), in the collection of Milan 'ezá$ (CR), student of Charles University and in Zden#k Majkus’s collection (CM), University of Ostrava. To use of the square grid: the four-digital code of the corresponding square is given in square brackets after the names of localities (Buchar 1982).
LIST OF SPECIES
Talavera aperta (Miller, 1971) (Figs 1, 4, 7, 11) Evophrys aperta Miller, 1971: 140, t. 20, f. 19 (M); Prószy%ski 1976: t. 13, f. 120 (M), 1990: 124; 1991: 500 (misidentification, M: figs 1338.1+2 probably T. inopinata?, F: figs 1338.3+4 T. monticola); Fuhn & Gherasim 1998: 90, fig. 37 ( F, M). Euophrys aperta: Platnick 1997: 877 (M only); Pozzi & Hänggi 1998: 40. Euophrys sp.: Weiss & Sarbu 1978: 240–241, figs 6,7; Absolon 1982: 103. Euophrys thorelli: Majkus 1988: 58; Pavlík 1992: 52; Buchar 1993: 420; Buchar at al. 1995: 52; Pekár 1999: 153–154 (partim: figs 1–5); all misidentified. ? Euophrys monticola: Majkus 1988: 58. Talavera aperta: Wunderlich 1994: 442; Vanuytven 1995: 25–26; Gajdoš at al. 1999: 291, map 9220. Talavera monticola (partim): &abka 1997: 103; &abka & Prószy%ski 1998: 116. MATERIAL EXAMINED. Czech Republic: E. Bohemia, Zám#lský Borek , a clay slate slope exposed to the south 310 m altitude, Xerobromion (Bromion erecti Koch 1926), pitfall trap, 1F early June 1978 leg. K. Absolon, CB; N Moravia, Ostrava , spoil heap 200 m altitude, 1F 1976 leg. Z. Majkus, det. JB, CM; E. Moravia, D!evohostice , edge of a mixed deciduous forest 250 m altitude, 1F 1999 leg. V. Bryja, det. JB, S. Bohemia, Nedabyle , xerothermic edge of a mixed deciduous forest 450 m altitude, 1M 1985 leg. J. Pavlík, det. JB, CB.
DISCUSSION. Initially, when it was not possible to compare specimens with individuals of other species, all specimens of this species found in the Czech Republic were assumed to belong to Evophrys thorelli (see also the note in Thaler 1981: 125). The shape of the embolus in the two species, T. aperta a T. thorelli, is similar, although if inspected closely, the embolus is considerably broader at the base and relatively shorter overall in Talavera aperta (Fig. 1) than in T. thorelli (Fig. 3). The differences are best seen if viewed from the
side, the embolus in T. thorelli is bent at the end only, whereas in T. aperta the basal half is bent (Fig. 4) which gives the embolus the shape of a cat’s claw, as characterized in Miller’s initial description (1971). The transverse groove in the atrium of the epigyne T. aperta, which replaces the saddle roofshaped organ, that can be clearly seen in T. thorelli (Fig. 8), is not very marked (Fig. 7). Also, the orifices are much closer in the epigyne of Talavera aperta than in T. thorelli. This is very apparent in the shape of the vulva (Figs 11 and 13). Typical Talavera aperta males were found, along with females of this species, on spoil heaps in the Ostrava region (Majkus1988). Initially, the specimens were identified (JB) as Evophrys thorelli. However, when the true Talavera thorelli was found in the Jeseníky (Ash Mountains), it became immediately evident that the population in the Ostrava region was actually Talavera aperta. Regrettably of the wealth material collected on the Ostrava spoil heaps, a single female only (which Majkus lent us for this study) was preserved. In the Czech Republic this species occurs at the edges of forests and grassy habitats exposed to the south. As well as L. J. Dobroruka collected his seven specimens of T. aperta on the similar habitats (Dobroruka in litt.). DISTRIBUTION. Central Europe: Belgium (Vanuytven 1995), Germany (Wunderlich 1994), Swiss (Pozzi & Hänggi 1998), Czech Republic, Slovakia (Gajdoš et al. 1999), Romania (Fuhn & Gherasim 1998). Talavera milleri (Brignoli, 1983) (Figs 6, 10, 14) Euophrys brevipes Miller, 1971: 140, t. 20, f. 20 (F); Prószy%ski 1976: t. 15, f. 142 (F). Euophrys milleri Brignoli, 1983: 630, 637 (nomen novum): Prószy%ski 1990: 128 (F); Wunderlich 1994: 442; Platnick 1997 : 879 (F). Euophrys (Talavera) milleri: Zabka & Prószy%ski 1998: 116.
Figs 1–3. Male palpus – ventral view. 1 – Talavera aperta (Miller): Czech Republic, Bohemia, Nedabyle; 2 – T. monticola (Kulczy%ski) after original drawing by F. Miller: Slovakia, Krivá(; 3 – T. thorelli (Kulczy%ski): Czech Republic, Velká Kotlina. Scale – 0.1 mm.
Figs 4–6. Male palpus. 4 (prolateral view) – Talavera aperta (Miller): Czech Republic, Bohemia, Nedabyle; 5 (retrolateral view) – T. monticola (Kulczy%ski) after original drawing by F. Miller: Slovakia, Krivá(; 6 (ventral view) – T. milleri (Brignolli): Czech Republic, Oblík. Scale – 0.1 mm.
MATERIAL EXAMINED. Czech Republic: N. Bohemia, Louny, Oblík hill , rocky steppe 480 m altitude, 1M 29 May 1962 leg. JB, CB; N. Bohemia, Roudnice nad Labem, 'íp hill , rock steppe on south slopes of basalt hill 440 m altitude, 1M 22 April 2000, 1F 7 May 2000 leg. M. 'ezá$, CR.
DISCUSSION. This species was found at sites where remarkable thermophilic species occur. At the Oblík hill, these included Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 and Zelotes declinans Kulczy%ski, 1897, at the 'íp hill Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776), Pellenes nigrociliatus (Simon, 1875) and Trichopterna cito (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) (Buchar & R)ži$ka in press). The first finding of Talavera milleri at the Oblík can not be attributed unambiguously because the male of this species has only recently been described. Only a joint finding of the male and female at the 'íp made a final assignment possible. The colour of the female is fully consistent with the description of the female in Miller’s archives (deposited in JB), where the basic colour of the carapace is brown, with dark-brown radially arranged spots, a yellow stripe, occurs on the sides of the carapace, the back of the cephalic region and the narrow stripe skirting the whole carapace are black. The trochanter and femora of the palp are black, the remaining segments are yellow-white. The colour of the male from the 'íp site is as follows: the carapace is yellow, with a narrow black stripe vanishing anteriorly, the top of the cephalic region is a contrasting black with orange scales, which are most dense on the clypeus and near the central line of eyes. The chelicerae are yellow. The palps, apart from the black femora, are dirty yellow, the base of the cymbium bears long white hairs, the legs are yellow with broad black rings. The femora, patellae and tibiae of the anterior legs are black with a blue metallic lustre. The sternum is dirty brown with a narrow black rim, the abdomen is dark and hairy dorsaily. The specimens from the Czech Republic are very small: the total length of the male from the Oblík site is 1.9 mm and its carapace is 0.9 mm. The total length of the male from the 'íp hill is 1.7 mm and its carapace is 0.8 mm long. For the female found on 'íp, the length is 2.1 mm, the carapace is 0.9 mm long. The position and shape of the male palp are very
typical: the embolus is slim, pointed, passing through the bulb (Fig. 6), whereby the species differs from T. inopinata (Wunderlich, 1993) where the embolus is bent (claw-shaped) in the direction opposite to that in T. aperta. The outlets of the receptaculum seminis are conspicuously long and to their orifices are bent backwards in a spiral shape (Fig. 10), which obvious on the vulva shown in Fig. 14. Bauchhenss, who found a male specimen of this species in Germany (Bauchhenss 1994), provided us with a picture of that male, which is identical to that shown in Figs 6 and 14. This species occurs xerotherm grassy communities of relict character (plant alliance Festucion valesiacae Klika, 1931). DISTRIBUTION. Central Europe: Germany (Wunderlich 1994), Czech Republic, Slovakia (Miller 1971). Talavera monticola (Kulczy!ski 1884) (Figs 2, 5, 9, 12) Euophrys monticola Kulczy%ski, 1884 (M, F); Miller 1971: 140, t. 20, f. 14–15; Prószy%ski 1976: 41,42, ff 121, 139; 1990: 128; Thaler 1982: 124, f. 61, 66, 70. Euophrys aperta: Prószy%ski 1991: 500, fig. 1338.4 (partim, F only). Talavera monticola: &abka 1997: 103 (non E. aperta Miller); Platnick 1997: 943. MATERIAL NMP.
Slovakia, the High Tatras, Krivá( mountain , 2 F 10 July 1956 leg. et det. F. Miller,
DISCUSSION. We have no specimen of this species from the Czech Republic. Although recorded from spoil heaps in the Ostrava region (Majkus 1988), no specimens were preserved. The opinion that T. aperta is identical with T. monticola (&abka 1997) is unacceptable: as there are good diagnostic features distinguish the two species.
Figs 7–10. Epigyna – ventral view. 7 – Talavera aperta (Miller): Czech Republic, Moravia, Ostrava; 8 – T. thorelli (Kulczy%ski): Czech Republic, Velká Kotlina; 9 – T. monticola (Kulczy%ski): Slovakia, Krivá(; 10 – T. milleri (Brignolli): Czech Republic, Bohemia, 'íp. Scale 0.2 mm (7,8), 0.15 mm (10).
The difference in the males is that the embolus of T. monticola runs in the axis of the pale field (distal haematodocha) (Fig. 2), whereas in T. aperta it is at a right angle with to that axis (see Fig. 1). Also, the shape of the embolus is different. The orifices are considerably closer to one another in T. aperta, which can be clearly seen in the picture of the vulva, where the outlets of the receptaculum are oriented towards the orifices from the outside in T. aperta (Fig.11) and from the inside in T. monticola (12). The female copulatory organs of these two species depicted in Prószy%ski’s key (1991: Figs 1337, 1338) are actually of the same species – Talavera monticola. The saddle roof-shaped structure of the epigyne, which is very marked in T. thorelli and considerably less marked in Talavera aperta, is very poorly developed in our specimen of T. monticola and it can only be seen when observed at an angle from the rear. DISTRIBUTION. This Alpine-Carpathian species (Thaler 1981) apparently reaches as far as the lowlands to the north of the Carpathians (&abka 1997) and the river valleys of Slovakia (Gajdoš et al.; map 9240). So far, the species has not been probably found in the Romanian Carpathians (Fuhn & Gherasim 1995) or the Czech Republic. Talavera thorelli (Kulczy!ski, 1891) (Figs 3, 8, 13)
Figs 11–14. Vulva – dorsal view. 11 – Talavera aperta (Miller): Czech Republic, Moravia, Ostrava; 12 – T. monticola (Kulczy%ski) after original drawing by F. Miller: Slovakia, Krivá(; 13 – T. thorelli (Kulczy%ski): Czech Republic, Moravia, Velká Kotlina; 14 – T. milleri (Brignolli) after original drawing by F. Miller: Slovakia, Kobyla. Scale 0.2 mm.
Euophrys thorelli Kulczy%ski in Chyzer et Kulczy%ski, 1891: 44, t. 2, fig. 4 (F); Tullgren 1944: 39, t. 3, f. 24; Miller 1971: 140; Prószy%ski 1976: 41, f. 145; 1979: 307, f. 70; 1990: 131; Thaller 1981: 124, f. 60, 68–69 (M, F); Logunov et al. 1993: 121, f. 18; Snazell 1995: 39–40. Talavera thorelli: Logunov 1992: 78,79, figs 18,27; Platnick 1997: 943. MATERIAL EXAMINED. Czech Republic: N. Moravia, Velká Kotlina , Poo chaixii- Deschampsietum caespitosae, 1290 m, 1M 1 June – 1 August 1994; 2M 1 August – 3 October 1994; 1M 6 June – 9 August 1995; 1F 9 August – September 1995; Festuco supinae-Vaccinietum myrtilli calamagrostietosum, 1390 m altitude, 2M 6 June – 9 August 1995; Festuco supinae –Vaccinietum myrtilli vaccinietosum, 1400 m altitude, 1M 9 August – 27 September 1995, all specimens from pitfall traps leg. J. Rusek, CCh; 1430–1450 m altitude, 3M 18 July 1998; 2F, 1M 15 August 1998; small rock on a phyllite basis containing basic minerals, 1320–1360 m altitude, 5M; Festuco supinae-Vaccinietum myrtilli calamagrostietosum, 1400–1440 m altitude, 1F, 4M all specimens found under stones leg. et det. I. Chvátalová, CCh.
DISCUSSION. Now that the pictures of all the four above-mentioned species of the genus Talavera are available, it is clear that, especially as far as the female sex organ is concerned, the appearance of the epigyne in T. thorelli cannot be confused with that of any other species. The orifices are covered by a marked saddle roof-shaped transverse structure (Fig. 8). This is also apparent on the vulva (Fig. 13). As for the appearance of the embolus of the male copulatory organ, its position resembles that in T. aperta but is much longer and slimmer, and is bent towards the cymbium only at the very end. The Czech site where this species was found is remarkable. The Velká Kotlina National Natural Reserve is a mighty glacial cirque, which is open to the east, with steep, partly rocky slopes. The altitude is 1150–1450 metres. Avalanche and water erosion have shaped the relief of the cirque. The snow cover at the top of the cirque, which is as much as 10 m thick, persists for up to 9 months each year. Climatically, this area is a cold region (Quitt 1971). The average yearly air temperature on the Prad#d mountain, which is 4 km from the site and its surroundings, is 0.9 °C, the average precipitation is 1275 mm. There are 124 ice days (daily temperature not exceeding – 0.1 °C) in a year. The climate of this region is comparable to that of the Alpine zone of the highest mountains in central Europe or with subarctic regions such as Iceland and northern Norway. Inside the Velká Kotlina cirque the climate is slightly warmer (larger temperature fluctuations) and more humid than on the Prad#d mountain. Four hundred and eighty-five plant species have been recorded from the cirque (Jeník 1971). In addition to mountain species, at the lower boundary of their occurrence, thermophilic species are also found. The prominent accompanying spider species include, among others, P. sordidata, Bolyphantes caucasicus, Xysticus gallicus, X. obscurus and Semljicola faustus (leg. I. Chvátalová, unpublic). DISTRIBUTION. Talavera thorelli lives both at warm sites in lowlands and in high mountains. An extra-Mediterranean Euro-Siberian species. The northernmost occurrence is in southern Scandinavia (Tulgren 1944), the southernmost in Europe, the northern Tyrol (Thaler 1981) and Romania (Weiss & Petrisor 1999), the southernmost in Asia, Kyrgyzstan (Logunov at al. 1993). The pictures of specimens from the surroundings of Novosibirsk and Perm (Logunov at al. 1993) indicate that they differ from those from Jeseníky (Ash Mountains). Acknowledgements We would like to thank A. K)rka (Department of Zoology, National Museum Praha), Z. Majkus (Ostrava University, Ostrava) and V. Bryja (Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Masaryk University, Brno) for providing us with studying material, J. Rusek (Institute of Soil Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, "eské Bud#jovice) for material from pit fall traps from Jeseníky mountains, J. Prószy%ski and L. J. Dobroruka (Bílá T!emešná) are thanked for useful comments on the manuscript, E. Bauchhennss for providing of a pictures of male Talavera milleri, D.V. Logunov for comments on the pictures, K. Tajovský (Institute of Soil Biology, "eské Bud#jovice) for supplying the botanical data. Finally, we are grateful to M. 'ezá$ for valuable
remarks and for studying material. This paper resulted from preparatory work on the Catalogue of Spiders of the Czech Republic The study was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Project No. 206/99/0673).
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QUITT E. 1971: The Climate. Pp.: 85–106. In: DEMEK J. & ST'ÍDA M. (eds.): Geography of Czechoslovakia. Praha: Academia, 330 pp. SNAZELL R. 1995: Euophrys thorelli Kulczynski (Araneae: Salticidae), a salticid spider recently found in Britain. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 10: 39–40. THALER K. 1981: Bemerkenswerte Spinnenfunde in Nordtirol (Österreich) (Arachnida: Aranei). Veröff. Mus. Ferdinandeum 61: 105–150. T ULLGREN A. 1944: Egentliga spindlar. Araneae Fam. 1–4. Salticidae, Thomisidae, Philodromidae och Eusparrassidae. Svenks Spindelfauna 3. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, 138 pp. WEISS I. & PETRISOR A. 1999: List of the spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Romania. Trav. Mus. Natl. Hist. Natur. Grigore Antipa 41: 79–107. WEISS I. & SARBU S. I. 1977: Zur Kenntnis der Spinnen und Weberknechte des Botanischen Garten Iasi. Studii si Comunicari – Stii. Natur. (Museum Brukenthal, Sibiu) 21: 225–243. VANUYTVEN H. 1995: Talavera aperta (Miller, 1971), een nieuwe springspin voor de Belgische fauna (Araneae, Salticidae). Nwsbr. Belg. Arachnol. Ver. 10: 25–26. W UNDERLICH J. 1993: Beschreibung der Springspinne Talavera inopinata n. sp. aus Mitteleuropa (Arachnida: Araneae: Salticidae). Entomol. Ztschr. 103: 109–112. WUNDERLICH J. 1994: Spinnen (Araneae) als mögliche Indikatoren für Auswirkungen von Klima-Veränderungen in Deutschland? Beitr. Araneol. 4: 441–445. &ABKA M. 1997: Salticidae. Pajaki skaczace (Arachnida: Araneae). Fauna Poloniae. Warszawa: Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences 19: 1–184 (in Polish). &ABKA M. & PROSZY+SKI J. 1998: Middle European Euophrys C. L. Koch, 1834 (Araneae: Salticidae) – one, two or three genera? Proc. 17th Eur. Colloq. Arachnology, Edinburg 1997: 113–120.
Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 12, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
BOOK REVIEW PASSARGE E.: Color Atlas of Genetics. Second edition, enlarged and revised. Stuttgart-New York: Georg Thieme Verlag, 2001. XI+457 pp. Format 125×190 mm. Soft cover. Price EUR 28.63. ISBN 3-13-100362-6 The author is Professor of Human Genetics at Institute of Human Genetics, University of Essen, Germany. First German edition occured in print in 1994, first English edition occured in 1995. French, Japanese, Chinese, Italian and Turkish editions followed in 1995–2000. As stated in the preface, knowledge about genes (genetics) and genomes (genomics) of different organisms continues to advance at a brisk pace. All manifestations of life are determined by genes and their interactions with the environment. Deciphering of genomes of many different organisms by determining the sequence of the nucleotide bases of DNA will augment our understanding of normal and abnormal functions. In the introduction the author emphasizes classical genetics between 1900 and 1953, genetics and DNA, important methodological advances in the development of genetics after about 1950, medical and molecular genetics, the genome, ethical and societal aspects. “Chronology” contains a list of selected events in genetical science starting with 1839 – the year of recognition of cell as the basis of living organisms, and concluding with 2000 – the year of genome sequencing. Crucial point of this publication consists in explanation of textual parts by pictorial presentations of genetic phenomena. The volume is composed of three parts. Part I. Fundamentals contains 7 chapters. Chapter on molecular basis of genetics describes the cell and its components, DNA as carrier of genetic information, the genes, recombinant DNA and changes in DNA. Subsequent chapter analyses prokaryotic cells and viruses, as well eukaryotic cells, including chromosomes, cell cycle control, cell division, formation of gametes, and others. The chapter on mitochondrial genetics concentrates on genetically controlled energy-delivering processes in mitochondria, on the genome in chloroplasts and mitochondria, on mitochondrial genome of man and on mitochondrial diseases. Chapter on formal genetics discusses various aspects of Mendelian traits, genotype and fenotype, segregation of parental genotypes, analysis with genetic markers, linkage analysis, biochemical polymorphism, geographic distribution of genes and miscellaneous other aspects of formal genetics. Next chapter explores the chromosomes: the nucleosomes, DNA in chromosomes, polytene chromosomes, the telomere, karyotype, chromosomal aberrations, in situ hybridization, translocation, and more. Concluding chapter provides coverage of the essential aspects of regulation and expression of genes. Part II. Genomics is intended to give an introduction to the study of organization of genomes. Further on, outlined are the genomes in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, genome maps, approach to genome analysis, gene identification, identification of a coding DNA segment, mobile genetic elements, evolution of genes and genomes, genome analysis by DNA microarrays, and others. Part III. Genetics and Medicine incorporating 12 chapters is concerned with cell-to-cell interactions, genes in embryonic development, with the immune system, origin of tumours, with oxygen and electron transport, lysosomes and endocytosis, homeostasis, cytoskeletal proteins in erythrocytes, mammalian sex determination and differentiation, atypical inheritance pattern, karyotype/phenotype correlation, genetic diagnosis, and selected genetic disorders. In addition to the text, there is a treatise on chromosomal location of monogenic diseases, chromosomal location of human genetic diseases, a list of general references, selected websites for access to genetic information, a glossary relevant to definitions of genetic terms, and a comprehensive index. This publication is based on 194 carefully designed colour plates by using a visual approach to convey important concepts and facts in genetics. Depicted are the cell and its components, DNA and its components and structures, flow of genetic information, DNA sequencing and cloning and miscellaneous molecular, biochemical, cellular, biological and clinical phenomena relevant to genes and genetics. These illustrations are presented in line drawings featuring two- and threedimensional and space-filling models, arrangements of molecules and structures, genetic and geographical maps. Furthermore, there are some illustrations presenting black-and-white and colour photographs of pathological and histopathological abnormalities and clinical conditions. All illustrations can be seen on right pages, explanatory textual parts are situated on opposite left pages together with several references. All the colour plates were produced by J. Wirth, Professor of Visual Communication at the University of Darmstadt. This attractive user-friendly atlas offers a very accessible in-depth overview of genetics while accentuating latest advances in the field together with optimal visualization of complex biological relationships. Jind$ich Jíra
Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 13–28, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
Some parasitic nematodes (Nematoda) of birds (Aves) in the Czech Republic Denisa FRANTOVÁ Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, CZ–370 05 "eské Bud#jovice, Czech Republic Received October 5, 2000; accepted October 16, 2001 Published April 3, 2002 Abstract. More than 600 birds belonging to 50 species and 8 orders, coming mostly from southern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, were dissected during 1977–1983 and 1999. Parasitic nematodes seemed to be more prevalent in carnivorous than herbivorous birds. Thirteen species of birds of the orders Falconiformes, Charadriiformes (Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766), Passeriformes and Pelecaniformes (Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758) were infected with 20 nematode species: Capillariidae (11 species), Ascarididae (3), Syngamidae (2), Acuariidae (2), Anisakidae (1) and Aproctidae (1). The occurrence of some rare species (Aonchotheca longifilla (Dujardin, 1845), Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940), Capillaria cf. tenuissima (Rudolphi, 1809), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Creplin, 1825) was recorded. Detailed descriptions of Aonchotheca exilis (Dujardin, 1845) and A. longifilla are given. Baruscapillaria carbonis from Phalacrocorax carbo is new for the nematofauna of the Czech Republic. Parasites of the genus Aonchotheca (López-Neyra, 1947) were recorded from Fringilla coelebs for the first time. Distribution, morphology, nematode, parasite, Aves, Falconiformes, Fringilla coelebs, Larus ridibundus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Palaearctic region
Extensive faunistical studies of parasitic nematodes (Nematoda) of birds in the Czech Republic were carried out mainly from 60’s until 70’s of the 20th century. The nematofauna of Falconiformes was studied by Tenora & Lusk (1960), Škarda (1964), Baruš (1964, 1966) and Michálek (1984). Results of extensive surveys on Charadriiformes were published by Baruš et al. (1978) and Bušta et al. (1985). Data on the nematodes of Passeriformes are rather scarce (Ryšavý 1955, 1957, Zavadil 1955, Škarda 1964, Baruš 1970a, b, Baruš et al. 1972, Koubek & Vojtek 1973, Sonin & Baruš 1971). The helminth fauna of Phalacrocorax carbo (Pelecaniformes) was not studied in the Czech Republic until 80’s because of the rarety occurence of the host. Due to strict protection, the European cormorant population has grown and colonized to new nest sites (Hudec et al. 1994). From the beginning of 80’s P. carbo has regularly nested in the Czech Republic and shooting by fishermen has made it possible to study the helminth fauna of this species. There are several papers on its nematode parasites (Moravec et al. 1988, 1994, Moravec 1990). The present study is based on an examination of birds, carried out mainly by J. Michálek and J. Bušta from the Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR) in Praha, in 1977–1983, partly by the author in 1999. This revealed the presence of parasitic nematodes in 13 species belonging to the orders Falconiformes, Charadriiformes, Passeriformes and Pelecaniformes. Taxonomic evaluations were made of the rare species of nematodes and those inadequately described. 13
Tab. 1. List of the birds examined for the presence of nematodes during 1977–1983 and 1999 (the nomenclature taken from Hudec 1977, 1983, 1994) order, species of host Falconiformes Accipiter gentilis Accipiter nisus Buteo buteo Strigiformes Asio flammeus Asio otus Bubo bubo Charadriiformes Larus ridibundus Gruiformes Fulica atra Piciformes Dendrocopos major Coraciiformes Alcedo atthis Pelecaniformes Phalacrocorax carbo Passeriformes Aegithalos caudatus Acrocephalus scirpaceus Carduelis carduelis Carduelis chloris Carduelis spinus Corvus corone Corvus frugilegus Corvus monedula Emberiza citrinella Erithacus rubecula Ficedula albicollis
examined / infected 14 / 7 11 / 2 69 / 15 1/0 2/0 1/0 ?* / 125 1/0 3/0 1/0 2/2 5/0 1/0 8/0 27 / 0 18 / 0 1/1 15 / 9 3/2 1/0 19 / 2 7/0
order, species of host Passeriformes Ficedula hypoleuca Fringilla coelebs Fringilla montifringilla Hirundo rustica Loxia curvirostra Motacilla alba Oriolus oriolus Parus ater Parus caeruleus Parus cristatus Parus major Passer domesticus Passer montanus Phoenicurus ochruros Phoenicurus phoenicurus Phylloscopus collybita Prunella modularis Pyrrhula pyrrhula Regulus regulus Riparia riparia Serinus serinus Sitta europaea Sylvia atricapilla Sylvia curruca Troglodytes troglodytes Turdus merula Turdus philomelos Turdus pilaris
examined / infected 1/0 17 / 2 2/0 3/0 6/0 6/0 2/0 2/0 14 / 0 1/0 37 / 0 72 / 0 18 / 0 3/0 2/0 5/0 7/1 6/0 3/0 7/0 1/0 11 / 0 16 / 0 3/0 1/0 42 / 13 13 / 9 2/0
*exact no. examined unknown
MATERIALS AND METHODS The previously unevaluated material in the collection of the Institute of Parasitology, ASCR, in "eské Bud#jovice, obtained in 1977–1983, and that newly collected by the author in 1999, includes nematodes recovered from more than 600 birds belonging to 50 species and 8 orders (Tab. 1). The birds were collected in localities in South Bohemia (the regions of "eské Bud#jovice, "eský Krumlov, Humpolec, Písek, Strakonice, Tábor and T!ebo(), Praha and Litomyšl, at different times of year. Nematodes were fixed and stored in 4% formaldehyde and cleared in glycerine prior to examination. Drawings were made with the aid of a Zeiss microscope drawing attachment. After examination, the nematodes were transferred to 70% ethanol and deposited in the helminthological collection of the Institute of Parasitology, ASCR, in "eské Bud#jovice. All measurements are in millimetres.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Parasitic nematodes were found in 13 species of birds of 50 examined (Tab. 2). All of the infected birds are carnivorous, or omnivorous at some time in a year. In spite of relatively high numbers of specimens examined, no parasitic nematodes were found in birds that are clearly or predominantly herbivorous (Carduelis chloris, C. spinus, Parus major, P. caeruleus, Passer domesticus, P. montanus, Sitta europaea, Sylvia atricapilla). 14
Twenty species of nematodes were recorded. Most of the nematodes were recovered from the digestive tract, three species (Cyathostoma lari, Syngamus merulae and Aprocta cylindrica) from the respiratory tract. Larus ridibundus and Turdus merula harboured the highest number (5) species of nematodes. SURVEY OF SPECIES
Family Capillariidae Railliet, 1915 Aonchotheca exilis (Dujardin, 1845) Freitas et Medonça, 1961 (Fig. 1, Tab. 3) HOSTS. Turdus merula, T. philomelos. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. T. merula: 23 examined / 1infected, 3 specimens; T. philomelos: 13/4, 1– 7 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITIES. Humpolec (July 1978), Praha (June 1978). DESCRIPTION. Body white, medium-sized. Two lateral bacillary bands. Stichosome formed by single row of stichocytes provided with large nuclei (Figs 1A, B); stichocytes subdivided into 7–10 annuli. Two medium-sized oval glandular cells present at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 1C). Male (8 specimens): Spicule long, flexible, well sclerotized (Figs 1J, K); its proximal end reflexed, bluntly rounded (Fig. 1K), distal end sharply pointed (Fig. 1J). Spicular sheath without spines (Fig. 1D). Caudal lateral alae present (Figs 1H, I). Membranous bursa reduced, closely surrounding caudal end of body; supported by one dorsomedian and two ventrolateral projections, each of the latter bearing papila (Figs 1H, I). Cloacal opening subterminal. Female (12 gravid specimens, one nongravid): Vulva slightly posterior to level of oesophagointestinal junction (Fig. 1C). Small rounded vulvar appendage present in 9 of 12 gravid, but absent
Tab. 2. List of the nematode species found in each infected species of bird order, species of host Falconiformes Accpiter gentilis Accipiter nisus Buteo buteo Charadriiformes Larus ridibundus
Pelecaniformes Phalacrocorax carbo
species of nematode Baruscapillaria cf. falconis Eucoleus cf. dispar Porrocaecum depressum Capillaria cf. tenuissima Porrocaecum depressum Baruscapillaria falconis Porrocaecum depressum Eucoleus contortus Cosmocephalus obvelatus Cyathostoma lari Porrocaecum ensicaudatum Porrocaecum semiteres
order, species of host Passeriformes Corvus corone Corvus frugilegus Corvus monedula Erithacus rubecula Fringilla coelebs Prunella modularis Turdus merula
Turdus philomelos Baruscapillaria carbonis* Contracaecum rudolphii
species of nematode Eucoleus contortus Acuaria anthuris Baruscapillaria resecta Baruscapillaria resecta Aprocta cylindrica Aonchotheca sp.** Capillariidae gen. sp. Aonchotheca longifilla Aonchotheca exilis Baruscapillaria ovopunctata Porrocaecum ensicaudatum Porrocaecum semiteres Syngamus merulae Aonchotheca exilis Porrocaecum ensicaudatum Porrocaecum semiteres
* first record from the Czech Republic * * first record of the parasites of genus Aonchotheca from Fringilla coelebs
in nongravid females. Eggs oval, thick-walled, with prominent striation on surface (Figs 1F, G). Content of mature eggs uncleaved. Anus subterminal (Fig. 1E). COMMENTS. This is a parasite of Passeriformes, especially Turdidae (Wakelin 1966, Okulewicz 1979b). Baruš & Sergeeva (1990b) stress the absence of the vulvar appendage in the descriptions of this species by Dujardin (1845) and López-Neyra (1947) (also Eberth 1863, Boyd 1951) and consider it to be the main distinguishing feature. They doubt the species determinations of the authors who reported the presence of this structure in female A. exilis (Mettrick 1959, Wakelin 1966, Baruš & Daniel 1976, Okulewicz 1979a). Wakelin (1966) recorded the presence of the vulvar appendage in all of 380 female specimens. Okulewicz (1979a) found this structure in 85.2% gravid and 7.2% nongravid females. Nine of the twelve gravid females in the present study had a vulval appendage; but it was absent from the nongravid female. In my opinion, the presence or absence of the vulvar appendage is not a reliable feature for distinguishing of A. exilis. The structure of the caudal end of body, of the spicular sheath and the shape of the distal end of the spicule in males as well as the striated surface of the eggs in females are typical of this species and, therefore, useful for determination. Aonchotheca longifilla (Dujardin, 1845) Baruš et Sergeeva, 1990 (Fig. 2, Tab. 4) HOST. Prunella modularis. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 7 examined / 1 infected, 3 specimens.
Fig. 1. Aonchotheca exilis (Dujardin) from Turdus philomelos (Cat. No. N-229). A – anterior end; B – stichocytes; C – vulva region; D – spicular sheath; F, G – eggs; H, I – caudal end of male, lateral and ventral views; J – distal end of spicule; K – proximal end of spicule. Scale bars in mm.
Tab. 3. Measurements (mm) of Aochotheca exilis (Dujardin) from Turdus merula and T. philomelos. Published data after Okulewicz (1979a) author length of body width of body width of lateral bacillary bands nerve ring – anterior length of entire oesophagus length of stichosome number of stichocytes length of spicule width of spicule distal end of spicule bursa: length bursa: width vulva – anterior length of vulvar appendage egg: length egg: width
males published data 3.07–18.12 0.038–0.086 – – 2.214–8.625 – 44–60 1.39–2.71 0.004–0.008 sharp 0.027–0.035
present study 10.56–18.34 0.050–0.057 – 0.076–0.101 3.71–8.29 3.40–7.90 50–57 1.109–1.562 – sharp 0.010–0.018 0.018–0.025
females published data
9.17–23.83 0.054–0.113 – – 4.03–9.45 – 49–60
12.16–18.75 0.050–0.083 0.028–0.033 0.088–0.139 5.58–7.17 5.30–6.71 44–64
– 0.023–0.081 0.049–0.065 0.020–0.032
5.22–7.17 0.043–0.050 0.050–0.063 0.023–0.030
SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITY. Praha (September 1978). DESCRIPTION. Body white, medium-sized. Two lateral bacillary bands present. Stichosome formed by single row of stichocytes provided with large nuclei (Figs 2A, B). Two medium-sized wing-like glandular cells present at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 2B). Male (1 specimen): Spicule long, flexible, well sclerotized, slightly expanded and reflexed at proximal end (Fig. 2I), rounded at distal end (Fig. 2J). Spicular sheath smooth, transversely striated
Tab. 4. Measurements (mm) of Aonchotheca longifilla (Dujardin, 1845) from Prunella modularis (the present study) and P. modularis and Alauda arvensis (Baruš 1970a) author number of specimens length of body width of body width of lateral bacillary bands nerve ring – anterior length of entire oesophagus length of stichosome number of stichocytes length of spicule width of proximal end of spicule width of distal end of spicule bursa: length bursa: width vulva – anterior egg: length egg: width
males Baruš (1970a)
4 10.30–12.41 0.058–0.065 – – 3.90–4.20 – 40–41 1.48–1.89 0.014–0.017 – 0.023–0.029 0.033
1 9.06 0.044 0.013 0.088 3.90 3.46 42 1.449 0.013 0.005 0.013 0.020
females Baruš (1970a)
7 17.52–19.71 0.080–0.087 – – 5.67–5.84 4.7–5.2 43
1 10.88 0.063 0.027 0.076 4.35 3.83 39
5.74–5.92 0.053–0.058 0.023–0.030
4.42 0.053–0.058 0.023–0.025
(Fig. 2E). Caudal lateral alae present (Figs 2D, E, F). Membranous bursa small and round, supported by two lateroventral projections, each bearing papila (Figs 2D, F). Cloacal opening subterminal. Female (1 gravid specimen). Vulva slightly posterior to level of oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 2B). Vulvar appendage absent. Longitudinal cuticular crests present, one above and one below vulva (Fig. 2B). Eggs with indistinct striation on surface (Figs 2G, H). Content of mature eggs uncleaved. Anus subterminal (Fig. 2C). COMMENTS. A rare parasite of small passerines. The only record from the Czech Republic were from Prunella modularis and Alauda arvensis (Baruš 1970a). Few references exist on this species (Wakelin 1967, Wakelin et al. 1970, Baruš 1970a, Baruš & Daniel 1972, Okulewicz 1987). Aonchotheca sp. (Fig. 3) HOST. Fringilla coelebs. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 17 examined / 1 infected, 2 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITY. Humpolec (July 1978). DESCRIPTION. Body white, medium-sized. Two lateral bacillary bands present. Stichosome formed by single row of stichocytes provided with large nuclei; stichocytes subdivided into 8–10 annuli (Figs 3A, B). Two medium-sized oval glandular cells present at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 3C).
Fig. 2. Aonchotheca longilfilla (Dujardin) from Prunella modularis (Cat. No. N-774). A – anterior end; B – vulva region; C – caudal end of female; D, E, F – caudal end of male, ventral and lateral views; G, H – eggs; I – proximal end of spicule; J – distal end of spicule. Scale bars in mm.
Fig. 3. Aonchotheca sp. from Fringilla coelebs (Cat. No. N-771). A – anterior end; B – stichocytes; C – vulva region; D, F – proximal end of spicule, lateral and ventral views; F – distal end of spicule; G – spicular sheath; H – caudal end of female; I – egg; J, K – caudal end of male, ventrolateral and lateral views. Scale bars in mm.
Male (1 damaged specimen; anterior half of body missing). Width of lateral bacillary bands 0.018 (width of body 0.045). Spicule well sclerotized, 0.970 long, triangular in section; its proximal end rounded, 0.013 wide (Figs 3D, E), distal end blunt (width 0.005) (Fig. 3F). Spicular sheath without spines (Fig. 3G). Caudal lateral alae present (Figs 3J, K). Membranous bursa reduced, closely surrounding caudal end of body, supported by one dorsomedian and two ventrolateral processes; each of the latter bearing papila (Figs 3J, K). Cloacal opening subterminal. Female (1 gravid specimen): Body 9.34 long, width at vulva region 0.060. Nerve ring 0.066 from anterior (Fig. 3A). Length of muscular oesophagus 0.310, of stichosome 4.97. Stichosome formed by 51 stichocytes. Vulva at level of oesophago-intestinal junction (5.29 from anterior), slightly protruding (Fig. 3C). Vulvar appendage absent. Eggs oval, thick-walled, with smooth surface (Fig. 3I); length 0.060–0.063, width 0.028–0.030. Content of mature eggs uncleaved. Anus subterminal (Fig. 3H). COMMENTS. The capillariid nematodes parasitizing small Passeriformes are poorly known. Okulewicz (1993) reported Baruscapillaria angusta (Dujardin, 1845) Okulewicz, 1993 from the small intestine of Fringilla coelebs. The specimens we found in the intestine of F. coelebs were determined as Aonchotheca sensu Moravec, 1982 on the basis of the presence of caudal lateral alae and a nonspinous spicular sheath. Closer determination using the key of Baruš & Sergeeva (1990b) was not possible, as nematodes of the genus Aonchotheca from birds are poorly known and in need of further revision. 19
Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940) Moravec, Scholz et Našincová, 1994 HOST. Phalacrocorax carbo. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 2 examined / 1 infected, 17 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITY. Pond Výtopa near Chlum u T!ebon# (April 1999). COMMENTS. A parasite of waterfowl. The taxonomic status of this species was unclear until recently (Moravec et al. 1994, Frantová 2001). This is the first record in the Czech Republic. Baruscapillaria falconis (Goeze, 1782) Baruš et Sergeeva, 1990 HOSTS. Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. A. gentilis: 14 examined / 1 infected, 1 specimen; B. buteo: 69/8, 1–2 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITIES. "ejkovice (December 1981), "eské Bud#jovice (February 1980, December 1981), Hluboká n./Vlt. (January 1982), Kamenný Újezd (December 1981), Mydlovary (December 1981), Nová Ves near "eské Bud#jovice (January 1982), Týn n./Vlt. (November 1981), Zliv (December 1981), Žabov!esky near "eské Bud#jovice (December 1981). COMMENTS. A common parasite of Falconiformes, reported from the Czech Republic several times (Ryšavý 1957, Tenora & Lusk 1960, Baruš 1964, 1966). The morphology of the specimens was consistent with the description of Baruš (1964). Baruscapillaria ovopunctata (Linstow, 1873) Moravec, 1982 HOST. Turdus merula. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 42 examined / 8 infected, 1–78 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITIES. Humpolec (July 1978, January 1982), Litomyšl (July 1978), Praha (September 1978). COMMENTS. A frequent parasite of Turdidae and Sturnidae (Passeriformes) (Wakelin 1966, Okulewicz 1979b, Machalska & Okulewicz 1984), also recorded in birds (Muscicapidae, Prunellidae) of Cuba and Nepal (Baruš & Garrido 1968, Baruš & Daniel 1976). One bird harboured one male and three gravid females of B. ovopunctata together with one male and two gravid females of Aonchotheca exilis. The morphology of the specimens was consistent with the descriptions by Wakelin (1966) and Baruš & Sergeeva (1990c). The vulvar appendage was present in 15 of 16 gravid and 1 of 4 nongravid females. Baruscapillaria resecta (Dujardin, 1845) Okulewicz, 1993 HOSTS. Corvus frugilegus, C. monedula, Turdus merula. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. C. frugilegus: 15 examined / 5 infected, 2–61 specimens; C. monedula: 3/2, 2–15 specimens; T. merula: 42/1, 1 specimen. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITIES. "eské Bud#jovice (January to March 1982), Praha (August 1978). COMMENTS. A common parasite of Corvidae. One male specimens found in Turdus merula was small (the length of body 6.94, the length of spicule 0.523) as compared to those from Corvidae (the length of body 7.9–13.95, the length of spicule 0.928–1.373). The morphology of the specimens was consistent with the description by Baruš & Sergeeva (1990a).
Capillaria cf. tenuissima (Rudolphi, 1809) Yamaguti, 1941 (Fig. 4) HOST. Accipiter nisus. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 11 examined / 1 infected, 8 specimens. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITY. "eské Bud#jovice (February 1980). DESCRIPTION (7 gravid female specimens). Body 13.3–15.6 long, 0.475–0.693 wide. Three distinct bacillary bands present: two lateral (width 0.025–0.033) and one ventral (0.015–0.018 wide). Nerve ring situated 0.819–0.945 from anterior end of body (Fig. 4A). The length of entire oesophagus 4.83–6.32, of stichosome 4.50–5.80. Stichosome formed by single row of 44–54 stichocytes (Fig. 4B). Vulva situated 4.86–6.30 from head end, slightly posterior to oesophagointestinal junction (Fig. 4C). Vulvar appendage absent. Eggs 0.058–0.068 long and 0.025–0.030 wide, with indistinct net-like structure on surface (Figs 4E, F). Content of mature eggs uncleaved. Anus subterminal (Figs 4D). COMMENTS. C. tenuissima is an infrequent parasite of birds of prey (Falconiformes, Strigiformes). Records from the Czech Republic are from Strigiformes (Baruš 1964,1966). In this study, only female specimens were recovered and their morphology was consistent with the description by Baruš & Sergeeva (1989a).
Fig. 4. Capillaria cf. tenuissima (Rudolphi) from Accipiter nisus (Cat. No. N-323). A – anterior end; B – stichocytes; C – vulva region; D – caudal end of female; E, F – eggs. Scale bars in mm.
Capillariidae gen. sp. (Fig. 5) HOST. Fringilla coelebs. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 17 examined / 1 infected, 1 specimen. SITE. Small intestine. LOCALITY. Humpolec (August 1978). DESCRIPTION (based on one damaged nongravid female; head end missing). Maximum width of body 0.078. Three distinct bacillary bands visible on body surface (Fig. 5B): two lateral (width 0.018) and one ventral (0.008). Stichosome formed by single row of stichocytes provided with large nuclei (Fig. 5A). Two medium-sized, oval glandular cells present at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 5A). Vulva somewhat posterior to oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 5A). Vulvar appendage absent. Small cuticular process below vulva (length 0.030, width 0.010) (Fig. 5A). No eggs present. Tail end of body rounded, anus subterminal (Fig. 5C). COMMENTS. The only species of capillariid reported from the small intestine of Fringilla coelebs is Baruscapillaria angusta (Okulewicz, 1991). In the absence of a male it is not possible to make definit determination in this genus. The only feature this female specimen has that distinguishes it from B. angusta is a cuticular process below the vulva. Baruš & Sergeeva (1989a) and Okulewicz (1993) mention a similar structure in female specimens of Capillaria similis (Kowalewski, 1904), a relatively frequent intestinal parasite of some Corvidae and Turdidae (birds with feeding habits similar to those of F. coelebs).
Fig. 5. Capillariidae gen. sp. from Fringilla coelebs (Cat. No. N-772). A – vulva region; B – detail of bacillary bands (a – ventral band; b – lateral band); C – caudal end of female. Scale bars in mm.
Eucoleus contortus (Creplin, 1839) López-Neyra, 1947 HOSTS. Corvus corone, Larus ridibundus. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. C. corone: 1 examined / 1 infected, 5 specimens; L. ridibundus: exact no. of hosts examined unknown / 81 infected, 1–14 specimens. SITE. Oesophagus. LOCALITIES. "eské Bud#jovice (1999 throughout the year), Klec (1980, 1982, 1983 throughout the year). COMMENTS. A common parasite of a wide spectrum of waterfowl as well as terrestrial birds. Morphology of specimens was consistent with the description given by Baruš & Sergeeva (1989b). Eucoleus cf. dispar (Dujardin, 1845) López-Neyra, 1947 HOST. Accipiter gentilis. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 14 examined / 1 infected, 2 specimens. SITE. Oesophagus. LOCALITY. "eské Bud#jovice (February 1981). COMMENTS. A parasite of birds of prey, three times recorded from Buteo buteo in the Czech Republic (Škarda 1964, Baruš 1964, 1966). Only female specimens were found in this study and their morphology was consistent with the description by Baruš & Sergeeva (1989b). Family Anisakidae Railliet et Henry, 1912 Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 HOST. Phalacrocorax carbo. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 2 examined / 2 infected, 47–94 specimens. SITE.Gizzard. LOCALITY. Pond Výtopa near Chlum u T!ebon# (April 1999). COMMENTS. A common parasite of waterfowl. There is one record from P. carbo in the Czech Republic (Moravec et al. 1988). Family Ascarididae Baird, 1853 Porrocaecum depressum (Zeder, 1800) Baylis, 1920 HOSTS. Accipiter gentilis, A. nisus, Buteo buteo. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. A. gentilis: 14 examined / 5 infected, 1–2 specimens; A. nisus: 11/1, 1 specimens; B. buteo: 69/11, 1–5 specimens. SITE. Gizzard, small intestine. LOCALITIES. "ejkovice (January 1982), "eské Bud#jovice (February 1980), Dasný (December 1981), Dív$ice (January 1982), Mydlovary (December 1981), Pištín (January 1982), Protivín (December 1981), Sedlec (December 1981), Týn n./ Vlt. (November 1981), Zliv (December 1981). COMMENTS. A frequent parasite of birds of prey. One fourth-stage larva was found in the stomach of A. nisus, the adults in the intestines of the other hosts. The morphology of the specimens was consistent with the description of Mozgovoi (1953).
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum (Zeder, 1800) Baylis, 1920 HOSTS. Larus ridibundus, Turdus merula, T. philomelos. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. L. ridibundus: 8 examined / 1 infected, 1 specimen; T. merula: 42/2, 2– 6 specimens; T. philomelos: 13/3, 1–2 specimens. SITE. Gizzard, small intestine. LOCALITIES. "eské Bud#jovice (March, April 1999), Praha (June, August, September 1978). COMMENTS. A typical parasite of Passeriformes (Turdidae, Sturnidae), incapable of maturing in other birds (Anderson 2000). The third-stage larvae were found under the submucosa of gizzard of Larus ridibundus (atypical host) and Turdus philomelos. Some fourth-stage larvae were located at the same site in T. merula and T. philomelos or, together with subadult specimens, embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine. Porrocaecum semiteres (Zeder, 1800) Baylis, 1920 HOSTS. Larus ridibundus, Turdus philomelos. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. L. ridibundus: exact no. examined unknown / 2 infected, 1–4 specimens; T. philomelos: 13/5, 1–49 specimens. SITE. Gizzard. LOCALITIES. "eské Bud#jovice (March, April 1999), Klec (March, April 1982, 1983), Praha (June 1978). COMMENTS. A typical parasite of Charadriiformes, incapable of maturing in Passeriformes (Jygis 1967). Only the third- and fourth-stage larvae were found. Family Syngamidae Leiper, 1912 Cyathostoma lari Blanchard, 1849 HOST. Larus ridibundus. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. exact no. examined unknown / 39 infected, 1–11 specimens. SITE. Nasal and orbital cavities. LOCALITIES. "eské Bud#jovice (March, April, September 1999), Klec (March to November 1982, 1983). COMMENTS. A relatively common parasite reported from many species of birds belonging to Charadriiformes, Ciconiiformes and Passeriformes (four cases of infection in Falconiformes recorded by Simpson & Harris 1992). Its occurrence in the Czech Republic was recorded by Zavadil (1961), Baruš et al. (1978) and Bušta et al. (1985). The morphology of the specimens was consistent with the description given by Burt & Eadie (1958). Syngamus merulae Baylis, 1926 HOST. Turdus merula. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 42 examined / 2 infected, 1 pair. SITE. Trachea. LOCALITIES. Humpolec (July 1978). COMMENTS. A common parasite mainly specific to Turdidae (Passeriformes). Its occurrence in the Czech Republic was recorded by Zavadil (1955), Ryšavý (1957), Baruš & Groschaft (1965), Koubek & Vojtek (1973).
Family Acuariidae Railliet, Henry et Sisoff, 1912 Acuaria anthuris (Rudolphi, 1819) Railliet, Henry et Sisoff, 1912 HOST. Corvus frugilegus. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 15 examined / 5 infected, 1–6 specimens. SITE.Gizzard. LOCALITY. "eské Bud#jovice (January to March 1981, 1982). COMMENTS. A common parasite of Corvidae. Baruš et al. (1972) confirmed that this species is found all year round in Czech Republic. Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Creplin, 1825) Seurat, 1919 (Tab. 5) HOST. Larus ridibundus. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. Exact no. examined unknown / 5 infected, 1–2 specimens. SITE. Oesophagus. LOCALITY. Klec (April to August 1982, 1983). COMMENTS. A parasite of piscivorous birds, not frequent in the Czech Republic (Baruš et al. 1978, Bušta et al. 1985); probably introduced by birds migrating from areas where the intermediate hosts (Amphipoda) occur (for the life cycle see Wong & Anderson 1981). The morphology of specimens was consistent with the redescription of this species by Anderson & Wong (1981), but their measurements were smaller (Tab. 5). Family Aproctidae Yorke et Maplestone, 1926 Aprocta cylindrica Linstow, 1883 HOST. Erithacus rubecula. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY. 19 examined / 2 infected, 5–35 specimens. Tab. 5. Measurements (mm) of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Creplin, 1825) from Larus ridibundus (the present study) and L. delawarensis Ord (published data after Anderson & Wong 1981) author number of specimens length of body width of body length of buccal cavity nerve ring – anterior deirids – anterior excretory porus – anterior length of muscular oesophagus length of glandular oesophagus length of wright spicule length of left spicule length of tail vulva – anterior egg: length egg: width
males published data
10 9.9–14.3 0.200–0.350 0.380–0.510 0.420–0.530 0.350–0.540 0.500–0.680 1.0–1.3 3.6–4.3 0.180–0.220 0.590–0.700 0.400–0.500
3 7.71–9.33 0.192–0.288 0.365–0.378 0.391–0.397 0.252–0.391 0.334–0.473 0.736–0.752 3.20–3.81 0.113 0.496 0.284
females published data
10 15.8–22.3 0.320–0.500 0.570–0.730 0.640–0.770 0.610–0.790 0.705–0.940 1.2–1.5 4.1–5.1
2 nongravid 12.67–12.86 0.352–0.384 0.403 0.309–0.435 0.315–0.488 0.384–0.512 0.992–1.088 3.65–4.48
0.220–0.380 7.4–10.4 0.040–0.045 0.025
0.240 5.86–6.18 – –
SITE. Nasal and orbital cavities. LOCALITY. Purkarec (March, April 1982). COMMENTS. An oviparous filarioid species parasitizing a wide range of Passeriformes (Sonin 1966). Records from the Czech Republic are from Erithacus rubecula (Sonin & Baruš 1971). Sitko (personal communication) frequently found it in this host when it arrived spring. It is likely the bird becomes infected in the wintering areas and not in Czech Republic. The transmission and the development of A. cylindrica is poorly understood (Quentin et al. 1976). Acknowledgements The author thanks to F. Moravec from the Institute of Parasitology, ASCR, in "eské Bud#jovice for his critical comments and for providing some materials from the helminthological collection, and J. Sitko from the Museum of Komenský, P!erov, for consultations. The study was partly supported by the grant No. K2-022-601 from the ASCR.
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ŠKARDA J. 1964: [Helminth fauna of some free living birds in Czechoslovakia]. Sborn. Vys. Šk. Zem!d. Brno 12: 269–293 (in Czech). T ENORA F. & L USK S. 1960: [Contribution to closer knowledge of the helminth fauna of birds of prey in Czechoslovakia] Sborn. Vys. Šk. Zem!d. Brno 2: 205–211 (in Czech). W AKELIN D. 1966: The genus Capillaria Zeder, 1800 (Nematoda) in British passerine birds. Parasitology 56: 161–170. WAKELIN D. 1967: Nematodes of the Genus Capillaria Zeder, 1800, from the Collection of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. 1. Capillariids from exotic avian hosts. J. Helminthol. 41: 257–268. WAKELIN D., SCHMIDT G. D. & KUNTZ R. E. 1970: Capillariids from Passeriforms of Taiwan. IX. Parasitology 61: 465–474. WONG P. L & . ANDERSON R. C. 1981: The transmission and development of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) of gulls (Laridae). Canad. J. Zool. 60: 1426–1440. ZAVADIL R. 1955: [Species features and distribution of the parasites Syngamus trachea and Syngamus (Ornithogamus) merulae]. "s. Parasitol. 2: 201–209 (in Czech). ZAVADIL R. 1961: [Finding of Cyathostoma lari E. Blanchard 1849 in black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus L. 1766) from southern Moravia]. "s. Parasitol. 8: 415–419 (in Czech).
Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 29–30, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
Neoanthrenus king sp. n. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) from Australia Ji!í HÁVA Branická 13, CZ–147 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic; e-mail: [email protected]
Received July 5, 2001; accepted October 16, 2001 Published April 3, 2002
Abstract. Neoanthrenus king sp. n. is described from Australia. Its diagnostic characters are illustrated. Key to the all so far known species of Neoanthrenus Armstrong, 1941 is provided. of N. paralellus Armstrong, 1941 is recorded from Victoria for the first time. Taxonomy, description, Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Megatominae, Neoanthrenus, Australia
At present the genus Neoanthrenus Armstrong, 1941 includes 6 species distributed in Australia and Tasmania (Armstrong 1941, 1949, Kalík 1957). In present paper is described a new species. Neoanthrenus king sp. n. (Figs 1–2) TYPE
Holotype (female): AU: King I., Yambacoona, 17.1.1972; deposited in author’s collection.
DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE. Body length 2.0 mm, maximal width 1.1 mm; elongate, parallel, brownblack. Dorsal surface covered by intermixed brown, yellow and white scales (Fig. 1). Individual scale of smaller and setiform. Head visible from above. Antennae 11-merous, antennal club trimerous, brown, compact (Fig. 2). Pronotum transverse, sub-rectangular, convex, strongly depressed just in front of base; sides strongly emarginate, anterior angles obtuse, posterior slightly acute, widest at base which is biarcuate. Elytra scarcely wider than pronotum, one half times as long as the combined width, parallel; posterior fifth evently rounded to apex. Legs brown with white scales and yellow setae. Meso-metasternum with white scales. Abdominal sternites with white scales without patch at antero-lateral margins. Male unknown. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS. For differential diagnosis see the key below. ETYMOLOGY. The specific name of the new species is derived from the name of the region of its origin – King I.; noun in apposition. Neoanthrenus paralellus Armstrong, 1941 MATERIAL
AU: Victoria, Fraser National Park, 35 km N of Yea, 25.1.1972, 1 male, J. Háva det. et coll.
DISTRIBUTION. Species known so far from New South Wales and Queensland (Armstrong 1949). First record from Victoria. 29
Figs 1–2. Neoanthrenus king sp. n.; 1 – dorsal aspect of body, 2 – antenna (dotted area represents white scales).
Key of the species of Neoanthrenus 1(6) 2(3) 3(2) 4(5)
Form of body elongate, parallel; elytra scarcely wider than pronotum. Dorsal surface bearing smaller, more setiform scales; King I. ............................................... N. king sp. n. Dorsal surface bearing smaller and broader scales. Dorsal surface of body dark brown, with closely packed scales, mostly ashy-white, but some brown tending to form an obscure pattern; New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria. ......... N. parallelus Armstrong, 1941 5(4) Dorsal surface of body black, with densely clothed with scales, mostly ashy-yellow, but some brown forming apattern; Queensland. ............................................................................ N. macqueeni Armstrong, 1949 6(1) Form of body broader, elliptical; elytra noticeably wider than pronotum. 7(8) Dorsal surface bearing smaller, more setiform scales; Tasmania. ........................... N. frater (Arrow, 1915) 8(7) Dorsal surface bearing smaller broader scales 9(12) Body black. 10(11) Antennomere IX narrow; New South Wales. ......................................... N. niveosparsa Armstrong, 1941 11(10) Antennomere IX broad; Sydney. ....................................................................... N. armstrongi Kalík, 1957 12(9) Body fulvous; New South Wales, South Australia. ....................................... N. ocellifer (Blackburn, 1891)
REFERENCES ARMSTRONG J. W. T. 1941: On Australian Dermestidae. Part I. Descriptions of a new genus and two new apecies; also a note on the genus Anthrenus. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 66: 388–390. ARMSTRONG J. W. T. 1949: On Australian Dermestidae. Part V. Notes and the description of four new species. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 74: 107–111. KALÍK V. 1957: A new dermestid from Australia (Col.). Acta Soc. Entomol. "echoslov. 54: 22–23.
Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 66: 31–36, 2002 ISSN 1211-376X
First instar larva of Xenion ignitum (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichini) and the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Karel H*RKA Department of Zoology, Charles University, Vini$ná 7, CZ–128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic; e-mail: [email protected]
Received June 15, 2001; accepted October 16, 2001 Published April 3, 2002 Abstract. The first instar larva of Xenion ignitum (Kraatz, 1875), reared ex ovo, are described and illustrated. Rearing proved the breeding type with larval dormancy in the annual reproduction cycle. Both larval and adult synapomorphies suggest the evident relationships among Myas Sturm, 1826 sensu lato and Xenion Tschitschérine, 1902. Larval taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini, Xenion, Myas, Palaearctic region
Xenion Tschitschérine, 1902, a monotypic genus consisting of a single species Xenion ignitum, is distributed in Bulgaria and Macedonia in two subspecies: X. i. ignitum (Kraatz, 1875) and X. i. laticolle Ma!an, 1930. It is a woodland species of the middle and high mountains: Middle Stara planina Mts., Vitosha Mt., Sredna Gora Mts., Rila Mts., Pirin Mts., Mesta valley, West Rhodopi Mts. (nominotypical subspecies), and Slavyanka Mts. (laticolle); adults were found from May to August in the elevations of 800 to 2400 m (Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1995: 119). According to Csiki (1929) the genus Xenion (Fig. 2) belongs, with four other genera: Aristochroa Tschitchérine, 1898 (Fig. 1), Myas Sturm, 1826 (Fig. 3), Trigonognatha Motschoulsky, 1857 (Fig. 4) and Steropanus Fairmaire, 1888, in the subtribe Myadi. Allen (1980) described in his “review” of the subtribe Myadi a new genus Neomyas, endemic to North America (he has not studied Steropanus). In his phylogenetic conclusion Allen postulated, Xenion ignitum represents one of the three lineages arosing from the hypothetical ancestor of Myadi which has apparently changed very little from the ancestor. Some authors have regarded Myas, Trigonognatha and Neomyas as closely related and have treated these taxa as subgenera of a single genus Myas. Sciaky (1996) has studied the type specimen of Steropanus forticornis Fairmaire, 1888, the type species of the genus; according to the aedeagus examination, Steropanus belongs to the genus Pterostichus Bonelli, 1810 as a subgenus, and it is not related to the Trigonognatha. Bousquet (1999) has recently discussed the relationships among this group, based on both larval and adult characters. Only the larvae of Myas (Neomyas) cyanescens Dejean, 1828, in the third instar (Thompson 1979a, b, Bousquet 1985, 1989, 1999) and of Myas (Myas) chalybaeus (Palliardi, 1825), in all three instars (Zetto Brandmayr & Marano 1996), are described and illustrated, from the group Myadi. MATERIAL AND METHODS One male and two females are found in the Pirin Mts. (Bulgaria), “Khizha [= hut] Pirin”, 1640 m, 20. viii. 1983, D. Král leg. The specimens were raised in the laboratory conditions following the technique described by H)rka
(1996). From October 24, 1983 to March 19, 1984 the adults hibernated. After hibernation the specimens were kept again in the laboratory conditions at the mean temperature 20±1 °C and under natural photoperiod (50° 06’ N, 14° 16’ E). On September 19 one female was found dead, on September 24 sex first instar larvae appeared in the container. One larva was fixed for the taxonomic description, other larvae were kept individually in the Petri dishes (food: pieces of Tenebrio mollitor larva) and all were found dead till October 12, 1984. One fixed larva and all the material used for habitual drawings (Figs 1–4) are deposited in the Collectio H)rka, Department of Zoology, Charles University, Praha. In description, the notation of setae and pores follows the papers by Bousquet & Goulet (1984) and Bousquet (1985).
Xenion ignitum (Kraatz, 1875), first instar larva (Figs 5–12) DESCRIPTION. Coloration. Yellow ochre, urogomphi darker. Microsculpture. Head on parietale with flat meshes, dorsal aspect of prementum pointed; granulated microsculpture on pronotal pre- and postscutum and on postscuta of meso- and metanotum and of tergites I–VIII, scuta of abdominal tergites finelly pointed to multipointed, urogomphi and pygidium pointed. Chaetotaxy. Adnasale (Fig. 6) with 3 setae (FR8, FR9, one additional), on frontale one small additional seta instead of pore FRc, on parietale setae PR4, 5, 8 very small, seta MX6 on lacinia as long as seta MX5 (Fig. 9), setal group gMX with about 15 setae; seta LA4 on prementum absent, seta LA6 about half as long as length of palpomere I, setae PR12 on pronotum, ME13 on meso- and metanotum and TE10 on abdominal tergites I–VIII of normal length; tergites I–VIII with only three distinct setae: TE7, 9, 10 (TE9 longer than TE10), setae TE1, 6, 11 present, but very minute (Fig. 11); seta UR2 on abdominal tergite IX distinctly longer than seta UR3, urogomphi with 5 distinct setae (UR4–UR8). Head. Cephalic capsule slightly transverse (index width/length=1.15), sides convex apicad (Fig. 5); distinct preocular grooves present; cervical grooves indistinct dorsally, short ventrally and almost extended to level of seta PA15; coronal suture apparent, nearly as long as length of antennomere IV; nasale finely convex, adnasalia almost straight, both nasale and adnasalia denticulate (Fig. 6); stemmata of the lower row distinctly smaller than that of the upper row; egg burster forming a linear keel composed of about 20 small, closely spaced blunt teeth, reaching base of seta FR2, about as long as antennomere I; mandibles sickle-shaped, cutting edge finely serrulated, retinaculum about in the middle, penicillus absent (Fig. 7); antennomeres stout (Fig. 8); maxillary stipes shorter than palpus, without membranous area, lacinia apparent (Fig. 9); prementum with no protruding ligula (Fig. 10); width of head capsule 0.57 mm. Legs. Two claws slightly unequal in length, inner claw a little shorter. Abdomen. Urogomphi short, curved inward in apical half (Fig. 12); abdominal pleura without additional sclerite near epipleurite. DIAGNOSIS. In the loss of penicillus the larva of Xenion ignitum agree only with the larvae of Myas chalybaeus and M. cyanescens. Members of both genera distinguish by this apomorphic larval character state among known Pterostichini. Xenion ignitum differs from the Myas chalybaeus first instar larva by the finely convex and denticulate nasale and by the distinct coronal suture, nearly as long as antennomere IV. The size of the larva is smaller (width of head capsule 0.57×0.90 mm). Figs 1–4. 1 – Aristochroa casta Tschitschérine, male (W Sichuan, 6. vii. 1994, 29.36 N 102.06 E, 1900–2900 m, Gouggashan-Hailuogou, J. Farka$ & D. Král leg.); 2 – Xenion ignitum (Kraatz), male (Bulgaria, Rodopi Mts., "epelare 1250–1500 m, 14. vii. 1976, K. H)rka leg.); 3 – Myas (Myas) chalybaeus (Palliardi), male (Bulgaria, Sozopol, 10. vii. 1977, Havlas leg.); 4 – Myas (Trigonognatha) fairmairei Sciaky, female (China: W Sichuan, 20 km N Sabde, 3200 m, 29.35 N 101.23 E, 10.–16. vii. 1998, J. Farka$ leg.). Scale = 5 cm (Orig. Z. "adová).
The species of the genera Myas sensu lato, Xenion and Aristochroa are linked in the adult stage by the possession of more than two setae (four to six) on the apical margin of the glossal sclerite. In contrast to the Neostomus Bousquet, 1983, having also four setae, the medial pair in the three above named genera is longer than the lateral pair(s) (Bousquet 1999). From the synapomorphies of members of the genus Myas sensu lato (including Trigonognatha and Neomyas), in the adult stage, given by Bousquet (1999), namely: (a) last labial palpomere apically widened (Figs 15, 16), (b) absence of setigerous punctures on the third elytral interval, (c) indistinct metatarsal carina on all tarsomeres, (d) presence of a very elongate spermathecal gland, the character states given under a) (Fig. 14) and partly also under (c) are found also in Xenion ignitum (metatarsal carina weekly distinct only on tarsomere I). On the third elytral interval there are two setiferous punctures, consequently the apomorphic character state as the absence of setiferous punctures. The spermatheca was not examined. The larval synapomorphies of Myas (Myas) chalybaeus, Myas (Neomyas) cyanescens and Xenion ignitum are: (a) penicillus absent, (b) urogomphi moderately to markedly curved inwardly, (c) one additional seta on adnasale in L1 (2 and more in L3), (d) setae PR4, 5, 8 and TE1, 6, 11 minute, (e) mandible with finely serrulated edge of terebra in L1. The larvae of Trigonognatha and Aristochroa are not known. From the course of my laboratory rearing experiment with Xenion ignitum follows the main breeding type with a larval dormancy in the annual reproduction cycle. Zetto Brandmayr & Marano (1996) indicated that Myas (Myas) chalybaeus belongs to the same main breeding type (“au-
Figs 13–16. Last labial palpomere of adults. 13 – Aristochroa casta Tschitschérine (male); 14 – Xenion ignitum (Kraatz) (male); 15 – Myas (Myas) chalybaeus (Palliardi) (male); 16 – Myas (Trigonognatha) fairmairei Sciaky (female). Scale = 0.2 mm. Figs 5–12. Larva of Xenion ignitum (Kraatz), first instar. 5 – cephalic capsule (dorsal view); 6 – nasale and adnasalia; 7 – left mandible; 8 – left antenna; 9 – left maxilla (dorsal view); 10 – labium (dorsal view); 11 – abdominal tergite IV; 12 – tergum IX and urogomphus. Scales = 0.2 mm.
tumn breeder without imaginal dormancy”). Bousquet (1999) have seen two third instar larvae of Myas (Neomyas) cyanescens collected in Canada in July and August. The common larval and adult apomorphic features of Myas s. l. and of Xenion, as well as the same main breeding type, suggest the evident phylogenetic relationships of both taxa. Acknowledgements The author acknowledges the financially support of this study by the Research Project of the Ministry of Schools of the Czech Republic No. J 13/98113100004. I also thank Miss Zuzana "adová (Scientific illustrator, Charles University, Praha) for her excellent habitual illustrations.
REFERENCES ALLEN R. T. 1980: A review of the subtribe Myadi: description of a new genus and species, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichini). Coleopt. Bull. 34: 1–29. BOUSQUET Y. 1985: Morphologie comparée des larves de Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae): descriptions et tables de détermination des esp$ces du nord-est de l’Amerique du Nord. Naturaliste Can. 112: 191–251. BOUSQUET Y. 1989: Description of the larvae of Pterostichus ohionis Csiki and P. blanchardi Horn with a key to larvae of eastern North American Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Can. Entomol. 121: 27–42. BOUSQUET Y. 1999: Supraspecific classification of the Nearctic Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Fabreries, Suppl. 9: 1–299. B OUSQUET Y. & GOULET G. 1984: Notation of primary setae and pores on larvae of Carabidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Can. J. Zool. 62: 573–588. CSIKI E. 1929: Carabidae: Harpalinae III., Subtrib. Myadi. Pp.: 525–527. In: JUNK W. & SHENKLING S. (eds.): Coleopterorum Catalogus (Pars 104). Berlin: W. Junk, 527 pp. GUÉORGUIEV V. B. & GUÉORGUIEV B. V. 1995: Catalogue of the ground-beetles of Bulgaria (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Sofia-Moscow: PENSOFT, 279 pp. H*RKA K. 1996: Carabidae of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Zlín: Kabourek, 565 pp. SCIAKY R. 1980: New taxa and new synonyms among Pterostichinae from Asia (Coleoptera Carabidae). Entomofauna 17(29): 429–440. THOMPSON R. G. 1979a: A systematic study of larvae in the tribes Pterostichini, Morionini, and Amarini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 837: 1–105. THOMPSON R. G. 1979b: Larvae of North American Carabidae with a Key to the Tribes. Pp.: 209–291. In: ERWIN T. L., BALL G. E. & WHITEHEAD D. R.: Carabid Beetles: Their Evolution, Natural History, and Classification. The Hague-Boston-London: Dr. W. Junk, 635 pp. ZETO BRANDMAYR T. & MARANO I. 1996: Larval morphology and notes on bionomy of Myas chalybaeus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 60: 469–477.