UNTUK TUGAS UTS ORKOM

Loading...
More Next Blog»

Create Blog Sign In

UNTUK TUGAS UTS ORKOM rabu, 02 juni 2010

PRESENTASI Sistem komputer Sistem adalah Suatu kesatuan elemen yang saling berhubungan sehingga membentuk suatu kelompok dalam melaksanakan suatu tujuan pokok yang ditargetkan.Sistem komputer

pengikut

adalah elemen-elemen yang terkait untuk menjalankan suatu aktifitas dengan menggunakan komputer.Tujuan pokok dari sistem komputer adalah untuk mengolah data menjadi informasi. Klasifikasi komputer Klasifikasi Komputer dibagi dalam beberapa klasifikasi yaitu berdasarkan : 1. Jenis data yang diolah 2. Kemampuan Komputer 3. Ukuran fisik 4. Bidang Masalah

Klasifikasi komputer 1

arsip blog

Berdasarkan Jenis Data yang Diolah

t 2010 (2) a. Komputer Analog (Analog Computer)digunakan untuk mengolah data kualitatif

t Juni (2)

b. Komputer Digital (Digital Computer)digunakan untuk mengolah data kuantitatif

PRESENTASI MATERI-MATERI ORKOM

mengenai saya

c. Komputer Hybrid (Hybrid Computer)Kombinasi komputer analog dan komputer digital

Klasifikasi komputer 2 HENRY Lihat profil lengkapku

Berdasarkan Kemampuan Komputer • Small Scale Computer • Medium Scale Computer • Large Scale Computer Berdasarkan Ukuran Fisik • Komputer Mini (Mini Computer) • Komputer Mikro (Micro Computer

Klasifikasi komputer 3 Berdasarkan Bidang Masalah • Special Purpose Computer • General Purpose Computer Konfigurasi komputer Komputer terbagi menjadi 3 bagian : Hardware (Perangkat Keras) 1. Peralatan dalam bentuk fisik yang menjalankan sistem komputer. 2. Software (Perangkat Lunak)Rangkaian prosedur dan dokumentasi program yang berfungsi menyelesaikan masalah yang dikehendaki. 3. Brainware (Perangkat pikir)Orang yang menggunakan komputer Konfigurasi hardware Hardware terdiri dari : • Input Device • ProceAss Device • Output Device Konfigurasi hardware 1

Konfigurasi hardware 2 Keterangan gambar diatas : CU (Control Unit) Digunakan untuk mengatur dan menjalankan instruksi dalam urutan yang telah ditetapkan. ALU(Arithmatic and Logic Unit) Bagian perangkat keras yang berhubungan langsung dengan perhitungan arithmatic. RAM (Random Access Memory) Memori yang membaca dan menulis. ROM (Read Only Memory) Memori yang dapat membaca saja. Konfigurasi hardware 3 Jenis-jenis RAM : • SRAM ( Static RAM) • DRAM ( Dinamic RAM) • NVRAM • FRAM ( Ferroeletric RAM) Jenis-jenis ROM • PROM ( Programmable ROM) • EPROM (Eraseble ROM) • EEEPROM (Electrically Eraseble Programable ROM Konfigurasi hardware 4 Control Unit Merupakan salah satu bagian dari sebuah CPU yang berfungsi untuk mengontrol dari data atau instruksi Konfigurasi hardware 5 Arithmatic and Logic Unit

Memory, CU, ALU dihubungkan oleh Bus. BUS dibedakan menjadi 3 fungsi , yaitu : 1. Control BUS 2. Address BUS 3. Data BUS Konfigurasi software Klasifikasi Software terbagi menjadi : Sistem Operasi (Operating Software) perangkat lunak yang dihubungkan dengan pelaksanaan program dan koordinasi dari aktivitas sistem komputer. Bahasa Pemrograman bahasa komputer yang digunakab untuk menulis instruksi-instruksi program untuk melakukan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh programer. Program Paket program komputer yang siap digunakan atau disebut juga program siap pakai. Konfigurasi software(1) Sistem Operasi (Operating System) Fungsi dasar : a) Menjadwalkan Tugas b) Mengelola Sumberdaya perangkat lunak dan perangkat keras c) Menjaga keamanan sistem d) Memungkinkan pembagian sumberdaya untuk beberapa pemakai e) Menyimpan catatan pemakai f) Menangani interrupt Konfigurasi software(2) Bahasa Pemrograman Adapun bahasa pemrograman yang dikenal saat ini: 1. Bahasa tingkat rendah (Low Level Language) contoh : bahasa mesin dan bahasa rakitan 2. Bahasa tingkat menengah (Middle Level Language) contoh : bahasa c 3. Bahasa tingkat tinggi ( High Level Language) contoh : BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL, PL/I, ALGOL

Konfigurasi software(3) Program Paket Yaitu: program komputer yang siap digunakan atau diseut juga program siap pakai. Program paket digunakan untuk aplikasi bisnis secara umum, aplikasi khusus dibidang industri, aplikasi untuk meningkatkan produktifitas organisasi ayau perusahaan dan aplikasi untuk produktifitas perorangan. Contoh : lotus 123, Dbase, dan Wordstar. Konfigurasi brainware Brainware dikelompokkan menjadi 3, yaitu: Operator seseorang yang mengoperasikan mesin komputer atau dapat pula dikatakan dengan seseorang yang menjelaskan tindakan untuk dilaksanakan. Programer seseorang yang bertugas merancang, menulis, dan menguji komputer System Analyst seseorang yang bertugas untuk melakukan spesifikasi penyelesaian masalah. Peralatan sistem komputer Peralatan Input a. Keyboard b. Mouse c. Joystick d. Scanner e. Lightpen f. Trackball g. Touch Sreen h. Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) i. Optical Character Reader (OCR) j. Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) Reader 2. Perangkat Output a. Monitor b. Printer dan Plotter c. Proyektor d. microform 3. Peralatan Input / Output a. Disk Drive b. Tape Drive c. Modem (Modulator Demudolator) d. Ethernet e. PCMCIA f. Hub g. Switch h. Print Server i. Input / Output Card (I / O Card) j. SCII Card k. Terminal l. CD – Room (Compac Disk-Read Only memory) m. CD-Read and writer n. DVD-Room o. DVD-Read and Writer 4. Peralatan Proses (CPU) a. Mainboard (Motherboard) b. I/O Card c. SCII Card d. VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) Card e. Processor f. RAM (Randon Accses Memory) g. Catu Daya 5. Media Penyimpanan Data (Storage) a. Floppy Disk b. Harddisk c. Tape d. CD (Compact Disk) e. DVD (Digital Video Disk) f. Flashdisk Monitor dapat dibagi menjadi beberpa sudut pandang : 1. Dari sudut pandang tampilan a. Alphanumeric Display b. Graphic display 2. Dari sudut pandang warna a. Monochrome display b. Color display CGA ( Color Display Adapter) EGA (Enhanced Graphic Array) VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) SVGA ( Super Video Graphic Adapter) XVGA Printer dan plotter Alat yang digunakan untuk mencetak graphic, gambar dan data lain pada selembar kertas. Printer terbagi menjadi 3 jenis: 1. Impact printer (printer ketuk) 2. Nonimpact printer (printer tanpa ketuk) 3. Thermal printer Perkembangan komputer a. Perkembangan Hardware Kemajuan tekhnologi yang dibuat manusia telah mengubah bentuk dan fun gsi komputer dalam beberapa generasi yaitu : 1. Generasi Pertama (1946 - 1959) Masih sangat sederhana dan komplek. Ciri – ciri : a. Ukuran fisiknya besar b. Kecepatan proses lambat c. Cepat panas d. Membutuhkan listrik besar f. Menggunakan tabung hampa udara g. Memorinya menggunakan core storage h. Masih menggunakan bahasa mesin i. Menggunakan konsep storage program. 2. Generasi Kedua (1959 - 1965) di buat untuk menyempurnakan bentuk dari komponen . ciri – ciri : a. Komponen telah menggunakan transistor b. Ukuran fisiknya lebih kecil c. Prosesnya lebih cepat d. Tidak cepat panas e. Lebih hemat listrik f. Memory yang digunakan lebih besar g. menggunakan bahasa tingkat tinggi 3. Generasi ke tiga (1965 - 1970) Pada generasi ini penyimpana memorynya lebih besar dan diletakkan diluar. ciri – ciri : a. Komponen telah menggunakan IC b. Kecepatan prosesnya lebih cepat c. Membutuhkan listrik lebih hemat d. Memorynya lebih besar, dapat menyimpan sampai ribuan karakter e. Menggunakan penyimpanan luar f. Dapat digunakan untuk multi processing dan multi programming g. Telah dibuat alat input output 4. Generasi keempat (1970 - 1985) dibuat dengan menggabungkan beberapa IC yang dipadatkan. ciri – ciri : a. Telah menggunakan LSI b. LSI dikembangkan menjadi VLSI c. Chip yang digunakan telah berbentuk segi empat b. Perkembangan Software 1. Bahasa Generasi Pertama Program yang digunakan untuk menjalankan komputer masih menggunakan bahasa mesin. Contonya. 1101011010010010 diartikan ADD 2. Bahasa Generasi KeDua Selain bahasa mesin masih ada bahasa rakitan yang biasanya dikenal bahasa generasi kedua . Bahasa rakitan disamakan dengan bahasa tingkat rendah karena kasih dibutuhkan suatu penerjemah untuk menjalankan perintahnya 3. Bahasa Generasi Ketiga karena pada bahasa generasi kedua masih menimbulkan kesulitan maka dibutuhkan bahasa tingkat tinggi seperti COBOL, PASCAL,BASIC, proram ini disebut dengan bahasa generasi ketiga. 4. Bahasa Generasi Keempat pembuatan bahasa generasi keempat ditujukan untuk mamudahkan pengguna pada proses pengambilan keputusan. 5. Bahasa Generasi Kelima bahasa generasi kelima adalah bahasa pemograman yang digunakan pada expert system. Expert System dibuat untuk memudahkan seorang programer dalam membuat sebuah program seperti layaknya seorang pakar system komponen sistem komputer Unit pemroses (CPU) Main memory Perangkat masukan dan keluaran Interkoneksi antar komponen Pemproses (cpu) Unit pemroses Mengendalikan operasi komputer dan melakukan fungsi pemrosesan data, yang terdiri dari ALU, CU, Register. Berfungsi mengendalikan operasi komputer didalam pemrosesan data, menghitung, operasi logik dan mengirim data dengan membaca instruksi dari memori dan mengeksekusi. Main memory Main memory berfungsi menyimpan data dan program, dan bersifat volatile. Memori dibagi menjadi 2 : 1. Main Memory 2. Secondary memory Organisasi sistem computer Boot Penyimpanan data Register Cache Memory Random Access Memory Memory Ekstensi Direct Memory Access SISTEM BUS DAN DMA A. Pengertian Bus Bus merupakan lintasan komunikasi yang menghubungkan dua atau lebih perangkat. Bus merupakan media transmisi yang dapat digunakan bersama. Sejumlah perangkat yang terhubung ke bus, dan suatu signal yang ditransmisikan oleh salah satu perangkat ini dapat diterima oleh salah satu perangkat yang terhubung ke bus. Bila dua buah perangkat melakukan transmisi dalam waktu yang bersamaa, maka signal-signalnya akan bertumpang tindih dan menjadi rusak. Umumnya sebuah bus terdiri dari sejumlah lintasan komunikasi atau saluran. Masing-masing saluran dapat mentransimisikan signal yang menunjukkan biner 1 dan biner 0. Serangkaian digit biner dapat ditransmisikan melalui saluran tunggal. Dengan mengumpulkannya beberapa saluran dari sebuah bus dapat digunakan mentransmisikan digit biner secara bersamaan (secara paralel). Misalnya sebuah satuan data 8 bit dapat ditransmisikan melalui bus 8 saluran. Bus terdiri dari 3: 1. Bus Data Saluran yang memberikan lintasan bagi perpindahan data antara dua modul system. Umumnya bus data terdiri dari 8, 16, 32 saluran, jumlah saluran dikaitkan dengan lebar bus data. Karena pada suatu saat tertentu masing-masing saluran hanya dapat membawa 1 bit, maka jumlah saluran menentukan jumlah bit yang dapat diindahkan pada suatu saat. Lebar bus data merupakan factor penting dalam menentukan kinerja system secara keseluruahan. Bila bus data lebarnya 8 bit, dan setiap instruksi panjangnya 16 bit, maka CPU harus 2 kali mengakses modul memori dalam setiap siklus instruksinya. 2. Bus Alamat Digunakan untuk menandakan sumber atau tujuan data pada bus data, misalnya CPU akan membaca sebuah word (8, 16, 32 bit) data dari memori, maka CPU akan menaruh alamat word yang dimaksud pada saluran alamat. Lebar bus alamat menentukan kapasitas memori maksimum sitem. Selain itu umumnya saluran alamt juga digunakan untuk mengalamati port-port I/O. 3. Bus Kontrol Digunakan untuk mengontrol akses ke saluran alamat, penggunaan data dan saluran alamat. Karena data dan saluran alamat digunakan bersama oleh seluruh komponen, maka harus ada alat untuk mengontrol penggunaannya. Signal-signal kontrol melakukan transmisi baik perintah mauun informasi pewaktuan diantra modul-modul system. Signal-signal pewaktuan menunjukkan validitas data dan informasi alamat. Umumnya saluran kontrol meliputi : Memory Write : menyebabkan data pada bus akan dituliskan ke dalam lokasi alamat. Memory Read : menyebabkan data dari lokasi alamat ditempatkan pada bus I/O Write : menyebabkan data pada bus di output kan ke port I/O yang beralamat. I/O Read : menyebabkan data dari port I/O yang beralamat ditempatkan pada bus. Transfer ACK : menunjukkan bahwa data telah diterima dari bus atau telah ditempatkan di bus. Interrupt Request : menandakan bahwa sebuah interrupt ditangguhkan. Interrupt ACK : memberitahukan bahwa interrupt yang ditangguhkan telah diketahui. Clock : digunakan untuk mensinkronkan operasi-operasi. Reset : menginisialisasi seluruh modul. Beberapa bus utama dalam sistem komputer modern adalah sebagai berikut: • Bus prosesor. Bus ini merupakan bus tercepat dalam sistem dan menjadi bus inti dalam chipset dan motherboard. Bus ini utamanya digunakan oleh prosesor untuk meneruskan informasi dari prosesor ke cache atau memori utama ke chipset kontrolir memori (Northbridge, MCH, atau SPP). Bus ini juga terbagi atas beberapa macam, yakni Front-Side Bus, HyperTransport bus, dan beberapa bus lainnya. Sistem komputer selain Intel x86 mungkin memiliki bus-nya sendiri-sendiri. Bus ini berjalan pada kecepatan 100 MHz, 133 MHz, 200 MHz, 266 MHz, 400 MHz, 533 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz atau 1066 MHz. Umumnya, bus ini memiliki lebar lajur 64-bit, sehingga setiap detaknya ia mampu mentransfer 8 byte. • Bus AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port). Bus ini merupakan bus yang didesain secara spesifik untuk kartu grafis. Bus ini berjalan pada kecepatan 66 MHz (mode AGP 1x), 133 MHz (mode AGP 2x), atau 533 MHz (mode AGP 8x) pada lebar jalur 32-bit, sehingga bandwidth maksimum yang dapat diraih adalah 2133 MByte/s. Umumnya, bus ini terkoneksi ke chipset pengatur memori (Northbridge, Intel Memory Controller Hub, atau NVIDIA nForce SPP). Sebuah sistem hanya dapat menampung satu buah bus AGP. Mulai tahun 2005, saat PCI Express mulai marak digunakan, bus AGP ditinggalkan. • Bus PCI (Peripherals Component Interconnect). Bus PCI tidak tergantung prosesor dan berfungsi sebagai bus peripheral. Bus ini memiliki kinerja tinggi untuk sistem I/O berkecepatan tinggi. Bus ini berjalan pada kecepatan 33 MHz dengan lebar lajur 32-bit. Bus ini ditemukan pada hampir semua komputer PC yang beredar, dari mulai prosesor Intel 486 karena memang banyak kartu yang menggunakan bus ini, bahkan hingga saat ini. Bus ini dikontrol oleh chipset pengatur memori (northbridge, Intel MCH) atau Southbridge (Intel ICH, atau NVIDIA nForce MCP). • Bus PCI Express (Peripherals Component Interconnect Express) • Bus PCI-X (Peripherals Component Interconnect Express) • Bus ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) • Bus EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecute) • Bus MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) • Bus SCSI (Small Computer System Interface]]. Bus ini diperkenalkan oleh Macintosh pada tahun 1984. SCSI merupakan antarmuka standar untuk drive CD-ROM, peralatan audio, harddisk, dan perangkat penyimpanan eksternal berukuran besar • Bus USB (Universal Serial Bus). Bus ini dikembangkan oleh tujuh vendor komputer, yaitu Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, dan Northern Telecom. Bus ini ditujukan bagi perangkat yang memiliki kecepatan rendah seperti keyboard, mouse, dan printer karena tidak akan efisien jika perangkat yang berkecepatan rendah dipasang pada bus berkecepatan tinggi seperti PCI. Keuntungan yang didapat dari bus USB antara lain : tidak harus memasang jumper, tidak harus membuka casing untuk memasang peralatan I/O, hanya satu jenis kabel yang digunakan, dapat mensuplai daya pada peralatan I/O, tidak diperlukan reboot. • Bus 1394. Bus yang mempunyai nama FireWire memiliki kecepatan tinggi diatas SCSI dan PCI. Bus 1394 sangat cepat, murah, dan mudah untuk diimplementasikan. Bus ini tidak hanya populer perangkat komputer tetapi juga perangkat elektronik seperti kamera digital, VCR, dan televisi. A. Pengertian Sistem Sistem adalah suatu kesatuan yang terdiri dari komponen atau elemen yang saling terhubung untuk memudahkan aliran informasi, materi atau energi. B. Pengertian DMA DMA adalah sebuah prosesor khusus (special purpose processor) yang berguna untuk menghindari pembebanan CPU utama oleh program I/O (PIO).

Gambar 6-2. DMA Interface. C. Sistem Bus Bila sebuah modul akan mengirimkan data ke modul lainnya, maka modul itu harus melakukan dua hal : 1. memperoleh penggunaan bus, dan 2 memindahkan data melalui bus. Bila sebuah modul akan meminta data dari modul lainnya, maka modul itu harus : 1. memperoleh penggunaan bus, dan 2 memindahkan sebuah request ke modul lainya melalui saluran kontrol dan saluran alamat yang sesuai. Kemudian modul harus menunggu modul kedua untuk mengirimkan data. Bentuk fisik Bus Bus system merupakan sejumlah konduktor listrik parallel. Konduktor-konduktor ini berupa kawat logam yang berakhir pada kartu atau papan PCB. Bus melintasi seluruh komponen system yang masing-masing disambungkan ke beberapa atau semua saluran bus. Masalah dalam Bus Tunggal/ Single Bila perangkat yang berjumlah sangat banyak dihubungkan ke bus, maka akan terjadi penurunan kinerja. Penyebab utama : semakin banyak perangkat yang dihubungkan ke bus, semakin besar delay propagasinya. Delay ini menentukan waktu yang diperlukan perangkat untuk mengkoordinasi pengguna bus Bus akan menjadi tersumbat dengan semakin besarnya perpindahan data yang hampir mendekati kapasitas bus. Sampai tingkat tertentu, masalah ini dapat diatasi dengan memakai bus-bus yang lebih lebar. (misalnya meningkatkan bus data dari 32 menjadi 64 bit) Namun karena kelajuan data disebabkan oleh perangkat-perangkat yang terhubung (misalnya pengontrol grafis dan video, interface jaringan) berkembang dengan cepat maka dalam perlombaan ini besar kemungkinan bus tunggal akan menderita kekalahan. Bus local yang menghubungkan prosesor dengan cache memory dan bus local dapat mendukung sebuah perangkat local atau lebih. Pengontrol cache memory tidak hanya menghubungkan cache dengan bus local itu saja, namun juga dengan bus system yang terhubung dengan seluruh modul memory utama. Manfaat struktur cache melindungi prosesor dari keharusan seringnya mengakses memori utama, sehingga memori utama dapat dipindahkan dari bus local ke bus sitem. Dengan cara ini, transfer I/O ke memori utama dan transfer dari memoriutama yang melintasi bus system tidak mengganggu aktivitas prosesor. Sangat mungkin untuk menghubungkan pengontrol I/O secara langsung dengan bus system. Penyelesaian yang lebih efisien untuk masalah ini adalah dengan memanfaatkan satu bus ekspansi atau lebih. Interface bus ekspansi mem-buffer-kan transfer data antara bus system dengan pengontrol I/O pada bus ekspansi. Contoh : Perangkat I/O yang dapat disambungkan ke bus ekspansi. Koneksi jaringan meliputi LAN misalnya koneksi Ethernet 10 Mbps dan koneksi ke WAN seperti jaringan paket switching, SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) merupakan jenis bus yang digunakan untuk mendukung disk drive local dan peripheral lainnya. Sebuah serial port dapat dipakai untuk mendukung sebuah printer atau scanner. Arsitektur bus tradisional cukup efisien namun mulai mengalami penurunan dengan semakin tingginya kinerja pada perangkat I/O. Untuk menjawab meningkatnya kebutuhan ini, penyelesaianya membuat bus berkecepatan tinggi yang sangat terintegrasi dengan system, yang hanya memerlukan bridge antara bus prosesor dengan bus berkecepatan tinggi. Keuntungan pengaturan bus berkecepatan tinggi menyebabkan perangkat yang berkapasitas besar menjadi lebih terintegrasi dengan prosesor dan sekaligus tidak tergantung lagi terhadap prosesor. Jenis-jenis Bus Dedicated : Saluran data dan alamat terpisah Multiplexed : Alamat dan informasi data dapat ditransmisikan melalui sejumlah saluran yang sama dengan menggunakan saluran ?Address Valid Control?. Pada awal pemindahan data, alamat ditempatkan pada bus dan ?Address Valid Control? diaktifkan. Pada saat ini setiap modul memiliki periode waktu tertentu untuk menalin alamt dan menentukan apakah alamat tersebut merupakan modul beralamat. Kemudian alamat dihapus dari bus, dan koneksi bus yang sam adigunakan untuk transfer data pembacaan atau penulisan berikutnya. Metoda penggunaan saluran yang untuk berbagai keperlua ini dikenal sebagai time multiplexing. Keuntungan : hanya memerlukan saluran sedikit sehingga menghemat ruang dan biaya. Kerugiannya : diperlukan rangkain yang lebih kompleks , penurunan kinerja yang cukup besar. Bus Arbitrasi Didalam semua system kecuali system yang paling sederhana, lebih dari satu modul diperlukan untuk mengontrol bus. Misalnya I/O mungkin diperlukan untuk membaca atau menulis secara langsung ke memori, dengan tanpa mengirimkan data ke CPU. Karena pada satu sat hanya sebuah unit yang berhasil mentransmisikan data melalui bus, maka diperlukan beberapa metode arbitrasi. Metode Arbitrasi digolongkan sebagai metode tersentralisasi dan metode terdistribusi. Tersentralisasi : sebuah perangkat hardware yang dikenal sebagai pengontrol bus atau arbitrer bertanggung jawab atas alokasi waktu pada bus. Mungkin perangkat berbentuk modul atau bagian CPU yang terpisah Terdistribusi : tidak terdapat pengontrol sentral, setiap modul terdiri dari acces control logic dan modul-modul bekerja sama untuk memakai bus bersama-sama Timing Timing berkaitan dengan cara terjadiya event dikoordinasikan pada bus. Dengan timing yang synchronous, terjadinya event pada bus ditentukan oleh sebuah clock. Bus meliputi sebuah saluran, waktu tempat timing mentransmisikan rangkaian bilangan 1 dan 0 dalam durasi yang sama. Sebuah transmisi 1-0 dikenal sebagai siklus waktu atau siklus bus dan menentukan besarnya slot waktu. Semua perangkat lainnya pada bus dapat membaca saluran waktu, dan semua event dimulai pada awal siklus waktu. Timing Sinkron Signal bus lainya dapat berubah pada ujung muka signal waktu (dengan sedikit reaksi delay). Sebagian besar event mengisi suatu siklus waktu. CPU mengeluarkan signal baca dan menempatkan alamat memori pada bus alamat, CPU mengeluarkan signal awal untuk menandai keberadaan alamat dan informasi control pada bus. Modul memori mengetahui alamat itu, dan setelah delay 1 siklus menempatkan data dan signal balasan pada bus. Timing sinkron Terjadinya event pada bus mengikuti dan tergantung pada event sebelumnya. CPU menempatkan alamat dan membaca signal bus. Setelah berhenti untuk memberi kesempatan signal ini menjadi stabil, CPU mengeluarkan signal MSYN (master syn) yang menandakan keberadaan alamat yang valid dan signal control. Modul memori memberikan respons dengan data dan signal SSYN (slave syn) yang menunjukan respon Timing sinkron lebih mudah untuk diimplementasikan dan ditest. Namun timing ini kurang flexible dibandingkan dengan timing asinkron. Karena semua perangkat pada bus sinkron terkait dengan kelajuan pewaktu yang tetap, maka system tidak dapat memanfaatkan peningkatan kinerja. Dengan menggunakan timing asinkron, campuran antara perangkat yang lamban dan cepat, baik dengan menggunakan teknologi lama maupun baru, dapat menggunakan bus secara bersama-sama. Lebar Bus Lebar bus dapat mempengaruhi kinerja system, semakin lebar bus data, semakin besar bit yang dapat ditransferkan pada suatu saat. Lebar bus alamat mempunyai pengaruh pada kapasitas system : semakin lebar bus alamat, semakin besar range lokasi yang dapat direferensi. PCI Pheripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) merupakan bus yang tidak tergantung prosessor berbandwidth tinggi yang dapat berfungsi sebagai bus peripheral atau bus mezzanine. PCI memberikan system yang lebih baik bagi subsistem I/O berkecepatan tinggi.. PCI dirancang untuk mendukung bermacam-macam konfigurasi berbasis microprocessor, baik system microprocessor tunggal maupun jamak. PCI memanfaatkan timing sinkron dan pola arbitrasi tersentralisasi. PCI Saluran Bus. Signal-signal ini dibagi menjadi kelompok-kelompok : 1. Sistem pins Meliputi pin waktu dan reset. Address dan data : meliputi 32 saluran yang time multiplexed bagi alamat dan data. Saluran lainya untuk menginterpretasi dan mevalidasi saluran-saluran signal yang membawa alamat dan data. 2. Interface Control Mengontrol timing transaksi dan mengkoordinasikan antara inisiator dan target.

3. Arbitration Masing-masing master PCI memiliki pasangan saluran arbitrasinya sendiri yang menghubungkannya secara langsung dengan arbiter bus PCI. 4. Error repots Melaporkan error parity dan eror lainnya. 5. Interupt pins Saluran signal ini disediakan bagi perangkat-perangkat PCI yang harus menghasilkan request untuk layanan. Pin-pin ini pun bukan saluran yang dapat dipakai bersama, melainkan masing-masing PCI memilih saluran interrupt ke pengontrol interrupt. 6. Cache Support Diperlukan untuk mendukung memori pada PCI yang dapat di cache kan di dalam prosesor 64 bit. 7. Bus Extension. Meliputi 32 saluran yang merupakan time-multiplexed bagi alamat dan data dan dikombinasikan dengan saluran alamat/data untuk membentuk bus alamat/data 64 bit. Saluran lainnya di dalam kelompok ini digunakan untuk menginterpretasi dan memvalidasi saluran-saluran signal yang membawa alamat dan data. Terakhir terdapat dua saluran yang memungkinkan dua buah perangkat PCI untuk menyetujui penggunaan kemampuan 64 bit 8. JTAG/Boundary Scan Saluran signal untuk pengujian prosedur-prosedur yang ditentukan dalam standard 149.1.IEEE. D. Sistem DMA Transfer DMA Untuk memulai sebuah transfer DMA, host akan menuliskan sebuah DMA command block yang berisi pointer yang menunjuk ke sumber transfer, pointer yang menunjuk ke tujuan/ destinasi transfer, dan jumlah byte yang ditransfer, ke memori. CPU kemudian menuliskan alamat command block ini ke DMA controller, sehingga DMA controller dapat kemudian mengoperasikan bus memori secara langsung dengan menempatkan alamat-alamat pada bus tersebut untuk melakukan transfer tanpa bantuan CPU. Tiga langkah dalam transfer DMA: 1. Prosesor menyiapkan DMA transfer dengan menyedia kan data-data dari device, operasi yang akan ditampilkan, alamat memori yang menjadi sumber dan tujuan data, dan banyaknya byte yang di transfer. 2. DMA controller memulai operasi (menyiapkan bus, menyediakan alamat, menulis dan membaca data), sampai seluruh blok sudah di transfer. 3. DMA controller meng-interupsi prosesor, dimana selanjutnya akan ditentukan tindakan berikutnya. Pada dasarnya, DMA mempunyai dua metode yang berbeda dalam mentransfer data. Metode yang pertama adalah metode yang sangat baku dan simple disebut HALT, atau Burst Mode DMA, karena DMA controller memegang kontrol dari sistem bus dan mentransfer semua blok data ke atau dari memori pada single burst. Selagi transfer masih dalam progres, sistem mikroprosessor di-set idle, tidak melakukan instruksi operasi untuk menjaga internal register. Tipe operasi DMA seperti ini ada pada kebanyakan komputer. Metode yang kedua, mengikut-sertakan DMA controller untuk memegang kontrol dari sistem bus untuk jangka waktu yang lebih pendek pada periode dimana mikroprosessor sibuk dengan operasi internal dan tidak membutuhkan akses ke sistem bus. Metode DMA ini disebut cycle stealing mode. Cycle stealing DMA lebih kompleks untuk diimplementasikan dibandingkan HALT DMA, karena DMA controller harus mempunyai kepintaran untuk merasakan waktu pada saat sistem bus terbuka.

Gambar 6-3. DMA Controller. Handshaking Proses handshaking antara DMA controller dan device controller dilakukan melalui sepasang kabel yang disebut DMA-request dan DMA-acknowledge. Device controller mengirimkan sinyal melalui DMA-request ketika akan mentransfer data sebanyak satu word. Hal ini kemudian akan mengakibatkan DMA controller memasukkan alamat-alamat yang dinginkan ke kabel alamat memori, dan mengirimkan sinyal melalui kabel DMA-acknowledge. Setelah sinyal melalui kabel DMA-acknowledge diterima, device controller mengirimkan data yang dimaksud dan mematikan sinyal pada DMA-request. Hal ini berlangsung berulang-ulang sehingga disebut handshaking. Pada saat DMA controller mengambil alih memori, CPU sementara tidak dapat mengakses memori (dihalangi), walau pun masih dapat mengaksees data pada cache primer dan sekunder. Hal ini disebut cycle stealing, yang walau pun memperlambat komputasi CPU, tidak menurunkan kinerja karena memindahkan pekerjaan data transfer ke DMA controller meningkatkan performa sistem secara keseluruhan. Cara-cara Implementasi DMA Dalam pelaksanaannya, beberapa komputer menggunakan memori fisik untuk proses DMA , sedangkan jenis komputer lain menggunakan alamat virtual dengan melalui tahap "penerjemahan" dari alamat memori virtual menjadi alamat memori fisik, hal ini disebut direct virtual-memory address atau DVMA. Keuntungan dari DVMA adalah dapat mendukung transfer antara dua memory mapped device tanpa intervensi CPU. Interface Aplikasi I/O Ketika suatu aplikasi ingin membuka data yang ada dalam suatu disk, sebenarnya aplikasi tersebut harus dapat membedakan jenis disk apa yang akan diaksesnya. Untuk mempermudah pengaksesan, sistem operasi melakukan standarisasi cara pengaksesan pada peralatan I/O. Pendekatan inilah yang dinamakan interface aplikasi I/O. Interface aplikasi I/O melibatkan abstraksi, enkapsulasi, dan software layering. Abstraksi dilakukan dengan membagi-bagi detail peralatan-peralatan I/O ke dalam kelas-kelas yang lebih umum. Dengan adanya kelas-kelas yang umum ini, maka akan lebih mudah untuk membuat fungsi-fungsi standar (interface) untuk mengaksesnya. Lalu kemudian adanya device driver pada masing-masing peralatan I/O, berfungsi untuk enkapsulasi perbedaanperbedaan yang ada dari masing-masing anggota kelas-kelas yang umum tadi. Device driver mengenkapsulasi tiap -tiap peralatan I/O ke dalam masing-masing 1 kelas yang umum tadi (interface standar). Tujuan dari adanya lapisan device driver ini adalah untuk menyembunyikan perbedaan-perbedaan yang ada pada device controller dari subsistem I/O pada kernel. Karena hal ini, subsistem I/O dapat bersifat independen dari hardware. Karena subsistem I/O independen dari hardware maka hal ini akan sangat menguntungkan dari segi pengembangan hardware. Tidak perlu menunggu vendor sistem operasi untuk mengeluarkan support code untuk hardware-hardware baru yang akan dikeluarkan oleh vendor hardware. Peralatan Block dan Karakter Peralatan block diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan akses pada berbagai macam disk drive dan juga peralatan block lainnya. Block device diharapkan dapat memenuhi/mengerti perintah baca, tulis dan juga perintah pencarian data pada peralatan yang memiliki sifat random-access. Keyboard adalah salah satu contoh alat yang dapat mengakses stream-karakter. System call dasar dari interface ini dapat membuat sebuah aplikasi mengerti tentang bagaimana cara untuk mengambil dan menuliskan sebuah karakter. Kemudian pada pengembangan lanjutannya, kita dapat membuat library yang dapat mengakses data/pesan per-baris. Peralatan Jaringan Karena adanya perbedaan dalam kinerja dan pengalamatan dari jaringan I/O, maka biasanya sistem operasi memiliki interface I/O yang berbeda dari baca, tulis dan pencarian pada disk. Salah satu yang banyak digunakan pada sistem operasi adalah interface socket. Socket berfungsi untuk menghubungkan komputer ke jaringan. System call pada socket interface dapat memudahkan suatu aplikasi untuk membuat local socket, dan menghubungkannya ke remote socket. Dengan menghubungkan komputer ke socket, maka komunikasi antar komputer dapat dilakukan. Jam dan Timer Adanya jam dan timer pada hardware komputer, setidaknya memiliki tiga fungsi, memberi informasi waktu saat ini, memberi informasi lamanya waktu sebuah proses, sebagai trigger untuk suatu operasi pada suatu waktu. Fungsi fungsi ini sering digunakan oleh sistem operasi. Sayangnya, system call untuk pemanggilan fungsi ini tidak di-standarisasi antar sistem operasi Hardware yang mengukur waktu dan melakukan operasi trigger dinamakan programmable interval timer. Dia dapat di set untuk menunggu waktu tertentu dan kemudian melakukan interupsi. Contoh penerapannya ada pada scheduler, dimana dia akan melakukan interupsi yang akan memberhentikan suatu proses pada akhir dari bagian waktunya. Sistem operasi dapat mendukung lebih dari banyak timer request daripada banyaknya jumlah hardware timer. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, maka kernel atau device driver mengatur list dari interupsi dengan urutan yang duluan datang yang duluan dilayani. Blocking dan Nonblocking I/O Ketika suatu aplikasi menggunakan sebuah blocking system call, eksekusi aplikasi itu akan diberhentikan untuk sementara. aplikasi tersebut akan dipindahkan ke wait queue. Dan setelah system call tersebut selesai, aplikasi tersebut dikembalikan ke run queue, sehingga pengeksekusian aplikasi tersebut akan dilanjutkan. Physical action dari peralatan I/O biasanya bersifat asynchronous. Akan tetapi, banyak sistem operasi yang bersifat blocking, hal ini terjadi karena blocking application lebih mudah dimengerti dari pada nonblocking application. Kernel I/O Subsystem Kernel menyediakan banyak service yang berhubungan dengan I/O. Pada bagian ini, kita akan mendeskripsikan beberapa service yang disediakan oleh kernel I/O subsystem, dan kita akan membahas bagaimana caranya membuat infrastruktur hardware dan device-driver. Service yang akan kita bahasadalah I/O scheduling, buffering, caching, spooling, reservasi device, error handling. I/O Scheduling Untuk menjadwalkan sebuah set permintaan I/O, kita harus menetukan urutan yang bagus untuk mengeksekusi permintaan tersebut. Scheduling dapat meningkatkan kemampuan sistem secara keseluruhan, dapat membagi device secara rata di antara proses-proses, dan dapat mengurangi waktu tunggu rata-rata untuk menyelesaikan I/O. Ini adalah contoh sederhana untuk menggambarkan definisi di atas. Jika sebuah arm disk terletak di dekat permulaan disk, dan ada tiga aplikasi yang memblokir panggilan untuk membaca untuk disk tersebut. Aplikasi 1 meminta sebuah blok dekat akhir disk, aplikasi 2 meminta blok yang dekat dengan awal, dan aplikasi 3 meminta bagian tengah dari disk. Sistem operasi dapat mengurangi jarak yang harus ditempuh oleh arm disk dengan melayani aplikasi tersebut dengan urutan 2, 3, 1. Pengaturan urutan pekerjaan kembali dengan cara ini merupakan inti dari I/O scheduling. Sistem operasi mengembangkan implementasi scheduling dengan menetapkan antrian permintaan untuk tiap device. Ketika sebuah aplikasi meminta sebuah blocking sistem I/O, permintaan tersebut dimasukkan ke dalam antrian untuk device tersebut. Scheduler I/O mengatur urutan antrian untuk meningkatkan efisiensi dari sistem dan waktu respon rata-rata yang harus dialami oleh aplikasi. Sistem operasi juga mencoba untuk bertindak secara adil, seperti tidak ada aplikasi yang menerima service yang buruk, atau dapat seperti memberi prioritas service untuk permintaan penting yang ditunda. Contohnya, pemintaan dari subsistem mungkin akan mendapatkan prioritas lebih tinggi daripada permintaan dari aplikasi. Beberapa algoritma scheduling untuk disk I/O akan dijelaskan ada bagian Disk Scheduling. Satu cara untuk meningkatkan efisiensi I/O subsistem dari sebuah komputer adalah dengan mengatur operasi I/O. Cara lain adalah dengan menggunakan tempat penyimpanan pada memori utama atau pada disk, melalui teknik yang disebut buffering, caching, dan spooling. Buffering Buffer adalah area memori yang menyimpan data ketika mereka sedang dipindahkan antara dua device atau antara device dan aplikasi. Buffering dilakukan untuk tiga buah alasan. Alasan pertama adalah untuk men-cope dengan kesalahan yang terjadi karena perbedaan kecepatan antara produsen dengan konsumen dari sebuah stream data. Sebagai contoh, sebuah file sedang diterima melalui modem dan ditujukan ke media penyimpanan di hard disk. Kecepatan modem tersebut kira-kira hanyalah 1/1000 daripada hard disk. Jadi buffer dibuat di dalam memori utama untuk mengumpulkan jumlah byte yang diterima dari modem. Ketika keseluruhan data di buffer sudah sampai, buffer tersebut dapat ditulis ke disk dengan operasi tunggal. Karena penulisan disk tidak terjadi dengan instan dan modem masih memerlukan tempat untuk menyimpan data yang berdatangan, maka dipakai 2 buah buffer. Setelah modem memenuhi buffer pertama, akan terjadi request untuk menulis di disk. Modem kemudian mulai memenuhi buffer kedua sementara buffer pertama dipakai untuk penulisan ke disk. Pada saat modem sudah memenuhi buffer kedua, penulisan ke disk dari buffer pertama seharusnya sudah selesai, jadi modem akan berganti kembali memenuhi buffer pertama dan buffer kedua dipakai untuk menulis. Metode double buffering ini membuat pasangan ganda antara produsen dan konsumen sekaligus mengurangi kebutuhan waktu di antara mereka. Alasan kedua dari buffering adalah untuk menyesuaikan device-device yang mempunyai perbedaan dalam ukuran transfer data. Hal ini sangat umum terjadi pada jaringan komputer, dimana buffer dipakai secara luas untuk fragmentasi dan pengaturan kembali pesan-pesan yang diterima. Pada bagian pengirim, sebuah pesan yang besar akan dipecah ke paket-paket kecil. Paket-paket tersebut dikirim melalui jaringan, dan penerima akan meletakkan mereka di dalam buffer untuk disusun kembali. Alasan ketiga untuk buffering adalah untuk mendukung copy semantics untuk aplikasi I/O. Sebuah contoh akan menjelaskan apa arti dari copy semantics. Jika ada sebuah aplikasi yang mempunyai buffer data yang ingin dituliskan ke disk. Aplikasi tersebut akan memanggil sistem penulisan, menyediakan pointer ke buffer, dan sebuah integer untuk menunjukkan ukuran bytes yang ingin ditulis. Setelah pemanggilan tersebut, apakah yang akan terjadi jika aplikasi tersebut merubah isi dari buffer, dengan copy semantics, keutuhan data yang ingin ditulis sama dengan data waktu aplikasi ini memanggil sistem untuk menulis, tidak tergantung dengan perubahan yang terjadi pada buffer. Sebuah cara sederhana untuk sistem operasi untuk menjamin copy semantics adalah membiarkan sistem penulisan untuk mengkopi data aplikasi ke dalam buffer kernel sebelum mengembalikan kontrol kepada aplikasi. Jadi penulisan ke disk dilakukan pada buffer kernel, sehingga perubahan yang terjadi pada buffer aplikasi tidak akan membawa dampak apa-apa. Mengcopy data antara buffer kernel data aplikasi merupakan sesuatu yang umum pada sistem operasi, kecuali overhead yang terjadi karena operasi ini karena clean semantics. Kita dapat memperoleh efek yang sama yang lebih efisien dengan memanfaatkan virtual-memori mapping dan proteksi copy-on-wire dengan pintar. Caching Sebuah cache adalah daerah memori yang cepat yang berisikan data kopian. Akses ke sebuah kopian yang di-cached lebih efisien daripada akses ke data asli. Sebagai contoh, instruksi-instruksi dari proses yang sedang dijalankan disimpan ke dalam disk, dan tercached di dalam memori physical, dan kemudian dicopy lagi ke dalam cache secondary and primary dari CPU. Perbedaan antara sebuah buffer dan ache adalah buffer dapat menyimpan satu-satunya informasi datanya sedangkan sebuah cache secara definisi hanya menyimpan sebuah data dari sebuah tempat untuk dapat diakses lebih cepat. Caching dan buffering adalah dua fungsi yang berbeda, tetapi terkadang sebuah daerah memori dapat digunakan untuk keduanya. sebagai contoh, untuk menghemat copy semantics dan membuat scheduling I/O menjadi efisien, sistem operasi menggunakan buffer pada memori utama untuk menyimpan data. Buffer ini juga digunakan sebagai cache, untuk meningkatkan efisiensi I/O untuk file yang digunakan secara bersama-sama oleh beberapa aplikasi, atau yang sedang dibaca dan ditulis secara berulang-ulang. Ketika kernel menerima sebuah permintaan file I/O, kernel tersebut mengakses buffer cacheuntuk melihat apakah daerah memori tersebut sudah tersedia dalam memori utama. Jika iya, sebuah physical disk I/O dapat dihindari atau tidak dipakai. penulisan disk juga terakumulasi ke dalam buffer cache selama beberapa detik, jadi transfer yang besar akan dikumpulkan untuk mengefisiensikan schedule penulisan. Cara ini akan menunda penulisan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi I/O akan dibahas pada bagian Remote File Access. Spooling dan Reservasi Device Sebuah spool adalah sebuah buffer yang menyimpan output untuk sebuah device, seperti printer, yang tidak dapat menerima interleaved data streams. Walau pun printer hanya dapat melayani satu pekerjaan pada waktu yang sama, beberapa aplikasi dapat meminta printer untuk mencetak, tanpa harus mendapatkan hasil output mereka tercetak secara bercampur. Sistem operasi akan menyelesaikan masalah ini dengan meng-intercept semua output kepada printer. Tiap output aplikasi sudah di-spooled ke disk file yang berbeda. Ketika sebuah aplikasi selesai mengeprint, sistem spooling akan melanjutkan ke antrian berikutnya. Di dalam beberapa sistem operasi, spooling ditangani oleh sebuah sistem proses daemon. Pada sistem operasi yang lain, sistem ini ditangani oleh in-kernel thread. Pada kedua kasus, sistem operasi menyediakan interfacekontrol yang membuat users and system administrator dapat menampilkan antrian tersebut, untuk mengenyahkan antrian-antrian yang tidak diinginkan sebelum mulai di-print. Untuk beberapa device, seperti drive tapedan printer tidak dapat me-multiplex permintaan I/O dari beberapa aplikasi. Spooling merupakan salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Cara lain adalah dengan membagi koordinasi untuk multiple concurrent ini. Beberapa sistem operasi menyediakan dukungan untuk akses device secara eksklusif, dengan mengalokasikan proses ke device idle dan membuang device yang sudah tidak diperlukan lagi. Sistem operasi lainnya memaksakan limit suatu file untuk menangani device ini. Banyak sistem operasi menyediakan fungsi yang membuat proses untuk menangani koordinat exclusive akses diantara mereka sendiri. Error Handling Sebuah sistem operasi yang menggunakan protected memory dapat menjaga banyak kemungkinan error akibat hardware mau pun aplikasi. Devices dan transfer I/O dapat gagal dalam banyak cara, bisa karena alasan transient, seperti overloaded pada network, mau pun alasan permanen yang seperti kerusakan yang terjadi pada disk controller. Sistem operasi seringkali dapat mengkompensasikan untuk kesalahan transient. Seperti, sebuah kesalahan baca pada disk akan mengakibatkan pembacaan ulang kembali dan sebuah kesalahan pengiriman pada network akan mengakibatkan pengiriman ulang apabila protokolnya diketahui. Akan tetapi untuk kesalahan permanent, sistem operasi pada umumnya tidak akan bisa mengembalikan situasi seperti semula. Sebuah ketentuan umum, yaitu sebuah sistem I/O akan mengembalikan satu bit informasi tentang status panggilan tersebut, yang akan menandakan apakah proses tersebut berhasil atau gagal. Sistem operasi pada UNIX menggunakan integer tambahan yang dinamakan errno untuk mengembalikan kode kesalahan sekitar 1 dari 100 nilai yang mengindikasikan sebab dari kesalahan tersebut. Akan tetapi, beberapa perangkat keras dapat menyediakan informasi kesalahan yang detail, walau pun banyak sistem operasi yang tidak mendukung fasilitas ini. Kernel Data Structure Kernel membutuhkan informasi state tentang penggunakan komponen I/O. Kernel menggunakan banyak struktur yang mirip untuk melacak koneksi jaringan, komunikasi karakter-device, dan aktivitas I/O lainnya. UNIX menyediakan akses sistem file untuk beberapa entiti, seperti file user, raw devices, dan alamat tempat proses. Walau pun tiap entiti ini didukung sebuah operasi baca, semantics-nya berbeda untuk tiap entiti. Seperti untuk membaca file user, kernel perlu memeriksa buffer cache sebelum memutuskan apakah akan melaksanakan I/O disk. Untuk membaca sebuah raw disk, kernel perlu untuk memastikan bahwa ukuran permintaan adalah kelipatan dari ukuran sektor disk, dan masih terdapat di dalam batas sektor. Untuk memproses citra, cukup perlu untuk mengkopi data ke dalam memori. UNIX mengkapsulasikan perbedaan-perbedaan ini di dalam struktur yang uniform dengan menggunakan teknik object oriented. Beberapa sistem operasi bahkan menggunakan metode object oriented secara lebih extensif. Sebagai contoh, Windows NT menggunakan implementasi message-passing untuk I/O. Sebuah permintaan I/O akan dikonversikan ke sebuah pesan yang dikirim melalui kernel kepada I/O manager dan kemudian ke device driver, yang masing-masing bisa mengubah isi pesan. Untuk output, isi message adalah data yang akan ditulis. Untuk input, message berisikan buffer untuk menerima data. Pendekatan message-passing ini dapat menambah overhead, dengan perbandingan dengan teknik prosedural yang men-share struktur data, tetapi akan mensederhanakan struktur dan design dari sistem I/O tersebut dan menambah fleksibilitas.

RISC & CISC PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya PROSESOR RISC :Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Pendahuluan Ditinjau dari perancangan perangkat instruksinya, ada dua arsitektur prosesor yang menonjol saat ini, yakni arsitektur RISC (Reduce Instruction Set Computer) dan CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer). Prosesor CISC memiliki instruksi-instruksi kompleks untuk memudahkan penulisan program bahasa assembly , sedangkan prosesor RISC memiliki instruksi-instruksi sederhana yang dapat dieksekusi dengan cepat untuk menyederhanakan implementasi rangkaian kontrol internal prosesor. Karenanya, prosesor RISC dapat dibuat dalam luasan keping semikonduktor yang relatif lebih sempit dengan jumlah komponen yang lebih sedikit dibanding prosesor CISC. Perbedaan orientasi di antara kedua prosesor ini menyebabkan adanya perbedaan sistem secara keseluruhan, termasuk juga perancangan kompilatornya. 1 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Ciri-ciri Prosesor RISC Sebenarnya, prosesor RISC tidak sekedar memiliki instruksi-instruksi yang sedikit dan sederhana seperti namanya tetapi juga mencakup banyak ciri-ciri lain yang tidak semuanya disepakati oleh kalangan perancang sendiri. Meskipun demikian, banyak yang telah bersepakat bahwa prosesor memiliki ciri-ciri tertentu untuk membedakannya dengan prosesor bukan RISC. Pertama, prosesor RISC mengeksekusi instruksi pada setiap satu siklus detak (Robinson, 1987 : 144; Johnson, 1987 : 153). Hasil penelitihan IBM (International Business Machine) men unjukkan bahwa frekuensi penggunaan instruksi-instruksi kompleks hasil kompilasi sangat kecil dibanding dengan instruksi-instruksi sederhana. Dengan perancangan yang baik instruksi sederhana dapat dibuat agar bisa dieksekusi dalam satu siklus detak. Ini tidak berarti bahwa dengan sendirinya prosesor RISC mengeksekusi program secara lebih cepat dibanding prosesor CISC. Analogi sederhananya adalah bahwa kecepatan putar motor (putaran per menit) yang makin tinggi pada kendaraan tidaklah berarti bahwa jarak yang ditempuh kendaraan (meter per menit) tersebut menjadi lebih jauh, karena jarak tempuh masih bergantung pada perbandingan roda gigi yang dipakai. Kedua, instruksi pada prosesor RISC memiliki format-tetap, sehingga rangkaian pengontrol instruksi menjadi lebih sederhana dan ini berarti menghemat penggunaan luasan keping semikonduktor. Bila prosesor CISC (misalnya Motorola 68000 atau Zilog Z8000) memanfaatkan 50% - 60% dari luas keping semikonduktor untuk rangkaian pengontrolnya, prosesor RISC hanya memerlukan 6%-10%. Eksekusi instruksi menjadi lebih cepat karena 2 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya rangkaian menjadi lebih sederhana (Robinson, 1987 : 144; Jonhson 1987 : 153). Ketiga, instruksi yang berhubungan dengan memori hanya instruksi isi (load) dan instruksi simpan (store) , instruksi lain dilakukan dalam register internal prosesor. Cara ini menyederhanakan mode pengalamatan (addressing) dan memudahkan pengulangan kembali instruksi untuk kondisi-kondisi khusus yang dikehendaki (Robinson, 1987 : 144; Jonhson, 1987: 153). Dengan ini pula perancang lebih menitikberatkan implementasi lebih banyak register dalam cip prosesor. Dalam prosesor RISC, 100 buah register atau lebih adalah hal yang biasa. Manipulasi data yang terjadi pada register yang umumnya lebih cepat daripada dalam memori menyebabkan prosesor RISC berpotensi beroperasi lebih cepat. Keempat, prosesor RISC memerlukan waktu kompilasi yang lebih lama daripada prosesor RISC. Karena sedikitnya pilihan instruksi dan mode pengalamatan yang dimiliki prosesor RISC, maka diperlukan optimalisasi perancangan kompilator agar mampu menyusun urutan instruksi-instruksi sederhana secara efisien dan sesuai dengan bahasa pemrograman yang dipilih. Keterkaitan desain prosesor RISC dengan bahasa pemrograman memungkinkan dirancangnya kompilator yang dioptimasi untuk bahasa target tersebut. 3 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Fase Awal Perkembangan Prosesor RISC Ide Dasar Ide dasar prosesor RISC sebenarnya bisa dilacak dari apa yang disarankan oleh Von Neumann pada tahun 1946. Von Neumann menyarankan agar rangkaian elektronik untuk konsep logika diimplementasikan hanya bila memang diperlukan untuk melengkapi sistem agar berfungsi atau karena frekuensi penggunaannya cukup tinggi (Heudin, 1992 : 18). Jadi ide tentang RISC, yang pada dasarnya adalah untuk menyederhanakan realisasi perangkat keras prosesor dengan melimpahkan sebagian besar tugas kepada perangkat lunaknya, telah ada pada komputer elektronik pertama. Seperti halnya prosesor RISC, komputer elektronik pertama merupakan komputer eksekusi-langsung yang memiliki instruksi sederhana dan mudah didekode. 4 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Hal yang sama dipercayai juga oleh Seymour Cray, spesialis pembuat superkomputer. Pada tahun 1975, berdasarkan kajian yang dilakukannya, Seymour Cray menyimpulkan bahwa penggunaan register sebagai tempat manipulasi data menyebabkan rancangan instruksi menjadi sangat sederhana. Ketika itu perancang prosesor lain lebih banyak membuat instruksi-instruksi yang merujuk ke memori daripada ke register seperti rancangan Seymour Cray. Sampai akhir tahun 1980-an komputer-komputer rancangan Seymour Cray, dalam bentuk superkomputer seri Cray, merupakan komputer-komputer dengan kinerja sangat tinggi. Pada tahun 1975, kelompok peneliti di IBM di bawah pimpinan George Radin, memulai merancang komputer berdasar konsep John Cocke. Berdasarkan saran John Cocke, setelah meneliti frekuensi pemanfaatan instruksi hasil kompilasi suatu program, untuk memperoleh prosesor berkinerja tinggi tidak perlu diimplementasikan instruksi kompleks ke dalam prosesor bila instruksi tersebut dapat dibuat dari instruksi-instruksi sederhana yang telah dimilikinya. Kelompok IBM ini menghasilkan komputer 801 yang menggunakan instruksi format-tetap dan dapat dieksekusi dalam satu siklus detak (Robinson, 1987 : 143). Komputer 801 yang dibuat dengan teknologi ECL (emitter-coupled logic) , 32 buah register, chace terpisah untuk memori dan instruksi ini diselesaikan pada tahun 1979. Karena sifatnya yang eksperimental, komputer ini tidak dijual di pasaran. Prosesor RISC Berkeley 5 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Kelompok David Patterson dari Universitas California memulai proyek RISC pada tahun 1980 dengan tujuan menghindari kecenderungan perancangan prosesor yang perangkat instruksinya semakin kompleks sehingga memerlukan perancangan rangkaian kontrol yang semakin rumit dari waktu ke waktu. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah bahwa implementasi instruksi yang kompleks ke dalam perangkat instruksi prosesor justru berdampak negatif pemakaian instruksi tersebut dalam kebanyakan program hasil komplikasi (Heudin, 1992 : 22). Apalagi, instruksi kompleks itu pada dasarnya dapat disusun dari instruksi-instruksi sederhana yang telah dimiliki. Rancangan prosesor RISC-1 ditujukan untuk mendukung bahasa C, yang dipilih karena popularitasnya dan banyaknya pengguna. Realisasi rancangan diselesaikan oleh kelompok Patterson dalam waktu 6 bulan. Fabrikasi dilakukan oleh MOVIS dan XEROX dengan menggunakan teknologi silikon NMOS (N-channel Metal-oxide Semiconductor) 2 mikron. Hasilnya adalah sebuah cip rangkaian terpadu dengan 44.500 buah transistor (Heudin, 1992 : 230). Cip RISC-1 selesai dibuat pada musim panas dengan kecepatan eksekusi 2 mikrosekon per instruksi (pada frekuensi detak 1,5 MHz), 4 kali lebih lambat dari kecepatan yang ditargetkan. Tidak tercapainya target itu disebabkan terjadinya sedikit kesalahan perancangan, meskipun kemudian dapat diatasi dengan memodifikasi rancangan assembler nya. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi, meskipun hanya bekerja pada frekuensi detak 1,5 MHz dan mengandung kesalahan perancangan, RISC-1 terbukti mampu mengeksekusi program bahasa C lebih cepat dari beberapa prosesor CISC, yakni MC68000, Z8002, VAX-11/780, dan PDP-11/70. 6 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Hampir bersamaan dengan proses fabrikasi RISC-1, tim Berkeley lain mulai bekerja untuk merancang RISC-2. Cip yang dihasilkan tidak lagi mengandung kesalahan sehingga mencapai kecepatan operasi yang ditargetkan, 330 nanosekon tiap instruksi (Heudin, 1992 : 27-28). RISC-2 hanya memerlukan luas cip 25% dari yang dibutuhkan RISC-1 dengan 75% lebih banyak register. Meskipun perangkat instruksi yang ditanamkan sama dengan perangkat instruksi yang dimiliki RISC-1, tetapi di antara keduanya terdapat perbedaan mikroarsitektur perangkat kerasnya. RISC-2 memiliki 138 buah register yang disusun sebagai 8 jendela register, dibandingkan dengan 78 buah register yang disusun sebagai 6 jendela register. Selain itu, juga terdapat perbedaan dalam hal organisasi alur-pipa (pipeline) . RISC-1 memiliki alur-pipa dua tingkat sederhana dengan penjeputan (fetch) dan eksekusi instruksi yang dibuat tumpang-tindih, sedangkan RISC-2 memiliki 3 buah alur-pipa yang masing-masing untuk penjemputan instruksi, pembacaan operan dan eksekusinya, dan penulisan kembali hasilnya ke dalam register. Sukses kedua proyek memacu tim Berkeley untuk mengerjakan proyek SOAR (Smalltalk on RISC) yang dimulai pada tahun 1983. Tujuan proyek ini adalah untuk menjawab pertanyaan apakah arsitektur RISC bekerja baik dengan bahasa pemrograman Smalltalk? Jadi proyek SOAR ini merupakan upaya pertama menggunakan pendekatan RISC untuk pemrosesan simbolik. Versi pertama mikroprosesor SOAR diimplementasikan dengan menggunakan teknologi NMOS 4 mikron. Cip yang dihasilkan memiliki 35.700 buah transistor dan bekerja dengan kecepatan 300 nanosekon tiap instruksi. Versi kedua yang dirancang pada 1984-1985 menggunakan teknologi CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor). Beberapa 7 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya prosesor berarsitektur RISC banyak yang dipengaruhi oleh rancangan mikroprosesor SOAR, misalnya mikroprosesor SPARC (dari Sun Microsystems Inc.) dan KIM20 yang dirancang Departemen Pertahanan Perancis. Mengikuti proyek SOAR, kelompok Berkeley kemudian mengerjakan proyek SPUR (Symbolic Processing Using RISC) yang dimulai tahun 1985. Proyek SPUR bertujuan untuk merancang stasiun-kerja (workstation) multiprosesor sebagai bagian dari riset tentang pemrosesan paralel (Robinson, 1987 : 145). Selain itu, proyek SPUR juga melakukan penelitian tentang rangkaian terpadu, arsitektur komputer, sistem operasi, dan bahasa pemrograman. Sistem prosesor SPUR dibangun dengan 6-12 prosesor berkinerja tinggi yang dihubungkan satu sama lain, serta dihubungkan dengan memori dan peranti masukan/keluaran melalui Nubus yang telah dimodifikasi. Unjuk kerja sistem diperbaiki dengan menambahkan chace sebesar 128 kilobyte pada tiap prosesor untuk mengurangi kepadatan lalu lintas data pada bus dan mengefektifkan pengaksesan memori (Heudin, 1992 : 31). Prosesor RISC Stanford 8 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Sementara proyek RISC-1 dan RISC-2 dilakukan kelompok Patterson di Universitas California, pada tahun 1981 itu juga John Hennessy dari Universitas Stanford mengerjakan proyek MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) . Pengalaman riset tentang optimasi kompilator digabungkan dengan teknologi perangkat keras RISC merupakan kunci utama proyek MIPS ini. Tujuan utamanya adalah menghasilkan cip mikroprosesor serbaguna 32-bit yang dirancang untuk mengeksekusi secara efisien kodekode hasil kompilasi (Heudin, 1992: 34). Perangkat instruksi prosesor MIPS terdiri atas 31 buah instruksi yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yakni kelompok instruksi isi dan simpan, kelompok instruksi operasi aritmetika dan logika, kelompok instruksi pengontrol, dan kelompok instruksi lain-lain. MIPS menggunakan lima tingkat alur-pipa tanpa perangkat keras saling-kunci antar alur-pipa tersebut, sehingga kode yang dieksekusi harus benar-benar bebas dari konflik antar alur-pipa. Direalisasi dengan teknologi NMOS 2 mikron, prosesor MIPS yang memiliki 24.000 transistor ini memiliki kemampuan mengeksekusi satu instruksi setiap 500 nanodetik. Karena menggunakan lima tingkat alur-pipa bagian kontrol prosesor MIPS ini menyita luas cip dua kali lipat dibanding dengan bagian kontrol pada prosesor RISC. MIPS memiliki 16 register dibandingkan dengan 138 buah register pada RISC-2. Hal ini bukan masalah penting karena MIPS memang dirancang untuk mebebankan kerumitan perangkat keras ke dalam perangkat lunak sehingga menghasilkan perangkat keras yang jauh lebih sederhana dan lebih efisien. Perangkat keras yang sederhana akan mempersingkat waktu perancangan, implementasi, dan perbaikan bila terjadi kesalahan. Sukses perancangan MIPS dilanjutkan oleh tim Stanford dengan merancang mikroprosesor yang lebih canggih, yakni MIPS-X. Perancangan dilakukan oleh tim riset MIPS sebelumnya 9 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya ditambah 6 orang mahasiswa, dan dimulai pada musim panas tahun 1984. Rancangan MIPSX banyak diperbaruhi oleh MIPS dan RISC-2 dengan beberapa perbedaan utama : - Semua instruksi MIPS-X merupakan operasi tunggal dan dieksekusi dalam satu siklus detak - Semua instruksi MIPS-X memiliki format tetap dengan panjang instruksi 32-bit - MIPS-X dilengkapi pendukung koprosesor yang efisien dan sederhana - MIPS-X dilengkapi pendukung untuk digunakan sebagai prosesor dasar dalam sistem multiprosesor memori-bersama (shared memory) - MIPS-X dilengkapi chace instruksi dalam-cip yang cukup besar (2 kilobyte) - MIPS-X difabrikasi dengan teknologi CMOS 2 mikron. 10 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Sama seperti MIPS, MIPS-X merupakan prosesor dengan alur-pipa tanpa saling-kunci (interloc k) pera ngkat keras. Perangkat lunaknya dirancang untuk mengikuti pewaktuan instruksi agar tidak terjadi konflik antar alur-pipa (Heudin, 1992 : 36-37). Cip pertama yang dihasilkan bekerja baik dengan detak 16 MHz, lebih rendah dari target yang dicanangkan setinggi 20 MHz, akibat tidak sempurnanya instruksi percabangan. Versi 25 MHz dibuat dengan menggunakan teknologi CMOS 1,6 mikron. Ditambah dengan chace yang diintregrasikan pada cip prosesor, MIPS-X berisi hampir 150.000 transistor di atas keping seluas 8 x 8,5 mm (Heudin, 1992 : 38). Arah Perkembangan Prosesor RISC 11 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Kebanyakan riset tentang prosesor RISC ditujukan untuk memperbaiki kinerja sistem komputer secara keseluruhan. Analisis yang mendalam menunjukkan bahwa ada dua arah perlembangan penting prosesor RISC yaitu upaya ke arah pemanfaatan teknologi proses yang mampu menghasilkan prosesor cepat, misalnya teknologi bipolar ECL (emitter-coupled logic) serta pemanfaatan bahan semikonduktor GaAs (galium arsenida). Arah lain adalah upaya untuk merancang arsitektur multiprosesor dan mengintegrasikan unit-unit fungsional pendukung pemrosesan paralel dalam satu cip. Cip-cip RISC galium Arsenida Galium Arsenida dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan silikon dalam beberapa rangkaian terpadu untuk pemakaian khusus. Keunggulan bahan GaAs dibandingkan silikon adalah ketahanannya terhadap radiasi, dan ketahanannya terhadap panas, serta kecepatan mobilitas elektronnya. Karena elektron dapat bergerak lebih cepat dalam bahan GaAs, maka cip yang dibuat dengan bahan ini berpotensi untuk bekerja lebih cepat (Jonhsen, 1984 : 46; Robinson, 1990 : 251-254). Salah satu kendala pengembangan cip berbahan GaAs adalah sulitnya penanganan bahan ini dibanding dengan bahan silikon karena perancang belum banyak pengalaman dengan bahan GaAs. Meskipun demikian, teknologi yang dikuasai saat ini telah memungkinkan untuk membuat rangkaian terintegrasi dengan tingkat kerapatan cukup tinggi 12 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya untuk merancang prosesor RISC. Didorong oleh kebutuhan untuk merancang prosesor berkecepatan tinggi dan tahan terhadap radiasi sesuai dengan spesifikasi yang dibutuhkan Departemen Pertahanan Amerika Serikat, maka DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) memberikan dana kepada Texas Instruments (TI), RCA, dan McDonnell-Douglas, untuk mengembangkan dan merancang prosesor RISC dari bahan GaAs. Agar memiliki kinerja yang tinggi, DARPA menghendaki unit prosesor sentral (central processing unit , CPU) dirancang dalam cip tunggal, seperti prosesor MIPS yang pengembangannya juga dibiayai DARPA. Ditargetkan prosesor tersebut akan dapat dijalankan dengan detak berfrekuensi 200 MHz. Ini berarti target kecepatan kerjanya adalah 200 MIPS (million instructions per second , juta instruksi per detik), karena pada prosesor RISC satu instruksi dieksekusi dalam satu siklus detak. Sistem yang dipilih terdiri dari seperangkat cip, yakni, CPU, FCOP (floating point coprocessor) , MMU (memory management unit) dan chace. Agar bisa merealisasi CPU dalam satu cip, TI berupaya mengurangi rangkaian pengontrol sebanyak mungkin untuk memberi lebih banyak tempat bagi register-register. Perangkat instruksi dikembangkan berdasarkan simulasi statistik dan evaluasi atas prosesor RISC Berkeley maupun MIPS Stanford. Seperti halnya MIPS, sekali program telah dikomplikasi ke dalam perangkat instruksi inti (yakni level tengah antara perangkat-intruksi bergantung perangkat-keras dengan bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi), suatu penerjemah bergantung perangkat-keras akan mengubah kode ke dalam perangkat instruksi bahasa mesin dan melakukan langkah-langkah optimasi. Perangkat instruksi yang dimiliki prosesor ini dibagi menjadi tiga bagian yakni 29 buah instruksi CPU, 31 buah instruksi FCOP, serta 6 buah instruksi MMU. 13 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Prosesor yang dihasilkan memiliki unjuk kerja nominal 200 MIPS, tetapi angka faktualnya harus dikurangi dengan 32% akibat penyisipan instruksi NOP (no operation) dan dikurangi 32% lagi karena keterbatasan lebar ban memori. Angka faktual kinerja prosesor RISC GaAs ini kira-kira 91 MIPS (million instruction per second). Pada waktu yang sama dengan pengembangan mikroprosesor RISC GaAs, McDonnell-Douglas juga mulai mengembangkan mikroprosesor RISC berdasarkan teknologi JFET tipe-penyambungan (enhancement-type junction field-effect transistor) DCFL (direct coupled FET logic) dengan bahan GaAs. Cip yang diberi nama MD484 sangat dipengaruhi oleh hasil rancangan MIPS dari Universitas Stanford. Karena saat itu teknologi GaAs hanya mampu mengintegrasikan transistor dalam jumlah yang terbatas, maka hanya ditargetkan sejumlah 25.000 buah transistor dalam satu cip. Di dalam mikroprosesor ditanamkan 32 buah register masing-masing 32-bit dengan perangkat instruksi sangat mirip dengan yang dimiliki MIPS. Salah satu keputusan sulit dalam perancangan adalah masalah memilih jumlah dan tipe alur-pipa eksekusi. Penambahan jumlah alur-pipa menjadi lima atau enam dengan penambahan tingkat alur-pipa untuk akses memori, akan memberi lebih banyak waktu pengaksesan memori sehingga memudahkan perancangan sistem memori. Akan tetapi, alur-pipa yang panjang akan menambah tundaan pencabangan sehingga memperlambat waktu eksekusi. Kerugian kinerja akibat penyisipan instruksi NOP adalah 20-30% untuk alur-pipa enam tingkat dan kira-kira setengahnya untuk alur-pipa lima tingkat relatif terhadap alur-pipa empat tingkat. Akhirnya, kelompok McDonnell-Douglas memutuskan untuk 14 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya menggunakan empat tingkat alur-pipa. Untuk mengeksekusi operasi aritmetika floating point, McDonnell Douglas juga merancang cip koprosesor floating point. Cip CPU yang selesai dibuat dan diuji pada tahun 1987, mampu mengeksekusi instruksi dalam 16,5 nanosekon dan memberikan kecepatan operasi 60 MIPS (million instructions per second). Proyek perancangan prosesor RISC GaAs lain dilakukan oleh RCA pada tahun 1989. Prosesor 32-bit rancangan RCA ini direncanakan diimplementasikan dengan GaAs VLSI (very large scale integration) . RCA mengatasi masalah yang dihadapi dalam perancangan cip GaAs ini dengan cara yang berbeda dari yang dilakukan McDonnell Douglas maupun Texas Instruments. Berbeda dengan kebanyakan prosesor RISC, format instruksinya tidak tunggal melainkan menggunakan format satu dan dua kata. Rancangan RCA ini menggunakan 9 tingkat alur-pipa dengan dua periode tak-aktif masing-masing 2 siklus tunggu, pertama berkaitan dengan penjemputan instruksi dan kedua berkaitan dengan penjemputan operan untuk operasi load . Kelompok riset di Universitas Michigan juga dilaporkan berhasil membuat prosesor RISC dari bahan galium arsenida berkecepatan tinggi di atas cip berukuran 32-bit yang dihasilkan diimplementasikan di atas cip berukuran 13,9 x 7,8 mm dengan 160.000 transistor. Di dalam cip diintegrasikan bagian ALU (arithmetic and logic unit) , 32 buah register, dan 32 byte chace instruksi. Karena kecilnya chace yang dimiliki, pemakai prosesor ini dapat menambahkan chace eksternal melalui kecepatan tinggi misalnya dengan SRAM (static random access memory) berteknologi ECL. Cip ini bekerja baik dengan frekuensi detak 200 MHz. 15 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Ada beberapa permasalahan dalam perancangan komputer cepat dengan GaAs. Pertama, adalah terbatasnya tingkat integrasi fungsi logika yang bisa diimplementasikan. Kedua, adalah tingginya perbandingan antara waktu pengaksesan memori di luar cip dengan akses data di dalam cip. SODIMA S.A. mengusulkan arsitektur 4-tingkat 32-bit untuk diintegrasikan dengan menggunakan teknologi sel standar. Tim SODIMA juga merancang arsitektur chacechace kecil berkecepatan tinggi (4-kilobyte dengan waktu akses 3 nanosekon) dikombinasikan dengan chace besar tetapi lebih lambat (128 kilobyte dengan waktu akses 25 nanosekon) untuk mendapatkan kinerja 100 MIPS. dua tingkat berdasarkan pada Cip RISC lain Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) memperkenalkan produk RISC-nya pada tahun 1987, yang diberi nama Am29000. Dengan eksekusi siklus tunggal, prosesor yang memiliki detak berfrekuensi 25MHz ini memiliki kecepatan proses 17 MIPS untuk program bahasa C. Ada dua tingkat optimasi kinerja yang dilakukan dalam perancangan Am29000. Pertama, prosesor ini memiliki jumlah register cukup banyak (192 buah) yang dapat difungsikan sebagai chace(stack ) instr uksi saat suatu prosedur dipanggil atau sebagai kelompok register, masing-masing terdiri atas 16 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya 16 buah register. Rancangan khusus dalam Am29000 adalah chace untuk target pencabangan yang mampu menyimpan 128 instruksi. Cara ini memungkinkan alur-pipa tetap terisi tanpa adanya penundaan sebagai akibat dari operasi percabangan yang berturutan (Heudin, 1992 : 104). untuk menetapkan tumpukan Selain AMD, Intel yang dikenal sebagai pemasok mikroprosesor CISC keluarga-86, juga memproduksi cip mikroprosesor RISC yang diberi nama 80860 pada tahun 1989. Dengan mengintegrasikan lebih dari sejuta transistor, 80860 berisi teras RISC (RISC core) , koprosesor atau unit flo ating point, MMU (memory management unit) , unit grafik, dan chace terpisah untuk data dan instruksi. Keberadaan MMU dan teras RISC memungkinkan 80860 menjalankan sistem operasi multitasking. Koprosesornya mendukung aplikasi pemodelan, pengolahan suara, simulasi, dan perancangan berbantuan komputer (Margulis, 1989 : 333). Teras RISC memiliki empat tingkat alur-pipa yang meliputi tingkat penjemputan, dekode, eksekusi, dan penulisan instruksi. Keistimewaannya, prosesor ini dirancang agar pemrogram dapat memilih sendiri mode eksekusi yang diperlukan, yakni instruksi-tunggal dan instruksi-ganda. Instruksi tunggal merupakan mode eksekusi tradisional, dengan penjemputan instruksi berturutan. Pemberian alur-pipa memungkinkan instruksi berturutan tersebut saling tumpang-tindih sehingga beberapa instruksi berada di beberapa tingkat alur-pipa untuk dieksekusi kapan saja. Dengan mode instruksi-ganda, mikroprosesor 80860 menerapkan lebih dari sekedar strategi alur-pipa. Mode ini memungkinkan dijalankannya dua instruksi sekaligus, satu untuk teras RISC dan satu untuk koprosesor. Koprosesor atau unit floating point menampilkan hasil operasi setiap satu siklus detak dan memungkinkan diselesaikannya dua operasi sekaligus, misalnya operasi penjumlahan dan perkalian. Dengan mengkombinasikan mode instruksi-ganda dan mode operasi-ganda, pemrogram dapat melakukan tiga operasi sekaligus setiap satu siklus detak. 17 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Cip RISC dengan detak berfrekuensi lebih dari 300 MHz dilaporkan telah dibuat oleh Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC). Cip yang dirancang dengan teknologi bipolar ECL itu mengimplementasikan 468.000 buah transistor dan 206.000 resistor di atas keping berukuran 15,4 x 12,6 mm. Pada kondisi terburuk, yakni dengan tegangan catu daya -5,2 volt, prosesor ini mampu dijalankan dengan detak internal berfrekuensi 275 MHz sedangkan dalam kondisi puncaknya (dengan tegangan catu daya -3,9 volt) dapat beroperasi pada frekuensi detak 335 MHz. Pembangkit detak eksternal memiliki frekuensi 80 MHz yang kemudian dilipatkan oleh rangkaian PLL (phase-locked loop) menjadi 1X - 8X. Masalah besar yang timbul dengan teknologi bipolar ECL ini adalah kebutuhan daya yang cukup besar, yakni mencapai 115 watt. Hal ini menyebabkan timbulnya panas berlebihan dalam cip. Untuk mengatasinya, DEC menambahkan termosifon (penghambur panas berbentuk silinder bersirip dari tembaga) di atas kemasan cip agar suhu dalam cip terjaga tidak lebih dari 100 o C (Bursky, 1993 : 48-50). Prospek Arsitektur RISC di Masa Mendatang Perkembangan menarik terjadi pada tahun 1993 ketika aliansi tiga perusahaan terkemuka, IBM, Apple, dan Motorola memperkenalkan produk baru mereka yakni PowerPC 601, suatu mikroprosesor RISC 64-bit yang dirancang untuk stasiun kerja (workstation) atau komputer 18 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya personal (Thompson, 1993 : 56-74). Menarik, karena kemunculan PowerPC 601 dimaksudkan untuk memberikan alternatif bagi dominasi prosesor CISC keluarga-86 Intel dalam komputer rumahan. Popularitas prosesor keluarga-86 didukung oleh harganya yang murah dan banyaknya program aplikasi yang dapat dijalankan dengan prosesor ini. Untuk itu, prosesor PowerPC dijual dengan harga yang cukup bersaing dibandingkan dengan pentium, yakni prosesor buatan Intel mutakhir saat itu (Thompson, 1993 : 64). Perkembangan teknologi emulasi yang memungkinkan prosesor RISC menjalankan sistem operasi yang sama dengan prosesor CISC keluarga-86 diperkirakan akan membuat prosesor RISC, terutama PowerPC 601, banyak digunakan di dalam komputer-komputer personal (Halfhill, 1994 : 119-130). PowerPC 601 memiliki 32 buah register serbaguna 32-bit dan 32 buah 64-bit register floating-point. Untuk menyimpan sementara data dan instruksi sebelum dieksekusi, PowerPC 601 memiliki 32-kilobyte chace untuk data dan instruksi bersama-sama. Teras PowerPC 601 terdiri dari tiga unit eksekusi dengan alur-pipa yang independen, yakni unit pemroses bilangan bulat (IU, integer unit ), unit floating-point (FPU, floating processing unit ), dan unit pemroses operasi percabangan (BPU, branch processing unit ) yang mampu mengeksekusi tiga instruksi sekaligus (Ryan, 1993 : 79-80). Perkembangan menarik juga nampak dengan diadopsinya sebagian arsitektur RISC ke dalam prosesor CISC yang dikenal dengan sebutan arsitektur hibrid CISC/RISC. Intel Corporation mengimplementasikan arsitektur CISC/RISC ini ke dalam prosesor keluarga-86 dimulai dengan prosesor Pentium, kemudian prosesor P6 atau Pentium Pro (Ryan, 1993 : 84 ; Halfhill, 1995:42 ; Yokota, 1993 : 18-25). Beberapa produsen lain, dengan cara berbeda juga mulai mengadopsi arsitektur campuran CISC/RISC ini misalnya Matsushita Corp dengan prosesor V810, Advanced RISC Machines dengan ARM610, dan Hitachi dengan prosesor SH7032 (Miyazaki, 1993 : 20-27). 19 / 20 PROSESOR RISC : Perkembangan dan Prospeknya Kesimpulan Prosesor RISC, yang berkembang dari riset akademis telah menjadi prosesor komersial yang terbukti mampu beroperasi lebih cepat dengan penggunaan luas cip yang efisien. Kemajuan mutakhir yang ditunjukkan oleh mikroprosesor PowerPC 601 dan teknologi emulasi yang antara lain dikembangkan oleh IBM memungkinkan bergesernya dominasi cip-cip keluarga86 dan kompatibelnya. Bila teknik emulasi terus dikembangkan maka pemakai tidak perlu lagi mempedulikan prosesor apa yang ada di dalam sistem komputernya, selama prosesor tersebut dapat menjalankan sistem operasi ataupun program aplikasi yang diinginkan. 20 / 20 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Beberapa elemen penting pada arsitektur RISC : Set instruksi yang terbatas dan sederhana Register general-purpose yang berjumlah banyak, atau penggunaan teknologi kompiler untuk mengoptimalkan pemakaian registernya. Penekanan pada pengoptimalan pipeline instruksi. Ditinjau dari jenis set instruksinya, ada 2 jenis arsitektur komputer, yaitu: 1. Arsitektur komputer dengan kumpulan perintah yang rumit (Complex Instruction Set Computer = CISC) 2. Arsitektur komputer dengan kumpulan perintah yang sederhana (Reduced Instruction Set Computer = RISC) CISC dimaksudkan untuk meminimumkan jumlah perintah yang diperlukan untuk mengerjakan pekerjaan yang diberikan. (Jumlah perintah sedikit tetapi rumit) Konsep CISC menjadikan mesin mudah untuk diprogram dalam bahasa rakitan, tetapi konsep ini menyulitkan dalam penyusunan kompiler bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi. Dalam CISC banyak terdapat perintah bahasa mesin. RISC menyederhanakan rumusan perintah sehingga lebih efisien dalam penyusunan kompiler yang pada akhirnya dapat memaksimumkan kinerja program yang ditulis dalam bahasa tingkat tinggi. Konsep arsitektur RISC banyak menerapkan proses eksekusi pipeline. Meskipun jumlah perintah tunggal yang diperlukan untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang diberikan mungkin lebih besar, eksekusi secara pipeline memerlukan waktu yang lebih singkat daripada waktu untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang sama dengan menggunakan perintah yang lebih rumit. Mesin RISC memerlukan memori yang lebih besar untuk mengakomodasi program yang lebih besar. IBM 801 adalah prosesor komersial pertama yang menggunakan pendekatan RISC. Drs. Ign. Djoko Irianto, M.Eng. Revsis : 002003 Pengantar Arsitektur Komputer ArKom 03 (RISC dan CISC) PDF 3 / 2 - 8 Lebih lanjut untuk memahami RISC, diawali dengan tinjauan singkat tentang karakteristik eksekusi instruksi. Aspek komputasi yang ditinjau dalam merancang mesin RISC adalah sbb.: Operasi-operasi yang dilakukan: Hal ini menentukan fungsi-fungsi yang akan dilakukan oleh CPU dan interaksinya dengan memori. Operand-operand yang digunakan: Jenis-jenis operand dan frekuensi pemakaiannya akan menentukan organisasi memori untuk menyimpannya dan mode pengalamatan untuk mengaksesnya. Pengurutan eksekusi: Hal ini akan menentukan kontrol dan organisasi pipeline.

download Diposting oleh HENRY di 07.35

Tidak ada komentar:

MATERI-MATERI ORKOM PERTEMUAN 1 1 CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT ARSITEKTUR KOMPUTER Sampai saat ini komputer sudah mengalami perubahan dari model awalnya, walaupun begitu semua komputer memiliki arsitektur dasar yang sama. Skema komputer (computer schema), adalah diagram yang menggambarkan unit-unit dasar yang terdapat dalam semua sistem komputer. Gambar 1. skema komputer 1. Central processing unit (CPU), yang mengendalikan semua unit sistem komputer yang lain dan mengubah input menjadi output. • Primary storage (penyimpanan primer), berisi data yang sedang diolah dan program. • Control unit (unit pengendali), membuat semua unit bekerja sama sebagai suatu sistem • Arithmatika and logical Unit , tempat berlangsungkan operasi perhitungan matematika dan logika. 2. Unit Input, memasukkan data ke dalam primary storage. 3. Secondary storage (penyimpanan sekunder), menyedikan tempat untuk menyimpan program dan data saat tiak digunakan. 4. Unit Output, mencatat hasil pengolahan. I. Peralatan Input Beberapa alat input memiliki fungsi ganda, yaitu sebagai alat input dan juga sebagai alat output untuk menghasilkan data. Alat input/ouput demikian dikenal dengan terminal. Alat input dibagi ke dalam dua golongan yaitu alat input langsung dan tidak langsung. Bila terminal dihubungkan dengan pusat komputer yang letaknya jauh dari terminal melalui alat komunikasi, maka disebut dengan nama Remote Job Entry (RJE) terminal atau Remote Batch terminal. Control unit Aritmathic logical unit primary storage Data input Data output Secondary storage 2 Alat input langsung memungkinkan input diproses secara langsung oleh CPU melalui alat input tanpa terlebih dahulu dinmasukkan ke dalam media penyimpanan ekternal. Alat input langsung terdiri dari beberapa golongan yaitu: keyboard, pointing device, scanner, voice recognizer. Alat input tidak langsung , dimana data yang dimasukkan tidak langsung diproses oleh CPU, tetapi direkam terlebih dahulu ke suatu media mechine readable form (bentuk yang hanya dapat dibaca oleh komputer dan merupakan penyimpanan ekternal). Alat input tidak langsung terdiri dari: key-to-card, key-to-tape, key-to-disk. Input hardware digunakan untuk mentranmisikan data ke processing dan storage hardware. Peralatan yang paling popular untuk memasukkan data yaitu kombinasi antara keyboard dan layar monitor. Layar monitor dianggap sebagai bagian dari input hardware kerena digunakan untuk memeriksa apakah data yang akan dimasukkan telah diketik. Disamping jenis input hardware di atas, terdapat juga input harware lainnya yaitu mouse, scanner, voice recognition, handwriting device, machine data input (misalnya : modem),light pen, dan bar code reader. Voice recognition device dipakai untuk memasukkan suara manusia ke dalam signal interpreter. Kebanyakan voice system yang digunakan sekarang mempunyai vocabulary yang kecil dan harus dilatih untuk mengenal kata-kata tertentu. Caranya, seseorang membacakan sebuah daftar kata-kata yang biasa digunakan sehingga signal interpreter dapat menetapkan polanya. Misalnya pekerja menyebut box yang mereka bawa. Voice input diperlukan karena tangan pekerja sibuk dan tidak dapat mengetik atau memanipulasi peralatan ketik input device lainnya. Hardwriting recognition device digunakan untuk memasukkan data dengan cara menulis pada elektronis yang sensitive. Karakter-karakter tersebut dikenal dan dimasukkan ke dalam system computer, biasanya suatu system PC (personal computer). Gambar 2. Hardwriting recognition device 3 Modem merupakan salah satu jenis alat input data untuk menghubungkan kkomputer dengan computer lain melalui jaringan telepon. Jenis input hardware lainnya yaitu light pen yang digunakan untuk menunjuk item-item pada layar monitor dan bar code reader yang biasa digunakan di supermarket untuk mengidentifikasi suatu jenis barang. Gambar 3. Modem 1. 1 Keyboard Penciptaan keyboard komputer diilhami oleh penciptaan mesin ketik yang dasar rancangannya di buat dan di patenkan oleh Christopere Lathan pada tahun 1868 dan banyak dipasarkan pada tahun 1877 oleh Perusahaan Remington. Keyboard computer pertama disesuaikan dari kartu pelunbang(punch card) dan teknologi p[engiriman tulisan jarak jauh(teletype). Tahun 1946 komputer ENIAC menggunakn pembaca kartu pembuat lubang(punched card reader) sebagai alat input dan output, Bila mendengar kata “keyboard” maka pikiran kita tidak lepas dari adanya sebuah kompyter, karena keyboard merupakan sebuahpapan yeng terdiri dari tomboltombol untuk mengetikkan kalimat dan symbol-simbol khisus lainnya pada computer. Keyboard dalam bahasa Indonesia artinya papan tombol jari atau papan tuts, Pada keyboard terdapat tombol-tombol huruf (alphabet A-Z, a-z, angka(numeric), 0-9, tombol dan karakter khusus seperti : ` ~ @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ - + = / , . ? “ ‘ : ; \ |, tombol fungsi (F1-F12), serta tobol-tobol khusus lainnya yantg jumlah seluruhnya adalah 104 tuts. Sedangkan pada mesin ketik jumlah tutsnya adalah 52 tuts. Bemtuk keyboard umumnya persegi panjang, tetapi saat ini model keyboard sangat variatif. Dahulu orang banyak yang menggunakan mesin ketik baik yang biasa maupun mesin ketik listrik. Keyboard mempunyai kesamaan bentuk dan fungsi dengan mesin ketik. Perbedaannya terletak pada hasil output atau tampilannya. Bila kita menggunakan mesin ketik, kita tidak dapat menghapus atau membatalkan apa-apa saja yang sudah diketikan dan setiap satu huruf atau symbol kita ketikan maka hasilnya langsung kita liat pada kertas.tidak demikian dengan keyboard. Apa yang kita ketikan hasil atau keluarannya dapat kita lihat dilayar monitor terlebih dahulu, kemudian kita dapat memodifikasi atau melakukan perubahan-perubahan bentuk tulisan ,kesalahan ketikan dan lainnya. 4 Keyboard dihubungkan ke computer dengan sebuah kabel yang terdapat pada keyboard. Ujung kabel tersebut dimasukan kedalam port yang terdapat pada CPU computer. Gambar 4. Keyboard 1. 2 Mouse Pada dasarnya, penunjuk (pointer) yang dikenal dengan sebutan”Mouse” dapat digerakan kemana saja berdasarkan arah gerakan bola kecil yang terdapat dalam mouse. Jika kita membuka dan mengeluarkan bola kecil yang terdapat dibelakang mouse, maka akan terlihatdua pengendali gerak didalamnya. Kedua pengendali gerak tersebut dapat bergerak bebas dan mengendalikan pergerakan penunjuk yang satu kearah horizontal (mendatar) dan satu lagi Vertikal (atas dan bawah ). Jika kita hanya menggerakan pengendali horizontal maka penunjuk hanya akan bergrak secara horizontal saj pada layar monitor computer. Dan sebaliknya jika penunjuk vertical yang digerakan, maka penunjuk hanya bergrak secara vertical saja dilayar monitor.jika keduanya kita gerakan maka gerakan penunjuk (pointer) akan menjadi diagonal. Jika bola kecil dimasukan kembali, maka bola itu akan menyentuh dan menggerakan kedua pengendali gerak tersebut sesuai dengan arah mouse yang kita gerakan. Pada sebagian besar mouse terdapat tiga tombol, tetapi umumnya hanya dua tombol yang berfungsi, yaitu tombol paling kiri dan yang paling kanan. Pengaruh dari penekanan tombol atau yang di kenal dengan istilah “click” ini tergantung pada object (daerah) yang kita tunjuk. Computer akan mengabaikan penekanan tombol (click) bila tidak mengenai area atau object yang tidak penting. Kemudian dalam penggunaan mouse juga kita kenal dengan istilah “Drag” yang artinya menggeser atau menarik. Apabila kita menekan tombol paling kiri tanpa melepaskannya dan sambil menggesernnya, salah satu akibatnya object tersebut berpindah atau menjadi pindah (tersalin) ke object lain dan terdapat kemungkinan lainnya. Kemungkinan-kemungkinan ini tergantung pada jenis program aplikasi apa yang kita jalankan. Mouse terhubung dengan computer dengan sebuah kabel yang terdapat pada mouse. Ujung kabel tersebut dimasukan pada port yang terdapat di CPU computer. Gambar 5. Mouse 5 1. 3 Scanner Scanner adalah suatu alat elektronik yang fungsinya mirip dengan mesin foto kopi. Mesin foto kopi hasilnya dapat langsung kamu lihat pada kertas sedangkan scanner hasilnya ditampilakn pada layar monitor computer dahulu kemudian baru dapat dirubah dan dimodifikasi sehingga tampilan dan hasilnya menjadi bagus yang kemudian dapat disimpan sebagai file tekx, dokuman dan gambar. Bentuk dan ukuran scanner bermacam-macam, ada yang besarnya seukuran dengan kertas folio, ada juga yang seukuran postcard, bahkan yang terbaru berbentuk pena yang baru diluncurkan oleh perusahaan WizCom Technologies Inc. scanner berukuran pena tersebut bisa menyimpan hingga 1000 halaman teks cetak dan kemudian mentranfernya ke sebuah computer pribadi (PC). Scanner berukuran pena tersebut dinamakan “Quicklink”. Pena scanner itu berukuran panjang enam inci dan beratnya sekitar tiga ons. Scanner tersebut menurut WizCom dapat melakukan pekerjaannya secara acak lebih cepat dari scanner yang berbentuk datar. Data yang telah diambil dengan scanner itu, bisa dimasukkan secara langsung ke semua aplikasi computer yang mengenali teks ASCII. Perbedaan tiap scanner dari merbagai merk terletak pada pemakaian teknologi dan resolusinya. Pemakaian tekologi misalnya penggunaan tombol digital dan teknik pencahayaan. Gambar 6. Scaner Cara kerja scanner : Ketika kita menekan tombol mouse untuk memulai scanning, yang terjadi adalah : 1. penekanan tobol mouse dari computer mwnggerakan pengendali kecepatan pada mesin scanner. Mesin yang terletak dalam scanner tersebut mengendalikan proses pengiriman ke unit scanning 2. kemudian unit scanning menempatkan proses pengiriman ke tempat atau jalur yang sesuai untuk langsung memulai scanning 3. nyala lampu yang telihat pada scanner menandakan bahwa kegiatan scanning sudah mulai dilakukan 4. setelah nyala lampu sudah tidak ada, berarti proses scan sudah selesai dan hasilnya dapat dilihat pada layar monitor 5. apabila hasil atau tampilan teks atan gambar ingin dirubah, kita dapat merubahnya dengan menggunakn software-software aplikasi yang ada. Misalnya dengan photoshop, adobe, pot scanned dll 6 Ada dua macam perbedaan scanner dalam memeriksa gambare yang berwarna yaitu : 1. scanner yang hanya bisa satu kali menscan warna dan menyimpan semua wara tersebut pada saat itu saja 2. scanner yang lansung bisa tiga kali digunakan untuk menyimpan beberapa warna. Warna-warna tersbut adalah merah, hijau, dan biru scanner yang disebut pertama lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan yang ke dua, tetapi menjadi kurang bagusjika digunakan reproduksi warna. Kebanyakan scanner di jalankan pada 1 bit, 8 bit(256 warna) dan 24 bit (> 16 juta warna). Bila kita membutuhkan hasil yang sangat baik maka dianjurkan mengunakan scanner dengan bit yang besar agar resolusi warna lebih banyak dan bagus. II. MEMORY SEKUNDER ( SECONDARY MEMORY ) Memory sekunder, dipergunakan untuk menyimpan data, informasi, dan program secara permanen sebagai berkas atau file. Contoh memory sekunder adalah floppy disk, hard disk, zipdrive, CD-Rom, DVD, dan lain-lain. Sebagian besar memory sekunder saat ini berbentuk disk/cakram/piringan. Operasi terhadap data, informasi, dan program dilakukan dengan perputaran disk. Satu putaran piringan disebut RPM ( Rotation Per Minute ). Semakin cepat perputaran, maka waktu akses akan semakin singkat. Hal ini mengakibatkan semakin besar tekanan terhadap disk dan semakin besar panas yang dihasilkan. Jenis memory sekunder yang akan digunakan akan menentukan kecepatan akses dan metode akses data. Beberapa contoh ukuran kecepatan memory sekunder adalah sebagai berikut. • Pre-IDE : Memiliki kecepatan 3600 RPM • IDE : Memiliki kecepatan 5200 RPM • IDE/SCSI : Memiliki kecepatan 5400 RPM • IDE/SCSI : Memiliki kecepatan 10000 RPM Memory sekunder memiliki alat untuk membaca dan menulis. Alat untukmembaca dan menulis pada harddisk disebut head sedangkan pada floppy disk disebut side. Setiap piringan dalam disk memiliki 2 sisi head/side, yaitu sisi 0 dan sisi 1. Head/side dibagi menjadi sejumlah lingkaran konsentrik yang disebut track. Kumpulan track yang sama dari sebuah head yang ada disebut cylinder. Pada suatu track dibagai menjadi daerah-daerah lebih kecil yang disebut sector. Gambaran tentang cylinder, sector, track dsitunjukkan oleh gambar 2.8. 7 Berkas yang disimpan dalam memory sekunder dapat berinteraksi dengan peralatan input/output dengan perantara suatu unut pengolah ( processor ). Hubungan antara berkas dan unit input/output ditunjukkan terhadap oleh bagan dibawah ini: Memory sekunder mempunyai karakteristik sebagai berikut. 1. Sifat penyimpanan yang tetap ( persistent ), sehingga media penyimpanan sekunder perlu dipisahkan dari unit pengolah utama ( central prosessing unit/ CPU ) dan memory utama ( main memory ), dan di hubungkan oleh kabel/bus ke unit pengolah ( prosessor ) dan memory utama ( main memory ) 2. Kemampuan untuk digunakan secara bersama-sama ( shareability ) 3. Kemampuan untuk menyimpan sejumlah data, informasi, dan program Langkah pengolahan data daeri dalam memory sekunder adalah sebagai berikut. 1. Menentukan lokasi data pada memory eksternal (external memory/storage ) 2. Prosessor akan membaca data, dan menyalin data dari memory eksternal ( external memory/storage ) ke memory utama (main memory) Pada saat menupdate data, maka salinan data dalam main memory yang telah diubah akan dituliskan, yaitu dipindahkan dari main memory ke memory sekunder Berdasarkan medianya, memory sekunder terdiri atas : 1. Optical disk • Memnggunakan prinsip optis, yaitu berdasarkan pantulan cahaya ( sinar laser ) pada head baca. • Pembacaan data tidak melibatkan kontak fisik antara head dan disk • Proses penulisan datanya lebih lambat dari pada proses pembacaan data • Lebih awet tahan terhadap jamur, dan lain-lain • Pembacaan data secara acak ( Random ) • Mempunyai kemampuan baca-tulis ( read/write ) • Kapasitas besar • Ukuran kecil • Contoh : cd rom Berkas dalam media penyimpanan sekunder Input device Output device Prossesor 8 2. Magnetik storage • Dapat terbentuk disk/tape • Media penyimpanan ini menggunakan bahan serbuk magnet • Akses data menggunakan prinsip induksi magnetis • Jenis ini terdiri atas magnetic tape dan magnetic disk 2. 1 Magnetic Tape Magnetik tape berbentuk pita panjang dan terbuat dari bahan plastic film ( mylar ) yang dapat dimagnetisasi ( ferrum oxide atau chromic oxide ) kerapatan datanta termasuk tinggi, 1200-9000 Bpi ( bit per inchi ) sedangkan kerapatan data standar yang digunakan adalah 800/1600 Bpi. Kecepatan pembacaan/ penulisan pada magnetic tape adalah 75200 inchi/det. Umumnya magnetic tape memiliki lebar pita 0.5 inchi dan memiliki ketebalan pita 0.15 inchi ( = 3.88 mm ) atau 0.25 inchi ( 6.4 mm ) panjang pita berfariasi, yaitu 300,600,1200 atau 2400 feet per reel. Metode penyimpanan yang digunakan bisa dengan metode blocking ( dipisahkan oleh interblock/ IBG ) atau tanpa bloking ( dipsahkan oleh inter record Gap/ IRG ) lebar IRG berkisar antara 0.12-0.6 inchi sedangkan lebar IBG antar 0.3-0.75 inchi. Resiko yang dihadapi pada media jenis ini adalah sensitive terhadap distorsi,debu, kelembaban, magnet, dan suhu tinggi Akses pembacaan dan penulisan data pada magnetic tape dilakukan secara sequential dengan transfer rate relative lambat, sehingga dalam penggunaannya termasuk media offline jumlah track pada magnetic tape bias 7/9 track. Tape 7 track digunakan untuk tape kode bcd untuk tape dengan kode BCD, track ke 0 hingga ke 5 untuk penulisan karakter dan track ke 6 untuk bit paritas. Sedangkan tape 9 track digunakan untuk tape dengan kode EBCDIC ( track ke 0 hingga ke 7 untuk penulisan karakter dan track ke 8 untuk bit paritas ) bit paritas digunakan untuk mengecek kesalahan, yang dapat dipilih jenis odd/event check. Contoh yang termasuk dalam jenis media ini adalah pita kaset dan real tape. Teknologi baru pada magnetic tape semakin meningkat dengan cirri kualitas head semakin baik, data den city semakin tinggi, g a p semakin sempit 2. 2 Hard Disk Hard disk dibuat dari bahan berupa logam yang dilapisi ferrooxide dan bahan yang mudah termagnetisasai. Struktur hard disk tersusun atas sejumlah disk dengan jumlah track bisa mencapai 200 track. Jumlah head pada hard disk berfariasi tergantung jumlah disk penyusunnya. Kecepatan hard disk bisa mencapai 7500 RPM . Hard Disk merupakan salah satu media penyimpan sekunder (storage) yang menpunyai kapasitas yang relatife besar.program-program aplikasi berkuran besar yang banyak beredar,mutlak memerlukan hard disk sebagai media penyimpannya.kapasitas hard disk berfariasi mulai dari 40 MB,80 MB,640MB,840 MB,1.0GB,1.2GB,1.7 GB,2.1 GB,4,3GB,10 GB,20GB,40 GB, 60 GB, dan teknologi yang lebih baru akan memiliki kapasitas yang semakin besar. 9 Secara garis besar,tipe harddisk ada yang berjenis SCSI dan IDE. Tipe IDE sring disebut Fast-ATA2.tipe harddsik membedakan kecepatan transfer data, baik kecepatan transfer prpses pembacaan atau penulisan. Sebuah Harddisk tersusun dari komponen-komponen sebagai berikut. 1. Piringan Logam. 2. Head. 3. Rangkaian elektronik. 4. Rangkaian penguat. 5. DSP (digital signal processor) 6. Chip memory. 7. conector. 8. Spindle. 9. Actuator arm motor. Gambar 7. Hardisk 2. 3 Removable Hardisk Secara prinsip removable hardisk sama dengan hardisk, hanya saja dapat dipasang dan dilepas dengan mudah. Removable hardisk dibentuk berupa cartridge, yang dipasang pada removable rack. Removable rack tersambung pada power supplay dan kabel data IDE interfacenya. 2. 4 Floppy Disk/Disket Floppy disk/disk/disket secara fisik ada yang berukuran 3,5” atau 5,25”. Disk berukuran 5,25” dibagi 2, yaitu high density yang mempunyai kapasitas 1,2MB dan double density dengan kapasitas 360KB. Disk berukuran 3,5” ada yang memiliki kapasitas 720KB, 1,44MB atau, 2,88MB. Akses data dalam floppy disk dilakukan dengan menggunakan diskdrive. Floppy disk terbuat dari bahan plastik film (mylar) yang dilapisi bahan magnetic lentur. Susunan data dalam floppy disk diatur serial dalam track dan sector. Floppy disk dapat mempunyai 1 indeks hole(soft sectored) atau 2 indeks hole(hard sectored). 10 2. 5 Zip Drive Zip drive meruapakan teknologi terbaru yang dikembangkan untuk mengataasi kapasitas floppy disk. Zip drive terdiri dari atas floppy drive dan cartridge floppy khusus yang mampu menampung data hingga hampir 100MB. Teknologi ini sangat membantu karena ukuran data saat ini semakin besar dan seringkali tidak cukup jika disimpan dalam floppy disk atau harus disediakan banyak floppy disk. 2. 6 CD Room CD-Room bukanlah alat penyimpanan yang paling cepat, namun CD-Room merupakan media pendistribusian paling murah untuk data/informasi berukuran besar. CD-Room bukan saja digunakan untuk menyimpan data teks, tetapi juga dapat menyimpan gambar, suara, dan animasi sehingga media ini untuk aplikasi multimedia CD-Room merupakan salha satu media penyimpanan sekunder(storage) yang berkapasitas besar (hingga 700MB). Banyak aplikasi yang bisa dijalankan secara langsung dari CD-Room sehingga bisa menghemat kapasitas Hard disk. CDRoom hanya bisa membaca data yang telah tersimpan dengan kecepatan baca data yang bervariasi, yaitu 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, 6x, 8x, 10x, 12x, 16x, 18x, 20x, 24x, 32x,. Saat ini kecepatan baca tertinggi 52x. Sekarang ini, teknologi baca-tulis untuk CD-Drive telah dimungkinkan dan sudah banyak dipasaran. Jenis CD-Room drive adalah sebagai berikut: 1. CD-Writeable Mampu melakukan proses baca dan tulis, tetapi proses penulisan tersebut hanya bisa dilakukan sekali saja, data dalam CD-W ini bisa bertahan sampai 100 tahun. 2. CD-Rewriteable atau CD-Erasable Jenis ini mampu melakukan proses baca dan tulis, dan proses tulis pada media CD-RW dapat dilakukan berulang kali. Jadi kita bisa menghapus data pada media tersebut dan menulisnya kembali. Data dalam CD-RW bisa bertahan sampai 30 tahun. 2. 7 DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) DVD merupakan kelanjutan teknologi memori sekunder menggunakan media optical disk. DVD memiliki kapasitas hingga mencapai 9GB. Perkembangan teknologi DVD-Room juga lebih cepat dibandingkan perkembangan teknologi CD-Room. DVDRoom 1x memungkinkan rata-rata transfer data mencapai 1.321 MB/s dengan rata-rata Burst transfer 12MB/s. Keterangan mengenai DVD drive rate, data rate, equivalent CD rate, serta actual CD speed ditampilkan dalam tabel 1. DVD ada yang dapat ditulisi satu kali saja dan ada yang lebih (Recordable DVD). Versi Recordable DVD adalah sebagai berikut: DVD-R for General, hanya sekali penulisan. DVD-R for Authoring, hanya sekali penulisan. DVD-RAM, dapat ditulis berulang kali. DVD-RW, dapat ditulis berulang kali. DVD+Rw, dapat ditulis berulang kali. DVD+R, Hanya sekali penulisan. 11 DVD Drive Speed Data Rate Equivalent CD Rate Actual CD Speed 1x 11.08 Mbps (1.32 MB/s) 9x 8x-18x 2x 22.16 Mbps (2.64 MB/s) 18x 20x-24x 4x 44.32 Mbps (5.28 MB/s) 36x 24x-32x 5x 55.50 Mbps (6.60 MB/s) 45x 24x-32x 6x 66.48 Mbps (7.93MB/s) 54x 24x-32x 8x 88.64 Mbps (10.57 MB/s) 72x 32x-40x 10x 110.80 Mbps (13.21 MB/s) 90x 32x-40x 16x 177.28 Mbps (21.13 MB/s) 144x 32x-40x Tabel 1 Setiap versi DVD recorder dapat membaca DVD-ROM disc, tetapi memrlukan jenis disc yang berbeda. Jenis recorder dan jenis disc yang kompatibel terlihat pada table 2. DVD unit DVDR( G) unit DVD-R(A) unit DVD-RW unit DVD-RAM unit DVD+RW unit DVDROM Disc Reads reads Reads Reads Reads Reads DVD-R(G) Disc Routinelly reads Reads writes Reads writes Reads Reads writes Reads DVD-R(A) Disc Routinelly reads Reads Reads Reads writes Reads Reads DVD-RW Disc Usually reads Reads Reads Reads writes Usually reads Usually reads DVDRAM Disc Rarely reads Usually reads Doesn’n reads Doesn’t reads Read writes Read writes DVD+RW Disc Usually reads Usually reads Usually reads Routinelly reads Usually reads Read writes DVD+ Disc Routinelly reads Routinell y reads Routinelly reads Routinelly reads Routinelly reads Reads may writes Table 2 12 2. 8 Mechanical Storage Mechanical Storage mempunyai karakteristik sebagai berikut: Terbuat dari bahan semi konduktor dan unsur mekanis. Pembacaan dan penulisan data melibatkan unsur mekanis. Contoh: disket Unsur mekanis yang terlibat meliputi: rotasi, translasi, dan gesekan. Unsur mekanis ini mengakibatkan kecepatan transfer datanya jauh lebih rendah dari IC-RAM. III. OUTPUT DEVICE Output yang dihasilkan dari pemroses dapat digolongkan menjadi empat bentuk,yaitu tulisan (huruf,angka,symbol khusus),image (dalam bentuk grafik atau gambar),suara ,dan bentuk lain yang dapat dibaca oleh mesin (machine-readable form0.Tiga golongan pertama adalah output yang dapat digunakan langsung oleh manusia,sedangkan golongan terakhir biasanya digunakan sebagai input untuk proses selanjutnya dari computer. Peralatan output dapat berupa: • Hard-copy device,yaitu alat yang digunakan untuk mencetak tulisan dan image pada media keras seperti kertas atau film. • Soft-copy device,yaitu alat yang digunakan untuk menampilkan tulisan dan image pada media lunak yang berupa sinyal elektronik. Drive device atau driver,yaitu alat yang digunakan untuk merekam symbol dalam bentuk yang hanya dapat dibaca oleh mesin pada media seperti magnetic disk atau magnetic tape.Alat ini berfungsi ganda,sebagai alat output dan juga sebagai alat input. Output bentuk pertamasifatnya adalah permanen dan lebih portable (dapat dilepas dari alat output dan dapat dibawa ke mana-mana).Alat yang umum digunakan untuk ini adalah printer,plotter,dan alat microfilm.Sedangkan output bentuk kedua dapat berupa video display,flat panel,dan speaker.Dan alat output bentuk ketiga yang menggunakan media magnetic disk adalah disk driver,dan yang mengguanakn media magnetic tape adalah tape driver. 13 3. 1 Printer Gambar 8. Printer Klasifikasi dasar printer adalah : a. Character printer yang mencetak satu karakter setiap kali.Contohnya yang paling umum adalah dot matrix printer. b. Line printer yang mencetak seluruh baris setiap kali. c. Page printer (image printer) yang mencetak seluruh halaman setiap kali. Metode dasar penghasilan cetakan: a. Impact atau non-impact printing.Impact printer memukulkan atau membenturkan pita tinta ke kertas,sedangkan non-impact printer menggunakan metode printer lain,misalnya thermal atau elektrostatik. b. Shaped character printing atau dot-matrix printing.Shaped character printing mempunyai hasil cetakan yang lebih baik dari dot-matrix printing. Kecepatan cetak (print speed): a. Low speed (kecepatan rendah) : 10 cps / 300 lpm Dot matrix impact character printer.Ini adalah jenis printer berkecepatan rendah yang paling sering digunakan,dan sering disebut dengan nama “dot matrix printer”. Daisywheel printer.Ini adalah jenis lain printer berkecepatan rendah yang terkenal,yang akan digunakan jika kita memerlukan kualitas cetakkan yang tinggi. Inkjet printer.Ini adalah printer berkecepatan rendah yang tidak gaduh,karena menggunakan cara penembakan percikan tinta yang sangat halus ke atas kertas. b. High speed (Kecepatan tinggi) : 300 lpm – 3000 lpm Line printer.Ini adalah impact shaped-character printer yang mencetak keseluruhan baris setiap kalinya. Page printer.Ini adalah printer yang mencetak tampilan sebesar halaman penuh setiap kalinya. 14 3. 2 Graph Plotter Graph plotter digunakan untuk tujuan (penggunaan) ilmiah dan perekayasaan.Salah satu aplikasi khususnya adalah CAD (Computer Aided Design),dimana desain mesin atau arsitektural diciptakan oleh computer dan dikeluarkan (outputnya pada graph plotter). Perangkat ini memberikan bentuk output yang sama sekali berbeda,dan ia mempunyai keragaman aplikasi.Dua jenis dasarnya adalah: a. Flatbed type.Penanya bergerak keatas,turun,menyilang,atau menyamping. b. Drum type.Penenya bergerak keatas,turun,dan menyilang. Kertasnya bergerak menyamping. Gambar 9. Garaph Plotter 3. 3 Monitor A. PEMBAGIAN MONITOR BERDASARKAN JENIS Pada dasarnya monitor terbagi 3 kelompok yaitu : 1. Monitor Digital 2. Monitor Analog 3. Monitor Multiscaning 1. MONITOR DIGITAL Monitor digital adalah monitor yang menggunakan sinyal digital dalam pengiriman data dari video card ke monitor.Sinyal digital ini adalah sinyal yang diwakili oleh data 0 dan 1.Yang termasukan monitor jenis ini adalah monitor Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA),Color Graphic.Adapter (CGA) dan Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA). Monitor monochrome mendukung hanya modus 7 (teks 80x25).Ukuran characternya 9x14,jumlah scan line 350 baris dan nomor portnya 380 Hex sampai 3BB Hex.Monitor CGA diperkenalkan pada tahun 1981 (IBM PC) mendukung modus grafik 4 warna dan modus teks 16 warna. Jumlah scan line 200 baris,ukuran character-nya 8x8,dan nomor portnya 3D0 hex sampai 3DF Hex.Monitor EGA memiliki resolusi maksimum 640x480 dengan 2 warna.Memiliki nomor port 3C0 Hex dan jumlah scan line 350 baris sehingga dapat menampilkan character dalam ukuran 8x14. 15 2. MONITOR ANALOG Monitor analog adalah monitor yang menggunakan sinyal analog dalam pengiriman datanya.Sinyal analog adalah sinyal yang dapat berisi sembarang nilai antara nilai maksimum dan minimum.Contoh monitor analog adalah Video graphic Array Adapter (VGA)yang dikenalkan pada IBM PS/2.Nomor portnya sama dengan EGA,scan line 400 baris sehingga dapat membentuk ukuran character 9x16.Resolusi maksimum adalah 640x480 dengan 16 warna. 3. MONITOR MULTISCANING Monitor multiscaning adalah monitor yang dapat menerima dua bentuk sinyal,digital ataupun analog.Monitor ini menggabungkan kemampuan yang dimilki monitor analog dan monitor digital,sehingga dapat dipasangkan dengan video card yang bermacam-macam.Mendukung modus Super VGA,modus yang lebih tinggi dari modus yang dimiliki VGA. B. PEMBAGIAN MONITOR BERDASARKAN TEKNOLOGI Berdasarkan teknologinya,monitor dapat dibagi atas : 1. Monitor Super VGA 2. Monitor Radiasi Rendah (Low Radiation) 3. Monitor Hemat Energi (Green Monitor) 4. Monitor Multi Fungsi 1. MONITOR SUPER VGA Monitor Super VGA lebih baik dari VGA,memiliki dot pitch lebih kecil dari VGA dan mendukung resolusi yang lebih tinggi.Tidak ada standar untuk monitor Super VGA sehingga tidak jarang dijumpai 2 monitor Super VGA yang tidak sama resolusinya. Tidak standarnya monitor Super VGA diikuti oleh tidak standarnya video card yang mendukung Super VGA,seperti : Tseng ET-4000,Trident,Oak Technology dan lain-lain.Masing-masing card mempunyai nomor modus tersendiri dan tidak seragam seperti halnya modus monochrome hingga VGA.Untuk mengatasi hal ini maka dibuatlah standar VESA (Video Electronic Standards Association). 2. MONITOR LOW RADIATION Tidak semua electron yang ditembakan tabung monitor dapat diserap oleh lapisan phosphor yang terdapat pada monitor tersebut.Sebagian ada yang berhasil lolos keluar dari monitor.Elektron yang keluar tersebut membangkitkan medan magnet disekitar bagian depan monitor.Hal ini berbahaya bagi kesehatan mata.Disamping umumnya jarak monitor dengan mata kurang dari 1 meter.Untuk mencegah hal ini,dibuat monitor dengan daya magnetisasi yang kecil.Beberapa contoh monitor low radiation adalah SPC CM-1200V Syncmaster 3,Philips 4CM2799. 16 3. GREEN MONITOR Green Monitor adalah monitor yang memiliki sifat-sifat hemat energi pemakaian listrik dan memakai bahan-bahan yang dapat didaur ulang.Monitor demikian dirancang dengan memakai komponen hemat listrik dan memiliki kemampuan untuk auto-off,yang dapat mati sendiri jika setelah beberapa saat tidak digunakan.Bahan-bahan yang digunakan membuat monitornya menggunakan bahan yang dapat didaur ulang,terutama bahan dari plastic. Gambar 10. Green Monitor 4. MONITOR MULTIFUNGSI Monitor Multifungsi adalah monitor yang dapat digunakan untuk tujuan lain,selain untuk menampilkan output dari computer,misalnya monitor yang dapat berfungsi juga sebagai televisi,penayangan video dan lain-lain.Dewasa ini monitor demikian banyak digunakan untuk multimedia dimana sebuah computer dapat dihubungkan dengan berbagai macam peralatan lain seperti pengolah data.teks,grafik,animasi,audio,dan video,CD player,sound card,laser disc dan lainlain. C. PEMBAGIAN MONITOR BERDASARKAN ADAPTER VIDEO Perkembangan Adapter video mulai dari yang pertama monitor monochrome dan berlanjut dengan diciptakan adapter video untuk monitor XVGD(Extended Video Graphics Display) hingga kini mengalami beberapa tahapan sebagai berikut : 1. Monocrome Display Adapter (MDA) MDA merupakan suatu adapter video untuk jenis 1 warna (biasanya hijau) dan hanya mempunyai resolusi 80 kolom x 25 baris saja,dan hanya dapat mengolah data teks tidak dapat mengolah grafik.Di peta memori computer PC,memori MDA terletak pada segmen B000 Hex,sebesar 4 Kb. 2. Color Graphics Adapter(CGA) CGA dikembangkan sejak tahun 1981.CGA mendukung modus grafik dan dapat menampilkan warna,baik pada modus teks ataupun modus grafik.Resolusi tertinggi 640x200 baris.Di peta memori computer PC,memori CGA terletak pad segmenB800 Hex,sebesar 16 Kb. 17 3. Hercules Graphics Card (HGC) HGC merupakan adapter video untuk jenis monitor monochrome.Adapter ini merupakan penyempurnaan MDA,karena dapat menampilkan grafik.HGC dirancang oleh Van Suwannukul dari Hercules Computer Technology.Resolusi tertinggi adalah 720x348 pixel.Di peta memori computer PC,letak memori HGC sama dengan untuk MDA. 4. Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) EGA merupakan pengembangan dari CGA dengan resolusi dari tata warna yang lebih baik.Awalnya card EGA IBM memiliki memori 64 Kb,kemudian diperluas menjadi 128 Kb.Jadi ada 3 macam adapter card EGA.Resolusi tertinggi yang dapat ditampilkan adalah 640xx350 pixel,Di peta memori computer PC,memori EGA terletak pada segmen A000 Hex. 5. Profesional Graphics Adapter (PGA) Pada saat yang sama dikeluarkan EGA,IBM memperkenalkan PGA.PGA memiliki kemampuan untuk menampilkan grafik 3 dimensi.Adapter ini dapat menjalankan 60 bingkai animasi per detik.Resolusi maksimumnya adalah 640x480 pixel. PGA merupakan adapter khusus untuk aplikasi CAD/CAM.Selanjutnya PGA tidak diproduksi karena harganya mahal dan tergolong lambat. 6. Multi Color Graphics Array (MCGA) MCGA merupakan adapter video untuk computer PS/2 model 25 dan 30.Pada resolusi 320x200 pixel,warna yang dapat ditampilkan adalah 256 warna dari 262.144 palet warna yang tersedia. 7. Video Graphics Array (VGA) VGA dikenalkan tahun 1987,dan sekarang menjadi standar monitor.Awalnya VGA dibuat untuk computer PS/2,tetapi dalam perkembangan selanjutnya dapat digunakan pada computer PC/XT dan PC/AT.Resolusi maksimumnya adalah 720x400 pixel dalam 2 warna sedangkan pada resolusi 640x480 pixel dapat ditampilkan 256 warna. 8. Display Adapter Adapter ini dibuat untuk PS/2 dan mempunyai resolusi yang lebih tinggi dari VGA,dapat menampilkan 256 warna pada resolusi maksimum 1024x768 pixel pada modus grafik,sedangkan pada modus teks dapat ditampilkan 146 kolom x 51 baris. 9. Super Video Graphic Array (SVGA) SVGA pada dasarnya sama dengan 8514,tetapi SVGA biasa disebut pada adapter non IBM.SVGA daoat digunakan pada PC/XT/AT,bukan untuk PS/2.Resolusi maksimum SVGA yang umum adalah 1024x768 pixel dengan 256 warna. 18 10. Extended Graphics Adapter (XGA) XGA merupakan adapter keluaran terakhir yang memiliki resolusi yang paling tinggi (lebih dari 1024x768 pixel). D. RESOLUSI DAN DOT PITCH Resolusi adaah ukuran yang menyatakan jumlah pixel yang dapat ditampilkan di layar.Semakin tinggi resolusi suatu monitor akan semakin halus pula gambar yang ditampilkannya.Dotpitch adalah jarak antara 2 kesatuan phosphor merah-hijaubiru,atau jarak antara 1 titik pixel dengan titik pixel lainnya.Dot pitch ditentukan dalam ukuran seperseratus millimeter. E. VERTICAL SCAN RATE (REFRESH RATE) & HORIZONTAL SCAN RATE Refresh rate merupakan satuan berapa banyak sinaran/pancaran electron kembali memulai dari posisi awalnya dari kiri atas monitor tiap detik.Refresh rate mempunyai 2 macam jenis,yaitu interlaced dan Non Interlaced.Pada system Interlaced,proses scaning akan dilakukan dalam 2 kali lewatan,baris ganjil dan seterusnya.Pada umumnya system interlaced akan menghasilkan cukup banyak flicker adalah suatu proses yang terjadi dimana jika frekwensi penembakan electron terlalu sedikit,maka ketika penembakan berikutnya tiba,bayangan sinar yang sebelunya masih belum hilang secara sempurna sehingga diperoleh efek berkedip. Horizontal scan rate dihitung dengan cara mengailkan jumlah baris perlayar dengan besarnya refresh rate.Misal : sebuah monitor dngan resolusi 640x480 dengan refresh rate 60 Hz.maka diperlukan 28.800 scan per detik.disamping itu ada waktu yang hilang saat antara scanning berhenti di suatu baris dan sinaran dihentikan untuk pindah ke baris berikutnya dan proses dimulai lagi dari awal,besarnya skitar 10% sehingga secara keseluruhan Horizontal scan raet adalah 28.800 +(28.800*10%) = 31.700 scan per detik (31,7 KHz).Pada resolusi 800x600 dengan refresh rate 72 Hz,diperlukan monitor yang mampu memberikan Horizontal scan rate sebesar 47,5 KHz.Pada resolusi 1042x768 dengan refresh rate 72 Hz,Horizontal scan rate yang diperlukan 59 KHz. IV. Peranan peralatan input, output dan perangkat lunak dalam pemecahan masalah. Semua alat input dan output dapat berkontribusi pada pemecahan masalah baik secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Contoh: keyboard , display, printer dan plotter (berperan langsung), source data automation device, microfilm (berperan tidak langsung). Seperti halnya perangkat keras, perangkat lunak dapat juga berperan langsung atau tidak langsung. Contoh: sistem operasi (berperan tidak langsung), aplikasi bisnis umum dan industri (berperan tidak langsung), sebagian perangkat lunak aplikasi peningkatan produktivitas organisasi perorangan (berperan tidak langsung), spreadsheet, analisis statistik dan perkiraan, manajemen proyek (berperan langsung). 19 V. Sistem Operasi Sistem operasi merupakan sebuah penghubung antara pengguna dari komputer dengan perangkat keras komputer. Sebelum ada sistem operasi, orang hanya mengunakan komputer dengan menggunakan sinyal analog dan sinyal digital. Seiring dengan berkembangnya pengetahuan dan teknologi, pada saat ini terdapat berbagai sistem operasi dengan keunggulan masing-masing. Untuk lebih memahami sistem operasi maka sebaiknya perlu diketahui terlebih dahulu beberapa konsep dasar mengenai sistem operasi itu sendiri. Pengertian sistem operasi secara umum ialah pengelola seluruh sumber-daya yang terdapat pada sistem komputer dan menyediakan sekumpulan layanan (system calls) ke pemakai sehingga memudahkan dan menyamankan penggunaan serta pemanfaatan sumber-daya sistem komputer. 5. 1 Fungsi Dasar Sistem komputer pada dasarnya terdiri dari empat komponen utama, yaitu perangkat-keras, program aplikasi, sistem-operasi, dan para pengguna. Sistem operasi berfungsi untuk mengatur dan mengawasi penggunaan perangkat keras oleh berbagai program aplikasi serta para pengguna. Sistem operasi berfungsi ibarat pemerintah dalam suatu negara, dalam arti membuat kondisi komputer agar dapat menjalankan program secara benar. Untuk menghindari konflik yang terjadi pada saat pengguna menggunakan sumberdaya yang sama, sistem operasi mengatur pengguna mana yang dapat mengakses suatu sumberdaya. Sistem operasi juga sering disebut resource allocator. Satu lagi fungsi penting sistem operasi ialah sebagai program pengendali yang bertujuan untuk menghindari kekeliruan (error) dan penggunaan komputer yang tidak perlu. 5. 2 Tujuan Mempelajari Sistem Operasi Tujuan mempelajari sistem operasi agar dapat merancang sendiri serta dapat memodifikasi sistem yang telah ada sesuai dengan kebutuhan kita, agar dapat memilih alternatif sistem operasi, memaksimalkan penggunaan sistem operasi dan agar konsep dan teknik sistem operasi dapat diterapkan pada aplikasi-aplikasi lain. 5. 3 Sasaran Sistem Operasi Sistem operasi mempunyai tiga sasaran utama yaitu kenyamanan -- membuat penggunaan komputer menjadi lebih nyaman, efisien -- penggunaan sumber-daya sistem komputer secara efisien, serta mampu berevolusi -- sistem operasi harus dibangun sehingga memungkinkan dan memudahkan pengembangan, pengujian serta pengajuan sistemsistem yang baru. 20 5. 4 Sejarah Sistem Operasi Menurut Tanenbaum, sistem operasi mengalami perkembangan yang sangat pesat, yang dapat dibagi kedalam empat generasi: • Generasi Pertama (1945-1955) Generasi pertama merupakan awal perkembangan sistem komputasi elektronik sebagai pengganti sistem komputasi mekanik, hal itu disebabkan kecepatan manusia untuk menghitung terbatas dan manusia sangat mudah untuk membuat kecerobohan, kekeliruan bahkan kesalahan. Pada generasi ini belum ada sistem operasi, maka sistem komputer diberi instruksi yang harus dikerjakan secara langsung. • Generasi Kedua (1955-1965) Generasi kedua memperkenalkan Batch Processing System, yaitu Job yang dikerjakan dalam satu rangkaian, lalu dieksekusi secara berurutan.Pada generasi ini sistem komputer belum dilengkapi sistem operasi, tetapi beberapa fungsi sistem operasi telah ada, contohnya fungsi sistem operasi ialah FMS dan IBSYS. • Generasi Ketiga (1965-1980) Pada generasi ini perkembangan sistem operasi dikembangkan untuk melayani banyak pemakai sekaligus, dimana para pemakai interaktif berkomunikasi lewat terminal secara on-line ke komputer, maka sistem operasi menjadi multi-user (di gunakan banyak pengguna sekali gus) dan multi-programming (melayani banyak program sekali gus). • Generasi Keempat (Pasca 1980an) Dewasa ini, sistem operasi dipergunakan untuk jaringan komputer dimana pemakai menyadari keberadaan komputer-komputer yang saling terhubung satu sama lainnya. Pada masa ini para pengguna juga telah dinyamankan dengan Graphical User Interface yaitu antar-muka komputer yang berbasis grafis yang sangat nyaman, pada masa ini juga dimulai era komputasi tersebar dimana komputasi-komputasi tidak lagi berpusat di satu titik, tetapi dipecah dibanyak komputer sehingga tercapai kinerja yang lebih baik. 21 5. 5 Perkembangan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Operasi Paket operasi ataupun program yang dibuat dengan High Level Langguage, seperti misalnya BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, dana Bahasa C dan lain sebagainya, tidaka akan dapat dijalankan kalau tidak ada Operating System yang mendukungnya. Sistem operasi ini akan mengatur semua proses dari sistem komputer. 1954. Sistem Operasi Yang Pertama Kali Sistem operasi pertama kali dikembangkan pada sekitar tahun 1954 di General Motor Research Laboratories untuk di gunakan pada komputer IBM 701. kemudian pada tahun 1955, programmer di General Motor Research Laboratories bekerja sama dengan North American Aviation menulis OS(operating System) untuk komputer IBM 704. beberapa OS yang lainnya telah ditulis untuk komputer-komputer besar sejak dari tahun 1950 sampai dengan tahun 1960. OS tersebut terbatas pengguanaannya. Yaitu hanya dapat digunakan untuk aplikasi pengolahan data secara sequential(urut) atau batch saja dan biasanya dirancang untuk satu komputer saja. 1960. Sistem Operasi Untuk Komputer Mini Pertama Kali OS untuk komputer mini pertama kali dikembangkan pada tahun 1960 bersamaan dengan diproduksinya komputer-komputer mini. Sebelum tahun ini, OS hanya digunakan untuk komputer-komputer besar (mainframe). Pada bulan April 1964, IBM memperkenalkan OS yang disebut dengan OS/360 untuk dipergunakan pada semua seri komputer 360. 1969. Unix Pada tahun1969, Ken Thompson dari Bell Laboratories menulis suatu OS yang disebut dengan UNIX. Yang diterapkan pada komputer PDP-. Pada tahun 1973, UNIX dikembangkan dengan cara ditlis ulang dengan menggunakan bahasa C, sehingga merupakan OS pertama yang ditulis dengan High Level Langguage. Sejak tahun tersebut, banyak orang memperkirakan bahwa UNIX akan menjadi OS yang paling populer dan akan banyak dipergunakan. UNIX merupakan OS untuk komputer 16-bit. UNIX pertama kali diterapkan di mainframe computer dan mini computer. 1970. CP/M Pada tahun 1970, komputer micro mulai dikembangkan dan bersamaan dengan itu, perusahaan Digital Research mengembangkan OS yang diterapkan di komputer mikro, yang disebut dengan CP/M. CP/M merupakan singkatan dari Control Program/Microprocessor. CP/M merupakan OS yang paling populer untuk komputer mikro 8-bit yang mempergunakan microprocessor Zilog 80(Z80) atau microprocessor Intel 8080. CP/M pada tahun 1976 diperbaiki dan lebih ditingkatkan dengan nama CP/M-80 dan karena popularitasnya dan banyak di pergunakan, dianggap sebagai standar OS untuk komputer 8-bit. Penulis dari CP/M adalah Gary Kidall. 22 1980. MS-DOS Sebelum tahun 1980, OS yang paling banyak dipergunakan dan dianggap sebagai standar dari OS adalah CP/M-80 buatan Digital Research. Tetapi sejak tahun 1980. Microsoft Corporation di Bellevue, Washington yang dipakai oleh William Bill Gates. Mengembangkan OS dengan nama MS-DOS (Microsoft-Disk Operating System) untuk computer 16-bit. MS-DOS dipergunakan di komputer micro yang menggunakan microprocessor Intel 8088 atau Intel 8086. Merasa bahwa CP/M-80 yang dipergunakan di komputer 8-bit mulai banyak ditinggalkan, Digital Research menegmbangkan OS yang baru dengan nama CP/M-86 untuk komputer 16-bit yang mempergunakan microprocessor Intel 8086 sebagai penyaing MS-DOS. OS lainnya yang dikembangkan oleh pabrik microsoft diantaranya adalah Xenix, yang sebenarnya adalah Unix versi Microsoft untuk microprocessor Intel 8086, Zilog 8000 dan Motorola 68000. OS lainnya adalah: - Oasis-16 dibuat oleh Phase One System. - Pick OS dibuat oleh Pick System Inc. - p-System dikembangkan pertama kali di university of california at san Diego pada tahun 1974. - TRS-DOS dibuat oleh Tandy Radio Shack. 1985. Microsoft Windows Yang Pertama Perusahaan Microsoft memasarkan sistem operasi Windows versi yang pertama pada tahun 1985. Windows sebagai sebuah sitem operasi sebenarnya belum bekerja sepnuhnya sebagai platform, tetapi masih bekerja dibawah DOS. Ini berarti sebelum Windows dioperasikan, sistem operasi DOS sudah harus digunakan terlebih dahulu yang kemudian Windows dipanggil melalui DOS tersebut. Kelebihan Windows dari DOS adalah kemudahannya untuk digunakan(user friendly) Karena menggunakan sistem GUI. Multitasking( yaitu dapat mengerjakan program serentak dalam bentuk windows yang dapat dipindah dari satu window ke window yang lain). Walaupun demikian, windows versi 1.0 ini tidak populer dan kurang diminati karena berbagai alasan, yang pertama adalah Windows 1.0 beroperasi dengan lambat disebabkan pada waktu itu processor yang digunakan kurang mendukung. Yang kedua adalah masih sedikitnya perangkat lunak yang ditulis untuk sistem operasi ini. 1987. IBM Operating System/2 IBM OS/2 dibuat oleh IBM untuk mengatasi kekurangan dari IBM PC-DOS atau MS-DOS. Dengan microprocessor 80286 dan 80386. OS/2 dapat mengalamati memori diatas batas 640 KB yang tidak dapat dilakukan oleh IBM PC-DOS. OS/2 mempunyai beberapa kelebihan yaitu sebagai berikut: - Dapat Mendukung beberapa aplikasi yang menggunakan memori sampai 16 MB - Membuat manajemen basis data lebih mudah dengan menyediakan semua saranasarana untuk membuat basis data. - Dapat digunakan untuk network dengan dihubungkan pada beberapa host Computer - Dapat digunakan untuk multitasking, sehingga dari satu aplikasi ke aplikasi lainnya. 23 1988. Windows/386 Windows/386 dipekenalkan pada tahun 1988. Windows versi ini diharapkan dapat membuat pengguna komputer berpindah dari DOS ke Windows, karena sudah didukung oleh processor Intel 80386 yang sudah cukup cepat di komputer IBM PC/386. 1990. Windows 3.0 Mulai tahun 1990, popularitas Windows melalui Windows 3.0 meningkat dengan cepat. Keberhasilan Windows 3.0 tidak terlepas dari dukungan processor Intel 80846 yang sudah cukup cepat di computer IBM PC/486. setahun kemudian pada tahun 1991, Windows versi 3.1 diluncurkan untuk memperbaiki versi sebelumnya. 1993. Mosaic, Browser Internet Pertama Di Sistem Windows Pada tahun 1990-an system Windows yang digunakan adalah versi 3.x. Windows 3.x ini tidak memiliki protocol, untuk hubunagn ke internet. Sehinnga di perlukan perangkat lunak khusus untuk menjelajah ke internet. Salah satunya adalah yang disebut dengan browser. Mosaic merupakan browser yang diperkenalkan pada tahun 1993. mosaic merupakan browser internet yang pertama disistem Windows. 1995. Windows 95 Microsoft mengeluarkan Windows 95 yang mempunyai beberapa kelebihan dari Windows versi 3.x. Windows 95 sudah tidak beroperasi dibawah platform DOS,sehingga operasinya lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan Windows versi sebelumnya. 1998. Windows 98 Windows 98 merupakan perbaikan dari Windows 95. windows 98 diperkenalkan pada bulan September 1997. 2000. Linux Linux adalah sebuah sistem operasi yang sangat mirip dengan sistem-sistem UNIX, karena memang tujuan utama rancangan dari proyek Linux adalah UNIX compatible. Sejarah Linux dimulai pada tahun 1991, ketika mahasiswa Universitas Helsinki, Finlandia bernama Linus Benedict Torvalds menulis Linux, sebuah kernel untuk prosesor 80386, prosesor 32-bit pertama dalam kumpulan CPU intel yang cocok untuk PC. Pada awal perkembangannya, source code Linux disediakan secara bebas melalui internet. Hasilnya, pengembangan Linux merupakan kolaborasi para pengguna dari seluruh dunia, semuanya dilakukan secara eksklusif melalui internet. Bermula dari kernel awal yang hanya mengimplementasikan subset kecil dari sistem UNIX, kini sistem Linux telah tumbuh sehingga mampu memasukkan banyak fungsi UNIX. 24 Kernel Linux terdistribusi di bawah Lisensi Publik Umum GNU (GPL), dimana peraturannya disusun oleh Free Software Foundation. Linux bukanlah perangkat lunak domain publik: Public Domain berarti bahwa pengarang telah memberikan copyright terhadap perangkat lunak mereka, tetapi copyright terhadap kode Linux masih dipegang oleh pengarang-pengarang kode tersebut. Linux adalah perangkat lunak bebas, namun: bebas dalam arti bahwa siapa saja dapat mengkopi, modifikasi, memakainya dengan cara apa pun, dan memberikan kopi mereka kepada siapa pun tanpa larangan atau halangan. Implikasi utama peraturan lisensi Linux adalah bahwa siapa saja yang menggunakan Linux, atau membuat modifikasi dari Linux, tidak boleh membuatnya menjadi hak milik sendiri. Jika sebuah perangkat lunak dirilis berdasarkan lisensi GPL, produk tersebut tidak boleh didistribusi hanya sebagai produk biner (binaryonly). Perangkat lunak yang dirilis atau akan dirilis tersebut harus disediakan sumber kodenya bersamaan dengan distribusi binernya. Gambar 11.Logo Linux 5. 6 Layanan Sistem Operasi Sebuah sistem operasi yang baik menurut Tanenbaum harus memiliki layanan sebagai berikut: pembuatan program, eksekusi program, pengaksesan I/O Device, pengaksesan terkendali terhadap berkas pengaksesan sistem, deteksi dan pemberian tanggapan pada kesalahan, serta akunting. Pembuatan program yaitu sistem operasi menyediakan fasilitas dan layanan untuk membantu para pemrogram untuk menulis program; Eksekusi Program yang berarti Instruksi-instruksi dan data-data harus dimuat ke memori utama, perangkatparangkat masukan/ keluaran dan berkas harus di-inisialisasi, serta sumber-daya yang ada harus disiapkan, semua itu harus di tangani oleh sistem operasi; Pengaksesan I/O Device, artinya Sistem Operasi harus mengambil alih sejumlah instruksi yang rumit dan sinyal kendali menjengkelkan agar pemrogram dapat berfikir sederhana dan perangkat pun dapat beroperasi; Pengaksesan terkendali terhadap berkas yang artinya disediakannya mekanisme proteksi terhadap berkas untuk mengendalikan pengaksesan terhadap berkas; 25 Pengaksesan sistem artinya pada pengaksesan digunakan bersama (shared system); Fungsi pengaksesan harus menyediakan proteksi terhadap sejumlah sumber-daya dan data dari pemakai tak terdistorsi serta menyelesaikan konflik-konflik dalam perebutan sumber-daya; Deteksi dan Pemberian tanggapan pada kesalahan, yaitu jika muncul permasalahan muncul pada sistem komputer maka sistem operasi harus memberikan tanggapan yang menjelaskan kesalahan yang terjadi serta dampaknya terhadap aplikasi yang sedang berjalan; dan Akunting yang artinya Sistem Operasi yang bagus mengumpulkan data statistik penggunaan beragam sumber-daya dan memonitor parameter kinerja. VI. APLIKASI 6. 1 Perkembangan Perangkat Lunak Paket Aplikasi Sejak beredarnya computer personal,telah ribuan macam perangkat lunak untuk bermacam-macam keperluan aplikasi tersedia di pasaran guna memenuhi kebutuhan para pemakai computer. 1976. Electric Pencil. Pada tahun ini, Michael Shrayer memperkenalkan suatu program pengolah kata (word processor) yang diberi nama Electric pencil. Electric pencil pada mulanya hanya untuk computer mikro altair saja, tetapi kemudian dikembangkan untuk computerkomputer mikro yang lainnya dan sejumlah alat cetak (printer), semuanya sampai dengan 78 versi. Electric pencil tidak dapat menembus pasaran karena kurang popular. Electric pencil merupakan paket pengolah kata yang pertama dan sampai 2 tahun kemuduan merupkan paket pengolah kata satu-satunya yang beredar dipasaran. 1979. Word Star John Barnaby menulis program pengolah kata atas permintaan Seymour Rubinstein. Sebelum menulis program, Seymour Rubinstein telah mengunjungi beberapa penjual perangkat lunak untuk menegtahui keinginan masyarakat tentang software pengolah kata. Program paket tersebut kemudian disebut Word Star dan sukses menembus pasaran dengan perusahaannya yang bernama micropo. Beberapa versi Word Star telah beredar dipasaran, diantaranya Word Star release 3.4, Word Star profesional release 4.0 dan lain sebagainya. 26 1979. Apple Writer Apple Writer juga merupkan program paket pengolah kata yang habis terjual. Apple Writer ditulis oleh Paul Lutus yang nyentrik. Paul Lutus merupkan programmer yang independen. 1979. VisiCalc Pada tanggal 11 mei 1979 pada west coast computer fair, paket program spreadsheet pertama yang dirancang untuk pemakai komputer personal telah diperkenalkan dengan nama VisiCalc(Visible calculator atau visual calculator). VisiCalc merupakan ide dari Daniel Bricklin dan dibuat oleh Robert Frankston. Daniel Bricklin adalah seseorang lulusan dari MIT yang sudah bekerja sebagai software engineer di peruasahaan komputer Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) yang kemudian mengikuti kuliah kembali di Harvard Businees School. 1981. dBASE-II Wayne Ratliff, ahli tehnik NASA menulis suatu program untuk aplikasi bisnis pada waktu-waktu senggangnya dan memasarkannya dengan nama vulcan,tetapi tidak sukses di pasaran. Sementara George Tate, ahli didalam mereparasi komputer yang kemudian menjadi ahli pemasaran software bersama-sama dengan Hal Lachlee mengadakan kontrak dengan Wayne Ratliff untuk memasarkan Vulcan. Nama Vulcan kemudian dirubah menjadi dBASE-II. Supaya seakan-akan merupakan software yang terbaru,dari peningkatan dBASE sebelumnya, padahal dBASE-I tidak pernah ada. dBASE-II dipasarkan pada tahun 1981 dengan nama perusahaannya Ashton-Tate yang sebenarnya merupakan paket DBMS(Database Management Systems) yang mempunyai bahasa tingkat tinggi. 1982. LOTUS 1-2-3 Lotus 1-2-3 merupakan suatu program paket yang berisi gabungan programprogram spreadsheet. Grafik dan kemampuan untuk mendapatkan informasi, yaitu tiga bentuk program dalam satu program. Lotus 1-2-3 ditulis oleh mitchell kapor, lulusan dari yale University tahun 1971 lotus 1-2-3 khusus ditulis untuk komputer mikro 16 bit IBM PC.. 27 Berikut ini adalah beberapa macam paket software untuk komputer IBM PC atau yang kompatibel dengan IBM PC. 1. Aplikasi Untuk Pengolah Kata: Microsof Word, Final Word,Easy writer II,NBI word processing,Word Vision,Word Star, Textplus, dan lain-lain. Gambar 12. Microsof Word 2. Aplikasi Untuk Database Dan File Management: Advanced Db master,Advanced System PAC,Aladin,Data Ace,dBASE-III,Easy Filler,Visifile,dan lain-lain. Gambar 13. dBASE-III 28 3. Aplikasi Untuk Permodelan: Calc-86,Construction Models, Microsoft Window, Symphony,Vizualize, VIZACON, The Thinker, dan lain-lain. 4. Aplikasi Untuk Investasi Manajemen: Finacial Fastrax, Financial Software series,Market Maverick, Optioncalc,stockcal, dan lain-lain. 5. Aplikasi Untuk Akuntansi: Account payable,Colorbiz Inventory,Gneral Ledger System,Inventory control, Versainventory, dan lain-lain. 6. Aplikasi Penjadwalan Proyek: Microgantt,Shoebox,Time Scheduler, Visischedule, dan lain-lain. 7. Aplikasi Untuk Komunikasi Dan Telekomunikasi: Ascom, Ethernet,The Micro Link II, Microterm,Move-it, dan lain-lain. 8. Aplikasi Untuk Garfik: Auto Cad, Business Graphics, Corel Draw, Pc-Draw,Graph Magic, Pyxel Visual, Adobe Photoshop, Fast Graph, dan lain-lain. 9. Aplikasi Untuk Manipulasi Printer: Letrrix, Fancy Font, Nice Print, Select A Font, Printer Boss,Side Ways, dan lain-lain. 10. Aplikasi Untuk Manfaat : Autodex, Sevenware, Side Kick, The Spooler, Super key,System Backup, UT86,The Norton Utilities, dan lain-lain. 11. Aplikasi Untuk Sorting: Autosort, fatsort,HBsort, the Sort, The Sorter, dan lain-lain. 12. Aplikasi Untuk Pendidikan: FaceMaker, Math Drills,Pc Pal, Pc pilot,Video Etch,Word Whiz, dan lain-lain. 13. Aplikasi Untuk Permainan: Apple Panic, jumpman,Miliionaire,space minner,zork, flight simulator,train simulator, dan lain-lain. 14. Aplikasi Untuk Statistic: BMD,Microstat,SPSS, Statpro, TSP, SAS, dan lain-lain. 29 Daftar Pustaka Sutanta,Edhy,2005, Pengantar Teknologi Informasi, Graha Ilmu,Yogyakarta E.S Margianti, D. Suryadi H.S, 1994, Sistem Informasi Manajemen, Gunadarma, Jakarta Hartono,Jogiyanto, 1999, Pengenalan Komputer, Andi Jogyakarta, Yogyakarta 1. Dibawah ini yang termasuk alat input, kecuali… a. Mouse b. Keyboard c. Printer * d. Scanner 2. Bagian dari system computer yang berfungsi untuk mencatat hasil pengolahan data adalah… a. Unit Input b. Unit Output * c. CPU d. Secondary Storage 3. Alat apakah yang digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah kapasitas floppy disk... a. Zip Drive * b. CD-Room c. Hard Disk d. DVD 4. Disebut Apakah alat yang digunakan untuk mencetak tulisan dan image pada media kertas atau film… a. Soft copy device b. Hard copy device * c. printer d. Plotter 5. Soft copy device adalah alat untuk… a. Mencetak pada kertas b. Mencetak pada media lunak * c. Mencetak pada film d. Mencetak pada media keras 6. Diantara type printer dibawah ini yang termasuk printer berkecepatan tinggi adalah... a. Line printer * b. Dot matrix printer c. Inkjet Printer d. Daisy wheel printer 7. Pada tahun berapakah system operasi pertama kali di kembangkan... a. 1945 b. 1960 c. 1965 d. 1954 * 8. Sistem operasi apakah yang pertama kali menggunakan high level langguage... a. Windows b. Linux c. Unix * d. MS-Dos 9. Dibawah ini mana yang bukan termasuk paket pengolah kata (word processor) … 30 a. VisiCalc * b. Electric Pencil c. Word Star d. Microsoft Word 10. Dibawah ini manakah yang merupakan paket aplikasi untuk pendidikan… a. Fancy font b. Math Drils * c. SAS d. MicroTerm II.SISTEM KOMPUTER A.KOMPONEN SISTEM KOMPUTER Perangkat Keras Piranti Lunak Data dan Informasi Prosedur Manusia B.PERANGKAT KERAS (HARDWARE) Adalah peralatan fisik yang membentuk suatu sistem komputer. Komponen-komponennya : Input Devices (Peralatan Input) Memory (Memori) Processors (Prosesor) Output Devices (Peralatan Output) Storage Devices (Peralatan Penyimpanan) Communication Devices (Peralatan Komunikasi) Diagram hubungan antar komponen Perangkat Keras

III.PERBEDAAN ARSITEKTUR DAN ORGANISASI KOMPUTER 1. Arsitektur Komputer berkaitan erat dengan atribut-atribut sebuah sistem yang tampak (Visible) bagi seorang program. Contoh Atribut Arsitektural Adalah :set instruksi, jumlah bit utk representasi bermacam jenis data, mekanisme I/O, dan teknik-teknik pengalamatan memory. 2. Organisasi Komputer berkaitan erat dengan unit-unit operasional dan interkoneksinya yang merealisasikan spesifikasi arsitektural. Contoh Atribut Organisasional Adalah :rincian hardware yang dapat diketahui oleh pemrogram, seperti sinyal kontrol, interface komputer, dan teknologi memori yang digunakan. IV.STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI KOMPUTER Fungsi Operasi masing-masing komponen sebagai bagian dari struktur. Empat (4) fungsi dasar pada sebuah komputer a. Olah Data b. Simpan Data c. Pindah Data d. Kontrol Struktur Cara komponen-komponen saling terkait. Empat (4) Komponen Utama 1. Central Processing Unit Komponen Utama Dari CPU Control Unit, ALU, Register, CPU Interconnection 2. Main Memory Komponen Utama Dari Memory Internal Memory, dan External Memory 3. Input Output Komponen Utama Dari I/O 4. System Interconnection Komponen Utama Dari I/O V. MESIN VON NEUMANN Memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut : 1. Menggunakan Stored Program Concept 2. Mengacu pada IAS Computer (Gambar struktur komputer IAS) 3. Struktur IAS Computer terdiri dari : a. Main Memory (RAM) tempat menampung data dan instruksi untuk pemrosesan lebih lanjut. JENIS-JENISNYA RAM (Random Access Memory), DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory), SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), EDO RAM (Extended Data Out RAM). ROM (Read Only Memory), ROM Programmable Read Only Memory), EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Circuit Board: SIMM, DIMM Cache Memory (Flash RAM) Video Memory (VRAM) Flash Memory REPRESENTASI DATA DI DALAM MEMORI. Pengertian binary digits. Sistem bilangan biner. Sistem pengkodean bilangan/ characters: EBCDIC, ASCII (8 bits), Unicode (16 bits). Ukuran memori Bit, Byte, Kilobyte (KB), Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB), Terabyte (TB) b. ALU c. Control Unit yang menginterpretasikan instruksi2 menyebabkan instruksi tsb dieksekusi. d. I/O Device yang dioperasikan oleh control unit VI. KONSEP HARDWARE 1. SISD single instruction stream & single data stream – semua unit processor tradisional – PC & mainframe. 2. SIMD mengacu pada array processor dengan unit instruksi tunggal yang mengambil instruksi dan kemudian memerintahkan beberapa unit data untuk secara paralel menangani datanya masing-masing. Kegunaan komputasi yang mengulang dan kalkulasi yang sama pada banyak set data. Contohnya menambahkan semua elemen dari 64 vektor yang independen. Beberapa superkomputer merupakan SIMD. 3. MISD tidak satupun komputer sekarang ini yang sesuai dengan model ini. 4. MIMD sekelompok komputer yang independen dengan masing-masing program counter, program dan data. Semua sistem terdistribusi adalah MIMD. MIMD dibagi menjadi 2 grup: a. Multiprocessor yang menggunakan memory bersama. b. Multicomputer. PERTEMUAN 2 September 1990 Order Number: 231455-005 8086 16-BIT HMOS MICROPROCESSOR 8086/8086-2/8086-1 Y Direct Addressing Capability 1 MByte of Memory Y Architecture Designed for Powerful Assembly Language and Efficient High Level Languages Y 14 Word, by 16-Bit Register Set with Symmetrical Operations Y 24 Operand Addressing Modes Y Bit, Byte, Word, and Block Operations Y 8 and 16-Bit Signed and Unsigned Arithmetic in Binary or Decimal Including Multiply and Divide Y Range of Clock Rates: 5 MHz for 8086, 8 MHz for 8086-2, 10 MHz for 8086-1 Y MULTIBUS System Compatible Interface Y Available in EXPRESS ÐStandard Temperature Range ÐExtended Temperature Range Y Available in 40-Lead Cerdip and Plastic Package (See Packaging Spec. Order Ý231369) The Intel 8086 high performance 16-bit CPU is available in three clock rates: 5, 8 and 10 MHz. The CPU is implemented in N-Channel, depletion load, silicon gate technology (HMOS-III), and packaged in a 40-pin CERDIP or plastic package. The 8086 operates in both single processor and multiple processor configurations to achieve high performance levels. 231455±1 Figure 1. 8086 CPU Block Diagram 231455±2 40 Lead Figure 2. 8086 Pin Configuration www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 1. Pin Description The following pin function descriptions are for 8086 systems in either minimum or maximum mode. The ``Local Bus'' in these descriptions is the direct multiplexed bus interface connection to the 8086 (without regard to additional bus buffers). Symbol Pin No. Type Name and Function AD15±AD0 2±16, 39 I/O ADDRESS DATA BUS: These lines constitute the time multiplexed memory/IO address (T1), and data (T2, T3, TW, T4) bus. A0 is analogous to BHE for the lower byte of the data bus, pins D7±D0. It is LOW during T1 when a byte is to be transferred on the lower portion of the bus in memory or I/O operations. Eight-bit oriented devices tied to the lower half would normally use A0 to condition chip select functions. (See BHE.) These lines are active HIGH and float to 3-state OFF during interrupt acknowledge and local bus ``hold acknowledge''. A19/S6, 35±38 O ADDRESS/STATUS: During T1 these are the four most significant A18/S5, address lines for memory operations. During I/O operations these A17/S4, lines are LOW. During memory and I/O operations, status information A16/S3 is available on these lines during T2, T3, TW, T4. The status of the interrupt enable FLAG bit (S5) is updated at the beginning of each CLK cycle. A17/S4 and A16/S3 are encoded as shown. This information indicates which relocation register is presently being used for data accessing. These lines float to 3-state OFF during local bus ``hold acknowledge.'' A17/S4 A16/S3 Characteristics 0 (LOW) 0 Alternate Data 0 1 Stack 1 (HIGH) 0 Code or None 1 1 Data S6 is 0 (LOW) BHE/S7 34 O BUS HIGH ENABLE/STATUS: During T1 the bus high enable signal (BHE) should be used to enable data onto the most significant half of the data bus, pins D15±D8. Eight-bit oriented devices tied to the upper half of the bus would normally use BHE to condition chip select functions. BHE is LOW during T1 for read, write, and interrupt acknowledge cycles when a byte is to be transferred on the high portion of the bus. The S7 status information is available during T2, T3, and T4. The signal is active LOW, and floats to 3-state OFF in ``hold''. It is LOW during T1 for the first interrupt acknowledge cycle. BHE A0 Characteristics 0 0 Whole word 0 1 Upper byte from/to odd address 1 0 Lower byte from/to even address 1 1 None RD 32 O READ: Read strobe indicates that the processor is performing a memory or I/O read cycle, depending on the state of the S2 pin. This signal is used to read devices which reside on the 8086 local bus. RD is active LOW during T2, T3 and TW of any read cycle, and is guaranteed to remain HIGH in T2 until the 8086 local bus has floated. This signal floats to 3-state OFF in ``hold acknowledge''. 2 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 1. Pin Description (Continued) Symbol Pin No. Type Name and Function READY 22 I READY: is the acknowledgement from the addressed memory or I/O device that it will complete the data transfer. The READY signal from memory/IO is synchronized by the 8284A Clock Generator to form READY. This signal is active HIGH. The 8086 READY input is not synchronized. Correct operation is not guaranteed if the setup and hold times are not met. INTR 18 I INTERRUPT REQUEST: is a level triggered input which is sampled during the last clock cycle of each instruction to determine if the processor should enter into an interrupt acknowledge operation. A subroutine is vectored to via an interrupt vector lookup table located in system memory. It can be internally masked by software resetting the interrupt enable bit. INTR is internally synchronized. This signal is active HIGH. TEST 23 I TEST: input is examined by the ``Wait'' instruction. If the TEST input is LOW execution continues, otherwise the processor waits in an ``Idle'' state. This input is synchronized internally during each clock cycle on the leading edge of CLK. NMI 17 I NON-MASKABLE INTERRUPT: an edge triggered input which causes a type 2 interrupt. A subroutine is vectored to via an interrupt vector lookup table located in system memory. NMI is not maskable internally by software. A transition from LOW to HIGH initiates the interrupt at the end of the current instruction. This input is internally synchronized. RESET 21 I RESET: causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activity. The signal must be active HIGH for at least four clock cycles. It restarts execution, as described in the Instruction Set description, when RESET returns LOW. RESET is internally synchronized. CLK 19 I CLOCK: provides the basic timing for the processor and bus controller. It is asymmetric with a 33% duty cycle to provide optimized internal timing. VCC 40 VCC: a5V power supply pin. GND 1, 20 GROUND MN/MX 33 I MINIMUM/MAXIMUM: indicates what mode the processor is to operate in. The two modes are discussed in the following sections. The following pin function descriptions are for the 8086/8288 system in maximum mode (i.e., MN/MX eVSS). Only the pin functions which are unique to maximum mode are described; all other pin functions are as described above. S2, S1, S0 26±28 O STATUS: active during T4, T1, and T2 and is returned to the passive state (1, 1, 1) during T3 or during TW when READY is HIGH. This status is used by the 8288 Bus Controller to generate all memory and I/O access control signals. Any change by S2, S1, or S0 during T4 is used to indicate the beginning of a bus cycle, and the return to the passive state in T3 or TW is used to indicate the end of a bus cycle. 3 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 1. Pin Description (Continued) Symbol Pin No. Type Name and Function S2, S1, S0 26±28 O These signals float to 3-state OFF in ``hold acknowledge''. These status (Continued) lines are encoded as shown. S2 S1 S0 Characteristics 0 (LOW) 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 0 0 1 Read I/O Port 0 1 0 Write I/O Port 0 1 1 Halt 1 (HIGH) 0 0 Code Access 1 0 1 Read Memory 1 1 0 Write Memory 1 1 1 Passive RQ/GT0, 30, 31 I/O REQUEST/GRANT: pins are used by other local bus masters to force RQ/GT1 the processor to release the local bus at the end of the processor's current bus cycle. Each pin is bidirectional with RQ/GT0 having higher priority than RQ/GT1. RQ/GT pins have internal pull-up resistors and may be left unconnected. The request/grant sequence is as follows (see Page 2-24): 1. A pulse of 1 CLK wide from another local bus master indicates a local bus request (``hold'') to the 8086 (pulse 1). 2. During a T4 or T1 clock cycle, a pulse 1 CLK wide from the 8086 to the requesting master (pulse 2), indicates that the 8086 has allowed the local bus to float and that it will enter the ``hold acknowledge'' state at the next CLK. The CPU's bus interface unit is disconnected logically from the local bus during ``hold acknowledge''. 3. A pulse 1 CLK wide from the requesting master indicates to the 8086 (pulse 3) that the ``hold'' request is about to end and that the 8086 can reclaim the local bus at the next CLK. Each master-master exchange of the local bus is a sequence of 3 pulses. There must be one dead CLK cycle after each bus exchange. Pulses are active LOW. If the request is made while the CPU is performing a memory cycle, it will release the local bus during T4 of the cycle when all the following conditions are met: 1. Request occurs on or before T2. 2. Current cycle is not the low byte of a word (on an odd address). 3. Current cycle is not the first acknowledge of an interrupt acknowledge sequence. 4. A locked instruction is not currently executing. If the local bus is idle when the request is made the two possible events will follow: 1. Local bus will be released during the next clock. 2. A memory cycle will start within 3 clocks. Now the four rules for a currently active memory cycle apply with condition number 1 already satisfied. LOCK 29 O LOCK: output indicates that other system bus masters are not to gain control of the system bus while LOCK is active LOW. The LOCK signal is activated by the ``LOCK'' prefix instruction and remains active until the completion of the next instruction. This signal is active LOW, and floats to 3-state OFF in ``hold acknowledge''. 4 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 1. Pin Description (Continued) Symbol Pin No. Type Name and Function QS1, QS0 24, 25 O QUEUE STATUS: The queue status is valid during the CLK cycle after which the queue operation is performed. QS1 and QS0 provide status to allow external tracking of the internal 8086 instruction queue. QS1 QS0 Characteristics 0 (LOW) 0 No Operation 0 1 First Byte of Op Code from Queue 1 (HIGH) 0 Empty the Queue 1 1 Subsequent Byte from Queue The following pin function descriptions are for the 8086 in minimum mode (i.e., MN/MX eVCC). Only the pin functions which are unique to minimum mode are described; all other pin functions are as described above. M/IO 28 O STATUS LINE: logically equivalent to S2 in the maximum mode. It is used to distinguish a memory access from an I/O access. M/IO becomes valid in the T4 preceding a bus cycle and remains valid until the final T4 of the cycle (M e HIGH, IO e LOW). M/IO floats to 3-state OFF in local bus ``hold acknowledge''. WR 29 O WRITE: indicates that the processor is performing a write memory or write I/O cycle, depending on the state of the M/IO signal. WR is active for T2, T3 and TW of any write cycle. It is active LOW, and floats to 3-state OFF in local bus ``hold acknowledge''. INTA 24 O INTA: is used as a read strobe for interrupt acknowledge cycles. It is active LOW during T2, T3 and TW of each interrupt acknowledge cycle. ALE 25 O ADDRESS LATCH ENABLE: provided by the processor to latch the address into the 8282/8283 address latch. It is a HIGH pulse active during T1 of any bus cycle. Note that ALE is never floated. DT/R 27 O DATA TRANSMIT/RECEIVE: needed in minimum system that desires to use an 8286/8287 data bus transceiver. It is used to control the direction of data flow through the transceiver. Logically DT/R is equivalent to S1 in the maximum mode, and its timing is the same as for M/IO. (T e HIGH, R e LOW.) This signal floats to 3-state OFF in local bus ``hold acknowledge''. DEN 26 O DATA ENABLE: provided as an output enable for the 8286/8287 in a minimum system which uses the transceiver. DEN is active LOW during each memory and I/O access and for INTA cycles. For a read or INTA cycle it is active from the middle of T2 until the middle of T4, while for a write cycle it is active from the beginning of T2 until the middle of T4. DEN floats to 3state OFF in local bus ``hold acknowledge''. HOLD, 31, 30 I/O HOLD: indicates that another master is requesting a local bus ``hold.'' To be HLDA acknowledged, HOLD must be active HIGH. The processor receiving the ``hold'' request will issue HLDA (HIGH) as an acknowledgement in the middle of a T4 or Ti clock cycle. Simultaneous with the issuance of HLDA the processor will float the local bus and control lines. After HOLD is detected as being LOW, the processor will LOWer the HLDA, and when the processor needs to run another cycle, it will again drive the local bus and control lines. Hold acknowledge (HLDA) and HOLD have internal pull-up resistors. The same rules as for RQ/GT apply regarding when the local bus will be released. HOLD is not an asynchronous input. External synchronization should be provided if the system cannot otherwise guarantee the setup time. 5 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General Operation The internal functions of the 8086 processor are partitioned logically into two processing units. The first is the Bus Interface Unit (BIU) and the second is the Execution Unit (EU) as shown in the block diagram of Figure 1. These units can interact directly but for the most part perform as separate asynchronous operational processors. The bus interface unit provides the functions related to instruction fetching and queuing, operand fetch and store, and address relocation. This unit also provides the basic bus control. The overlap of instruction pre-fetching provided by this unit serves to increase processor performance through improved bus bandwidth utilization. Up to 6 bytes of the instruction stream can be queued while waiting for decoding and execution. The instruction stream queuing mechanism allows the BIU to keep the memory utilized very efficiently. Whenever there is space for at least 2 bytes in the queue, the BIU will attempt a word fetch memory cycle. This greatly reduces ``dead time'' on the memory bus. The queue acts as a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) buffer, from which the EU extracts instruction bytes as required. If the queue is empty (following a branch instruction, for example), the first byte into the queue immediately becomes available to the EU. The execution unit receives pre-fetched instructions from the BIU queue and provides un-relocated operand addresses to the BIU. Memory operands are passed through the BIU for processing by the EU, which passes results to the BIU for storage. See the Instruction Set description for further register set and architectural descriptions. MEMORY ORGANIZATION The processor provides a 20-bit address to memory which locates the byte being referenced. The memory is organized as a linear array of up to 1 million bytes, addressed as 00000(H) to FFFFF(H). The memory is logically divided into code, data, extra data, and stack segments of up to 64K bytes each, with each segment falling on 16-byte boundaries. (See Figure 3a.) All memory references are made relative to base addresses contained in high speed segment registers. The segment types were chosen based on the addressing needs of programs. The segment register to be selected is automatically chosen according to the rules of the following table. All information in one segment type share the same logical attributes (e.g. code or data). By structuring memory into relocatable areas of similar characteristics and by automatically selecting segment registers, programs are shorter, faster, and more structured. Word (16-bit) operands can be located on even or odd address boundaries and are thus not constrained to even boundaries as is the case in many 16-bit computers. For address and data operands, the least significant byte of the word is stored in the lower valued address location and the most significant byte in the next higher address location. The BIU automatically performs the proper number of memory accesses, one if the word operand is on an even byte boundary and two if it is on an odd byte boundary. Except for the performance penalty, this double access is transparent to the software. This performance penalty does not occur for instruction fetches, only word operands. Physically, the memory is organized as a high bank (D15±D8) and a low bank (D7±D0) of 512K 8-bit bytes addressed in parallel by the processor's address lines A19±A1. Byte data with even addresses is transferred on the D7±D0 bus lines while odd addressed byte data (A0 HIGH) is transferred on the D15±D8 bus lines. The processor provides two enable signals, BHE and A0, to selectively allow reading from or writing into either an odd byte location, even byte location, or both. The instruction stream is fetched from memory as words and is addressed internally by the processor to the byte level as necessary. Memory Segment Register Segment Reference Need Used Selection Rule Instructions CODE (CS) Automatic with all instruction prefetch. Stack STACK (SS) All stack pushes and pops. Memory references relative to BP base register except data references. Local Data DATA (DS) Data references when: relative to stack, destination of string operation, or explicitly overridden. External (Global) Data EXTRA (ES) Destination of string operations: explicitly selected using a segment override. 6 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 231455±3 Figure 3a. Memory Organization In referencing word data the BIU requires one or two memory cycles depending on whether or not the starting byte of the word is on an even or odd address, respectively. Consequently, in referencing word operands performance can be optimized by locating data on even address boundaries. This is an especially useful technique for using the stack, since odd address references to the stack may adversely affect the context switching time for interrupt processing or task multiplexing. 231455±4 Figure 3b. Reserved Memory Locations Certain locations in memory are reserved for specific CPU operations (see Figure 3b). Locations from address FFFF0H through FFFFFH are reserved for operations including a jump to the initial program loading routine. Following RESET, the CPU will always begin execution at location FFFF0H where the jump must be. Locations 00000H through 003FFH are reserved for interrupt operations. Each of the 256 possible interrupt types has its service routine pointed to by a 4-byte pointer element consisting of a 16-bit segment address and a 16-bit offset address. The pointer elements are assumed to have been stored at the respective places in reserved memory prior to occurrence of interrupts. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM MODES The requirements for supporting minimum and maximum 8086 systems are sufficiently different that they cannot be done efficiently with 40 uniquely defined pins. Consequently, the 8086 is equipped with a strap pin (MN/MX) which defines the system configuration. The definition of a certain subset of the pins changes dependent on the condition of the strap pin. When MN/MX pin is strapped to GND, the 8086 treats pins 24 through 31 in maximum mode. An 8288 bus controller interprets status information coded into S0, S2, S2 to generate bus timing and control signals compatible with the MULTIBUS architecture. When the MN/MX pin is strapped to VCC, the 8086 generates bus control signals itself on pins 24 through 31, as shown in parentheses in Figure 2. Examples of minimum mode and maximum mode systems are shown in Figure 4. BUS OPERATION The 8086 has a combined address and data bus commonly referred to as a time multiplexed bus. This technique provides the most efficient use of pins on the processor while permitting the use of a standard 40-lead package. This ``local bus'' can be buffered directly and used throughout the system with address latching provided on memory and I/O modules. In addition, the bus can also be demultiplexed at the processor with a single set of address latches if a standard non-multiplexed bus is desired for the system. Each processor bus cycle consists of at least four CLK cycles. These are referred to as T1, T2, T3 and T4 (see Figure 5). The address is emitted from the processor during T1 and data transfer occurs on the bus during T3 and T4. T2 is used primarily for changing the direction of the bus during read operations. In the event that a ``NOT READY'' indication is given by the addressed device, ``Wait'' states (TW) are inserted between T3 and T4. Each inserted ``Wait'' state is of the same duration as a CLK cycle. Periods 7 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 231455±5 Figure 4a. Minimum Mode 8086 Typical Configuration 231455±6 Figure 4b. Maximum Mode 8086 Typical Configuration 8 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 can occur between 8086 bus cycles. These are referred to as ``Idle'' states (Ti) or inactive CLK cycles. The processor uses these cycles for internal housekeeping. During T1 of any bus cycle the ALE (Address Latch Enable) signal is emitted (by either the processor or the 8288 bus controller, depending on the MN/MX strap). At the trailing edge of this pulse, a valid address and certain status information for the cycle may be latched. Status bits S0, S1 , and S2 are used, in maximum mode, by the bus controller to identify the type of bus transaction according to the following table: S2 S1 S0 Characteristics 0 (LOW) 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge 0 0 1 Read I/O 0 1 0 Write I/O 0 1 1 Halt 1 (HIGH) 0 0 Instruction Fetch 1 0 1 Read Data from Memory 1 1 0 Write Data to Memory 1 1 1 Passive (no bus cycle) 231455±8 Figure 5. Basic System Timing 9 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Status bits S3 through S7 are multiplexed with highorder address bits and the BHE signal, and are therefore valid during T2 through T4. S3 and S4 indicate which segment register (see Instruction Set description) was used for this bus cycle in forming the address, according to the following table: S4 S3 Characteristics 0 (LOW) 0 Alternate Data (extra segment) 0 1 Stack 1 (HIGH) 0 Code or None 1 1 Data S5 is a reflection of the PSW interrupt enable bit. S6 e 0 and S7 is a spare status bit. I/O ADDRESSING In the 8086, I/O operations can address up to a maximum of 64K I/O byte registers or 32K I/O word registers. The I/O address appears in the same format as the memory address on bus lines A15±A0. The address lines A19±A16 are zero in I/O operations. The variable I/O instructions which use register DX as a pointer have full address capability while the direct I/O instructions directly address one or two of the 256 I/O byte locations in page 0 of the I/O address space. I/O ports are addressed in the same manner as memory locations. Even addressed bytes are transferred on the D7±D0 bus lines and odd addressed bytes on D15±D8. Care must be taken to assure that each register within an 8-bit peripheral located on the lower portion of the bus be addressed as even. External Interface PROCESSOR RESET AND INITIALIZATION Processor initialization or start up is accomplished with activation (HIGH) of the RESET pin. The 8086 RESET is required to be HIGH for greater than 4 CLK cycles. The 8086 will terminate operations on the high-going edge of RESET and will remain dormant as long as RESET is HIGH. The low-going transition of RESET triggers an internal reset sequence for approximately 10 CLK cycles. After this interval the 8086 operates normally beginning with the instruction in absolute location FFFF0H (see Figure 3b). The details of this operation are specified in the Instruction Set description of the MCS-86 Family User's Manual. The RESET input is internally synchronized to the processor clock. At initialization the HIGH-to-LOW transition of RESET must occur no sooner than 50 ms after power-up, to allow complete initialization of the 8086. NMI asserted prior to the 2nd clock after the end of RESET will not be honored. If NMI is asserted after that point and during the internal reset sequence, the processor may execute one instruction before responding to the interrupt. A hold request active immediately after RESET will be honored before the first instruction fetch. All 3-state outputs float to 3-state OFF during RESET. Status is active in the idle state for the first clock after RESET becomes active and then floats to 3-state OFF. ALE and HLDA are driven low. INTERRUPT OPERATIONS Interrupt operations fall into two classes; software or hardware initiated. The software initiated interrupts and software aspects of hardware interrupts are specified in the Instruction Set description. Hardware interrupts can be classified as non-maskable or maskable. Interrupts result in a transfer of control to a new program location. A 256-element table containing address pointers to the interrupt service program locations resides in absolute locations 0 through 3FFH (see Figure 3b), which are reserved for this purpose. Each element in the table is 4 bytes in size and corresponds to an interrupt ``type''. An interrupting device supplies an 8-bit type number, during the interrupt acknowledge sequence, which is used to ``vector'' through the appropriate element to the new interrupt service program location. NON-MASKABLE INTERRUPT (NMI) The processor provides a single non-maskable interrupt pin (NMI) which has higher priority than the maskable interrupt request pin (INTR). A typical use would be to activate a power failure routine. The NMI is edge-triggered on a LOW-to-HIGH transition. The activation of this pin causes a type 2 interrupt. (See Instruction Set description.) NMI is required to have a duration in the HIGH state of greater than two CLK cycles, but is not required to be synchronized to the clock. Any high-going transition of NMI is latched on-chip and will be serviced at the end of the current instruction or between whole moves of a block-type instruction. Worst case response to NMI would be for multiply, divide, and variable shift instructions. There is no specification on the occurrence of the low-going edge; it may occur before, during, or after the servicing of NMI. Another high-going edge triggers another response if it occurs after the start of the NMI procedure. The signal must be free of logical spikes in general and be free of bounces on the low-going edge to avoid triggering extraneous responses. 10 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 MASKABLE INTERRUPT (INTR) The 8086 provides a single interrupt request input (INTR) which can be masked internally by software with the resetting of the interrupt enable FLAG status bit. The interrupt request signal is level triggered. It is internally synchronized during each clock cycle on the high-going edge of CLK. To be responded to, INTR must be present (HIGH) during the clock period preceding the end of the current instruction or the end of a whole move for a blocktype instruction. During the interrupt response sequence further interrupts are disabled. The enable bit is reset as part of the response to any interrupt (INTR, NMI, software interrupt or single-step), although the FLAGS register which is automatically pushed onto the stack reflects the state of the processor prior to the interrupt. Until the old FLAGS register is restored the enable bit will be zero unless specifically set by an instruction. During the response sequence (Figure 6) the processor executes two successive (back-to-back) interrupt acknowledge cycles. The 8086 emits the LOCK signal from T2 of the first bus cycle until T2 of the second. A local bus ``hold'' request will not be honored until the end of the second bus cycle. In the second bus cycle a byte is fetched from the external interrupt system (e.g., 8259A PIC) which identifies the source (type) of the interrupt. This byte is multiplied by four and used as a pointer into the interrupt vector lookup table. An INTR signal left HIGH will be continually responded to within the limitations of the enable bit and sample period. The INTERRUPT RETURN instruction includes a FLAGS pop which returns the status of the original interrupt enable bit when it restores the FLAGS. HALT When a software ``HALT'' instruction is executed the processor indicates that it is entering the ``HALT'' state in one of two ways depending upon which mode is strapped. In minimum mode, the processor issues one ALE with no qualifying bus control signals. In maximum mode, the processor issues appropriate HALT status on S2, S1 , and S0; and the 8288 bus controller issues one ALE. The 8086 will not leave the ``HALT'' state when a local bus ``hold'' is entered while in ``HALT''. In this case, the processor reissues the HALT indicator. An interrupt request or RESET will force the 8086 out of the ``HALT'' state. READ/MODIFY/WRITE (SEMAPHORE) OPERATIONS VIA LOCK The LOCK status information is provided by the processor when directly consecutive bus cycles are required during the execution of an instruction. This provides the processor with the capability of performing read/modify/write operations on memory (via the Exchange Register With Memory instruction, for example) without the possibility of another system bus master receiving intervening memory cycles. This is useful in multi-processor system configurations to accomplish ``test and set lock'' operations. The LOCK signal is activated (forced LOW) in the clock cycle following the one in which the software ``LOCK'' prefix instruction is decoded by the EU. It is deactivated at the end of the last bus cycle of the instruction following the ``LOCK'' prefix instruction. While LOCK is active a request on a RQ/ GT pin will be recorded and then honored at the end of the LOCK. 231455±9 Figure 6. Interrupt Acknowledge Sequence 11 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 EXTERNAL SYNCHRONIZATION VIA TEST As an alternative to the interrupts and general I/O capabilities, the 8086 provides a single softwaretestable input known as the TEST signal. At any time the program may execute a WAIT instruction. If at that time the TEST signal is inactive (HIGH), program execution becomes suspended while the processor waits for TEST to become active. It must remain active for at least 5 CLK cycles. The WAIT instruction is re-executed repeatedly until that time. This activity does not consume bus cycles. The processor remains in an idle state while waiting. All 8086 drivers go to 3-state OFF if bus ``Hold'' is entered. If interrupts are enabled, they may occur while the processor is waiting. When this occurs the processor fetches the WAIT instruction one extra time, processes the interrupt, and then re-fetches and reexecutes the WAIT instruction upon returning from the interrupt. Basic System Timing Typical system configurations for the processor operating in minimum mode and in maximum mode are shown in Figures 4a and 4b, respectively. In minimum mode, the MN/MX pin is strapped to VCC and the processor emits bus control signals in a manner similar to the 8085. In maximum mode, the MN/MX pin is strapped to VSS and the processor emits coded status information which the 8288 bus controller uses to generate MULTIBUS compatible bus control signals. Figure 5 illustrates the signal timing relationships. 231455±10 Figure 7. 8086 Register Model SYSTEM TIMINGÐMINIMUM SYSTEM The read cycle begins in T1 with the assertion of the Address Latch Enable (ALE) signal. The trailing (lowgoing) edge of this signal is used to latch the address information, which is valid on the local bus at this time, into the address latch. The BHE and A0 signals address the low, high, or both bytes. From T1 to T4 the M/IO signal indicates a memory or I/O operation. At T2 the address is removed from the local bus and the bus goes to a high impedance state. The read control signal is also asserted at T2. The read (RD) signal causes the addressed device to enable its data bus drivers to the local bus. Some time later valid data will be available on the bus and the addressed device will drive the READY line HIGH. When the processor returns the read signal to a HIGH level, the addressed device will again 3state its bus drivers. If a transceiver is required to buffer the 8086 local bus, signals DT/R and DEN are provided by the 8086. A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. The M/IO signal is again asserted to indicate a memory or I/O write operation. In the T2 immediately following the address emission the processor emits the data to be written into the addressed location. This data remains valid until the middle of T4. During T2, T3, and TW the processor asserts the write control signal. The write (WR) signal becomes active at the beginning of T2 as opposed to the read which is delayed somewhat into T2 to provide time for the bus to float. The BHE and A0 signals are used to select the proper byte(s) of the memory/IO word to be read or written according to the following table: BHE A0 Characteristics 0 0 Whole word 0 1 Upper byte from/to odd address 1 0 Lower byte from/to even address 1 1 None I/O ports are addressed in the same manner as memory location. Even addressed bytes are transferred on the D7±D0 bus lines and odd addressed bytes on D15±D8. The basic difference between the interrupt acknowledge cycle and a read cycle is that the interrupt acknowledge signal (INTA) is asserted in place of the read (RD) signal and the address bus is floated. (See Figure 6.) In the second of two successive INTA cycles, a byte of information is read from bus 12 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 lines D7±D0 as supplied by the inerrupt system logic (i.e., 8259A Priority Interrupt Controller). This byte identifies the source (type) of the interrupt. It is multiplied by four and used as a pointer into an interrupt vector lookup table, as described earlier. BUS TIMINGÐMEDIUM SIZE SYSTEMS For medium size systems the MN/MX pin is connected to VSS and the 8288 Bus Controller is added to the system as well as a latch for latching the system address, and a transceiver to allow for bus loading greater than the 8086 is capable of handling. Signals ALE, DEN, and DT/R are generated by the 8288 instead of the processor in this configuration although their timing remains relatively the same. The 8086 status outputs (S2, S1 , and S0) provide type-of-cycle information and become 8288 inputs. This bus cycle information specifies read (code, data, or I/O), write (data or I/O), interrupt acknowledge, or software halt. The 8288 thus issues control signals specifying memory read or write, I/O read or write, or interrupt acknowledge. The 8288 provides two types of write strobes, normal and advanced, to be applied as required. The normal write strobes have data valid at the leading edge of write. The advanced write strobes have the same timing as read strobes, and hence data isn't valid at the leading edge of write. The transceiver receives the usual DIR and G inputs from the 8288's DT/R and DEN. The pointer into the interrupt vector table, which is passed during the second INTA cycle, can derive from an 8259A located on either the local bus or the system bus. If the master 8259A Priority Interrupt Controller is positioned on the local bus, a TTL gate is required to disable the transceiver when reading from the master 8259A during the interrupt acknowledge sequence and software ``poll''. 13 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS* Ambient Temperature Under Bias ÀÀÀÀÀÀ0§C to 70§C Storage Temperature ÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀb65§C to a150§C Voltage on Any Pin with Respect to GroundÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀb1.0V to a7V Power DissipationÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀ2.5W NOTICE: This is a production data sheet. The specifications are subject to change without notice. *WARNING: Stressing the device beyond the ``Absolute Maximum Ratings'' may cause permanent damage. These are stress ratings only. Operation beyond the ``Operating Conditions'' is not recommended and extended exposure beyond the ``Operating Conditions'' may affect device reliability. D.C. CHARACTERISTICS (8086: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g10%) (8086-1: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g5%) (8086-2: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g5%) Symbol Parameter Min Max Units Test Conditions VIL Input Low Voltage b0.5 a0.8 V (Note 1) VIH Input High Voltage 2.0 VCC a 0.5 V (Notes 1, 2) VOL Output Low Voltage 0.45 V IOL e 2.5 mA VOH Output High Voltage 2.4 V IOHe b400 mA ICC Power Supply Current: 8086 340 8086-1 360 mA TA e 25§C 8086-2 350 ILI Input Leakage Current g10 mA 0VsVIN s VCC (Note 3) ILO Output Leakage Current g10 mA 0.45V s VOUT s VCC VCL Clock Input Low Voltage b0.5 a0.6 V VCH Clock Input High Voltage 3.9 VCC a 1.0 V CIN Capacitance of Input Buffer 15 pF fc e 1 MHz (All input except AD0±AD15, RQ/GT) CIO Capacitance of I/O Buffer 15 pF fc e 1 MHz (AD0±AD15, RQ/GT) NOTES: 1. VIL tested with MN/MX Pin e 0V. VIH tested with MN/MX Pin e 5V. MN/MX Pin is a Strap Pin. 2. Not applicable to RQ/GT0 and RQ/GT1 (Pins 30 and 31). 3. HOLD and HLDA ILI min e 30 mA, max e 500 mA. 14 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (8086: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g 10%) (8086-1: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g 5%) (8086-2: TA e 0§C to 70§C, VCC e 5V g 5%) MINIMUM COMPLEXITY SYSTEM TIMING REQUIREMENTS Symbol Parameter 8086 8086-1 8086-2 Units Test Conditions Min Max Min Max Min Max TCLCL CLK Cycle Period 200 500 100 500 125 500 ns TCLCH CLK Low Time 118 53 68 ns TCHCL CLK High Time 69 39 44 ns TCH1CH2 CLK Rise Time 10 10 10 ns From 1.0V to 3.5V TCL2CL1 CLK Fall Time 10 10 10 ns From 3.5V to 1.0V TDVCL Data in Setup Time 30 5 20 ns TCLDX Data in Hold Time 10 10 10 ns TR1VCL RDY Setup Time 35 35 35 ns into 8284A (See Notes 1, 2) TCLR1X RDY Hold Time 0 0 0 ns into 8284A (See Notes 1, 2) TRYHCH READY Setup 118 53 68 ns Time into 8086 TCHRYX READY Hold Time 30 20 20 ns into 8086 TRYLCL READY Inactive to b8 b10 b8 ns CLK (See Note 3) THVCH HOLD Setup Time 35 20 20 ns TINVCH INTR, NMI, TEST 30 15 15 ns Setup Time (See Note 2) TILIH Input Rise Time 20 20 20 ns From 0.8V to 2.0V (Except CLK) TIHIL Input Fall Time 12 12 12 ns From 2.0V to 0.8V (Except CLK) 15 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) TIMING RESPONSES Symbol Parameter 8086 8086-1 8086-2 Units Test Min Max Min Max Min Max Conditions TCLAV Address Valid Delay 10 110 10 50 10 60 ns TCLAX Address Hold Time 10 10 10 ns TCLAZ Address Float TCLAX 80 10 40 TCLAX 50 ns Delay TLHLL ALE Width TCLCH-20 TCLCH-10 TCLCH-10 ns TCLLH ALE Active Delay 80 40 50 ns TCHLL ALE Inactive Delay 85 45 55 ns TLLAX Address Hold Time TCHCL-10 TCHCL-10 TCHCL-10 ns TCLDV Data Valid Delay 10 110 10 50 10 60 ns *CL e 20±100 pF for all 8086 TCHDX Data Hold Time 10 10 10 ns Outputs (In TWHDX Data Hold Time TCLCH-30 TCLCH-25 TCLCH-30 ns addition to 8086 After WR selfload) TCVCTV Control Active 10 110 10 50 10 70 ns Delay 1 TCHCTV Control Active 10 110 10 45 10 60 ns Delay 2 TCVCTX Control Inactive 10 110 10 50 10 70 ns Delay TAZRL Address Float to 0 0 0 ns READ Active TCLRL RD Active Delay 10 165 10 70 10 100 ns TCLRH RD Inactive Delay 10 150 10 60 10 80 ns TRHAV RD Inactive to Next TCLCL-45 TCLCL-35 TCLCL-40 ns Address Active TCLHAV HLDA Valid Delay 10 160 10 60 10 100 ns TRLRH RD Width 2TCLCL-75 2TCLCL-40 2TCLCL-50 ns TWLWH WR Width 2TCLCL-60 2TCLCL-35 2TCLCL-40 ns TAVAL Address Valid to TCLCH-60 TCLCH-35 TCLCH-40 ns ALE Low TOLOH Output Rise Time 20 20 20 ns From 0.8V to 2.0V TOHOL Output Fall Time 12 12 12 ns From 2.0V to 0.8V NOTES: 1. Signal at 8284A shown for reference only. 2. Setup requirement for asynchronous signal only to guarantee recognition at next CLK. 3. Applies only to T2 state. (8 ns into T3). 16 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. TESTING INPUT, OUTPUT WAVEFORM 231455-11 A.C. Testing: Inputs are driven at 2.4V for a Logic ``1'' and 0.45V for a Logic ``0''. Timing measurements are made at 1.5V for both a Logic ``1'' and ``0''. A.C. TESTING LOAD CIRCUIT 231455±12 CL Includes Jig Capacitance WAVEFORMS MINIMUM MODE 231455±13 17 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 WAVEFORMS (Continued) MINIMUM MODE (Continued) 231455±14 SOFTWARE HALTÐ RD, WR, INTA e VOH DT/R e INDETERMINATE NOTES: 1. All signals switch between VOH and VOL unless otherwise specified. 2. RDY is sampled near the end of T2, T3, TW to determine if TW machines states are to be inserted. 3. Two INTA cycles run back-to-back. The 8086 LOCAL ADDR/DATA BUS is floating during both INTA cycles. Control signals shown for second INTA cycle. 4. Signals at 8284A are shown for reference only. 5. All timing measurements are made at 1.5V unless otherwise noted. 18 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS MAX MODE SYSTEM (USING 8288 BUS CONTROLLER) TIMING REQUIREMENTS Symbol Parameter 8086 8086-1 8086-2 Units Test Min Max Min Max Min Max Conditions TCLCL CLK Cycle Period 200 500 100 500 125 500 ns TCLCH CLK Low Time 118 53 68 ns TCHCL CLK High Time 69 39 44 ns TCH1CH2 CLK Rise Time 10 10 10 ns From 1.0V to 3.5V TCL2CL1 CLK Fall Time 10 10 10 ns From 3.5V to 1.0V TDVCL Data in Setup Time 30 5 20 ns TCLDX Data in Hold Time 10 10 10 ns TR1VCL RDY Setup Time 35 35 35 ns into 8284A (Notes 1, 2) TCLR1X RDY Hold Time 0 0 0 ns into 8284A (Notes 1, 2) TRYHCH READY Setup 118 53 68 ns Time into 8086 TCHRYX READY Hold Time 30 20 20 ns into 8086 TRYLCL READY Inactive to b8 b10 b8 ns CLK (Note 4) TINVCH Setup Time for 30 15 15 ns Recognition (INTR, NMI, TEST) (Note 2) TGVCH RQ/GT Setup Time 30 15 15 ns (Note 5) TCHGX RQ Hold Time into 40 20 30 ns 8086 TILIH Input Rise Time 20 20 20 ns From 0.8V to 2.0V (Except CLK) TIHIL Input Fall Time 12 12 12 ns From 2.0V to 0.8V (Except CLK) 19 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) TIMING RESPONSES Symbol Parameter 8086 8086-1 8086-2 Units Test Min Max Min Max Min Max Conditions TCLML Command Active 10 35 10 35 10 35 ns Delay (See Note 1) TCLMH Command Inactive 10 35 10 35 10 35 ns Delay (See Note 1) TRYHSH READY Active to 110 45 65 ns Status Passive (See Note 3) TCHSV Status Active Delay 10 110 10 45 10 60 ns TCLSH Status Inactive 10 130 10 55 10 70 ns Delay TCLAV Address Valid Delay 10 110 10 50 10 60 ns TCLAX Address Hold Time 10 10 10 ns TCLAZ Address Float Delay TCLAX 80 10 40 TCLAX 50 ns TSVLH Status Valid to ALE 15 15 15 ns High (See Note 1) TSVMCH Status Valid to 15 15 15 ns MCE High (See Note 1) TCLLH CLK Low to ALE 15 15 15 ns CL e 20±100 pF Valid (See Note 1) for all 8086 Outputs (In TCLMCH CLK Low to MCE 15 15 15 ns addition to 8086 High (See Note 1) self-load) TCHLL ALE Inactive Delay 15 15 15 ns (See Note 1) TCLMCL MCE Inactive Delay 15 15 15 ns (See Note 1) TCLDV Data Valid Delay 10 110 10 50 10 60 ns TCHDX Data Hold Time 10 10 10 ns TCVNV Control Active 5 45 5 45 5 45 ns Delay (See Note 1) TCVNX Control Inactive 10 45 10 45 10 45 ns Delay (See Note 1) TAZRL Address Float to 0 0 0 ns READ Active TCLRL RD Active Delay 10 165 10 70 10 100 ns TCLRH RD Inactive Delay 10 150 10 60 10 80 ns 20 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) TIMING RESPONSES (Continued) Symbol Parameter 8086 8086-1 8086-2 Units Test Min Max Min Max Min Max Conditions TRHAV RD Inactive to Next TCLCL-45 TCLCL-35 TCLCL-40 ns Address Active TCHDTL Direction Control 50 50 50 ns CL e 20±100 pF Active Delay for all 8086 (Note 1) Outputs (In addition to 8086 TCHDTH Direction Control 30 30 30 ns self-load) Inactive Delay (Note 1) TCLGL GT Active Delay 0 85 0 38 0 50 ns TCLGH GT Inactive Delay 0 85 0 45 0 50 ns TRLRH RD Width 2TCLCL-75 2TCLCL-40 2TCLCL-50 ns TOLOH Output Rise Time 20 20 20 ns From 0.8V to 2.0V TOHOL Output Fall Time 12 12 12 ns From 2.0V to 0.8V NOTES: 1. Signal at 8284A or 8288 shown for reference only. 2. Setup requirement for asynchronous signal only to guarantee recognition at next CLK. 3. Applies only to T3 and wait states. 4. Applies only to T2 state (8 ns into T3). 21 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 WAVEFORMS MAXIMUM MODE 231455±15 22 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 WAVEFORMS (Continued) MAXIMUM MODE (Continued) 231455±16 NOTES: 1. All signals switch between VOH and VOL unless otherwise specified. 2. RDY is sampled near the end of T2, T3, TW to determine if TW machines states are to be inserted. 3. Cascade address is valid between first and second INTA cycle. 4. Two INTA cycles run back-to-back. The 8086 LOCAL ADDR/DATA BUS is floating during both INTA cycles. Control for pointer address is shown for second INTA cycle. 5. Signals at 8284A or 8288 are shown for reference only. 6. The issuance of the 8288 command and control signals (MRDC, MWTC, AMWC, IORC, IOWC, AIOWC, INTA and DEN) lags the active high 8288 CEN. 7. All timing measurements are made at 1.5V unless otherwise noted. 8. Status inactive in state just prior to T4. 23 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 WAVEFORMS (Continued) ASYNCHRONOUS SIGNAL RECOGNITION 231455±17 NOTE: 1. Setup requirements for asynchronous signals only to guarantee recognition at next CLK. BUS LOCK SIGNAL TIMING (MAXIMUM MODE ONLY) 231455±18 RESET TIMING 231455±19 REQUEST/GRANT SEQUENCE TIMING (MAXIMUM MODE ONLY) 231455±20 NOTE: The coprocessor may not drive the buses outside the region shown without risking contention. 24 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 WAVEFORMS (Continued) HOLD/HOLD ACKNOWLEDGE TIMING (MINIMUM MODE ONLY) 231455±21 25 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 2. Instruction Set Summary Mnemonic and Instruction Code Description DATA TRANSFER MOV e Move: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Register/Memory to/from Register 1 0 0 0 1 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if w e 1 Immediate to Register 1 0 1 1 w reg data data if w e 1 Memory to Accumulator 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 w addr-low addr-high Accumulator to Memory 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 w addr-low addr-high Register/Memory to Segment Register 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 mod 0 reg r/m Segment Register to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 mod 0 reg r/m PUSH e Push: Register/Memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 1 0 r/m Register 0 1 0 1 0 reg Segment Register 0 0 0 reg 1 1 0 POP e Pop: Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 mod 0 0 0 r/m Register 0 1 0 1 1 reg Segment Register 0 0 0 reg 1 1 1 XCHG e Exchange: Register/Memory with Register 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 w mod reg r/m Register with Accumulator 1 0 0 1 0 reg IN e Input from: Fixed Port 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 w port Variable Port 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 w OUT e Output to: Fixed Port 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 w port Variable Port 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 w XLAT e Translate Byte to AL 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 LEA e Load EA to Register 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 mod reg r/m LDS e Load Pointer to DS 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 mod reg r/m LES e Load Pointer to ES 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 mod reg r/m LAHF e Load AH with Flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 SAHF e Store AH into Flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 PUSHF e Push Flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 POPF e Pop Flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 Mnemonics © Intel, 1978 26 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued) Mnemonic and Instruction Code Description ARITHMETIC 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ADD e Add: Reg./Memory with Register to Either 0 0 0 0 0 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if s: w e 01 Immediate to Accumulator 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 w data data if w e 1 ADC e Add with Carry: Reg./Memory with Register to Either 0 0 0 1 0 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 1 0 r/m data data if s: w e 01 Immediate to Accumulator 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 w data data if w e 1 INC e Increment: Register/Memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m Register 0 1 0 0 0 reg AAA e ASCII Adjust for Add 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 BAA e Decimal Adjust for Add 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 SUB e Subtract: Reg./Memory and Register to Either 0 0 1 0 1 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate from Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 1 0 1 r/m data data if s w e 01 Immediate from Accumulator 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 w data data if w e 1 SSB e Subtract with Borrow Reg./Memory and Register to Either 0 0 0 1 1 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate from Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 1 1 r/m data data if s w e 01 Immediate from Accumulator 0 0 0 1 1 1 w data data if w e 1 DEC e Decrement: Register/memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w mod 0 0 1 r/m Register 0 1 0 0 1 reg NEG e Change sign 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 1 1 r/m CMP e Compare: Register/Memory and Register 0 0 1 1 1 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate with Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 1 1 1 r/m data data if s w e 01 Immediate with Accumulator 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 w data data if w e 1 AAS e ASCII Adjust for Subtract 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 DAS e Decimal Adjust for Subtract 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 MUL e Multiply (Unsigned) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 0 0 r/m IMUL e Integer Multiply (Signed) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 0 1 r/m AAM e ASCII Adjust for Multiply 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 DIV e Divide (Unsigned) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 1 0 r/m IDIV e Integer Divide (Signed) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 1 1 r/m AAD e ASCII Adjust for Divide 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 CBW e Convert Byte to Word 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 CWD e Convert Word to Double Word 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Mnemonics © Intel, 1978 27 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued) Mnemonic and Instruction Code Description LOGIC 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 NOT e Invert 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 1 0 r/m SHL/SAL e Shift Logical/Arithmetic Left 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 1 0 0 r/m SHR e Shift Logical Right 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 1 0 1 r/m SAR e Shift Arithmetic Right 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 1 1 1 r/m ROL e Rotate Left 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 0 0 0 r/m ROR e Rotate Right 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 0 0 1 r/m RCL e Rotate Through Carry Flag Left 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 0 1 0 r/m RCR e Rotate Through Carry Right 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w mod 0 1 1 r/m AND e And: Reg./Memory and Register to Either 0 0 1 0 0 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 1 0 0 r/m data data if w e 1 Immediate to Accumulator 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 w data data if w e 1 TEST e And Function to Flags, No Result: Register/Memory and Register 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 w mod reg r/m Immediate Data and Register/Memory 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if w e 1 Immediate Data and Accumulator 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 w data data if w e 1 OR e Or: Reg./Memory and Register to Either 0 0 0 0 1 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 0 0 1 r/m data data if w e 1 Immediate to Accumulator 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 w data data if w e 1 XOR e Exclusive or: Reg./Memory and Register to Either 0 0 1 1 0 0 d w mod reg r/m Immediate to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 1 1 0 r/m data data if w e 1 Immediate to Accumulator 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 w data data if w e 1 STRING MANIPULATION REP e Repeat 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 z MOVS e Move Byte/Word 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 w CMPS e Compare Byte/Word 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 w SCAS e Scan Byte/Word 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 w LODS e Load Byte/Wd to AL/AX 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 w STOS e Stor Byte/Wd from AL/A 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 w CONTROL TRANSFER CALL e Call: Direct within Segment 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 disp-low disp-high Indirect within Segment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 0 1 0 r/m Direct Intersegment 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 offset-low offset-high seg-low seg-high Indirect Intersegment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 0 1 1 r/m Mnemonics © Intel, 1978 28 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued) Mnemonic and Instruction Code Description JMP e Unconditional Jump: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Direct within Segment 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 disp-low disp-high Direct within Segment-Short 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 disp Indirect within Segment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 0 0 r/m Direct Intersegment 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 offset-low offset-high seg-low seg-high Indirect Intersegment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 0 1 r/m RET e Return from CALL: Within Segment 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 Within Seg Adding Immed to SP 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 data-low data-high Intersegment 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 Intersegment Adding Immediate to SP 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 data-low data-high JE/JZ e Jump on Equal/Zero 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 disp JL/JNGE e Jump on Less/Not Greater 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 disp or Equal JLE/JNG e Jump on Less or Equal/ 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 disp Not Greater JB/JNAE e Jump on Below/Not Above 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 disp or Equal JBE/JNA e Jump on Below or Equal/ 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 disp Not Above JP/JPE e Jump on Parity/Parity Even 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 disp JO e Jump on Overflow 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 disp JS e Jump on Sign 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 disp JNE/JNZ e Jump on Not Equal/Not Zero 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 disp JNL/JGE e Jump on Not Less/Greater 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 disp or Equal JNLE/JG e Jump on Not Less or Equal/ 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 disp Greater JNB/JAE e Jump on Not Below/Above 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 disp or Equal JNBE/JA e Jump on Not Below or 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 disp Equal/Above JNP/JPO e Jump on Not Par/Par Odd 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 disp JNO e Jump on Not Overflow 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 disp JNS e Jump on Not Sign 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 disp LOOP e Loop CX Times 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 disp LOOPZ/LOOPE e Loop While Zero/Equal 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 disp LOOPNZ/LOOPNE e Loop While Not 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 disp Zero/Equal JCXZ e Jump on CX Zero 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 disp INT e Interrupt Type Specified 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 type Type 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 INTO e Interrupt on Overflow 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 IRET e Interrupt Return 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 29 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com 8086 Table 2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued) Mnemonic and Instruction Code Description 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PROCESSOR CONTROL CLC e Clear Carry 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 CMC e Complement Carry 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 STC e Set Carry 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 CLD e Clear Direction 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 STD e Set Direction 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 CLI e Clear Interrupt 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 STI e Set Interrupt 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 HLT e Halt 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 WAIT e Wait 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 ESC e Escape (to External Device) 1 1 0 1 1 x x x mod x x x r/m LOCK e Bus Lock Prefix 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 NOTES: AL e 8-bit accumulator AX e 16-bit accumulator CX e Count register DS e Data segment ES e Extra segment Above/below refers to unsigned value Greater e more positive; Less e less positive (more negative) signed values if d e 1 then ``to'' reg; if d e 0 then ``from'' reg if w e 1 then word instruction; if w e 0 then byte instruction if mod e 11 then r/m is treated as a REG field if mod e 00 then DISP e 0*, disp-low and disp-high are absent if mod e 01 then DISP e disp-low sign-extended to 16 bits, disp-high is absent if mod e 10 then DISP e disp-high; disp-low if r/m e 000 then EA e (BX) a (SI) a DISP if r/m e 001 then EA e (BX) a (DI) a DISP if r/m e 010 then EA e (BP) a (SI) a DISP if r/m e 011 then EA e (BP) a (DI) a DISP if r/m e 100 then EA e (SI) a DISP if r/m e 101 then EA e (DI) a DISP if r/m e 110 then EA e (BP) a DISP* if r/m e 111 then EA e (BX) a DISP DISP follows 2nd byte of instruction (before data if required) *except if mod e 00 and r/m e 110 then EA e disp-high; disp-low. Mnemonics © Intel, 1978 if s w e 01 then 16 bits of immediate data form the operand if s w e 11 then an immediate data byte is sign extended to form the 16-bit operand if v e 0 then ``count'' e 1; if v e 1 then ``count'' in (CL) x e don't care z is used for string primitives for comparison with ZF FLAG SEGMENT OVERRIDE PREFIX 0 0 1 reg 1 1 0 REG is assigned according to the following table: 16-Bit (w e 1) 8-Bit (w e 0) Segment 000 AX 000 AL 00 ES 001 CX 001 CL 01 CS 010 DX 010 DL 10 SS 011 BX 011 BL 11 DS 100 SP 100 AH 101 BP 101 CH 110 SI 110 DH 111 DI 111 BH Instructions which reference the flag register file as a 16-bit object use the symbol FLAGS to represent the file: FLAGS e X:X:X:X:(OF):(DF):(IF):(TF):(SF):(ZF):X:(AF):X:(PF):X:(CF) DATA SHEET REVISION REVIEW The following list represents key differences between this and the -004 data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. 1. The Intel 8086 implementation technology (HMOS) has been changed to (HMOS-III). 2. Delete all ``changes from 1985 Handbook Specification'' sentences. 30 www.DataSheet4U.com www.DataSheet4U.com February 1990 Order Number: 271103-001 M80C286 HIGH PERFORMANCE CHMOS MICROPROCESSOR WITH MEMORY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION Military Y High Speed CHMOS III Technology Y Pin for Pin, Clock for Clock, and Functionally Compatible with the HMOS M80286 (See M80286 Data Sheet, Order Ý271028-003) Y Stop Clock Capability ÐUses Less Power (see ICCS Specification) Y 10 MHz Clock Rate Y 68 Lead Pin Grid Array Package Y 68 Lead Ceramic Quad Flatpack Package (See Packaging Spec., Order Ý231369) Y Military Temperature Range: b55§C to a125§C (TC) INTRODUCTION The M80C286 is an advanced 16 bit CHMOS III microprocessor designed for multiuser and multi-tasking applications that require low power and high performance. The M80C286 is fully compatible with its predecessor the HMOS M80286 and object-code compatible with the M8086 and M80386 family of products. In addition, the M80C286 has a power down mode which uses less power, making it ideal for mobile applications. The M80C286 has built-in memory protection that maintains a four level protection mechanism for task isolation, a hardware task switching facility and memory mangement capabilities that map 230 bytes (one gigabyte) of virtual address space per task (per user) into 224 bytes (16 megabytes) of physical memory. The M80C286 is upward compatible with M8086 and M8088 software. Using M8086 real address mode, the M80C286 is object code compatible with existing M8086, M8088 software. In protected virtual address mode, the M80C286 is source code compatible with M8086, M8088 software which may require upgrading to use virtual addresses supported by the M80C286's integrated memory management and protection mechanism. Both modes operate at full M80C286 performance and execute a superset of the M8086 and M8088 instructions. The M80C286 provides special operations to support the efficient implementation and execution of operating systems. For example, one instruction can end execution of one task, save its state, switch to a new task, load its state, and start execution of the new task. The M80C286 also supports virtual memory systems by providing a segment-not-present exception and restartable instructions. 271103±1 Figure 1. M80C286 Internal Block Diagram M80C286 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Introduction The M80C286 is an advanced, high-performance microprocessor with specially optimized capabilities for multiple user and multi-tasking systems. Depending on the application, a 10 MHz M80C286's performance is up to eight times faster than the standard 5 MHz M8086's, while providing complete upward software compatibility with Intel's M8086, 88, and 186 family of CPU's. The M80C286 operates in two modes: M8086 real address mode and protected virtual address mode. Both modes execute a superset of the M8086 and 88 instruction set. In M8086 real address mode programs use real addresses with up to one megabyte of address space. Programs use virtual addresses in protected virtual address mode, also called protected mode. In protected mode, the M80C286 CPU automatically maps 1 gigabyte of virtual addresses per task into a 16 megabyte real address space. This mode also provides memory protection to isolate the operating system and ensure privacy of each tasks' programs and data. Both modes provide the same base instruction set, registers, and addressing modes. The following Functional Description describes first, the base M80C286 architecture common to both modes, second, M8086 real address mode, and third, protected mode. M80C286 BASE ARCHITECTURE The M8086, 88, 186, and 286 CPU family all contain the same basic set of registers, instructions, and addressing modes. The M80C286 processor is upward compatible with the M8086, M8088, and 80186 CPU's and fully compatible with the HMOS M80286. Register Set The M80C286 base architecture has fifteen registers as shown in Figure 2. These registers are grouped into the following four categories: General Registers: Eight 16-bit general purpose registers used to contain arithmetic and logical operands. Four of these (AX, BX, CX, and DX) can be used either in their entirety as 16-bit words or split into pairs of separate 8-bit registers. Segment Registers: Four 16-bit special purpose registers select, at any given time, the segments of memory that are immediately addressable for code, stack, and data. (For usage, refer to Memory Organization.) Base and Index Registers: Four of the general purpose registers may also be used to determine offset addresses of operands in memory. These registers may contain base addresses or indexes to particular locations within a segment. The addressing mode determines the specific registers used for operand address calculations. Status and Control Registers: The 3 16-bit special purpose registers in Figure 3 record or control certain aspects of the M80C286 processor state including the Instruction Pointer, which contains the offset address of the next sequential instruction to be executed. 16-BIT SPECIAL REGISTER REGISTER NAME FUNCTIONS 7 0 7 0 BYTE ADDRESSABLE AX AH AL MULTIPLY/DIVIDE REGISTER (8-BIT DX DH DL I/O INSTRUCTIONS * SHOWN) NAMES CX CH CL ( LOOP/SHIFT/REPEAT/COUNT %BX BH BL BASE REGISTERS BP * SI INDEX REGISTERS DI * SP ( STACK POINTER 15 0 GENERAL REGISTERS 15 0 CS CODE SEGMENT SELECTOR DS DATA SEGMENT SELECTOR SS STACK SEGMENT SELECTOR ES EXTRA SEGMENT SELECTOR SEGMENT REGISTERS 15 0 F STATUS WORD IP INSTRUCTION POINTER STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTERS Figure 2. Register Set 2 M80C286 271103±2 Figure 3. Status and Control Register Bit Functions Flags Word Description The Flags word (Flags) records specific characteristics of the result of logical and arithmetic instructions (bits 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11) and controls the operation of the M80C286 within a given operating mode (bits 8 and 9). Flags is a 16-bit register. The function of the flag bits is given in Table 1. Instruction Set The instruction set is divided into seven categories: data transfer, arithmetic, shift/rotate/logical, string manipulation, control transfer, high level instructions, and processor control. These categories are summarized in Table 2. An M80C286 instruction can reference zero, one, or two operands; where an operand resides in a register, in the instruction itself, or in memory. Zero-operand instructions (e.g. NOP and HLT) are usually one byte long. One-operand instructions (e.g. INC and DEC) are usually two bytes long but some are encoded in only one byte. One-operand instructions may reference a register or memory location. Twooperand instructions permit the following six types of instruction operations: ÐRegister to Register ÐMemory to Register ÐImmediate to Register ÐMemory to Memory ÐRegister to Memory ÐImmediate to Memory Table 1. Flags Word Bit Functions Bit Name Function Position 0 CF Carry FlagÐSet on high-order bit carry or borrow; cleared otherwise 2 PF Parity FlagÐSet if low-order 8 bits of result contain an even number of 1-bits; cleared otherwise 4 AF Set on carry from or borrow to the low order four bits of AL; cleared otherwise 6 ZF Zero FlagÐSet if result is zero; cleared otherwise 7 SF Sign FlagÐSet equal to high-order bit of result (0 if positive, 1 if negative) 11 OF Overflow FlagÐSet if result is a toolarge positive number or a too-small negative number (excluding sign-bit) to fit in destination operand; cleared otherwise 8 TF Single Step FlagÐOnce set, a single step interrupt occurs after the next instruction executes. TF is cleared by the single step interrupt. 9 IF Interrupt-enable FlagÐWhen set, maskable interrupts will cause the CPU to transfer control to an interrupt vector specified location. 10 DF Direction FlagÐCauses string instructions to auto decrement the appropriate index registers when set. Clearing DF causes auto increment. 3 M80C286 Two-operand instructions (e.g. MOV and ADD) are usually three to six bytes long. Memory to memory operations are provided by a special class of string instructions requiring one to three bytes. For detailed instruction formats and encodings refer to the instruction set summary at the end of this document. For detailed operation and usage of each instruction, see Appendix B of the 80286/80287 Programmer's Reference Manual (Order No. 210498). Table 2. Instruction Set GENERAL PURPOSE MOV Move byte or word PUSH Push word onto stack POP Pop word off stack PUSHA Push all registers on stack POPA Pop all registers from stack XCHG Exchange byte or word XLAT Translate byte INPUT/OUTPUT IN Input byte or word OUT Output byte or word ADDRESS OBJECT LEA Load effective address LDS Load pointer using DS LES Load pointer using ES FLAG TRANSFER LAHF Load AH register from flags SAHF Store AH register in flags PUSHF Push flags onto stack POPF Pop flags off stack Data Transfer Instructions MOVS Move byte or word string INS Input bytes or word string OUTS Output bytes or word string CMPS Compare byte or word string SCAS Scan byte or word string LODS Load byte or word string STOS Store byte or word string REP Repeat REPE/REPZ Repeat while equal/zero REPNE/REPNZ Repeat while not equal/not zero String Instructions ADDITION ADD Add byte or word ADC Add byte or word with carry INC Increment byte or word by 1 AAA ASCII adjust for addition DAA Decimal adjust for addition SUBTRACTION SUB Subtract byte or word SBB Subtract byte or word with borrow DEC Decrement byte or word by 1 NEG Negate byte or word CMP Compare byte or word AAS ASCII adjust for subtraction DAS Decimal adjust for subtraction MULTIPLICATION MUL Multiple byte or word unsigned IMUL Integer multiply byte or word AAM ASCII adjust for multiply DIVISION DIV Divide byte or word unsigned IDIV Integer divide byte or word AAD ASCII adjust for division CBW Convert byte to word CWD Convert word to doubleword Arithmetic Instructions LOGICALS NOT ``Not'' byte or word AND ``And'' byte or word OR ``Inclusive or'' byte or word XOR ``Exclusive or'' byte or word TEST ``Test'' byte or word SHIFTS SHL/SAL Shift logical/arithmetic left byte or word SHR Shift logical right byte or word SAR Shift arithmetic right byte or word ROTATES ROL Rotate left byte or word ROR Rotate right byte or word RCL Rotate through carry left byte or word RCR Rotate through carry right byte or word Shift/Rotate Logical Instructions 4 M80C286 Table 2. Instruction Set (Continued) CONDITIONAL TRANSFERS JA/JNBE Jump if above/not below nor equal JAE/JNB Jump if above or equal/not below JB/JNAE Jump if below/not above nor equal JBE/JNA Jump if below or equal/not above JC Jump if carry JE/JZ Jump if equal/zero JG/JNLE Jump if greater/not less nor equal JGE/JNL Jump if greater or equal/not less JL/JNGE Jump if less/not greater nor equal JLE/JNG Jump if less or equal/not greater JNC Jump if not carry JNE/JNZ Jump if not equal/not zero JNO Jump if not overflow JNP/JPO Jump if not parity/parity odd JNS Jump if not sign JO Jump if overflow JP/JPE Jump if parity/parity even JS Jump if sign UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFERS CALL Call procedure RET Return from procedure JMP Jump ITERATION CONTROLS LOOP Loop LOOPE/LOOPZ Loop if equal/zero LOOPNE/LOOPNZ Loop if not equal/not zero JCXZ Jump if register CX e 0 INTERRUPTS INT Interrupt INTO Interrupt if overflow IRET Interrupt return Program Transfer Instructions FLAG OPERATIONS STC Set carry flag CLC Clear carry flag CMC Complement carry flag STD Set direction flag CLD Clear direction flag STI Set interrupt enable flag CLI Clear interrupt enable flag EXTERNAL SYNCHRONIZATION HLT Halt until interrupt or reset WAIT Wait for BUSY not active ESC Escape to extension processor LOCK Lock bus during next instruction NO OPERATION NOP No operation EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT CONTROL LMSW Load machine status word SMSW Store machine status word Process Control Instructions ENTER Format stack for procedure entry LEAVE Restore stack for procedure exit BOUND Detects values outside prescribed range High Level Instructions Memory Organization Memory is organized as sets of variable length segments. Each segment is a linear contiguous sequence of up to 64K (216) 8-bit bytes. Memory is addressed using a two component address (a pointer) that consists of a 16-bit segment selector, and a 16-bit offset, see Figure 4. The segment selector indicates the desired segment in memory. The offset component indicates the desired byte address within the segment. 271103±3 Figure 4. Two Component Address 5 M80C286 Table 3. Segment Register Selection Rules Memory Segment Register Implicit Segment Reference Needed Used Selection Rule Instructions Code (CS) Automatic with instruction prefetch Stack Stack (SS) All stack pushes and pops. Any memory reference which uses BP as a base register. Local Data Data (DS) All data references except when relative to stack or string destination External (Global) Data Extra (ES) Alternate data segment and destination of string operation All instructions that address operands in memory must specify the segment and the offset. For speed and compact instruction encoding, segment selectors are usually stored in the high speed segment registers. An instruction need specify only the desired segment register and an offset in order to address a memory operand. Most instructions need not explicitly specify which segment register is used. The correct segment register is automatically chosen according to the rules of Table 3. These rules follow the way programs are written (see Figure 5) as independent modules that require areas for code and data, a stack, and access to external data areas. Special segment override instruction prefixes allow the implicit segment register selection rules to be overridden for special cases. The stack, data, and extra segments may coincide for simple programs. To access operands not residing in one of the four immediately available segments, a full 32-bit pointer or a new segment selector must be loaded. Addressing Modes The M80C286 provides a total of eight addressing modes for instructions to specify operands. Two addressing modes are provided for instructions that operate on register or immediate operands: Register Operand Mode: The operand is located in one of the 8 or 16-bit general registers. Immediate Operand Mode: The operand is included in the instruction. Six modes are provided to specify the location of an operand in a memory segment. A memory operand address consists of two 16-bit components: segment selector and offset. The segment selector is supplied by a segment register either implicitly chosen by the addressing mode or explicitly chosen by a segment override prefix. The offset is calculated by summing any combination of the following three address elements: the displacement (an 8 or 16-bit immediate value contained in the instruction) the base (contents of either the BX or BP base registers) 271103±4 Figure 5. Segmented Memory Helps Structure Software the index (contents of either the SI or DI index registers) Any carry out from the 16-bit addition is ignored. Eight-bit displacements are sign extended to 16-bit values. Combinations of these three address elements define the six memory addressing modes, described below. Direct Mode: The operand's offset is contained in the instruction as an 8 or 16-bit displacement element. Register Indirect Mode: The operand's offset is in one of the registers SI, DI, BX, or BP. Based Mode: The operand's offset is the sum of an 8 or 16-bit displacement and the contents of a base register (BX or BP). 6 M80C286 Indexed Mode: The operand's offset is the sum of an 8 or 16-bit displacement and the contents of an index register (SI or DI). Based Indexed Mode: The operand's offset is the sum of the contents of a base register and an index register. Based Indexed Mode with Displacement: The operand's offset is the sum of a base register's contents, an index register's contents, and an 8 or 16-bit displacement. Data Types The M80C286 directly supports the following data types: Integer: A signed binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or a 16-bit word. All operations assume a 2's complement representation. Signed 32 and 64-bit integers are supported using the Numeric Data Processor, the M80C287. Ordinal: An unsigned binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or 16-bit word. Pointer: A 32-bit quantity, composed of a segment selector component and an offset component. Each component is a 16-bit word. String: A contiguous sequence of bytes or words. A string may contain from 1 byte to 64K bytes. ASCII: A byte representation of alphanumeric and control characters using the ASCII standard of character representation. BCD: A byte (unpacked) representation of the decimal digits 0±9. Packed BCD: A byte (packed) representation of two decimal digits 0±9 storing one digit in each nibble of the byte. Floating Point: A signed 32, 64, or 80-bit real number representation. (Floating point operands are supported using the M80C287 Numeric Processor). Figure 6 graphically represents the data types supported by the M80C286. I/O Space The I/O space consists of 64K 8-bit or 32K 16-bit ports. I/O instructions address the I/O space with either an 8-bit port address, specified in the instruction, or a 16-bit port address in the DX register. 8-bit port addresses are zero extended such that A15±A8 are LOW. I/O port addresses 00F8(H) through 00FF(H) are reserved. 271103±5 Figure 6. M80C286 Supported Data Types 7 M80C286 Table 4. Interrupt Vector Assignments Interrupt Related Does Return Address Function Number Instructions Point to Instruction Causing Exception? Divide error exception 0 DIV, IDIV Yes Single step interrupt 1 All NMI interrupt 2 INT 2 or NMI pin Breakpoint interrupt 3 INT 3 INTO detected overflow exception 4 INTO No BOUND range exceeded exception 5 BOUND Yes Invalid opcode exception 6 Any undefined opcode Yes Processor extension not available exception 7 ESC or WAIT Yes Intel reserved±do not use 8-15 Processor extension error interrupt 16 ESC or WAIT Intel reserved±do not use 17-31 User defined 32-255 Interrupts An interrupt transfers execution to a new program location. The old program address (CS:IP) and machine state (Flags) are saved on the stack to allow resumption of the interrupted program. Interrupts fall into three classes: hardware initiated, INT instructions, and instruction exceptions. Hardware initiated interrupts occur in response to an external input and are classified as non-maskable or maskable. Programs may cause an interrupt with an INT instruction. Instruction exceptions occur when an unusual condition, which prevents further instruction processing, is detected while attempting to execute an instruction. The return address from an exception will always point at the instruction causing the exception and include any leading instruction prefixes. A table containing up to 256 pointers defines the proper interrupt service routine for each interrupt. Interrupts 0±31, some of which are used for instruction exceptions, are reserved. For each interrupt, an 8-bit vector must be supplied to the M80C286 which identifies the appropriate table entry. Exceptions supply the interrupt vector internally. INT instructions contain or imply the vector and allow access to all 256 interrupts. The Interrupt Vector Assignments are listed in Table 4. Maskable hardware initiated interrupts supply the 8-bit vector to the CPU during an interrupt acknowledge bus sequence. Non-maskable hardware interrupts use a predefined internally supplied vector. MASKABLE INTERRUPT (INTR) The M80C286 provides a maskable hardware interrupt request pin, INTR. Software enables this input by setting the interrupt flag bit (IF) in the flag word. All 224 user-defined interrupt sources can share this input, yet they can retain separate interrupt handlers. An 8-bit vector read by the CPU during the interrupt acknowledge sequence (discussed in System Interface section) identifies the source of the interrupt. Further maskable interrupts are disabled while servicing an interrupt by resetting the IF but as part of the response to an interrupt or exception. The saved flag word will reflect the enable status of the processor prior to the interrupt. Until the flag word is restored to the flag register, the interrupt flag will be zero unless specifically set. The interrupt return instruction includes restoring the flag word, thereby restoring the original status of IF. NON-MASKABLE INTERRUPT REQUEST (NMI) A non-maskable interrupt input (NMI) is also provided. NMI has higher priority than INTR. A typical use of NMI would be to activate a power failure routine. The activation of this input causes an interrupt with an internally supplied vector value of 2. No external interrupt acknowledge sequence is performed. While executing the NMI servicing procedure, the M80C286 will service neither further NMI requests, INTR requests, nor the processor extension segment overrun interrupt until an interrupt return (IRET) instruction is executed or the CPU is reset. If NMI occurs while currently servicing an NMI, its presence will be saved for servicing after executing the first IRET instruction. IF is cleared at the beginning of an NMI interrupt to inhibit INTR interrupts. 8 M80C286 SINGLE STEP INTERRUPT The M80C286 has an internal interrupt that allows programs to execute one instruction at a time. It is called the single step interrupt and is controlled by the single step flag bit (TF) in the flag word. Once this bit is set, an internal single step interrupt will occur after the next instruction has been executed. The interrupt clears the TF bit and uses an internally supplied vector of 1. The IRET instruction is used to set the TF bit and transfer control to the next instruction to be single stepped. Interrupt Priorities When simultaneous interrupt requests occur, they are processed in a fixed order as shown in Table 5. Interrupt processing involves saving the flags, return address, and setting CS:IP to point at the first instruction of the interrupt handler. If other interrupts remain enabled they are processed before the first instruction of the current interrupt handler is executed. The last interrupt processed is therefore the first one serviced. Table 5. Interrupt Processing Order Order Interrupt 1 Instruction exception 2 Single step 3 NMI 4 Processor extension segment overrun 5 INTR 6 INT instruction Initialization and Processor Reset Processor initialization or start up is accomplished by driving the RESET input pin HIGH. RESET forces the M80C286 to terminate all execution and local bus activity. No instruction or bus activity will occur as long as RESET is active. After RESET becomes inactive and an internal processing interval elapses, the M80C286 begins execution in real address mode with the instruction at physical location FFFFF0(H). RESET also sets some registers to predefined values as shown in Table 6. Table6.M80C286InitialRegisterStateafterRESET Flag word 0002(H) Machine Status Word FFF0(H) Instruction pointer FFF0(H) Code segment F000(H) Data segment 0000(H) Extra segment 0000(H) Stack segment 0000(H) HOLD must not be active during the time from the leading edge of RESET to 34 CLKs after the trailing edge of RESET. Machine Status Word Description The machine status word (MSW) records when a task switch takes place and controls the operating mode of the M80C286. It is a 16-bit register of which the lower four bits are used. One bit places the CPU into protected mode, while the other three bits, as shown in Table 7, control the processor extension interface. After RESET, this register contains FFF0(H) which places the M80C286 in M8086 real address mode. Table 7. MSW Bit Functions Bit Name Function Position 0 PE Protected mode enable places the M80C286 into protected mode and cannot be cleared except by RESET. 1 MP Monitor processor extension allows WAIT instructions to cause a processor extension not present exception (number 7). 2 EM Emulate processor extension causes a processor extension not present exception (number 7) on ESC instructions to allow emulating a processor extension. 3 TS Task switched indicates the next instruction using a processor extension will cause exception 7, allowing software to test whether the current processor extension context belongs to the current task. The LMSW and SMSW instructions can load and store the MSW in real address mode. The recommended use of TS, EM, and MP is shown in Table 8. Table 8. Recommended MSW Encodings For Processor Extension Control Instructions TS MP EM Recommended Use Causing Exception 7 0 0 0 Initial encoding after RESET. M80C286 operation is identical to M8086, 88. None 0 0 1 No processor extension is available. Software will emulate its function. ESC 1 0 1 No processor extension is available. Software will emulate its function. The current ESC processor extension context may belong to another task. 0 1 0 A processor extension exists. None 1 1 0 A processor extension exists. The current processor extension context may belong to ESC or another task. The Exception 7 on WAIT allows software to test for an error pending WAIT from a previous processor extension operation. 9 M80C286 Halt The HLT instruction stops program execution and prevents the CPU from using the local bus until restarted. Either NMI, INTR with IF e 1, or RESET will force the M80C286 out of halt. If interrupted, the saved CS:IP will point to the next instruction after the HLT. M8086 REAL ADDRESS MODE The M80C286 executes a fully upward-compatible superset of the M8086 instruction set in real address mode. In real address mode the M80C286 is object code compatible with M8086 and M8088 software. The real address mode architecture (registers and addressing modes) is exactly as described in the M80C286 Base Architecture section of this Functional Description. Memory Size Physical memory is a contiguous array of up to 1,048,576 bytes (one megabyte) addressed by pins A0 through A19 and BHE. A20 through A23 should be ignored. Memory Addressing In real address mode physical memory is a contiguous array of up to 1,048,576 bytes (one megabyte) addressed by pins A0 through A19 and BHE. Address bits A20±A23 may not always be zero in real mode. A20±A23 should not be used by the system while the M80C286 is operating in Real Mode. The selector portion of a pointer is interpreted as the upper 16 bits of a 20-bit segment address. The lower four bits of the 20-bit segment address are always zero. Segment addresses, therefore, begin on multiples of 16 bytes. See Figure 7 for a graphic representation of address information. All segments in real address mode are 64K bytes in size and may be read, written, or executed. An exception or interrupt can occur if data operands or instructions attempt to wrap around the end of a segment (e.g. a word with its low order byte at offset FFFF(H) and its high order byte at offset 0000(H). If, in real address mode, the information contained in a segment does not use the full 64K bytes, the unused end of the segment may be overlayed by another segment to reduce physical memory requirements. Reserved Memory Locations The M80C286 reserves two fixed areas of memory in real address mode (see Figure 8); system initialization area and interrupt table area. Locations from addresses FFFF0(H) through FFFFF(H) are reserved for system initialization. Initial execution begins at location FFFF0(H). Locations 00000(H) through 003FF(H) are reserved for interrupt vectors. 271103±6 Figure 7. M8086 Real Address Mode Address Calculation 271103±7 Figure 8. M8086 Real Address Mode Initially Reserved Memory Locations 10 M80C286 Table 9. Real Address Mode Addressing Interrupts Function Interrupt Related Return Address Number Instructions Before Instruction? Interrupt table limit too small exception 8 INT vector is not within table limit Yes Processor extension segment overrun 9 ESC with memory operand extend- No interrupt ing beyond offset FFFF(H) Segment overrun exception 13 Word memory reference with offset Yes e FFFF(H) or an attempt to execute past the end of a segment Interrupts Table 9 shows the interrupt vectors reserved for exceptions and interrupts which indicate an addressing error. The exceptions leave the CPU in the state existing before attempting to execute the failing instruction (except for PUSH, POP, PUSHA, or POPA). Refer to the next section on protected mode initialization for a discussion on exception 8. Protected Mode Initialization To prepare the M80C286 for protected mode, the LIDT instruction is used to load the 24-bit interrupt table base and 16-bit limit for the protected mode interrupt table. This instruction can also set a base and limit for the interrupt vector table in real address mode. After reset, the interrupt table base is initialized to 000000(H) and its size set to 03FF(H). These values are compatible with M8086, 88 software. LIDT should only be executed in preparation for protected mode. Shutdown Shutdown occurs when a severe error is detected that prevents further instruction processing by the CPU. Shutdown and halt are externally signalled via a halt bus operation. They can be distinguished by A1 HIGH for halt and A1 LOW for shutdown. In real address mode, shutdown can occur under two conditions: # Exceptions 8 or 13 happen and the IDT limit does not include the interrupt vector. # A CALL INT or PUSH instruction attempts to wrap around the stack segment when SP is not even. An NMI input can bring the CPU out of shutdown if the IDT limit is at least 000F(H) and SP is greater than 0005(H), otherwise shutdown can only be exited via the RESET input. PROTECTED VIRTUAL ADDRESS MODE The M80C286 executes a fully upward-compatible superset of the M8086 instruction set in protected virtual address mode (protected mode). Protected mode also provides memory management and protection mechanisms and associated instructions. The M80C286 enters protected virtual address mode from real address mode by setting the PE (Protection Enable) bit of the machine status word with the Load Machine Status Word (LMSW) instruction. Protected mode offers extended physical and virtual memory address space, memory protection mechanisms, and new operations to support operating systems and virtual memory. All registers, instructions, and addressing modes described in the M80C286 Base Architecture section of this Functional Description remain the same. Programs for the M8086, 88, 186, and real address mode M80C286 can be run in protected mode; however, embedded constants for segment selectors are different. Memory Size The protected mode M80C286 provides a 1 gigabyte virtual address space per task mapped into a 16 megabyte physical address space defined by the address pin A23±A0 and BHE. The virtual address space may be larger than the physical address space since any use of an address that does not map to a physical memory location will cause a restartable exception. Memory Addressing As in real address mode, protected mode uses 32bit pointers, consisting of 16-bit selector and offset components. The selector, however, specifies an index into a memory resident table rather than the upper 16-bits of a real memory address. The 24-bit base address of the desired segment is obtained 11 M80C286 from the tables in memory. The 16-bit offset is added to the segment base address to form the physical address as shown in Figure 10. The tables are automatically referenced by the CPU whenever a segment register is loaded with a selector. All M80C286 instructions which load a segment register will reference the memory based tables without additional software. The memory based tables contain 8 byte values called descriptors. 271103±8 Figure 9. Protected Mode Memory Addressing DESCRIPTORS Descriptors define the use of memory. Special types of descriptors also define new functions for transfer of control and task switching. The M80C286 has segment descriptors for code, stack and data segments, and system control descriptors for special system data segments and control transfer operations, see Figure 10. Descriptor accesses are performed as locked bus operations to assure descriptor integrity in multi-processor systems. CODE AND DATA SEGMENT DESCRIPTORS (S e 1) Besides segment base addresses, code and data descriptors contain other segment attributes including segment size (1 to 64K bytes), access rights (read only, read/write, execute only, and execute/ read), and presence in memory (for virtual memory systems) (See Figure 11). Any segment usage violating a segment attribute indicated by the segment descriptor will prevent the memory cycle and cause an exception or interrupt. 271103±9 *Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80386. Figure 10. Code or Data Segment Descriptor Access Rights Byte Definition Bit Name Function Position 7 Present (P) P e 1 Segment is mapped into physical memory. P e 0 No mapping to physical memory exits, base and limit are not used. 6±5 Descriptor Privilege Segment privilege attribute used in privilege tests. Level (DPL) 4 Segment Descrip- S e 1 Code or Data (includes stacks) segment descriptor tor (S) S e 0 System Segment Descriptor or Gate Descriptor 3 Executable (E) E e 0 Data segment descriptor type is: If 2 Expansion Direc- ED e 0 Expand up segment, offsets must be s limit. Data tion (ED) ED e 1 Expand down segment, offsets must be l limit. Segment 1 Writeable (W) W e 0 Data segment may not be written into. (S e 1, Type W e 1 Data segment may be written into. * E e 0) Field 3 Executable (E) E e 1 Code Segment Descriptor type is: If Definition 2 Conforming (C) C e 1 Code segment may only be executed Code when CPL tDPL and CPL Segment remains unchanged. 1 Readable (R) R e0 Code segment may not be read (S e 1, R e 1 Code segment may be read. * E e 1) 0 Accessed (A) A e 0 Segment has not been accessed. A e 1 Segment selector has been loaded into segment register or used by selector test instructions. Figure 11. Code and Data Segment Descriptor Formats 12 M80C286 Code and data (including stack data) are stored in two types of segments: code segments and data segments. Both types are identified and defined by segment descriptors (S e 1). Code segments are identified by the executable (E) bit set to 1 in the descriptor access rights byte. The access rights byte of both code and data segment descriptor types have three fields in common: present (P) bit, Descriptor Privilege Level (DPL), and accessed (A) bit. If P e 0, any attempted use of this segment will cause a not-present exception. DPL specifies the privilege level of the segment descriptor. DPL controls when the descriptor may be used by a task (refer to privilege discussion below). The A bit shows whether the segment has been previously accessed for usage profiling, a necessity for virtual memory systems. The CPU will always set this bit when accessing the descriptor. Data segments (S e 1, E e 0) may be either readonly or read-write as controlled by the W bit of the access rights byte. Read-only (W e 0) data segments may not be written into. Data segments may grow in two directions, as determined by the Expansion Direction (ED) bit: upwards (ED e 0) for data segments, and downwards (ED e 1) for a segment containing a stack. The limit field for a data segment descriptor is interpreted differently depending on the ED bit (see Figure 11). A code segment (S e 1, E e 1) may be executeonly or execute/read as determined by the Readable (R) bit. Code segments may never be written into and execute-only code segments (R e 0) may not be read. A code segment may also have an attribute called conforming (C). A conforming code segment may be shared by programs that execute at different privilege levels. The DPL of a conforming code segment defines the range of privilege levels at which the segment may be executed (refer to privilege discussion below). The limit field identifies the last byte of a code segment. SYSTEM SEGMENT DESCRIPTORS (S e 0, TYPE e 1±3) In addition to code and data segment descriptors, the protected mode M80C286 defines System Segment Descriptors. These descriptors define special system data segments which contain a table of descriptors (Local Descriptor Table Descriptor) or segments which contain the execution state of a task (Task State Segment Descriptor). Figure 12 gives the formats for the special system data segment descriptors. The descriptors contain a 24-bit base address of the segment and a 16-bit limit. The access byte defines the type of descriptor, its state and privilege level. The descriptor contents are valid and the segment is in physical memory if P e1. If P e 0, the segment is not valid. The DPL field is only used in Task State Segment descriptors and indicates the privilege level at which the descriptor may be used (see Privilege). Since the Local Descriptor Table descriptor may only be used by a special privileged instruction, the DPL field is not used. Bit 4 of the access byte is 0 to indicate that it is a system control descriptor. The type field specifies the descriptor type as indicated in Figure 12. System Segment Descriptor 271103±10 *Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80386. System Segment Descriptor Fields Name Value Description TYPE 1 Available Task State Segment (TSS) 2 Local Descriptor Table 3 Busy Task State Segment (TSS) P 0 Descriptor contents are not valid 1 Descriptor contents are valid DPL 0±3 Descriptor Privilege Level BASE 24-bit Base Address of special system data number segment in real memory LIMIT 16-bit Offset of last byte in segment number Figure 12. System Segment Descriptor Format GATE DESCRIPTORS (S e 0, TYPE e 4±7) Gates are used to control access to entry points within the target code segment. The gate descriptors are call gates, task gates, interrupt gates and trap gates. Gates provide a level of indirection between the source and destination of the control transfer. This indirection allows the CPU to automatically perform protection checks and control entry point of the destination. Call gates are used to change privilege levels (see Privilege), task gates are used to perform a task switch, and interrupt and trap gates are used to specify interrupt service routines. The interrupt gate disables interrupts (resets IF) while the trap gate does not. Figure 13 shows the format of the gate descriptors. The descriptor contains a destination pointer that points to the descriptor of the target segment and the entry point offset. The destination selector in an interrupt gate, trap gate, and call gate must refer to a code segment descriptor. These gate descriptors contain the entry point to prevent a program from constructing and using an illegal entry point. Task gates may only refer to a task state segment. Since task gates invoke a task switch, the destination offset is not used in the task gate. 13 M80C286 Gate Descriptor 271103±11 *Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80386 (X is don't care) Gate Descriptor Fields Name Value Description 4 ±Call Gate TYPE 5 ±Task Gate 6 ±Interrupt Gate 7 ±Trap Gate P 0 ±Descriptor Contents are not valid 1 ±Descriptor Contents are valid DPL 0±3 Descriptor Privilege Level WORD Number of words to copy COUNT 0±31 from callers stack to called procedures stack. Only used with call gate. Selector to the target code DESTINATION 16-bit segment (Call, Interrupt or SELECTOR selector Trap Gate) Selector to the target task state segment (Task Gate) DESTINATION 16-bit Entry point within the target OFFSET offset code segment Figure 13. Gate Descriptor Format Exception 13 is generated when the gate is used if a destination selector does not refer to the correct descriptor type. The word count field is used in the call gate descriptor to indicate the number of parameters (0±31 words) to be automatically copied from the caller's stack to the stack of the called routine when a control transfer changes privilege levels. The word count field is not used by any other gate descriptor. The access byte format is the same for all gate descriptors. P e 1 indicates that the gate contents are valid. P e 0 indicates the contents are not valid and causes exception 11 if referenced. DPL is the descriptor privilege level and specifies when this descriptor may be used by a task (refer to privilege discussion below). Bit 4 must equal 0 to indicate a system control descriptor. The TYPE field specifies the descriptor type as indicated in Figure 13. SEGMENT DESCRIPTOR CACHE REGISTERS A segment descriptor cache register is assigned to each of the four segment registers (CS, SS, DS, ES). Segment descriptors are automatically loaded (cached) into a segment descriptor cache register (Figure 14) whenever the associated segment register is loaded with a selector. Only segment descriptors may be loaded into segment descriptor cache registers. Once loaded, all references to that segment of memory use the cached descriptor information instead of reaccessing the descriptor. The descriptor cache registers are not visible to programs. No instructions exist to store their contents. They only change when a segment register is loaded. SELECTOR FIELDS A protected mode selector has three fields: descriptor entry index, local or global descriptor table indicator (TI), and selector privilege (RPL) as shown in Figure 15. These fields select one of two memory based tables of descriptors, select the appropriate table entry and allow highspeed testing of the selector's privilege attribute (refer to privilege discussion below). 271103±12 Figure 15. Selector Fields 271103±13 Figure 14. Descriptor Cache Registers 14 M80C286 LOCAL AND GLOBAL DESCRIPTOR TABLES Two tables of descriptors, called descriptor tables, contain all descriptors accessible by a task at any given time. A descriptor table is a linear array of up to 8192 descriptors. The upper 13 bits of the selector value are an index into a descriptor table. Each table has a 24-bit base register to locate the descriptor table in physical memory and a 16-bit limit register that confine descriptor access to the defined limits of the table as shown in Figure 16. A restartable exception (13) will occur if an attempt is made to reference a descriptor outside the table limits. One table, called the Global Descriptor table (GDT), contains descriptors available to all tasks. The other table, called the Local Descriptor Table (LDT), contains descriptors that can be private to a task. Each task may have its own private LDT. The GDT may contain all descriptor types except interrupt and trap descriptors. The LDT may contain only segment, task gate, and call gate descriptors. A segment cannot be accessed by a task if its segment descriptor does not exist in either descriptor table at the time of access. 271103±14 Figure 16. Local and Global Descriptor Table Definition The LGDT and LLDT instructions load the base and limit of the global and local descriptor tables. LGDT and LLDT are privileged, i.e. they may only be executed by trusted programs operating at level 0. The LGDT instruction loads a six byte field containing the 16-bit table limit and 24-bit physical base address of the Global Descriptor Table as shown in Figure 17. The LDT instruction loads a selector which refers to a Local Descriptor Table descriptor containing the base address and limit for an LDT, as shown in Figure 16. 271103±15 *Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80386. Figure 17. Global Descriptor Table and Interrupt Descriptor Table Data Type INTERRUPT DESCRIPTOR TABLE The protected mode M80C286 has a third descriptor table, called the Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) (see Figure 18), used to define up to 256 interrupts. It may contain only task gates, interrupt gates and trap gates. The IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table) has a 24-bit physical base and 16-bit limit register in the CPU. The privileged LIDT instruction loads these registers with a six byte value of identical form to that of the LGDT instruction (see Figure 17 and Protected Mode Initialization). 271103±16 Figure 18. Interrupt Descriptor Table Definition References to IDT entries are made via INT instructions, external interrupt vectors, or exceptions. The IDT must be at least 256 bytes in size to allocate space for all reserved interrupts. Privilege The M80C286 has a four-level hierarchical privilege system which controls the use of privileged instructions and access to descriptors (and their associated segments) within a task. Four-level privilege, as shown in Figure 19, is an extension of the user/supervisor mode commonly found in minicomputers. The privilege levels are numbered 0 through 3. 15 M80C286 271103±17 Figure 19. Privilege Levels Level 0 is the most privileged level. Privilege levels provide protection within a task. (Tasks are isolated by providing private LDT's for each task.) Operating system routines, interrupt handlers, and other system software can be included and protected within the virtual address space of each task using the four levels of privilege. Each task in the system has a separate stack for each of its privilege levels. Tasks, descriptors, and selectors have a privilege level attribute that determines whether the descriptor may be used. Task privilege effects the use of instructions and descriptors. Descriptor and selector privilege only effect access to the descriptor. TASK PRIVILEGE A task always executes at one of the four privilege levels. The task privilege level at any specific instant is called the Current Privilege Level (CPL) and is defined by the lower two bits of the CS register. CPL cannot change during execution in a single code segment. A task's CPL may only be changed by control transfers through gate descriptors to a new code segment (See Control Transfer). Tasks begin executing at the CPL value specified by the code segment selector within TSS when the task is initiated via a task switch operation (See Figure 20). A task executing at Level 0 can access all data segments defined in the GDT and the task's LDT and is considered the most trusted level. A task executing a Level 3 has the most restricted access to data and is considered the least trusted level. DESCRIPTOR PRIVILEGE Descriptor privilege is specified by the Descriptor Privilege Level (DPL) field of the descriptor access byte. DPL specifies the least trusted task privilege level (CPL) at which a task may access the descriptor. Descriptors with DPL e 0 are the most protected. Only tasks executing at privilege level 0 (CPL e 0) may access them. Descriptors with DPL e 3 are the least protected (i.e. have the least restricted access) since tasks can access them when CPL e 0, 1, 2, or 3. This rule applies to all descriptors, except LDT descriptors. SELECTOR PRIVILEGE Selector privilege is specified by the Requested Privilege Level (RPL) field in the least significant two bits of a selector. Selector RPL may establish a less trusted privilege level than the current privilege level for the use of a selector. This level is called the task's effective privilege level (EPL). RPL can only reduce the scope of a task's access to data with this selector. A task's effective privilege is the numeric maximum of RPL and CPL. A selector with RPL e 0 imposes no additional restriction on its use while a selector with RPL e 3 can only refer to segments at privilege Level 3 regardless of the task's CPL. RPL is generally used to verify that pointer parameters passed to a more trusted procedure are not allowed to use data at a more privileged level than the caller (refer to pointer testing instructions). Descriptor Access and Privilege Validation Determining the ability of a task to access a segment involves the type of segment to be accessed, the instruction used, the type of descriptor used and CPL, RPL, and DPL. The two basic types of segment accesses are control transfer (selectors loaded into CS) and data (selectors loaded into DS, ES or SS). DATA SEGMENT ACCESS Instructions that load selectors into DS and ES must refer to a data segment descriptor or readable code segment descriptor. The CPL of the task and the RPL of the selector must be the same as or more privileged (numerically equal to or lower than) than the descriptor DPL. In general, a task can only access data segments at the same or less privileged levels than the CPL or RPL (whichever is numerically higher) to prevent a program from accessing data it cannot be trusted to use. An exception to the rule is a readable conforming code segment. This type of code segment can be read from any privilege level. If the privilege checks fail (e.g. DPL is numerically less than the maximum of CPL and RPL) or an incorrect type of descriptor is referenced (e.g. gate de16 M80C286 scriptor or execute only code segment) exception 13 occurs. If the segment is not present, exception 11 is generated. Instructions that load selectors into SS must refer to data segment descriptors for writable data segments. The descriptor privilege (DPL) and RPL must equal CPL. All other descriptor types or a privilege level violation will cause exception 13. A not present fault causes exception 12. CONTROL TRANSFER Four types of control transfer can occur when a selector is loaded into CS by a control transfer operation (see Table 10). Each transfer type can only occur if the operation which loaded the selector references the correct descriptor type. Any violation of these descriptor usage rules (e.g. JMP through a call gate or RET to a Task State Segment) will cause exception 13. The ability to reference a descriptor for control transfer is also subject to rules of privilege. A CALL or JUMP instruction may only reference a code segment descriptor with DPL equal to the task CPL or a conforming segment with DPL of equal or greater privilege than CPL. The RPL of the selector used to reference the code descriptor must have as much privilege as CPL. RET and IRET instructions may only reference code segment descriptors with descriptor privilege equal to or less privileged than the task CPL. The selector loaded into CS is the return address from the stack. After the return, the selector RPL is the task's new CPL. If CPL changes, the old stack pointer is popped after the return address. When a JMP or CALL references a Task State Segment descriptor, the descriptor DPL must be the same or less privileged than the task's CPL. Reference to a valid Task State Segment descriptor causes a task switch (see Task Switch Operation). Reference to a Task State Segment descriptor at a more privileged level than the task's CPL generates exception 13. When an instruction or interrupt references a gate descriptor, the gate DPL must have the same or less privilege than the task CPL. If DPL is at a more privileged level than CPL, exeception 13 occurs. If the destination selector contained in the gate references a code segment descriptor, the code segment descriptor DPL must be the same or more privileged than the task CPL. If not, Exception 13 is issued. After the control transfer, the code segment descriptors DPL is the task's new CPL. If the destination selector in the gate references a task state segment, a task switch is automatically performed (see Task Switch Operation). The privilege rules on control transfer require: Ð JMP or CALL direct to a code segment (code segment descriptor) can only be to a conforming segment with DPL of equal or greater privilege than CPL or a non-conforming segment at the same privilege level. Ð interrupts within the task or calls that may change privilege levels, can only transfer control through a gate at the same or a less privileged level than CPL to a code segment at the same or more privileged level than CPL. Ð return instructions that don't switch tasks can only return control to a code segment at the same or less privileged level. Ð task switch can be performed by a call, jump or interrupt which references either a task gate or task state segment at the same or less privileged level. Table 10. Descriptor Types Used for Control Transfer Control Transfer Types Operation Types Descriptor Descriptor Referenced Table Intersegment within the same privilege level JMP, CALL, RET, IRET* Code Segment GDT/LDT Intersegment to the same or higher privilege level Interrupt CALL Call Gate GDT/LDT within task may change CPL. Interrupt Instruction, Trap or IDT Exception, External Interrupt Interrupt Gate Intersegment to a lower privilege level (changes task CPL) RET, IRET* Code Segment GDT/LDT CALL, JMP Task State GDT Segment Task Switch CALL, JMP Task Gate GDT/LDT IRET** Interrupt Instruction, Task Gate IDT Exception, External Interrupt *NT (Nested Task bit of flag word) e 0 **NT (Nested Task bit of flag word) e 1 17 M80C286 PRIVILEGE LEVEL CHANGES Any control transfer that changes CPL within the task, causes a change of stacks as part of the operation. Initial values of SS:SP for privilege levels 0, 1, and 2 are kept in the task state segment (refer to Task Switch Operation). During a JMP or CALL control transfer, the new stack pointer is loaded into the SS and SP registers and the previous stack pointer is pushed onto the new stack. When returning to the original privilege level, its stack is restored as part of the RET or IRET instruction operation. For subroutine calls that pass parameters on the stack and cross privilege levels, a fixed number of words, as specified in the gate, are copied from the previous stack to the current stack. The inter-segment RET instruction with a stack adjustment value will correctly restore the previous stack pointer upon return. Protection The M80C286 includes mechanisms to protect critical instructions that affect the CPU execution state (e.g. HLT) and code or data segments from improper usage. These protection mechanisms are grouped into three forms: Restricted usage of segments (e.g. no write allowed to read-only data segments). The only segments available for use are defined by descriptors in the Local Descriptor Table (LDT) and Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Restricted access to segments via the rules of privilege and descriptor usage. Privileged instructions or operations that may only be executed at certain privilege levels as determined by the CPL and I/O Privilege Level (IOPL). The IOPL is defined by bits 14 and 13 of the flag word. These checks are performed for all instructions and can be split into three categories: segment load checks (Table 11), operand reference checks (Table 12), and privileged instruction checks (Table 13). Any violation of the rules shown will result in an exception. A not-present exception related to the stack segment causes exception 12. The IRET and POPF instructions do not perform some of their defined functions if CPL is not of sufficient privilege (numerically small enough). Precisely these are: # The IF bit is not changed if CPL l IOPL. # The IOPL field of the flag word is not changed if CPL l 0. No exceptions or other indication are given when these conditions occur. Table 11. Segment Register Load Checks Error Description Exception Number Descriptor table limit exceeded 13 Segment descriptor not-present 11 or 12 Privilege rules violated 13 Invalid descriptor/segment type segment register load: ÐRead only data segment load to SS ÐSpecial Control descriptor load to DS, ES, SS 13 ÐExecute only segment load to DS, ES, SS ÐData segment load to CS ÐRead/Execute code segment load to SS Table 12. Operand Reference Checks Error Description Exception Number Write into code segment 13 Read from execute-only code segment 13 Write to read-only data segment 13 Segment limit exceeded1 12 or 13 NOTE: Carry out in offset calculations is ignored. Table 13. Privileged Instruction Checks Error Description Exception Number CPL i 0 when executing the following instructions: 13 LIDT, LLDT, LGDT, LTR, LMSW, CTS, HLT CPL l IOPL when executing the following instructions: 13 INS, IN, OUTS, OUT, STI, CLI, LOCK EXCEPTIONS The M80C286 detects several types of exceptions and interrupts, in protected mode (see Table 14). Most are restartable after the exceptional condition is removed. Interrupt handlers for most exceptions can read an error code, pushed on the stack after the return address, that identifies the selector involved (0 if none). The return address normally points to the failing instruction, including all leading prefixes. For a processor extension segment overrun exception, the return address will not point at the ESC instruction that caused the exception; however, the processor extension registers may contain the address of the failing instruction. 18 M80C286 Table 14. Protected Mode Exceptions Return Always Error Interrupt Function Address Restart- Code Vector At Falling able? on Stack? Instruction? 8 Double exception detected Yes No2 Yes 9 Processor extension segment overrun No No2 No 10 Invalid task state segment Yes Yes Yes 11 Segment not present Yes Yes Yes 12 Stack segment overrun or stack segment not present Yes Yes1 Yes 13 General protection Yes No2 Yes NOTE: 1. When a PUSHA or POPA instruction attempts to wrap around the stack segment, the machine state after the exception will not be restartable because stack segment wrap around is not permitted. This condition is identified by the value of the saved SP being either 0000(H), 0001(H), FFFE(H), or FFFF(H). 2. These exceptions indicate a violation to privilege rules or usage rules has occurred. Restart is generally not attempted under those conditions. These exceptions indicate a violation to privilege rules or usage rules has occurred. Restart is generally not attempted under those conditions. All these checks are performed for all instructions and can be split into three categories: segment load checks (Table 11), operand reference checks (Table 12), and privileged instruction checks (Table 13). Any violation of the rules shown will result in an exception. A not-present exception causes exception 11 or 12 and is restartable. Special Operations TASK SWITCH OPERATION The M80C286 provides a built-in task switch operation which saves the entire M80C286 execution state (registers, address space, and a link to the previous task), loads a new execution state, and commences execution in the new task. Like gates, the task switch operation is invoked by executing an intersegment JMP or CALL instruction which refers to a Task State Segment (TSS) or task gate descriptor in the GDT or LDT. An INT n instruction, exception, or external interrupt may also invoke the task switch operation by selecting a task gate descriptor in the associated IDT descriptor entry. The TSS descriptor points at a segment (see Figure 20) containing the entire M80C286 execution state while a task gate descriptor contains a TSS selector. The limit field of the descriptor must be l002B(H). Each task must have a TSS associated with it. The current TSS is identified by a special register in the M80C286 called the Task Register (TR). This register contains a selector referring to the task state segment descriptor that defines the current TSS. A hidden base and limit register associated with TR are loaded whenever TR is loaded with a new selector. The IRET instruction is used to return control to the task that called the current task or was interrupted. Bit 14 in the flag register is called the Nested Task (NT) bit. It controls the function of the IRET instruction. If NT e 0, the IRET instruction performs the regular current task by popping values off the stack; when NT e 1, IRET performs a task switch operation back to the previous task. When a CALL, JMP, or INT instruction initiates a task switch, the old (except for case of JMP) and new TSS will be marked busy and the back link field of the new TSS set to the old TSS selector. The NT bit of the new task is set by CALL or INT initiated task switches. An interrupt that does not cause a task switch will clear NT. NT may also be set or cleared by POPF or IRET instructions. The task state segment is marked busy by changing the descriptor type field from Type 1 to Type 3. Use of a selector that references a busy task state segment causes Exception 13. PROCESSOR EXTENSION CONTEXT SWITCHING The context of a processor extension (such as the M80C287 numerics processor) is not changed by the task switch operation. A processor extension context need only be changed when a different task attempts to use the processor extension (which still contains the context of a previous task). The M80C286 detects the first use of a processor extension after a task switch by causing the processor extension not present exception (7). The interrupt handler may then decide whether a context change is necessary. Whenever the M80C286 switches tasks, it sets the Task Switched (TS) bit of the MSW. TS indicates that a processor extension context may belong to a different task than the current one. The processor extension not present exception (7) will occur when attempting to execute an ESC or WAIT instruction if TSe1 and a processor extension is present (MPe1 in MSW). 19 M80C286 POINTER TESTING INSTRUCTIONS The M80C286 provides several instructions to speed pointer testing and consistency checks for maintaining system integrity (see Table 15). These instructions use the memory management hardware to verify that a selector value refers to an appropriate segment without risking an exception. A condition flag (ZF) indicates whether use of the selector or segment will cause an exception. 271103±18 Figure 20. Task State Segment and TSS Registers 20 M80C286 Table 15. M80C286 Pointer Test Instructions Instruction Operands Function ARPL Selector, Adjust Requested Privilege Register Level: adjusts the RPL of the selector to the numeric maximum of current selector RPL value and the RPL value in the register. Set zero flag if selector RPL was changed by ARPL. VERR Selector VERify for Read: sets the zero flag if the segment referred to by the selector can be read. VERW Selector VERify for Write: sets the zero flag if the segment referred to by the selector can be written. LSL Register, Load Segment Limit: reads Selector the segment limit into the register if privilege rules and descriptor type allow. Set zero flag if successful. LAR Register, Load Access Rights: reads Selector the descriptor access rights byte into the register if privilege rules allow. Set zero flag if successful. DOUBLE FAULT AND SHUTDOWN If two separate exceptions are detected during a single instruction execution, the M80C286 performs the double fault exception (8). If an execution occurs during processing of the double fault exception, the M80C286 will enter shutdown. During shutdown no further instructions or exceptions are processed. Either NMI (CPU remains in protected mode) or RESET (CPU exits protected mode) can force the M80C286 out of shutdown. Shutdown is externally signalled via a HALT bus operation with A1 LOW. PROTECTED MODE INITIALIZATION The M80C286 initially executes in real address mode after RESET. To allow initialization code to be placed at the top of physical memory, A23±A20 will be HIGH when the M80C286 performs memory references relative to the CS register until CS is changed. A23±A20 will be zero for references to the DS, ES, or SS segments. Changing CS in real address mode will force A23±A20 LOW whenever CS is used again. The initial CS:IP value of F000:FFF0 provides 64K bytes of code space for initialization code without changing CS. Protected mode operation requires several registers to be initialized. The GDT and IDT base registers must refer to a valid GDT and IDT. After executing the LMSW instruction to set PE, the M80C286 must immediately execute an intra-segment JMP instruction to clear the instruction queue of instructions decoded in real address mode. To force the M80C286 CPU registers to match the initial protected mode state assumed by software, execute a JMP instruction with a selector referring to the initial TSS used in the system. This will load the task register, local descriptor table register, segment registers and initial general register state. The TR should point at a valid TSS since any task switch operation involves saving the current task state. SYSTEM INTERFACE The M80C286 system interface appears in two forms: a local bus and a system bus. The local bus consists of address, data, status, and control signals at the pins of the CPU. A system bus is any buffered version of the local bus. A system bus may also differ from the local bus in terms of coding of status and control lines and/or timing and loading of signals. The M80C286 family includes several devices to generate standard system buses such as the IEEE 796 standard MULTIBUS. Bus Interface Signals and Timing The M80C286 microsystem local bus interfaces the M80C286 to local memory and I/O components. The interface has 24 address lines, 16 data lines, and 8 status and control signals. The M80C286 CPU, M82C284 clock generator, M82C288 bus controller, transceivers, and latches provide a buffered and decoded system bus interface. The M82C284 generates the system clock and synchronizes READY and RESET. The M82C288 converts bus operation status encoded by the M80C286 into command and bus control signals. These components can provide the timing and electrical power drive levels required for most system bus interfaces including the Multibus. Physical Memory and I/O Interface A maximum of 16 megabytes of physical memory can be addressed in protected mode. One megabyte can be addressed in real address mode. Memory is accessible as bytes or words. Words consist of any two consecutive bytes addressed with the least significant byte stored in the lowest address. Byte transfers occur on either half of the 16-bit local data bus. Even bytes are accessed over D7±D0 while odd bytes are transferred over D15±D8. Evenaddressed words are transferred over D15±D0 in one bus cycle, while odd-addressed word require two bus operations. The first transfers data on D15±D8, and the second transfers data on D7±D0. Both byte data transfers occur automatically, transparent to software. 21 M80C286 Two bus signals, A0 and BHE, control transfers over the lower and upper halves of the data bus. Even address byte transfers are indicated by A0 LOW and BHE HIGH. Odd address byte transfers are indicated by A0 HIGH and BHE LOW. Both A0 and BHE are LOW for even address word transfers. The I/O address space contains 64K addresses in both modes. The I/O space is accessible as either bytes or words, as is memory. Byte wide peripheral devices may be attached to either the upper or lower byte of the data bus. Byte-wide I/O devices attached to the upper data byte (D15±D8) are accessed with odd I/O addresses. Devices on the lower data byte are accessed with even I/O addresses. An interrupt controller such as Intel's 82C59A-2 must be connected to the lower data byte (D7±D0) for proper return of the interrupt vector. Bus Operation The M80C286 uses a double frequency system clock (CLK input) to control bus timing. All signals on the local bus are measured relative to the system CLK input. The CPU divides the system clock by 2 to produce the internal processor clock, which determines bus state. Each processor clock is composed of two system clock cycles named phase 1 and phase 2. The M82C284 clock generator output (PCLK) identifies the next phase of the processor clock. (See Figure 21.) 271103±19 Figure 21. System and Processor Clock Relationships Six types of bus operations are supported; memory read, memory write, I/O read, I/O write, interrupt acknowledge, and halt/shutdown. Data can be transferred at a maximum rate of one word per two processor clock cycles. The M80C286 bus has three basic states: idle (Ti), send status (Ts), and perform command (Tc). The M80C286 CPU also has a fourth local bus state called hold (Th). Th indicates that the M80C286 has surrendered control of the local bus to another bus master in response to a HOLD request. Each bus state is one processor clock long. Figure 22 shows the four M80C286 local bus states and allowed transitions. 271103±20 Figure 22. M80C286 Bus States Bus States The idle (Ti) state indicates that no data transfers are in progress or requested. The first active state TS is signaled by status line S1 or S0 going LOW and identifying phase 1 of the processor clock. During TS, the command encoding, the address, and data (for a write operation) are available on the M80C286 output pins. The M82C288 bus controller decodes the status signals and generates Multibus compatible read/write command and local transceiver control signals. After TS, the perform command (TC) state is entered. Memory or I/O devices respond to the bus operation during TC, either transferring read data to the CPU or accepting write data. TC states may be repeated as often as necessary to assure sufficient time for the memory or I/O device to respond. The READY signal determines whether TC is repeated. A repeated TC state is called a wait state. During hold (Th), the M80C286 will float* all address, data, and status output pins enabling another bus master to use the local bus. The M80C286 HOLD input signal is used to place the M80C286 into the Th state. The M80C286 HLDA output signal indicates that the CPU has entered Th. Pipelined Addressing The M80C286 uses a local bus interface with pipelined timing to allow as much time as possible for data access. Pipelined timing allows a new bus operation to be initiated every two processor cycles, while allowing each individual bus operation to last for three processor cycles. The timing of the address outputs is pipelined such that the address of the next bus operation becomes available during the current bus operation. Or in other words, the first clock of the next bus operation is overlapped with the last clock of the current bus operation. Therefore, address decode and routing logic can operate in advance of the next bus operation. *NOTE: See section on bus hold circuitry. 22 M80C286 271103±21 Figure 23. Basic Bus Cycle External address latches may hold the address stable for the entire bus operation, and provide additional AC and DC buffering. The M80C286 does not maintain the address of the current bus operation during all Tc states. Instead, the address for the next bus operation may be emitted during phase 2 of any Tc. The address remains valid during phase 1 of the first Tc to guarantee hold time, relative to ALE, for the address latch inputs. Bus Control Signals The M82C288 bus controller provides control signals; address latch enable (ALE), Read/Write commands, data transmit/receive (DT/R), and data enable (DEN) that control the address latches, data transceivers, write enable, and output enable for memory and I/O systems. The Address Latch Enable (ALE) output determines when the address may be latched. ALE provides at least one system CLK period of address hold time from the end of the previous bus operation until the address for the next bus operation appears at the latch outputs. This address hold time is required to support MULTIBUS and common memory systems. The data bus transceivers are controlled by M82C288 outputs Data Enable (DEN) and Data Transmit/Receive (DT/R). DEN enables the data transceivers; while DT/R controls tranceiver direction. DEN and DT/R are timed to prevent bus contention between the bus master, data bus transceivers, and system data bus transceivers. Command Timing Controls Two system timing customization options, command extension and command delay, are provided on the M80C286 local bus. Command extension allows additional time for external devices to respond to a command and is analogous to inserting wait states on the M8086. External logic can control the duration of any bus operation such that the operation is only as long as necessary. The READY input signal can extend any bus operation for as long as necessary, see Figure 23. Command delay allows an increase of address or write data setup time to system bus command active for any bus operation by delaying when the system bus command becomes active. Command delay is controlled by the M82C288 CMDLY input. After TS, the bus controller samples CMDLY at each failing edge of CLK. If CMDLY is HIGH, the M82C288 will not activate the command signal. When CMDLY is LOW, the M82C288 will activate the command signal. After the command becomes active, the CMDLY input is not sampled. When a command is delayed, the available response time from command active to return read data or accept write data is less. To customize system bus timing, an address decoder can determine which bus operations require delaying the command. The CMDLY input does not affect the timing of ALE, DEN, or DT/R. 23 M80C286 271103±22 Figure 24. CMDLY Controls the Leading Edge of Command Signal Figure 24 illustrates four uses of CMDLY. Example 1 shows delaying the read command two system CLKs for cycle N-1 and no delay for cycle N, and example 2 shows delaying the read command one system CLK for cycle N-1 and one system CLK delay for cycle N. Bus Cycle Termination At maximum transfer rates, the M80C286 bus alternates between the status and command states. The bus status signals become inactive after Ts so that they may correctly signal the start of the next bus operation after the completion of the current cycle. No external indication of Tc exists on the M80C286 local bus. The bus master and bus controller enter Tc directly after Ts and continue executing Tc cycles until terminated by READY. READY Operation The current bus master and M82C288 bus controller terminate each bus operation simultaneously to achieve maximum bus operation bandwidth. Both are informed in advance by READY active (opencollector output from M82C284) which identifies the last TC cycle of the current bus operation. The bus master and bus controller must see the same sense of the READY signal, thereby requiring READY be synchronous to the system clock. Synchronous Ready The M82C284 clock generator provides READY synchronization from both synchronous and asynchronous sources (see Figure 25). The synchronous ready input (SRDY) of the clock generator is sampled with the falling edge of CLK at the end of phase 1 of each Tc. The state of SRDY is then broadcast to the bus master and bus controller via the READY output line. Asynchronous Ready Many systems have devices or subsystems that are asynchronous to the system clock. As a result, their ready outputs cannot be guaranteed to meet the M82C284 SRDY setup and hold time requirements. But the M82C284 asynchronous ready input (ARDY) is designed to accept such signals. The ARDY input is sampled at the beginning of each TC cycle by M82C284 synchronization logic. This provides one system CLK cycle time to resolve its value before broadcasting it to the bus master and bus controller. 24 M80C286 NOTES: 271103±23 1. SRDYEN is active low. 2. If SRDYEN is high, the state of SRDY will no affect READY. 3. ARDYEN is active low. Figure 25. Synchronous and Asynchronous Ready ARDY or ARDYEN must be HIGH at the end of TS. ARDY cannot be used to terminate bus cycle with no wait states. Each ready input of the M82C284 has an enable pin (SRDYEN and ARDYEN) to select whether the current bus operation will be terminated by the synchronous or asynchronous ready. Either of the ready inputs may terminate a bus operation. These enable inputs are active low and have the same timing as their respective ready inputs. Address decode logic usually selects whether the current bus operation should be terminated by ARDY or SRDY. Data Bus Control Figures 26, 27, and 28 show how the DT/R, DEN, data bus, and address signals operate for different combinations of read, write, and idle bus operations. DT/R goes active (LOW) for a read operation. DT/R remains HIGH before, during, and between write operations. The data bus is driven with write data during the second phase of Ts. The delay in write data timing allows the read data drivers, from a previous read cycle, sufficient time to enter 3-state OFF* before the M80C286 CPU begins driving the local data bus for write operations. Write data will always remain valid for one system clock past the last Tc to provide sufficient hold time for Multibus or other similar memory or I/O systems. During write-read or writeidle sequences the data bus enters 3-state OFF* during the second phase of the processor cycle after the last Tc. In a write-write sequence the data bus does not enter 3-state OFF* between Tc and Ts. Bus Usage The M80C286 local bus may be used for several functions: instruction data transfers, data transfers by other bus masters, instruction fetching, processor extension data transfers, interrupt acknowledge, and halt/shutdown. This section describes local bus activities which have special signals or requirements. *NOTE: See section on bus hold circuitry. 25 M80C286 271103±24 Figure 26. Back to Back Read-Write Cycles 271103±25 Figure 27. Back to Back Write-Read Cycles 26 M80C286 271103±26 Figure 28. Back to Back Write-Write Cycles HOLD and HLDA HOLD AND HLDA allow another bus master to gain control of the local bus by placing the M80C286 bus into the Th state. The sequence of events required to pass control between the M80C286 and another local bus master are shown in Figure 29. In this example, the M80C286 is initially in the Th state as signaled by HLDA being active. Upon leaving Th, as signaled by HLDA going inactive, a write operation is started. During the write operation another local bus master requests the local bus from the M80C286 as shown by the HOLD signal. After completing the write operation, the M80C286 performs one Ti bus cycle, to guarantee write data hold time, then enters Th as signaled by HLDA going active. The CMDLY signal and ARDY ready are used to start and stop the write bus command, respectively. Note that SRDY must be inactive or disabled by SRDYEN to guarantee ARDY will terminate the cycle. HOLD must not be active during the time from the leading edge of RESET until 34 CLKs following the trailing edge of RESET. Lock The CPU asserts an active lock signal during InterruptAcknowledge cycles, the XCHG instruction, and during some descriptor accesses. Lock is also asserted when the LOCK prefix is used. The LOCK prefix may be used with the following ASM-286 assembly instructions; MOVS, INS, and OUTS. For bus cycles other than Interrupt-Acknowledge cycles, Lock will be active for the first and subsequent cycles of a series of cycles to be locked. Lock will not be shown active during the last cycle to be locked. For the next-to-last cycle, Lock will become inactive at the end of the first Tc regardless of the number of wait-states inserted. For Interrupt-Acknowledge cycles, Lock will be active for each cycle, and will become inactive at the end of the first Tc for each cycle regardless of the number of wait-states inserted. Instruction Fetching The M80C286 Bus Unit (BU) will fetch instructions ahead of the current instruction being executed. This activity is called prefetching. It occurs when the local bus would otherwise be idle and obeys the following rules: A prefetch bus operation starts when at least two bytes of the 6-byte prefetch queue are empty. The prefetcher normally performs word prefetches independent of the byte alignment of the code segment base in physical memory. The prefetcher will perform only a byte code fetch operation for control transfers to an instruction beginning on a numerically odd physical address. Prefetching stops whenever a control transfer or HLT instruction is decoded by the IU and placed into the instruction queue. 27 M80C286 In real address mode, the prefetcher may fetch up to 6 bytes beyond the last control transfer or HLT instruction in a code segment. In protected mode, the prefetcher will never cause a segment overrun exception. The prefetcher stops at the last physical memory word of the code segment. Exception 13 will occur if the program attempts to execute beyond the last full instruction in the code segment. If the last byte of a code segment appears on an even physical memory address, the prefetcher will read the next physical byte of memory (perform a word code fetch). The value of this byte is ignored and any attempt to execute it causes exception 13. 271103±27 NOTES: 1. Status lines are not driven by M80C286, yet remain high due to internal pullup resistors during HOLD state. See section on bus hold circuitry. 2. Address, M/IO and COD/INTA may start floating during any TC depending on when internal M80C286 bus arbiter decides to release bus to external HOLD. The float starts in w2 of TC . See section on bus hold circuitry. 3. BHE and LOCK may start floating after the end of any TC depending on when internal M80C286 bus arbiter decides to release bus to external HOLD. The float starts in w1 of TC . See section on bus hold circuitry. 4. The minimum HOLD to HLDA time is shown. Maximum is one TH longer. 5. The earliest HOLD time is shown. It will always allow a subsequent memory cycle if pending is shown. 6. The minimum HOLD to HLDA time is shown. Maximum is a function of the instruction, type of bus cycle and other machine state (i.e., Interrupts, Waits, Lock, etc.). 7. Asynchronous ready allows termination of the cycle. Synchronous ready does not signal ready in this example. Synchronous ready state is ignored after ready is signaled via the asynchronous input. Figure 29. MULTIBUS Write Terminated by Asynchronous Ready with Bus Hold 28 M80C286 Processor Extension Transfers The processor extension interface uses I/O port addresses 00F8(H), 00FA(H), and 00FC(H) which are part of the I/O port address range reserved by Intel. An ESC instruction with Machine Status Word bits EM e 0 and TS e 0 will perform I/O bus operations to one or more of these I/O port addresses independent of the value of IOPL and CPL. ESC instructions with memory references enable the CPU to accept PEREQ inputs for processor extension operand transfers. The CPU will determine the operand starting address and read/write status of the instruction. For each operand transfer, two or three bus operations are performed, one word transfer with I/O port address 00FA(H) and one or two bus operations with memory. Three bus operations are required for each word operand aligned on an odd byte address. NOTE: Odd-aligned numerics instructions should be avoided when using an M80C286 system running six or more memory-write wait-states. The M80C286 can generate an incorrect numerics address if all the following conditions are met: Ð Two floating point (FP) instructions are fetched and in the M80C286 queue. Ð The first FP instruction is any floating point store except FSTSW AX. Ð The second FP instruction is any floating point store except FSTSW AX. Ð The second FP instruction accesses memory. Ð The operand of the first instruction is aligned on an odd memory address. Ð More than five wait-states are inserted during either of the last two memory write transfers (transferred as two bytes for odd aligned operands) of the first instruction. The second FP instruction operand address will be incremented by one if these conditions are met. These conditions are most likely to occur in a multimaster system. For a hardware solution, contact your local Intel representative. Ten or more command delays should not be used when accessing the numerics coprocessor. Excessive command delays can cause the M80C286 and M80C287 to lose synchronization. Interrupt Acknowledge Sequence Figure 30 illustrates an interrupt acknowledge sequence performed by the M80C286 in response to an INTR input. An interrupt acknowledge sequence consists of two INTA bus operations. The first allows a master M8259A Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) to determine which if any of its slaves should return the interrupt vector. An eight bit vector is read on D0±D7 of the M80C286 during the second INTA bus operation to select an interrupt handler routine from the interrupt table. The Master Cascade Enable (MCE) signal of the M82C288 is used to enable the cascade address drivers, during INTA bus operations (See Figure 30), onto the local address bus for distribution to slave interrupt controllers via the system address bus. The M80C286 emits the LOCK signal (active LOW) during Ts of the first INTA bus operation. A local bus ``hold'' request will not be honored until the end of the second INTA bus operation. Three idle processor clocks are provided by the M80C286 between INTA bus operations to allow for the minimum INTA to INTA time and CAS (cascade address) out delay of the M8259A. The second INTA bus operation must always have at least one extra Tc state added via logic controlling READY. This is needed to meet the M8259A minimum INTA pulse width. Local Bus Usage Priorities The M80C286 local bus is shared among several internal units and external HOLD requests. In case of simultaneous requests, their relative priorities are: (Highest) Any transfers which assert LOCK either explicitly (via the LOCK instruction prefix) or implicitly (i.e. some segment descriptor accesses, interrupt acknowledge sequence, or an XCHG with memory). The second of the two byte bus operations required for an odd aligned word operand. The second or third cycle of a processor extension data transfer. Local bus request via HOLD input. Processor extension data operand transfer via PEREQ input. Data transfer performed by EU as part of an instruction. (Lowest) An instruction prefetch request from BU. The EU will inhibit prefetching two processor clocks in advance of any data transfers to minimize waiting by EU for a prefetch to finish. 29 M80C286 271103±28 NOTES: 1. Data is ignored, upper data bus, D8±D15, should not change state during this time. 2. First INTA cycle should have at least one wait state inserted to meet M8259A minimum INTA pulse width. 3. Second INTA cycle should have at least one wait state inserted to meet M8259A minimum INTA pulse width. 4. LOCK is active for the first INTA cycle to prevent a bus arbiter from releasing the bus between INTA cycles in a multimaster system. LOCK is also active for the second INTA cycle. 5. A23±A0 exits 3-state OFF during w2 of the second TC in the INTA cycle. See section on bus hold circuitry. 6. Upper data bus should not change state during this time. Figure 30. Interrupt Acknowledge Sequence Halt or Shutdown Cycles The M80C286 externally indicates halt or shutdown conditions as a bus operation. These conditions occur due to a HLT instruction or multiple protection exceptions while attempting to execute one instruction. A halt or shutdown bus operation is signalled when S1, S0 and COD/INTA are LOW and M/IO is HIGH. A1 HIGH indicates halt, and A1 LOW indicates shutdown. The 82288 bus controller does not issue ALE, nor is READY required to terminate a halt or shutdown bus operation. During halt or shutdown, the M80C286 may service PEREQ or HOLD requests. A processor extension segment overrun exception during shutdown will inhibit further service of PEREQ. Either NMI or RESET will force the M80C286 out of either halt or shutdown. An INTR, if interrupts are enabled, or a processor extension segment overrun exception will also force the M80C286 out of halt. 30 M80C286 271103±29 Figure 31. Example Power-Down Sequence THE POWER-DOWN FEATURE OF THE M80C286 The M80C286, unlike the HMOS part, can enter into a power-down mode. By stopping the processor CLK, the processor will enter a power-down mode. Once in the power-down mode, all M80C286 outputs remain static (the same state as before the mode was entered). The M80C286 D.C. specification ICCS rates the amount of current drawn by the processor when in the power-down mode. When the CLK is reapplied to the processor, it will resume execution where it was interrupted. In order to obtain maximum benefits from the powerdown mode, certain precautions should be taken. When in the power-down mode, all M80C286 outputs remain static and any output that is turned on and remains in a HIGH condition will source current when loaded. Best low-power performance can be obtained by first putting the processor in the HOLD condition (turning off all of the output buffers), and then stopping the processor CLK in the phase 2 state. In this condition, any output that is loaded will source only the ``Bus Hold Sustaining Current''. When stopping the processor clock, minimum clock high and low times cannot be violated (no glitches on the clock line). Violating this condition can cause the M80C286 to erase its internal register states. Note that all inputs to the M80C286 (CLK, HOLD, PEREQ, RESET, READY, INTR, NMI, BUSY, and ERROR) should be at VCC or VSS; any other value will cause the M80C286 to draw additional current. When coming out of power-down mode, the system CLK must be started with the same polarity in which it was stopped. An example power down sequence is shown in Figure 31. BUS HOLD CIRCUITRY To avoid high current conditions caused by floating inputs to peripheral CMOS devices and eliminate the need for pull-up/down resistors, ``bus-hold'' circuitry has been used on all tri-state M80C286 outputs. See Table 16 for a list of these pins and Figures 32 and 33 for a complete description of which pins have bus hold circuitry. These circuits will maintain the last valid logic state if no driving source is present (i.e., an unconnected pin or a driving source which goes to a high impedance state). To overdrive the ``bus hold'' circuits, an external driver must be capable of supplying the maximum ``Bus Hold Overdrive'' sink or source current at valid input voltage levels. Since this ``bus hold'' circuitry is active and not a Pull-Up/Pull-Down 271103±30 Figure 32. Bus Hold Circuitry Pins 36±51, 66±67 31 M80C286 ``resistive'' type element, the associated power supply current is negligible and power dissipation is significantly reduced when compared to the use of passive pull-up resistors. Table 16. Bus Hold Circuitry on the M80C286 Signal Pin Polarity Pulled to Location when tri-stated S1, S0, PEACK, LOCK 4±6, 68 Hi, See Figure 33 Data Bus (D0±D15) 36±51 Hi/Lo, See Figure 32 COD/INTA, M/IO 66±67 Hi/Lo, See Figure 32 Pull-Up 271103±31 Figure 33. Bus Hold Circuitry Pins 4±6, 68 SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS The versatile bus structure of the M80C286 microsystem, with a full complement of support chips, allows flexible configuration of a wide range of systems. The basic configuration, shown in Figure 34, is similar to an M8086 maximum mode system. It includes the CPU plus an M8259A interrupt controller, M82C284 clock generator, and the M82C288 Bus Controller. As indicated by the dashed lines in Figure 34, the ability to add processor extensions is an integral feature of M80C286 microsystems. The processor extension interface allows external hardware to perform special functions and transfer data concurrent with CPU execution of other instructions. Full system integrity is maintained because the M80C286 supervises all data transfers and instruction execution for the processor extension. The M80C287 NPX can perform numeric calculations and data transfers concurrently with CPU program execution. Numerics code and data have the same integrity as all other information protected by the M80C286 protection mechanism. The M80C286 can overlap chip select decoding and address propagation during the data transfer for the previous bus operation. This information is latched by ALE during the middle of a Ts cycle. The latched chip select and address information remains stable during the bus operation while the next cycle's address is being decoded and propagated into the system. Decode logic can be implemented with a high speed PROM or PAL. The optional decode logic shown in Figure 32 takes advantage of the overlap between address and data of the M80C286 bus cycle to generate advanced memory and lO-select signals. This minimizes system performance degradation caused by address propagation and decode delays. In addition to selecting memory and I/O, the advanced selects may be used with configurations supporting local and system buses to enable the appropriate bus interface for each bus cycle. The COD/INTA and M/IO signals are applied to the decode logic to distinguish between interrupt, I/O, code and data bus cycles. By adding a bus arbiter, the M80C286 provides a MULTIBUS system bus interface as shown in Figure 35. The ALE output of the M82C288 for the MULTIBUS bus is connected to its CMDLY input to delay the start of commands one system CLK as required to meet MULTIBUS address and write data setup times. This arrangement will add at least one extra Tc state to each bus operation which uses the MULTIBUS. A second M82C288 bus controller and additional latches and transceivers could be added to the local bus of Figure 35. This configuration allows the M80C286 to support an on-board bus for local memory and peripherals, and the MULTIBUS for system bus interfacing. 32 M80C286 Figure 34. Basic M80C286 System Configuration 271103±32 33 M80C286 271103±33 Figure 35. MULTIBUS System Bus Interface 34 M80C286 271103±34 Figure 36. M80C286 System Configuration with Dual-Ported Memory Figure 36 shows the addition of dual ported dynamic memory between the MULTIBUS system bus and the M80C286 local bus. The dual port interface is provided by the 8207 Dual Port DRAM Controller. The 8207 runs synchronously with the CPU to maximize throughput for local memory references. It also arbitrates between requests from the local and system buses and performs functions such as refresh, initialization of RAM, and read/modify/write cycles. The 8207 combined with the 8206 Error Checking and Correction memory controller provide for single bit error correction. The dual-ported memory can be combined with a standard MULTIBUS system bus interface to maximize performance and protection in multiprocessor system configurations. Mechanical Data The M80C286 pinout for both the Ceramic Quad Flatpack, CQFP, and Pin Grid Array, PGA, packages are shown in Figure 37. VCC and GND connections must be made to mutiple VCC and VSS (GND) pins. Each VCC and VSS MUST be connected to the appropriate voltage level. The circuit board should include VCC and GND planes for power distribution and all VCC pins must be connected to the appropriate plane. Table 17 shows the pin assignments for both the CQFP and PGA components. NOTE: Pins identified as ``N.C.'' should remain completely unconnected. 35 M80C286 Component Pad ViewsÐAs viewed from underside of component when mounted on the board. P.C. Board ViewsÐAs viewed from the component side of the P.C. board. Ceramic Quad Flatpack 271103±35 NOTE: Pin Grid Array N.C. signals must not be connected 271103±36 Figure 37. M80C286 Pin Configuration 36 M80C286 Table 17. Pin Cross Reference for M80C286 Signal CQFP PGA A0 44 34 A1 45 33 A2 46 32 A3 50 28 A4 51 27 A5 52 26 A6 53 25 A7 54 24 A8 55 23 A9 56 22 A10 57 21 A11 58 20 A12 59 19 A13 60 18 A14 61 17 A15 62 16 A16 63 15 A17 64 14 A18 65 13 A19 66 12 A20 67 11 A21 68 10 A22 2 8 Signal CQFP PGA A23 3 7 D0 42 36 D1 40 38 D2 38 40 D3 36 42 D4 34 44 D5 32 46 D6 30 48 D7 28 50 D8 41 37 D9 39 39 D10 37 41 D11 35 43 D12 33 45 D13 31 47 D14 29 49 D15 27 51 CLK 47 31 RESET 49 29 BHE 9 1 S1 6 4 S0 5 5 PEACK 4 6 Signal CQFP PGA LOCK 10 68 M/IO 11 67 COD/INTA 12 66 HLDA 13 65 HOLD 14 64 READY 15 63 PEREQ 17 61 NMI 19 59 INTR 21 57 BUSY 24 54 ERROR 25 53 CAP 26 52 VSS 1 9 VSS 18 35 VSS 43 60 VCC 16 30 VCC 48 62 N.C. 7 2 N.C. 8 3 N.C. 20 55 N.C. 22 56 N.C. 23 58 Table 18. Pin Description The following pin function descriptions are for the M80C286 microprocessor : Symbol Type Name and Function CLK I SYSTEM CLOCK provides the fundamental timing for M80C286 systems. It is divided by two inside the M80C286 to generate the processor clock. The internal divide-by-two circuitry can be synchronized to an external clock generator by a LOW to HIGH transition on the RESET input. D15±D0 I/O DATA BUS inputs data during memory, I/O, and interrupt acknowledge read cycles; outputs data during memory and I/O write cycles. The data bus is active HIGH and floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. A23±A0 O ADDRESS BUS outputs physical memory and I/O port addresses. A0 is LOW when data is to be transferred on pins D7±0. A23±A16 are LOW during I/O transfers. The address bus is active HIGH and floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. BHE O BUS HIGH ENABLE indicates transfer or data on the upper byte of the data bus. D15±8. Eight-bit oriented devices assigned to the upper byte of the data bus would normally use BHE to condition chip select functions. BHE is active LOW and floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. *See bus hold circuitry section. 37 M80C286 Table 18. Pin Description (Continued) Symbol Type Name and Function BHE BHE and A0 Encodings (Continued) BHE Value A0 Value Function 0 0 Word transfer 0 1 Transfer on upper half of data bus (D15±D8) 1 0 Byte transfer on lower half of data bus (D7±D0) 1 1 Will never occur S1, S0 O BUS CYCLE STATUS indicates initiation of a bus cycle and, along with M/IO and COD/ INTA, defines the type of bus cycle. The bus is in a Ts state whenever one or both are LOW, S1 and S0 are active LOW and float to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. M80C286 Bus Cycle Status Definition COD/INTA M/IO S1 S0 Bus Cycle Initiated 0 (LOW) 0 0 0 Interrupt acknowledge 0 0 0 1 Will not occur 0 0 1 0 Will not occur 0 0 1 1 None; not a status cycle 0 1 0 0 IF A1 e 1 then halt; else shutdown 0 1 0 1 Memory data read 0 1 1 0 Memory data write 0 1 1 1 None; not a status cycle 1 (HIGH) 0 0 0 Will not occur 1 0 0 1 I/O read 1 0 1 0 I/O write 1 0 1 1 None; not a status cycle 1 1 0 0 Will not occur 1 1 0 1 Memory instruction read 1 1 1 0 Will not occur 1 1 1 1 None; not a status cycle M/IO O MEMORY I/O SELECT distinguishes memory access from I/O access. If HIGH during Ts, a memory cycle or a halt/shutdown cycle is in progress. If LOW, an I/O cycle or an interrupt acknowledge cycle is in progress. M/IO floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. COD/INTA O CODE/INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE distinguishes instruction fetch cycles from memory data read cycles. Also distinguishes interrupt acknowledge cycles from I/O cycles. COD/ INTA floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. Its timing is the same as M/IO. LOCK O BUS LOCK indicates that other system bus masters are not to gain control of the system bus for the current and the following bus cycle. The LOCK signal may be activated explicitly by the ``LOCK'' instruction prefix or automatically by M80C286 hardware during memory XCHG instructions, interrupt acknowledge, or descriptor table access. LOCK is active LOW and floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. READY I BUS READY terminates a bus cycle. Bus cycles are extended without limit until terminated by READY LOW. READY is an active LOW synchronous input requiring setup and hold times relative to the system clock be met for correct operation. READY is ignored during bus hold acknowledge. HOLD I BUS HOLD REQUEST AND HOLD ACKNOWLEDGE control ownership of the M80C286 HLDA O local bus. The HOLD input allows another local bus master to request control of the local bus. When control is granted, the M80C286 will float its bus drivers to 3-state OFF* and then activate HLDA, thus entering the bus hold acknowledge condition. The local bus will remain granted to the requesting master until HOLD becomes inactive which results in the M80C286 deactivating HLDA and regaining control of the local bus. This terminates the bus hold acknowledge condition. HOLD may be asynchronous to the system clock. These signals are active HIGH. INTR I INTERRUPT REQUEST requests the M80C286 to suspend its current program execution and service a pending external request. Interrupt requests are masked whenever the interrupt enable bit in the flag word is cleared. When the M80C286 responds to an interrupt request, it performs two interrupt acknowledge bus cycles to read an 8-bit interrupt vector that identifies the source of the interrupt. To assure program interruption, INTR must remain active until the first interrupt acknowledge cycle is completed. INTR is sampled at the beginning of each processor cycle and must be active HIGH at least two processor cycles before the current instruction ends in order to interrupt before the next instruction. INTR is level sensitive, active HIGH, and may be asynchronous to the system clock. *See bus hold circuitry section. 38 M80C286 Table 18. Pin Description (Continued) Symbol Type Name and Function NMI I NON-MASKABLE INTERRUPT REQUEST interrupts the M80C286 with an internally supplied vector value of 2. No interrupt acknowledge cycles are performed. The interrupt enable bit in the M80C286 flag word does not affect this input. The NMI input is active HIGH, may be asynchronous to the system clock, and is edge triggered after internal synchronization. For proper recognition, the input must have been previously LOW for at least four system clock cycles and remain HIGH for at least four system clock cycles. PEREQ I PROCESSOR EXTENSION OPERAND REQUEST AND ACKNOWLEDGE PEACK O extend the memory management and protection capabilities of the M80C286 to processor extensions. The PEREQ input requests the M80C286 to perform a data operand transfer for a processor extension. The PEACK output signals the processor extension when the requested operand is being transferred. PEREQ is active HIGH and floats to 3-state OFF* during bus hold acknowledge. PEACK may be asynchronous to the system clock. PEACK is active LOW. BUSY I PROCESSOR EXTENSION BUSY AND ERROR indicate the operating ERROR I condition of a processor extension to the M80C286. An active BUSY input stops M80C286 program execution on WAIT and some ESC instructions until BUSY becomes inactive (HIGH). The M80C286 may be interrupted while waiting for BUSY to become inactive. An active ERROR input causes the M80C286 to perform a processor extension interrupt when executing WAIT or some ESC instructions. These inputs are active LOW and may be asynchronous to the system clock. These inputs have internal pull-up resistors. RESET I SYSTEM RESET clears the internal logic of the M80C286 and is active HIGH. The M80C286 may be reinitialized at any time with a LOW to HIGH transition on RESET which remains active for more than 16 system clock cycles. During RESET active, the output pins of the M80C286 enter the state shown below: M80C286 Pin State During Reset Pin Value Pin Names 1 (HIGH) S0, S1, PEACK, A23±A0, BHE, LOCK 0 (LOW) M/IO, COD/INTA, HLDA (Note 1) 3-state OFF* D15±D0 Operation of the M80C286 begins after a HIGH to LOW transition on RESET. The HIGH to LOW transition of RESET must be synchronous to the system clock. Approximately 38 CLK cycles from the trailing edge of RESET are required by the M80C286 for internal initialization before the first bus cycle, to fetch code from the power-on execution address, occurs. A LOW to HIGH transition of RESET synchronous to the system clock will end a processor cycle at the second HIGH to LOW transition of the system clock. The LOW to HIGH transition of RESET may be asynchronous to the system clock; however, in this case it cannot be predetermined which phase of the processor clock will occur during the next system clock period. Synchronous LOW to HIGH transitions of RESET are required only for systems where the processor clock must be phase synchronous to another clock. VSS I SYSTEM GROUND: 0 Volts. VCC I SYSTEM POWER: a5 Volt Power Supply. CAP I SUBSTRATE FILTER CAPACITOR: a 0.047 mF g 20% 12V capacitor can be connected between this pin and ground for compatibility with the HMOS M80286. For systems using only an M80C286, this pin can be left floating. *See bus hold circuitry section. NOTE: 1. HLDA is only Low if HOLD is inactive (Low). 39 M80C286 Table 19. M80C286 Systems Recommended Pull Up Resistor Values M80C286 Pin and Name Pullup Value Purpose 4ÐS1 Pull S0, S1, and PEACK inactive during M80C286 hold periods 5ÐS0 20 KX g10% (Note 1) 6ÐPEACK 63ÐREADY 910X g5% Pull READY inactive within required minimum time (CL e 150 pF, lR s 7 mA) NOTE: 1. Pullup resistors are not required for S0 and S1 when the corresponding pins on the M82C284 are connected to S0 and S1. M80286 IN-CIRCUIT EMULATION CONSIDERATIONS One of the advantages of using the M80C286 is that full in-circuit emulation development support is available thru either the I2ICE 80286 probe for 8 MHz/10 MHz or ICE286 for 12.5 MHz designs. To utilize these powerful tools it is necessary that the designer be aware of a few minor parametric and functional differences between the M80C286 and the in-circuit emulators. The I2ICE datasheet (I2ICE Integrated Instrumentation and In-Circuit Emulation System, order Ý210469) contains a detailed description of these design considerations. The ICE286 Fact Sheet (Ý280718) and User's Guide (Ý452317) contain design considerations for the 80286 12.5 MHz microprocessor. It is recommended that the appropriate document be reviewed by the 80286 system designer to determine whether or not these differences affect the design. PACKAGE THERMAL SPECIFICATIONS The M80C286 Microprocessor is specified for operation when case temperature (TC) is within the range of b55§C±a125§C. Case temperature, unlike ambient temperature, is easily measured in any environment to determine whether the M80C286 Microprocessor is within the specified operating range. The case temperature should be measured at the center of the top surface of the component. The maximum ambient temperature (TA) allowable without violating TC specifications can be calculated from the equations shown below. TJ is the 80C286 junction temperature. P is the power dissipated by the M80C286. TJ e TC a P * iJC TA e TJ b P * iJA TC e TA a P * [iJA b iJC] Values for iJA and iJC are given in Table 20. Table 21 shows the maximum TA allowable (without exceeding TC). Junction temperature calculations should use an ICC value that is measured without external resistive loads. The external resistive loads dissipate additional power external to the M80C286 and not on the die. This increases the resistor temperature, not the die temperature. The full capacitive load (CL e 100 pF) should be applied during the ICC measurement. Table 20. Thermal Resistances (§C/W) Package iJC iJC 68-Lead PGA 5.5 30 68-Lead CQFP 11 32 NOTE: The numbers in Table 20 were calculated using an ICC of 150 mA, which is representative of the worst case ICC at TC e 125§C with the outputs unloaded. Table 21. Maximum (TA) Package TA (§C) 68-Lead PGA 105 68-Lead CQFP 108 40 M80C286 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS* Case Temperature under Bias ÀÀÀb55§C to a125§C Storage Temperature ÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀb65§C toa150§C Voltage on Any Pin with Respect to GroundÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀb1.0V to a7V Power DissipationÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀ1.1W NOTICE: This data sheet contains information on products in the sampling and initial production phases of development. The specifications are subject to change without notice. Verify with your local Intel Sales office that you have the latest data sheet before finalizing a design. *WARNING: Stressing the device beyond the ``Absolute Maximum Ratings'' may cause permanent damage. These are stress ratings only. Operation beyond the ``Operating Conditions'' is not recommended and extended exposure beyond the ``Operating Conditions'' may affect device reliability. Operating Conditions Symbol Description Min Max Units TC Case Temperature (Instant On) b55 a125 §C VCC Digital Supply Voltage 4.50 5.50 V D.C. CHARACTERISTICS Over Specified Operating Conditions Symbol Parameter Min Max Unit Comments ICC Supply Current 200 mA CL e 100 pF (Note 6) ICCS Supply Current (Static) 5 mA (Note 7) CCLK CLK Input Capacitance 20 pF FREQ e 1 MHz CIN Other Input Capacitance 10 pF FREQ e 1 MHz CO Input/Output Capacitance 20 pF FREQ e 1 MHz VIL Input LOW Voltage b0.5 0.8 V FREQ e 2 MHz VIH Input HIGH Voltage 2.0 VCC a 0.5 V FREQ e 2 MHz VILC CLK Input LOW Voltage b0.5 0.8 V FREQ e 2 MHz VIHC CLK Input HIGH Voltage 3.8 VCC a 0.5 V FREQ e 2 MHz VOL Output LOW Voltage 0.45 V IOL e 2.0 mA, FREQ e 2 MHz VOH Output HIGH Voltage 3.0 V IOHe b2.0 mA, FREQ e 2 MHz VCC b 0.5 V IOHe b100 mA, FREQ e 2 MHz ILI Input Leakage Current g10 mA VIN e GND or VCC (Note 6) ILO Output Leakage Current g10 mA VOeGND or VCC (Note 1) IIL Input Sustaining Current on b30 b500 mA VIN e 0V (Note 1) BUSYÝ and ERRORÝ Pins IBHL Input Sustaining Current 35 200 mA VIN e 1.0V (Notes 1, 2) (Bus Hold LOW) IBHH Input Sustaining Current b50 b400 mA VIN e 3.0V (Notes 1, 3) (Bus Hold HIGH) IBHLO Bus Hold LOW Overdrive 250 mA (Notes 1, 4) IBHHO Bus Hold HIGH Overdrive b420 mA (Notes 1, 5) NOTES: 1. Tested with the clock stopped. 2. IBHL should be measured after lowering VIN to GND and then raising to 1.0V on the following pins: 36±51, 66, 67. 3. IBHH should be measured after raising VIN to VCC and then lowering to 3.0V on the following pins: 4±6, 36±51, 66±68. 4. An external driver must source at least IBHLO to switch this node from LOW to HIGH. 5. An external driver must sink at least IBHHO to switch this node from HIGH to LOW. 6. Tested with outputs unloaded and at maximum frequency. 7. Tested while clock stopped in phase 2 and inputs at VCC or VSS with the outputs unloaded. 41 M80C286 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS Over Specified Operating Conditions A.C. timings are referenced to 1.5V points of signals as illustrated in datasheet waveforms, unless otherwise noted. Symbol Parameter 10 MHz Unit Comments Min Max 1 System Clock (CLK) Period 50 DC ns 2 System Clock (CLK) LOW Time 12 ns at 1.0V 3 System Clock (CLK) HIGH Time 16 ns at 3.6V 17 System Clock (CLK) Rise Time 8 ns 1.0V to 3.6V 18 System Clock (CLK) Fall Time 8 ns 3.6V to 1.0V 4 Asynchronous Inputs Setup Time 20 ns (Note 1) 5 Asynchronous Inputs Hold Time 20 ns (Note 1) 6 RESET Setup Time 23 ns 7 RESET Hold Time 5 ns 8 Read Data Setup Time 8 ns 9 Read Data Hold Time 8 ns 10 READY Setup Time 26 ns 11 READY Hold Time 25 ns 12a1 Status Active Delay 5 22 ns (Notes 2, 3) 12a2 PEACK Active Delay 5 22 ns (Notes 2, 3) 12b Status/PEACK Inactive Delay 3 30 ns (Notes 2, 3) 13 Address Valid Delay 4 35 ns (Notes 2, 3) 14 Write Data Valid Delay 3 40 ns (Notes 2, 3) 15 Address/Status/Data Float Delay 2 47 ns (Notes 2, 4) 16 HLDA Valid Delay 3 47 ns (Notes 2, 3) 19 Address Valid To Status 27 ns (Notes 2, 3) Valid Setup Time NOTES: 1. Asynchronous inputs are INTR, NMI, HOLD, PEREQ, ERROR, and BUSY. This specification is given only for testing purposes, to assure recognition at a specific CLK edge. 2. Delay from 1.0V on the CLK, to 1.5V or float on the output as appropriate for valid or floating condition. 3. Output load: CL e 100 pF. 4. Float condition occurs when output current is less than ILO in magnitude. 42 M80C286 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) 271103±37 NOTE: AC Test Loading on Outputs 271103±38 NOTE: AC Drive and Measurement PointsÐCLK Input 271103±39 NOTE: AC Setup, Hold and Delay Time MeasurementÐGeneral 43 M80C286 Typical Capacitive Derating Curves 271103±40 Typical CMOS Level Slew Rates for Address/Data Buffers 271103±41 44 M80C286 Typical TTL Level Slew Rates for Address/Data Buffers 271103±42 Typical ICC vs Frequency for Different Output Loads 271103±43 45 M80C286 A.C. CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) M82C284 Timing Requirements Symbol Parameter M82C284-10 Unit Comments Min Max 11 SRDY/SRDYEN Setup Time 17.5 ns 12 SRDY/SRDYEN Hold Time 2 ns 13 ARDY/ARDYEN Setup Time 0 ns (Note 1) 14 ARDY/ARDYEN Hold Time 30 ns (Note 1) 19 PCLK Delay 0 35 ns CL e 75 pF IOL e 5 mA IOHe b1 mA NOTE: 1. These times are given for testing purposes to assure a predetermined action. M82C288 Timing Requirements Symbol Parameter M82C288-10 Unit Comments Min Max 12 CMDLY Setup Time 15 ns 13 CMDLY Hold Time 1 ns 30 Command Command Inactive 5 20 CL e 300 pF max Delay Command Active 3 21 ns IOL e 32 mA max 29 from CLK IOHe b5 mA max 16 ALE Active Delay 3 16 ns 17 ALE Inactive Delay 19 ns 19 DT/R Read Active Delay 23 ns 22 DT/R Read Inactive Delay 5 20 ns CL e 150 pF IOL e 16 mA max 20 DEN Read Active Delay 5 21 ns IOHe b1 mA max 21 DEN Read Inactive Delay 3 21 ns 23 DEN Write Active Delay 23 ns 24 DEN Write Inactive Delay 3 19 ns 46 M80C286 WAVEFORMS MAJOR CYCLE TIMING 271103±44 NOTE: 1. The modified timing is due to the CMDLY signal being active. 47 M80C286 WAVEFORMS (Continued) M80C286 ASYNCHRONOUS INPUT SIGNAL TIMING 271103±45 NOTES: 1. PCLK indicates which processor cycle phase will occur on the next CLK. PCLK may not indicate the correct phase until the first bus cycle is performed. 2. These inputs are asynchronous. The setup and hold times shown assure recognition for testing purposes. M80C286 RESET INPUT TIMING AND SUBSEQUENT PROCESSOR CYCLE PHASE 271103±46 NOTE: 1. When RESET meets the setup time shown, the next CLK will start or repeat w2 of a processor cycle. EXITING AND ENTERING HOLD 271103±47 NOTES: 1. These signals may not be driven by the M80C286 during the time shown. The worst case in terms of latest float time is shown. 2. The data bus will be driven as shown if the last cycle before TI in the diagram was a write TC. 3. The M80C286 floats its status pins during TH. External 20 KX resistors keep these signals high (see Table 16). 4. For HOLD request set up to HLDA, refer to Figure 29. 5. BHE and LOCK are driven at this time but will not become valid until TS. 6. The data bus will remain in 3-state OFF if a read cycle is performed. 48 M80C286 WAVEFORMS (Continued) M80C286 PEREQ/PEACK TIMING FOR ONE TRANSFER ONLY NOTES: 271103±48 1. PEACK always goes active during the first bus operation of a processor extension data operand transfer sequence. The first bus operation will be either a memory read at operand address or I/O read at port address OOFA(H). 2. To prevent a second processor extension data operand transfer, the worst case maximum time (Shown above) is: 3cjb12a2max.bmmin.. The actual, configuration dependent, maximum time is: 3cjb12a2max.bmmin. a Ac2cj. A is the number of extra TC states added to either the first or second bus operation of the processor extension data operand transfer sequence. INITIAL M80C286 PIN STATE DURING RESET NOTES: 271103±49 1. Setup time for RESET u may be violated with the consideration that w1 of the processor clock may begin one system CLK period later. 2. Setup and hold times for RESET v must be met for proper operation, but RESET v may occur during w1 or w2. 3. The data bus is only guaranteed to be in 3-state OFF at the time shown. 49 M80C286 271103±50 Figure 35. M80C286 Instruction Format Examples M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY Instruction Timing Notes The instruction clock counts listed below establish the maximum execution rate of the M80C286. With no delays in bus cycles, the actual clock count of an M80C286 program will average 5% more than the calculated clock count, due to instruction sequences which execute faster than they can be fetched from memory. To calculate elapsed times for instruction sequences, multiply the sum of all instruction clock counts, as listed in the table below, by the processor clock period. A 10 MHz processor clock has a clock period of 100 nanoseconds and requires an M80C286 system clock (CLK input) of 20 MHz. Instruction Clock Count Assumptions 1. The instruction has been prefetched, decoded, and is ready for execution. Control transfer instruction clock counts include all time required to fetch, decode, and prepare the next instruction for execution. 2. Bus cycles do not require wait states. 3. There are no processor extension data transfer or local bus HOLD requests. 4. No exceptions occur during instruction execution. Instruction Set Summary Notes Addressing displacements selected by the MOD field are not shown. If necessary they appear after the instruction fields shown. Above/below refers to unsigned value Greater refers to positive signed value Less refers to less positive (more negative) signed values if d e 1 then to register; if d e 0 then from register if w e 1 then word instruction; if w e 0 then byte instruction if s e 0 then 16-bit immediate data form the operand if s e 1 then an immediate data byte is sign-extended to form the 16-bit operand x don't care z used for string primitives for comparison with ZF FLAG If two clock counts are given, the smaller refers to a register operand and the larger refers to a memory operand * e add one clock if offset calculation requires summing 3 elements n e number of times repeated m e number of bytes of code in next instruction Level (L)ÐLexical nesting level of the procedure 50 M80C286 The following comments describe possible exceptions, side effects, and allowed usage for instructions in both operating modes of the M80C286. REAL ADDRESS MODE ONLY 1. This is a protected mode instruction. Attempted execution in real address mode will result in an undefined opcode exception (6). 2. A segment overrun exception (13) will occur if a word operand reference at offset FFFF(H) is attempted. 3. This instruction may be executed in real address mode to initialize the CPU for protected mode. 4. The IOPL and NT fields will remain 0. 5. Processor extension segment overrun interrupt (9) will occur if the operand exceeds the segment limit. EITHER MODE 6. An exception may occur, depending on the value of the operand. 7. LOCK is automatically asserted regardless of the presence or absence of the LOCK instruction prefix. 8. LOCK does not remain active between all operand transfers. PROTECTED VIRTUAL ADDRESS MODE ONLY 9. A general protection exception (13) will occur if the memory operand cannot be used due to either a segment limit or access rights violation. If a stack segment limit is violated, a stack segment overrun exception (12) occurs. 10. For segment load operations, the CPL, RPL, and DPL must agree with privilege rules to avoid an exception. The segment must be present to avoid a not-present exception (11). If the SS register is the destination, and a segment not-present violation occurs, a stack exception (12) occurs. 11. All segment descriptor accesses in the GDT or LDT made by this instruction will automatically assert LOCK to maintain descriptor integrity in multiprocessor systems. 12. JMP, CALL, INT, RET, IRET instructions referring to another code segment will cause a general protection exception (13) if any privilege rule is violated. 13. A general protection exception (13) occurs if CPL i 0. 14. A general protection exception (13) occurs if CPL l IOPL. 15. The IF field of the flag word is not updated if CPL l IOPL. The IOPL field is updated only if CPL e 0. 16. Any violation of privilege rules as applied to the selector operand do not cause a protection exception; rather, the instruction does not return a result and the zero flag is cleared. 17. If the starting address of the memory operand violates a segment limit, or an invalid access is attempted, a general protection exception (13) will occur before the ESC instruction is executed. A stack segment overrun exception (12) will occur if the stack limit is violated by the operand's starting address. If a segment limit is violated during an attempted data transfer then a processor extension segment overrun exception (9) occurs. 18. The destination of an INT, JMP, CALL, RET or IRET instruction must be in the defined limit of a code segment or a general protection exception (13) will occur. 51 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode DATA TRANSFER MOV eMove: Register to Register/Memory 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 w mod reg r/m 2,3* 2,3* 2 9 Register/memory to register 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 w mod reg r/m 2,5* 2,5* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if w e 1 2,3* 2,3* 2 9 Immediate to register 1 0 1 1 w reg data data if we1 2 2 Memory to accumulator 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 w addr-low addr-high 5 5 2 9 Accumulator to memory 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 w addr-low addr-high 3 3 2 9 Register/memory to segment register 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 mod 0 reg r/m 2,5* 17,19* 2 9,10,11 Segment register to register/memory 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 mod 0 reg r/m 2,3* 2,3* 2 9 PUSHePush: Memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 1 0 r/m 5* 5* 2 9 Register 0 1 0 1 0 reg 3 3 2 9 Segment register 0 0 0 reg 1 1 0 3 3 2 9 Immediate 0 1 1 0 1 0 s 0 data data if se0 3 3 2 9 PUSHAePush All 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 17 17 2 9 POPePop: Memory 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 mod 0 0 0 r/m 5* 5* 2 9 Register 0 1 0 1 1 reg 5 5 2 9 Segment register 0 0 0 reg 1 1 1 (regi01) 5 20 2 9,10,11 POPAePop All 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 19 19 2 9 XCHGeExhcange: Register/memory with register 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 w mod reg r/m 3,5* 3,5* 2,7 7,9 Register with accumulator 1 0 0 1 0 reg 3 3 INeInput from: Fixed port 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 w port 5 5 14 Variable port 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 w 5 5 14 OUTeOutput to: Fixed port 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 w port 3 3 14 Variable port 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 w 3 3 14 XLATeTranslate byte to AL 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 5 5 9 LEAeLoad EA to register 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 mod reg r/m 3* 3* LDSeLoad pointer to DS 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 mod reg r/m (modi11) 7* 21* 2 9,10,11 LESeLoad pointer to ES 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 mod reg r/m (modi1) 7* 21* 2 9,10,11 Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 52 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode DATA TRANSFER (Continued) LAHF Load AH with flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 SAHFeStore AH into flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 PUSHFePush flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 3 3 2 9 POPFePop flags 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 5 5 2,4 9,15 ARITHMETIC ADDeAdd: Reg/memory with register to either 0 0 0 0 0 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if s w e 01 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate to accumulator 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 ADCeAdd with carry: Reg/memory with register to either 0 0 0 1 0 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 1 0 r/m data data if s w e 01 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate to accumulator 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 INCeIncrement: Register/memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Register 0 1 0 0 0 reg 2 2 SUBeSubtract: Reg/memory and register to either 0 0 1 0 1 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate from register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 1 0 1 r/m data data if s w e 01 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate from accumulator 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 SBBeSubtract with borrow: Reg/memory and register to either 0 0 0 1 1 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate from register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 0 1 1 r/m data data if s we01 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate from accumulator 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 DECeDecrement Register/memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w mod 0 0 1 r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Register 0 1 0 0 1 reg 2 2 CMPeCompare Register/memory with register 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 w mod reg r/m 2,6* 2,6* 2 9 Register with register/memory 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate with register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 s w mod 1 1 1 r/m data data if s we01 3,6* 3,6* 2 9 Immediate with accumulator 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 NEGeChange sign 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 1 1 r/m 2 7* 2 9 AAAeASCII adjust for add 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 3 3 DAAeDecimal adjust for add 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 53 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode ARITHMETIC (Continued) AASeASCII adjust for subtract 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 DASeDecimal adjust for subtract 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 MULeMultiply (unsigned): 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 0 0 r/m Register-Byte 13 13 Register-Word 21 21 Memory-Byte 16* 16* 2 9 Memory-Word 24* 24* 2 9 IMULeInteger multiply (signed): 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 0 1 r/m Register-Byte 13 13 Register-Word 21 21 Memory-Byte 16* 16* 2 9 Memory-Word 24* 24* 2 9 IMULeInteger immediate multiply 0 1 1 0 1 0 s 1 mod reg r/m data data if s e 0 21,24* 21,24* 2 9 (signed) DIVeDivide (unsigned) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 1 0 r/m Register-Byte 14 14 6 6 Register-Word 22 22 6 6 Memory-Byte 17* 17* 2,6 6,9 Memory-Word 25* 25* 2,6 6,9 IDIVeInteger divide (signed) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 1 1 1 r/m Register-Byte 17 17 6 6 Register-Word 25 25 6 6 Memory-Byte 20* 20* 2,6 6,9 Memory-Word 28* 28* 2,6 6,9 AAMeASCII adjust for multiply 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 16 16 AADeASCII adjust for divide 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 14 14 CBWeConvert byte to word 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 CWDeConvert word to double word 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 LOGIC Shift/Rotate Instructions: Register/Memory by 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 w mod TTT r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Register/Memory by CL 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 w mod TTT r/m 5an,8an* 5an,8an* 2 9 Register/Memory by Count 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 w mod TTT r/m count 5an,8an* 5an,8an* 2 9 TTT Instruction 0 0 0 ROL 0 0 1 ROR 0 1 0 RCL 0 1 1 RCR 1 0 0 SHL/SAL 1 0 1 SHR 1 1 1 SAR Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 54 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode ARITHMETIC (Continued) ANDeAnd: Reg/memory and register to either 0 0 1 0 0 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 1 0 0 r/m data data if we1 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate to accumulator 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 TESTeAnd function to flags, no result: Register/memory and register 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 w mod reg r/m 2,6* 2,6* 2 9 Immediate data and register/memory 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 0 0 r/m data data if we1 3,6* 3,6* 2 9 Immediate data and accumulator 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 w data data if we1 3 3 OReOr: Reg/memory and register to either 0 0 0 0 1 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 0 0 1 r/m data data if we1 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate to accumulator 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 w data data if we1 3 3 XOReExclusive or: Reg/memory and register to either 0 0 1 1 0 0 d w mod reg r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 Immediate to register/memory 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 w mod 1 1 0 r/m data data if w e 1 3,7* 3,7* 2 9 Immediate to accumulator 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 w data data if w e1 3 3 NOTeInvert register/memory 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w mod 0 1 0 r/m 2,7* 2,7* 2 9 STRING MANIPULATION: MOVSeMove byte/word 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 w 5 5 2 9 CMPSeCompare byte/word 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 w 8 8 2 9 SCASeScan byte/word 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 w 7 7 2 9 LODSeLoad byte/wd to AL/AX 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 w 5 5 2 9 STOSeStor byte/wd from AL/A 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 w 3 3 2 9 INSeInput byte/wd from DX port 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 w 5 5 2 9,14 OUTSeOutput byte/wd to DX port 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 w 5 5 2 9,14 Repeated by count in CX MOV5eMove string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 w 5a4n 5a4n 2 9 CMPSeCompare string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 z 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 w 5a9n 5a9n 2,8 8,9 SCASeScan string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 z 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 w 5a8n 5a8n 2,8 8,9 LODSeLoad string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 w 5a4n 5a4n 2,8 8,9 STOSeStore string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 w 4a3n 4a3n 2,8 8,9 INSeInput string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 w 5a4n 5a4n 2 9,14 OUTSeOutput string 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 w 5a4n 5a4n 2 9,14 Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 55 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode CONTROL TRANSFER CALL eCall: Direct within segment 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 disp-low disp-high 7am 7am 2 18 Register/memory 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 0 1 0 r/m 7 am, 11am* 7am, 11am* 2,8 8,9,18 indirect within segment Direct intersegment 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 segment offset 13am 26am 2 11,12,18 Protected Mode Only (Direct intersegment): segment selector Via call gate to same privilege level 41am 8,11,12,18 Via call gate to different privilege level, no parameters 82am 8,11,12,18 Via call gate to different privilege level, x parameters 86 a4xam 8,11,12,18 Via TSS 177am 8,11,12,18 Via task gate 182am 8,11,12,18 Indirect intersegment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 0 1 1 r/m (modi11) 16am 29am* 2 8,9,11,12,18 Protected Mode Only (Indirect intersegment): Via call gate to same privilege level 44am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via call gate to different privilege level, no parameters 83 am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via call gate to different privilege level, x parameters 90a4x am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via TSS 180am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via task gate 185am* 8,9,11,12,18 JMPeUnconditional jump: Short/long 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 disp-low 7am 7am 18 Direct within segment 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 disp-low disp-high 7am 7am 18 Register/memory indirect within segment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 0 0 r/m 7 am, 11am* 7am, 11am* 2 9,18 Direct intersegment 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 segment offset 11am 23am 11,12,18 Protected Mode Only (Direct intersegment): segment selector Via call gate to same privilege level 38am 8,11,12,18 Via TSS 175am 8,11,12,18 Via task gate 180am 8,11,12,18 Indirect intersegment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mod 1 0 1 r/m (modi11) 15am* 26am* 2 8,9,11,12,18 Protected Mode Only (Indirect intersegment): Via call gate to same privilege level 41am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via TSS 178am* 8,9,11,12,18 Via task gate 183am* 8,9,11,12,18 RETeReturn from CALL: Within segment 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 11am 11am 2 8,9,18 Within seg adding immed to SP 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 data-low data-high 11am 11am 2 8,9,18 Intersegment 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 15am 25am 2 8,9,11,12,18 Intersegment adding immediate to SP 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 data-low data-high 15am 2 8,9,11,12,18 Protected Mode Only (RET): To different privilege level 55am 9,11,12,18 56 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode CONTROL TRANSFER (Continued) JE/JZeJump on equal zero 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JL/JNGEeJump on less/not greater or equal 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JLE/JNGeJump on less or equal/not greater 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JB/JNAEeJump on below/not above or equal 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JBE/JNAeJump on below or equal/not above 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JP/JPEeJump on parity/parity even 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JOeJump on overflow 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 disp 7 am or 3 7am or 3 18 JSeJump on sign 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 disp 7a m or 3 7am or 3 18 JNE/JNZeJump on not equal/not zero 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNL/JGEeJump on not less/greater or equal 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNLE/JGeJump on not less or equal/greater 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNB/JAEeJump on not below/above or equal 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNBE/JAeJump on not below or equal/above 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNP/JPOeJump on not par/par odd 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNOeJump on not overflow 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 disp 7am or 3 7am or 3 18 JNSeJump on not sign 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 disp 7 am or 3 7am or 3 18 LOOPeLoop CX times 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 disp 8 am or 4 8am or 4 18 LOOPZ/LOOPEeLoop while zero/equal 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 disp 8am or 4 8am or 4 18 LOOPNZ/LOOPNEeLoop while not zero/equal 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 disp 8am or 4 8am or 4 18 JCXZeJump on CX zero 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 disp 8 am or 4 8am or 4 18 ENTEReEnter Procedure 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 data-low data-high L 2,8 8,9 Le0 11 11 2,8 8,9 Le1 15 15 2,8 8,9 L l 1 16a4(L b 1) 16a4(L b 1) 2,8 8,9 LEAVEeLeave Procedure 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 5 5 INTeInterrupt: Type specified 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 type 23am 2,7,8 Type 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 23am 2,7,8 INTOeInterrupt on overflow 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 24 am or 3 2,6,8 (3 if no (3 if no interrupt) interrupt) Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 57 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode CONTROL TRANSFER (Continued) Protected Mode Only: Via interrupt or trap gate to same privilege level 40a m 7,8,11,12,18 Via interrupt or trap gate to fit different privilege level 78a m 7,8,11,12,18 Via Task Gate 167am 7,8,11,12,18 IRETeInterrupt return 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 17am 31am 2,4 8,9,11,12,15,18 Protected Mode Only: To different privilege level 55am 8,9,11,12,15,18 To different task (NTe1) 169am 8,9,11,12,18 BOUNDeDetect value out of range 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 mod reg r/m 13* 13* 2,6 6,8,9,11,12,18 (Use INT clock count if exception 5) PROCESSOR CONTROL CLCeClear carry 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 CMCeComplement carry 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 STCeSet carry 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 CLDeClear direction 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 STDeSet direction 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 CLIeClear interrupt 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 3 3 14 STIeSet interrupt 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 14 HLTeHalt 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 13 WAITeWait 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 3 3 LOCKeBus lock prefix 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 CTSeClear task switched flag 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 3 13 ESCeProcessor Extension Escape 1 1 0 1 1 T T T mod LLL r/m 9±20* 9±20* 5,8 8,17 (TTT LLL are opcode to processor extension) SEGeSegment Override Prefix 001 reg 110 0 0 PROTECTION CONTROL LGDTeLoad global descriptor table register 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 0 1 0 r/m 11* 11* 2,3 9,13 SGDTeStore global descriptor table register 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 0 0 0 r/m 11* 11* 2,3 9 LIDTeLoad interrupt descriptor table register 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 0 1 1 r/m 12* 12* 2,3 9,13 SIDTeStore interrupt descriptor table register 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 0 0 1 r/m 12* 12* 2,3 9 LLDTeLoad local descriptor table register from register memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 0 1 0 r/m 17,19* 1 9,11,13 SLDTeStore local descriptor table register to register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 0 0 0 r/m 2,3* 1 9 Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 58 M80C286 M80C286 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY (Continued) CLOCK COUNT COMMENTS Real Protected Real Protected FUNCTION FORMAT Address Virtual Address Virtual Mode Address Mode Address Mode Mode PROTECTION CONTROL (Continued) LTReLocal task register from register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 0 1 1 r/m 17,19* 1 9,11,13 STReStore task register to register memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 0 0 1 r/m 2,3* 1 9 LMSWeLoad machine status word from register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 1 1 0 r/m 3,6* 3,6* 2,3 9,13 SMSWeStore machine status word 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 mod 1 0 0 r/m 2,3* 2,3* 2,3 9 LAReLoad access rights from register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 mod reg r/m 14,16* 1 9,11,16 LSLeLoad segment limit from register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 mod reg r/m 14,16* 1 9,11,16 ARPLeAdjust requested privilege level: 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 mod reg r/m 10*,11* 2 8,9 from register/memory VERReVerify read access: register/memory 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 1 0 0 r/m 14,16* 1 9,11,16 VERReVerify write access: 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mod 1 0 1 r/m 14,16* 1 9,11,16 Shaded areas indicate instructions not available in M8086, 88 microsystems. 59 M80C286 Footnotes The Effective Address (EA) of the memory operand is computed according to the mod and r/m fields: if mod e 11 then r/m is treated as a REG field if mod e 00 then DISP e 0*, disp-low and disp-high are absent if mod e 01 then DISP e disp-low sign-extended to 16 bits, disp-high is absent if mod e 10 then DISP e disp-high: disp-low if r/m e 000 then EA e (BX) a (SI) a DISP if r/m e 001 then EA e (BX) a (DI) a DISP if r/m e 010 then EA e (BP) a (SI) a DISP if r/m e 011 then EA e (BP) a (DI) a DISP if r/m e 100 then EA e (SI) a DISP if r/m e 101 then EA e (DI) a DISP if r/m e 110 then EA e (BP) a DISP* if r/m e 111 then EA e (BX) a DISP DISP follows 2nd byte of instruction (before data if required) *except if mod e 00 and r/m e 110 then EQ e disp-high: disp-low. SEGMENT OVERRIDE PREFIX 0 0 1 reg 1 1 0 reg is assigned according to the following: Segment reg Register 00 ES 01 CS 10 SS 11 DC REG is assigned according to the following table: 16-Bit (w e 1) 8-Bit (w e 0) 000 AX 000 AL 001 CX 001 CL 010 DX 010 DL 011 BX 011 BL 100 SP 100 AH 101 BP 101 CH 101 SI 110 DH 111 DI 111 BH The physical addresses of all operands addressed by the BP register are computed using the SS segment register. The physical addresses of the destination operands of the string primitive operations (those addressed by the DI register) are computed using the ES segment, which may not be overridden. INTEL CORPORATION, 2200 Mission College Blvd., Santa Clara, CA 95052; Tel. (408) 765-8080 INTEL CORPORATION (U.K.) Ltd., Swindon, United Kingdom; Tel. (0793) 696 000 INTEL JAPAN k.k., Ibaraki-ken; Tel. 029747-8511 Reference Number: 322911-003 Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium Processor G6950 Specification Update March 2010 Revision -003 2 Specification Update Legal Lines and Disclaimers INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL'S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, life sustaining, critical control or safety systems, or in nuclear facility applications. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked “reserved” or “undefined.” Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. The processor may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order. ΔIntel processor numbers are not a measure of performance. Processor numbers differentiate features within each processor family, not across different processor families. See http://www.intel.com/products/processor_number for details. Over time processor numbers will increment based on changes in clock, speed, cache, or other features, and increments are not intended to represent proportional or quantitative increases in any particular feature. Current roadmap processor number progression is not necessarily representative of future roadmaps. See www.intel.com/products/ processor_number for details. Intel® Active Management Technology requires the computer system to have an Intel(R) AMT-enabled chipset, network hardware and software, as well as connection with a power source and a corporate network connection. Setup requires configuration by the purchaser and may require scripting with the management console or further integration into existing security frameworks to enable certain functionality. It may also require modifications of implementation of new business processes. With regard to notebooks, Intel AMT may not be available or certain capabilities may be limited over a host OS-based VPN or when connecting wirelessly, on battery power, sleeping, hibernating or powered off. For more information, see www.intel.com/ technology/platform-technology/intel-amt/ Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT) requires a computer system with Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT-x) and Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (Intel® VT-d)), a Intel TXT-enabled processor, chipset, BIOS, Authenticated Code Modules and an Intel TXT-compatible measured launched environment (MLE). The MLE could consist of a virtual machine monitor, an OS or an application. In addition, Intel TXT requires the system to contain a TPM v1.2, as defined by the Trusted Computing Group and specific software for some uses. For more information, see http://www.intel.com/technology/security Intel® Virtualization Technology requires a computer system with an enabled Intel® processor, BIOS, virtual machine monitor (VMM) and, for some uses, certain computer system software enabled for it. Functionality, performance or other benefits will vary depending on hardware and software configurations and may require a BIOS update. Software applications may not be compatible with all operating systems. Please check with your application vendor. * Intel® Turbo Boost Technology requires a PC with a processor with Intel Turbo Boost Technology capability. Intel Turbo Boost Technology performance varies depending on hardware, software and overall system configuration. Check with your PC manufacturer on whether your system delivers Intel Turbo Boost Technology. For more information, see http://www.intel.com/technology/turboboost Intel® Hyper-threading Technology requires a computer system with a processor supporting HT Technology and an HT Technology-enabled chipset, BIOS, and operating system. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use. For more information including details on which processors support HT Technology, see http://www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading. 64-bit computing on Intel architecture requires a computer system with a processor, chipset, BIOS, operating system, device drivers and applications enabled for Intel® 64 architecture. Performance will vary depending on your hardware and software configurations. Consult with your system vendor for more information. Copies of documents which have an order number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature may be obtained by calling 1-800-5484725 or by visiting Intel's website at http://www.intel.com. Intel, Intel Core, Celeron, Pentium, Intel Xeon, Intel Atom, Intel SpeedStep, and the Intel logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright © 2010, Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Contents 3 Specification Update Contents Revision History...............................................................................................................5 Preface ..............................................................................................................................6 Summary Tables of Changes..........................................................................................8 Identification Information ..............................................................................................16 Errata ...............................................................................................................................18 Specification Changes...................................................................................................43 Specification Clarifications ...........................................................................................44 Documentation Changes...............................................................................................45 § Contents 4 Specification Update 5 Specification Update Revision History Revision Description Date -001 Initial Release January 2010 -002 Added Errata AAU85-AAU87. Corrected Extended Model and Model Number register values in Component Identification table. February 2010 -003 Added Errata AAU88-AAU91. Added Documentation Changes AAU1-AAU3. March 2010 6 Specification Update Preface This document is an update to the specifications contained in the Affected Documents table below. This document is a compilation of device and documentation errata, specification clarifications and changes. It is intended for hardware system manufacturers and software developers of applications, operating systems, or tools. Information types defined in Nomenclature are consolidated into the specification update and are no longer published in other documents. This document may also contain information that was not previously published. Affected Documents Related Documents Document Title Document Number Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 1 322909-001 Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 322910-001 Document Title Document Number/ Location AP-485, Intel® Processor Identification and the CPUID Instruction http://www.intel.com/ design/processor/ applnots/241618.htm Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide Intel® 64 and IA-32 Intel Architecture Optimization Reference Manual http://www.intel.com/ products/processor/ manuals/index.htm Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Documentation Changes http://www.intel.com/ design/processor/ specupdt/252046.htm ACPI Specifications www.acpi.info 7 Specification Update Nomenclature Errata are design defects or errors. These may cause the processor behavior to deviate from published specifications. Hardware and software designed to be used with any given stepping must assume that all errata documented for that stepping are present on all devices. S-Spec Number is a five-digit code used to identify products. Products are differentiated by their unique characteristics such as, core speed, L2 cache size, package type, etc. as described in the processor identification information table. Read all notes associated with each S-Spec number. Specification Changes are modifications to the current published specifications. These changes will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Specification Clarifications describe a specification in greater detail or further highlight a specification’s impact to a complex design situation. These clarifications will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Documentation Changes include typos, errors, or omissions from the current published specifications. These will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Note: Errata remain in the specification update throughout the product’s lifecycle, or until a particular stepping is no longer commercially available. Under these circumstances, errata removed from the specification update are archived and available upon request. Specification changes, specification clarifications and documentation changes are removed from the specification update when the appropriate changes are made to the appropriate product specification or user documentation (datasheets, manuals, etc.). 8 Specification Update Summary Tables of Changes The following tables indicate the errata, specification changes, specification clarifications, or documentation changes which apply to the processor. Intel may fix some of the errata in a future stepping of the component, and account for the other outstanding issues through documentation or specification changes as noted. These tables uses the following notations: Codes Used in Summary Tables Stepping X: Errata exists in the stepping indicated. Specification Change or Clarification that applies to this stepping. (No mark) or (Blank box): This erratum is fixed in listed stepping or specification change does not apply to listed stepping. Page (Page): Page location of item in this document. Status Doc: Document change or update will be implemented. Plan Fix: This erratum may be fixed in a future stepping of the product. Fixed: This erratum has been previously fixed. No Fix: There are no plans to fix this erratum. Row Change bar to left of a table row indicates this erratum is either new or modified from the previous version of the document. 9 Specification Update Each Specification Update item is prefixed with a capital letter to distinguish the product. The key below details the letters that are used in Intel’s microprocessor Specification Updates: A = Intel® Xeon® processor 7000 sequence C = Intel® Celeron® processor D = Intel® Xeon® processor 2.80 GHz E = Intel® Pentium® III processor F = Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition and Intel® Pentium® D processor I = Intel® Xeon® processor 5000 series J = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor MP with 1MB L2 cache K = Mobile Intel® Pentium® III processor L = Intel® Celeron® D processor M = Mobile Intel® Celeron® processor N = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor O = Intel® Xeon® processor MP P = Intel ® Xeon® processor Q = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor supporting Intel® Hyper-Threading technology on 90nm process technology R = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor on 90 nm process S = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor with 800 MHz system bus (1 MB and 2 MB L2 cache versions) T = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor-M U = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor MP with up to 8MB L3 cache V = Mobile Intel® Celeron® processor on .13 micron process in Micro-FCPGA package W= Intel® Celeron® M processor X = Intel® Pentium® M processor on 90nm process with 2-MB L2 cache and Intel® processor A100 and A110 with 512-KB L2 cache Y = Intel® Pentium® M processor Z = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor with 533 MHz system bus AA = Intel® Pentium® D processor 900 sequence and Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition 955, 965 AB = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor 6x1 sequence AC = Intel® Celeron® processor in 478 pin package AD = Intel® Celeron® D processor on 65nm process AE = Intel® Core™ Duo processor and Intel® Core™ Solo processor on 65nm process AF = Intel® Xeon® processor LV AG = Intel® Xeon® processor 5100 series AH = Intel® Core™2 Duo/Solo Processor for Intel® Centrino® Duo Processor Technology AI = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor X6800 and Intel® Core™2 Duo desktop processor E6000 and E4000 sequence 10 Specification Update AJ = Intel® Xeon® processor 5300 series AK = Intel® Core™2 Extreme quad-core processor QX6000 sequence and Intel® Core™2 Quad processor Q6000 sequence AL = Intel® Xeon® processor 7100 series AM = Intel® Celeron® processor 400 sequence AN = Intel® Pentium® dual-core processor AO = Intel® Xeon® processor 3200 series AP = Intel® Xeon® processor 3000 series AQ = Intel® Pentium® dual-core desktop processor E2000 sequence AR = Intel® Celeron® processor 500 series AS = Intel® Xeon® processor 7200, 7300 series AU = Intel® Celeron® dual-core processor T1400 AV = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor QX9650 and Intel® Core™2 Quad processor Q9000 series AW = Intel® Core™ 2 Duo processor E8000 series AX = Intel® Xeon® processor 5400 series AY = Intel® Xeon® processor 5200 series AZ= Intel® Core™2 Duo processor and Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor on 45nm process AAA= Intel® Xeon® processor 3300 series AAB= Intel® Xeon® E3110 processor AAC= Intel® Celeron® dual-core processor E1000 series AAD = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor QX9775 AAE = Intel® Atom™ processor Z5xx series AAF = Intel® Atom™ processor 200 series AAG = Intel® Atom™ processor N series AAH = Intel® Atom™ processor 300 series AAI = Intel® Xeon® processor 7400 series AAJ = Intel® Core™ i7-900 desktop processor Extreme Edition series and Intel® Core™ i7-900 desktop processor series AAK= Intel® Xeon® processor 5500 series AAL = Intel® Pentium® dual-core processor E5000 series AAN = Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 AAO = Intel® Xeon® processor 3400 series AAP = Intel® Core™ i7-900 mobile processor Extreme Edition series, Intel Core i7800 and i7-700 mobile processor series AAT = Intel® Core™ i7-600, i5-500, i5-400 and i3-300 mobile processor series AAU = Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 desktop processor series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 11 Specification Update Errata (Sheet 1 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 AAU1 X No Fix The Processor May Report a #TS Instead of a #GP Fault AAU2 X No Fix REP MOVS/STOS Executing with Fast Strings Enabled and Crossing Page Boundaries with Inconsistent Memory Types may use an Incorrect Data Size or Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations AAU3 X No Fix Code Segment Limit/Canonical Faults on RSM May Be Serviced before Higher Priority Interrupts/Exceptions and May Push the Wrong Address onto the Stack AAU4 X No Fix Performance Monitor SSE Retired Instructions May Return Incorrect Values AAU5 X No Fix Premature Execution of a Load Operation Prior to Exception Handler Invocation AAU6 X No Fix MOV To/From Debug Registers Causes Debug Exception AAU7 X No Fix Incorrect Address Computed for Last Byte of FXSAVE/FXRSTOR Image Leads to Partial Memory Update AAU8 X No Fix Values for LBR/BTS/BTM Will Be Incorrect after an Exit from SMM AAU9 X No Fix Single Step Interrupts with Floating Point Exception Pending May Be Mishandled AAU10 X No Fix Fault on ENTER Instruction May Result in Unexpected Values on Stack Frame AAU11 X No Fix IRET under Certain Conditions May Cause an Unexpected Alignment Check Exception AAU12 X No Fix General Protection Fault (#GP) for Instructions Greater than 15 Bytes May be Preempted AAU13 X No Fix General Protection (#GP) Fault May Not Be Signaled on Data Segment Limit Violation above 4-G Limit AAU14 X No Fix LBR, BTS, BTM May Report a Wrong Address when an Exception/Interrupt Occurs in 64-bit Mode AAU15 X No Fix MCi_Status Overflow Bit May Be Incorrectly Set on a Single Instance of a DTLB Error AAU16 X No Fix Debug Exception Flags DR6.B0-B3 Flags May be Incorrect for Disabled Breakpoints AAU17 X No Fix MONITOR or CLFLUSH on the Local XAPIC's Address Space Results in Hang AAU18 X No Fix Corruption of CS Segment Register During RSM While Transitioning From Real Mode to Protected Mode AAU19 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Events for Read Miss to Level 3 Cache Fill Occupancy Counter may be Incorrect AAU20 X No Fix A VM Exit on MWAIT May Incorrectly Report the Monitoring Hardware as Armed AAU21 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS Counts Inaccurately AAU22 X No Fix #GP on Segment Selector Descriptor that Straddles Canonical Boundary May Not Provide Correct Exception Error Code AAU23 X No Fix Improper Parity Error Signaled in the IQ Following Reset When a Code Breakpoint is Set on a #GP Instruction AAU24 X No Fix An Enabled Debug Breakpoint or Single Step Trap May Be Taken after MOV SS/ POP SS Instruction if it is Followed by an Instruction That Signals a Floating Point Exception AAU25 X No Fix IA32_MPERF Counter Stops Counting During On-Demand TM1 AAU26 X No Fix Synchronous Reset of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF Counters on Overflow Does Not Work 12 Specification Update AAU27 X No Fix? Disabling Thermal Monitor While Processor is Hot, Then Reenabling, May Result in Stuck Core Operating Ratio AAU28 X No Fix Writing the Local Vector Table (LVT) when an Interrupt is Pending May Cause an Unexpected Interrupt AAU29 X No Fix xAPIC Timer May Decrement Too Quickly Following an Automatic Reload While in Periodic Mode AAU30 X No Fix Reported Memory Type May Not Be Used to Access the VMCS and Referenced Data Structures AAU31 X No Fix Changing the Memory Type for an In-Use Page Translation May Lead to MemoryOrdering Violations AAU32 X No Fix Critical ISOCH Traffic May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior When Write Major Mode Enabled AAU33 X Plan Fix Delivery of Certain Events Immediately Following a VM Exit May Push a Corrupted RIP onto the Stack AAU34 X No Fix Infinite Stream of Interrupts May Occur if an ExtINT Delivery Mode Interrupt is Received while All Cores in C6 AAU35 X No Fix Two xAPIC Timer Event Interrupts May Unexpectedly Occur AAU36 X No Fix EOI Transaction May Not be Sent if Software Enters Core C6 During an Interrupt Service Routine AAU37 X No Fix FREEZE_WHILE_SMM Does Not Prevent Event From Pending PEBS During SMM AAU38 X No Fix APIC Error “Received Illegal Vector” May be Lost AAU39 X No Fix DR6 May Contain Incorrect Information When the First Instruction After a MOV SS,r/ m or POP SS is a Store AAU40 X No Fix An Uncorrectable Error Logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS May Also Result in a System Hang AAU41 X No Fix IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR May Be Incorrectly Initialized AAU42 X No Fix Performance Monitor Counter INST_RETIRED.STORES May Count Higher than Expected AAU43 X No Fix Sleeping Cores May Not be Woken Up on Logical Cluster Mode Broadcast IPI Using Destination Field Instead of Shorthand AAU44 X No Fix Faulting Executions of FXRSTOR May Update State Inconsistently AAU45 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event EPT.EPDPE_MISS May be Counted While EPT is Disable AAU46 X No Fix Memory Aliasing of Code Pages May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior AAU47 X No Fix Performance Monitor Counters May Count Incorrectly AAU48 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event Offcore_response_0 (B7H) Does Not Count NT Stores to Local DRAM Correctly AAU49 X No Fix EFLAGS Discrepancy on Page Faults and on EPT-Induced VM Exits after a Translation Change AAU50 X No Fix Back to Back Uncorrected Machine Check Errors May Overwrite IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD AAU51 X No Fix Corrected Errors With a Yellow Error Indication May be Overwritten by Other Corrected Errors Errata (Sheet 2 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 13 Specification Update AAU52 X No Fix Performance Monitor Events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST May Overcount AAU53 X No Fix Rapid Core C3/C6 Transitions May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior AAU54 X No Fix APIC Timer CCR May Report 0 in Periodic Mode AAU55 X No Fix Performance Monitor Events INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED May Count Inaccurately AAU56 X No Fix A Page Fault May Not be Generated When the PS bit is set to "1" in a PML4E or PDPTE AAU57 X No Fix BIST Results May be Additionally Reported After a GETSEC[WAKEUP] or INIT-SIPI Sequence AAU58 X No Fix Pending x87 FPU Exceptions (#MF) May be Signaled Earlier Than Expected AAU59 X No Fix VM Exits Due to "NMI-Window Exiting" May Be Delayed by One Instruction AAU60 X No Fix The Memory Controller tTHROT_OPREF Timings May be Violated During Self Refresh Entry AAU61 X No Fix VM Exits Due to EPT Violations Do Not Record Information About Pre-IRET NMI Blocking AAU62 X No Fix Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR2 AAU63 X No Fix LBRs May Not be Initialized During Power-On Reset of the Processor AAU64 X No Fix LBR, BTM or BTS Records May have Incorrect Branch From Information After an EIST Transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling AAU65 X No Fix VMX-Preemption Timer Does Not Count Down at the Rate Specified AAU66 X No Fix Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of Fixed Counter 0 AAU67 X No Fix VM Exits Due to LIDT/LGDT/SIDT/SGDT Do Not Report Correct Operand Size AAU68 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA May Not Count Events Correctly AAU69 X No Fix Storage of PEBS Record Delayed Following Execution of MOV SS or STI AAU70 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX May Not Count Some Transitions AAU71 X No Fix INVLPG Following INVEPT or INVVPID May Fail to Flush All Translations for a Large Page AAU72 X No Fix Logical Processor May Use Incorrect VPID after VM Entry That Returns From SMM AAU73 X No Fix The Memory Controller May Hang Due to Uncorrectable ECC Errors or Parity Errors Occurring on Both Channels in Mirror Channel Mode AAU74 X No Fix MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR May Return Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Core Ratio Multipliers for Non-Existent Core Configurations AAU75 X Plan Fix Internal Parity Error May Be Incorrectly Signaled during C6 Exit AAU76 X No Fix PMIs during Core C6 Transitions May Cause the System to Hang AAU77 X No Fix 2MB Page Split Lock Accesses Combined With Complex Internal Events May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Errata (Sheet 3 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 14 Specification Update AAU78 X No Fix If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. AAU79 X Plan Fix TXT.PUBLIC.KEY is Not Reliable AAU80 X Plan Fix 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode Interrupt May Be Dropped When it Collides With Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle From the Preceding Interrupt AAU82 X No Fix The APIC Timer Current Count Register May Prematurely Read 0x0 While the Timer is Still Running AAU83 X No Fix Secondary PCIe Port May Not Train After A Warm Reset AAU84 X No Fix The PECI Bus May Be Tri-stated after System Reset AAU85 X No Fix The Combination of a Page-Split Lock Access And Data Accesses That Are Split Across Cacheline Boundaries May Lead to Processor Livelock AAU86 X No Fix Processor Hangs on Package C6 State Exit AAU87 X No Fix A Synchronous SMI May be Delayed AAU88 X No Fix FP Data Operand Pointer May Be Incorrectly Calculated After an FP Access Which Wraps a 4-Gbyte Boundary in Code That Uses 32-Bit Address Size in 64-bit Mode AAU89 X Plan Fix PCI Express x16 Port Links May Fail to Dynamically Switch From 5.0GT/s to 2.5GT/ s AAU90 X No Fix PCI Express Cards May Not Train to x16 Link Width AAU91 X No Fix Unexpected Graphics VID Transition During Warm Reset May Cause the System to Hang Specification Changes Number SPECIFICATION CHANGES None for this revision of this specification update. Specification Clarifications Number SPECIFICATION CLARIFICATIONS None for this revision of this specification update. Errata (Sheet 4 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 15 Specification Update Documentation Changes Number DOCUMENTATION CHANGES AAU1 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add PEG_TC —PCI Express Completion Timeout RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register AAU2 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add SSKPD —Sticky Scratchpad Data RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout to add SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register AAU3 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register 16 Specification Update Identification Information Component Identification using Programming Interface The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 stepping can be identified by the following register contents: Note: 1. The Extended Family, bits [27:20] are used in conjunction with the Family Code, specified in bits [11:8], to indicate whether the processor belongs to the Intel386, Intel486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium 4, or Intel® Core™ processor family. 2. The Extended Model, bits [19:16] in conjunction with the Model Number, specified in bits [7:4], are used to identify the model of the processor within the processor’s family. 3. The Processor Type, specified in bits [13:12] indicates whether the processor is an original OEM processor, an OverDrive processor, or a dual processor (capable of being used in a dual processor system). 4. The Family Code corresponds to bits [11:8] of the EDX register after RESET, bits [11:8] of the EAX register after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 1 in the EAX register, and the generation field of the Device ID register accessible through Boundary Scan. 5. The Model Number corresponds to bits [7:4] of the EDX register after RESET, bits [7:4] of the EAX register after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 1 in the EAX register, and the model field of the Device ID register accessible through Boundary Scan. 6. The Stepping ID in bits [3:0] indicates the revision number of that model. See Table 1 for the processor stepping ID number in the CPUID information. When EAX is initialized to a value of ‘1’, the CPUID instruction returns the Extended Family, Extended Model, Processor Type, Family Code, Model Number and Stepping ID value in the EAX register. Note that the EDX processor signature value after reset is equivalent to the processor signature output value in the EAX register. Cache and TLB descriptor parameters are provided in the EAX, EBX, ECX and EDX registers after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 2 in the EAX register. The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 can be identified by the following register contents: Notes: 1. The Vendor ID corresponds to bits 15:0 of the Vendor ID Register located at offset 00–01h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. 2. The Device ID corresponds to bits 15:0 of the Device ID Register located at Device 0 offset 02–03h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. 3. The Revision Number corresponds to bits 7:0 of the Revision ID Register located at offset 08h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. Reserved Extended Family1 Extended Model2 Reserved Processor Type3 Family Code4 Model Number5 Stepping ID6 31:28 27:20 19:16 15:14 13:12 11:8 7:4 3:0 00000000b 0010b 00b 0110 0101b xxxxb Stepping Vendor ID1 Device ID2 Revision ID3 C-2 8086h 0040h 12h 17 Specification Update Component Marking Information The processor stepping can be identified by the following component markings. Notes: 1. This processor has TDP of 73 W. 2. This column indicates maximum Intel® Turbo Boost Technology frequency (GHz) for 2 or 1 cores active respectively. 3. Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology enabled. 4. Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT) enabled. 5. Intel® Virtualization Technology for IA-32, Intel® 64 and Intel® Architecture (Intel® VT-x) enabled. 6. Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (Intel® VT-d) enabled. 7. Intel® AES-NI enabled. 8. Intel SSE4.1 and SSE4.2 enabled. 9. This processor has TDP of 87 W. 10. The core frequency reported in the processor brand string is rounded to 2 decimal digits. (For example, core frequency of 3.4666, repeating 6, is reported as @3.47 in brand string. Core frequency of 3.3333, is reported as @3.33 in brand string.) Figure 1. Processor Production Top-side Markings (Example) Table 1. Processor Identification S-Spec Number Processor Number Stepping Processor Signature Core Frequency (GHz) / DDR3 (MHz) / Integrated Graphics Frequency Max Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Frequency (GHz)2 Shared L3 Cache Size (MB) Notes LBLT i5-670 C-2 20652h 3.46 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.60 1 core: 3.73 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBNE i5-661 C-2 20652h 3.33 / 1333 / 900 2 core: 3.46 1 core: 3.60 4 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11 LBLV i5-660 C-2 20652h 3.33 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.46 1 core: 3.60 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBLK i5-650 C-2 20652h 3.20 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.33 1 core: 3.46 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBMQ i3-540 C-2 20652h 3.06 / 1333 / 733 N/A 4 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 LBLR i3-530 C-2 20652h 2.93 / 1333 / 733 N/A 4 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 LBMS G6950 C-2 20652h 2.80 / 1066 / 533 N/A 3 1, 5, 11 LOT NO S/N INTEL ©'08 PROC# BRAND SLxxx [COO] SPEED/CACHE/FMB [FPO] M e4 18 Specification Update Errata AAU1. The Processor May Report a #TS Instead of a #GP Fault Problem: A jump to a busy TSS (Task-State Segment) may cause a #TS (invalid TSS exception) instead of a #GP fault (general protection exception). Implication: Operation systems that access a busy TSS may get invalid TSS fault instead of a #GP fault. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU2. REP MOVS/STOS Executing with Fast Strings Enabled and Crossing Page Boundaries with Inconsistent Memory Types may use an Incorrect Data Size or Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations Problem: Under certain conditions as described in the Software Developers Manual section "OutofOrder Stores For String Operations in Pentium 4, Intel Xeon, and P6 Family Processors" the processor performs REP MOVS or REP STOS as fast strings. Due to this erratum fast string REP MOVS/REP STOS instructions that cross page boundaries from WB/WC memory types to UC/WP/WT memory types, may start using an incorrect data size or may observe memory ordering violations. Implication: Upon crossing the page boundary the following may occur, dependent on the new page memory type: • UC the data size of each write will now always be 8 bytes, as opposed to the original data size. • WP the data size of each write will now always be 8 bytes, as opposed to the original data size and there may be a memory ordering violation. • WT there may be a memory ordering violation. Workaround: Software should avoid crossing page boundaries from WB or WC memory type to UC, WP or WT memory type within a single REP MOVS or REP STOS instruction that will execute with fast strings enabled. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 19 Specification Update AAU3. Code Segment Limit/Canonical Faults on RSM May Be Serviced before Higher Priority Interrupts/Exceptions and May Push the Wrong Address onto the Stack Problem: Normally, when the processor encounters a Segment Limit or Canonical Fault due to code execution, a #GP (General Protection Exception) fault is generated after all higher priority Interrupts and exceptions are serviced. Due to this erratum, if RSM (Resume from System Management Mode) returns to execution flow that results in a Code Segment Limit or Canonical Fault, the #GP fault may be serviced before a higher priority Interrupt or Exception (e.g., NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt), Debug break(#DB), Machine Check (#MC), etc.). If the RSM attempts to return to a noncanonical address, the address pushed onto the stack for this #GP fault may not match the non-canonical address that caused the fault. Implication: Operating systems may observe a #GP fault being serviced before higher priority Interrupts and Exceptions. Intel has not observed this erratum on any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU4. Performance Monitor SSE Retired Instructions May Return Incorrect Values Problem: Performance Monitoring counter SIMD_INST_RETIRED (Event: C7H) is used to track retired SSE instructions. Due to this erratum, the processor may also count other types of instructions resulting in higher than expected values. Implication: Performance Monitoring counter SIMD_INST_RETIRED may report count higher than expected. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU5. Premature Execution of a Load Operation Prior to Exception Handler Invocation Problem: If any of the below circumstances occur, it is possible that the load portion of the instruction will have executed before the exception handler is entered. • If an instruction that performs a memory load causes a code segment limit violation. • If a waiting X87 floating-point (FP) instruction or MMX™ technology (MMX) instruction that performs a memory load has a floating-point exception pending. • If an MMX or SSE/SSE2/SSE3/SSSE3 extensions (SSE) instruction that performs a memory load and has either CR0.EM=1 (Emulation bit set), or a floating-point TopofStack (FP TOS) not equal to 0, or a DNA exception pending. Implication: In normal code execution where the target of the load operation is to write back memory there is no impact from the load being prematurely executed, or from the restart and subsequent re-execution of that instruction by the exception handler. If the target of the load is to uncached memory that has a system side-effect, restarting the instruction may cause unexpected system behavior due to the repetition of the sideeffect. Particularly, while CR0.TS [bit 3] is set, a MOVD/MOVQ with MMX/XMM register operands may issue a memory load before getting the DNA exception. Workaround: Code which performs loads from memory that has side-effects can effectively workaround this behavior by using simple integer-based load instructions when 20 Specification Update accessing side-effect memory and by ensuring that all code is written such that a code segment limit violation cannot occur as a part of reading from side-effect memory. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU6. MOV To/From Debug Registers Causes Debug Exception Problem: When in V86 mode, if a MOV instruction is executed to/from a debug registers, a general-protection exception (#GP) should be generated. However, in the case when the general detect enable flag (GD) bit is set, the observed behavior is that a debug exception (#DB) is generated instead. Implication: With debug-register protection enabled (i.e., the GD bit set), when attempting to execute a MOV on debug registers in V86 mode, a debug exception will be generated instead of the expected general-protection fault. Workaround: In general, operating systems do not set the GD bit when they are in V86 mode. The GD bit is generally set and used by debuggers. The debug exception handler should check that the exception did not occur in V86 mode before continuing. If the exception did occur in V86 mode, the exception may be directed to the general-protection exception handler. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU7. Incorrect Address Computed for Last Byte of FXSAVE/FXRSTOR Image Leads to Partial Memory Update Problem: A partial memory state save of the 512-byte FXSAVE image or a partial memory state restore of the FXRSTOR image may occur if a memory address exceeds the 64KB limit while the processor is operating in 16-bit mode or if a memory address exceeds the 4GB limit while the processor is operating in 32-bit mode. Implication: FXSAVE/FXRSTOR will incur a #GP fault due to the memory limit violation as expected but the memory state may be only partially saved or restored. Workaround: Software should avoid memory accesses that wrap around the respective 16-bit and 32-bit mode memory limits. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU8. Values for LBR/BTS/BTM Will Be Incorrect after an Exit from SMM Problem: After a return from SMM (System Management Mode), the CPU will incorrectly update the LBR (Last Branch Record) and the BTS (Branch Trace Store), hence rendering their data invalid. The corresponding data if sent out as a BTM on the system bus will also be incorrect. Problem: Note: This issue would only occur when one of the 3 above mentioned debug support facilities are used. Implication: The value of the LBR, BTS, and BTM immediately after an RSM operation should not be used. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 21 Specification Update AAU9. Single Step Interrupts with Floating Point Exception Pending May Be Mishandled Problem: In certain circumstances, when a floating point exception (#MF) is pending during single-step execution, processing of the single-step debug exception (#DB) may be mishandled. Implication: When this erratum occurs, #DB will be incorrectly handled as follows: • #DB is signaled before the pending higher priority #MF (Interrupt 16) • #DB is generated twice on the same instruction Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU10. Fault on ENTER Instruction May Result in Unexpected Values on Stack Frame Problem: The ENTER instruction is used to create a procedure stack frame. Due to this erratum, if execution of the ENTER instruction results in a fault, the dynamic storage area of the resultant stack frame may contain unexpected values (i.e., residual stack data as a result of processing the fault). Implication: Data in the created stack frame may be altered following a fault on the ENTER instruction. Refer to "Procedure Calls For Block-Structured Languages" in IA-32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer's Manual, Vol. 1, Basic Architecture, for information on the usage of the ENTER instructions. This erratum is not expected to occur in Ring 3. Faults are usually processed in Ring 0 and stack switch occurs when transferring to Ring 0. Intel has not observed this erratum on any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU11. IRET under Certain Conditions May Cause an Unexpected Alignment Check Exception Problem: In IA-32e mode, it is possible to get an Alignment Check Exception (#AC) on the IRET instruction even though alignment checks were disabled at the start of the IRET. This can only occur if the IRET instruction is returning from CPL3 code to CPL3 code. IRETs from CPL0/1/2 are not affected. This erratum can occur if the EFLAGS value on the stack has the AC flag set, and the interrupt handler's stack is misaligned. In IA32e mode, RSP is aligned to a 16-byte boundary before pushing the stack frame. Implication: In IA-32e mode, under the conditions given above, an IRET can get a #AC even if alignment checks are disabled at the start of the IRET. This erratum can only be observed with a software generated stack frame. Workaround: Software should not generate misaligned stack frames for use with IRET. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 22 Specification Update AAU12. General Protection Fault (#GP) for Instructions Greater than 15 Bytes May be Preempted Problem: When the processor encounters an instruction that is greater than 15 bytes in length, a #GP is signaled when the instruction is decoded. Under some circumstances, the #GP fault may be preempted by another lower priority fault (e.g., Page Fault (#PF)). However, if the preempting lower priority faults are resolved by the operating system and the instruction retried, a #GP fault will occur. Implication: Software may observe a lower-priority fault occurring before or in lieu of a #GP fault. Instructions of greater than 15 bytes in length can only occur if redundant prefixes are placed before the instruction. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU13. General Protection (#GP) Fault May Not Be Signaled on Data Segment Limit Violation above 4-G Limit Problem: In 32-bit mode, memory accesses to flat data segments (base = 00000000h) that occur above the 4-G limit (0ffffffffh) may not signal a #GP fault. Implication: When such memory accesses occur in 32-bit mode, the system may not issue a #GP fault. Workaround: Software should ensure that memory accesses in 32-bit mode do not occur above the 4-G limit (0ffffffffh). Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU14. LBR, BTS, BTM May Report a Wrong Address when an Exception/ Interrupt Occurs in 64-bit Mode Problem: An exception/interrupt event should be transparent to the LBR (Last Branch Record), BTS (Branch Trace Store) and BTM (Branch Trace Message) mechanisms. However, during a specific boundary condition where the exception/interrupt occurs right after the execution of an instruction at the lower canonical boundary (0x00007FFFFFFFFFFF) in 64-bit mode, the LBR return registers will save a wrong return address with Bits 63 to 48 incorrectly sign extended to all 1's. Subsequent BTS and BTM operations which report the LBR will also be incorrect. Implication: LBR, BTS and BTM may report incorrect information in the event of an exception/ interrupt. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU15. MCi_Status Overflow Bit May Be Incorrectly Set on a Single Instance of a DTLB Error Problem: A single Data Translation Look Aside Buffer (DTLB) error can incorrectly set the Overflow (bit [62]) in the MCi_Status register. A DTLB error is indicated by MCA error code (bits [15:0]) appearing as binary value, 000x 0000 0001 0100, in the MCi_Status register. Implication: Due to this erratum, the Overflow bit in the MCi_Status register may not be an accurate indication of multiple occurrences of DTLB errors. There is no other impact to normal processor functionality. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 23 Specification Update AAU16. Debug Exception Flags DR6.B0-B3 Flags May be Incorrect for Disabled Breakpoints Problem: When a debug exception is signaled on a load that crosses cache lines with data forwarded from a store and whose corresponding breakpoint enable flags are disabled (DR7.G0-G3 and DR7.L0-L3), the DR6.B0-B3 flags may be incorrect. Implication: The debug exception DR6.B0-B3 flags may be incorrect for the load if the corresponding breakpoint enable flag in DR7 is disabled. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU17. MONITOR or CLFLUSH on the Local XAPIC's Address Space Results in Hang Problem: If the target linear address range for a MONITOR or CLFLUSH is mapped to the local xAPIC's address space, the processor will hang. Implication: When this erratum occurs, the processor will hang. The local xAPIC's address space must be uncached. The MONITOR instruction only functions correctly if the specified linear address range is of the type write-back. CLFLUSH flushes data from the cache. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: Do not execute MONITOR or CLFLUSH instructions on the local xAPIC address space. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU18. Corruption of CS Segment Register During RSM While Transitioning From Real Mode to Protected Mode Problem: During the transition from real mode to protected mode, if an SMI (System Management Interrupt) occurs between the MOV to CR0 that sets PE (Protection Enable, bit 0) and the first FAR JMP, the subsequent RSM (Resume from System Management Mode) may cause the lower two bits of CS segment register to be corrupted. Implication: The corruption of the bottom two bits of the CS segment register will have no impact unless software explicitly examines the CS segment register between enabling protected mode and the first FAR JMP. Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Volume 3A: System Programming Guide, Part 1, in the section titled "Switching to Protected Mode" recommends the FAR JMP immediately follows the write to CR0 to enable protected mode. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU19. Performance Monitoring Events for Read Miss to Level 3 Cache Fill Occupancy Counter may be Incorrect Problem: Whenever an Level 3 cache fill conflicts with another request's address, the miss to fill occupancy counter, UNC_GQ_ALLOC.RT_LLC_MISS (Event 02H), will provide erroneous results. Implication: The Performance Monitoring UNC_GQ_ALLOC.RT_LLC_MISS event may count a value higher than expected. The extent to which the value is higher than expected is determined by the frequency of the L3 address conflict. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 24 Specification Update AAU20. A VM Exit on MWAIT May Incorrectly Report the Monitoring Hardware as Armed Problem: A processor write to the address range armed by the MONITOR instruction may not immediately trigger the monitoring hardware. Consequently, a VM exit on a later MWAIT may incorrectly report the monitoring hardware as armed, when it should be reported as unarmed due to the write occurring prior to the MWAIT. Implication: If a write to the range armed by the MONITOR instruction occurs between the MONITOR and the MWAIT, the MWAIT instruction may start executing before the monitoring hardware is triggered. If the MWAIT instruction causes a VM exit, this could cause its exit qualification to incorrectly report 0x1. In the recommended usage model for MONITOR/MWAIT, there is no write to the range armed by the MONITOR instruction between the MONITOR and the MWAIT. Workaround: Software should never write to the address range armed by the MONITOR instruction between the MONITOR and the subsequent MWAIT. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU21. Performance Monitor Event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS Counts Inaccurately Problem: The performance monitor event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS (Event 06H) counts instructions that load new values into segment registers. The value of the count may be inaccurate. Implication: The performance monitor event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS may reflect a count higher or lower than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU22. #GP on Segment Selector Descriptor that Straddles Canonical Boundary May Not Provide Correct Exception Error Code Problem: During a #GP (General Protection Exception), the processor pushes an error code on to the exception handler’s stack. If the segment selector descriptor straddles the canonical boundary, the error code pushed onto the stack may be incorrect. Status: An incorrect error code may be pushed onto the stack. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU23. Improper Parity Error Signaled in the IQ Following Reset When a Code Breakpoint is Set on a #GP Instruction Problem: While coming out of cold reset or exiting from C6, if the processor encounters an instruction longer than 15 bytes (which causes a #GP) and a code breakpoint is enabled on that instruction, an IQ (Instruction Queue) parity error may be incorrectly logged resulting in an MCE (Machine Check Exception). Implication: When this erratum occurs, an MCE may be incorrectly signaled. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 25 Specification Update AAU24. An Enabled Debug Breakpoint or Single Step Trap May Be Taken after MOV SS/POP SS Instruction if it is Followed by an Instruction That Signals a Floating Point Exception Problem: A MOV SS/POP SS instruction should inhibit all interrupts including debug breakpoints until after execution of the following instruction. This is intended to allow the sequential execution of MOV SS/POP SS and MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP instructions without having an invalid stack during interrupt handling. However, an enabled debug breakpoint or single step trap may be taken after MOV SS/POP SS if this instruction is followed by an instruction that signals a floating point exception rather than a MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP instruction. This results in a debug exception being signaled on an unexpected instruction boundary since the MOV SS/POP SS and the following instruction should be executed atomically. Implication: This can result in incorrect signaling of a debug exception and possibly a mismatched Stack Segment and Stack Pointer. If MOV SS/POP SS is not followed by a MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP, there may be a mismatched Stack Segment and Stack Pointer on any exception. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software or system. Workaround: As recommended in the IA32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer’s Manual, the use of MOV SS/POP SS in conjunction with MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP will avoid the failure since the MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP will not generate a floating point exception. Developers of debug tools should be aware of the potential incorrect debug event signaling created by this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU25. IA32_MPERF Counter Stops Counting During On-Demand TM1 Problem: According to the Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Volume 3A: System Programming Guide, the ratio of IA32_MPERF (MSR E7H) to IA32_APERF (MSR E8H) should reflect actual performance while TM1 or ondemand throttling is activated. Due to this erratum, IA32_MPERF MSR stops counting while TM1 or on-demand throttling is activated, and the ratio of the two will indicate higher processor performance than actual. Implication: The incorrect ratio of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF can mislead software P-state (performance state) management algorithms under the conditions described above. It is possible for the Operating System to observe higher processor utilization than actual, which could lead the OS into raising the P-state. During TM1 activation, the OS Pstate request is irrelevant and while on-demand throttling is enabled, it is expected that the OS will not be changing the P-state. This erratum should result in no practical implication to software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU26. Synchronous Reset of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF Counters on Overflow Does Not Work Problem: When either the IA32_MPERF or IA32_APERF MSR (E7H, E8H) increments to its maximum value of 0xFFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF, both MSRs are supposed to synchronously reset to 0x0 on the next clock. This synchronous reset does not work. Instead, both MSRs increment and overflow independently. Implication: Software can not rely on synchronous reset of the IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF registers. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 26 Specification Update AAU27. Disabling Thermal Monitor While Processor is Hot, Then Re-enabling, May Result in Stuck Core Operating Ratio Problem: If a processor is at its TCC (Thermal Control Circuit) activation temperature and then Thermal Monitor is disabled by a write to IA32_MISC_ENABLES MSR (1A0H) bit [3], a subsequent re-enable of Thermal Monitor will result in an artificial ceiling on the maximum core P-state. The ceiling is based on the core frequency at the time of Thermal Monitor disable. This condition will only correct itself once the processor reaches its TCC activation temperature again. Implication: Since Intel requires that Thermal Monitor be enabled in order to be operating within specification, this erratum should never be seen during normal operation. Workaround: Software should not disable Thermal Monitor during processor operation. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU28. Writing the Local Vector Table (LVT) when an Interrupt is Pending May Cause an Unexpected Interrupt Problem: If a local interrupt is pending when the LVT entry is written, an interrupt may be taken on the new interrupt vector even if the mask bit is set. Implication: An interrupt may immediately be generated with the new vector when a LVT entry is written, even if the new LVT entry has the mask bit set. If there is no Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) set up for that vector the system will GP fault. If the ISR does not do an End of Interrupt (EOI) the bit for the vector will be left set in the in-service register and mask all interrupts at the same or lower priority. Workaround: Any vector programmed into an LVT entry must have an ISR associated with it, even if that vector was programmed as masked. This ISR routine must do an EOI to clear any unexpected interrupts that may occur. The ISR associated with the spurious vector does not generate an EOI, therefore the spurious vector should not be used when writing the LVT. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU29. xAPIC Timer May Decrement Too Quickly Following an Automatic Reload While in Periodic Mode Problem: When the xAPIC Timer is automatically reloaded by counting down to zero in periodic mode, the xAPIC Timer may slip in its synchronization with the external clock. The xAPIC timer may be shortened by up to one xAPIC timer tick. Implication: When the xAPIC Timer is automatically reloaded by counting down to zero in periodic mode, the xAPIC Timer may slip in its synchronization with the external clock. The xAPIC timer may be shortened by up to one xAPIC timer tick. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 27 Specification Update AAU30. Reported Memory Type May Not Be Used to Access the VMCS and Referenced Data Structures Problem: Bits 53:50 of the IA32_VMX_BASIC MSR report the memory type that the processor uses to access the VMCS and data structures referenced by pointers in the VMCS. Due to this erratum, a VMX access to the VMCS or referenced data structures will instead use the memory type that the MTRRs (memory-type range registers) specify for the physical address of the access. Implication: Bits 53:50 of the IA32_VMX_BASIC MSR report that the WB (writeback) memory type will be used but the processor may use a different memory type. Workaround: Software should ensure that the VMCS and referenced data structures are located at physical addresses that are mapped to WB memory type by the MTRRs. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU31. Changing the Memory Type for an In-Use Page Translation May Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations Problem: Under complex microarchitectural conditions, if software changes the memory type for data being actively used and shared by multiple threads without the use of semaphores or barriers, software may see load operations execute out of order. Implication: Memory ordering may be violated. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: Software should ensure pages are not being actively used before requesting their memory type be changed. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU32. Critical ISOCH Traffic May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior When Write Major Mode Enabled Problem: Under a specific set of conditions, critical ISOCH (isochronous) traffic may cause unpredictable system behavior with write major mode enabled. Implication: Due to this erratum unpredictable system behavior may occur. Workaround: Write major mode must be disabled in the BIOS by writing the write major mode threshold value to its maximum value of 1FH in ISOCHEXITTRESHOLD bits [19:15], ISOCHENTRYTHRESHOLD bits [14:10], WMENTRYTHRESHOLD bits [9:5], and WMEXITTHRESHOLD bits [4:0] of the MC_CHANNEL_{0,1,2}_WAQ_PARAMS register. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 28 Specification Update AAU33. Delivery of Certain Events Immediately Following a VM Exit May Push a Corrupted RIP onto the Stack Problem: If any of the following events is delivered immediately following a VM exit to 64-bit mode from outside 64-bit mode, bits 63:32 of the RIP value pushed on the stack may be cleared to 0: • A non-maskable interrupt (NMI); • A machine-check exception (#MC); • A page fault (#PF) during instruction fetch; or • A general-protection exception (#GP) due to an attempt to decode an instruction whose length is greater than 15 bytes. Implication: Unexpected behavior may occur due to the incorrect value of the RIP on the stack. Specifically, return from the event handler via IRET may encounter an unexpected page fault or may begin fetching from an unexpected code address. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU34. Infinite Stream of Interrupts May Occur if an ExtINT Delivery Mode Interrupt is Received while All Cores in C6 Problem: If all logical processors in a core are in C6, an ExtINT delivery mode interrupt is pending in the xAPIC and interrupts are blocked with EFLAGS.IF=0, the interrupt will be processed after C6 wakeup and after interrupts are re-enabled (EFLAGS.IF=1). However, the pending interrupt event will not be cleared. Implication: Due to this erratum, an infinite stream of interrupts will occur on the core servicing the external interrupt. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software/system. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU35. Two xAPIC Timer Event Interrupts May Unexpectedly Occur Problem: If an xAPIC timer event is enabled and while counting down the current count reaches 1 at the same time that the processor thread begins a transition to a low power Cstate, the xAPIC may generate two interrupts instead of the expected one when the processor returns to C0. Implication: Due to this erratum, two interrupts may unexpectedly be generated by an xAPIC timer event. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 29 Specification Update AAU36. EOI Transaction May Not be Sent if Software Enters Core C6 During an Interrupt Service Routine Problem: If core C6 is entered after the start of an interrupt service routine but before a write to the APIC EOI register, the core may not send an EOI transaction (if needed) and further interrupts from the same priority level or lower may be blocked. Implication: EOI transactions and interrupts may be blocked when core C6 is used during interrupt service routines. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU37. FREEZE_WHILE_SMM Does Not Prevent Event From Pending PEBS During SMM Problem: In general, a PEBS record should be generated on the first count of the event after the counter has overflowed. However, IA32_DEBUGCTL_MSR.FREEZE_WHILE_SMM (MSR 1D9H, bit [14]) prevents performance counters from counting during SMM (System Management Mode). Due to this erratum, if 1. A performance counter overflowed before an SMI 2. A PEBS record has not yet been generated because another count of the event has not occurred 3. The monitored event occurs during SMM then a PEBS record will be saved after the next RSM instruction. When FREEZE_WHILE_SMM is set, a PEBS should not be generated until the event occurs outside of SMM. Implication: A PEBS record may be saved after an RSM instruction due to the associated performance counter detecting the monitored event during SMM; even when FREEZE_WHILE_SMM is set. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU38. APIC Error “Received Illegal Vector” May be Lost Problem: APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller) may not update the ESR (Error Status Register) flag Received Illegal Vector bit [6] properly when an illegal vector error is received on the same internal clock that the ESR is being written (as part of the write-read ESR access flow). The corresponding error interrupt will also not be generated for this case. Implication: Due to this erratum, an incoming illegal vector error may not be logged into ESR properly and may not generate an error interrupt. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 30 Specification Update AAU39. DR6 May Contain Incorrect Information When the First Instruction After a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS is a Store Problem: Normally, each instruction clears the changes in DR6 (Debug Status Register) caused by the previous instruction. However, the instruction following a MOV SS,r/m (MOV to the stack segment selector) or POP SS (POP stack segment selector) instruction will not clear the changes in DR6 because data breakpoints are not taken immediately after a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instruction. Due to this erratum, any DR6 changes caused by a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instruction may be cleared if the following instruction is a store. Implication: When this erratum occurs, incorrect information may exist in DR6. This erratum will not be observed under normal usage of the MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instructions (i.e., following them with an instruction that writes [e/r]SP). When debugging or when developing debuggers, this behavior should be noted. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU40. An Uncorrectable Error Logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS May Also Result in a System Hang Problem: Uncorrectable errors logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS MSR (409H) may also result in a system hang causing an Internal Timer Error (MCACOD = 0x0400h) to be logged in another machine check bank (IA32_MCi_STATUS). Implication: Uncorrectable errors logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS can further cause a system hang and an Internal Timer Error to be logged. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU41. IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR May Be Incorrectly Initialized Problem: The IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR (38FH) bits [34:32] may be incorrectly set to 7H after reset; the correct value should be 0H. Implication: The IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR bits [34:32] may be incorrect after reset (EN_FIXED_CTR{0, 1, 2} may be enabled). Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU42. Performance Monitor Counter INST_RETIRED.STORES May Count Higher than Expected Problem: Performance Monitoring counter INST_RETIRED.STORES (Event: C0H) is used to track retired instructions which contain a store operation. Due to this erratum, the processor may also count other types of instructions including WRMSR and MFENCE. Implication: Performance Monitoring counter INST_RETIRED.STORES may report counts higher than expected. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 31 Specification Update AAU43. Sleeping Cores May Not be Woken Up on Logical Cluster Mode Broadcast IPI Using Destination Field Instead of Shorthand Problem: If software sends a logical cluster broadcast IPI using a destination shorthand of 00B (No Shorthand) and writes the cluster portion of the Destination Field of the Interrupt Command Register to all ones while not using all 1s in the mask portion of the Destination Field, target cores in a sleep state that are identified by the mask portion of the Destination Field may not be woken up. This erratum does not occur if the destination shorthand is set to 10B (All Including Self) or 11B (All Excluding Self). Implication: When this erratum occurs, cores which are in a sleep state may not wake up to handle the broadcast IPI. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: Use destination shorthand of 10B or 11B to send broadcast IPIs. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU44. Faulting Executions of FXRSTOR May Update State Inconsistently Problem: The state updated by a faulting FXRSTOR instruction may vary from one execution to another. Implication: Software that relies on x87 state or SSE state following a faulting execution of FXRSTOR may behave inconsistently. Workaround: Software handling a fault on an execution of FXRSTOR can compensate for execution variability by correcting the cause of the fault and executing FXRSTOR again. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU45. Performance Monitor Event EPT.EPDPE_MISS May be Counted While EPT is Disable Problem: Performance monitor event EPT.EPDPE_MISS (Event: 4FH, Umask: 08H) is used to count Page Directory Pointer table misses while EPT (extended page tables) is enabled. Due to this erratum, the processor will count Page Directory Pointer table misses regardless of whether EPT is enabled or not. Implication: Due to this erratum, performance monitor event EPT.EPDPE_MISS may report counts higher than expected. Workaround: Software should ensure this event is only enabled while in EPT mode. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU46. Memory Aliasing of Code Pages May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: The type of memory aliasing contributing to this erratum is the case where two different logical processors have the same code page mapped with two different memory types. Specifically, if one code page is mapped by one logical processor as write-back and by another as uncachable and certain instruction fetch timing conditions occur, the system may experience unpredictable behavior. Implication: If this erratum occurs the system may have unpredictable behavior including a system hang. The aliasing of memory regions, a condition necessary for this erratum to occur, is documented as being unsupported in the Intel 64 and IA-32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3A, in the section titled Programming the PAT. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software or system. Workaround: Code pages should not be mapped with uncacheable and cacheable memory types at the same time. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 32 Specification Update AAU47. Performance Monitor Counters May Count Incorrectly Problem: Under certain circumstances, a general purpose performance counter, IA32_PMC0-4 (C1H - C4H), may count at core frequency or not count at all instead of counting the programmed event. Implication: The Performance Monitor Counter IA32_PMCx may not properly count the programmed event. Due to the requirements of the workaround there may be an interruption in the counting of a previously programmed event during the programming of a new event. Workaround: Before programming the performance event select registers, IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR (186H - 189H), the internal monitoring hardware must be cleared. This is accomplished by first disabling, saving valid events and clearing from the select registers, then programming three event values 0x4300D2, 0x4300B1 and 0x4300B5 into the IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSRs, and finally continuing with new event programming and restoring previous programming if necessary. Each performance counter, IA32_PMCx, must have its corresponding IA32_PREFEVTSELx MSR programmed with at least one of the event values and must be enabled in IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR (38FH) bits [3:0]. All three values must be written to either the same or different IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSRs before programming the performance counters. Note that the performance counter will not increment when its IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR has a value of 0x4300D2, 0x4300B1 or 0x4300B5 because those values have a zero UMASK field (bits [15:8]). Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU48. Performance Monitor Event Offcore_response_0 (B7H) Does Not Count NT Stores to Local DRAM Correctly Problem: When a IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR is programmed to count the Offcore_response_0 event (Event:B7H), selections in the OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR (1A6H) determine what is counted. The following two selections do not provide accurate counts when counting NT (Non-Temporal) Stores: • OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR bit [14] is set to 1 (LOCAL_DRAM) and bit [7] is set to 1 (OTHER): NT Stores to Local DRAM are not counted when they should have been. • OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR bit [9] is set to (OTHER_CORE_HIT_SNOOP) and bit [7] is set to 1 (OTHER): NT Stores to Local DRAM are counted when they should not have been. Implication: The counter for the Offcore_response_0 event may be incorrect for NT stores. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 33 Specification Update AAU49. EFLAGS Discrepancy on Page Faults and on EPT-Induced VM Exits after a Translation Change Problem: This erratum is regarding the case where paging structures are modified to change a linear address from writable to non-writable without software performing an appropriate TLB invalidation. When a subsequent access to that address by a specific instruction (ADD, AND, BTC, BTR, BTS, CMPXCHG, DEC, INC, NEG, NOT, OR, ROL/ROR, SAL/SAR/SHL/SHR, SHLD, SHRD, SUB, XOR, and XADD) causes a page fault or an EPTinduced VM exit, the value saved for EFLAGS may incorrectly contain the arithmetic flag values that the EFLAGS register would have held had the instruction completed without fault or VM exit. For page faults, this can occur even if the fault causes a VM exit or if its delivery causes a nested fault. Implication: None identified. Although the EFLAGS value saved by an affected event (a page fault or an EPT-induced VM exit) may contain incorrect arithmetic flag values, Intel has not identified software that is affected by this erratum. This erratum will have no further effects once the original instruction is restarted because the instruction will produce the same results as if it had initially completed without fault or VM exit. Workaround: If the handler of the affected events inspects the arithmetic portion of the saved EFLAGS value, then system software should perform a synchronized paging structure modification and TLB invalidation. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU50. Back to Back Uncorrected Machine Check Errors May Overwrite IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD Problem: When back-to-back uncorrected machine check errors occur that would both be logged in the IA32_MC3_STATUS MSR (40CH), the IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD (bits [31:16]) field may reflect the status of the most recent error and not the first error. The rest of the IA32_MC3_STATUS MSR contains the information from the first error. Implication: Software should not rely on the value of IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD if IA32_MC3_STATUS.OVER (bit [62]) is set. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU51. Corrected Errors With a Yellow Error Indication May be Overwritten by Other Corrected Errors Problem: A corrected cache hierarchy data or tag error that is reported with IA32_MCi_STATUS.MCACOD (bits [15:0]) with value of 000x_0001_xxxx_xx01 (where x stands for zero or one) and a yellow threshold-based error status indication (bits [54:53] equal to 10B) may be overwritten by a corrected error with a no tracking indication (00B) or green indication (01B). Implication: Corrected errors with a yellow threshold-based error status indication may be overwritten by a corrected error without a yellow indication. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 34 Specification Update AAU52. Performance Monitor Events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST May Overcount Problem: The performance monitor events DCACHE_CACHE_LD (Event 40H) and DCACHE_CACHE_ST (Event 41H) count cacheable loads and stores that hit the L1 cache. Due to this erratum, in addition to counting the completed loads and stores, the counter will incorrectly count speculative loads and stores that were aborted prior to completion. Implication: The performance monitor events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST may reflect a count higher than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU53. Rapid Core C3/C6 Transitions May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: Under a complex set of internal conditions, cores rapidly performing C3/C6 transitions in a system with Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology enabled may cause a machine check error (IA32_MCi_STATUS.MCACOD = 0x0106), system hang or unpredictable system behavior. Implication: This erratum may cause a machine check error, system hang or unpredictable system behavior. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU54. APIC Timer CCR May Report 0 in Periodic Mode Problem: In periodic mode the APIC timer CCR (current-count register) is supposed to be automatically reloaded from the initial-count register when the count reaches 0, consequently software would never be able to observe a value of 0. Due to this erratum, software may read 0 from the CCR when the timer has counted down and is in the process of re-arming. Implication: Due to this erratum, an unexpected value of 0 may be read from the APIC timer CCR when in periodic mode. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU55. Performance Monitor Events INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED May Count Inaccurately Problem: The performance monitor event INSTR_RETIRED (Event C0H) should count the number of instructions retired, and MEM_INST_ RETIRED (Event 0BH) should count the number of load or store instructions retired. However, due to this erratum, they may undercount. Implication: The performance monitor event INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED may reflect a count lower than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 35 Specification Update AAU56. A Page Fault May Not be Generated When the PS bit is set to "1" in a PML4E or PDPTE Problem: On processors supporting Intel® 64 architecture, the PS bit (Page Size, bit 7) is reserved in PML4Es and PDPTEs. If the translation of the linear address of a memory access encounters a PML4E or a PDPTE with PS set to 1, a page fault should occur. Due to this erratum, PS of such an entry is ignored and no page fault will occur due to its being set. Implication: Software may not operate properly if it relies on the processor to deliver page faults when reserved bits are set in paging-structure entries. Workaround: Software should not set Bit 7 in any PML4E or PDPTE that has Present Bit (Bit 0) set to "1". Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU57. BIST Results May be Additionally Reported After a GETSEC[WAKEUP] or INIT-SIPI Sequence Problem: BIST results should only be reported in EAX the first time a logical processor wakes up from the Wait-For-SIPI state. Due to this erratum, BIST results may be additionally reported after INIT-SIPI sequences and when waking up RLP's from the SENTER sleep state using the GETSEC[WAKEUP] command. Implication: An INIT-SIPI sequence may show a non-zero value in EAX upon wakeup when a zero value is expected. RLP's waking up for the SENTER sleep state using the GETSEC[WAKEUP] command may show a different value in EAX upon wakeup than before going into the SENTER sleep state. Workaround: If necessary software may save the value in EAX prior to launching into the secure environment and restore upon wakeup and/or clear EAX after the INIT-SIPI sequence. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU58. Pending x87 FPU Exceptions (#MF) May be Signaled Earlier Than Expected Problem: x87 instructions that trigger #MF normally service interrupts before the #MF. Due to this erratum, if an instruction that triggers #MF is executed while Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology transitions, Intel® Turbo Boost Technology transitions, or Thermal Monitor events occur, the pending #MF may be signaled before pending interrupts are serviced. Implication: Software may observe #MF being signaled before pending interrupts are serviced. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 36 Specification Update AAU59. VM Exits Due to "NMI-Window Exiting" May Be Delayed by One Instruction Problem: If VM entry is executed with the "NMI-window exiting" VM-execution control set to 1, a VM exit with exit reason "NMI window" should occur before execution of any instruction if there is no virtual-NMI blocking, no blocking of events by MOV SS, and no blocking of events by STI. If VM entry is made with no virtual-NMI blocking but with blocking of events by either MOV SS or STI, such a VM exit should occur after execution of one instruction in VMX non-root operation. Due to this erratum, the VM exit may be delayed by one additional instruction. Implication: VMM software using "NMI-window exiting" for NMI virtualization should generally be unaffected, as the erratum causes at most a one-instruction delay in the injection of a virtual NMI, which is virtually asynchronous. The erratum may affect VMMs relying on deterministic delivery of the affected VM exits. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU60. The Memory Controller tTHROT_OPREF Timings May be Violated During Self Refresh Entry Problem: During self refresh entry, the memory controller may issue more refreshes than permitted by tTHROT_OPREF (bits 29:19 in MC_CHANNEL_{0,1}_REFRESH_TIMING CSR). Implication: The intention of tTHROT_OPREF is to limit current. Since current supply conditions near self refresh entry are not critical, there is no measurable impact due to this erratum. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU61. VM Exits Due to EPT Violations Do Not Record Information About PreIRET NMI Blocking Problem: With certain settings of the VM-execution controls VM exits due to EPT violations set bit 12 of the exit qualification if the EPT violation was a result of an execution of the IRET instruction that commenced with non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) blocked. Due to this erratum, such VM exits will instead clear this bit. Implication: Due to this erratum, a virtual-machine monitor that relies on the proper setting of bit 12 of the exit qualification may deliver NMIs to guest software prematurely. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU62. Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR2 Problem: When multiple performance counters are set to generate interrupts on an overflow and more than one counter overflows at the same time, only one interrupt should be generated. However, if one of the counters set to generate an interrupt on overflow is the IA32_FIXED_CTR2 (MSR 30BH) counter, multiple interrupts may be generated when the IA32_FIXED_CTR2 overflows at the same time as any of the other performance counters. Implication: Multiple counter overflow interrupts may be unexpectedly generated. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 37 Specification Update AAU63. LBRs May Not be Initialized During Power-On Reset of the Processor Problem: If a second reset is initiated during the power-on processor reset cycle, the LBRs (Last Branch Records) may not be properly initialized. Implication: Due to this erratum, debug software may not be able to rely on the LBRs out of poweron reset. Workaround: Ensure that the processor has completed its power-on reset cycle prior to initiating a second reset. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU64. LBR, BTM or BTS Records May have Incorrect Branch From Information After an EIST Transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling Problem: The "From" address associated with the LBR (Last Branch Record), BTM (Branch Trace Message) or BTS (Branch Trace Store) may be incorrect for the first branch after an EIST (Enhanced Intel® SpeedStep Technology) transition, T-states, C1E (C1 Enhanced), or Adaptive Thermal Throttling. Implication: When the LBRs, BTM or BTS are enabled, some records may have incorrect branch "From" addresses for the first branch after an EIST transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU65. VMX-Preemption Timer Does Not Count Down at the Rate Specified Problem: The VMX-preemption timer should count down by 1 every time a specific bit in the TSC (Time Stamp Counter) changes. (This specific bit is indicated by IA32_VMX_MISC bits [4:0] (0x485h) and has a value of 5 on the affected processors.) Due to this erratum, the VMX-preemption timer may instead count down at a different rate and may do so only intermittently. Implication: The VMX-preemption timer may cause VM exits at a rate different from that expected by software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 38 Specification Update AAU66. Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of Fixed Counter 0 Problem: The processor can be configured to issue a PMI (performance monitor interrupt) upon overflow of the IA32_FIXED_CTR0 MSR (309H). A single PMI should be observed on overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR0, however multiple PMIs are observed when this erratum occurs. This erratum only occurs when IA32_FIXED_CTR0 overflows and the processor and counter are configured as follows: • Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology is enabled • IA32_FIXED_CTR0 local and global controls are enabled • IA32_FIXED_CTR0 is set to count events only on its own thread (IA32_FIXED_CTR_CTRL MSR (38DH) bit [2] = ‘0) • PMIs are enabled on IA32_FIXED_CTR0 (IA32_FIXED_CTR_CTRL MSR bit [3] = ‘1) • Freeze_on_PMI feature is enabled (IA32_DEBUGCTL MSR (1D9H) bit [12] = ‘1) Implication: When this erratum occurs there may be multiple PMIs observed when IA32_FIXED_CTR0 overflows Workaround: Disable the FREEZE_PERFMON_ON_PMI feature in IA32_DEBUGCTL MSR (1D9H) bit [12]. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU67. VM Exits Due to LIDT/LGDT/SIDT/SGDT Do Not Report Correct Operand Size Problem: When a VM exit occurs due to a LIDT, LGDT, SIDT, or SGDT instruction with a 32-bit operand, bit 11 of the VM-exit instruction information field should be set to 1. Due to this erratum, this bit is instead cleared to 0 (indicating a 16-bit operand). Implication: Virtual-machine monitors cannot rely on bit 11 of the VM-exit instruction information field to determine the operand size of the instruction causing the VM exit. Workaround: Virtual Machine Monitor software may decode the instruction to determine operand size. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU68. Performance Monitoring Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA May Not Count Events Correctly Problem: Performance Monitor Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA should only increment the count when a load is blocked by a store. Due to this erratum, the count will be incremented whenever a load hits a store, whether it is blocked or can forward. In addition this event does not count for specific threads correctly. Implication: If Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology is disabled, the Performance Monitor events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA may indicate a higher occurrence of loads blocked by stores than have actually occurred. If Intel Hyper-Threading Technology is enabled, the counts of loads blocked by stores may be unpredictable and they could be higher or lower than the correct count. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 39 Specification Update AAU69. Storage of PEBS Record Delayed Following Execution of MOV SS or STI Problem: When a performance monitoring counter is configured for PEBS (Precise Event Based Sampling), overflow of the counter results in storage of a PEBS record in the PEBS buffer. The information in the PEBS record represents the state of the next instruction to be executed following the counter overflow. Due to this erratum, if the counter overflow occurs after execution of either MOV SS or STI, storage of the PEBS record is delayed by one instruction. Implication: When this erratum occurs, software may observe storage of the PEBS record being delayed by one instruction following execution of MOV SS or STI. The state information in the PEBS record will also reflect the one instruction delay. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU70. Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX May Not Count Some Transitions Problem: Performance Monitor Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX (Event CCH, Umask 01H) counts transitions from x87 Floating Point (FP) to MMX™ instructions. Due to this erratum, if only a small number of MMX instructions (including EMMS) are executed immediately after the last FP instruction, a FP to MMX transition may not be counted. Implication: The count value for Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX may be lower than expected. The degree of undercounting is dependent on the occurrences of the erratum condition while the counter is active. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU71. INVLPG Following INVEPT or INVVPID May Fail to Flush All Translations for a Large Page Problem: This erratum applies if the address of the memory operand of an INVEPT or INVVPID instruction resides on a page larger than 4KBytes and either (1) that page includes the low 1 MBytes of physical memory; or (2) the physical address of the memory operand matches an MTRR that covers less than 4 MBytes. A subsequent execution of INVLPG that targets the large page and that occurs before the next VM-entry instruction may fail to flush all TLB entries for the page. Such entries may persist in the TLB until the next VM-entry instruction. Implication: Accesses to the large page between INVLPG and the next VM-entry instruction may incorrectly use translations that are inconsistent with the in-memory page tables. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 40 Specification Update AAU72. Logical Processor May Use Incorrect VPID after VM Entry That Returns From SMM Problem: A logical processor in VMX root operation should use VPID 0000H. Due to this erratum, a logical processor may instead use VPID 1FB3H if VMX root operation was entered using a VM entry that returns from SMM. Implication: After a VM entry that sets the "enable VPID" VM-execution control and that establishes VPID 1FB3H, the logical processor may erroneously use TLB entries that were cached in VMX root operation. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU73. The Memory Controller May Hang Due to Uncorrectable ECC Errors or Parity Errors Occurring on Both Channels in Mirror Channel Mode Problem: If an uncorrectable ECC or parity error occurs on the mirrored channel before an uncorrectable ECC or parity error on the other channel can be resolved, the Memory Controller may hang without an uncorrectable ECC or parity error being logged. Implication: The processor may hang and not report the error when uncorrectable ECC or parity errors occur in close proximity on both channels in a mirrored channel pair. No uncorrectable ECC or parity error will be logged in the machine check banks. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU74. MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR May Return Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Core Ratio Multipliers for Non-Existent Core Configurations Problem: MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR (1ADH) is designed to describe the maximum Intel Turbo Boost Technology potential of the processor. On some processors, a nonzero Intel Turbo Boost Technology value will be returned for non-existent core configurations. Implication: Due to this erratum, software using the MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR to report Intel Turbo Boost Technology processor capabilities may report erroneous results. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU75. Internal Parity Error May Be Incorrectly Signaled during C6 Exit Problem: In a complex set of internal conditions an internal parity error may occur during a Core C6 exit. Implication: Due to this erratum, an uncorrected error may be reported and a machine check exception may be triggered. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 41 Specification Update AAU76. PMIs during Core C6 Transitions May Cause the System to Hang Problem: If a performance monitoring counter overflows and causes a PMI (Performance Monitoring Interrupt) at the same time that the core enters C6, then this may cause the system to hang. Implication: Due to this erratum, the processor may hang when a PMI coincides with core C6 entry. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU77. 2MB Page Split Lock Accesses Combined With Complex Internal Events May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: A 2MB Page Split Lock (a locked access that spans two 2MB large pages) coincident with additional requests that have particular address relationships in combination with a timing sensitive sequence of complex internal conditions may cause unpredictable system behavior. Implication: This erratum may cause unpredictable system behavior. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU78. If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. Problem: If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. Implication: Due to this erratum, two interrupts may unexpectedly be generated by an APIC timer event. Workaround: Software should reprogram the Divide Configuration Register only when the APIC timer interrupt is disarmed. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU79. TXT.PUBLIC.KEY is Not Reliable Problem: On Intel® TXT (Intel® Trusted Execution Technology) capable processors, the TXT.PUBLIC.KEY value (Intel TXT registers FED3_0400H to FED3_041FH) is not reliable. Implication: Due to this erratum, the TXT.PUBLIC.KEY value should not be relied on or used for retrieving the hash of the TXT public key for the platform. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 42 Specification Update AAU80. 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode Interrupt May Be Dropped When it Collides With Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle From the Preceding Interrupt Problem: If an un-serviced 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode (8259 connected to IOAPIC) External Interrupt is pending in the APIC and a second 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupt arrives, the processor may incorrectly drop the second 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupt request. This occurs when both the new External Interrupt and Interrupt Acknowledge for the previous External Interrupt arrive at the APIC at the same time. Implication: to this erratum, any further 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupts will subsequently be ignored. Workaround: Do not use 8259 Virtual Wire B mode when using the 8259 to deliver interrupts. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU82. The APIC Timer Current Count Register May Prematurely Read 0x0 While the Timer is Still Running Problem: The APIC Timer Current Counter Register may prematurely read 0x00000000 while the timer is still running. This problem occurs when a core frequency or C-state transition occurs while the APIC timer countdown is in progress. Implication: Due to this erratum, certain software may incorrectly assess that the APIC timer countdown is complete when it is actually still running. This erratum does not affect the delivery of the timer interrupt. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU83. Secondary PCIe Port May Not Train After A Warm Reset Problem: In a dual PCIe port configuration, the secondary PCIe port may not train after a warm reset. Implication: The second PCIe port and therefore any device connected to the PCIe bus instantiated by that PCIe port may not be functional after a warm reset. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available system. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 43 Specification Update AAU84. The PECI Bus May Be Tri-stated after System Reset Problem: During power-up, the processor may improperly assert the PECI (Platform Environment Control Interface) pin. This condition is cleared as soon as Bus Clock starts toggling. However, if the PECI host (also referred to as the master or originator) incorrectly determines this asserted state as another PECI host initiating a transaction, it may release control of the bus resulting in a permanent tri-state condition. Implication: Due to this erratum, the PECI host may incorrectly determine that it is not the bus master and consequently PECI commands initiated by the PECI software layer may receive incorrect/invalid responses. Workaround: To workaround this erratum the PECI host should pull the PECI bus low to initiate a PECI transaction. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU85. The Combination of a Page-Split Lock Access And Data Accesses That Are Split Across Cacheline Boundaries May Lead to Processor Livelock Problem: Under certain complex micro-architectural conditions, the simultaneous occurrence of a page-split lock and several data accesses that are split across cacheline boundaries may lead to processor livelock. Implication: Due to this erratum, a livelock may occur that can only be terminated by a processor reset. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU86. Processor Hangs on Package C6 State Exit Problem: An internal timing condition in the processor power management logic will result in processor hangs upon a Package C6 state exit. Implication: Due to this erratum, the processor will hang during Package C6 state exit. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU87. A Synchronous SMI May be Delayed Problem: A synchronous SMI (System Management Interrupt) occurs as a result of an SMI generating I/O Write instruction and should be handled prior to the next instruction executing. Due to this erratum, the processor may not observe the synchronous SMI prior to execution of the next instruction. Implication: Due to this erratum, instructions after the I/O Write instruction, which triggered the SMI, may be allowed to execute before the SMI handler. Delayed delivery of the SMI may make it difficult for an SMI Handler to determine the source of the SMI. Software that relies on the IO_SMI bit in SMM save state or synchronous SMI behavior may not function as expected. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 44 Specification Update AAU88. FP Data Operand Pointer May Be Incorrectly Calculated After an FP Access Which Wraps a 4-Gbyte Boundary in Code That Uses 32-Bit Address Size in 64-bit Mode Problem: The FP (Floating Point) Data Operand Pointer is the effective address of the operand associated with the last non-control FP instruction executed by the processor. If an 80bit FP access (load or store) uses a 32-bit address size in 64-bit mode and the memory access wraps a 4-Gbyte boundary and the FP environment is subsequently saved, the value contained in the FP Data Operand Pointer may be incorrect. Implication: Due to this erratum, the FP Data Operand Pointer may be incorrect. Wrapping an 80-bit FP load around a 4-Gbyte boundary in this way is not a normal programming practice. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: If the FP Data Operand Pointer is used in a 64-bit operating system which may run code accessing 32-bit addresses, care must be taken to ensure that no 80-bit FP accesses are wrapped around a 4-Gbyte boundary. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU89. PCI Express x16 Port Links May Fail to Dynamically Switch From 5.0GT/s to 2.5GT/s Problem: If an endpoint device initiates a PCI Express speed change from 5.0 GT/s to 2.5 GT/s, the link may incorrectly go into Recovery.Idle rather than the expected Recovery.Speed state. This may cause the link to lose sync, eventually resulting in a link down. The link will recover and re-train to the L0 state, however any outstanding packets queued during the speed change may be lost. Implication: Due to this erratum, the link may lose sync resulting in link down with queued packet being lost. No known failures have been observed on systems using production PCI Express graphics cards. This erratum has only been observed in a synthetic test environment. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU90. PCI Express Cards May Not Train to x16 Link Width Problem: The Maximum Link Width field in the Link Capabilities register (LCAP; Bus 0; Device 1; Function 0; offset 0xAC; bits [9:4]) may limit the width of the PCI Express link to x8, even though the processor may actually be capable of supporting the full x16 width. Implication: PCI Express x16 Graphics Cards used in normal operation and PCI Express CLB (Compliance Load Board) Cards used during PCI Express Compliance mode testing may only train to x8 link width. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU91. Unexpected Graphics VID Transition During Warm Reset May Cause the System to Hang Problem: During a warm reset to the processor, the graphics VID (Voltage ID) may transition to an unexpected value that may cause the voltage regulator to shut off. Implication: The processor may hang during integrated graphics initialization. Cold boots and platforms using discrete graphics are not affected by this issue. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. 45 Specification Update Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. Status: 46 Specification Update Specification Changes The Specification Changes listed in this section apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide There are no new Specification Changes in this Specification Update revision. 47 Specification Update Specification Clarifications The Specification Clarifications listed in this section may apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide There are no new Specification Changes in this Specification Update revision. 48 Specification Update Documentation Changes The Documentation Changes listed in this section apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide All Documentation Changes will be incorporated into a future version of the appropriate Processor documentation. Note: Documentation changes for Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual volumes 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B will be posted in a separate document, Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual Documentation Changes. Follow the link below to become familiar with this file. http://developer.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/index.htm AAU1. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 will be updated to include the PEG_TC— PCI Express Completion Timeout Register in Section 2.11.7 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 49 Specification Update 2.11.7 PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register This register reports PCI Express configuration control of PCI Express Completion Timeout related parameters that are not required by the PCI Express spec. AAU2. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout to add SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 will be updated to include the SSKPD— Sticky Scratchpad Data Register in Section 2.8.56 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 B/D/F/Type: 0/1/0/MMR Address Offset: 204h Reset Value: 0000_0C00h Access: RW Bit Attr Reset Value Description 31:12 RW 0000_0h Reserved: (RSVD). 11:12 RW 11b PCI Express Completion Timeout (PEG_TC) Determines the number of milliseconds the Transaction Layer will wait to receive an expected completion. To avoid hang conditions, the Transaction Layer will generate a dummy completion to the requestor if it does not receive the completion within this time period. 00: Disable 01: Reserved 10: Reserved 11: 48 ms - for normal operation(default) 9:0 RW 0_0000_0 000b Reserved: (RSVD). 50 Specification Update 2.8.56 SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register This register holds 64 writable bits with no functionality behind them. It is for the convenience of BIOS and graphics drivers. AAU3. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Preallocated Memory Lock Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2will be updated to include the MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register in Section 2.7.28 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 2.7.28 MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register B/D/F/Type: 0/0/0/PCI Address Offset: F4h Reset Value: 00h Access: Bit Attr Reset Value Description 7:5 RW-O 000b Reserved(RSDV) 4 RW-L 0 Reserved(RSDV) 3 RW-L-K 0 Lock Mode (LOCKMODE) LOCKMODE and ME_SM_LOCK (bit 0) must always be programmed to the same value. See bit 0 for description details. 0 = Registers are not locked 1 = Registers are locked. 2 RW-L 0 Reserved(RSDV) 1 RO 0 Reserved(RSDV) 0 RW-L-K 0 ME Stolen Memory Lock (ME_SM_LOCK) When ME_SM_LOCK is set to 1 then all registers related to MCH configuration become read only. BIOS will initialize config bits related to MCH configuration and then use ME_SM_lock to "lock down" the MCH configuration in the future so that no application software (or BIOS itself) can violate the integrity of DRAM - including ME stolen memory space. If BIOS writes this bit to '1` then bit 3 "LOCKMODE" bit must also be written to '1` to ensure proper register lockdown. If BIOS writes this bit to '0` then bit 3 "LOCKMODE" bit must also be written to '0`. This bit and LOCKMODE bit 3 should never be programmed differently. PCI device 0 and MCHBAR registers affected by this bit are detailed within the descriptions of the affected registers. 51 Specification Update 52 Specification Update 53 Specification Update 54 Specification Update 55 Specification Update 56 Specification Update 57 Specification Update 58 Specification Update 59 Specification Update 60 Specification Update 61 Specification Update 62 Specification Update 63 Specification Update 64 Specification Update 65 Specification Update 66 Specification Update 67 Specification Update 68 Specification Update 69 Specification Update 70 Specification Update 71 Specification Update 72 Specification Update 73 Specification Update 74 Specification Update 75 Specification Update 76 Specification Update 77 Specification Update 78 Specification Update 79 Specification Update 80 Specification Update 81 Specification Update 82 Specification Update 83 Specification Update 84 Specification Update 85 Specification Update 86 Specification Update 87 Specification Update Reference Number: 322911-003 Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium Processor G6950 Specification Update March 2010 Revision -003 2 Specification Update Legal Lines and Disclaimers INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL'S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, life sustaining, critical control or safety systems, or in nuclear facility applications. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked “reserved” or “undefined.” Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. The processor may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order. ΔIntel processor numbers are not a measure of performance. Processor numbers differentiate features within each processor family, not across different processor families. See http://www.intel.com/products/processor_number for details. Over time processor numbers will increment based on changes in clock, speed, cache, or other features, and increments are not intended to represent proportional or quantitative increases in any particular feature. Current roadmap processor number progression is not necessarily representative of future roadmaps. See www.intel.com/products/ processor_number for details. Intel® Active Management Technology requires the computer system to have an Intel(R) AMT-enabled chipset, network hardware and software, as well as connection with a power source and a corporate network connection. Setup requires configuration by the purchaser and may require scripting with the management console or further integration into existing security frameworks to enable certain functionality. It may also require modifications of implementation of new business processes. With regard to notebooks, Intel AMT may not be available or certain capabilities may be limited over a host OS-based VPN or when connecting wirelessly, on battery power, sleeping, hibernating or powered off. For more information, see www.intel.com/ technology/platform-technology/intel-amt/ Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT) requires a computer system with Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT-x) and Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (Intel® VT-d)), a Intel TXT-enabled processor, chipset, BIOS, Authenticated Code Modules and an Intel TXT-compatible measured launched environment (MLE). The MLE could consist of a virtual machine monitor, an OS or an application. In addition, Intel TXT requires the system to contain a TPM v1.2, as defined by the Trusted Computing Group and specific software for some uses. For more information, see http://www.intel.com/technology/security Intel® Virtualization Technology requires a computer system with an enabled Intel® processor, BIOS, virtual machine monitor (VMM) and, for some uses, certain computer system software enabled for it. Functionality, performance or other benefits will vary depending on hardware and software configurations and may require a BIOS update. Software applications may not be compatible with all operating systems. Please check with your application vendor. * Intel® Turbo Boost Technology requires a PC with a processor with Intel Turbo Boost Technology capability. Intel Turbo Boost Technology performance varies depending on hardware, software and overall system configuration. Check with your PC manufacturer on whether your system delivers Intel Turbo Boost Technology. For more information, see http://www.intel.com/technology/turboboost Intel® Hyper-threading Technology requires a computer system with a processor supporting HT Technology and an HT Technology-enabled chipset, BIOS, and operating system. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use. For more information including details on which processors support HT Technology, see http://www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading. 64-bit computing on Intel architecture requires a computer system with a processor, chipset, BIOS, operating system, device drivers and applications enabled for Intel® 64 architecture. Performance will vary depending on your hardware and software configurations. Consult with your system vendor for more information. Copies of documents which have an order number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature may be obtained by calling 1-800-5484725 or by visiting Intel's website at http://www.intel.com. Intel, Intel Core, Celeron, Pentium, Intel Xeon, Intel Atom, Intel SpeedStep, and the Intel logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright © 2010, Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Contents 3 Specification Update Contents Revision History...............................................................................................................5 Preface ..............................................................................................................................6 Summary Tables of Changes..........................................................................................8 Identification Information ..............................................................................................16 Errata ...............................................................................................................................18 Specification Changes...................................................................................................43 Specification Clarifications ...........................................................................................44 Documentation Changes...............................................................................................45 § Contents 4 Specification Update 5 Specification Update Revision History Revision Description Date -001 Initial Release January 2010 -002 Added Errata AAU85-AAU87. Corrected Extended Model and Model Number register values in Component Identification table. February 2010 -003 Added Errata AAU88-AAU91. Added Documentation Changes AAU1-AAU3. March 2010 6 Specification Update Preface This document is an update to the specifications contained in the Affected Documents table below. This document is a compilation of device and documentation errata, specification clarifications and changes. It is intended for hardware system manufacturers and software developers of applications, operating systems, or tools. Information types defined in Nomenclature are consolidated into the specification update and are no longer published in other documents. This document may also contain information that was not previously published. Affected Documents Related Documents Document Title Document Number Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 1 322909-001 Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 322910-001 Document Title Document Number/ Location AP-485, Intel® Processor Identification and the CPUID Instruction http://www.intel.com/ design/processor/ applnots/241618.htm Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide Intel® 64 and IA-32 Intel Architecture Optimization Reference Manual http://www.intel.com/ products/processor/ manuals/index.htm Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Documentation Changes http://www.intel.com/ design/processor/ specupdt/252046.htm ACPI Specifications www.acpi.info 7 Specification Update Nomenclature Errata are design defects or errors. These may cause the processor behavior to deviate from published specifications. Hardware and software designed to be used with any given stepping must assume that all errata documented for that stepping are present on all devices. S-Spec Number is a five-digit code used to identify products. Products are differentiated by their unique characteristics such as, core speed, L2 cache size, package type, etc. as described in the processor identification information table. Read all notes associated with each S-Spec number. Specification Changes are modifications to the current published specifications. These changes will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Specification Clarifications describe a specification in greater detail or further highlight a specification’s impact to a complex design situation. These clarifications will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Documentation Changes include typos, errors, or omissions from the current published specifications. These will be incorporated in any new release of the specification. Note: Errata remain in the specification update throughout the product’s lifecycle, or until a particular stepping is no longer commercially available. Under these circumstances, errata removed from the specification update are archived and available upon request. Specification changes, specification clarifications and documentation changes are removed from the specification update when the appropriate changes are made to the appropriate product specification or user documentation (datasheets, manuals, etc.). 8 Specification Update Summary Tables of Changes The following tables indicate the errata, specification changes, specification clarifications, or documentation changes which apply to the processor. Intel may fix some of the errata in a future stepping of the component, and account for the other outstanding issues through documentation or specification changes as noted. These tables uses the following notations: Codes Used in Summary Tables Stepping X: Errata exists in the stepping indicated. Specification Change or Clarification that applies to this stepping. (No mark) or (Blank box): This erratum is fixed in listed stepping or specification change does not apply to listed stepping. Page (Page): Page location of item in this document. Status Doc: Document change or update will be implemented. Plan Fix: This erratum may be fixed in a future stepping of the product. Fixed: This erratum has been previously fixed. No Fix: There are no plans to fix this erratum. Row Change bar to left of a table row indicates this erratum is either new or modified from the previous version of the document. 9 Specification Update Each Specification Update item is prefixed with a capital letter to distinguish the product. The key below details the letters that are used in Intel’s microprocessor Specification Updates: A = Intel® Xeon® processor 7000 sequence C = Intel® Celeron® processor D = Intel® Xeon® processor 2.80 GHz E = Intel® Pentium® III processor F = Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition and Intel® Pentium® D processor I = Intel® Xeon® processor 5000 series J = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor MP with 1MB L2 cache K = Mobile Intel® Pentium® III processor L = Intel® Celeron® D processor M = Mobile Intel® Celeron® processor N = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor O = Intel® Xeon® processor MP P = Intel ® Xeon® processor Q = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor supporting Intel® Hyper-Threading technology on 90nm process technology R = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor on 90 nm process S = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor with 800 MHz system bus (1 MB and 2 MB L2 cache versions) T = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor-M U = 64-bit Intel® Xeon® processor MP with up to 8MB L3 cache V = Mobile Intel® Celeron® processor on .13 micron process in Micro-FCPGA package W= Intel® Celeron® M processor X = Intel® Pentium® M processor on 90nm process with 2-MB L2 cache and Intel® processor A100 and A110 with 512-KB L2 cache Y = Intel® Pentium® M processor Z = Mobile Intel® Pentium® 4 processor with 533 MHz system bus AA = Intel® Pentium® D processor 900 sequence and Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition 955, 965 AB = Intel® Pentium® 4 processor 6x1 sequence AC = Intel® Celeron® processor in 478 pin package AD = Intel® Celeron® D processor on 65nm process AE = Intel® Core™ Duo processor and Intel® Core™ Solo processor on 65nm process AF = Intel® Xeon® processor LV AG = Intel® Xeon® processor 5100 series AH = Intel® Core™2 Duo/Solo Processor for Intel® Centrino® Duo Processor Technology AI = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor X6800 and Intel® Core™2 Duo desktop processor E6000 and E4000 sequence 10 Specification Update AJ = Intel® Xeon® processor 5300 series AK = Intel® Core™2 Extreme quad-core processor QX6000 sequence and Intel® Core™2 Quad processor Q6000 sequence AL = Intel® Xeon® processor 7100 series AM = Intel® Celeron® processor 400 sequence AN = Intel® Pentium® dual-core processor AO = Intel® Xeon® processor 3200 series AP = Intel® Xeon® processor 3000 series AQ = Intel® Pentium® dual-core desktop processor E2000 sequence AR = Intel® Celeron® processor 500 series AS = Intel® Xeon® processor 7200, 7300 series AU = Intel® Celeron® dual-core processor T1400 AV = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor QX9650 and Intel® Core™2 Quad processor Q9000 series AW = Intel® Core™ 2 Duo processor E8000 series AX = Intel® Xeon® processor 5400 series AY = Intel® Xeon® processor 5200 series AZ= Intel® Core™2 Duo processor and Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor on 45nm process AAA= Intel® Xeon® processor 3300 series AAB= Intel® Xeon® E3110 processor AAC= Intel® Celeron® dual-core processor E1000 series AAD = Intel® Core™2 Extreme processor QX9775 AAE = Intel® Atom™ processor Z5xx series AAF = Intel® Atom™ processor 200 series AAG = Intel® Atom™ processor N series AAH = Intel® Atom™ processor 300 series AAI = Intel® Xeon® processor 7400 series AAJ = Intel® Core™ i7-900 desktop processor Extreme Edition series and Intel® Core™ i7-900 desktop processor series AAK= Intel® Xeon® processor 5500 series AAL = Intel® Pentium® dual-core processor E5000 series AAN = Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 AAO = Intel® Xeon® processor 3400 series AAP = Intel® Core™ i7-900 mobile processor Extreme Edition series, Intel Core i7800 and i7-700 mobile processor series AAT = Intel® Core™ i7-600, i5-500, i5-400 and i3-300 mobile processor series AAU = Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 desktop processor series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 11 Specification Update Errata (Sheet 1 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 AAU1 X No Fix The Processor May Report a #TS Instead of a #GP Fault AAU2 X No Fix REP MOVS/STOS Executing with Fast Strings Enabled and Crossing Page Boundaries with Inconsistent Memory Types may use an Incorrect Data Size or Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations AAU3 X No Fix Code Segment Limit/Canonical Faults on RSM May Be Serviced before Higher Priority Interrupts/Exceptions and May Push the Wrong Address onto the Stack AAU4 X No Fix Performance Monitor SSE Retired Instructions May Return Incorrect Values AAU5 X No Fix Premature Execution of a Load Operation Prior to Exception Handler Invocation AAU6 X No Fix MOV To/From Debug Registers Causes Debug Exception AAU7 X No Fix Incorrect Address Computed for Last Byte of FXSAVE/FXRSTOR Image Leads to Partial Memory Update AAU8 X No Fix Values for LBR/BTS/BTM Will Be Incorrect after an Exit from SMM AAU9 X No Fix Single Step Interrupts with Floating Point Exception Pending May Be Mishandled AAU10 X No Fix Fault on ENTER Instruction May Result in Unexpected Values on Stack Frame AAU11 X No Fix IRET under Certain Conditions May Cause an Unexpected Alignment Check Exception AAU12 X No Fix General Protection Fault (#GP) for Instructions Greater than 15 Bytes May be Preempted AAU13 X No Fix General Protection (#GP) Fault May Not Be Signaled on Data Segment Limit Violation above 4-G Limit AAU14 X No Fix LBR, BTS, BTM May Report a Wrong Address when an Exception/Interrupt Occurs in 64-bit Mode AAU15 X No Fix MCi_Status Overflow Bit May Be Incorrectly Set on a Single Instance of a DTLB Error AAU16 X No Fix Debug Exception Flags DR6.B0-B3 Flags May be Incorrect for Disabled Breakpoints AAU17 X No Fix MONITOR or CLFLUSH on the Local XAPIC's Address Space Results in Hang AAU18 X No Fix Corruption of CS Segment Register During RSM While Transitioning From Real Mode to Protected Mode AAU19 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Events for Read Miss to Level 3 Cache Fill Occupancy Counter may be Incorrect AAU20 X No Fix A VM Exit on MWAIT May Incorrectly Report the Monitoring Hardware as Armed AAU21 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS Counts Inaccurately AAU22 X No Fix #GP on Segment Selector Descriptor that Straddles Canonical Boundary May Not Provide Correct Exception Error Code AAU23 X No Fix Improper Parity Error Signaled in the IQ Following Reset When a Code Breakpoint is Set on a #GP Instruction AAU24 X No Fix An Enabled Debug Breakpoint or Single Step Trap May Be Taken after MOV SS/ POP SS Instruction if it is Followed by an Instruction That Signals a Floating Point Exception AAU25 X No Fix IA32_MPERF Counter Stops Counting During On-Demand TM1 AAU26 X No Fix Synchronous Reset of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF Counters on Overflow Does Not Work 12 Specification Update AAU27 X No Fix? Disabling Thermal Monitor While Processor is Hot, Then Reenabling, May Result in Stuck Core Operating Ratio AAU28 X No Fix Writing the Local Vector Table (LVT) when an Interrupt is Pending May Cause an Unexpected Interrupt AAU29 X No Fix xAPIC Timer May Decrement Too Quickly Following an Automatic Reload While in Periodic Mode AAU30 X No Fix Reported Memory Type May Not Be Used to Access the VMCS and Referenced Data Structures AAU31 X No Fix Changing the Memory Type for an In-Use Page Translation May Lead to MemoryOrdering Violations AAU32 X No Fix Critical ISOCH Traffic May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior When Write Major Mode Enabled AAU33 X Plan Fix Delivery of Certain Events Immediately Following a VM Exit May Push a Corrupted RIP onto the Stack AAU34 X No Fix Infinite Stream of Interrupts May Occur if an ExtINT Delivery Mode Interrupt is Received while All Cores in C6 AAU35 X No Fix Two xAPIC Timer Event Interrupts May Unexpectedly Occur AAU36 X No Fix EOI Transaction May Not be Sent if Software Enters Core C6 During an Interrupt Service Routine AAU37 X No Fix FREEZE_WHILE_SMM Does Not Prevent Event From Pending PEBS During SMM AAU38 X No Fix APIC Error “Received Illegal Vector” May be Lost AAU39 X No Fix DR6 May Contain Incorrect Information When the First Instruction After a MOV SS,r/ m or POP SS is a Store AAU40 X No Fix An Uncorrectable Error Logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS May Also Result in a System Hang AAU41 X No Fix IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR May Be Incorrectly Initialized AAU42 X No Fix Performance Monitor Counter INST_RETIRED.STORES May Count Higher than Expected AAU43 X No Fix Sleeping Cores May Not be Woken Up on Logical Cluster Mode Broadcast IPI Using Destination Field Instead of Shorthand AAU44 X No Fix Faulting Executions of FXRSTOR May Update State Inconsistently AAU45 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event EPT.EPDPE_MISS May be Counted While EPT is Disable AAU46 X No Fix Memory Aliasing of Code Pages May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior AAU47 X No Fix Performance Monitor Counters May Count Incorrectly AAU48 X No Fix Performance Monitor Event Offcore_response_0 (B7H) Does Not Count NT Stores to Local DRAM Correctly AAU49 X No Fix EFLAGS Discrepancy on Page Faults and on EPT-Induced VM Exits after a Translation Change AAU50 X No Fix Back to Back Uncorrected Machine Check Errors May Overwrite IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD AAU51 X No Fix Corrected Errors With a Yellow Error Indication May be Overwritten by Other Corrected Errors Errata (Sheet 2 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 13 Specification Update AAU52 X No Fix Performance Monitor Events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST May Overcount AAU53 X No Fix Rapid Core C3/C6 Transitions May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior AAU54 X No Fix APIC Timer CCR May Report 0 in Periodic Mode AAU55 X No Fix Performance Monitor Events INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED May Count Inaccurately AAU56 X No Fix A Page Fault May Not be Generated When the PS bit is set to "1" in a PML4E or PDPTE AAU57 X No Fix BIST Results May be Additionally Reported After a GETSEC[WAKEUP] or INIT-SIPI Sequence AAU58 X No Fix Pending x87 FPU Exceptions (#MF) May be Signaled Earlier Than Expected AAU59 X No Fix VM Exits Due to "NMI-Window Exiting" May Be Delayed by One Instruction AAU60 X No Fix The Memory Controller tTHROT_OPREF Timings May be Violated During Self Refresh Entry AAU61 X No Fix VM Exits Due to EPT Violations Do Not Record Information About Pre-IRET NMI Blocking AAU62 X No Fix Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR2 AAU63 X No Fix LBRs May Not be Initialized During Power-On Reset of the Processor AAU64 X No Fix LBR, BTM or BTS Records May have Incorrect Branch From Information After an EIST Transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling AAU65 X No Fix VMX-Preemption Timer Does Not Count Down at the Rate Specified AAU66 X No Fix Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of Fixed Counter 0 AAU67 X No Fix VM Exits Due to LIDT/LGDT/SIDT/SGDT Do Not Report Correct Operand Size AAU68 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA May Not Count Events Correctly AAU69 X No Fix Storage of PEBS Record Delayed Following Execution of MOV SS or STI AAU70 X No Fix Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX May Not Count Some Transitions AAU71 X No Fix INVLPG Following INVEPT or INVVPID May Fail to Flush All Translations for a Large Page AAU72 X No Fix Logical Processor May Use Incorrect VPID after VM Entry That Returns From SMM AAU73 X No Fix The Memory Controller May Hang Due to Uncorrectable ECC Errors or Parity Errors Occurring on Both Channels in Mirror Channel Mode AAU74 X No Fix MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR May Return Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Core Ratio Multipliers for Non-Existent Core Configurations AAU75 X Plan Fix Internal Parity Error May Be Incorrectly Signaled during C6 Exit AAU76 X No Fix PMIs during Core C6 Transitions May Cause the System to Hang AAU77 X No Fix 2MB Page Split Lock Accesses Combined With Complex Internal Events May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Errata (Sheet 3 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 14 Specification Update AAU78 X No Fix If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. AAU79 X Plan Fix TXT.PUBLIC.KEY is Not Reliable AAU80 X Plan Fix 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode Interrupt May Be Dropped When it Collides With Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle From the Preceding Interrupt AAU82 X No Fix The APIC Timer Current Count Register May Prematurely Read 0x0 While the Timer is Still Running AAU83 X No Fix Secondary PCIe Port May Not Train After A Warm Reset AAU84 X No Fix The PECI Bus May Be Tri-stated after System Reset AAU85 X No Fix The Combination of a Page-Split Lock Access And Data Accesses That Are Split Across Cacheline Boundaries May Lead to Processor Livelock AAU86 X No Fix Processor Hangs on Package C6 State Exit AAU87 X No Fix A Synchronous SMI May be Delayed AAU88 X No Fix FP Data Operand Pointer May Be Incorrectly Calculated After an FP Access Which Wraps a 4-Gbyte Boundary in Code That Uses 32-Bit Address Size in 64-bit Mode AAU89 X Plan Fix PCI Express x16 Port Links May Fail to Dynamically Switch From 5.0GT/s to 2.5GT/ s AAU90 X No Fix PCI Express Cards May Not Train to x16 Link Width AAU91 X No Fix Unexpected Graphics VID Transition During Warm Reset May Cause the System to Hang Specification Changes Number SPECIFICATION CHANGES None for this revision of this specification update. Specification Clarifications Number SPECIFICATION CLARIFICATIONS None for this revision of this specification update. Errata (Sheet 4 of 4) Number Steppings Status ERRATA C-2 15 Specification Update Documentation Changes Number DOCUMENTATION CHANGES AAU1 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add PEG_TC —PCI Express Completion Timeout RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register AAU2 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add SSKPD —Sticky Scratchpad Data RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout to add SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register AAU3 Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 and Intel® Xeon® Processor L3406 External Design Specification – Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock RegisterUpdate to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register 16 Specification Update Identification Information Component Identification using Programming Interface The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 stepping can be identified by the following register contents: Note: 1. The Extended Family, bits [27:20] are used in conjunction with the Family Code, specified in bits [11:8], to indicate whether the processor belongs to the Intel386, Intel486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium 4, or Intel® Core™ processor family. 2. The Extended Model, bits [19:16] in conjunction with the Model Number, specified in bits [7:4], are used to identify the model of the processor within the processor’s family. 3. The Processor Type, specified in bits [13:12] indicates whether the processor is an original OEM processor, an OverDrive processor, or a dual processor (capable of being used in a dual processor system). 4. The Family Code corresponds to bits [11:8] of the EDX register after RESET, bits [11:8] of the EAX register after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 1 in the EAX register, and the generation field of the Device ID register accessible through Boundary Scan. 5. The Model Number corresponds to bits [7:4] of the EDX register after RESET, bits [7:4] of the EAX register after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 1 in the EAX register, and the model field of the Device ID register accessible through Boundary Scan. 6. The Stepping ID in bits [3:0] indicates the revision number of that model. See Table 1 for the processor stepping ID number in the CPUID information. When EAX is initialized to a value of ‘1’, the CPUID instruction returns the Extended Family, Extended Model, Processor Type, Family Code, Model Number and Stepping ID value in the EAX register. Note that the EDX processor signature value after reset is equivalent to the processor signature output value in the EAX register. Cache and TLB descriptor parameters are provided in the EAX, EBX, ECX and EDX registers after the CPUID instruction is executed with a 2 in the EAX register. The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 can be identified by the following register contents: Notes: 1. The Vendor ID corresponds to bits 15:0 of the Vendor ID Register located at offset 00–01h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. 2. The Device ID corresponds to bits 15:0 of the Device ID Register located at Device 0 offset 02–03h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. 3. The Revision Number corresponds to bits 7:0 of the Revision ID Register located at offset 08h in the PCI function 0 configuration space. Reserved Extended Family1 Extended Model2 Reserved Processor Type3 Family Code4 Model Number5 Stepping ID6 31:28 27:20 19:16 15:14 13:12 11:8 7:4 3:0 00000000b 0010b 00b 0110 0101b xxxxb Stepping Vendor ID1 Device ID2 Revision ID3 C-2 8086h 0040h 12h 17 Specification Update Component Marking Information The processor stepping can be identified by the following component markings. Notes: 1. This processor has TDP of 73 W. 2. This column indicates maximum Intel® Turbo Boost Technology frequency (GHz) for 2 or 1 cores active respectively. 3. Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology enabled. 4. Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT) enabled. 5. Intel® Virtualization Technology for IA-32, Intel® 64 and Intel® Architecture (Intel® VT-x) enabled. 6. Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (Intel® VT-d) enabled. 7. Intel® AES-NI enabled. 8. Intel SSE4.1 and SSE4.2 enabled. 9. This processor has TDP of 87 W. 10. The core frequency reported in the processor brand string is rounded to 2 decimal digits. (For example, core frequency of 3.4666, repeating 6, is reported as @3.47 in brand string. Core frequency of 3.3333, is reported as @3.33 in brand string.) Figure 1. Processor Production Top-side Markings (Example) Table 1. Processor Identification S-Spec Number Processor Number Stepping Processor Signature Core Frequency (GHz) / DDR3 (MHz) / Integrated Graphics Frequency Max Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Frequency (GHz)2 Shared L3 Cache Size (MB) Notes LBLT i5-670 C-2 20652h 3.46 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.60 1 core: 3.73 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBNE i5-661 C-2 20652h 3.33 / 1333 / 900 2 core: 3.46 1 core: 3.60 4 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11 LBLV i5-660 C-2 20652h 3.33 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.46 1 core: 3.60 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBLK i5-650 C-2 20652h 3.20 / 1333 / 733 2 core: 3.33 1 core: 3.46 4 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 LBMQ i3-540 C-2 20652h 3.06 / 1333 / 733 N/A 4 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 LBLR i3-530 C-2 20652h 2.93 / 1333 / 733 N/A 4 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 LBMS G6950 C-2 20652h 2.80 / 1066 / 533 N/A 3 1, 5, 11 LOT NO S/N INTEL ©'08 PROC# BRAND SLxxx [COO] SPEED/CACHE/FMB [FPO] M e4 18 Specification Update Errata AAU1. The Processor May Report a #TS Instead of a #GP Fault Problem: A jump to a busy TSS (Task-State Segment) may cause a #TS (invalid TSS exception) instead of a #GP fault (general protection exception). Implication: Operation systems that access a busy TSS may get invalid TSS fault instead of a #GP fault. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU2. REP MOVS/STOS Executing with Fast Strings Enabled and Crossing Page Boundaries with Inconsistent Memory Types may use an Incorrect Data Size or Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations Problem: Under certain conditions as described in the Software Developers Manual section "OutofOrder Stores For String Operations in Pentium 4, Intel Xeon, and P6 Family Processors" the processor performs REP MOVS or REP STOS as fast strings. Due to this erratum fast string REP MOVS/REP STOS instructions that cross page boundaries from WB/WC memory types to UC/WP/WT memory types, may start using an incorrect data size or may observe memory ordering violations. Implication: Upon crossing the page boundary the following may occur, dependent on the new page memory type: • UC the data size of each write will now always be 8 bytes, as opposed to the original data size. • WP the data size of each write will now always be 8 bytes, as opposed to the original data size and there may be a memory ordering violation. • WT there may be a memory ordering violation. Workaround: Software should avoid crossing page boundaries from WB or WC memory type to UC, WP or WT memory type within a single REP MOVS or REP STOS instruction that will execute with fast strings enabled. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 19 Specification Update AAU3. Code Segment Limit/Canonical Faults on RSM May Be Serviced before Higher Priority Interrupts/Exceptions and May Push the Wrong Address onto the Stack Problem: Normally, when the processor encounters a Segment Limit or Canonical Fault due to code execution, a #GP (General Protection Exception) fault is generated after all higher priority Interrupts and exceptions are serviced. Due to this erratum, if RSM (Resume from System Management Mode) returns to execution flow that results in a Code Segment Limit or Canonical Fault, the #GP fault may be serviced before a higher priority Interrupt or Exception (e.g., NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt), Debug break(#DB), Machine Check (#MC), etc.). If the RSM attempts to return to a noncanonical address, the address pushed onto the stack for this #GP fault may not match the non-canonical address that caused the fault. Implication: Operating systems may observe a #GP fault being serviced before higher priority Interrupts and Exceptions. Intel has not observed this erratum on any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU4. Performance Monitor SSE Retired Instructions May Return Incorrect Values Problem: Performance Monitoring counter SIMD_INST_RETIRED (Event: C7H) is used to track retired SSE instructions. Due to this erratum, the processor may also count other types of instructions resulting in higher than expected values. Implication: Performance Monitoring counter SIMD_INST_RETIRED may report count higher than expected. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU5. Premature Execution of a Load Operation Prior to Exception Handler Invocation Problem: If any of the below circumstances occur, it is possible that the load portion of the instruction will have executed before the exception handler is entered. • If an instruction that performs a memory load causes a code segment limit violation. • If a waiting X87 floating-point (FP) instruction or MMX™ technology (MMX) instruction that performs a memory load has a floating-point exception pending. • If an MMX or SSE/SSE2/SSE3/SSSE3 extensions (SSE) instruction that performs a memory load and has either CR0.EM=1 (Emulation bit set), or a floating-point TopofStack (FP TOS) not equal to 0, or a DNA exception pending. Implication: In normal code execution where the target of the load operation is to write back memory there is no impact from the load being prematurely executed, or from the restart and subsequent re-execution of that instruction by the exception handler. If the target of the load is to uncached memory that has a system side-effect, restarting the instruction may cause unexpected system behavior due to the repetition of the sideeffect. Particularly, while CR0.TS [bit 3] is set, a MOVD/MOVQ with MMX/XMM register operands may issue a memory load before getting the DNA exception. Workaround: Code which performs loads from memory that has side-effects can effectively workaround this behavior by using simple integer-based load instructions when 20 Specification Update accessing side-effect memory and by ensuring that all code is written such that a code segment limit violation cannot occur as a part of reading from side-effect memory. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU6. MOV To/From Debug Registers Causes Debug Exception Problem: When in V86 mode, if a MOV instruction is executed to/from a debug registers, a general-protection exception (#GP) should be generated. However, in the case when the general detect enable flag (GD) bit is set, the observed behavior is that a debug exception (#DB) is generated instead. Implication: With debug-register protection enabled (i.e., the GD bit set), when attempting to execute a MOV on debug registers in V86 mode, a debug exception will be generated instead of the expected general-protection fault. Workaround: In general, operating systems do not set the GD bit when they are in V86 mode. The GD bit is generally set and used by debuggers. The debug exception handler should check that the exception did not occur in V86 mode before continuing. If the exception did occur in V86 mode, the exception may be directed to the general-protection exception handler. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU7. Incorrect Address Computed for Last Byte of FXSAVE/FXRSTOR Image Leads to Partial Memory Update Problem: A partial memory state save of the 512-byte FXSAVE image or a partial memory state restore of the FXRSTOR image may occur if a memory address exceeds the 64KB limit while the processor is operating in 16-bit mode or if a memory address exceeds the 4GB limit while the processor is operating in 32-bit mode. Implication: FXSAVE/FXRSTOR will incur a #GP fault due to the memory limit violation as expected but the memory state may be only partially saved or restored. Workaround: Software should avoid memory accesses that wrap around the respective 16-bit and 32-bit mode memory limits. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU8. Values for LBR/BTS/BTM Will Be Incorrect after an Exit from SMM Problem: After a return from SMM (System Management Mode), the CPU will incorrectly update the LBR (Last Branch Record) and the BTS (Branch Trace Store), hence rendering their data invalid. The corresponding data if sent out as a BTM on the system bus will also be incorrect. Problem: Note: This issue would only occur when one of the 3 above mentioned debug support facilities are used. Implication: The value of the LBR, BTS, and BTM immediately after an RSM operation should not be used. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 21 Specification Update AAU9. Single Step Interrupts with Floating Point Exception Pending May Be Mishandled Problem: In certain circumstances, when a floating point exception (#MF) is pending during single-step execution, processing of the single-step debug exception (#DB) may be mishandled. Implication: When this erratum occurs, #DB will be incorrectly handled as follows: • #DB is signaled before the pending higher priority #MF (Interrupt 16) • #DB is generated twice on the same instruction Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU10. Fault on ENTER Instruction May Result in Unexpected Values on Stack Frame Problem: The ENTER instruction is used to create a procedure stack frame. Due to this erratum, if execution of the ENTER instruction results in a fault, the dynamic storage area of the resultant stack frame may contain unexpected values (i.e., residual stack data as a result of processing the fault). Implication: Data in the created stack frame may be altered following a fault on the ENTER instruction. Refer to "Procedure Calls For Block-Structured Languages" in IA-32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer's Manual, Vol. 1, Basic Architecture, for information on the usage of the ENTER instructions. This erratum is not expected to occur in Ring 3. Faults are usually processed in Ring 0 and stack switch occurs when transferring to Ring 0. Intel has not observed this erratum on any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU11. IRET under Certain Conditions May Cause an Unexpected Alignment Check Exception Problem: In IA-32e mode, it is possible to get an Alignment Check Exception (#AC) on the IRET instruction even though alignment checks were disabled at the start of the IRET. This can only occur if the IRET instruction is returning from CPL3 code to CPL3 code. IRETs from CPL0/1/2 are not affected. This erratum can occur if the EFLAGS value on the stack has the AC flag set, and the interrupt handler's stack is misaligned. In IA32e mode, RSP is aligned to a 16-byte boundary before pushing the stack frame. Implication: In IA-32e mode, under the conditions given above, an IRET can get a #AC even if alignment checks are disabled at the start of the IRET. This erratum can only be observed with a software generated stack frame. Workaround: Software should not generate misaligned stack frames for use with IRET. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 22 Specification Update AAU12. General Protection Fault (#GP) for Instructions Greater than 15 Bytes May be Preempted Problem: When the processor encounters an instruction that is greater than 15 bytes in length, a #GP is signaled when the instruction is decoded. Under some circumstances, the #GP fault may be preempted by another lower priority fault (e.g., Page Fault (#PF)). However, if the preempting lower priority faults are resolved by the operating system and the instruction retried, a #GP fault will occur. Implication: Software may observe a lower-priority fault occurring before or in lieu of a #GP fault. Instructions of greater than 15 bytes in length can only occur if redundant prefixes are placed before the instruction. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU13. General Protection (#GP) Fault May Not Be Signaled on Data Segment Limit Violation above 4-G Limit Problem: In 32-bit mode, memory accesses to flat data segments (base = 00000000h) that occur above the 4-G limit (0ffffffffh) may not signal a #GP fault. Implication: When such memory accesses occur in 32-bit mode, the system may not issue a #GP fault. Workaround: Software should ensure that memory accesses in 32-bit mode do not occur above the 4-G limit (0ffffffffh). Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU14. LBR, BTS, BTM May Report a Wrong Address when an Exception/ Interrupt Occurs in 64-bit Mode Problem: An exception/interrupt event should be transparent to the LBR (Last Branch Record), BTS (Branch Trace Store) and BTM (Branch Trace Message) mechanisms. However, during a specific boundary condition where the exception/interrupt occurs right after the execution of an instruction at the lower canonical boundary (0x00007FFFFFFFFFFF) in 64-bit mode, the LBR return registers will save a wrong return address with Bits 63 to 48 incorrectly sign extended to all 1's. Subsequent BTS and BTM operations which report the LBR will also be incorrect. Implication: LBR, BTS and BTM may report incorrect information in the event of an exception/ interrupt. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU15. MCi_Status Overflow Bit May Be Incorrectly Set on a Single Instance of a DTLB Error Problem: A single Data Translation Look Aside Buffer (DTLB) error can incorrectly set the Overflow (bit [62]) in the MCi_Status register. A DTLB error is indicated by MCA error code (bits [15:0]) appearing as binary value, 000x 0000 0001 0100, in the MCi_Status register. Implication: Due to this erratum, the Overflow bit in the MCi_Status register may not be an accurate indication of multiple occurrences of DTLB errors. There is no other impact to normal processor functionality. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 23 Specification Update AAU16. Debug Exception Flags DR6.B0-B3 Flags May be Incorrect for Disabled Breakpoints Problem: When a debug exception is signaled on a load that crosses cache lines with data forwarded from a store and whose corresponding breakpoint enable flags are disabled (DR7.G0-G3 and DR7.L0-L3), the DR6.B0-B3 flags may be incorrect. Implication: The debug exception DR6.B0-B3 flags may be incorrect for the load if the corresponding breakpoint enable flag in DR7 is disabled. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU17. MONITOR or CLFLUSH on the Local XAPIC's Address Space Results in Hang Problem: If the target linear address range for a MONITOR or CLFLUSH is mapped to the local xAPIC's address space, the processor will hang. Implication: When this erratum occurs, the processor will hang. The local xAPIC's address space must be uncached. The MONITOR instruction only functions correctly if the specified linear address range is of the type write-back. CLFLUSH flushes data from the cache. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: Do not execute MONITOR or CLFLUSH instructions on the local xAPIC address space. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU18. Corruption of CS Segment Register During RSM While Transitioning From Real Mode to Protected Mode Problem: During the transition from real mode to protected mode, if an SMI (System Management Interrupt) occurs between the MOV to CR0 that sets PE (Protection Enable, bit 0) and the first FAR JMP, the subsequent RSM (Resume from System Management Mode) may cause the lower two bits of CS segment register to be corrupted. Implication: The corruption of the bottom two bits of the CS segment register will have no impact unless software explicitly examines the CS segment register between enabling protected mode and the first FAR JMP. Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Volume 3A: System Programming Guide, Part 1, in the section titled "Switching to Protected Mode" recommends the FAR JMP immediately follows the write to CR0 to enable protected mode. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU19. Performance Monitoring Events for Read Miss to Level 3 Cache Fill Occupancy Counter may be Incorrect Problem: Whenever an Level 3 cache fill conflicts with another request's address, the miss to fill occupancy counter, UNC_GQ_ALLOC.RT_LLC_MISS (Event 02H), will provide erroneous results. Implication: The Performance Monitoring UNC_GQ_ALLOC.RT_LLC_MISS event may count a value higher than expected. The extent to which the value is higher than expected is determined by the frequency of the L3 address conflict. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 24 Specification Update AAU20. A VM Exit on MWAIT May Incorrectly Report the Monitoring Hardware as Armed Problem: A processor write to the address range armed by the MONITOR instruction may not immediately trigger the monitoring hardware. Consequently, a VM exit on a later MWAIT may incorrectly report the monitoring hardware as armed, when it should be reported as unarmed due to the write occurring prior to the MWAIT. Implication: If a write to the range armed by the MONITOR instruction occurs between the MONITOR and the MWAIT, the MWAIT instruction may start executing before the monitoring hardware is triggered. If the MWAIT instruction causes a VM exit, this could cause its exit qualification to incorrectly report 0x1. In the recommended usage model for MONITOR/MWAIT, there is no write to the range armed by the MONITOR instruction between the MONITOR and the MWAIT. Workaround: Software should never write to the address range armed by the MONITOR instruction between the MONITOR and the subsequent MWAIT. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU21. Performance Monitor Event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS Counts Inaccurately Problem: The performance monitor event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS (Event 06H) counts instructions that load new values into segment registers. The value of the count may be inaccurate. Implication: The performance monitor event SEGMENT_REG_LOADS may reflect a count higher or lower than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU22. #GP on Segment Selector Descriptor that Straddles Canonical Boundary May Not Provide Correct Exception Error Code Problem: During a #GP (General Protection Exception), the processor pushes an error code on to the exception handler’s stack. If the segment selector descriptor straddles the canonical boundary, the error code pushed onto the stack may be incorrect. Status: An incorrect error code may be pushed onto the stack. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU23. Improper Parity Error Signaled in the IQ Following Reset When a Code Breakpoint is Set on a #GP Instruction Problem: While coming out of cold reset or exiting from C6, if the processor encounters an instruction longer than 15 bytes (which causes a #GP) and a code breakpoint is enabled on that instruction, an IQ (Instruction Queue) parity error may be incorrectly logged resulting in an MCE (Machine Check Exception). Implication: When this erratum occurs, an MCE may be incorrectly signaled. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 25 Specification Update AAU24. An Enabled Debug Breakpoint or Single Step Trap May Be Taken after MOV SS/POP SS Instruction if it is Followed by an Instruction That Signals a Floating Point Exception Problem: A MOV SS/POP SS instruction should inhibit all interrupts including debug breakpoints until after execution of the following instruction. This is intended to allow the sequential execution of MOV SS/POP SS and MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP instructions without having an invalid stack during interrupt handling. However, an enabled debug breakpoint or single step trap may be taken after MOV SS/POP SS if this instruction is followed by an instruction that signals a floating point exception rather than a MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP instruction. This results in a debug exception being signaled on an unexpected instruction boundary since the MOV SS/POP SS and the following instruction should be executed atomically. Implication: This can result in incorrect signaling of a debug exception and possibly a mismatched Stack Segment and Stack Pointer. If MOV SS/POP SS is not followed by a MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP, there may be a mismatched Stack Segment and Stack Pointer on any exception. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software or system. Workaround: As recommended in the IA32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer’s Manual, the use of MOV SS/POP SS in conjunction with MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP will avoid the failure since the MOV [r/e]SP, [r/e]BP will not generate a floating point exception. Developers of debug tools should be aware of the potential incorrect debug event signaling created by this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU25. IA32_MPERF Counter Stops Counting During On-Demand TM1 Problem: According to the Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Volume 3A: System Programming Guide, the ratio of IA32_MPERF (MSR E7H) to IA32_APERF (MSR E8H) should reflect actual performance while TM1 or ondemand throttling is activated. Due to this erratum, IA32_MPERF MSR stops counting while TM1 or on-demand throttling is activated, and the ratio of the two will indicate higher processor performance than actual. Implication: The incorrect ratio of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF can mislead software P-state (performance state) management algorithms under the conditions described above. It is possible for the Operating System to observe higher processor utilization than actual, which could lead the OS into raising the P-state. During TM1 activation, the OS Pstate request is irrelevant and while on-demand throttling is enabled, it is expected that the OS will not be changing the P-state. This erratum should result in no practical implication to software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU26. Synchronous Reset of IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF Counters on Overflow Does Not Work Problem: When either the IA32_MPERF or IA32_APERF MSR (E7H, E8H) increments to its maximum value of 0xFFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF, both MSRs are supposed to synchronously reset to 0x0 on the next clock. This synchronous reset does not work. Instead, both MSRs increment and overflow independently. Implication: Software can not rely on synchronous reset of the IA32_APERF/IA32_MPERF registers. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 26 Specification Update AAU27. Disabling Thermal Monitor While Processor is Hot, Then Re-enabling, May Result in Stuck Core Operating Ratio Problem: If a processor is at its TCC (Thermal Control Circuit) activation temperature and then Thermal Monitor is disabled by a write to IA32_MISC_ENABLES MSR (1A0H) bit [3], a subsequent re-enable of Thermal Monitor will result in an artificial ceiling on the maximum core P-state. The ceiling is based on the core frequency at the time of Thermal Monitor disable. This condition will only correct itself once the processor reaches its TCC activation temperature again. Implication: Since Intel requires that Thermal Monitor be enabled in order to be operating within specification, this erratum should never be seen during normal operation. Workaround: Software should not disable Thermal Monitor during processor operation. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU28. Writing the Local Vector Table (LVT) when an Interrupt is Pending May Cause an Unexpected Interrupt Problem: If a local interrupt is pending when the LVT entry is written, an interrupt may be taken on the new interrupt vector even if the mask bit is set. Implication: An interrupt may immediately be generated with the new vector when a LVT entry is written, even if the new LVT entry has the mask bit set. If there is no Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) set up for that vector the system will GP fault. If the ISR does not do an End of Interrupt (EOI) the bit for the vector will be left set in the in-service register and mask all interrupts at the same or lower priority. Workaround: Any vector programmed into an LVT entry must have an ISR associated with it, even if that vector was programmed as masked. This ISR routine must do an EOI to clear any unexpected interrupts that may occur. The ISR associated with the spurious vector does not generate an EOI, therefore the spurious vector should not be used when writing the LVT. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU29. xAPIC Timer May Decrement Too Quickly Following an Automatic Reload While in Periodic Mode Problem: When the xAPIC Timer is automatically reloaded by counting down to zero in periodic mode, the xAPIC Timer may slip in its synchronization with the external clock. The xAPIC timer may be shortened by up to one xAPIC timer tick. Implication: When the xAPIC Timer is automatically reloaded by counting down to zero in periodic mode, the xAPIC Timer may slip in its synchronization with the external clock. The xAPIC timer may be shortened by up to one xAPIC timer tick. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 27 Specification Update AAU30. Reported Memory Type May Not Be Used to Access the VMCS and Referenced Data Structures Problem: Bits 53:50 of the IA32_VMX_BASIC MSR report the memory type that the processor uses to access the VMCS and data structures referenced by pointers in the VMCS. Due to this erratum, a VMX access to the VMCS or referenced data structures will instead use the memory type that the MTRRs (memory-type range registers) specify for the physical address of the access. Implication: Bits 53:50 of the IA32_VMX_BASIC MSR report that the WB (writeback) memory type will be used but the processor may use a different memory type. Workaround: Software should ensure that the VMCS and referenced data structures are located at physical addresses that are mapped to WB memory type by the MTRRs. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU31. Changing the Memory Type for an In-Use Page Translation May Lead to Memory-Ordering Violations Problem: Under complex microarchitectural conditions, if software changes the memory type for data being actively used and shared by multiple threads without the use of semaphores or barriers, software may see load operations execute out of order. Implication: Memory ordering may be violated. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: Software should ensure pages are not being actively used before requesting their memory type be changed. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU32. Critical ISOCH Traffic May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior When Write Major Mode Enabled Problem: Under a specific set of conditions, critical ISOCH (isochronous) traffic may cause unpredictable system behavior with write major mode enabled. Implication: Due to this erratum unpredictable system behavior may occur. Workaround: Write major mode must be disabled in the BIOS by writing the write major mode threshold value to its maximum value of 1FH in ISOCHEXITTRESHOLD bits [19:15], ISOCHENTRYTHRESHOLD bits [14:10], WMENTRYTHRESHOLD bits [9:5], and WMEXITTHRESHOLD bits [4:0] of the MC_CHANNEL_{0,1,2}_WAQ_PARAMS register. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 28 Specification Update AAU33. Delivery of Certain Events Immediately Following a VM Exit May Push a Corrupted RIP onto the Stack Problem: If any of the following events is delivered immediately following a VM exit to 64-bit mode from outside 64-bit mode, bits 63:32 of the RIP value pushed on the stack may be cleared to 0: • A non-maskable interrupt (NMI); • A machine-check exception (#MC); • A page fault (#PF) during instruction fetch; or • A general-protection exception (#GP) due to an attempt to decode an instruction whose length is greater than 15 bytes. Implication: Unexpected behavior may occur due to the incorrect value of the RIP on the stack. Specifically, return from the event handler via IRET may encounter an unexpected page fault or may begin fetching from an unexpected code address. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU34. Infinite Stream of Interrupts May Occur if an ExtINT Delivery Mode Interrupt is Received while All Cores in C6 Problem: If all logical processors in a core are in C6, an ExtINT delivery mode interrupt is pending in the xAPIC and interrupts are blocked with EFLAGS.IF=0, the interrupt will be processed after C6 wakeup and after interrupts are re-enabled (EFLAGS.IF=1). However, the pending interrupt event will not be cleared. Implication: Due to this erratum, an infinite stream of interrupts will occur on the core servicing the external interrupt. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software/system. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU35. Two xAPIC Timer Event Interrupts May Unexpectedly Occur Problem: If an xAPIC timer event is enabled and while counting down the current count reaches 1 at the same time that the processor thread begins a transition to a low power Cstate, the xAPIC may generate two interrupts instead of the expected one when the processor returns to C0. Implication: Due to this erratum, two interrupts may unexpectedly be generated by an xAPIC timer event. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 29 Specification Update AAU36. EOI Transaction May Not be Sent if Software Enters Core C6 During an Interrupt Service Routine Problem: If core C6 is entered after the start of an interrupt service routine but before a write to the APIC EOI register, the core may not send an EOI transaction (if needed) and further interrupts from the same priority level or lower may be blocked. Implication: EOI transactions and interrupts may be blocked when core C6 is used during interrupt service routines. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU37. FREEZE_WHILE_SMM Does Not Prevent Event From Pending PEBS During SMM Problem: In general, a PEBS record should be generated on the first count of the event after the counter has overflowed. However, IA32_DEBUGCTL_MSR.FREEZE_WHILE_SMM (MSR 1D9H, bit [14]) prevents performance counters from counting during SMM (System Management Mode). Due to this erratum, if 1. A performance counter overflowed before an SMI 2. A PEBS record has not yet been generated because another count of the event has not occurred 3. The monitored event occurs during SMM then a PEBS record will be saved after the next RSM instruction. When FREEZE_WHILE_SMM is set, a PEBS should not be generated until the event occurs outside of SMM. Implication: A PEBS record may be saved after an RSM instruction due to the associated performance counter detecting the monitored event during SMM; even when FREEZE_WHILE_SMM is set. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU38. APIC Error “Received Illegal Vector” May be Lost Problem: APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller) may not update the ESR (Error Status Register) flag Received Illegal Vector bit [6] properly when an illegal vector error is received on the same internal clock that the ESR is being written (as part of the write-read ESR access flow). The corresponding error interrupt will also not be generated for this case. Implication: Due to this erratum, an incoming illegal vector error may not be logged into ESR properly and may not generate an error interrupt. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 30 Specification Update AAU39. DR6 May Contain Incorrect Information When the First Instruction After a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS is a Store Problem: Normally, each instruction clears the changes in DR6 (Debug Status Register) caused by the previous instruction. However, the instruction following a MOV SS,r/m (MOV to the stack segment selector) or POP SS (POP stack segment selector) instruction will not clear the changes in DR6 because data breakpoints are not taken immediately after a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instruction. Due to this erratum, any DR6 changes caused by a MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instruction may be cleared if the following instruction is a store. Implication: When this erratum occurs, incorrect information may exist in DR6. This erratum will not be observed under normal usage of the MOV SS,r/m or POP SS instructions (i.e., following them with an instruction that writes [e/r]SP). When debugging or when developing debuggers, this behavior should be noted. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU40. An Uncorrectable Error Logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS May Also Result in a System Hang Problem: Uncorrectable errors logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS MSR (409H) may also result in a system hang causing an Internal Timer Error (MCACOD = 0x0400h) to be logged in another machine check bank (IA32_MCi_STATUS). Implication: Uncorrectable errors logged in IA32_CR_MC2_STATUS can further cause a system hang and an Internal Timer Error to be logged. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU41. IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR May Be Incorrectly Initialized Problem: The IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR (38FH) bits [34:32] may be incorrectly set to 7H after reset; the correct value should be 0H. Implication: The IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR bits [34:32] may be incorrect after reset (EN_FIXED_CTR{0, 1, 2} may be enabled). Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU42. Performance Monitor Counter INST_RETIRED.STORES May Count Higher than Expected Problem: Performance Monitoring counter INST_RETIRED.STORES (Event: C0H) is used to track retired instructions which contain a store operation. Due to this erratum, the processor may also count other types of instructions including WRMSR and MFENCE. Implication: Performance Monitoring counter INST_RETIRED.STORES may report counts higher than expected. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 31 Specification Update AAU43. Sleeping Cores May Not be Woken Up on Logical Cluster Mode Broadcast IPI Using Destination Field Instead of Shorthand Problem: If software sends a logical cluster broadcast IPI using a destination shorthand of 00B (No Shorthand) and writes the cluster portion of the Destination Field of the Interrupt Command Register to all ones while not using all 1s in the mask portion of the Destination Field, target cores in a sleep state that are identified by the mask portion of the Destination Field may not be woken up. This erratum does not occur if the destination shorthand is set to 10B (All Including Self) or 11B (All Excluding Self). Implication: When this erratum occurs, cores which are in a sleep state may not wake up to handle the broadcast IPI. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commerciallyavailable software. Workaround: Use destination shorthand of 10B or 11B to send broadcast IPIs. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU44. Faulting Executions of FXRSTOR May Update State Inconsistently Problem: The state updated by a faulting FXRSTOR instruction may vary from one execution to another. Implication: Software that relies on x87 state or SSE state following a faulting execution of FXRSTOR may behave inconsistently. Workaround: Software handling a fault on an execution of FXRSTOR can compensate for execution variability by correcting the cause of the fault and executing FXRSTOR again. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU45. Performance Monitor Event EPT.EPDPE_MISS May be Counted While EPT is Disable Problem: Performance monitor event EPT.EPDPE_MISS (Event: 4FH, Umask: 08H) is used to count Page Directory Pointer table misses while EPT (extended page tables) is enabled. Due to this erratum, the processor will count Page Directory Pointer table misses regardless of whether EPT is enabled or not. Implication: Due to this erratum, performance monitor event EPT.EPDPE_MISS may report counts higher than expected. Workaround: Software should ensure this event is only enabled while in EPT mode. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU46. Memory Aliasing of Code Pages May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: The type of memory aliasing contributing to this erratum is the case where two different logical processors have the same code page mapped with two different memory types. Specifically, if one code page is mapped by one logical processor as write-back and by another as uncachable and certain instruction fetch timing conditions occur, the system may experience unpredictable behavior. Implication: If this erratum occurs the system may have unpredictable behavior including a system hang. The aliasing of memory regions, a condition necessary for this erratum to occur, is documented as being unsupported in the Intel 64 and IA-32 Intel® Architecture Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3A, in the section titled Programming the PAT. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software or system. Workaround: Code pages should not be mapped with uncacheable and cacheable memory types at the same time. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 32 Specification Update AAU47. Performance Monitor Counters May Count Incorrectly Problem: Under certain circumstances, a general purpose performance counter, IA32_PMC0-4 (C1H - C4H), may count at core frequency or not count at all instead of counting the programmed event. Implication: The Performance Monitor Counter IA32_PMCx may not properly count the programmed event. Due to the requirements of the workaround there may be an interruption in the counting of a previously programmed event during the programming of a new event. Workaround: Before programming the performance event select registers, IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR (186H - 189H), the internal monitoring hardware must be cleared. This is accomplished by first disabling, saving valid events and clearing from the select registers, then programming three event values 0x4300D2, 0x4300B1 and 0x4300B5 into the IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSRs, and finally continuing with new event programming and restoring previous programming if necessary. Each performance counter, IA32_PMCx, must have its corresponding IA32_PREFEVTSELx MSR programmed with at least one of the event values and must be enabled in IA32_PERF_GLOBAL_CTRL MSR (38FH) bits [3:0]. All three values must be written to either the same or different IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSRs before programming the performance counters. Note that the performance counter will not increment when its IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR has a value of 0x4300D2, 0x4300B1 or 0x4300B5 because those values have a zero UMASK field (bits [15:8]). Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU48. Performance Monitor Event Offcore_response_0 (B7H) Does Not Count NT Stores to Local DRAM Correctly Problem: When a IA32_PERFEVTSELx MSR is programmed to count the Offcore_response_0 event (Event:B7H), selections in the OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR (1A6H) determine what is counted. The following two selections do not provide accurate counts when counting NT (Non-Temporal) Stores: • OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR bit [14] is set to 1 (LOCAL_DRAM) and bit [7] is set to 1 (OTHER): NT Stores to Local DRAM are not counted when they should have been. • OFFCORE_RSP_0 MSR bit [9] is set to (OTHER_CORE_HIT_SNOOP) and bit [7] is set to 1 (OTHER): NT Stores to Local DRAM are counted when they should not have been. Implication: The counter for the Offcore_response_0 event may be incorrect for NT stores. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 33 Specification Update AAU49. EFLAGS Discrepancy on Page Faults and on EPT-Induced VM Exits after a Translation Change Problem: This erratum is regarding the case where paging structures are modified to change a linear address from writable to non-writable without software performing an appropriate TLB invalidation. When a subsequent access to that address by a specific instruction (ADD, AND, BTC, BTR, BTS, CMPXCHG, DEC, INC, NEG, NOT, OR, ROL/ROR, SAL/SAR/SHL/SHR, SHLD, SHRD, SUB, XOR, and XADD) causes a page fault or an EPTinduced VM exit, the value saved for EFLAGS may incorrectly contain the arithmetic flag values that the EFLAGS register would have held had the instruction completed without fault or VM exit. For page faults, this can occur even if the fault causes a VM exit or if its delivery causes a nested fault. Implication: None identified. Although the EFLAGS value saved by an affected event (a page fault or an EPT-induced VM exit) may contain incorrect arithmetic flag values, Intel has not identified software that is affected by this erratum. This erratum will have no further effects once the original instruction is restarted because the instruction will produce the same results as if it had initially completed without fault or VM exit. Workaround: If the handler of the affected events inspects the arithmetic portion of the saved EFLAGS value, then system software should perform a synchronized paging structure modification and TLB invalidation. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU50. Back to Back Uncorrected Machine Check Errors May Overwrite IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD Problem: When back-to-back uncorrected machine check errors occur that would both be logged in the IA32_MC3_STATUS MSR (40CH), the IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD (bits [31:16]) field may reflect the status of the most recent error and not the first error. The rest of the IA32_MC3_STATUS MSR contains the information from the first error. Implication: Software should not rely on the value of IA32_MC3_STATUS.MSCOD if IA32_MC3_STATUS.OVER (bit [62]) is set. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU51. Corrected Errors With a Yellow Error Indication May be Overwritten by Other Corrected Errors Problem: A corrected cache hierarchy data or tag error that is reported with IA32_MCi_STATUS.MCACOD (bits [15:0]) with value of 000x_0001_xxxx_xx01 (where x stands for zero or one) and a yellow threshold-based error status indication (bits [54:53] equal to 10B) may be overwritten by a corrected error with a no tracking indication (00B) or green indication (01B). Implication: Corrected errors with a yellow threshold-based error status indication may be overwritten by a corrected error without a yellow indication. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 34 Specification Update AAU52. Performance Monitor Events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST May Overcount Problem: The performance monitor events DCACHE_CACHE_LD (Event 40H) and DCACHE_CACHE_ST (Event 41H) count cacheable loads and stores that hit the L1 cache. Due to this erratum, in addition to counting the completed loads and stores, the counter will incorrectly count speculative loads and stores that were aborted prior to completion. Implication: The performance monitor events DCACHE_CACHE_LD and DCACHE_CACHE_ST may reflect a count higher than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU53. Rapid Core C3/C6 Transitions May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: Under a complex set of internal conditions, cores rapidly performing C3/C6 transitions in a system with Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology enabled may cause a machine check error (IA32_MCi_STATUS.MCACOD = 0x0106), system hang or unpredictable system behavior. Implication: This erratum may cause a machine check error, system hang or unpredictable system behavior. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU54. APIC Timer CCR May Report 0 in Periodic Mode Problem: In periodic mode the APIC timer CCR (current-count register) is supposed to be automatically reloaded from the initial-count register when the count reaches 0, consequently software would never be able to observe a value of 0. Due to this erratum, software may read 0 from the CCR when the timer has counted down and is in the process of re-arming. Implication: Due to this erratum, an unexpected value of 0 may be read from the APIC timer CCR when in periodic mode. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU55. Performance Monitor Events INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED May Count Inaccurately Problem: The performance monitor event INSTR_RETIRED (Event C0H) should count the number of instructions retired, and MEM_INST_ RETIRED (Event 0BH) should count the number of load or store instructions retired. However, due to this erratum, they may undercount. Implication: The performance monitor event INSTR_RETIRED and MEM_INST_RETIRED may reflect a count lower than the actual number of events. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 35 Specification Update AAU56. A Page Fault May Not be Generated When the PS bit is set to "1" in a PML4E or PDPTE Problem: On processors supporting Intel® 64 architecture, the PS bit (Page Size, bit 7) is reserved in PML4Es and PDPTEs. If the translation of the linear address of a memory access encounters a PML4E or a PDPTE with PS set to 1, a page fault should occur. Due to this erratum, PS of such an entry is ignored and no page fault will occur due to its being set. Implication: Software may not operate properly if it relies on the processor to deliver page faults when reserved bits are set in paging-structure entries. Workaround: Software should not set Bit 7 in any PML4E or PDPTE that has Present Bit (Bit 0) set to "1". Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU57. BIST Results May be Additionally Reported After a GETSEC[WAKEUP] or INIT-SIPI Sequence Problem: BIST results should only be reported in EAX the first time a logical processor wakes up from the Wait-For-SIPI state. Due to this erratum, BIST results may be additionally reported after INIT-SIPI sequences and when waking up RLP's from the SENTER sleep state using the GETSEC[WAKEUP] command. Implication: An INIT-SIPI sequence may show a non-zero value in EAX upon wakeup when a zero value is expected. RLP's waking up for the SENTER sleep state using the GETSEC[WAKEUP] command may show a different value in EAX upon wakeup than before going into the SENTER sleep state. Workaround: If necessary software may save the value in EAX prior to launching into the secure environment and restore upon wakeup and/or clear EAX after the INIT-SIPI sequence. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU58. Pending x87 FPU Exceptions (#MF) May be Signaled Earlier Than Expected Problem: x87 instructions that trigger #MF normally service interrupts before the #MF. Due to this erratum, if an instruction that triggers #MF is executed while Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology transitions, Intel® Turbo Boost Technology transitions, or Thermal Monitor events occur, the pending #MF may be signaled before pending interrupts are serviced. Implication: Software may observe #MF being signaled before pending interrupts are serviced. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 36 Specification Update AAU59. VM Exits Due to "NMI-Window Exiting" May Be Delayed by One Instruction Problem: If VM entry is executed with the "NMI-window exiting" VM-execution control set to 1, a VM exit with exit reason "NMI window" should occur before execution of any instruction if there is no virtual-NMI blocking, no blocking of events by MOV SS, and no blocking of events by STI. If VM entry is made with no virtual-NMI blocking but with blocking of events by either MOV SS or STI, such a VM exit should occur after execution of one instruction in VMX non-root operation. Due to this erratum, the VM exit may be delayed by one additional instruction. Implication: VMM software using "NMI-window exiting" for NMI virtualization should generally be unaffected, as the erratum causes at most a one-instruction delay in the injection of a virtual NMI, which is virtually asynchronous. The erratum may affect VMMs relying on deterministic delivery of the affected VM exits. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU60. The Memory Controller tTHROT_OPREF Timings May be Violated During Self Refresh Entry Problem: During self refresh entry, the memory controller may issue more refreshes than permitted by tTHROT_OPREF (bits 29:19 in MC_CHANNEL_{0,1}_REFRESH_TIMING CSR). Implication: The intention of tTHROT_OPREF is to limit current. Since current supply conditions near self refresh entry are not critical, there is no measurable impact due to this erratum. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU61. VM Exits Due to EPT Violations Do Not Record Information About PreIRET NMI Blocking Problem: With certain settings of the VM-execution controls VM exits due to EPT violations set bit 12 of the exit qualification if the EPT violation was a result of an execution of the IRET instruction that commenced with non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) blocked. Due to this erratum, such VM exits will instead clear this bit. Implication: Due to this erratum, a virtual-machine monitor that relies on the proper setting of bit 12 of the exit qualification may deliver NMIs to guest software prematurely. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU62. Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR2 Problem: When multiple performance counters are set to generate interrupts on an overflow and more than one counter overflows at the same time, only one interrupt should be generated. However, if one of the counters set to generate an interrupt on overflow is the IA32_FIXED_CTR2 (MSR 30BH) counter, multiple interrupts may be generated when the IA32_FIXED_CTR2 overflows at the same time as any of the other performance counters. Implication: Multiple counter overflow interrupts may be unexpectedly generated. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 37 Specification Update AAU63. LBRs May Not be Initialized During Power-On Reset of the Processor Problem: If a second reset is initiated during the power-on processor reset cycle, the LBRs (Last Branch Records) may not be properly initialized. Implication: Due to this erratum, debug software may not be able to rely on the LBRs out of poweron reset. Workaround: Ensure that the processor has completed its power-on reset cycle prior to initiating a second reset. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU64. LBR, BTM or BTS Records May have Incorrect Branch From Information After an EIST Transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling Problem: The "From" address associated with the LBR (Last Branch Record), BTM (Branch Trace Message) or BTS (Branch Trace Store) may be incorrect for the first branch after an EIST (Enhanced Intel® SpeedStep Technology) transition, T-states, C1E (C1 Enhanced), or Adaptive Thermal Throttling. Implication: When the LBRs, BTM or BTS are enabled, some records may have incorrect branch "From" addresses for the first branch after an EIST transition, T-states, C1E, or Adaptive Thermal Throttling. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU65. VMX-Preemption Timer Does Not Count Down at the Rate Specified Problem: The VMX-preemption timer should count down by 1 every time a specific bit in the TSC (Time Stamp Counter) changes. (This specific bit is indicated by IA32_VMX_MISC bits [4:0] (0x485h) and has a value of 5 on the affected processors.) Due to this erratum, the VMX-preemption timer may instead count down at a different rate and may do so only intermittently. Implication: The VMX-preemption timer may cause VM exits at a rate different from that expected by software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 38 Specification Update AAU66. Multiple Performance Monitor Interrupts are Possible on Overflow of Fixed Counter 0 Problem: The processor can be configured to issue a PMI (performance monitor interrupt) upon overflow of the IA32_FIXED_CTR0 MSR (309H). A single PMI should be observed on overflow of IA32_FIXED_CTR0, however multiple PMIs are observed when this erratum occurs. This erratum only occurs when IA32_FIXED_CTR0 overflows and the processor and counter are configured as follows: • Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology is enabled • IA32_FIXED_CTR0 local and global controls are enabled • IA32_FIXED_CTR0 is set to count events only on its own thread (IA32_FIXED_CTR_CTRL MSR (38DH) bit [2] = ‘0) • PMIs are enabled on IA32_FIXED_CTR0 (IA32_FIXED_CTR_CTRL MSR bit [3] = ‘1) • Freeze_on_PMI feature is enabled (IA32_DEBUGCTL MSR (1D9H) bit [12] = ‘1) Implication: When this erratum occurs there may be multiple PMIs observed when IA32_FIXED_CTR0 overflows Workaround: Disable the FREEZE_PERFMON_ON_PMI feature in IA32_DEBUGCTL MSR (1D9H) bit [12]. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU67. VM Exits Due to LIDT/LGDT/SIDT/SGDT Do Not Report Correct Operand Size Problem: When a VM exit occurs due to a LIDT, LGDT, SIDT, or SGDT instruction with a 32-bit operand, bit 11 of the VM-exit instruction information field should be set to 1. Due to this erratum, this bit is instead cleared to 0 (indicating a 16-bit operand). Implication: Virtual-machine monitors cannot rely on bit 11 of the VM-exit instruction information field to determine the operand size of the instruction causing the VM exit. Workaround: Virtual Machine Monitor software may decode the instruction to determine operand size. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU68. Performance Monitoring Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA May Not Count Events Correctly Problem: Performance Monitor Events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA should only increment the count when a load is blocked by a store. Due to this erratum, the count will be incremented whenever a load hits a store, whether it is blocked or can forward. In addition this event does not count for specific threads correctly. Implication: If Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology is disabled, the Performance Monitor events STORE_BLOCKS.NOT_STA and STORE_BLOCKS.STA may indicate a higher occurrence of loads blocked by stores than have actually occurred. If Intel Hyper-Threading Technology is enabled, the counts of loads blocked by stores may be unpredictable and they could be higher or lower than the correct count. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 39 Specification Update AAU69. Storage of PEBS Record Delayed Following Execution of MOV SS or STI Problem: When a performance monitoring counter is configured for PEBS (Precise Event Based Sampling), overflow of the counter results in storage of a PEBS record in the PEBS buffer. The information in the PEBS record represents the state of the next instruction to be executed following the counter overflow. Due to this erratum, if the counter overflow occurs after execution of either MOV SS or STI, storage of the PEBS record is delayed by one instruction. Implication: When this erratum occurs, software may observe storage of the PEBS record being delayed by one instruction following execution of MOV SS or STI. The state information in the PEBS record will also reflect the one instruction delay. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU70. Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX May Not Count Some Transitions Problem: Performance Monitor Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX (Event CCH, Umask 01H) counts transitions from x87 Floating Point (FP) to MMX™ instructions. Due to this erratum, if only a small number of MMX instructions (including EMMS) are executed immediately after the last FP instruction, a FP to MMX transition may not be counted. Implication: The count value for Performance Monitoring Event FP_MMX_TRANS_TO_MMX may be lower than expected. The degree of undercounting is dependent on the occurrences of the erratum condition while the counter is active. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially-available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU71. INVLPG Following INVEPT or INVVPID May Fail to Flush All Translations for a Large Page Problem: This erratum applies if the address of the memory operand of an INVEPT or INVVPID instruction resides on a page larger than 4KBytes and either (1) that page includes the low 1 MBytes of physical memory; or (2) the physical address of the memory operand matches an MTRR that covers less than 4 MBytes. A subsequent execution of INVLPG that targets the large page and that occurs before the next VM-entry instruction may fail to flush all TLB entries for the page. Such entries may persist in the TLB until the next VM-entry instruction. Implication: Accesses to the large page between INVLPG and the next VM-entry instruction may incorrectly use translations that are inconsistent with the in-memory page tables. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 40 Specification Update AAU72. Logical Processor May Use Incorrect VPID after VM Entry That Returns From SMM Problem: A logical processor in VMX root operation should use VPID 0000H. Due to this erratum, a logical processor may instead use VPID 1FB3H if VMX root operation was entered using a VM entry that returns from SMM. Implication: After a VM entry that sets the "enable VPID" VM-execution control and that establishes VPID 1FB3H, the logical processor may erroneously use TLB entries that were cached in VMX root operation. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU73. The Memory Controller May Hang Due to Uncorrectable ECC Errors or Parity Errors Occurring on Both Channels in Mirror Channel Mode Problem: If an uncorrectable ECC or parity error occurs on the mirrored channel before an uncorrectable ECC or parity error on the other channel can be resolved, the Memory Controller may hang without an uncorrectable ECC or parity error being logged. Implication: The processor may hang and not report the error when uncorrectable ECC or parity errors occur in close proximity on both channels in a mirrored channel pair. No uncorrectable ECC or parity error will be logged in the machine check banks. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU74. MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR May Return Intel® Turbo Boost Technology Core Ratio Multipliers for Non-Existent Core Configurations Problem: MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR (1ADH) is designed to describe the maximum Intel Turbo Boost Technology potential of the processor. On some processors, a nonzero Intel Turbo Boost Technology value will be returned for non-existent core configurations. Implication: Due to this erratum, software using the MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT MSR to report Intel Turbo Boost Technology processor capabilities may report erroneous results. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU75. Internal Parity Error May Be Incorrectly Signaled during C6 Exit Problem: In a complex set of internal conditions an internal parity error may occur during a Core C6 exit. Implication: Due to this erratum, an uncorrected error may be reported and a machine check exception may be triggered. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 41 Specification Update AAU76. PMIs during Core C6 Transitions May Cause the System to Hang Problem: If a performance monitoring counter overflows and causes a PMI (Performance Monitoring Interrupt) at the same time that the core enters C6, then this may cause the system to hang. Implication: Due to this erratum, the processor may hang when a PMI coincides with core C6 entry. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU77. 2MB Page Split Lock Accesses Combined With Complex Internal Events May Cause Unpredictable System Behavior Problem: A 2MB Page Split Lock (a locked access that spans two 2MB large pages) coincident with additional requests that have particular address relationships in combination with a timing sensitive sequence of complex internal conditions may cause unpredictable system behavior. Implication: This erratum may cause unpredictable system behavior. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU78. If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. Problem: If the APIC timer Divide Configuration Register (Offset 03E0H) is written at the same time that the APIC timer Current Count Register (Offset 0390H) reads 1H, it is possible that the APIC timer will deliver two interrupts. Implication: Due to this erratum, two interrupts may unexpectedly be generated by an APIC timer event. Workaround: Software should reprogram the Divide Configuration Register only when the APIC timer interrupt is disarmed. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU79. TXT.PUBLIC.KEY is Not Reliable Problem: On Intel® TXT (Intel® Trusted Execution Technology) capable processors, the TXT.PUBLIC.KEY value (Intel TXT registers FED3_0400H to FED3_041FH) is not reliable. Implication: Due to this erratum, the TXT.PUBLIC.KEY value should not be relied on or used for retrieving the hash of the TXT public key for the platform. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 42 Specification Update AAU80. 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode Interrupt May Be Dropped When it Collides With Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle From the Preceding Interrupt Problem: If an un-serviced 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode (8259 connected to IOAPIC) External Interrupt is pending in the APIC and a second 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupt arrives, the processor may incorrectly drop the second 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupt request. This occurs when both the new External Interrupt and Interrupt Acknowledge for the previous External Interrupt arrive at the APIC at the same time. Implication: to this erratum, any further 8259 Virtual Wire B Mode External Interrupts will subsequently be ignored. Workaround: Do not use 8259 Virtual Wire B mode when using the 8259 to deliver interrupts. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU82. The APIC Timer Current Count Register May Prematurely Read 0x0 While the Timer is Still Running Problem: The APIC Timer Current Counter Register may prematurely read 0x00000000 while the timer is still running. This problem occurs when a core frequency or C-state transition occurs while the APIC timer countdown is in progress. Implication: Due to this erratum, certain software may incorrectly assess that the APIC timer countdown is complete when it is actually still running. This erratum does not affect the delivery of the timer interrupt. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU83. Secondary PCIe Port May Not Train After A Warm Reset Problem: In a dual PCIe port configuration, the secondary PCIe port may not train after a warm reset. Implication: The second PCIe port and therefore any device connected to the PCIe bus instantiated by that PCIe port may not be functional after a warm reset. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available system. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 43 Specification Update AAU84. The PECI Bus May Be Tri-stated after System Reset Problem: During power-up, the processor may improperly assert the PECI (Platform Environment Control Interface) pin. This condition is cleared as soon as Bus Clock starts toggling. However, if the PECI host (also referred to as the master or originator) incorrectly determines this asserted state as another PECI host initiating a transaction, it may release control of the bus resulting in a permanent tri-state condition. Implication: Due to this erratum, the PECI host may incorrectly determine that it is not the bus master and consequently PECI commands initiated by the PECI software layer may receive incorrect/invalid responses. Workaround: To workaround this erratum the PECI host should pull the PECI bus low to initiate a PECI transaction. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU85. The Combination of a Page-Split Lock Access And Data Accesses That Are Split Across Cacheline Boundaries May Lead to Processor Livelock Problem: Under certain complex micro-architectural conditions, the simultaneous occurrence of a page-split lock and several data accesses that are split across cacheline boundaries may lead to processor livelock. Implication: Due to this erratum, a livelock may occur that can only be terminated by a processor reset. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU86. Processor Hangs on Package C6 State Exit Problem: An internal timing condition in the processor power management logic will result in processor hangs upon a Package C6 state exit. Implication: Due to this erratum, the processor will hang during Package C6 state exit. Workaround: It is possible for the BIOS to contain a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU87. A Synchronous SMI May be Delayed Problem: A synchronous SMI (System Management Interrupt) occurs as a result of an SMI generating I/O Write instruction and should be handled prior to the next instruction executing. Due to this erratum, the processor may not observe the synchronous SMI prior to execution of the next instruction. Implication: Due to this erratum, instructions after the I/O Write instruction, which triggered the SMI, may be allowed to execute before the SMI handler. Delayed delivery of the SMI may make it difficult for an SMI Handler to determine the source of the SMI. Software that relies on the IO_SMI bit in SMM save state or synchronous SMI behavior may not function as expected. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. 44 Specification Update AAU88. FP Data Operand Pointer May Be Incorrectly Calculated After an FP Access Which Wraps a 4-Gbyte Boundary in Code That Uses 32-Bit Address Size in 64-bit Mode Problem: The FP (Floating Point) Data Operand Pointer is the effective address of the operand associated with the last non-control FP instruction executed by the processor. If an 80bit FP access (load or store) uses a 32-bit address size in 64-bit mode and the memory access wraps a 4-Gbyte boundary and the FP environment is subsequently saved, the value contained in the FP Data Operand Pointer may be incorrect. Implication: Due to this erratum, the FP Data Operand Pointer may be incorrect. Wrapping an 80-bit FP load around a 4-Gbyte boundary in this way is not a normal programming practice. Intel has not observed this erratum with any commercially available software. Workaround: If the FP Data Operand Pointer is used in a 64-bit operating system which may run code accessing 32-bit addresses, care must be taken to ensure that no 80-bit FP accesses are wrapped around a 4-Gbyte boundary. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU89. PCI Express x16 Port Links May Fail to Dynamically Switch From 5.0GT/s to 2.5GT/s Problem: If an endpoint device initiates a PCI Express speed change from 5.0 GT/s to 2.5 GT/s, the link may incorrectly go into Recovery.Idle rather than the expected Recovery.Speed state. This may cause the link to lose sync, eventually resulting in a link down. The link will recover and re-train to the L0 state, however any outstanding packets queued during the speed change may be lost. Implication: Due to this erratum, the link may lose sync resulting in link down with queued packet being lost. No known failures have been observed on systems using production PCI Express graphics cards. This erratum has only been observed in a synthetic test environment. Workaround: None identified. Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU90. PCI Express Cards May Not Train to x16 Link Width Problem: The Maximum Link Width field in the Link Capabilities register (LCAP; Bus 0; Device 1; Function 0; offset 0xAC; bits [9:4]) may limit the width of the PCI Express link to x8, even though the processor may actually be capable of supporting the full x16 width. Implication: PCI Express x16 Graphics Cards used in normal operation and PCI Express CLB (Compliance Load Board) Cards used during PCI Express Compliance mode testing may only train to x8 link width. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. AAU91. Unexpected Graphics VID Transition During Warm Reset May Cause the System to Hang Problem: During a warm reset to the processor, the graphics VID (Voltage ID) may transition to an unexpected value that may cause the voltage regulator to shut off. Implication: The processor may hang during integrated graphics initialization. Cold boots and platforms using discrete graphics are not affected by this issue. Workaround: A BIOS code change has been identified and may be implemented as a workaround for this erratum. 45 Specification Update Status: For the steppings affected, see the Summary Tables of Changes. Status: 46 Specification Update Specification Changes The Specification Changes listed in this section apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide There are no new Specification Changes in this Specification Update revision. 47 Specification Update Specification Clarifications The Specification Clarifications listed in this section may apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide There are no new Specification Changes in this Specification Update revision. 48 Specification Update Documentation Changes The Documentation Changes listed in this section apply to the following documents: • Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volumes 1 and 2 • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2A: Instruction Set Reference Manual A-M • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2B: Instruction Set Reference Manual N-Z • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3A: System Programming Guide • Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 3B: System Programming Guide All Documentation Changes will be incorporated into a future version of the appropriate Processor documentation. Note: Documentation changes for Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual volumes 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B will be posted in a separate document, Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual Documentation Changes. Follow the link below to become familiar with this file. http://developer.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/index.htm AAU1. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 will be updated to include the PEG_TC— PCI Express Completion Timeout Register in Section 2.11.7 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 49 Specification Update 2.11.7 PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout Register This register reports PCI Express configuration control of PCI Express Completion Timeout related parameters that are not required by the PCI Express spec. AAU2. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 to add PEG_TC—PCI Express Completion Timeout to add SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 will be updated to include the SSKPD— Sticky Scratchpad Data Register in Section 2.8.56 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet, Volume 2 B/D/F/Type: 0/1/0/MMR Address Offset: 204h Reset Value: 0000_0C00h Access: RW Bit Attr Reset Value Description 31:12 RW 0000_0h Reserved: (RSVD). 11:12 RW 11b PCI Express Completion Timeout (PEG_TC) Determines the number of milliseconds the Transaction Layer will wait to receive an expected completion. To avoid hang conditions, the Transaction Layer will generate a dummy completion to the requestor if it does not receive the completion within this time period. 00: Disable 01: Reserved 10: Reserved 11: 48 ms - for normal operation(default) 9:0 RW 0_0000_0 000b Reserved: (RSVD). 50 Specification Update 2.8.56 SSKPD—Sticky Scratchpad Data Register This register holds 64 writable bits with no functionality behind them. It is for the convenience of BIOS and graphics drivers. AAU3. Update to Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 to add MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Preallocated Memory Lock Register Issue: The Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2will be updated to include the MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register in Section 2.7.28 as shown in the table below in red text. Affected Docs:Intel® Core™ i5-600, i3-500 Desktop Processor Series and Intel® Pentium® Processor G6950 Datasheet - Volume 2 2.7.28 MCSAMPML—Memory Configuration, System Address Map and Pre-allocated Memory Lock Register B/D/F/Type: 0/0/0/PCI Address Offset: F4h Reset Value: 00h Access: Bit Attr Reset Value Description 7:5 RW-O 000b Reserved(RSDV) 4 RW-L 0 Reserved(RSDV) 3 RW-L-K 0 Lock Mode (LOCKMODE) LOCKMODE and ME_SM_LOCK (bit 0) must always be programmed to the same value. See bit 0 for description details. 0 = Registers are not locked 1 = Registers are locked. 2 RW-L 0 Reserved(RSDV) 1 RO 0 Reserved(RSDV) 0 RW-L-K 0 ME Stolen Memory Lock (ME_SM_LOCK) When ME_SM_LOCK is set to 1 then all registers related to MCH configuration become read only. BIOS will initialize config bits related to MCH configuration and then use ME_SM_lock to "lock down" the MCH configuration in the future so that no application software (or BIOS itself) can violate the integrity of DRAM - including ME stolen memory space. If BIOS writes this bit to '1` then bit 3 "LOCKMODE" bit must also be written to '1` to ensure proper register lockdown. If BIOS writes this bit to '0` then bit 3 "LOCKMODE" bit must also be written to '0`. This bit and LOCKMODE bit 3 should never be programmed differently. PCI device 0 and MCHBAR registers affected by this bit are detailed within the descriptions of the affected registers. 51 Specification Update 52 Specification Update 53 Specification Update 54 Specification Update 55 Specification Update 56 Specification Update 57 Specification Update 58 Specification Update 59 Specification Update 60 Specification Update 61 Specification Update 62 Specification Update 63 Specification Update 64 Specification Update 65 Specification Update 66 Specification Update 67 Specification Update 68 Specification Update 69 Specification Update 70 Specification Update 71 Specification Update 72 Specification Update 73 Specification Update 74 Specification Update 75 Specification Update 76 Specification Update 77 Specification Update 78 Specification Update 79 Specification Update 80 Specification Update 81 Specification Update 82 Specification Update 83 Specification Update 84 Specification Update 85 Specification Update 86 Specification Update 87 Specification Update PERTEMUAN 3 Unit Pengolah Pusat (UPP) (bahasa Inggris: CPU, singkatan dari Central Processing Unit), merujuk kepada perangkat keras komputer yang memahami dan melaksanakan perintah dan data dari perangkat lunak. Istilah lain, prosesor (pengolah data), sering digunakan untuk menyebut CPU. Adapun mikroprosesor adalah CPU yang diproduksi dalam sirkuit terpadu, seringkali dalam sebuah paket sirkuit terpadu-tunggal. Sejak pertengahan tahun 1970-an, mikroprosesor sirkuit terpadu-tunggal ini telah umum digunakan dan menjadi aspek penting dalam penerapan CPU. Pin mikroprosesor Intel 80486DX2. Daftar isi [sembunyikan] * 1 Komponen CPU * 2 Cara Kerja CPU o 2.1 Fungsi CPU o 2.2 Percabangan instruksi o 2.3 Bilangan yang dapat ditangani * 3 Referensi * 4 Pranala luar o 4.1 Perancang CPU o 4.2 Informasi lain [sunting] Komponen CPU Diagram blok sederhana sebuah CPU. Komponen CPU terbagi menjadi beberapa macam, yaitu sebagai berikut. * Unit kontrol yang mampu mengatur jalannya program. Komponen ini sudah pasti terdapat dalam semua CPU.CPU bertugas mengontrol komputer sehingga terjadi sinkronisasi kerja antar komponen dalam menjalankan fungsi-fungsi operasinya. termasuk dalam tanggung jawab unit kontrol adalah mengambil intruksi-intruksi dari memori utama dan menentukan jenis instruksi tersebut. Bila ada instruksi untuk perhitungan aritmatika atau perbandingan logika, maka unit kendali akan mengirim instruksi tersebut ke ALU. Hasil dari pengolahan data dibawa oleh unit kendali ke memori utama lagi untuk disimpan, dan pada saatnya akan disajikan ke alat output. Dengan demikian tugas dari unit kendali ini adalah: • Mengatur dan mengendalikan alat-alat input dan output. • Mengambil instruksiinstruksi dari memori utama. • Mengambil data dari memori utama (jika diperlukan) untuk diproses. • Mengirim instruksi ke ALU bila ada perhitungan aritmatika atau perbandingan logika serta mengawasi kerja dari ALU. • Menyimpan hasil proses ke memori utama. * Register merupakan alat penyimpanan kecil yang mempunyai kecepatan akses cukup tinggi, yang digunakan untuk menyimpan data dan/atau instruksi yang sedang diproses. Memori ini bersifat sementara, biasanya di gunakan untuk menyimpan data saat di olah ataupun data untuk pengolahan selanjutnya. Secara analogi, register ini dapat diibaratkan sebagai ingatan di otak bila kita melakukan pengolahan data secara manual, sehingga otak dapat diibaratkan sebagai CPU, yang berisi ingatan-ingatan, satuan kendali yang mengatur seluruh kegiatan tubuh dan mempunyai tempat untuk melakukan perhitungan dan perbandingan logika. * ALU unit yang bertugas untuk melakukan operasi aritmetika dan operasi logika berdasar instruksi yang ditentukan. ALU sering di sebut mesin bahasa karena bagian ini ALU terdiri dari dua bagian, yaitu unit arithmetika dan unit logika boolean yang masing-masing memiliki spesifikasi tugas tersendiri. Tugas utama dari ALU adalah melakukan semua perhitungan aritmatika (matematika) yang terjadi sesuai dengan instruksi program. ALU melakukan semua operasi aritmatika dengan dasar penjumlahan sehingga sirkuit elektronik yang digunakan disebut adder. Tugas lain dari ALU adalah melakukan keputusan dari suatu operasi logika sesuai dengan instruksi program. Operasi logika meliputi perbandingan dua operand dengan menggunakan operator logika tertentu, yaitu sama dengan (=), tidak sama dengan (¹ ), kurang dari (<), kurang atau sama dengan (£ ), lebih besar dari (>), dan lebih besar atau sama dengan (³ ). * CPU Interconnections adalah sistem koneksi dan bus yang menghubungkan komponen internal CPU, yaitu ALU, unit kontrol dan register-register dan juga dengan bus-bus eksternal CPU yang menghubungkan dengan sistem lainnya, seperti memori utama, piranti masukan /keluaran. [sunting] Cara Kerja CPU Saat data dan/atau instruksi dimasukkan ke processing-devices, pertama sekali diletakkan di RAM (melalui Input-storage); apabila berbentuk instruksi ditampung oleh Control Unit di Program-storage, namun apabila berbentuk data ditampung di Working-storage). Jika register siap untuk menerima pengerjaan eksekusi, maka Control Unit akan mengambil instruksi dari Program-storage untuk ditampungkan ke Instruction Register, sedangkan alamat memori yang berisikan instruksi tersebut ditampung di Program Counter. Sedangkan data diambil oleh Control Unit dari Working-storage untuk ditampung di Generalpurpose register (dalam hal ini di Operand-register). Jika berdasar instruksi pengerjaan yang dilakukan adalah arithmatika dan logika, maka ALU akan mengambil alih operasi untuk mengerjakan berdasar instruksi yang ditetapkan. Hasilnya ditampung di Accumulator. Apabila hasil pengolahan telah selesai, maka Control Unit akan mengambil hasil pengolahan di Accumulator untuk ditampung kembali ke Working-storage. Jika pengerjaan keseluruhan telah selesai, maka Control Unit akan menjemput hasil pengolahan dari Workingstorage untuk ditampung ke Output-storage. Lalu selanjutnya dari Outputstorage, hasil pengolahan akan ditampilkan ke output-devices. [sunting] Fungsi CPU CPU berfungsi seperti kalkulator, hanya saja CPU jauh lebih kuat daya pemrosesannya. Fungsi utama dari CPU adalah melakukan operasi aritmatika dan logika terhadap data yang diambil dari memori atau dari informasi yang dimasukkan melalui beberapa perangkat keras, seperti papan ketik, pemindai, tuas kontrol, maupun tetikus. CPU dikontrol menggunakan sekumpulan instruksi perangkat lunak komputer. Perangkat lunak tersebut dapat dijalankan oleh CPU dengan membacanya dari media penyimpan, seperti cakram keras, disket, cakram padat, maupun pita perekam. Instruksi-instruksi tersebut kemudian disimpan terlebih dahulu pada memori fisik (RAM), yang mana setiap instruksi akan diberi alamat unik yang disebut alamat memori. Selanjutnya, CPU dapat mengakses data-data pada RAM dengan menentukan alamat data yang dikehendaki. Saat sebuah program dieksekusi, data mengalir dari RAM ke sebuah unit yang disebut dengan bus, yang menghubungkan antara CPU dengan RAM. Data kemudian didekode dengan menggunakan unit proses yang disebut sebagai pendekoder instruksi yang sanggup menerjemahkan instruksi. Data kemudian berjalan ke unit aritmatika dan logika (ALU) yang melakukan kalkulasi dan perbandingan. Data bisa jadi disimpan sementara oleh ALU dalam sebuah lokasi memori yang disebut dengan register supaya dapat diambil kembali dengan cepat untuk diolah. ALU dapat melakukan operasi-operasi tertentu, meliputi penjumlahan, perkalian, pengurangan, pengujian kondisi terhadap data dalam register, hingga mengirimkan hasil pemrosesannya kembali ke memori fisik, media penyimpan, atau register apabila akan mengolah hasil pemrosesan lagi. Selama proses ini terjadi, sebuah unit dalam CPU yang disebut dengan penghitung program akan memantau instruksi yang sukses dijalankan supaya instruksi tersebut dapat dieksekusi dengan urutan yang benar dan sesuai. [sunting] Percabangan instruksi Pemrosesan instruksi dalam CPU dibagi atas dua tahap, Tahap-I disebut Instruction Fetch, sedangkan Tahap-II disebut Instruction Execute. Tahap-I berisikan pemrosesan CPU dimana Control Unit mengambil data dan/atau instruksi dari main-memory ke register, sedangkan Tahap-II berisikan pemrosesan CPU dimana Control Unit menghantarkan data dan/atau instruksi dari register ke main-memory untuk ditampung di RAM, setelah Instruction Fetch dilakukan. Waktu pada tahap-I ditambah dengan waktu pada tahap-II disebut waktu siklus mesin (machine cycles time). Penghitung program dalam CPU umumnya bergerak secara berurutan. Walaupun demikian, beberapa instruksi dalam CPU, yang disebut dengan instruksi lompatan, mengizinkan CPU mengakses instruksi yang terletak bukan pada urutannya. Hal ini disebut juga percabangan instruksi (branching instruction). Cabang-cabang instruksi tersebut dapat berupa cabang yang bersifat kondisional (memiliki syarat tertentu) atau non-kondisional. Sebuah cabang yang bersifat non-kondisional selalu berpindah ke sebuah instruksi baru yang berada di luar aliran instruksi, sementara sebuah cabang yang bersifat kondisional akan menguji terlebih dahulu hasil dari operasi sebelumnya untuk melihat apakah cabang instruksi tersebut akan dieksekusi atau tidak. Data yang diuji untuk percabangan instruksi disimpan pada lokasi yang disebut dengan flag. [sunting] Bilangan yang dapat ditangani Kebanyakan CPU dapat menangani dua jenis bilangan, yaitu fixed-point dan floating-point. Bilangan fixed-point memiliki nilai digit spesifik pada salah satu titik desimalnya. Hal ini memang membatasi jangkauan nilai yang mungkin untuk angka-angka tersebut, tetapi hal ini justru dapat dihitung oleh CPU secara lebih cepat. Sementara itu, bilangan floating-point merupakan bilangan yang diekspresikan dalam notasi ilmiah, di mana sebuah angka direpresentasikan sebagai angka desimal yang dikalikan dengan pangkat 10 (seperti 3,14 x 1057). Notasi ilmiah seperti ini merupakan cara yang singkat untuk mengekspresikan bilangan yang sangat besar atau bilangan yang sangat kecil, dan juga mengizinkan jangkauan nilai yang sangat jauh sebelum dan sesudah titik desimalnya. Bilangan ini umumnya digunakan dalam merepresentasikan grafik dan kerja ilmiah, tetapi proses aritmatika terhadap bilangan floating-point jauh lebih rumit dan dapat diselesaikan dalam waktu yang lebih lama oleh CPU karena mungkin dapat menggunakan beberapa siklus detak CPU. Beberapa komputer menggunakan sebuah prosesor sendiri untuk menghitung bilangan floatingpoint yang disebut dengan FPU (disebut juga math co-processor) yang dapat bekerja secara paralel dengan CPU untuk mempercepat penghitungan bilangan floating-point. FPU saat ini menjadi standar dalam banyak komputer karena kebanyakan aplikasi saat ini banyak beroperasi menggunakan bilangan floatingpoint. PERTEMUAN 4 11/11/2008 1 TEKNIK DIGITAL IV. GERBANG-GERBANG LOGIKA Anhar, ST, MT. Anhar.net63.net OUTLINE Pengantar Logika positif dan negatif 11/11/2008 Tabel kebenaran Gerbang-gerbang logika Anhar, ST, MT 2 11/11/2008 2 PENGANTAR Gerbang-gerbang logika adlh rangkaian elektronika yg digunakan utk mengaplikasikan persamaan logika 11/11/2008 dasar, spt pers Boolean. Gerbang logika merupakan blok yg paling dasar dr logika kombinasional. Ada 3 gerbang logika dasar : Gerbang OR Gerbang AND Gerbang NOT Anhar, ST, MT Gerbang yg diturunkan dr gerbang diatas adlh : Gerbang NAND Gerbang NOR Gerbang EX-OR Gerbang EX-NOR 3 LOGIKA POSITIF DAN NEGATIF Bilangan biner dinyatakan dng 2 keadaan, logika 0 dan logika 1. 11/11/2008 Logika ini dlm sistem peralatan digital mengacu pd 2 level tegangan/arus. Bila lebih banyak positif dr 2 teg./arus 1 Bila lebih sedikit positif dr 2 teg./arus 0, atau sebaliknya. Anhar, ST, MT Contoh : Bila 2 teg berlevel 0 V dan +5 V, maka dlm sistem logika positif, 0 V = logika 0, dan +5 V = logika 1. 4 11/11/2008 3 TABEL KEBENARAN Merupakan suatu tabel yg mencantumkan semua kemungkinan input biner dan output yg 11/11/2008 berhubungan dr sistem logika. Bila variabel input 1, maka ada 2 kemungkinan input, 0 atau 1. Bila variabel input 2, maka ada 4 kemungkinan input, dst. Bil d i t bi k t b l k b Anhar, ST, MT Bila ada n input biner, maka tabel kebenarannya akan memiliki 2n kombinasi input, atau 2n baris. 5 Tabel kebenaran utk 2 dan 3 input. 11/11/2008 Anhar, ST, MT 6 11/11/2008 4 GERBANG LOGIKA 1. GERBANG OR Membentuk operasi OR dr 2 atau 3 gerbang masukan. 11/11/2008 Dlm persamaan logika : Y = A + B Gerbang OR 2 masukan : Anhar, ST, MT 7 Gerbang OR 3 dan 4 masukan : 11/11/2008 Anhar, ST, MT 8 11/11/2008 5 Contoh 1 : Bagaimana cara mengaplikasikan gerbang OR 4 11/11/2008 masukan dng menggunakan gerbang OR 2masukan? Penyelesaian : Anhar, ST, MT 9 Contoh 2 : Gambarkan bentuk pulsa keluaran pd gerbang 11/11/2008 OR utk pulsa masukan spt gbr berikut ini. Anhar, ST, MT Penyelesaian : 10 11/11/2008 6 GERBANG LOGIKA 2. GERBANG AND Output gerbang AND hanya bernilai 1 bila kedua masukan 1, sedangkan lainnya 0. 11/11/2008 Dlm pers. Logika : Y = A. B Gerbang AND 2 masukan : Anhar, ST, MT 11 Gerbang AND 3 dan 4 masukan : 11/11/2008 Anhar, ST, MT 12 11/11/2008 7 Contoh 3 : Susunlah gerbang AND 4 masukan dng 11/11/2008 menggunakan gerbang AND 2 masukan. Penyelesaian : Anhar, ST, MT 13 GERBANG LOGIKA 3. GERBANG NOT Merupakan rangkaian logika 1 output, dimana outputnya selalu merupakan kebalikan dr input. 11/11/2008 Dlm persamaan logika, bila inputnya X maka : Simbol rangkaian dan tabel kebenaran : Anhar, ST, MT Y = X atau Y = X ' 14 11/11/2008 8 Contoh 4 : Untuk rangkaian logika berikut, tentukan pulsa 11/11/2008 keluarannya. Anhar, ST, MT Penyelesaian : Utk gbr (a), outputnya akan selalu 1 krn kedua inputnya tdk bisa sama2 0. Utk gbr (b), outputnya akan selalu 0 krn kedua inputnya tdk bisa sama2 1. 15 GERBANG LOGIKA 4. GERBANG EXCLUSIVE-OR Gerbang Ex-OR bernilai 1 bila inputnya tdk sama, dan bernilai 0 bila inputnya sama. 11/11/2008 Dlm pers logika : Y = A B = Simbol rangk utk 2 masukan serta tabel kebenaran utk 2 dan 3 masukan. Anhar, ST, MT AB + AB 16 11/11/2008 9 Contoh 5 : Gambarkan implementasi gerbang Ex OR 3 dan 11/11/2008 Ex-4 masukan dng menggunakan Ex-OR 2 masukan. Penyelesaian : Anhar, ST, MT 17 GERBANG LOGIKA 5. GERBANG NAND Menyatakan NOT AND Tabel kebenarannya merupakan kebalikan dari 11/11/2008 AND Persamaan boolean : Diagram rangk dan tabel kebenaran Anhar, ST, MT 18 11/11/2008 10 GERBANG LOGIKA 5. GERBANG NOR Menyatakan NOT OR Tabel kebenarannya merupakan kebalikan dari OR 11/11/2008 Persamaan boolean : Diagram rangk dan tabel kebenaran Anhar, ST, MT 19 GERBANG LOGIKA 5. GERBANG EX-NOR Menyatakan NOT OR Tabel kebenarannya merupakan kebalikan dari 11/11/2008 Ex-OR Persamaan boolean : Diagram rangk dan tabel kebenaran Anhar, ST, MT 20 11/11/2008 11 Contoh 6 : Perlihatkan cara menyusun gerbang logika utk 11/11/2008 implementasi berikut ini : Gerbang NAND 4 input menggunakan gerbang AND 2 input dan 1 inverter. Gerbang NAND 3 input menggunakan gerbang NAND 2 input Rangkaian NOT menggunakan 2 input gerbang NAND Rangkaian NOT menggunakan 2 input gerbang NOR R ki NOT k 2 i t b E OR Anhar, ST, MT Rangkaian menggunakan input gerbang Ex-21 Penyelesaian : 11/11/2008 Anhar, ST, MT 22 11/11/2008 12 GERBANG LOGIKA 6. GERBANG PENGHALANG Sebagai pembalik masukan sebelum melewati gerbang 11/11/2008 Contoh diagram rangkaian 4 input dng salah satu gerbang penghalang dan tabel kebenarannya. Anhar, ST, MT 23 Contoh : Lihat diagram rangkaian (a) dibawah ini Bila 11/11/2008 ini. gambar (b) merupakan pulsa masukannya, tentukan pulsa keluarannya. Anhar, ST, MT Penyelesaian : 24 11/11/2008 13 LATIHAN 1. Buat tabel kebenaran utk diagram rangkaian spt berikut ini. 11/11/2008 2. Gambarkan implementasi logika Inverter dengan menggunakan (i) NAND 2 input, (ii) NOR 2 input (iii) EX-OR 2 input (iv) EX-NOR Anhar, ST, MT input, input, 2 input. 3. Rancanglah gerbang NAND 8 masukan dng menggunakan gerbang AND 2 input dan gerbang NAND 2 input. 25 Diposting oleh HENRY di 07.30

1 komentar:

Beranda Langganan: Postingan (Atom)



Loading...

UNTUK TUGAS UTS ORKOM

More Next Blog» Create Blog Sign In UNTUK TUGAS UTS ORKOM rabu, 02 juni 2010 PRESENTASI Sistem komputer Sistem adalah Suatu kesatuan elemen yang s...

537KB Sizes 5 Downloads 39 Views

Recommend Documents

UNTUK TUGAS UTS ORKOM: MATERI-MATERI ORKOM
Jun 2, 2010 - Input hardware digunakan untuk mentranmisikan data ke processing dan storage hardware. Peralatan yang ....

Berbagi Ilmu: Tugas UTS 2013 Tarikh Tasyri
May 16, 2014 - Keberadaan hukum islam dapat dilihat dari berbagai fakta dan bukti yang telah dihimpun baik dalam bentuk

Tabel Untuk Tugas Resep - Documents
Sep 10, 2017 - Nama ObatJumlah yangdibutuhkanHARGA NoNama ObatDosisAturan pakaiDosis StandarDosis dalam ResepKeterangan

Gambar Animasi untuk powerpoint kesehatan tugas makalah
Nov 27, 2012 - Home unik lucu Gambar Animasi untuk powerpoint kesehatan tugas makalah. Tuesday, November 27, 2012. Gamba

Business - Summer @ UTS - Summer at UTS
Have you thought about your Summer plans yet? The UTS business School will be hosting 50 subjects during Summer which ar

UTS: 76022 Insurance Law - Law, UTS Handbook
Dec 3, 2017 - In this subject, students examine the law and regulation of all facets of insurance in Australia – inclu

UTS: 48023 Programming Fundamentals - Engineering, UTS Handbook
The UTS: Handbook is the authoritative source of information on approved courses and subjects offered at University of T

UTS Sosiologi Pendidikan - Scribd
UTS Sosiologi Pendidikan - Download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online.

Kiwausahaan UTS Semester
search Kumpulan Soal Dan Jawaban Prakarya/ Kiwausahaan UTS Semester I Kelas XI/11 2014/2015.

ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian tugas akhir ini untuk - repo unpas
garam dan pengaruh konsentrasi gula pada pembuatan pikel tomat serta untuk mengetahui interaksi antara garam dan gula da